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Sample records for adaptation syndrome sas

  1. Mitigating Simulator Adaptation Syndrome by means of tactile stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gálvez-García, Germán; Albayay, Javier; Rehbein, Lucio; Tornay, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Some drivers experience Simulator Adaptation Syndrome (SAS), a condition in which nausea, disorientation, dizziness, headache, and difficulty focusing, are exhibited when driving in a simulator. To reduce this syndrome, we investigated the efficacy of tactile stimulation (TS) on mitigating Simulator Adaptation Syndrome (SAS) in a driving simulation. Fifteen drivers (eight women; mean age = 24.07 years) participated in this experiment. We compared the total scores of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) across two stimulation conditions (TS condition and no stimulation condition as a baseline measure). The experimental outcomes revealed that TS seemed to decrease SAS due to attentional distraction from the symptoms and not because of an improvement in balance ability.

  2. Adaptation and Validation of the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) in a Sample of Male Drug Users.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Medina, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-21

    The aim of the present study was to adapt and validate the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) in a sample of male drug users. A sample of 326 male drug users and 322 non-clinical males was selected by cluster sampling and convenience sampling, respectively. Results showed that the scale had good psychometric properties and adequate internal consistency reliability (Initiation = .66, Refusal = .74 and STD-P = .79). An evaluation of the invariance showed strong factor equivalence between both samples. A high and moderate effect of Differential Item Functioning was only found in items 1 and 14 (∆R 2 Nagelkerke = .076 and .037, respectively). We strongly recommend not using item 1 if the goal is to compare the scores of both groups, otherwise the comparison will be biased. Correlations obtained between the CSFQ-14 and the safe sex ratio and the SAS subscales were significant (CI = 95%) and indicated good concurrent validity. Scores of male drug users were similar to those of non-clinical males. Therefore, the adaptation of the SAS to drug users provides enough guarantees for reliable and valid use in both clinical practice and research, although care should be taken with item 1.

  3. [Perioperative management in children with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) undergoing adenoidotonsillectomy].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; Nemoto, Mikiko; Sato, Tomoko; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    We should take care of the occurrences of apnea and hypopnea after emergence from general anesthesia in the children with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) due to an increase in sensitivity to opioid agonists given for previous recurrent hypoxia. Preoperative assessment for SAS with apnea hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and minimum artery oxygen saturation by pulse oxymetry (lowest SpO2) obtained from polysomnography (PSG) test could help to predict the postoperative respiratory depression. In perioperative management in the children with SAS who are candidates for adenotonsillectomy, the dose of opioid agonists during anesthesia maintenance for purpose of postoperative analgesia and sedation should be reduced; postoperative respiratory and circulatory management with monitoring of respiratory movement of the thoracoabdominal part, and electrographic (ECG) and SpO2 monitoring should be continued intensively under long-term oxygen administration; and airway management, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), and artificial ventilation should be prepared for the occurrence of postoperative respiratory depression.

  4. [Perioperative management of an obese patient complicated with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) undergoing awake craniotomy].

    PubMed

    Komayama, Noriaki; Kamata, Kotoe; Maruyama, Takashi; Nitta, Masayuki; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    Both obesity (BMI over 30) and SAS are risks for Supper airway maintenance. We report an obese patient (BMI 33.5) with SAS who underwent awake craniotomy. Weight reduction was instructed 1 month before the operation, and the patient lost enough weight to use intraoperative MRI. Under general anesthesia, surgical pads containing 2% lidocaine with adrenaline were inserted into the nasal cavities. The patient's airway S was secured by i-gel® until dura was opened. A nasal airway was then inserted to confirm the upper airway patency and anesthetics were terminated The patient regained consciousness and started respiration. The i-gel® was removed. The nasal airway was changed to an RAE tracheal tube ; the tube was fixed above the vocal cords under bronchofiberscopic observation. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) via RAE tube was started. Neither coughing nor epistaxis was observed.The RAE tube prevented glossoptosis and did not disturb speech mapping. Emergent endotracheal intubation was easily managed because the tube was close to the glottis. The RAE tube was removed and nasal CP AP was applied overnight Carefully prepared CP AP support via nasal RAE tube was practical in keeping upper airway patency for an obese patient complicated with SAS undergoing awake craniotomy.

  5. SIMCA T 1.0: A SAS Computer Program for Simulating Computer Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiche, Gilles; Blais, Jean-Guy

    2006-01-01

    Monte Carlo methodologies are frequently applied to study the sampling distribution of the estimated proficiency level in adaptive testing. These methods eliminate real situational constraints. However, these Monte Carlo methodologies are not currently supported by the available software programs, and when these programs are available, their…

  6. Cerebral blood flow - Comparison of ground-based and spaceflight data and correlation with space adaptation syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagian, James P.; Hackett, Peter

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between the cerebral blood flow velocity and the space adaptation syndrome (SAS), which includes symptoms of motion sickness, stuffy head, and/or headaches, was investigated by measuring (using a transcranial Doppler device) differences between the preflight and the inflight cerebral blood flow velocity in crew members who were motion sick and in those who were not sick during a flight aboard KC-135. It was found that the cerebral artery bloodflow inflight did not differ significantly from that recorded preflight, nor did the severity of SAS symptoms correlate directly with the cerebral blood flow.

  7. Physiologic adaptation to space - Space adaptation syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderploeg, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The adaptive changes of the neurovestibular system to microgravity, which result in space motion sickness (SMS), are studied. A list of symptoms, which range from vomiting to drowsiness, is provided. The two patterns of symptom development, rapid and gradual, and the duration of the symptoms are described. The concept of sensory conflict and rearrangements to explain SMS is being investigated.

  8. Adaptive servo-ventilation: How does it fit into the treatment of central sleep apnoea syndrome? Expert opinions.

    PubMed

    Priou, P; d'Ortho, M-P; Damy, T; Davy, J-M; Gagnadoux, F; Gentina, T; Meurice, J-C; Pepin, J-L; Tamisier, R; Philippe, C

    2015-12-01

    The preliminary results of the SERVE-HF study have led to the release of safety information with subsequent contraindication to the use of adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) for the treatment of central sleep apnoeas in patients with chronic symptomatic systolic heart failure with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 45%. The aim of this article is to review these results, and to provide more detailed arguments based on data from the literature advocating the continued use of ASV in different indications, including heart failure with preserved LVEF, complex sleep apnoea syndrome, opioid-induced central sleep apnea syndrome, idiopathic central SAS, and central SAS due to a stroke. Based on these findings, we propose to set up registers dedicated to patients in whom ASV has been stopped and in the context of the next setting up of ASV in these specific indications to ensure patient safety and allow reasoned decisions on the use of ASV.

  9. Teaching Statistics Using SAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.

    The Statistical Analysis System (SAS) is presented as the single most appropriate statistical package to use as an aid in teaching statistics. A brief review of literature in which SAS is compared to SPSS, BMDP, and other packages is followed by six examples which demonstrate features unique to SAS which have pedagogical utility. Of particular…

  10. Modeling Family Adaptation to Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspa, Melissa; Bailey, Donald, Jr.; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a survey of 1,099 families who have a child with Fragile X syndrome, we examined adaptation across 7 dimensions of family life: parenting knowledge, social support, social life, financial impact, well-being, quality of life, and overall impact. Results illustrate that although families report a high quality of life, they struggle…

  11. The SAS-3 programmable telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    Basic concept, system design and operation principles of the telemetry system developed for the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3) are analyzed. The concept of programmable format selected for the SAS-3 represents an optical combination of the fixed format system of SAS-1 and SAS-2, and the adaptive format concept. The programmable telemetry system permits a very wide range of changes in the data sampling order by a ground control station, depending on the experimental requirements, so that the maximal amount of useful data can be returned from orbit. The programmable system also allows the data format to differ from one spacecraft to another without changing hardware. Attention is given to the command requirements and redundancy of the SAS-3 telemetry system.

  12. Reprint Control Using SAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layman, Mary F.; Groninger, N. Paige

    1984-01-01

    Discusses an online bibliographic control program written using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and its use at the Denver Wildlife Research Center to organize and provide access to reprints of publications. The program listing, sample input and output, and programs for searching by one and two keywords are appended. (EJS)

  13. Adaptive Behavior in Children with Fragile X Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Deborah D.; Wheeler, Anne C.; Skinner, Martie L.; Bailey, Donald B.; Sullivan, Kelly M.; Roberts, Jane E.; Mirrett, Penny; Clark, Renee D.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive behavior was measured over time in 70 children, ages 1 to 12 years, with fragile X syndrome. With a mean of 4.4 assessments per child, adaptive behavior skills increased steadily and gradually over time. Children with less autistic behavior and higher percentages of the fragile X mental retardation gene protein showed better performance…

  14. Intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Palla, Viktoria-Varvara; Karaolanis, Georgios; Pentazos, Panagiotis; Ladopoulos, Alexios; Papageorgiou, Evaggelos

    2015-06-01

    Short bowel syndrome is a clinical entity that includes loss of energy, fluid, electrolytes or micronutrient balance because of inadequate functional intestinal length. This case report demonstrates the case of a woman who compensated for short bowel syndrome through intestinal adaptation, which is a complex process worthy of further investigation for the avoidance of dependence on total parenteral nutrition and of intestinal transplantation in such patients.

  15. Syndromic Surveillance: Adapting Innovations to Developing Settings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Potential Utility in Developing Countries Syndromic surveillance offers a useful adjunct to diagnosis- based surveillance of emerging infections in...influenza-like illness caused by multiple epidemic-prone tropical infections, could indicate outbreaks requiring laboratory- based investigation and...countries. Computer- based automation of routine data analysis is helpful because, with multiple reporting units and reportable events, the number of

  16. Space adaptation syndrome experiments (8-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, D.

    1992-01-01

    A set of seven experiments will study adaptation of the human nervous system to weightlessness. Particular emphasis will be placed on the vestibular and proprioceptive systems. The experiments are as follows: the sled/H-reflex; rotation/vestibulo-ocular reflex; the visual stimulator experiment; proprioception (relaxed) experiment; proprioception (active) experiment; proprioception (illusion) experiment; and tactile acuity.

  17. Space adaptation syndrome: Incidence and operational implications for the space transportation system program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homick, J. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Vanderploeg, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Better methods for the prediction, prevention, and treatment of the space adaptation syndome (SAS) were developed. A systematic, long range program of operationally oriented data collection on all individuals flying space shuttle missions was initiated. Preflight activities include the use of a motion experience questionnaire, laboratory tests of susceptibility to motion sickness induced by Coriolis stimuli and determinations of antimotion sickness drug efficacy and side effects. During flight, each crewmember is required to provide a daily report of symptom status, use of medications, and other vestibular related sensations. Additional data are obtained postflight. During the first nine shuttle missions, the reported incidence of SAS has been48%. Self-induced head motions and unusual visual orientation attitudes appear to be the principal triggering stimuli. Antimotion sickness medication, was of limited therapeutic value. Complete recovery from symptoms occurred by mission day three or four. Also of relevance is the lack of a statistically significant correlation between the ground based Coriolis test and SAS. The episodes of SAS have resulted in no impact to shuttle mission objectives and, no significant impact to mission timelines.

  18. The Development of Adaptive Skills in Young People with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duijn, G.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Scholte, E. M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To help children with Down syndrome reach optimum levels of adaptive behaviour, caretakers need to know how and to what extent children with Down syndrome acquire adaptive skills. Method: The adaptive levels of motor, daily living, communicative and social behavioural skills were determined in a group of 984 Dutch children with Down…

  19. SAS FORMATS: USES AND ABUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS formats are a very powerful tool. They allow you to display the data in a more readable manner without modifying it. Formats can also be used to group data into categories for use in various procedures like PROC FREQ, PROC TTEST, and PROC MEANS (as a class variable). As ...

  20. SAS FORMATS: USES AND ABUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS formats are a very powerful tool. They allow you to display the data in a more readable manner without modifying it. Formats can also be used to group data into categories for use in various procedures like PROC FREQ, PROC TTEST, and PROC MEANS (as a class variable). As w...

  1. SAS FORMATS: USES AND ABUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS formats are a very powerful tool. They allow you to display the data in a more readable manner without modifying the data. They can also be used to group data into categories for use in various procedures like PROC FREQ, PROC TTEST, and PROC MEANS (as a class variable). ...

  2. SAS-1 is a C2 domain protein critical for centriole integrity in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    von Tobel, Lukas; Mikeladze-Dvali, Tamara; Delattre, Marie; Balestra, Fernando R; Blanchoud, Simon; Finger, Susanne; Knott, Graham; Müller-Reichert, Thomas; Gönczy, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles important for the formation of cilia, flagella and centrosomes. Despite progress in understanding the underlying assembly mechanisms, how centriole integrity is ensured is incompletely understood, including in sperm cells, where such integrity is particularly critical. We identified C. elegans sas-1 in a genetic screen as a locus required for bipolar spindle assembly in the early embryo. Our analysis reveals that sperm-derived sas-1 mutant centrioles lose their integrity shortly after fertilization, and that a related defect occurs when maternal sas-1 function is lacking. We establish that sas-1 encodes a C2 domain containing protein that localizes to centrioles in C. elegans, and which can bind and stabilize microtubules when expressed in human cells. Moreover, we uncover that SAS-1 is related to C2CD3, a protein required for complete centriole formation in human cells and affected in a type of oral-facial-digital (OFD) syndrome.

  3. SAS-1 Is a C2 Domain Protein Critical for Centriole Integrity in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Delattre, Marie; Balestra, Fernando R.; Blanchoud, Simon; Finger, Susanne; Knott, Graham; Müller-Reichert, Thomas; Gönczy, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles important for the formation of cilia, flagella and centrosomes. Despite progress in understanding the underlying assembly mechanisms, how centriole integrity is ensured is incompletely understood, including in sperm cells, where such integrity is particularly critical. We identified C. elegans sas-1 in a genetic screen as a locus required for bipolar spindle assembly in the early embryo. Our analysis reveals that sperm-derived sas-1 mutant centrioles lose their integrity shortly after fertilization, and that a related defect occurs when maternal sas-1 function is lacking. We establish that sas-1 encodes a C2 domain containing protein that localizes to centrioles in C. elegans, and which can bind and stabilize microtubules when expressed in human cells. Moreover, we uncover that SAS-1 is related to C2CD3, a protein required for complete centriole formation in human cells and affected in a type of oral-facial-digital (OFD) syndrome. PMID:25412110

  4. Risk, resources and state-dependent adaptive behavioural syndromes.

    PubMed

    Luttbeg, Barney; Sih, Andrew

    2010-12-27

    Many animals exhibit behavioural syndromes-consistent individual differences in behaviour across two or more contexts or situations. Here, we present adaptive, state-dependent mathematical models for analysing issues about behavioural syndromes. We find that asset protection (where individuals with more 'assets' tend be more cautious) and starvation avoidance, two state-dependent mechanisms, can explain short-term behavioural consistency, but not long-term stable behavioural types (BTs). These negative-feedback mechanisms tend to produce convergence in state and behaviour over time. In contrast, a positive-feedback mechanism, state-dependent safety (where individuals with higher energy reserves, size, condition or vigour are better at coping with predators), can explain stable differences in personality over the long term. The relative importance of negative- and positive-feedback mechanisms in governing behavioural consistency depends on environmental conditions (predation risk and resource availability). Behavioural syndromes emerge more readily in conditions of intermediate ecological favourability (e.g. medium risk and medium resources, or high risk and resources, or low risk and resources). Under these conditions, individuals with higher initial state maintain a tendency to be bolder than individuals that start with low initial state; i.e. later BT is determined by state during an early 'developmental window'. In contrast, when conditions are highly favourable (low risk, high resources) or highly unfavourable (high risk, low resources), individuals converge to be all relatively bold or all relatively cautious, respectively. In those circumstances, initial differences in BT are not maintained over the long term, and there is no early developmental window where initial state governs later BT. The exact range of ecological conditions favouring behavioural syndromes depends also on the strength of state-dependent safety.

  5. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…

  6. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): measuring social anxiety among Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M; Niemi, Päivi M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the SAS-A. In a subsample (n = 563; Study 2) concurrent and discriminant validity of the SAS-A were examined relative to the Social Phobia Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. Test-retest stability was examined over a 30-month period by repeated measures every 6 months in another subsample (n = 377; Study 3). Results mostly revealed no gender differences in social anxiety, except that boys reported more general social avoidance and distress than girls. Older adolescents (14-16-year-olds) reported higher social anxiety than younger adolescents (12-13-year-olds). Internal consistency for the SAS-A was acceptable for both genders and for all three SAS-A subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the original 18-item three-factor structure of the SAS-A, accounting for 61% of the variance between items. Evidence for concurrent and discriminant validity was found. Test-retest stability over 6 months was satisfactory. Results support the reliability and validity of the Finnish adaptation of the SAS-A, and further indicate that gender differences in adolescents' social anxiety may vary across Western countries.

  7. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  8. Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Staci C.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the…

  9. A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…

  10. The SAS-3 delayed command system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    To meet the requirements arising from the increased complexity of the power, attitude control and telemetry systems, a full redundant high-performance control section with delayed command capability was designed for the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3). The relay command system of SAS-3 is characterized by 56 bystate relay commands, with capability for handling up to 64 commands in future versions. The 'short' data command service of SAS-1 and SAS-2 consisting of shifting 24-bit words to two users was expanded to five users and augmented with a 'long load' data command service (up to 4080 bits) used to program the telemetry system and the delayed command subsystem. The inclusion of a delayed command service ensures a program of up to 30 relay or short data commands to be loaded for execution at designated times. The design and system operation of the SAS-3 command section are analyzed, with special attention given to the delayed command subsystem.

  11. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  12. Comparative assessment of SAS and DES turbulence modeling for massively separated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilin; Yan, Chao; Liu, Hongkang; Luo, Dahai

    2016-02-01

    Numerical studies of the flow past a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 1.4× 105 and NACA0021 airfoil at the angle of attack 60° have been carried out by scale-adaptive simulation (SAS) and detached eddy simulation (DES), in comparison with the existing experimental data. The new version of the model developed by Egorov and Menter is assessed, and advantages and disadvantages of the SAS simulation are analyzed in detail to provide guidance for industrial application in the future. Moreover, the mechanism of the scale-adaptive characteristics in separated regions is discussed, which is obscure in previous analyses. It is concluded that: the mean flow properties satisfactorily agree with the experimental results for the SAS simulation, although the prediction of the second order turbulent statistics in the near wake region is just reasonable. The SAS model can produce a larger magnitude of the turbulent kinetic energy in the recirculation bubble, and, consequently, a smaller recirculation region and a more rapid recovery of the mean velocity outside the recirculation region than the DES approach with the same grid resolution. The vortex shedding is slightly less irregular with the SAS model than with the DES approach, probably due to the higher dissipation of the SAS simulation under the condition of the coarse mesh.

  13. Leisure Activities in Prader-Wlli Syndrome: Implications for Health, Cognition and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Although hyperphagia and compulsivity in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are well described, recreation and adaptive skills are relatively unexplored. Parents of 123 participants with PWS (4--48 years) completed measures of their child's adaptive, recreation, and problem behaviors. Offspring received cognitive testing. Watching TV was the most…

  14. SAS doctors career progression survey 2013.

    PubMed

    Oroz, Carlos; Sands, Lorna R; Lee, John

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a national survey of Staff, Associate Specialists and Specialty (SAS) doctors working in sexual health clinics in the UK in 2013 in order to explore their career progression. The aim of the survey was to assess SAS doctors' experience in passing through the thresholds and to gather information about the adherence by SAS doctors and employers to the terms and conditions of service laid out by the new 2008 contract. Out of 185 responders, whom the authors estimate comprise 34% of the total workforce, 159 were on the new contract. Of those, most SAS doctors were women (84%), the majority (67%) worked less than nine programmed activities per week; only a few had intentions to join the consultant grade (15%), and a considerable minority (26%) were older than 54 years of age and likely to retire in the next ten years. The survey showed that most participating SAS doctors had undergone appraisal in the previous 15 months (90%), most had a job planning discussion (83%) with their employer and most had some allocated time for supporting professional activities (86%). However, a significant minority had no appraisal (10%), no job planning discussion (17%) and had no allocated supporting professional activities (14%), which allows time for career development in the specialty. Most SAS doctors, who had the opportunity, had progressed through the thresholds automatically (88%); some experienced difficulties in passing (8%) and only a few did not pass (4%). SAS doctors must ensure that they work together with their employer in order to improve adherence to the terms and conditions of service of the contract, which allow for career progression and benefit both the individual doctors and ultimately service provision.

  15. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals.

  16. The SAS-3 X-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The experiment section of the Small Astronomy Satellite-3 (SAS-3) launched in May 1975 is an X-ray observatory intended to determine the location of bright X-ray sources to an accuracy of 15 arc-seconds; to study a selected set of sources over a wide energy range, from 0.1 to 55 keV, while performing very specific measurements of the spectra and time variability of known X-ray sources; and to monitor the sky continuously for X-ray novae, flares, and unexpected phenomena. The improvements in SAS-3 spacecraft include a clock accurate to 1 part in 10 billion, rotatable solar panels, a programmable data format, and improved nutation damper, a delayed command system, improved magnetic trim and azimuth control systems. These improvements enable SAS-3 to perform three-axis stabilized observations of any point on the celestial sphere at any time of the year. The description of the experiment section and the SAS-3 operation is followed by a synopsis of scientific results obtained from the observations of X-ray sources, such as Vela X-1 (supposed to be an accreting neutron star), a transient source of hard X-ray (less than 36 min in duration) detected by SAS-3, the Crab Nebula pulsar, the Perseus cluster of galaxies, and the Vela supernova remnant.

  17. SAS-2 galactic gamma ray results, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.; Lamb, R. C.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1976-01-01

    Continuing analysis of the data from the SAS-2 high energy gamma-ray experiment has produced an improved picture of the sky at photon energies above 35 MeV. On a large scale, the diffuse emission from the galactic plane is the dominant feature observed by SAS-2. This galactic plane emission is most intense between galactic longitude 310 and 45 deg, corresponding to a region within 7kpc of the galactic center. Within the high-intensity region, SAS-2 observes peaks around galactic longitudes 315 deg, 330 deg, 345 deg, 0 deg, and 35 deg. These peaks appear to be correlated with such galactic features and components as molecular hydrogen, atomic hydrogen, magnetic fields, cosmic ray concentrations, and photon fields.

  18. Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning in 28 Girls with Rett Syndrome. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Adrienne; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study of 28 girls (ages 2-19) with Rett Syndrome found profound handicaps in the intellectual and adaptive areas, according to standardized tests. Subjects seemed capable of learning some self-help skills at a basic level. The Cattell Mental Age was significantly negatively correlated with chronological age. (JDD)

  19. Longitudinal Trajectories of Intellectual and Adaptive Functioning in Adolescents and Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, M. H.; Lense, M. D.; Dykens, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with a distinct cognitive-behavioural phenotype including mild to moderate intellectual disability, visual-spatial deficits, hypersociability, inattention and anxiety. Researchers typically characterise samples of individuals with WS by their intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour. Because…

  20. Space adaptation syndrome: multiple etiological factors and individual differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1991-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a significant operational concern in the American and Soviet space programs. Nearly 70% of all astronauts and cosmonauts are affected to some degree during their first several days of flight. It is now beginning to appear that space motion sickness like terrestrial motion sickness is the consequence of multiple etiological factors. As we come to understand basic mechanisms of spatial orientation and sensory-motor adaptation we can begin to predict etiological factors in different motion environments. Individuals vary greatly in the extent to which they are susceptible to these different factors. However, individuals seem to be relatively self-consistent in terms of their rates of adaptation to provocative stimulation and their retention of adaptation. Attempts to relate susceptibility to motion sickness during the microgravity phases of parabolic flight maneuvers to vestibular function under 1G and 0G test conditions are described.

  1. The autistic phenotype in Down syndrome: differences in adaptive behaviour versus Down syndrome alone and autistic disorder alone.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Anastasia; Perelli, Valentina; Bozza, Margherita; Bargagna, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The autistic phenotype in Down syndrome (DS) is marked by a characteristic pattern of stereotypies, anxiety and social withdrawal. Our aim was to study adaptive behaviour in DS with and without autistic comorbidity using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS), the Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) and the DSM IV-TR criteria. We assessed 24 individuals and established three groups: Down syndrome (DS), DS and autistic disorder (DS-AD), and autistic disorder (AD). The DS and DS-AD groups showed statistically significantly similar strengths on the VABS (in receptive and domestic skills). The DS and DS-AD subjects also showed similar strengths on the CARS (in imitation and relating), differing significantly from the AD group. The profile of adaptive functioning and symptoms in DS-AD seemed to be more similar to that found in DS than to the profile emerging in AD. We suggest that the comorbidity of austistic symptoms in DS hampered the acquisition of adaptive skills more than did the presence of DS alone.

  2. SCN1A Gene Mutation and Adaptive Functioning in 18 Vietnamese Children with Dravet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Diem My; Huynh, Thi Thuy Kieu; Le, Thi Khanh Van; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Le, Thieu Mai Thao; Ha, Huu Hao; Bui, Chi Bao

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dravet syndrome is a rare and severe type of epilepsy in infants. The heterogeneity in the overall intellectual disability that these patients suffer from has been attributed to differences in genetic background and epilepsy severity. Methods Eighteen Vietnamese children diagnosed with Dravet syndrome were included in this study. SCN1A variants were screened by direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Adaptive functioning was assessed in all patients using the Vietnamese version of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the results were analyzed relative to the SCN1A variants and epilepsy severity. Results We identified 13 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants, including 6 that have not been reported previously. We found no correlations between the presence or type of SCN1A variants and the level of adaptive functioning impairment or severity of epilepsy. Only two of nine patients aged at least 5 years had an adaptive functioning score higher than 50. Both of these patients had a low frequency of convulsive seizures and no history of status epilepticus or prolonged seizures. The remaining seven had very low adaptive functioning scores (39 or less) despite the variability in the severity of their epilepsy confirming the involvement of factors other than the severity of epilepsy in determining the developmental outcome. Conclusions Our study expands the spectrum of known SCN1A variants and confirms the current understanding of the role of the genetic background and epilepsy severity in determining the developmental outcome of Dravet syndrome patients. PMID:28079314

  3. Family influences on adaptive development in young children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hauser-Cram, P; Warfield, M E; Shonkoff, J P; Krauss, M W; Upshur, C C; Sayer, A

    1999-01-01

    In this study we investigated the extent to which the family environment predicted differences in trajectories of adaptive development in young children with Down syndrome. The sample was comprised of 54 children with Down syndrome and their families who were studied from infancy through the age of 5 years as part of a longitudinal study of children with disabilities. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to estimate the parameters of hierarchical growth models in domains of adaptive development. Results indicated that growth in communication, daily living skills, and socialization domains were predicted by measures of the family environment (i.e., family cohesion and mother-child interaction) above and beyond that predicted by maternal education. Further, Bayley MDI measures during infancy did not predict changes in adaptive development in any of the domains. The results are discussed in terms of implications for service provision and for expanding theoretical frameworks to include the development of children with disabilities.

  4. A Non-Traditional Model of the Metabolic Syndrome: The Adaptive Significance of Insulin Resistance in Fasting-Adapted Seals

    PubMed Central

    Houser, Dorian S.; Champagne, Cory D.; Crocker, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance in modern society is perceived as a pathological consequence of excess energy consumption and reduced physical activity. Its presence in relation to the development of cardiovascular risk factors has been termed the metabolic syndrome, which produces increased mortality and morbidity and which is rapidly increasing in human populations. Ironically, insulin resistance likely evolved to assist animals during food shortages by increasing the availability of endogenous lipid for catabolism while protecting protein from use in gluconeogenesis and eventual oxidation. Some species that incorporate fasting as a predictable component of their life history demonstrate physiological traits similar to the metabolic syndrome during prolonged fasts. One such species is the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), which fasts from food and water for periods of up to 4 months. During this time, ∼90% of the seals metabolic demands are met through fat oxidation and circulating non-esterified fatty acids are high (0.7–3.2 mM). All life history stages of elephant seal studied to date demonstrate insulin resistance and fasting hyperglycemia as well as variations in hormones and adipocytokines that reflect the metabolic syndrome to some degree. Elephant seals demonstrate some intriguing adaptations with the potential for medical advancement; for example, ketosis is negligible despite significant and prolonged fatty acid oxidation and investigation of this feature might provide insight into the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. The parallels to the metabolic syndrome are likely reflected to varying degrees in other marine mammals, most of which evolved on diets high in lipid and protein content but essentially devoid of carbohydrate. Utilization of these natural models of insulin resistance may further our understanding of the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome in humans and better assist the development of preventative measures and therapies

  5. A Note on Multigroup Comparisons Using SAS PROC CALIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Farmer, L. Allison; Pitts, Jennifer P.; Rainer, R. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Although SAS PROC CALIS is not designed to perform multigroup comparisons, it is believed that SAS can be "tricked" into doing so for groups of equal size. At present, there are no comprehensive examples of the steps involved in performing a multigroup comparison in SAS. The purpose of this article is to illustrate these steps. We demonstrate…

  6. Direct binding of SAS-6 to ZYG-1 recruits SAS-6 to the mother centriole for cartwheel assembly.

    PubMed

    Lettman, Molly M; Wong, Yao Liang; Viscardi, Valeria; Niessen, Sherry; Chen, Sheng-Hong; Shiau, Andrew K; Zhou, Huilin; Desai, Arshad; Oegema, Karen

    2013-05-13

    Assembly of SAS-6 dimers to form the centriolar cartwheel requires the ZYG-1/Plk4 kinase. Here, we show that ZYG-1 recruits SAS-6 to the mother centriole independently of its kinase activity; kinase activity is subsequently required for cartwheel assembly. We identify a direct interaction between ZYG-1 and the SAS-6 coiled coil that explains its kinase activity-independent function in SAS-6 recruitment. Perturbing this interaction, or the interaction between an adjacent segment of the SAS-6 coiled coil and SAS-5, prevented SAS-6 recruitment and cartwheel assembly. SAS-6 mutants with alanine substitutions in a previously described ZYG-1 target site or in 37 other residues, either phosphorylated by ZYG-1 in vitro or conserved in closely related nematodes, all supported cartwheel assembly. We propose that ZYG-1 binding to the SAS-6 coiled coil recruits the SAS-6-SAS-5 complex to the mother centriole, where a ZYG-1 kinase activity-dependent step, whose target is unlikely to be SAS-6, triggers cartwheel assembly.

  7. DO CHILDREN WITH FRAGILE X SYNDROME SHOW DECLINES OR PLATEAUS IN ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR?

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Laura J.; Brady, Nancy C.; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace K.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores if children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) show advances, declines, or plateaus in adaptive behavior over time and the relationship of nonverbal cognitive abilities and autistic behavior on these trajectories. Parents of 55 children with FXS completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales between 3 and 6 times from 2 to 10 years of age. Using raw scores, results indicate that about half of the sample showed advances in adaptive behavior, while the other half showed declines, indicating a regression in skills. Children who were more cognitively advanced and had less autistic behaviors had higher trajectories. Understanding the developmental course of adaptive behavior in FXS has implications for educational planning and intervention, especially for those children showing declines. PMID:26322389

  8. The SAS-3 power and thermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. M.; Hogrefe, A. F.; Brenza, P. T.

    1975-01-01

    Solar array configurations of the SAS-3 are described: a configuration with two sets of coplanar panels in the horizontal and two others in the vertical position, and two other configurations with either four horizontal or four vertical sets of panels. The nickel-cadmium battery of the power subsystem is described in detail, with emphasis on voltage limits and charge-discharge characteristics. The characteristic of 'solar-only' operation in the case of damage to the battery is discussed. The thermal subsystem of SAS-3 is considered, with discussions of thermal design criteria and the thermal environment. Temperature is controlled by using internal thermal louvers that regulate the rate at which the heat load from electronic equipment is transmitted to the outer surface for dumping to space.

  9. Cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral features in Joubert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bulgheroni, Sara; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Signorini, Sabrina; Briguglio, Marilena; Di Sabato, Maria Lucia; Casarano, Manuela; Mancini, Francesca; Romani, Marta; Alfieri, Paolo; Battini, Roberta; Zoppello, Marina; Tortorella, Gaetano; Bertini, Enrico; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Valente, Enza Maria; Riva, Daria

    2016-12-01

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is a recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive cerebellar and brainstem malformation recognizable on brain imaging, the so-called molar tooth sign. The full spectrum of cognitive and behavioral phenotypes typical of JS is still far from being elucidated. The aim of this multicentric study was to define the clinical phenotype and neurobehavioral features of a large cohort of subjects with a neuroradiologically confirmed diagnosis of JS. Fifty-four patients aged 10 months to 29 years were enrolled. Each patient underwent a neurological evaluation as well as psychiatric and neuropsychological assessments. Global cognitive functioning was remarkably variable with Full IQ/General Quotient ranging from 32 to 129. Communication skills appeared relatively preserved with respect to both Daily Living and Socialization abilities. The motor domain was the area of greatest vulnerability, with a negative impact on personal care, social, and academic skills. Most children did not show maladaptive behaviors consistent with a psychiatric diagnosis but approximately 40% of them presented emotional and behavioral problems. We conclude that intellectual disability remains a hallmark but cannot be considered a mandatory diagnostic criterion of JS. Despite the high variability in the phenotypic spectrum and the extent of multiorgan involvement, nearly one quarter of JS patients had a favorable long-term outcome with borderline cognitive deficit or even normal cognition. Most of JS population also showed relatively preserved communication skills and overall discrete behavioral functioning in everyday life, independently from the presence and/or level of intellectual disability. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. An adaptive prediction and detection algorithm for multistream syndromic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Najmi, Amir-Homayoon; Magruder, Steve F

    2005-01-01

    Background Surveillance of Over-the-Counter pharmaceutical (OTC) sales as a potential early indicator of developing public health conditions, in particular in cases of interest to biosurvellance, has been suggested in the literature. This paper is a continuation of a previous study in which we formulated the problem of estimating clinical data from OTC sales in terms of optimal LMS linear and Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters. In this paper we extend our results to predict clinical data multiple steps ahead using OTC sales as well as the clinical data itself. Methods The OTC data are grouped into a few categories and we predict the clinical data using a multichannel filter that encompasses all the past OTC categories as well as the past clinical data itself. The prediction is performed using FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters and the recursive least squares method in order to adapt rapidly to nonstationary behaviour. In addition, we inject simulated events in both clinical and OTC data streams to evaluate the predictions by computing the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves of a threshold detector based on predicted outputs. Results We present all prediction results showing the effectiveness of the combined filtering operation. In addition, we compute and present the performance of a detector using the prediction output. Conclusion Multichannel adaptive FIR least squares filtering provides a viable method of predicting public health conditions, as represented by clinical data, from OTC sales, and/or the clinical data. The potential value to a biosurveillance system cannot, however, be determined without studying this approach in the presence of transient events (nonstationary events of relatively short duration and fast rise times). Our simulated events superimposed on actual OTC and clinical data allow us to provide an upper bound on that potential value under some restricted conditions. Based on our ROC curves we argue that a biosurveillance system can

  11. Nocturnal hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes with sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fendri, Salha; Rose, Dominique; Myambu, Sonia; Jeanne, Sandrine; Lalau, Jean-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We assessed glycaemic status in 26 overweight or obese people with type 2 diabetes suspected of having sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS). In people with SAS (n=13), nocturnal glycaemia was 38% higher, independent of body mass index (particularly during rapid eye movement sleep) compared with non-SAS subjects (p<0.008).

  12. Adaptive and maladaptive behavior in children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Staci C; Wolters, Pamela L; Smith, Ann C M

    2006-05-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Cognitive functioning was evaluated with an age-appropriate test. Children scored below average on VABS Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization scales. Learning problems and hyperactivity scales on the Conner's Parent Rating Scale were elevated, and girls were more impulsive than boys. Stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors were present in all children. Cognitive functioning was delayed and consistent with communication and daily living skills, while socialization scores were higher than IQ.

  13. Factors associated with adaptation to Klinefelter syndrome: The experience of adolescents and adults

    PubMed Central

    Turriff, Amy; Levy, Howard P.; Biesecker, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of living with Klinefelter syndrome (XXY) as an adolescent or an adult and to examine the factors that contribute to adaptation. Methods Individuals (n = 310) aged 14–75 years with self-reported XXY were recruited from online support networks to complete a self-administered survey. Perceived consequences, perceived severity, perceived stigma, and coping were measured and evaluated as correlates of adaptation. Results The use of problem-focused coping strategies was positively correlated with adaptation (p < 0.01) and age was negatively correlated with adaptation (p < 0.05). Conclusion The majority of participants reported significant negative consequences of XXY, including infertility, psychological co-morbidities and differences in appearance. How participants coped with their negative appraisals was the greatest predictor of adaptation. Practice implications Interventions designed to help individuals reframe negative appraisals, to increase perceived manageability of the challenges of living with XXY, and to facilitate effective coping may improve adaptation among individuals with XXY. PMID:25239793

  14. A Description of Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, M. C. T. V.; Emerich, D. R.; Orsati, F. T.; Rimerio, R. C.; Gatto, K. R.; Chappaz, I. O.; Kim, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psychological tests can be useful to record adaptive and maladaptive behaviours of children with intellectual disability. The objective of this study was to describe the adaptive and maladaptive behaviour of children and adolescents with Cri-du-chat syndrome. Methods: The sample consisted of 10 children and adolescents with Cri-du-chat…

  15. The SAS-3 attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, F. F.; Konigsberg, R.; Fountain, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    SAS-3 uses a reaction wheel to provide torque to control the spin rate. If the wheel speed becomes too great or too small, it must be restored to its nominal rate by momentum dumping which is done by magnetic torquing against the earth's magnetic field by the satellite's magnetic coils. A small rate-integrating gyro is used to sense the spin rate so that closed loop control of the spin rate can be achieved. These various systems are described in detail including the reaction wheel system, the gyro system, along with control modes (spin rate control and the star lock mode).

  16. SAS: Science Analysis System for XMM-Newton observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAS development Team

    2014-04-01

    The Science Analysis System (SAS) is an extensive suite of software tasks developed to process the data collected by the XMM-Newton Observatory. The SAS extracts standard (spectra, light curves) and/or customized science products, and allows reproductions of the reduction pipelines run to get the PPS products from the ODFs files. SAS includes a powerful and extensive suite of FITS file manipulation packages based on the Data Access Layer library.

  17. Genetics, Evolution, and Adaptive Significance of the Selfing Syndrome in the Genus Capsella[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Sicard, Adrien; Stacey, Nicola; Hermann, Katrin; Dessoly, Jimmy; Neuffer, Barbara; Bäurle, Isabel; Lenhard, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The change from outbreeding to selfing is one of the most frequent evolutionary transitions in flowering plants. It is often accompanied by characteristic morphological and functional changes to the flowers (the selfing syndrome), including reduced flower size and opening. Little is known about the developmental and genetic basis of the selfing syndrome, as well as its adaptive significance. Here, we address these issues using the two closely related species Capsella grandiflora (the ancestral outbreeder) and red shepherd’s purse (Capsella rubella, the derived selfer). In C. rubella, petal size has been decreased by shortening the period of proliferative growth. Using interspecific recombinant inbred lines, we show that differences in petal size and flower opening between the two species each have a complex genetic basis involving allelic differences at multiple loci. An intraspecific cross within C. rubella suggests that flower size and opening have been decreased in the C. rubella lineage before its extensive geographical spread. Lastly, by generating plants that likely resemble the earliest ancestors of the C. rubella lineage, we provide evidence that evolution of the selfing syndrome was at least partly driven by selection for efficient self-pollination. Thus, our studies pave the way for a molecular dissection of selfing-syndrome evolution. PMID:21954462

  18. An overview of short bowel syndrome management: adherence, adaptation, and practical recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wall, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) refers to the clinical consequences resulting from loss of small bowel absorptive surface area due to surgical resection or bypass. The syndrome is characterized by maldigestion, malabsorption, and malnutrition. Survival of patients with SBS is dependent on adaptation in the remaining bowel and a combination of pharmacologic and nutrition therapies. Individual plans of care are developed based on the length and sites of remaining bowel, the degree of intestinal adaptation, and the patient's ability to adhere to the medication and dietary regimens. Antisecretory and antidiarrheal medications are prescribed to slow intestinal transit times and optimize fluid and nutrient absorption. Based on postsurgical anatomy, enteral feedings, parenteral infusions, complex diet plans, and vitamin and mineral supplementation are used in various combinations to nourish patients with SBS. In the acute care setting, registered dietitians (RDs) assist with infusion therapy, diet education, and discharge planning. Long-term, as the small intestine adapts, RDs revise the nutrition care plan and monitor for nutrient deficiencies, metabolic bone disease, and anemia. The frequent monitoring and revision of care plans, plus the appreciable benefits from proper medical nutrition therapy, make this patient population extremely challenging and rewarding for RDs to manage. This article provides a brief, case study-based overview of the medical and nutrition management of SBS.

  19. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term Growth Hormone Treatment on Adaptive Functioning in Infants With Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sin T; Festen, Dederieke A M; Tummers-de Lind van Wijngaarden, Roderick F A; Collin, Philippe J L; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of growth hormone treatment on adaptive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) was assessed during a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and after 7 years of growth hormone treatment. In the RCT, 75 children (42 infants and 33 prepubertal children) with Prader-Willi syndrome were included. Subsequently, 53 children were treated with long-term growth hormone. Our study demonstrates a marked delay in adaptive functioning in infants and children with Prader-Willi syndrome, which was associated with older age and lower intelligence. Results of the repeated measurements show that the earlier growth hormone treatment was started during infancy, the better the adaptive skills were on the long-term.

  20. Chiari malformation and central sleep apnea syndrome: efficacy of treatment with adaptive servo-ventilation*

    PubMed Central

    do Vale, Jorge Marques; Silva, Eloísa; Pereira, Isabel Gil; Marques, Catarina; Sanchez-Serrano, Amparo; Torres, António Simões

    2014-01-01

    The Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) has been associated with sleep-disordered breathing, especially central sleep apnea syndrome. We report the case of a 44-year-old female with CM-I who was referred to our sleep laboratory for suspected sleep apnea. The patient had undergone decompressive surgery 3 years prior. An arterial blood gas analysis showed hypercapnia. Polysomnography showed a respiratory disturbance index of 108 events/h, and all were central apnea events. Treatment with adaptive servo-ventilation was initiated, and central apnea was resolved. This report demonstrates the efficacy of servo-ventilation in the treatment of central sleep apnea syndrome associated with alveolar hypoventilation in a CM-I patient with a history of decompressive surgery. PMID:25410846

  1. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Rebecca M.; Martens, Marilee A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months – 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007 to 2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3%) of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self-care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills. PMID:27199832

  2. Effects of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome on adaptation of multi-digit forces to object texture

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Mostafa; Santello, Marco; Johnston, Jamie A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The ability to adapt digit forces to object properties requires both anticipatory and feedback-driven control mechanisms which can be disrupted in individuals with a compromised sensorimotor system. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is a median nerve compression neuropathy affecting sensory and motor function in a subset of digits in the hand. Our objective was to examine how CTS patients coordinate anticipatory and feedback-driven control for multi-digit grip force adaptation. Methods We asked CTS patients and healthy controls to grasp, lift, and hold an object with different textures. Results CTS patients effectively adapted their digit forces to changes in object texture, but produced excessive grip forces. CTS patients also produced larger peak force rate profiles with fewer modulations of normal force prior to lift onset than did controls and continued to increase grip force throughout the lift whereas forces were set at lift onset for the controls. Conclusions These findings suggest that CTS patients use less online sensory feedback for fine-tuning their grip forces, relying more on anticipatory control than do healthy controls. Significance These characteristics in force adaptation in CTS patients indicate impaired sensorimotor control which leads to excessive grip forces with the potential to further exacerbate their median nerve compression. PMID:22627019

  3. A Literature Survey on Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    stability and/or beam stabilization. However because of its simplicity, this solution is very attractive and worthy of further study. Kiwi -SAS: There seems to...researchers Gough and Hawkins [6, [19, [46]. Their solution, Kiwi -SAS, is worth studying. 4.8 Buried mine detection For buried mine detection, low

  4. Adapting Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children With Down Syndrome Based on the Behavioral Phenotype: A Promising Approach?

    PubMed

    Lemons, Christopher J; King, Seth A; Davidson, Kimberly A; Puranik, Cynthia S; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J

    2015-08-01

    Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down syndrome would increase children's learning of phonological awareness, letter sounds, and words. Five children with Down syndrome, ages 6 to 8 years, participated in a multiple baseline across participants single case design experiment in which response to an adapted phonological awareness intervention was compared with response to the nonadapted program. Results indicate a functional relation between the adapted program and phonological awareness. Suggestions for future research and implications for practice are provided.

  5. SAS-6 coiled-coil structure and interaction with SAS-5 suggest a regulatory mechanism in C. elegans centriole assembly.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Renping; Cabral, Gabriela; Lettman, Molly M; Dammermann, Alexander; Dong, Gang

    2012-11-14

    The centriole is a conserved microtubule-based organelle essential for both centrosome formation and cilium biogenesis. Five conserved proteins for centriole duplication have been identified. Two of them, SAS-5 and SAS-6, physically interact with each other and are codependent for their targeting to procentrioles. However, it remains unclear how these two proteins interact at the molecular level. Here, we demonstrate that the short SAS-5 C-terminal domain (residues 390-404) specifically binds to a narrow central region (residues 275-288) of the SAS-6 coiled coil. This was supported by the crystal structure of the SAS-6 coiled-coil domain (CCD), which, together with mutagenesis studies, indicated that the association is mediated by synergistic hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The crystal structure also shows a periodic charge pattern along the SAS-6 CCD, which gives rise to an anti-parallel tetramer. Overall, our findings establish the molecular basis of the specific interaction between SAS-5 and SAS-6, and suggest that both proteins individually adopt an oligomeric conformation that is disrupted upon the formation of the hetero-complex to facilitate the correct assembly of the nine-fold symmetric centriole.

  6. Stomatognathic adaptive motor syndrome is the correct diagnosis for temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Carlos Roberto; Avoglio, José Luiz Villaça; de Oliveira, Heloisa

    2010-04-01

    Temporomandibular disorder is a generic and inadequate conception to be used as a diagnosis. It fails to express the etiology or the pathophysiology and it is mainly associated with the anatomical site. Moreover, the clinical condition presents a mandibular motor problem and not a joint problem. The hypothesis presents the new diagnosis stomatognathic motor adaptive syndrome, which comprehend a motor response and the adaptive processes it induces. Inadequate occlusal contacts cause the mandible to shift in order to reach an ideal intercuspal position. The condylar displacements are proportional to such movements. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) receptors respond to the capsular mechanical stress and the information reaches the trigeminal sensory nuclei. The mandibular modified position seems to be relevant information and may interfere with catecholaminergic neurotransmission in basal ganglia. The main motor responses comprise increased jaw muscle tone, decreased velocity of movements and incoordination. The overload of muscle function will produce adaptive responses on many stomatognathic structures. The muscle adaptive responses are hypertonia, pain, fatigue and weakness. Temporomandibular joint presents tissue modification, disc alteration and cracking noise. Periodontium show increased periodontal membrane, bone height loss and gingival recession. Teeth manifest increased wear facets, abfraction and non-accidental fractures. The periodontal and teeth adaptive processes are usually identified as occlusal trauma. The altered stomatognathic functions will show loss of velocity during mastication and speech. Fatigue, weakness in jaw muscle and difficulties to chew hard food are related to hypertonia. Incoordination between stomatognathic muscles groups is found, causing involuntary tongue/cheek biting and lateral jaw movements on speech. Otologic complaints, as aural fullness and tinnitus, are related to the tensor tympani muscle, innervated by the trigeminal nerve.

  7. Mechanisms of Host Receptor Adaptation by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kailang; Peng, Guiqing; Wilken, Matthew; Geraghty, Robert J.; Li, Fang

    2012-12-10

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) from palm civets has twice evolved the capacity to infect humans by gaining binding affinity for human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Numerous mutations have been identified in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of different SARS-CoV strains isolated from humans or civets. Why these mutations were naturally selected or how SARS-CoV evolved to adapt to different host receptors has been poorly understood, presenting evolutionary and epidemic conundrums. In this study, we investigated the impact of these mutations on receptor recognition, an important determinant of SARS-CoV infection and pathogenesis. Using a combination of biochemical, functional, and crystallographic approaches, we elucidated the molecular and structural mechanisms of each of these naturally selected RBD mutations. These mutations either strengthen favorable interactions or reduce unfavorable interactions with two virus-binding hot spots on ACE2, and by doing so, they enhance viral interactions with either human (hACE2) or civet (cACE2) ACE2. Therefore, these mutations were viral adaptations to either hACE2 or cACE2. To corroborate the above analysis, we designed and characterized two optimized RBDs. The human-optimized RBD contains all of the hACE2-adapted residues (Phe-442, Phe-472, Asn-479, Asp-480, and Thr-487) and possesses exceptionally high affinity for hACE2 but relative low affinity for cACE2. The civet-optimized RBD contains all of the cACE2-adapted residues (Tyr-442, Pro-472, Arg-479, Gly-480, and Thr-487) and possesses exceptionally high affinity for cACE2 and also substantial affinity for hACE2. These results not only illustrate the detailed mechanisms of host receptor adaptation by SARS-CoV but also provide a molecular and structural basis for tracking future SARS-CoV evolution in animals.

  8. Age-Related Changes of Adaptive and Neuropsychological Features in Persons with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzo, Alessandro; Salvioli, Stefano; Solimando, Maria Caterina; Palmieri, Alice; Chiostergi, Chiara; Scurti, Maria; Lomartire, Laura; Bedetti, Federica; Cocchi, Guido; Follo, Daniela; Pipitone, Emanuela; Rovatti, Paolo; Zamberletti, Jessica; Gomiero, Tiziano; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years), from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier) in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy. PMID:25419980

  9. Age-related changes of adaptive and neuropsychological features in persons with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ghezzo, Alessandro; Salvioli, Stefano; Solimando, Maria Caterina; Palmieri, Alice; Chiostergi, Chiara; Scurti, Maria; Lomartire, Laura; Bedetti, Federica; Cocchi, Guido; Follo, Daniela; Pipitone, Emanuela; Rovatti, Paolo; Zamberletti, Jessica; Gomiero, Tiziano; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years), from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier) in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy.

  10. Long-term outcomes of adaptive functions for children with mucopolysaccharidosis I (Hurler syndrome) treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bjoraker, Kendra J; Delaney, Kathleen; Peters, Charles; Krivit, William; Shapiro, Elsa G

    2006-08-01

    Advances in medical treatment have prolonged the lives of children with Hurler syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis I requiring increased attention to the assessment of their long-term outcomes and functional abilities. Adaptive functions are critical for understanding functional outcomes after treatment and developing focused interventions. We investigated the development of various adaptive functions in children who have had hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for Hurler syndrome and risk factors that are associated with the development of these functions. We examined the development of 41 children who had 3 or more Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales records assessed before and after transplant. Communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor functions were measured. While standard scores decline over time, development of skills continue with a slower than average rate compared with peers. A cross-sectional nontransplanted comparison group showed more deficits after age 2 years than the transplanted group. In contrast to cognitive ability, age at transplant was not significantly associated with ultimate adaptive level. Baseline cognitive level before HSCT and growth of cognition after HSCT were associated with adaptive functions especially for communication and daily living skills. Socialization was predicted by cumulative medical risk factors, likely due to restricted social exposure in children with complicated transplant courses. Overall, measurement of adaptive behaviors demonstrated that HSCT allows long-term slow improvement of functional outcomes for children with Hurler syndrome. Children with Hurler syndrome with good cognitive levels before HSCT and continued growth of cognition after HSCT show good adaptive functions. Although cognitive and orthopedic problems as well as medical complications limit adaptive ability, identifying these problems early allow beneficial targeted interventions.

  11. Cognitive and adaptive evaluation of 21 consecutive patients with Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Nathalie; Laguitton, Virginie; Viellard, Marine; Lépine, Anne; Chabrol, Brigitte; Dravet, Charlotte; Milh, Mathieu

    2014-02-01

    In order to assess the cognitive and adaptive profiles of school-aged patients with Dravet syndrome (DS), we proposed to evaluate the intelligence and adaptive scores in twenty-one 6- to 10-year-old patients with DS followed in our institution between 1997 and 2013. Fourteen patients were tested using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS); 6 patients could not be tested with the WISC and were tested with the VABS only, and one was tested with the WISC only. Data regarding the epilepsy were retrospectively collected. Statistical analysis (Spearman rank order and Pearson correlation coefficient) was used to correlate early epilepsy characteristics with the cognitive and adaptive scores. Sodium channel, neuronal alpha-subunit type 1 (SCN1A) was mutated in 19 out of 21 patients. After the age of 6years, none of the DS patients had a normal intelligence quotient (IQ) using WISC (age at the testing period: mean=100±5; median=105months; mean total IQ=47±3; n=15). Only five patients had a verbal and/or a non verbal IQ of more than 60 (points). Their cognitive profile was characterized by an attention deficit, an inability to inhibit impulsive responses, perseverative responses and deficit in planning function. Administering the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales in the same period, we showed that socialization skills were significantly higher than communication and autonomy skills (age at the testing period: mean=100±4; median=100months; n=20). We did not find any significant correlation between the IQ or developmental quotient assessed between 6 and 10years of age and the quantitative and qualitative parameters of epilepsy during the first two years of life in this small group of patients. Despite an overall moderate cognitive deficit in this group of patients, the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales described an adaptive/behavioral profile with low communication and autonomy capacities, whereas the

  12. Substrate Activity Screening (SAS) and Related Approaches in Medicinal Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gladysz, Rafaela; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Joossens, Jurgen; Augustyns, Koen; Van der Veken, Pieter

    2016-03-04

    Substrate activity screening (SAS) was presented a decade ago by Ellman and co-workers as a straightforward methodology for the identification of fragment-sized building blocks for enzyme inhibitors. Ever since, SAS and variations derived from it have been successfully applied to the discovery of inhibitors of various families of enzymatically active drug targets. This review covers key achievements and challenges of SAS and related methodologies, including the modified substrate activity screening (MSAS) approach. Special attention is given to the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of these methodologies, as a thorough understanding thereof is crucial for successfully transforming the identified fragment-sized hits into potent inhibitors.

  13. The Mexican Sistema de Alerta Sismica (SAS) Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa-Aranda, J.; Rodriguez, F.

    2003-12-01

    The Mexico City's SAS is an Early Warning System developed in accordance with recommendations of foreign and national seismology experts, after the disaster generated in 1985 by the M8.1 Michoacan earthquake. The SAS aim is to help mitigate future seismic disasters in Mexico City (MC), mainly if the big forecast "Guerrero Earthquake" hits. In 1991 the SAS started its service in an experimental basis for evaluating its performance both with a group of basic education students in public schools, and with the emergency stop function for the Mexico City Metropolitan Subway System (METRO of MC); after this The Federal District Government (FDG) opened the SAS as a public service in August, 1993, shortly after the SAS warned, with more than 60 seconds of anticipation, the incoming effect of May 13, 1993, M5.8, and M6 double earthquake originated more than 300 Km from MC between Guerrero and Oaxaca, on the coast. That year, an initial technical flaw generated one false alert signal; the cause was readily corrected. The SAS has 12 seismic sensor stations covering a stripe close to 400 X 100 Km on the Guerrero's coast, between Papanoa and Punta Maldonado, that send information through a dedicated radio relay system to the SAS Central Control in MC., using the valuable support of some TELMEX field installations. Until August, 2003, the SAS sensor system has detected more than 1550 earthquakes in the 2.55 magnitude events, which are the ones felt in MC. The SAS has generated 57 warning signals with an average of 60 sec in advance to earthquake effects: 46 of restricted use for M<6, and 11 of public use for M>6 events. Public warnings have the automatic broadcast support of many commercial radio AM/FM and TV stations in Mexico City and Toluca valleys. The FDG controls the SAS signal service that includes the more frequent events (from M>5 up), asking the user to develop procedures and practice useful actions to mitigate seismic

  14. SAS validation and analysis of in-pile TUCOP experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Morman, J.A.; Tentner, A.M.; Dever, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The validation of the SAS4A accident analysis code centers on its capability to calculate the wide range of tests performed in the TREAT (Transient Reactor Test Facility) in-pile experiments program. This paper presents the SAS4A analysis of a simulated TUCOP (Transient-Under-Cooled-Over-Power) experiment using seven full-length PFR mixed oxide fuel pins in a flowing sodium loop. Calculations agree well with measured thermal-hydraulic, pin failure time and post-failure fuel motion data. The extent of the agreement confirms the validity of the models used in the SAS4A code to describe TUCOP accidents.

  15. How applicable is the general adaptation syndrome to the unicellular Tetrahymena?

    PubMed

    Csaba, György; Pállinger, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Hormone receptors, hormones and signal transduction pathways characteristic of higher vertebrates can be observed also in the unicellular Tetrahymena. Previous work showed that stress conditions (starvation, high temperature, high salt concentration, formaldehyde or alcohol treatment) elevated the intracellular level of four hormones (ACTH, endorphin, serotonin and T(3)). Here, the effect of other stressors (CuSO4 poisoning, tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) treatment) on the same and other hormones (epinephrine, insulin, histamine) was studied, using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. It was found, that each effect increased the intracellular hormone contents, but some hormones (histamine, T(3)) were less reactive. Insulin--which is a life-saving factor for Tetrahymena--itself provoked elevation of hormone amounts in association with a stressor, further increased the level of hormones. It was concluded that the ancestor of Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) can be found already at unicellular level, and this possibly has a life saving function.

  16. Adapting Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children with Down Syndrome Based on the Behavioral Phenotype: A Promising Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Christopher J.; King, Seth A.; Davidson, Kimberly A.; Puranik, Cynthia S.; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down…

  17. The Adaptive Behaviour Dementia Questionnaire (ABDQ): Screening Questionnaire for Dementia in Alzheimer's Disease in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Farooq, A.; Holder, R.

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of dementia in Alzheimer's disease remains at times problematic in adults with intellectual disability. The analysis of 5-year consecutive data developed a researched-based clinical screening tool for dementia in Alzheimer's disease in adults with Down syndrome. The Adaptive Behaviour Dementia Questionnaire (ABDQ) is a 15-item…

  18. Adaptation to transient postural perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andres, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    This research was first proposed in May, 1986, to focus on some of the problems encountered in the analysis of postural responses gathered from crewmembers. The ultimate driving force behind this line of research was the desire to treat, predict, or explain 'Space Adaptation Syndrome' (SAS) and hence circumvent any adverse effects of space motion sickness on crewmember performance. The aim of this project was to develop an easily implemented analysis of the transient responses to platform translation that can be elicited with a protocol designed to force sensorimotor reorganization, utilizing statistically reliable criterion measures. This report will present: (1) a summary of the activity that took place in each of the three funded years of the project; (2) discussion of experimental results and their implications for future research; and (3) a list of presentations and publications resulting from this project.

  19. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    Cancer.gov

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  20. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Cancer.gov

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  1. The Association of Intelligence, Visual-Motor Functioning, and Personality Characteristics With Adaptive Behavior in Individuals With Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Trista J; Lincoln, Alan J; Bellugi, Ursula; Searcy, Yvonne M

    2015-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with deficits in adaptive behavior and an uneven adaptive profile. This study investigated the association of intelligence, visual-motor functioning, and personality characteristics with the adaptive behavior in individuals with WS. One hundred individuals with WS and 25 individuals with developmental disabilities of other etiologies were included in this study. This study found that IQ and visual-motor functioning significantly predicted adaptive behavior in individuals of WS. Visual-motor functioning especially predicted the most amount of unique variance in overall adaptive behavior and contributed to the variance above and beyond that of IQ. Present study highlights the need for interventions that address visual-motor and motor functioning in individuals with WS.

  2. Validation of an adapted arabic version of fibromyalgia syndrome impact questionnaire.

    PubMed

    El-Naby, Mai Abd; Hefny, Mohamed Ahmed; Fahim, Ayman Ekram; Awadalla, Magdy Ahmed

    2013-10-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is the most common chronic pain syndrome encountered in medical practice, affecting females more than males, and the estimated prevalence of FM in Egypt is 1.3 %. The aim was to translate and adapt the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) into Arabic and assess reliability and validity. The Arabic version of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ-A) was adapted following the forward/backward translation approach. Fifty-one female patients with FM were studied to assess psychometric properties of the FIQ-A. Reliability was analyzed by the correlation coefficient between test and retest. Internal consistency was checked by the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Construct validity was assessed comparing FIQ-A with Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Health Assessment Questionnaire of Fibromyalgia (FHAQ), The Medical Outcome Survey Short-Form-36 (SF-36), and the Total Visual Analog Scale (TVAS) for FM symptom, and feasibility was assessed by the time taken in completing the FIQ-A and the proportion of patients completed the questionnaire. Patients studied were 33.2 ± 9.8 years old. Translation was concordant. Adaptation affected 4 sub-items of physical function. Test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.89 for total FIQ-A and Cronbach's alpha was 0.76. Excellent to good statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between the FIQ-A items and HAQ, FHAQ, and SF-36. The FIQ-A is a reliable, valid for measuring health status and physical function in Arabic-speaking FM patients.

  3. Structure of the SAS-6 cartwheel hub from Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    van Breugel, Mark; Wilcken, Rainer; McLaughlin, Stephen H; Rutherford, Trevor J; Johnson, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Centrioles are cylindrical cell organelles with a ninefold symmetric peripheral microtubule array that is essential to template cilia and flagella. They are built around a central cartwheel assembly that is organized through homo-oligomerization of the centriolar protein SAS-6, but whether SAS-6 self-assembly can dictate cartwheel and thereby centriole symmetry is unclear. Here we show that Leishmania major SAS-6 crystallizes as a 9-fold symmetric cartwheel and provide the X-ray structure of this assembly at a resolution of 3.5 Å. We furthermore demonstrate that oligomerization of Leishmania SAS-6 can be inhibited by a small molecule in vitro and provide indications for its binding site. Our results firmly establish that SAS-6 can impose cartwheel symmetry on its own and indicate how this process might occur mechanistically in vivo. Importantly, our data also provide a proof-of-principle that inhibition of SAS-6 oligomerization by small molecules is feasible. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01812.001 PMID:24596152

  4. Structure of the SAS-6 cartwheel hub from Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    van Breugel, Mark; Wilcken, Rainer; McLaughlin, Stephen H; Rutherford, Trevor J; Johnson, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Centrioles are cylindrical cell organelles with a ninefold symmetric peripheral microtubule array that is essential to template cilia and flagella. They are built around a central cartwheel assembly that is organized through homo-oligomerization of the centriolar protein SAS-6, but whether SAS-6 self-assembly can dictate cartwheel and thereby centriole symmetry is unclear. Here we show that Leishmania major SAS-6 crystallizes as a 9-fold symmetric cartwheel and provide the X-ray structure of this assembly at a resolution of 3.5 Å. We furthermore demonstrate that oligomerization of Leishmania SAS-6 can be inhibited by a small molecule in vitro and provide indications for its binding site. Our results firmly establish that SAS-6 can impose cartwheel symmetry on its own and indicate how this process might occur mechanistically in vivo. Importantly, our data also provide a proof-of-principle that inhibition of SAS-6 oligomerization by small molecules is feasible. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01812.001.

  5. [Symptoms of sleep apnea syndrome in the general population].

    PubMed

    Zamarrón, C; Gude, F; Otero, Y; Alvarez Dobaño, J M; Golpe, A; Rodríguez Suárez, J R

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features of patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in the general population. One hundred ten individuals were selected randomly from the census and given hospital appointments. Case histories were taken and complete physical examinations were made. Nighttime respiratory polysomnograms were performed. Twenty-two (20%) of the 110 subjects presented SAS. In the SAS group, 59.1% were habitual snorers and 22.7% reported daytime hypersomnolence. The SAS patients has a mean age of 59.6 +/- 8.8 years and 45.4% showed alterations of the pharynx. No differences in spirometric variables were observed. Only age and daytime hypersomnolence predicted SAS in the multivariate analysis. We conclude that the prevalence of snoring, daytime hypersomnolence, pharyngeal alterations are higher in patients with SAS. The patients are also older. Only age and daytime hypersomnolence predicted of SAS.

  6. Extensive Intestinal Resection Triggers Behavioral Adaptation, Intestinal Remodeling and Microbiota Transition in Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mayeur, Camille; Gillard, Laura; Le Beyec, Johanne; Bado, André; Joly, Francisca; Thomas, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Extensive resection of small bowel often leads to short bowel syndrome (SBS). SBS patients develop clinical mal-absorption and dehydration relative to the reduction of absorptive area, acceleration of gastrointestinal transit time and modifications of the gastrointestinal intra-luminal environment. As a consequence of severe mal-absorption, patients require parenteral nutrition (PN). In adults, the overall adaptation following intestinal resection includes spontaneous and complex compensatory processes such as hyperphagia, mucosal remodeling of the remaining part of the intestine and major modifications of the microbiota. SBS patients, with colon in continuity, harbor a specific fecal microbiota that we called “lactobiota” because it is enriched in the Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc group and depleted in anaerobic micro-organisms (especially Clostridium and Bacteroides). In some patients, the lactobiota-driven fermentative activities lead to an accumulation of fecal d/l-lactates and an increased risk of d-encephalopathy. Better knowledge of clinical parameters and lactobiota characteristics has made it possible to stratify patients and define group at risk for d-encephalopathy crises. PMID:27681910

  7. The motor system shows adaptive changes in complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maihöfner, Christian; Baron, Ralf; DeCol, Roberto; Binder, Andreas; Birklein, Frank; Deuschl, Günther; Handwerker, Hermann O; Schattschneider, Jörn

    2007-10-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a disabling neuropathic pain condition that may develop following injuries of the extremities. In the present study we sought to characterize motor dysfunction in CRPS patients using kinematic analysis and functional imaging investigations on the cerebral representation of finger movements. Firstly, 10 patients and 12 healthy control subjects were investigated in a kinematic analysis assessing possible changes of movement patterns during target reaching and grasping. Compared to controls, CRPS patients particularly showed a significant prolongation of the target phase in this paradigm. The pattern of motor impairment was consistent with a disturbed integration of visual and proprioceptive inputs in the posterior parietal cortex. Secondly, we used functional MRI (fMRI) and investigated cortical activations during tapping movements of the CRPS-affected hand in 12 patients compared to healthy controls (n = 12). During finger tapping of the affected extremity, CRPS patients showed a significant reorganization of central motor circuits, with an increased activation of primary motor and supplementary motor cortices (SMA). Furthermore, the ipsilateral motor cortex showed a markedly increased activation. When the individual amount of motor impairment was introduced as regressor in the fMRI analysis, we were able to demonstrate that activations of the posterior parietal cortices (i.e. areas within the intraparietal sulcus), SMA and primary motor cortex were correlated with the extent of motor dysfunction. In summary, the results of this study suggest that substantial adaptive changes within the central nervous system may contribute to motor symptoms in CRPS.

  8. Eco-evo-devo of the lemur syndrome: did adaptive behavioral plasticity get canalized in a large primate radiation?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Comprehensive explanations of behavioral adaptations rarely invoke all levels famously admonished by Niko Tinbergen. The role of developmental processes and plasticity, in particular, has often been neglected. In this paper, we combine ecological, physiological and developmental perspectives in developing a hypothesis to account for the evolution of ‘the lemur syndrome’, a combination of reduced sexual dimorphism, even adult sex ratios, female dominance and mild genital masculinization characterizing group-living species in two families of Malagasy primates. Results We review the different components of the lemur syndrome and compare it with similar adaptations reported for other mammals. We find support for the assertion that the lemur syndrome represents a unique set of integrated behavioral, demographic and morphological traits. We combine existing hypotheses about underlying adaptive function and proximate causation by adding a potential developmental mechanism linking maternal stress and filial masculinization, and outline an evolutionary scenario for its canalization. Conclusions We propose a new hypothesis linking ecological, physiological, developmental and evolutionary processes to adumbrate a comprehensive explanation for the evolution of the lemur syndrome, whose assumptions and predictions can guide diverse future research on lemurs. This hypothesis should also encourage students of other behavioral phenomena to consider the potential role of developmental plasticity in evolutionary innovation. PMID:26816515

  9. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  10. A SAS-6-like protein suggests that the Toxoplasma conoid complex evolved from flagellar components.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jessica Cruz; Scheumann, Nicole; Beatty, Wandy; Beck, Josh R; Tran, Johnson Q; Yau, Candace; Bradley, Peter J; Gull, Keith; Wickstead, Bill; Morrissette, Naomi S

    2013-07-01

    SAS-6 is required for centriole biogenesis in diverse eukaryotes. Here, we describe a novel family of SAS-6-like (SAS6L) proteins that share an N-terminal domain with SAS-6 but lack coiled-coil tails. SAS6L proteins are found in a subset of eukaryotes that contain SAS-6, including diverse protozoa and green algae. In the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, SAS-6 localizes to the centriole but SAS6L is found above the conoid, an enigmatic tubulin-containing structure found at the apex of a subset of alveolate organisms. Loss of SAS6L causes reduced fitness in Toxoplasma. The Trypanosoma brucei homolog of SAS6L localizes to the basal-plate region, the site in the axoneme where the central-pair microtubules are nucleated. When endogenous SAS6L is overexpressed in Toxoplasma tachyzoites or Trypanosoma trypomastigotes, it forms prominent filaments that extend through the cell cytoplasm, indicating that it retains a capacity to form higher-order structures despite lacking a coiled-coil domain. We conclude that although SAS6L proteins share a conserved domain with SAS-6, they are a functionally distinct family that predates the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Moreover, the distinct localization of the SAS6L protein in Trypanosoma and Toxoplasma adds weight to the hypothesis that the conoid complex evolved from flagellar components.

  11. SAS-2 galactic gamma-ray results. 1: Diffuse emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.; Lamb, R. C.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing analysis of the data from the SAS-2 high energy gamma ray experiment has produced an improved picture of the sky at photon energies above 35 MeV. On a large scale, the diffuse emission from the galactic plane is the dominant feature observed by SAS-2. This galactic plane emission is most intense between galactic longitudes 310 deg and 45 deg, corresponding to a region within 7 kpc of the galactic center. Within the high-intensity region, SAS-2 observes peaks around galactic longitudes 315, 330, 345, 0, and 35 deg. These peaks appear to be correlated with galactic features and components such as molecular hydrogen, atomic hydrogen, magnetic fields, cosmic-ray concentrations, and photon fields.

  12. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) Short Form.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine; Goossens, Luc

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the longitudinal measurement invariance of a 12-item short version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) in two 4-year longitudinal community samples ( Nsample 1 = 815, Mage T1 = 13.38 years; Nsample 2 = 551, Mage T1 = 14.82 years). Using confirmatory factor analyses, we found strict longitudinal measurement invariance for the three-factor structure of the SAS-A across adolescence, across samples, and across gender. Some developmental changes in social anxiety were found from early to mid-adolescence, as well as gender differences across adolescence. These findings suggest that the short version of the SAS-A is a developmentally appropriate instrument that can be used effectively to examine adolescent social anxiety development.

  13. Observations of A0620-00 by SAS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradt, H.; Matilsky, T.

    1976-01-01

    The transient X-ray source A0620-00 was observed by the SAS-3 group with the SAS-3 X-ray observatory. At maximum X-ray luminosity limits of 2% were placed on periodic variations from 0.2 ms - 2,000 sec. A precise position was obtained with the rotating modulation collimator. This led directly to radio and optical identification by groups at the NRAO, Arecibo, and McGraw Hill Observatories. The low energy (0.15-0.9 keV) system was pointed at the source, and a spectrum was derived. Hardness ratios are presented, as well as detailed light curves.

  14. Want independent validation and assurance? Ask for a SAS-70.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Christopher C

    2008-08-01

    The AICPA's Statement on Auditing Standards No.70, Service Organizations addresses CPA audits of service providers conducted to verify that a provider has adequate controls over its operations. Hospitals should request a SAS-70, the report produced by such an audit, from all of their third-party service providers. SAS-70s can be issued for a specific date or for a six-month period, and they typically consist of three sections: a CPA opinion, a description of controls, and information about the design of the controls.

  15. Adult zebrafish intestine resection: a novel model of short bowel syndrome, adaptation, and intestinal stem cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schall, K A; Holoyda, K A; Grant, C N; Levin, D E; Torres, E R; Maxwell, A; Pollack, H A; Moats, R A; Frey, M R; Darehzereshki, A; Al Alam, D; Lien, C; Grikscheit, T C

    2015-08-01

    Loss of significant intestinal length from congenital anomaly or disease may lead to short bowel syndrome (SBS); intestinal failure may be partially offset by a gain in epithelial surface area, termed adaptation. Current in vivo models of SBS are costly and technically challenging. Operative times and survival rates have slowed extension to transgenic models. We created a new reproducible in vivo model of SBS in zebrafish, a tractable vertebrate model, to facilitate investigation of the mechanisms of intestinal adaptation. Proximal intestinal diversion at segment 1 (S1, equivalent to jejunum) was performed in adult male zebrafish. SBS fish emptied distal intestinal contents via stoma as in the human disease. After 2 wk, S1 was dilated compared with controls and villus ridges had increased complexity, contributing to greater villus epithelial perimeter. The number of intervillus pockets, the intestinal stem cell zone of the zebrafish increased and contained a higher number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells after 2 wk of SBS. Egf receptor and a subset of its ligands, also drivers of adaptation, were upregulated in SBS fish. Igf has been reported as a driver of intestinal adaptation in other animal models, and SBS fish exposed to a pharmacological inhibitor of the Igf receptor failed to demonstrate signs of intestinal adaptation, such as increased inner epithelial perimeter and BrdU incorporation. We describe a technically feasible model of human SBS in the zebrafish, a faster and less expensive tool to investigate intestinal stem cell plasticity as well as the mechanisms that drive intestinal adaptation.

  16. Data reduction and analysis of SAS-1 data. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacconi, R.

    1979-01-01

    An abstracted bibliography of 59 articles addressing the analysis of X-ray observations from the UHURU X-Ray Observatory (SAS-1) is presented. Investigations of galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources, X-ray binaries, and transient and burst phenomena are highlighted.

  17. Tubulin nucleotide status controls Sas-4-dependent pericentriolar material recruitment.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Jayachandran; Chim, Yiu-Cheung Frederick; Ha, Andrew; Basiri, Marcus L; Lerit, Dorothy A; Rusan, Nasser M; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2012-08-01

    Regulated centrosome biogenesis is required for accurate cell division and for maintaining genome integrity. Centrosomes consist of a centriole pair surrounded by a protein network known as pericentriolar material (PCM). PCM assembly is a tightly regulated, critical step that determines the size and capability of centrosomes. Here, we report a role for tubulin in regulating PCM recruitment through the conserved centrosomal protein Sas-4. Tubulin directly binds to Sas-4; together they are components of cytoplasmic complexes of centrosomal proteins. A Sas-4 mutant, which cannot bind tubulin, enhances centrosomal protein complex formation and has abnormally large centrosomes with excessive activity. These results suggest that tubulin negatively regulates PCM recruitment. Whereas tubulin-GTP prevents Sas-4 from forming protein complexes, tubulin-GDP promotes it. Thus, the regulation of PCM recruitment by tubulin depends on its GTP/GDP-bound state. These results identify a role for tubulin in regulating PCM recruitment independent of its well-known role as a building block of microtubules. On the basis of its guanine-bound state, tubulin can act as a molecular switch in PCM recruitment.

  18. Using SAS PROC MCMC for Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Allison J.; Samonte, Kelli

    2015-01-01

    Interest in using Bayesian methods for estimating item response theory models has grown at a remarkable rate in recent years. This attentiveness to Bayesian estimation has also inspired a growth in available software such as WinBUGS, R packages, BMIRT, MPLUS, and SAS PROC MCMC. This article intends to provide an accessible overview of Bayesian…

  19. A SAS Interface for Bayesian Analysis with WinBUGS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Wang, Lijuan; Hamagami, Fumiaki

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian methods are becoming very popular despite some practical difficulties in implementation. To assist in the practical application of Bayesian methods, we show how to implement Bayesian analysis with WinBUGS as part of a standard set of SAS routines. This implementation procedure is first illustrated by fitting a multiple regression model…

  20. Online Collection Statistics: A Comparison of BASIC and SAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Jack

    1981-01-01

    Describes a program written in VS BASIC which was created for the online tabulation, summarization, and display of information on collection size for an academic library and compares its performance with that of SAS (Statistical Analysis System). Nine figures compare tables produced by the two systems, and two references are given. (RAA)

  1. 49 CFR 229.311 - Review of SAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review of SAs. 229.311 Section 229.311 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics § 229.311 Review...

  2. 49 CFR 229.311 - Review of SAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review of SAs. 229.311 Section 229.311 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics § 229.311 Review...

  3. 49 CFR 229.311 - Review of SAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Review of SAs. 229.311 Section 229.311 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Electronics § 229.311 Review...

  4. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Fitting Multivariate Measurement Error Models & Estimating Multivariate Usual Intake Distributions

    Cancer.gov

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a multivariate usual intake distribution for multiple dietary components that are consumed nearly every day or episodically. A SAS macro for performing balanced repeated replication (BRR) variance estimation is also included.

  5. SAS- Semantic Annotation Service for Geoscience resources on the web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.; Marini, L.; Li, R.; Jiang, P.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing need for increased integration across the data and model resources that are disseminated on the web to advance their reuse across different earth science applications. Meaningful reuse of resources requires semantic metadata to realize the semantic web vision for allowing pragmatic linkage and integration among resources. Semantic metadata associates standard metadata with resources to turn them into semantically-enabled resources on the web. However, the lack of a common standardized metadata framework as well as the uncoordinated use of metadata fields across different geo-information systems, has led to a situation in which standards and related Standard Names abound. To address this need, we have designed SAS to provide a bridge between the core ontologies required to annotate resources and information systems in order to enable queries and analysis over annotation from a single environment (web). SAS is one of the services that are provided by the Geosematnic framework, which is a decentralized semantic framework to support the integration between models and data and allow semantically heterogeneous to interact with minimum human intervention. Here we present the design of SAS and demonstrate its application for annotating data and models. First we describe how predicates and their attributes are extracted from standards and ingested in the knowledge-base of the Geosemantic framework. Then we illustrate the application of SAS in annotating data managed by SEAD and annotating simulation models that have web interface. SAS is a step in a broader approach to raise the quality of geoscience data and models that are published on the web and allow users to better search, access, and use of the existing resources based on standard vocabularies that are encoded and published using semantic technologies.

  6. The selfing syndrome: a model for studying the genetic and evolutionary basis of morphological adaptation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Sicard, Adrien; Lenhard, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background In angiosperm evolution, autogamously selfing lineages have been derived from outbreeding ancestors multiple times, and this transition is regarded as one of the most common evolutionary tendencies in flowering plants. In most cases, it is accompanied by a characteristic set of morphological and functional changes to the flowers, together termed the selfing syndrome. Two major areas that have changed during evolution of the selfing syndrome are sex allocation to male vs. female function and flower morphology, in particular flower (mainly petal) size and the distance between anthers and stigma. Scope A rich body of theoretical, taxonomic, ecological and genetic studies have addressed the evolutionary modification of these two trait complexes during or after the transition to selfing. Here, we review our current knowledge about the genetics and evolution of the selfing syndrome. Conclusions We argue that because of its frequent parallel evolution, the selfing syndrome represents an ideal model for addressing basic questions about morphological evolution and adaptation in flowering plants, but that realizing this potential will require the molecular identification of more of the causal genes underlying relevant trait variation. PMID:21303786

  7. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  8. A SAS program to assess the sensitivity of normality tests on non-normal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Sin Yin; Ahad, Nor Aishah; Othman, Abdul Rahman

    2013-04-01

    In many statistical analyses, the data is usually assumed to be approximately normal or normally distributed. Unfortunately, not all data can be assumed normal in real life. To assess the normality of the data, there are four statistical tests, i.e. the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Anderson-Darling test, the Cramer-von Mises test, and the Shapiro-Wilk test that are extensively used by practitioners. The general purpose of this article is to provide a demonstration of Base SAS programming codes of DATA STEP, PROC UNIVARIATE, PROC MEANS and SAS functions to evaluate the performance of the above mentioned tests, under various spectrums of non-normal distributions and different sample sizes. Another important goal is to help researchers adapt these codes to perform similar analyses for other non-normal distributions or other normality tests. This is to encourage the researchers to check the sensitivity of the normality tests before they implement any test that requires assumption of normality.

  9. The SAS Education Value-Added Assessment System (SAS[R] EVAAS[R]) in the Houston Independent School District (HISD): Intended and Unintended Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Collins, Clarin

    2012-01-01

    The SAS Educational Value-Added Assessment System (SAS[R] EVAAS[R]) is the most widely used value-added system in the country. It is also self-proclaimed as "the most robust and reliable" system available, with its greatest benefit to help educators improve their teaching practices. This study critically examined the effects of SAS[R] EVAAS[R] as…

  10. GENETIC ARCHITECTURE AND ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SELFING SYNDROME IN CAPSELLA

    PubMed Central

    Slotte, Tanja; Hazzouri, Khaled M.; Stern, David; Andolfatto, Peter; Wright, Stephen I.

    2016-01-01

    The transition from outcrossing to predominant self-fertilization is one of the most common evolutionary transitions in flowering plants. This shift is often accompanied by a suite of changes in floral and reproductive characters termed the selfing syndrome. Here, we characterize the genetic architecture and evolutionary forces underlying evolution of the selfing syndrome in Capsella rubella following its recent divergence from the outcrossing ancestor C. grandiflora. We conduct genotyping by multiplexed shotgun sequencing and map floral and reproductive traits in a large (N = 550) F2 population. Our results suggest that in contrast to previous studies of the selfing syndrome, changes at a few loci, some with major effects, have shaped the evolution of the selfing syndrome in Capsella. The directionality of QTL effects, as well as population genetic patterns of polymorphism and divergence at 318 loci, is consistent with a history of directional selection on the selfing syndrome. Our study is an important step toward characterizing the genetic basis and evolutionary forces underlying the evolution of the selfing syndrome in a genetically accessible model system. PMID:22519777

  11. Early Intestinal Rehabilitation Therapy Ameliorates Intestinal Adaptation in Children with Short Bowel Syndrome: The Long-Term Outcome.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxiao; Lu, Chunlei; Li, Yousheng

    2016-12-01

    In the management of short bowel syndrome (SBS), the benefits of treatment with growth hormone (GH), glutamine, and enteral nutrition (EN) on intestinal adaptation among children patients is still controversial. The aim of present study is to determine whether GH, glutamine, and EN have positive effect on intestinal adaptation in children with SBS. Sixteen children with SBS (small bowel remnant length, 56.75 ± 8.09 cm; mean ± SE) were treated with GH (0.05 mg/kg/d), glutamine (0.45 mg/kg/d), plus EN-enriched fiber diet for four weeks. After four weeks of treatment, patients were discharged home; GH was discontinued, but the EN with glutamine was continued. Repeated treatment was performed if there were lose weight, dysplasia, or severe diarrhea. All patients completed the treatment. Body weight, intestinal absorptive capacity, and plasma levels of proteins were significantly improved after complete treatment, without any major adverse effects. On follow-up, no death was reported. Treatment with GH, glutamine, and EN in early stage significantly improved intestinal adaptation in pediatric patients with SBS. Furthermore, the positive effect of the treatment does not seem to be sustained once GH discontinued until the residual intestinal adaptation reaches its maximum.

  12. Adult zebrafish intestine resection: a novel model of short bowel syndrome, adaptation, and intestinal stem cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Schall, K. A.; Holoyda, K. A.; Grant, C. N.; Levin, D. E.; Torres, E. R.; Maxwell, A.; Pollack, H. A.; Moats, R. A.; Frey, M. R.; Darehzereshki, A.; Al Alam, D.; Lien, C.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of significant intestinal length from congenital anomaly or disease may lead to short bowel syndrome (SBS); intestinal failure may be partially offset by a gain in epithelial surface area, termed adaptation. Current in vivo models of SBS are costly and technically challenging. Operative times and survival rates have slowed extension to transgenic models. We created a new reproducible in vivo model of SBS in zebrafish, a tractable vertebrate model, to facilitate investigation of the mechanisms of intestinal adaptation. Proximal intestinal diversion at segment 1 (S1, equivalent to jejunum) was performed in adult male zebrafish. SBS fish emptied distal intestinal contents via stoma as in the human disease. After 2 wk, S1 was dilated compared with controls and villus ridges had increased complexity, contributing to greater villus epithelial perimeter. The number of intervillus pockets, the intestinal stem cell zone of the zebrafish increased and contained a higher number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells after 2 wk of SBS. Egf receptor and a subset of its ligands, also drivers of adaptation, were upregulated in SBS fish. Igf has been reported as a driver of intestinal adaptation in other animal models, and SBS fish exposed to a pharmacological inhibitor of the Igf receptor failed to demonstrate signs of intestinal adaptation, such as increased inner epithelial perimeter and BrdU incorporation. We describe a technically feasible model of human SBS in the zebrafish, a faster and less expensive tool to investigate intestinal stem cell plasticity as well as the mechanisms that drive intestinal adaptation. PMID:26089336

  13. Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS) and its application to analysis of Δ17O(CO2) from small air samples collected with an AirCore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janina Mrozek, Dorota; van der Veen, Carina; Hofmann, Magdalena E. G.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Röckmann, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    We present the set-up and a scientific application of the Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS), a device to collect and to store the vertical profile of air collected with an AirCore (Karion et al., 2010) in numerous sub-samples for later analysis in the laboratory. The SAS described here is a 20 m long 1/4 inch stainless steel tubing that is separated by eleven valves to divide the tubing into 10 identical segments, but it can be easily adapted to collect smaller or larger samples. In the collection phase the SAS is directly connected to the outlet of an optical analyzer that measures the mole fractions of CO2, CH4 and CO from an AirCore sampler. The stratospheric part (or if desired any part of the AirCore air) is then directed through the SAS. When the SAS is filled with the selected air, the valves are closed and the vertical profile is maintained in the different segments of the SAS. The segments can later be analysed to retrieve vertical profiles of other trace gas signatures that require slower instrumentation. As an application, we describe the coupling of the SAS to an analytical system to determine the 17O excess of CO2, which is a tracer for photochemical processing of stratospheric air. For this purpose the analytical system described by Mrozek et al. (2015) was adapted for analysis of air directly from the SAS. The performance of the coupled system is demonstrated for a set of air samples from an AirCore flight in November 2014 near Sodankylä, Finland. The standard error for a 25 mL air sample at stratospheric CO2 mole fraction is 0.56 ‰ (1σ) for δ17O and 0.03 ‰ (1σ) for both δ18O and δ13C. Measured Δ17O(CO2) values show a clear correlation with N2O in agreement with already published data.

  14. Quality assurance management plan (QAPP) special analytical support (SAS)

    SciTech Connect

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-05-20

    It is the policy of Special Analytical Support (SAS) that the analytical aspects of all environmental data generated and processed in the laboratory, subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Department of Energy or other project specific requirements, be of known and acceptable quality. It is the intention of this QAPP to establish and assure that an effective quality controlled management system is maintained in order to meet the quality requirements of the intended use(s) of the data.

  15. The Caenorhabditis elegans protein SAS-5 forms large oligomeric assemblies critical for centriole formation

    PubMed Central

    Rogala, Kacper B; Dynes, Nicola J; Hatzopoulos, Georgios N; Yan, Jun; Pong, Sheng Kai; Robinson, Carol V; Deane, Charlotte M; Gönczy, Pierre; Vakonakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles crucial for cell division, sensing and motility. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the onset of centriole formation requires notably the proteins SAS-5 and SAS-6, which have functional equivalents across eukaryotic evolution. Whereas the molecular architecture of SAS-6 and its role in initiating centriole formation are well understood, the mechanisms by which SAS-5 and its relatives function is unclear. Here, we combine biophysical and structural analysis to uncover the architecture of SAS-5 and examine its functional implications in vivo. Our work reveals that two distinct self-associating domains are necessary to form higher-order oligomers of SAS-5: a trimeric coiled coil and a novel globular dimeric Implico domain. Disruption of either domain leads to centriole duplication failure in worm embryos, indicating that large SAS-5 assemblies are necessary for function in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07410.001 PMID:26023830

  16. The Caenorhabditis elegans protein SAS-5 forms large oligomeric assemblies critical for centriole formation.

    PubMed

    Rogala, Kacper B; Dynes, Nicola J; Hatzopoulos, Georgios N; Yan, Jun; Pong, Sheng Kai; Robinson, Carol V; Deane, Charlotte M; Gönczy, Pierre; Vakonakis, Ioannis

    2015-05-29

    Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles crucial for cell division, sensing and motility. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the onset of centriole formation requires notably the proteins SAS-5 and SAS-6, which have functional equivalents across eukaryotic evolution. Whereas the molecular architecture of SAS-6 and its role in initiating centriole formation are well understood, the mechanisms by which SAS-5 and its relatives function is unclear. Here, we combine biophysical and structural analysis to uncover the architecture of SAS-5 and examine its functional implications in vivo. Our work reveals that two distinct self-associating domains are necessary to form higher-order oligomers of SAS-5: a trimeric coiled coil and a novel globular dimeric Implico domain. Disruption of either domain leads to centriole duplication failure in worm embryos, indicating that large SAS-5 assemblies are necessary for function in vivo.

  17. Acute effects of the glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, teduglutide, on intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thymann, Thomas; Stoll, Barbara; Mecklenburg, Lars; Burrin, Douglas G; Vegge, Andreas; Qvist, Niels; Eriksen, Thomas; Jeppesen, Palle B; Sangild, Per T

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal short bowel syndrome following massive gut resection is associated with malabsorption of nutrients. The intestinotrophic factor glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) improves gut function in adult patients with short bowel syndrome, but its effect in pediatric patients remains unknown. Our objective was to test the efficacy of the long-acting synthetic human GLP-2 analogue, teduglutide (ALX-0600), in a neonatal piglet jejunostomy model. Two-day-old pigs were subjected to resection of 50% of the small intestine (distal part), and the remnant intestine was exteriorized on the abdominal wall as a jejunostomy. All pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 7 days and a single daily injection of the following doses of teduglutide: 0.01 (n = 6), 0.02 (n = 6), 0.1 (n = 5), or 0.2 mg · kg · day (n = 6), and compared with placebo (n = 9). Body weight increment was similar for all 4 teduglutide groups but higher than placebo (P < 0.05). There was a dose-dependent increase in weight per length of the remnant intestine (P < 0.01) and fractional protein synthesis rate in the intestine was increased in the 0.2 mg · kg · day group versus placebo (P < 0.001); however, functional and structural endpoints including activity of digestive enzymes, absorption of enteral nutrients, and immunohistochemistry (Ki67, villin, FABP2, ChgA, and GLP-2R) were not affected by the treatment. Teduglutide induces trophicity on the remnant intestine but has limited acute effects on functional endpoints. Significant effects of teduglutide on gut function may require a longer adaptation period and/or a more frequent administration of the peptide. In perspective, GLP-2 or its analogues may be relevant to improve intestinal adaptation in pediatric patients with short bowel syndrome.

  18. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Fedder, Jens; Laurberg, Peter; Østergaard, John R; Hertz, Jens Michael; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors). One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system.

  19. VNTR-DAT1 and COMTVal158Met Genotypes Modulate Mental Flexibility and Adaptive Behavior Skills in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    del Hoyo, Laura; Xicota, Laura; Langohr, Klaus; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; de Sola, Susana; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael; Cuenca-Royo, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an aneuploidy syndrome that is caused by trisomy for human chromosome 21 resulting in a characteristic cognitive and behavioral phenotype, which includes executive functioning and adaptive behavior difficulties possibly due to prefrontal cortex (PFC) deficits. DS also present a high risk for early onset of Alzheimer Disease-like dementia. The dopamine (DA) system plays a neuromodulatory role in the activity of the PFC. Several studies have implicated trait differences in DA signaling on executive functioning based on genetic polymorphisms in the genes encoding for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMTVal158Met) and the dopamine transporter (VNTR-DAT1). Since it is known that the phenotypic consequences of genetic variants are modulated by the genetic background in which they occur, we here explore whether these polymorphisms variants interact with the trisomic genetic background to influence gene expression, and how this in turn mediates DS phenotype variability regarding PFC cognition. We genotyped 69 young adults of both genders with DS, and found that VNTR-DAT1 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium but COMTVal158Met had a reduced frequency of Met allele homozygotes. In our population, genotypes conferring higher DA availability, such as Met allele carriers and VNTR-DAT1 10-repeat allele homozygotes, resulted in improved performance in executive function tasks that require mental flexibility. Met allele carriers showed worse adaptive social skills and self-direction, and increased scores in the social subscale of the Dementia Questionnaire for People with Intellectual Disabilities than Val allele homozygotes. The VNTR-DAT1 was not involved in adaptive behavior or early dementia symptoms. Our results suggest that genetic variants of COMTVal158Met and VNTR-DAT1 may contribute to PFC-dependent cognition, while only COMTVal158Met is involved in behavioral phenotypes of DS, similar to euploid population. PMID:27799900

  20. VNTR-DAT1 and COMTVal158Met Genotypes Modulate Mental Flexibility and Adaptive Behavior Skills in Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Del Hoyo, Laura; Xicota, Laura; Langohr, Klaus; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; de Sola, Susana; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an aneuploidy syndrome that is caused by trisomy for human chromosome 21 resulting in a characteristic cognitive and behavioral phenotype, which includes executive functioning and adaptive behavior difficulties possibly due to prefrontal cortex (PFC) deficits. DS also present a high risk for early onset of Alzheimer Disease-like dementia. The dopamine (DA) system plays a neuromodulatory role in the activity of the PFC. Several studies have implicated trait differences in DA signaling on executive functioning based on genetic polymorphisms in the genes encoding for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMTVal158Met) and the dopamine transporter (VNTR-DAT1). Since it is known that the phenotypic consequences of genetic variants are modulated by the genetic background in which they occur, we here explore whether these polymorphisms variants interact with the trisomic genetic background to influence gene expression, and how this in turn mediates DS phenotype variability regarding PFC cognition. We genotyped 69 young adults of both genders with DS, and found that VNTR-DAT1 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium but COMTVal158Met had a reduced frequency of Met allele homozygotes. In our population, genotypes conferring higher DA availability, such as Met allele carriers and VNTR-DAT1 10-repeat allele homozygotes, resulted in improved performance in executive function tasks that require mental flexibility. Met allele carriers showed worse adaptive social skills and self-direction, and increased scores in the social subscale of the Dementia Questionnaire for People with Intellectual Disabilities than Val allele homozygotes. The VNTR-DAT1 was not involved in adaptive behavior or early dementia symptoms. Our results suggest that genetic variants of COMTVal158Met and VNTR-DAT1 may contribute to PFC-dependent cognition, while only COMTVal158Met is involved in behavioral phenotypes of DS, similar to euploid population.

  1. Klinefelter syndrome has increased brain responses to auditory stimuli and motor output, but not to visual stimuli or Stroop adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders; Fedder, Jens; Laurberg, Peter; Østergaard, John R.; Hertz, Jens Michael; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome and low level of testosterone, resulting in a number of neurocognitive abnormalities, yet little is known about brain function. This study investigated the fMRI-BOLD response from KS relative to a group of Controls to basic motor, perceptual, executive and adaptation tasks. Participants (N: KS = 49; Controls = 49) responded to whether the words “GREEN” or “RED” were displayed in green or red (incongruent versus congruent colors). One of the colors was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying “GREEN” or “RED” had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent with the widespread dyslexia in the group. No neural differences were found in inhibitory control (Stroop) or in adaptation to differences in stimulus frequencies. Across groups we found a strong positive correlation between age and BOLD response in the brain's motor network with no difference between groups. No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system. PMID:26958463

  2. Adaptive-filtering of trisomy 21: risk of Down syndrome depends on family size and age of previous child

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, Markus; Krackow, Sven

    2007-02-01

    The neonatal incidence rate of Down syndrome (DS) is well-known to accelerate strongly with maternal age. This non-linearity renders mere accumulation of defects at recombination during prolonged first meiotic prophase implausible as an explanation for DS rate increase with maternal age, but might be anticipated from chromosomal drive (CD) for trisomy 21. Alternatively, as there is selection against genetically disadvantaged embryos, the screening system that eliminates embryos with trisomy 21 might decay with maternal age. In this paper, we provide the first evidence for relaxed filtering stringency (RFS) to represent an adaptive maternal response that could explain accelerating DS rates with maternal age. Using historical data, we show that the proportion of aberrant live births decrease with increased family size in older mothers, that inter-birth intervals are longer before affected neonates than before normal ones, and that primiparae exhibit elevated levels of DS incidence at higher age. These findings are predicted by adaptive RFS but cannot be explained by the currently available alternative non-adaptive hypotheses, including CD. The identification of the relaxation control mechanism and therapeutic restoration of a stringent screen may have considerable medical implications.

  3. Administration of a DPP-IV Inhibitor Enhances the Intestinal Adaptation in a Mouse Model of Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okawada, Manabu; Holst, Jens J.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-2(GLP-2) induces small intestine mucosal epithelial cell (EC) proliferation; and may have benefit for patients suffering from short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, GLP-2 is rapidly inactivated in vivo by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV). Therefore, we hypothesized that selectively inhibiting DPPIV would prolong the circulating life of GLP-2 and lead to increased intestinal adaptation after development of SBS. Methods 8-week old C57BL/6J mice underwent a 50% proximal small bowel resection and were treated with either sitagliptin, a DPPIV-inhibitor (DPPIV-I), starting 1 day before surgery versus placebo. DPPIV-I efficacy was assessed 3 days after resection, including intestinal morphology, EC apoptosis and EC proliferation. Adaptive mechanisms were assessed with quantitative real-time PCR, and plasma bioactive GLP-2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULT Body weight loss and peripheral blood glucose levels did not change compared to SBS controls. DPPIV-I treatment led to significant increases in villus height and crypt depth. DPPIV-I treatment did not significantly change EC apoptosis rates, but significantly increased crypt EC proliferation versus placebo-SBS controls. DPPIV-I treatment markedly increased mRNA expression of β-catenin and c-myc in ileal mucosa. Plasma GLP-2 levels significantly increased(~40.9%) in DPPIV-I-SBS mice. Conclusions DPPIV- I treatment increased SBS adaptation, and may potentially be useful for SBS patients. PMID:21719060

  4. Adaptive Behaviour in Angelman Syndrome: Its Profile and Relationship to Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasca, C. Brun; Obiols, J. E.; Bonillo, A.; Artigas, J.; Lorente, I.; Gabau, E.; Guitart, M.; Turk, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder usually caused by an anomaly in the maternally inherited chromosome 15. The main features are severe intellectual disability, speech impairment, ataxia, epilepsy, sleep disorder and a behavioural phenotype that reportedly includes happy disposition, attraction to/fascination with…

  5. Cognitive and Adaptive Advantages of Growth Hormone Treatment in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Roof, Elizabeth; Hunt-Hawkins, Hailee

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) typically have mild to moderate intellectual deficits, compulsivity, hyperphagia, obesity, and growth hormone deficiencies. Growth hormone treatment (GHT) in PWS has well-established salutatory effects on linear growth and body composition, yet cognitive benefits of GHT, seen in other patient…

  6. An Integrated Literature Review on the Adaptive Behavior of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Park, Hye Ran

    2007-01-01

    The diagnostic definition of Asperger syndrome (AS) is surrounded by debate and controversy, because it does not address many of the broader characteristics of individuals with AS. For example, neither the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th edition, nor the "International Classification of Diseases," 10th revision,…

  7. IMAGING WITH MULTIMODAL ADAPTIVE-OPTICS OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN MULTIPLE EVANESCENT WHITE DOT SYNDROME: THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP

    PubMed Central

    Legarreta, Andrew D.; Legarreta, John E.; Nadler, Zach; Gallagher, Denise; Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate the location of pathological changes in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) with the use of multimodal adaptive optics (AO) imaging. Methods: A 5-year observational case study of a 24-year-old female with recurrent MEWDS. Full examination included history, Snellen chart visual acuity, pupil assessment, intraocular pressures, slit lamp evaluation, dilated fundoscopic exam, imaging with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), blue-light fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography. Results: Three distinct acute episodes of MEWDS occurred during the period of follow-up. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive-optics imaging showed disturbance in the photoreceptor outer segments (PR OS) in the posterior pole with each flare. The degree of disturbance at the photoreceptor level corresponded to size and extent of the visual field changes. All findings were transient with delineation of the photoreceptor recovery from the outer edges of the lesion inward. Hyperautofluorescence was seen during acute flares. Increase in choroidal thickness did occur with each active flare but resolved. Conclusion: Although changes in the choroid and RPE can be observed in MEWDS, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography, and multimodal adaptive optics imaging localized the visually significant changes seen in this disease at the level of the photoreceptors. These transient retinal changes specifically occur at the level of the inner segment ellipsoid and OS/RPE line. En face optical coherence tomography imaging provides a detailed, yet noninvasive method for following the convalescence of MEWDS and provides insight into the structural and functional relationship of this transient inflammatory retinal disease. PMID:26735319

  8. SAS 3 survey of the soft X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, F. J.; Clark, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a survey of the soft X-ray sky in the C band (0.10-0.28keV) are reported. The observations were carried out using two independent flow proportional counters on board the SAS 3 X-ray satellite which had a total angular resolution of 2.9 deg FWHM, and a total exposure of 2.2 x 10 to the 4th per sq cm s sr. It is found that C band counting rates were generally inversely correlated with the column density of the neutral hydrogen on all angular scales down to the lowest angular resolution of the detectors. In the region 90-180 deg l and 0-10 deg b, the relation between C-band rates and the column densities of neutral hydrogen was fitted with a residual rms deviation of less than 13 percent by a two-component numerical model of the X-ray background. For the apparent attenuation column density a value of 2.7 x 10 to the 20th per sq cm was obtained. On the basis of a computer simulation of the SAS 3 data, it is shown that the observed clumping of interstellar matter was consistent with the magnitude of spatial fluctuations in the C-band map. When the background rates were subtracted from the survey map, the subsequent map showed foreground emission and absorption features with improved sensitivity and clarity. A series of computer-generated maps incorporating the SAS 3 data is given in an appendix.

  9. Workmanship vibration test of the SAS-B spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demas, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    The occurrence of a technical problem made it necessary to remove the transmitter from the SAS-B spacecraft. The transmitter was repaired and reinstalled in the spacecraft. After this operation it was necessary to test the mechanical properties of the reassembled spacecraft in a vibration test to be conducted near the spacecraft launching place on the San Marco Range in the Indian Ocean. A vibration system was, therefore, sent to San Marco. The design of the vibration system is discussed, giving attention also to alternative solutions for conducting the required tests.

  10. PROC LCA: A SAS Procedure for Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Stephanie T; Collins, Linda M; Lemmon, David R; Schafer, Joseph L

    2007-01-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical method used to identify a set of discrete, mutually exclusive latent classes of individuals based on their responses to a set of observed categorical variables. In multiple-group LCA, both the measurement part and structural part of the model can vary across groups, and measurement invariance across groups can be empirically tested. LCA with covariates extends the model to include predictors of class membership. In this article, we introduce PROC LCA, a new SAS procedure for conducting LCA, multiple-group LCA, and LCA with covariates. The procedure is demonstrated using data on alcohol use behavior in a national sample of high school seniors.

  11. Group Training in Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills for Workplace Adaptation of Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study…

  12. Stress, Locus of Control, and Family Cohesion and Adaptability in Parents of Children with Down, Williams, Fragile X, and Prader-Willi Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranchi, Silvia; Vianello, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzes differences in parental stress in families of children with Down, Williams, Fragile X, and Prader-Willi syndromes, exploring factors that influence parental stress, such as child's characteristics, parental locus of control, and family cohesion and adaptability. Differences between mothers and fathers are also…

  13. Ordinary differential equation PK/PD models using the SAS macro NLINMIX.

    PubMed

    Galecki, Andrzej T; Wolfinger, Russell D; Linares, Oscar A; Smith, Marla J; Halter, Jeffrey B

    2004-05-01

    We describe some theory and recent enhancements for the SAS macro NLINMIX (Wolfinger, R. D. (1993). Laplace's approximation for nonlinear mixed effects models. Biometrika 80:791-795) that enable model calculation to take place within the interaction matrix language SAS/IML (SAS Institute Inc. (1999a). SAS/IML User's Guide Version 7. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.). They provide greater flexibility and scope for the specification and analysis of complex nonlinear mixed models. For example, using data from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose test, we fit a two-compartment kinetics model that has no closed-form representation. It is derived as the solution of a system of ordinary differential equations and specified as such in SAS/IML. Additional details and example NLINMIX code are available in Appendix A.

  14. Phosphorylation of SAS-6 by ZYG-1 is critical for centriole formation in C. elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Daiju; Busso, Coralie; Flückiger, Isabelle; Gönczy, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Despite being essential for proper cell division, the mechanisms governing centrosome duplication are incompletely understood and represent an important open question in cell biology. Formation of a new centriole next to each existing one is critical for centrosome duplication. In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, the proteins SPD-2, ZYG-1, SAS-6, SAS-5, and SAS-4 are essential for centriole formation, but the mechanisms underlying their requirement remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the kinase ZYG-1 phosphorylates the coiled-coil protein SAS-6 at serine 123 in vitro. Importantly, we show that this phosphorylation event is crucial for centriole formation in vivo. Furthermore, we establish that such phosphorylation ensures the maintenance of SAS-6 at the emerging centriole. Overall, our findings establish that phosphorylation of the evolutionarily conserved protein SAS-6 is critical for centriole formation and thus for faithful cell division.

  15. Driving Pest Insect Populations: Agricultural Chemicals Lead to an Adaptive Syndrome in Nilaparvata Lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    You, Lin-Lin; Wu, You; Xu, Bing; Ding, Jun; Ge, Lin-Quan; Yang, Guo-Qin; Song, Qi-Sheng; Stanley, David; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2016-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH) is a devastating pest of rice throughout Asia. In this paper we document the BPH biogeographic range expansion in China over the 20-year period, 1992 to 2012. We posed the hypothesis that the range expansion is due to a syndrome of adaptations to the continuous presence of agricultural chemicals (insecticides and a fungicide) over the last 40 years. With respect to biogeography, BPH ranges have expanded by 13% from 1992 to 1997 and by another 3% from 1997 to 2012. In our view, such expansions may follow primarily from the enhancing effects of JGM, among other agricultural chemicals, and from global warming. JGM treatments led to increased thermotolerance, recorded as decreased mortality under heat stress at 40 ± 1 °C (down from 80% to 55%) and increased fecundity (by 49%) at 34 °C. At the molecular level, JGM treatments led to increased abundances of mRNA encoding Acetyl Co-A carboxylase (Acc) (up 25%) and Hsp70 (up 32%) in experimental BPH. RNAi silencing of Hsp70 and Acc eliminated the JGM effects on fecundity and silencing Hsp70 reduced JGM-induced thermotolerance. Integrated with global climate change scenarios, such syndromes in pest insect species have potential for regional- and global-scale agricultural disasters. PMID:27876748

  16. Driving Pest Insect Populations: Agricultural Chemicals Lead to an Adaptive Syndrome in Nilaparvata Lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    You, Lin-Lin; Wu, You; Xu, Bing; Ding, Jun; Ge, Lin-Quan; Yang, Guo-Qin; Song, Qi-Sheng; Stanley, David; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2016-11-23

    The brown planthopper (BPH) is a devastating pest of rice throughout Asia. In this paper we document the BPH biogeographic range expansion in China over the 20-year period, 1992 to 2012. We posed the hypothesis that the range expansion is due to a syndrome of adaptations to the continuous presence of agricultural chemicals (insecticides and a fungicide) over the last 40 years. With respect to biogeography, BPH ranges have expanded by 13% from 1992 to 1997 and by another 3% from 1997 to 2012. In our view, such expansions may follow primarily from the enhancing effects of JGM, among other agricultural chemicals, and from global warming. JGM treatments led to increased thermotolerance, recorded as decreased mortality under heat stress at 40 ± 1 °C (down from 80% to 55%) and increased fecundity (by 49%) at 34 °C. At the molecular level, JGM treatments led to increased abundances of mRNA encoding Acetyl Co-A carboxylase (Acc) (up 25%) and Hsp70 (up 32%) in experimental BPH. RNAi silencing of Hsp70 and Acc eliminated the JGM effects on fecundity and silencing Hsp70 reduced JGM-induced thermotolerance. Integrated with global climate change scenarios, such syndromes in pest insect species have potential for regional- and global-scale agricultural disasters.

  17. Generation of Synthetic SAS Data for Targets Near the Seafloor: Propagation Component

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-08

    validation of automatic target recognition ( ATR ) algorithms, access to a large collection of SAS data sets for a given target in various environments and...generated SAS data sets can supplement other SAS data sets and aid in the development and validation of ATR algorithms. 2. ACOUSTIC RAY MODEL FOR...Automation for Underwater Mine Recognition: Current Trends & Future Strategy, in Detection and Sensing of Mines, Explosive Targets, and Obscured Targets XVI

  18. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome: Interim Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)

  19. Myxococcus xanthus sasS encodes a sensor histidine kinase required for early developmental gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, C; Kaplan, H B

    1997-01-01

    Initiation of Myxococcus xanthus multicellular development requires integration of information concerning the cells' nutrient status and density. A gain-of-function mutation, sasB7, that bypasses both the starvation and high cell density requirements for developmental expression of the 4521 reporter gene, maps to the sasS gene. The wild-type sasS gene was cloned and sequenced. This gene is predicted to encode a sensor histidine protein kinase that appears to be a key element in the transduction of starvation and cell density inputs. The sasS null mutants express 4521 at a basal level, form defective fruiting bodies, and exhibit reduced sporulation efficiencies. These data indicate that the wild-type sasS gene product functions as a positive regulator of 4521 expression and participates in M. xanthus development. The N terminus of SasS is predicted to contain two transmembrane domains that would locate the protein to the cytoplasmic membrane. The sasB7 mutation, an E139K missense mutation, maps to the predicted N-terminal periplasmic region. The C terminus of SasS contains all of the conserved residues typical of the sensor histidine protein kinases. SasS is predicted to be the sensor protein in a two-component system that integrates information required for M. xanthus developmental gene expression. PMID:9401035

  20. Observations of low energy gamma-ray bursts with SAS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegelman, H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper reports on the low-energy gamma-ray bursts observed by the plastic scintillator anticoincidence dome of the Small Astronomy Satellite-2 (SAS-2) gamma-ray telescope. SAS-2 detected two events observed by other satellites and discovered one which was subsequently confirmed by other satellite observations. Two events seen by other satellites were not detected by SAS-2, probably due to earth occultation. The event detection threshold for SAS-2 was almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of the Vela satellites.

  1. A SAS/IML program using the Kalman filter for estimating state space models.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fei; Yung, Yiu-Fai

    2013-03-01

    To help disseminate the knowledge and software implementation of a state space model (SSM), this article provides a SAS/IML (SAS Institute, 2010) program for estimating the parameters of general linear Gaussian SSMs using the Kalman filter algorithm. In order to use this program, the user should have SAS installed on a computer and have a valid license for SAS/IML. Since the code is completely open, it is expected that this program can be used not only by applied researchers, but also by quantitative methodologists who are interested in improving their methods and promoting SSM as a research instrument.

  2. PP2A phosphatase acts upon SAS-5 to ensure centriole formation in C. elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Daiju; Flückiger, Isabelle; Polanowska, Jolanta; Keller, Debora; Reboul, Jérôme; Gönczy, Pierre

    2011-04-19

    Centrosome duplication occurs once per cell cycle and ensures that the two resulting centrosomes assemble a bipolar mitotic spindle. Centriole formation is fundamental for centrosome duplication. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the evolutionarily conserved proteins SPD-2, ZYG-1, SAS-6, SAS-5, and SAS-4 are essential for centriole formation, but how they function is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is also critical for centriole formation in C. elegans embryos. We find that PP2A subunits genetically and physically interact with the SAS-5/SAS-6 complex. Furthermore, we show that PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation promotes centriolar targeting of SAS-5 and ensures SAS-6 delivery to the site of centriole assembly. We find that PP2A is similarly needed for the presence of HsSAS-6 at centrioles and for centriole formation in human cells. These findings lead us to propose that PP2A-mediated loading of SAS-6 proteins is critical at the onset of centriole formation.

  3. Extension of the sasCIF format and its applications for data processing and deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Kachala, Michael; Westbrook, John; Svergun, Dmitri

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in small-angle scattering (SAS) experimental facilities and data analysis methods have prompted a dramatic increase in the number of users and of projects conducted, causing an upsurge in the number of objects studied, experimental data available and structural models generated. To organize the data and models and make them accessible to the community, the Task Forces on SAS and hybrid methods for the International Union of Crystallography and the Worldwide Protein Data Bank envisage developing a federated approach to SAS data and model archiving. Within the framework of this approach, the existing databases may exchange information and providemore » independent but synchronized entries to users. At present, ways of exchanging information between the various SAS databases are not established, leading to possible duplication and incompatibility of entries, and limiting the opportunities for data-driven research for SAS users. In this work, a solution is developed to resolve these issues and provide a universal exchange format for the community, based on the use of the widely adopted crystallographic information framework (CIF). The previous version of the sasCIF format, implemented as an extension of the core CIF dictionary, has been available since 2000 to facilitate SAS data exchange between laboratories. The sasCIF format has now been extended to describe comprehensively the necessary experimental information, results and models, including relevant metadata for SAS data analysis and for deposition into a database. Processing tools for these files (sasCIFtools) have been developed, and these are available both as standalone open-source programs and integrated into the SAS Biological Data Bank, allowing the export and import of data entries as sasCIF files. Software modules to save the relevant information directly from beamline data-processing pipelines in sasCIF format are also developed. Lastly, this update of sasCIF and the relevant tools are

  4. Extension of the sasCIF format and its applications for data processing and deposition.

    PubMed

    Kachala, Michael; Westbrook, John; Svergun, Dmitri

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in small-angle scattering (SAS) experimental facilities and data analysis methods have prompted a dramatic increase in the number of users and of projects conducted, causing an upsurge in the number of objects studied, experimental data available and structural models generated. To organize the data and models and make them accessible to the community, the Task Forces on SAS and hybrid methods for the International Union of Crystallography and the Worldwide Protein Data Bank envisage developing a federated approach to SAS data and model archiving. Within the framework of this approach, the existing databases may exchange information and provide independent but synchronized entries to users. At present, ways of exchanging information between the various SAS databases are not established, leading to possible duplication and incompatibility of entries, and limiting the opportunities for data-driven research for SAS users. In this work, a solution is developed to resolve these issues and provide a universal exchange format for the community, based on the use of the widely adopted crystallographic information framework (CIF). The previous version of the sasCIF format, implemented as an extension of the core CIF dictionary, has been available since 2000 to facilitate SAS data exchange between laboratories. The sasCIF format has now been extended to describe comprehensively the necessary experimental information, results and models, including relevant metadata for SAS data analysis and for deposition into a database. Processing tools for these files (sasCIFtools) have been developed, and these are available both as standalone open-source programs and integrated into the SAS Biological Data Bank, allowing the export and import of data entries as sasCIF files. Software modules to save the relevant information directly from beamline data-processing pipelines in sasCIF format are also developed. This update of sasCIF and the relevant tools are an important

  5. Extension of the sasCIF format and its applications for data processing and deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kachala, Michael; Westbrook, John; Svergun, Dmitri

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in small-angle scattering (SAS) experimental facilities and data analysis methods have prompted a dramatic increase in the number of users and of projects conducted, causing an upsurge in the number of objects studied, experimental data available and structural models generated. To organize the data and models and make them accessible to the community, the Task Forces on SAS and hybrid methods for the International Union of Crystallography and the Worldwide Protein Data Bank envisage developing a federated approach to SAS data and model archiving. Within the framework of this approach, the existing databases may exchange information and provide independent but synchronized entries to users. At present, ways of exchanging information between the various SAS databases are not established, leading to possible duplication and incompatibility of entries, and limiting the opportunities for data-driven research for SAS users. In this work, a solution is developed to resolve these issues and provide a universal exchange format for the community, based on the use of the widely adopted crystallographic information framework (CIF). The previous version of the sasCIF format, implemented as an extension of the core CIF dictionary, has been available since 2000 to facilitate SAS data exchange between laboratories. The sasCIF format has now been extended to describe comprehensively the necessary experimental information, results and models, including relevant metadata for SAS data analysis and for deposition into a database. Processing tools for these files (sasCIFtools) have been developed, and these are available both as standalone open-source programs and integrated into the SAS Biological Data Bank, allowing the export and import of data entries as sasCIF files. Software modules to save the relevant information directly from beamline data-processing pipelines in sasCIF format are also developed. Lastly, this update of sasCIF and the

  6. Recent high energy gamma-ray results from SAS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.; Ogelman, H. B.; Ozel, M. E.; Tumer, T.; Lamb, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in gamma-ray astronomy due to the results from SAS-2 have focused on two areas. First, the emission from the plane of the Galaxy is the dominant feature in the gamma-ray sky. The galactic latitude and longitude distributions are consistent with the concept that the high-energy radiation originates from cosmic rays interacting with interstellar matter, and the measurements support a galactic origin for cosmic rays. Second, searches of the SAS-2 data for emission from localized sources have shown three strong discrete gamma-ray sources: the Crab nebula and PSR 0531 + 21, the Vela supernova remnant and PSR 0833-45, and a source near galactic coordinates 193 deg longitude, +3 deg latitude, which does not appear to be associated with other known celestial objects. Evidence has also been found for pulsed gamma-ray emission from two other radio pulsars, PSR 1818-04 and PSR 1747-46. A localized source near longitudes 76-80 deg may be associated with the X-ray source Cyg X-3.

  7. Polymer encapsulation of amoxicillin microparticles by SAS process.

    PubMed

    Montes, A; Baldauf, E; Gordillo, M D; Pereyra, C M; Martínez de la Ossa, E J

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation of amoxicillin (AMC) with ethyl cellulose (EC) by a supercritical antisolvent process (SAS) was investigated. AMC microparticles obtained previously by an SAS process were used as host particles and EC, a biodegradable polymer used for the controlled release of drugs, was chosen as the coating material. In this work, a suspension of AMC microparticles in a solution of ethyl cellulose in dichloromethane (DCM) was sprayed through a nozzle into supercritical CO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and HPLC analyses were carried out. The effects of AMC:EC ratio, the initial polymer concentration of the solution, temperature and pressure on the encapsulation process were investigated. Although all the experiments led to powder precipitation, the AMC encapsulation was achieved in only half of the cases, particularly when the lower drug:polymer ratios were assayed. In general, it was observed that the percentages of AMC present in the precipitates were higher on increasing the AMC:EC ratio. In these cases composites rather than encapsulates were obtained. The in vitro release profiles of the resulting materials were evaluated in order to ascertain whether composites can be used as encapsulated systems for drug delivery systems.

  8. Transfer of perceptual-motor training and the space adaptation syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Berbaum, K. S.; Williams, M. C.; Brannan, J.; Welch, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    Perceptual cue conflict may be the basis for the symptoms which are experienced by space travelers in microgravity conditions. Recovery has been suggested to take place after perceptual modification or reinterpretation. To elucidate this process, 10 subjects who repeatedly experienced a visual/vestibular conflict over trials and days, were tested in a similar but not identical perceptual situation (pseudo-Coriolis) to determine whether any savings in perceptual adaptation had occurred as compared to an unpracticed control group (N = 40). The practiced subjects experienced lessening dizziness and ataxia within and over sessions.

  9. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure…

  10. Using SAS/IntrNet for Evaluating Web-Based Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chong-ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; Digangi, Sam; Wasson, Barnaby

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of SAS/IntrNet, a Web service rather than a Web server, to evaluate and enhance university level Web-based courses. IntrNet provides the ability to create both static and dynamic Web pages, using Web publishing tools to convert SAS output to hypertext markup language for the creation of static Web pages. (Author/LRW)

  11. The Role of Sas2, an Acetyltransferase Homologue of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, in Silencing and Orc Function

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenhofer-Murray, A. E.; Rivier, D. H.; Rine, J.

    1997-01-01

    Silencing at the cryptic mating-type loci HML and HMR of Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires regulatory sites called silencers. Mutations in the Rap1 and Abf1 binding sites of the HMR-E silencer (HMRa-e**) cause the silencer to be nonfunctional, and hence, cause derepression of HMR. Here, we have isolated and characterized mutations in SAS2 as second-site suppressors of the silencing defect of HMRa-e**. Silencing conferred by the removal of SAS2 (sas2Δ) depended upon the integrity of the ARS consensus sequence of the HMR-E silencer, thus arguing for an involvement of the origin recognition complex (ORC). Restoration of silencing by sas2Δ required ORC2 and ORC5, but not SIR1 or RAP1. Furthermore, sas2Δ suppressed the temperature sensitivity, but not the silencing defect of orc2-1 and orc5-1. Moreover, sas2Δ had opposing effects on silencing of HML and HMR. The putative Sas2 protein bears similarities to known protein acetyltransferases. Several models for the role of Sas2 in silencing are discussed. PMID:9093847

  12. Teacher's Corner: Using SAS for Monte Carlo Simulation Research in SEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao; Fan, Xiaotao

    2005-01-01

    This article illustrates the use of the SAS system for Monte Carlo simulation work in structural equation modeling (SEM). Data generation procedures for both multivariate normal and nonnormal conditions are discussed, and relevant SAS codes for implementing these procedures are presented. A hypothetical example is presented in which Monte Carlo…

  13. SAS-2 observations of gamma rays from the galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniffen, D. A.; Hartman, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The SAS-2 gamma ray experiment has made measurements on the high energy gamma rays coming from the galactic center region. The gamma radiation in this region is very much more intense than in the anticenter region, in agreement with the observations made with the OSO-3 experiment of Kraushaar et al. (1973); and exhibits a narrow distribution along the plane which is nearly uniform in intensity from 330 deg to 30 deg. The energy spectrum in the range from 35 MeV to 210 MeV is quite flat, consistent with a cosmic ray-interstellar matter interaction pion-decay spectrum, or a mixture of this spectrum and a spectrum formed by Compton radiation from cosmic ray electrons. The intensity of the radiation in the anticenter direction is consistent with that expected from the cosmic ray-interstellar matter interaction origin, namely 0.000.002 photons.

  14. SAS program for quantitative stratigraphic correlation by principal components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohn, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A SAS program is presented which constructs a composite section of stratigraphic events through principal components analysis. The variables in the analysis are stratigraphic sections and the observational units are range limits of taxa. The program standardizes data in each section, extracts eigenvectors, estimates missing range limits, and computes the composite section from scores of events on the first principal component. Provided is an option of several types of diagnostic plots; these help one to determine conservative range limits or unrealistic estimates of missing values. Inspection of the graphs and eigenvalues allow one to evaluate goodness of fit between the composite and measured data. The program is extended easily to the creation of a rank-order composite. ?? 1985.

  15. Centriolar CPAP/SAS-4 Imparts Slow Processive Microtubule Growth.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashwani; Aher, Amol; Dynes, Nicola J; Frey, Daniel; Katrukha, Eugene A; Jaussi, Rolf; Grigoriev, Ilya; Croisier, Marie; Kammerer, Richard A; Akhmanova, Anna; Gönczy, Pierre; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2016-05-23

    Centrioles are fundamental and evolutionarily conserved microtubule-based organelles whose assembly is characterized by microtubule growth rates that are orders of magnitude slower than those of cytoplasmic microtubules. Several centriolar proteins can interact with tubulin or microtubules, but how they ensure the exceptionally slow growth of centriolar microtubules has remained mysterious. Here, we bring together crystallographic, biophysical, and reconstitution assays to demonstrate that the human centriolar protein CPAP (SAS-4 in worms and flies) binds and "caps" microtubule plus ends by associating with a site of β-tubulin engaged in longitudinal tubulin-tubulin interactions. Strikingly, we uncover that CPAP activity dampens microtubule growth and stabilizes microtubules by inhibiting catastrophes and promoting rescues. We further establish that the capping function of CPAP is important to limit growth of centriolar microtubules in cells. Our results suggest that CPAP acts as a molecular lid that ensures slow assembly of centriolar microtubules and, thereby, contributes to organelle length control.

  16. SAS-2 galactic gamma ray results. 2. Localized sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma-ray emission was detected from the radio pulsars PSR1818-04 and PSR1747-46, in addition to the previously reported gamma-ray emission from the Crab and Vela pulsars. Since the Crab pulsar is the only one observed in the optical and X-ray bands, these gamma-ray observations suggest a uniquely gamma-ray phenomenon occurring in a fraction of the radio pulsars. Using distance estimates it is found that PSR1818-04 has a gamma-ray luminosity comparable to that of the Crab pulsar, while the luminosities of PSR1747-46 and the Vela pulsar are approximately an order of magnitude lower. This survey of SAS-2 data for pulsar correlations has also yielded upper limits to gamma-ray luminosity for 71 other radio pulsars.

  17. Generating correlated discrete ordinal data using R and SAS IML.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Suliadi, Suliadi

    2011-12-01

    Correlated ordinal data are common in many areas of research. The data may arise from longitudinal studies in biology, medical, or clinical fields. The prominent characteristic of these data is that the within-subject observations are correlated, whilst between-subject observations are independent. Many methods have been proposed to analyze correlated ordinal data. One way to evaluate the performance of a proposed model or the performance of small or moderate size data sets is through simulation studies. It is thus important to provide a tool for generating correlated ordinal data to be used in simulation studies. In this paper, we describe a macro program on how to generate correlated ordinal data based on R language and SAS IML.

  18. [Standardization of the Greek version of Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)].

    PubMed

    Samakouri, M; Bouhos, G; Kadoglou, M; Giantzelidou, A; Tsolaki, K; Livaditis, M

    2012-01-01

    Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), introduced by Zung, has been widely used in research and in clinical practice for the detection of anxiety. The present study aims at standardizing the Greek version of SAS. SAS consists of 20 items rated on a 1-4 likert type scale. The total SAS score may vary from 20 (no anxiety at all) to 80 (severe anxiety). Two hundred and fifty four participants (114 male and 140 female), psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals, aged 45.40±11.35 years, completed the following: (a) a demographic characteristics' questionnaire, (b) the SAS Greek version, (c) the Spielberg's Modified Greek State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI-Gr.-X) and (d) the Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS). Seventy six participants answered the SAS twice within a 12th-day median period of time. The following parameters were calculated: (a) internal consistency of the SAS in terms of Cronbach's α co-efficient, (b) its test-retest reliability in terms of the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and (c) its concurrent and convergent validities through its score's Spearman's rho correlations with both the state and trait subscales of STAI-Gr X and the ZDRS. In addition, in order to evaluate SAS' discriminant validity, the scale's scores of the three groups of participants (psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals) were compared among each other, in terms of Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. SAS Cronbach's alpha equals 0.897 while ICC regarding its test-retest reliability equals 0.913. Spearman's rho concerning validity: (a) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr.-X (state), equals it 0.767, (b) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr. X (trait), it equals 0.802 and (c) when SAS is compared to ZDRS, it equals 0.835. The mentally ill scored significantly higher in SAS compared to both the healthy and the general population. In conclusion, the SAS Greek version presents very satisfactory psychometric properties regarding

  19. Mutational hierarchies in myelodysplastic syndromes dynamically adapt and evolve upon therapy response and failure.

    PubMed

    Mossner, Maximilian; Jann, Johann-Christoph; Wittig, Janina; Nolte, Florian; Fey, Stephanie; Nowak, Verena; Obländer, Julia; Pressler, Jovita; Palme, Iris; Xanthopoulos, Christina; Boch, Tobias; Metzgeroth, Georgia; Röhl, Henning; Witt, Stephanie H; Dukal, Helene; Klein, Corinna; Schmitt, Steffen; Gelß, Patrick; Platzbecker, Uwe; Balaian, Ekaterina; Fabarius, Alice; Blum, Helmut; Schulze, Torsten J; Meggendorfer, Manja; Haferlach, Claudia; Trumpp, Andreas; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Medyouf, Hind; Nowak, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Clonal evolution is believed to be a main driver for progression of various types of cancer and implicated in facilitating resistance to drugs. However, the hierarchical organization of malignant clones in the hematopoiesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and its impact on response to drug therapy remain poorly understood. Using high-throughput sequencing of patient and xenografted cells, we evaluated the intratumoral heterogeneity (n= 54) and reconstructed mutational trajectories (n = 39) in patients suffering from MDS (n = 52) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia-1 (n = 2). We identified linear and also branching evolution paths and confirmed on a patient-specific level that somatic mutations in epigenetic regulators and RNA splicing genes frequently constitute isolated disease-initiating events. Using high-throughput exome- and/or deep-sequencing, we analyzed 103 chronologically acquired samples from 22 patients covering a cumulative observation time of 75 years MDS disease progression. Our data revealed highly dynamic shaping of complex oligoclonal architectures, specifically upon treatment with lenalidomide and other drugs. Despite initial clinical response to treatment, patients' marrow persistently remained clonal with rapid outgrowth of founder-, sub-, or even fully independent clones, indicating an increased dynamic rate of clonal turnover. The emergence and disappearance of specific clones frequently correlated with changes of clinical parameters, highlighting their distinct and far-reaching functional properties. Intriguingly, increasingly complex mutational trajectories are frequently accompanied by clinical progression during the course of disease. These data substantiate a need for regular broad molecular monitoring to guide clinical treatment decisions in MDS.

  20. Blood Pressure and Hemodynamic Adaptations after a Training Program in Young Individuals with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Seron, Bruna Barboza; Goessler, Karla Fabiana; Modesto, Everaldo Lambert; Almeida, Eloise Werle; Greguol, Márcia

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases affect people worldwide. Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) have an up to sixteen-time greater risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Objective To evaluate the effects of aerobic and resistance exercises on blood pressure and hemodynamic variables of young individuals with DS. Methods A total of 29 young individuals with DS participated in the study. They were divided into two groups: aerobic training (AT) (n = 14), and resistance training (TR) (n = 15). Their mean age was 15.7 ± 2.82 years. The training program lasted 12 weeks, and had a frequency of three times a week for AT and twice a week for RT. AT was performed in treadmill/ bicycle ergometer, at an intensity between 50%-70% of the HR reserve. RT comprised nine exercises with three sets of 12 repetition-maximum. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and hemodynamic variables were assessed beat-to-beat using the Finometer device before/after the training program. Descriptive analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk test to check the normality of data, and the two-way ANOVA for repeated measures were used to compare pre- and post-training variables. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to correlate hemodynamic variables. The SPSS version 18.0 was used with the significance level set at p < 0.05. Results After twelve weeks of aerobic and/or resistance training, significant reductions in variables SBP, DBP and MBP were observed. Conclusion This study suggests a chronic hypotensive effect of moderate aerobic and resistance exercises on young individuals with DS. PMID:26131704

  1. Innate and adaptive immunity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus.

    PubMed

    Loving, Crystal L; Osorio, Fernando A; Murtaugh, Michael P; Zuckermann, Federico A

    2015-09-15

    Many highly effective vaccines have been produced against viruses whose virulent infection elicits strong and durable protective immunity. In these cases, characterization of immune effector mechanisms and identification of protective epitopes/immunogens has been informative for the development of successful vaccine programs. Diseases in which the immune system does not rapidly clear the acute infection and/or convalescent immunity does not provide highly effective protection against secondary challenge pose a major hurdle for clinicians and scientists. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) falls primarily into this category, though not entirely. PRRSV causes a prolonged infection, though the host eventually clears the virus. Neutralizing antibodies can provide passive protection when present prior to challenge, though infection can be controlled in the absence of detectable neutralizing antibodies. In addition, primed pigs (through natural exposure or vaccination with a modified-live vaccine) show some protection against secondary challenge. While peripheral PRRSV-specific T cell responses have been examined, their direct contribution to antibody-mediated immunity and viral clearance have not been fully elucidated. The innate immune response following PRRSV infection, particularly the antiviral type I interferon response, is meager, but when provided exogenously, IFN-α enhances PRRSV immunity and viral control. Overall, the quality of immunity induced by natural PRRSV infection is not ideal for informing vaccine development programs. The epitopes necessary for protection may be identified through natural exposure or modified-live vaccines and subsequently applied to vaccine delivery platforms to accelerate induction of protective immunity following vaccination. Collectively, further work to identify protective B and T cell epitopes and mechanisms by which PRRSV eludes innate immunity will enhance our ability to develop more effective methods

  2. Spacelab 3 flight experiment No. 3AFT23: Autogenic-feedback training as a preventive method for space adaptation syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Sharp, Joseph C.

    1988-01-01

    Space adaptation syndrome is a motion sickness-like disorder which affects up to 50 percent of all people exposed to microgravity in space. This experiment tested a physiological conditioning procedure (Autogenic-Feedback Training, AFT) as an alternative to pharmacological management. Four astronauts participated as subjects in this experiment. Crewmembers A and B served as treatment subjects. Both received preflight training for control of heart rate, respiration rate, peripheral blood volume, and skin conductance. Crewmembers C and D served as controls (i.e., did not receive training). Crewmember A showed reliable control of his own physiological responses, and a significant increase in motion sickness tolerance after training. Crewmember B, however, demonstrated much less control and only a moderate increase in motion sickness tolerance was observed after training. The inflight symptom reports and physiological data recordings revealed that Crewmember A did not experience any severe symptom episodes during the mission, while Crewmember B reported one severe symptom episode. Both control group subjects, C and D (who took antimotion sickness medication), reported multiple symptom episodes on mission day 0. Both inflight data and crew reports indicate that AFT may be an effective countermeasure. Additional data must be obtained inflight (a total of eight treatment and eight control subjects) before final evaluation of this treatment can be made.

  3. Adaptation and failure of pancreatic β cells in murine models with different degrees of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Gomez, Gema; Yetukuri, Laxman; Velagapudi, Vidya; Campbell, Mark; Blount, Margaret; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Ros, Manuel; Orešič, Matej; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The events that contribute to the expansion of β-cell mass and enhanced β-cell function in insulin-resistant states have not been elucidated fully. Recently, we showed that β-cell adaptation failed dramatically in adult, insulin-resistant POKO mice, which contrasts with the appropriate expansion of β cells in their ob/ob littermates. Thus, we hypothesised that characterisation of the islets in these mouse models at an early age should provide a unique opportunity to: (1) identify mechanisms involved in sensing insulin resistance at the level of the β cells, (2) identify molecular effectors that contribute to increasing β-cell mass and function, and (3) distinguish primary events from secondary events that are more likely to be present at more advanced stages of diabetes. Our results define the POKO mouse as a model of early lipotoxicity. At 4 weeks of age, it manifests with inappropriate β-cell function and defects in proliferation markers. Other well-recognised pathogenic effectors that were observed previously in 16-week-old mice, such as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), macrophage infiltration and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, are also present in both young POKO and young ob/ob mice, indicating the lack of predictive power with regards to the severity of β-cell failure. Of interest, the relatively preserved lipidomic profile in islets from young POKO mice contrasted with the large changes in lipid composition and the differences in the chain length of triacylglycerols in the serum, liver, muscle and adipose tissue in adult POKO mice. Later lipotoxic insults in adult β cells contribute to the failure of the POKO β cell. Our results indicate that the rapid development of insulin resistance and β-cell failure in POKO mice makes this model a useful tool to study early molecular events leading to insulin resistance and β-cell failure. Furthermore, comparisons with ob/ob mice might reveal important adaptive mechanisms in β cells with

  4. Cultural adaptation: translatability assessment and linguistic validation of the patient-reported outcome instrument for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Herrera, Leticia; Lasch, Kathryn; Popielnicki, Ana; Nishida, Akito; Arbuckle, Rob; Banderas, Benjamin; Zentner, Susan; Gagainis, Ingrid; Zeiher, Bernhardt

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Following a 2009 US Food and Drug Administration guidance, a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument was developed to support end points in multinational clinical trials assessing irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) symptom severity. Our objective was to assess the translatability of the IBS-D PRO instrument into ten languages, and subsequently perform a cultural adaptation/linguistic validation of the questionnaire into Japanese and US Spanish. Materials and methods Translatability assessments of the US English version of the IBS-D PRO were performed by experienced PRO translators who were native speakers of each target language and currently residing in target-language countries. Languages were Chinese (People’s Republic of China), Dutch (the Netherlands), French (Belgium), German (Germany), Japanese (Japan), Polish (Poland), Portuguese (Brazil), Russian (Russia), Spanish (Mexico), and Spanish (US). The project team assessed the instrument to identify potential linguistic and/or cultural adaptation issues. After the issues identified were resolved, the instrument was translated into Spanish (US) and Japanese through a process of two forward translations, one reconciled translation, and one backward translation. The project team reviewed the translated versions before the instruments were evaluated by cognitive debriefing interviews with samples of five Spanish (US) and five Japanese IBS-D patients. Results Linguistic and cultural adaptation concerns identified during the translatability assessment required minor revisions, mainly the presentation of dates/times and word structure. During the cognitive debriefing interviews, two of five Spanish respondents misunderstood the term “bowel movement” to mean only diarrhea in the Spanish version. Consequently, the term was changed from “movimiento intestinal” to “evacuaciones”. None of the Japanese respondents identified issues with the Japanese version. Conclusion

  5. Intestinal adaptation in patients with short bowel syndrome. Measurement by calcium absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Gouttebel, M.C.; Saint Aubert, B.; Colette, C.; Astre, C.; Monnier, L.H.; Joyeux, H. )

    1989-05-01

    Functional adaptation of remaining intestine was evaluated in 30 patients with extensive small bowel resection. Calcium and xylose absorption tests were compared. Calcium absorption was measured by a double-radiotracer technique. Serum xylosemia was measured 2 hr after D-xylose ingestion. Patients were divided into two groups according to the time interval between surgery and evaluation: less (group I) or more (group II) than two years. A statistically significant correlation was found between xylosemia and remaining small bowel length (r = 0.71; P less than 0.001) and between calcium absorption and remaining small bowel length (r = 0.75; P less than 0.001) in group I. A significant correlation was also observed between calcium absorption and time after surgery (r = 0.65; P = 0.001) but not for xylose absorption. Calcium absorption value was significantly increased in group II patients compared with group I patients matched for remaining small bowel length (36.2 +/- 12.5% vs 14.5 +/- 9.1%; P less than 0.001) while no difference was observed between the two groups concerning xylose absorption. These data indicate that intestinal calcium absorption continues to increase for more than two years after a major bowel resection in man. The intestine does not seem to recover all its functions at the same time.

  6. Self-assembling SAS-6 multimer is a core centriole building block.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Jayachandran; Guichard, Paul; Smith, Andrew H; Schwarz, Heinz; Agard, David A; Marco, Sergio; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2010-03-19

    Centrioles are conserved microtubule-based organelles with 9-fold symmetry that are essential for cilia and mitotic spindle formation. A conserved structure at the onset of centriole assembly is a "cartwheel" with 9-fold radial symmetry and a central tubule in its core. It remains unclear how the cartwheel is formed. The conserved centriole protein, SAS-6, is a cartwheel component that functions early in centriole formation. Here, combining biochemistry and electron microscopy, we characterize SAS-6 and show that it self-assembles into stable tetramers, which serve as building blocks for the central tubule. These results suggest that SAS-6 self-assembly may be an initial step in the formation of the cartwheel that provides the 9-fold symmetry. Electron microscopy of centrosomes identified 25-nm central tubules with repeating subunits and show that SAS-6 concentrates at the core of the cartwheel. Recombinant and native SAS-6 self-oligomerizes into tetramers with approximately 6-nm subunits, and these tetramers are components of the centrosome, suggesting that tetramers are the building blocks of the central tubule. This is further supported by the observation that elevated levels of SAS-6 in Drosophila cells resulted in higher order structures resembling central tubule morphology. Finally, in the presence of embryonic extract, SAS-6 tetramers assembled into high density complexes, providing a starting point for the eventual in vitro reconstruction of centrioles.

  7. SAS-6 assembly templated by the lumen of cartwheel-less centrioles precedes centriole duplication.

    PubMed

    Fong, Chii Shyang; Kim, Minhee; Yang, T Tony; Liao, Jung-Chi; Tsou, Meng-Fu Bryan

    2014-07-28

    Centrioles are 9-fold symmetric structures duplicating once per cell cycle. Duplication involves self-oligomerization of the centriolar protein SAS-6, but how the 9-fold symmetry is invariantly established remains unclear. Here, we found that SAS-6 assembly can be shaped by preexisting (or mother) centrioles. During S phase, SAS-6 molecules are first recruited to the proximal lumen of the mother centriole, adopting a cartwheel-like organization through interactions with the luminal wall, rather than via their self-oligomerization activity. The removal or release of luminal SAS-6 requires Plk4 and the cartwheel protein STIL. Abolishing either the recruitment or the removal of luminal SAS-6 hinders SAS-6 (or centriole) assembly at the outside wall of mother centrioles. After duplication, the lumen of engaged mother centrioles becomes inaccessible to SAS-6, correlating with a block for reduplication. These results lead to a proposed model that centrioles may duplicate via a template-based process to preserve their geometry and copy number.

  8. Zinc-dependent mechanical properties of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-forming surface protein SasG.

    PubMed

    Formosa-Dague, Cécile; Speziale, Pietro; Foster, Timothy J; Geoghegan, Joan A; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2016-01-12

    Staphylococcus aureus surface protein SasG promotes cell-cell adhesion during the accumulation phase of biofilm formation, but the molecular basis of this interaction remains poorly understood. Here, we unravel the mechanical properties of SasG on the surface of living bacteria, that is, in its native cellular environment. Nanoscale multiparametric imaging of living bacteria reveals that Zn(2+) strongly increases cell wall rigidity and activates the adhesive function of SasG. Single-cell force measurements show that SasG mediates cell-cell adhesion via specific Zn(2+)-dependent homophilic bonds between β-sheet-rich G5-E domains on neighboring cells. The force required to unfold individual domains is remarkably strong, up to ∼500 pN, thus explaining how SasG can withstand physiological shear forces. We also observe that SasG forms homophilic bonds with the structurally related accumulation-associated protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis, suggesting the possibility of multispecies biofilms during host colonization and infection. Collectively, our findings support a model in which zinc plays a dual role in activating cell-cell adhesion: adsorption of zinc ions to the bacterial cell surface increases cell wall cohesion and favors the projection of elongated SasG proteins away from the cell surface, thereby enabling zinc-dependent homophilic bonds between opposing cells. This work demonstrates an unexpected relationship between mechanics and adhesion in a staphylococcal surface protein, which may represent a general mechanism among bacterial pathogens for activating cell association.

  9. SIMPOLYCAT: An SAS Program for Conducting CAT Simulation Based on Polytomous IRT Models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Cook, Karon F.

    2009-01-01

    A real-data simulation of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an important step in real life CAT applications. Such a simulation allows CAT developers to evaluate important features of the CAT system such as item selection and stopping rules before live testing. SIMPOLYCAT, an SAS macro program, was created by the authors to conduct real-data CAT simulation based on polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. In SIMPOLYCAT, item responses can be input from an external file or generated internally based on item parameters provided by users. The program allows users to choose among methods of setting initial θ, approaches to item selection, trait estimators, CAT stopping criteria, polytomous IRT models, and other CAT parameters. In addition, CAT simulation results can be saved easily and used for further study. The purpose of this article is to introduce SIMPOLYCAT, briefly describe the program algorithm and parameters, and provide examples of CAT simulations using generated and real data. Visual comparisons of the results obtained from the CAT simulations are presented. PMID:19363190

  10. Adaptation of the Arizona Cognitive Task Battery for Use With the Ts65Dn Mouse Model (Mus musculus) of Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, Michael R; Smith, Genevieve K; Kesner, Raymond P

    2017-03-23

    We propose and validate a clear strategy to efficiently and comprehensively characterize neurobehavioral deficits in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome. This novel approach uses neurocognitive theory to design and select behavioral tasks that test specific hypotheses concerning the results of Down syndrome. In this article, we model the Arizona Cognitive Task Battery, used to study human populations with Down syndrome, in Ts65Dn mice. We observed specific deficits for spatial memory, impaired long-term memory for visual objects, acquisition and reversal of motor responses, reduced motor dexterity, and impaired adaptive function as measured by nesting and anxiety tasks. The Ts65Dn mice showed intact temporal ordering, novelty detection, and visual object recognition with short delays. These results phenocopy the performance of participants with Down syndrome on the Arizona Cognitive Task Battery. This approach extends the utility of mouse models of Down syndrome by integrating the expertise of clinical neurology and cognitive neuroscience into the mouse behavioral laboratory. Further, by directly emphasizing the reciprocal translation of research between human disease states and the associated mouse models, we demonstrate that it is possible for both groups to mutually inform each other's research to more efficiently generate hypotheses and elucidate treatment strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Different Effects of Startling Acoustic Stimuli (SAS) on TMS-Induced Responses at Rest and during Sustained Voluntary Contraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Li, Shengai; Zhou, Ping; Li, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a habituated startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) can cause a transient suppression of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during light muscle contraction. However, it is still unknown whether this phenomenon persists when at rest or during a sustained voluntary contraction task. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a conditioning SAS has different effects. TMS was delivered to the hot spot for the left biceps on 11 subjects at rest both with and without a conditioning SAS. Of the 11subjects, 9 also had TMS delivered during isometric flexion of the left elbow, also with and without a conditioning SAS. TMS-induced MEPs, TMS-induced force, and silent periods were used to determine the effect of conditioning SAS. Consistent with previous findings, TMS-induced MEPs were smaller with a conditioning SAS (0.49 ± 0.37 mV) as compared without the SAS (0.69 ± 0.52 mV) at rest. However, a conditioning SAS during the voluntary contraction tasks resulted in a significant shortening of the MEP silent period (187.22 ± 22.99 ms with SAS vs. 200.56 ± 29.71 ms without SAS) without any changes in the amplitude of the MEP (1.37 ± 0.9 mV with SAS V.S. 1.32 ± 0.92 mV without SAS) or the TMS-induced force (3.11 ± 2.03 N-m with SAS V.S. 3.62 ± 1.33 N-m without SAS). Our results provide novel evidence that a conditioning SAS has different effects on the excitability of the motor cortex when at rest or during sustained voluntary contractions.

  12. Different Effects of Startling Acoustic Stimuli (SAS) on TMS-Induced Responses at Rest and during Sustained Voluntary Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Li, Shengai; Zhou, Ping; Li, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a habituated startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) can cause a transient suppression of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during light muscle contraction. However, it is still unknown whether this phenomenon persists when at rest or during a sustained voluntary contraction task. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a conditioning SAS has different effects. TMS was delivered to the hot spot for the left biceps on 11 subjects at rest both with and without a conditioning SAS. Of the 11subjects, 9 also had TMS delivered during isometric flexion of the left elbow, also with and without a conditioning SAS. TMS-induced MEPs, TMS-induced force, and silent periods were used to determine the effect of conditioning SAS. Consistent with previous findings, TMS-induced MEPs were smaller with a conditioning SAS (0.49 ± 0.37 mV) as compared without the SAS (0.69 ± 0.52 mV) at rest. However, a conditioning SAS during the voluntary contraction tasks resulted in a significant shortening of the MEP silent period (187.22 ± 22.99 ms with SAS vs. 200.56 ± 29.71 ms without SAS) without any changes in the amplitude of the MEP (1.37 ± 0.9 mV with SAS V.S. 1.32 ± 0.92 mV without SAS) or the TMS-induced force (3.11 ± 2.03 N-m with SAS V.S. 3.62 ± 1.33 N-m without SAS). Our results provide novel evidence that a conditioning SAS has different effects on the excitability of the motor cortex when at rest or during sustained voluntary contractions. PMID:27547181

  13. SAS4A validation and analysis of in-pile TUCOP experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Morman, J.A.; Tentner, A.M.; Dever, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of SAS4A analysis for PFR/TREAT experiment L07, a simulated TUCOP accident. This is one of a series of TUCOP tests with different channel conditions at pin failure time and different power burst shapes. While other TUCOP tests such as L6 and L7 have been analyzed with earlier versions of the SAS code, the L07 analysis is the first to use the release version of SAS4A without special modifications, using recommended values of the input variables whenever possible. The PRIMAR-4 thermal-hydraulic model is used to compute the loop characteristics during the test.

  14. Circinus X-1 - X-ray observations with SAS 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dower, R. G.; Bradt, H. V.; Morgan, E. H.

    1982-01-01

    Eight observations of Cir X-1 with SAS 3, each lasting 1-6 days, have yielded a variety of new phenomena, viz., a luminous state of steady emission, rapid large-intensity dips, an extremely rapid X-ray transition, and bright flares. Through searches for periodic X-ray pulsations were carried out on data trains of duration up to 6 days; upper limits for pulsations with periods greater than 250 microsec range down to 0.3%. Aperiodic variability with characteristic times of 0.4-1.0 sec was observed but is not well characterized by a simple shot noise model. No millisecond bursts were observed during 40,000 sec in three separate observations. Spectral parameters derived before and after several X-ray transitions indicate that the transitions are not due to absorption of X-rays by intervening gas. Models previously proposed for the Cir X-1 system do not easily provide explanations for all the complex phenomena reported herein.

  15. SAS-2 galactic gamma-ray results. 2: Localized sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma ray emission was detected from the radio pulsars PSR 1818-04 and PSR 1747-46, in addition to the previously reported gamma ray emission from the Crab and Vela pulsars. Because the Crab pulsar is the only one observed in the optical and X-ray bands, these gamma ray observations suggest a uniquely gamma ray phenomenon occurring in a fraction of the radio pulsars. PSR 1818-04 has a gamma ray luminosity comparable to that of the Crab pulsar, whereas the luminosities of PSR 1747-46 and the Vela pulsar are approximately an order of magnitude lower. SAS-2 data for pulsar correlations yielded upper limits to gamma ray luminosity for 71 other radio pulsars. For five of the closest pulsars, upper limits for gamma ray luminosity are found to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than that of the Crab pulsar. Gamma ray enhancement near the Milky Way satellite galaxy and the galactic plane in the Cygnus region is also discussed.

  16. Reexamination of the SAS 2 Cygnus X-3 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Lamb, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent observations of Cygnus X-3 have shown marked variability of the radiation on short time scales. In particular, the bursts lasting on the order of 10 minutes, seen in both the infrared and very high energy (greater than 10 to the 11th eV) gamma-ray regions, and the time-variations on many scales at high energies, have stimulated a reanalysis of the March 6 to 13, 1973 SAS 2 high-energy gamma-ray data. Although a clear periodicity in the E greater 35 MeV gamma radiation is observed at the 4.79 hr period seen in X-rays, there is no evidence for major variations of the radiation from one day to the next, and no statistically significant evidence for bursts on the 10-minute time scale seen in the infrared or very high energy ranges. If the excess observed had been predominantly in the form of ten minute bursts even at a rate as high as two/day, a clearly significant set of bursts would have been seen.

  17. SAS molecular tests Salmonella detection kit. Performance tested method 021202.

    PubMed

    Bapanpally, Chandra; Montier, Laura; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The SAS Molecular tests Salmonella Detection method, a Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification method, performed as well as or better than the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference methods for ground beef, beef trim, ground turkey, chicken carcass rinses, bagged mixed lettuce, and fresh spinach. The ground beef (30% fat, 25 g test portion), poultry matrixes and leafy greens were validated in a 6-7 h enrichment, and ground beef (30% fat, 375 g composite test portion) and beef trim (375 g composite test portion) were validated in a 16-20 h enrichment. The method performance for meat and leafy green matrixes was shown to be acceptable under conditions of co-enrichment with Escherichia coli 0157. Thus, after a short 6-7 h co-enrichment step, ground beef, beef trim, lettuce, and spinach can be tested for both Salmonella and E. coli O157. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 30 non-Salmonella species examined. The method was shown to be robust when enrichment time, DNA extract hold time, and DNA volume were varied.

  18. Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

  19. [Study of chemosensitivity in patients believed to have sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Costes, F; Court-Fortune, I; Fournel, P; Vergnon, J M; Emonot, A; Geyssant, A

    1995-01-01

    We performed polysomnography and measured hypoxic ventilatory (HVR), hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HCVR) in 42 patients (60 +/- 11 years) with obesity and a clinical suspicion of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in order to determine whether an altered chemosensitivity was associated with SAS. The apnea/hypopnea index was 38 +/- 20 events per hour of sleep in 28 patients (SAS+ group) and less than 10 in the 14 others (SAS- group). The 2 groups differed only by a lower waking PaO2 in SAS+ as compared to SAS- (71.0 +/- 9 vs 77.4 +/- 8 mmHg, p < 0.05). HVR and HCVR were not significantly different in the 2 groups (0.82 +/- 0.58 vs 0.86 +/- 0.37 l.min-1.%-1; 1.41 +/- 0.81 vs 1.40 +/- 0.67 l.min-1.mmHg-1, respectively). In SAS+ group, HVR or HCVR did not change 3 or 12 months after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy while both polysomnography and PaO2 returned to normal. We conclude that in patients with mild obesity and SAS there is no difference in chemosensitivity due to the presence of sleep apnea and that CPAP therapy does not alter these measurements. These results suggest no direct effect of SAS on chemosensitivity in the population studied.

  20. Increased pathogenicity of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is associated with enhanced adaptive responses and viral clearance.

    PubMed

    Morgan, S B; Graham, S P; Salguero, F J; Sánchez Cordón, P J; Mokhtar, H; Rebel, J M J; Weesendorp, E; Bodman-Smith, K B; Steinbach, F; Frossard, J P

    2013-04-12

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases of swine worldwide. Since its first emergence in 1987 the PRRS virus (PRRSV) has become particularly divergent with highly pathogenic strains appearing in both Europe and Asia. However, the underlying mechanisms of PRRSV pathogenesis are still unclear. This study sets out to determine the differences in pathogenesis between subtype 1 and 3 strains of European PRRSV (PRRSV-I), and compare the immune responses mounted against these strains. Piglets were infected with 3 strains of PRRSV-I: Lelystad virus, 215-06 a British field strain and SU1-bel from Belarus. Post-mortem examinations were performed at 3 and 7 days post-infection (dpi), and half of the remaining animals in each group were inoculated with an Aujeszky's disease (ADV) vaccine to investigate possible immune suppression resulting from PRRSV infection. The subtype 3 SU1-bel strain displayed greater clinical signs and lung gross pathology scores compared with the subtype 1 strains. This difference did not appear to be caused by higher virus replication, as viraemia and viral load in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were lower in the SU1-bel group. Infection with SU1-bel induced an enhanced adaptive immune response with greater interferon (IFN)-γ responses and an earlier PRRSV-specific antibody response. Infection with PRRSV did not affect the response to vaccination against ADV. Our results indicate that the increased clinical and pathological effect of the SU1-bel strain is more likely to be caused by an enhanced inflammatory immune response rather than higher levels of virus replication.

  1. Effects of carpal tunnel syndrome on adaptation of multi-digit forces to object weight for whole-hand manipulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Johnston, Jamie A; Ross, Mark A; Smith, Anthony A; Coakley, Brandon J; Gleason, Elizabeth A; Dueck, Amylou C; Santello, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The delicate tuning of digit forces to object properties can be disrupted by a number of neurological and musculoskeletal diseases. One such condition is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS), a compression neuropathy of the median nerve that causes sensory and motor deficits in a subset of digits in the hand. Whereas the effects of CTS on median nerve physiology are well understood, the extent to which it affects whole-hand manipulation remains to be addressed. CTS affects only the lateral three and a half digits, which raises the question of how the central nervous system integrates sensory feedback from affected and unaffected digits to plan and execute whole-hand object manipulation. We addressed this question by asking CTS patients and healthy controls to grasp, lift, and hold a grip device (445, 545, or 745 g) for several consecutive trials. We found that CTS patients were able to successfully adapt grip force to object weight. However, multi-digit force coordination in patients was characterized by lower discrimination of force modulation to lighter object weights, higher across-trial digit force variability, the consistent use of excessively large digit forces across consecutive trials, and a lower ability to minimize net moments on the object. Importantly, the mechanical requirement of attaining equilibrium of forces and torques caused CTS patients to exert excessive forces at both CTS-affected digits and digits with intact sensorimotor capabilities. These findings suggest that CTS-induced deficits in tactile sensitivity interfere with the formation of accurate sensorimotor memories of previous manipulations. Consequently, CTS patients use compensatory strategies to maximize grasp stability at the expense of exerting consistently larger multi-digit forces than controls. These behavioral deficits might be particularly detrimental for tasks that require fine regulation of fingertip forces for manipulating light or fragile objects.

  2. Effects of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome on Adaptation of Multi-Digit Forces to Object Weight for Whole-Hand Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Johnston, Jamie A.; Ross, Mark A.; Smith, Anthony A.; Coakley, Brandon J.; Gleason, Elizabeth A.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Santello, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The delicate tuning of digit forces to object properties can be disrupted by a number of neurological and musculoskeletal diseases. One such condition is Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS), a compression neuropathy of the median nerve that causes sensory and motor deficits in a subset of digits in the hand. Whereas the effects of CTS on median nerve physiology are well understood, the extent to which it affects whole-hand manipulation remains to be addressed. CTS affects only the lateral three and a half digits, which raises the question of how the central nervous system integrates sensory feedback from affected and unaffected digits to plan and execute whole-hand object manipulation. We addressed this question by asking CTS patients and healthy controls to grasp, lift, and hold a grip device (445, 545, or 745 g) for several consecutive trials. We found that CTS patients were able to successfully adapt grip force to object weight. However, multi-digit force coordination in patients was characterized by lower discrimination of force modulation to lighter object weights, higher across-trial digit force variability, the consistent use of excessively large digit forces across consecutive trials, and a lower ability to minimize net moments on the object. Importantly, the mechanical requirement of attaining equilibrium of forces and torques caused CTS patients to exert excessive forces at both CTS-affected digits and digits with intact sensorimotor capabilities. These findings suggest that CTS-induced deficits in tactile sensitivity interfere with the formation of accurate sensorimotor memories of previous manipulations. Consequently, CTS patients use compensatory strategies to maximize grasp stability at the expense of exerting consistently larger multi-digit forces than controls. These behavioral deficits might be particularly detrimental for tasks that require fine regulation of fingertip forces for manipulating light or fragile objects. PMID:22110738

  3. Functional adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to resistance training in three patients with genetically verified classic Ehlers Danlos Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Mathias Bech; Kjær, Michael; Svensson, René Brüggebusch; Andersen, Jesper Lovind; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Nielsen, Rie Harboe

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: tendon and skeletal muscle function adapts to physical training of resistive nature, but it is unknown to what extent persons with genetically altered connective tissue – who have a higher than normal tendon extensibility – will obtain any effect upon their tendon and muscle when undergoing muscle strength training. We investigated patients with classical Ehlers Danlos Syndrome (EDS) (collagen type V defect) who display articular hypermobility, skin extensibility and tissue fragility. Methods: subjects underwent strength training 3 times a week for 4 months and were tested before and after intervention in regards to muscle strength, tendon mechanical properties, and muscle function. Results: three subjects completed the scheduled 48 sessions and had no major adverse events. Mean isometric leg extension force and leg extensor power both increased by 8 and 11% respectively (358 to 397 N, and 117 to 123 W). The tendon stiffness was tested and an average increase in response to physical training, from 1795 to 2519 N/mm was found. On average, the training loads both in upper and lower body exercises increased by around 30% over the training period. When testing balance, the average sway-area of the participants decreased by 26% (0.144 to 0.108 m2). On the subscale of CIS20 the participants lowered their average subjective fatigue score from 33 to 25. Conclusion: in this small pilot study, heavy resistance training was both feasible and effective in classic Ehlers Danlos patients, and the results indicated that both tendon and skeletal muscle properties can be improved also in this patient group when they are subjected to resistance training. PMID:25489549

  4. Reactivity and fate of secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS) in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Baena-Nogueras, Rosa María; Rojas-Ojeda, Patricia; Sanz, José Luis; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2014-06-01

    This research is focused on secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS), anionic surfactants widely used in household applications that access aquatic environments mainly via sewage discharges. We studied their sorption capacity and anaerobic degradation in marine sediments, providing the first data available on this topic. SAS partition coefficients increased towards those homologues having longer alkyl chains (from up to 141 L kg(-1) for C14 to up to 1753 L kg(-1) for C17), which were those less susceptible to undergo biodegradation. Overall, SAS removal percentages reached up to 98% after 166 days of incubation using anoxic sediments. The degradation pathway consisted on the formation of sulfocarboxylic acids after an initial fumarate attack of the alkyl chain and successive β-oxidations. This is the first study showing that SAS can be degraded in absence of oxygen, so this new information should be taken into account for future environmental risk assessments on these chemicals.

  5. Physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability of ursolic acid nanoparticles using supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Sun, Zhen; Zu, Yuangang; Zhao, Chunjian; Sun, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhonghua; Zhang, Lin

    2012-05-01

    The objective of the study was to prepare ursolic acid (UA) nanoparticles using the supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process and evaluate its physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability. The effects of four process variables, pressure, temperature, drug concentration and drug solution flow rate, on drug particle formation during SAS process, were investigated. Particles with mean particle size ranging from 139.2±19.7 to 1039.8±65.2nm were obtained by varying the process parameters. The UA was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, specific surface area, dissolution test and bioavailability test. It was concluded that physicochemical properties and bioavailability of crystalline UA could be improved by physical modification, such as particle size reduction and generation of amorphous state using SAS process. Further, SAS process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of UA.

  6. SAS 2 observation of pulsed high-energy gamma radiation from Geminga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, J. R.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Following the detection of pulsed X-rays and gamma rays from Geminga, the 1972-1973 SAS 2 data which first revealed this source have been reanalyzed. The 237 ms periodicity is visible in those observations. The phase of the SAS 2 periodicity is consistent with that of COS B suggesting that the gamma-ray data allow an accounting for every revolution of the Geminga pulsar between 1972 and 1982.

  7. The small tellurium-based compound SAS suppresses inflammation in human retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Livnat, Tami; Halpert, Gilad; Jawad, Shayma; Nisgav, Yael; Azar-Avivi, Shirley; Liu, Baoying; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Weinberger, Dov; Sredni, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pathological angiogenesis and chronic inflammation greatly contribute to the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in chorioretinal diseases involving abnormal contact between retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and endothelial cells (ECs), associated with Bruch’s membrane rupture. We explored the ability of the small organotellurium compound octa-O-bis-(R,R)-tartarate ditellurane (SAS) to mitigate inflammatory processes in human RPE cells. Methods Cell adhesion assays and analyses of gene and protein expression were used to examine the effect of SAS on ARPE-19 cells or primary human RPE cells that were grown alone or in an RPE-EC co-culture. Results Adhesion assays showed that SAS inhibited αv integrins expressed on RPE cells. Co-cultures of RPE cells with ECs significantly reduced the gene expression of PEDF, as compared to RPE cells cultured alone. Both SAS and the anti-αvβ3 antibody LM609 significantly enhanced the production of PEDF at both mRNA and protein levels in RPE cells. RPE cells co-cultured with EC exhibited increased gene expression of CXCL5, COX1, MMP2, IGF1, and IL8, all of which are involved in both angiogenesis and inflammation. The enhanced expression of these genes was greatly suppressed by SAS, but interestingly, remained unaffected by LM609. Zymography assay showed that SAS reduced the level of MMP-2 activity in RPE cells. We also found that SAS significantly suppressed IL-1β-induced IL-6 expression and secretion from RPE cells by reducing the protein levels of phospho-IkappaBalpha (pIκBα). Conclusions Our results suggest that SAS is a promising anti-inflammatory agent in RPE cells, and may be an effective therapeutic approach for controlling chorioretinal diseases. PMID:27293373

  8. Preparation and pharmaceutical characterization of amorphous cefdinir using spray-drying and SAS-process.

    PubMed

    Park, Junsung; Park, Hee Jun; Cho, Wonkyung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Young-Shin; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2010-08-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of micronization and amorphorization of cefdinir on solubility and dissolution rate. The amorphous samples were prepared by spray-drying (SD) and supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process, respectively and their amorphous natures were confirmed by DSC, PXRD and FT-IR. Thermal gravimetric analysis was performed by TGA. SEM was used to investigate the morphology of particles and the processed particle had a spherical shape, while the unprocessed crystalline particle had a needle-like shape. The mean particle size and specific surface area were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and BET, respectively. The DLS result showed that the SAS-processed particle was the smallest, followed by SD and the unprocessed cefdinir. The BET result was the same as DLS result in that the SAS-processed particle had the largest surface area. Therefore, the processed cefdinir, especially the SAS-processed particle, appeared to have enhanced apparent solubility, improved intrinsic dissolution rate and better drug release when compared with SD-processed and unprocessed crystalline cefdinir due not only to its amorphous nature, but also its reduced particle size. Conclusions were that the solubility and dissolution rate of crystalline cefdinir could be improved by physically modifying the particles using SD and SAS-process. Furthermore, SAS-process was a powerful methodology for improving the solubility and dissolution rate of cefdinir.

  9. Centriolar SAS-7 acts upstream of SPD-2 to regulate centriole assembly and pericentriolar material formation

    PubMed Central

    Sugioka, Kenji; Hamill, Danielle R; Lowry, Joshua B; McNeely, Marie E; Enrick, Molly; Richter, Alyssa C; Kiebler, Lauren E; Priess, James R; Bowerman, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The centriole/basal body is a eukaryotic organelle that plays essential roles in cell division and signaling. Among five known core centriole proteins, SPD-2/Cep192 is the first recruited to the site of daughter centriole formation and regulates the centriolar localization of the other components in C. elegans and in humans. However, the molecular basis for SPD-2 centriolar localization remains unknown. Here, we describe a new centriole component, the coiled-coil protein SAS-7, as a regulator of centriole duplication, assembly and elongation. Intriguingly, our genetic data suggest that SAS-7 is required for daughter centrioles to become competent for duplication, and for mother centrioles to maintain this competence. We also show that SAS-7 binds SPD-2 and regulates SPD-2 centriolar recruitment, while SAS-7 centriolar localization is SPD-2-independent. Furthermore, pericentriolar material (PCM) formation is abnormal in sas-7 mutants, and the PCM-dependent induction of cell polarity that defines the anterior-posterior body axis frequently fails. We conclude that SAS-7 functions at the earliest step in centriole duplication yet identified and plays important roles in the orchestration of centriole and PCM assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20353.001 PMID:28092264

  10. SAS-6 engineering reveals interdependence between cartwheel and microtubules in determining centriole architecture.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Manuel; Noga, Akira; Frey, Daniel; Hamel, Virginie; Guichard, Paul; Kraatz, Sebastian H W; Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Hosner, Sarah; Flückiger, Isabelle; Jaussi, Rolf; Wieser, Mara M; Thieltges, Katherine M; Deupi, Xavier; Müller, Daniel J; Kammerer, Richard A; Gönczy, Pierre; Hirono, Masafumi; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2016-04-01

    Centrioles are critical for the formation of centrosomes, cilia and flagella in eukaryotes. They are thought to assemble around a nine-fold symmetric cartwheel structure established by SAS-6 proteins. Here, we have engineered Chlamydomonas reinhardtii SAS-6-based oligomers with symmetries ranging from five- to ten-fold. Expression of a SAS-6 mutant that forms six-fold symmetric cartwheel structures in vitro resulted in cartwheels and centrioles with eight- or nine-fold symmetries in vivo. In combination with Bld10 mutants that weaken cartwheel-microtubule interactions, this SAS-6 mutant produced six- to eight-fold symmetric cartwheels. Concurrently, the microtubule wall maintained eight- and nine-fold symmetries. Expressing SAS-6 with analogous mutations in human cells resulted in nine-fold symmetric centrioles that exhibited impaired length and organization. Together, our data suggest that the self-assembly properties of SAS-6 instruct cartwheel symmetry, and lead us to propose a model in which the cartwheel and the microtubule wall assemble in an interdependent manner to establish the native architecture of centrioles.

  11. Group training in interpersonal problem-solving skills for workplace adaptation of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study describes preliminary data from a group format manual-based intervention, the Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme, aimed at improving the cognitive and metacognitive process of social problem-solving skills focusing on typical social situations in the workplace based on mediation as the main strategy. A total of 50 adults with Asperger syndrome received the programme and were compared with a control group of typical development. The feasibility and effectiveness of the treatment were explored. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment on a task of social problem-solving skills and two secondary measures of socialisation and work profile using self- and caregiver-report. Using a variety of methods, the results showed that scores were significantly higher at post-treatment in the social problem-solving task and socialisation skills based on reports by parents. Differences in comparison to the control group had decreased after treatment. The treatment was acceptable to families and subject adherence was high. The Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme appears to be a feasible training programme.

  12. Acute effects of the glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, teduglutide, on intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonatal short bowel syndrome following massive gut resection is associated with malabsorption of nutrients. The intestinotrophic factor glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) improves gut function in adult patients with short bowel syndrome, but its effect in pediatric patients remains unknown. Our object...

  13. Association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) haploinsufficiency with lower adaptive behaviour and reduced cognitive functioning in WAGR/11p13 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Han, Joan C; Thurm, Audrey; Golden Williams, Christine; Joseph, Lisa A; Zein, Wadih M; Brooks, Brian P; Butman, John A; Brady, Sheila M; Fuhr, Shannon R; Hicks, Melanie D; Huey, Amanda E; Hanish, Alyson E; Danley, Kristen M; Raygada, Margarita J; Rennert, Owen M; Martinowich, Keri; Sharp, Stephen J; Tsao, Jack W; Swedo, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    In animal studies, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important regulator of central nervous system development and synaptic plasticity. WAGR (Wilms tumour, Aniridia, Genitourinary anomalies, and mental Retardation) syndrome is caused by 11p13 deletions of variable size near the BDNF locus and can serve as a model for studying human BDNF haploinsufficiency (+/-). We hypothesized that BDNF+/- would be associated with more severe cognitive impairment in subjects with WAGR syndrome. Twenty-eight subjects with WAGR syndrome (6-28 years), 12 subjects with isolated aniridia due to PAX6 mutations/microdeletions (7-54 years), and 20 healthy controls (4-32 years) received neurocognitive assessments. Deletion boundaries for the subjects in the WAGR group were determined by high-resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. Within the WAGR group, BDNF+/- subjects (n = 15), compared with BDNF intact (+/+) subjects (n = 13), had lower adaptive behaviour (p = .02), reduced cognitive functioning (p = .04), higher levels of reported historical (p = .02) and current (p = .02) social impairment, and higher percentage meeting cut-off score for autism (p = .047) on Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. These differences remained nominally significant after adjusting for visual acuity. Using diagnostic measures and clinical judgement, 3 subjects (2 BDNF+/- and 1 BDNF+/+) in the WAGR group (10.7%) were classified with autism spectrum disorder. A comparison group of visually impaired subjects with isolated aniridia had cognitive functioning comparable to that of healthy controls. In summary, among subjects with WAGR syndrome, BDNF+/- subjects had a mean Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Compose score that was 14-points lower and a mean intelligence quotient (IQ) that was 20-points lower than BDNF+/+ subjects. Our findings support the hypothesis that BDNF plays an important role in human neurocognitive development.

  14. The SAS-5 N-terminal domain is a tetramer, with implications for centriole assembly in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Shimanovskaya, Ekaterina; Qiao, Renping; Lesigang, Johannes; Dong, Gang

    2013-07-01

    The centriole is a conserved microtubule-based organelle essential for both centrosome formation and cilium biogenesis. It has a unique 9-fold symmetry and its assembly is governed by at least five component proteins (SPD-2, ZYG-1, SAS-5, SAS-6 and SAS-4), which are recruited in a hierarchical order. Recently published structural studies of the SAS-6 N-terminal domain have greatly advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of centriole assembly. However, it remains unclear how the weak interaction between the SAS-6 N-terminal head groups could drive the assembly of a closed ring-like structure, and what determines the stacking of multiple rings on top one another in centriole duplication. We recently reported that SAS-5 binds specifically to a very narrow region of the SAS-6 central coiled coil through its C-terminal domain (CTD, residues 391-404). Here, we further demonstrate by both static light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering that the SAS-5 N-terminal domain (NTD, residues 1-260) forms a tetramer. Specifically, we found that the tetramer is formed by SAS-5 residues 82-260, whereas residues 1-81 are intrinsically disordered. Taking these results together, we propose a working model for SAS-5-mediated assembly of the multi-layered central tube structure.

  15. Conserved TCP domain of Sas-4/CPAP is essential for pericentriolar material tethering during centrosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiangdong; Gooi, Li Ming; Wason, Arpit; Gabriel, Elke; Mehrjardi, Narges Zare; Yang, Qian; Zhang, Xingrun; Debec, Alain; Basiri, Marcus L; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Pozniakovsky, Andrei; Poser, Ina; Saric, Tomo; Hyman, Anthony A; Li, Haitao; Gopalakrishnan, Jay

    2014-01-21

    Pericentriolar material (PCM) recruitment to centrioles forms a key step in centrosome biogenesis. Deregulation of this process leads to centrosome aberrations causing disorders, one of which is autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH), a neurodevelopmental disorder where brain size is reduced. During PCM recruitment, the conserved centrosomal protein Sas-4/CPAP/MCPH6, known to play a role in centriole formation, acts as a scaffold for cytoplasmic PCM complexes to bind and then tethers them to centrioles to form functional centrosomes. To understand Sas-4's tethering role, we determined the crystal structure of its T complex protein 10 (TCP) domain displaying a solvent-exposed single-layer of β-sheets fold. This unique feature of the TCP domain suggests that it could provide an "extended surface-like" platform to tether the Sas-4-PCM scaffold to a centriole. Functional studies in Drosophila, human cells, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells were used to test this hypothesis, where point mutations within the 9-10th β-strands (β9-10 mutants including a MCPH-associated mutation) perturbed PCM tethering while allowing Sas-4/CPAP to scaffold cytoplasmic PCM complexes. Specifically, the Sas-4 β9-10 mutants displayed perturbed interactions with Ana2, a centrosome duplication factor, and Bld-10, a centriole microtubule-binding protein, suggesting a role for the β9-10 surface in mediating protein-protein interactions for efficient Sas-4-PCM scaffold centriole tethering. Hence, we provide possible insights into how centrosomal protein defects result in human MCPH and how Sas-4 proteins act as a vehicle to tether PCM complexes to centrioles independent of its well-known role in centriole duplication.

  16. An examination of the relationship of anxiety and intelligence to adaptive functioning in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Leckliter, Ingrid; Tartaglia, Nicole; Beaton, Elliott A.; Enriquez, Janice; Simon, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the relationship between anxiety symptoms and adaptive function in children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS). Methods Seventy-eight children ages 7-14 years with 22q11.2DS and 36 typically developing (TD) children without known genetic syndromes participated in a larger study of neurocognition. Parents completed questionnaires about their child’s anxiety symptoms (Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd ed.: BASC-2 and Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale: SCAS) and adaptive functioning (BASC-2 and Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, 2nd ed.: ABAS-II). Within the 22q11.2DS group, different DSM-IV anxiety domains were also analyzed using SCAS subscales. Results Based on parent report, 19% of children with 22q11.2DS had a prior diagnosis of an anxiety disorder vs. 58% with at least one elevated anxiety score (BASC-2 and/or SCAS). Mean BASC-2 anxiety scores were significantly higher in 22q11.2DS (55.6+12.5) than TD (48.3+10; p=0.003) and a greater percentage of children with 22q11.DS (37%) had elevated BASC-2 anxiety scores compared with TD (14%; p=0.01). Higher anxiety scores were related to lower adaptive function (r=−0.27, p=0.015) but there was no relationship between WISC-IV FSIQ and BASC-2 adaptive skills (r=−0.06, p=0.6) in the 22q11.2DS group. For the individual SCAS anxiety subscales, panic-agoraphobia (r=−0.38, p=0.03), physical injury (r=−0.34, p=0.05), and obsessive compulsive disorder (r=−0.47, p=0.005) were significantly negatively related to adaptive function in 22q11.2DS. Conclusions Despite known risk, anxiety is under-identified in children with 22q11.2DS. The presence of anxiety symptoms, but not intelligence levels, in children with 22q11.2DS is negatively correlated with adaptive function and impacts everyday living skills. PMID:23117596

  17. New Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric (SAS-He): Hyperspectral Design and Initial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J M.; Barnard, James C.; Ermold, Brian D.; Berg, Larry K.

    2016-10-31

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from hyperspectral measurements can serve as an invaluable input for simultaneous retrievals of particle size distributions and major trace gases. The required hyperspectral measurements are provided by a new ground-based radiometer, the so-called Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric (SAS-He), recently developed with support from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The SAS-He has wide spectral coverage (350-1700nm) and high spectral resolution: about 2.4 nm and 6 nm within 350-1000 nm and 970-1700 nm spectral ranges, respectively. To illustrate an initial performance of the SAS-He, we take advantage of integrated dataset collected during the ARM-supported Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) over the US coastal region (Cape Cod, Massachusetts). This dataset includes AODs derived using data from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). We demonstrate that, on average, the SAS-He AODs closely match the MFRSR and AERONET AODs in the ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges for this area with highly variable AOD. Also, we discuss corrections of SAS-He total optical depth for gas absorption in the near-infrared spectral range and their operational implementation.

  18. New Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric (SAS-He): hyperspectral design and initial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Flynn, Connor; Barnard, James; Ermold, Brian; Berg, Larry

    2016-10-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from hyperspectral measurements can serve as an invaluable input for simultaneous retrievals of particle size distributions and major trace gases. The required hyperspectral measurements are provided by a new ground-based radiometer, the so-called Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric (SAS-He), recently developed with support from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The SAS-He has wide spectral coverage (350-1700nm) and high spectral resolution: about 2.4 nm and 6 nm within 350-1000 nm and 970-1700 nm spectral ranges, respectively. To illustrate an initial performance of the SAS-He, we take advantage of integrated dataset collected during the ARM-supported Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) over the US coastal region (Cape Cod, Massachusetts). This dataset includes AODs derived using data from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). We demonstrate that, on average, the SAS-He AODs closely match the MFRSR and AERONET AODs in the ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges for this area with highly variable AOD. Also, we discuss corrections of SAS-He total optical depth for gas absorption in the near-infrared spectral range and their operational implementation

  19. Sas-4 provides a scaffold for cytoplasmic complexes and tethers them in a centrosome.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Jayachandran; Mennella, Vito; Blachon, Stephanie; Zhai, Bo; Smith, Andrew H; Megraw, Timothy L; Nicastro, Daniela; Gygi, Steven P; Agard, David A; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2011-06-21

    Centrosomes are conserved organelles that are essential for accurate cell division and cilium formation. A centrosome consists of a pair of centrioles surrounded by a protein network of pericentriolar material (PCM) that is essential for the centrosome's function. In this study, we show that Sas-4 provides a scaffold for cytoplasmic complexes (named S-CAP), which include CNN, Asl and D-PLP, proteins that are all found in the centrosomes at the vicinity of the centriole. When Sas-4 is absent, nascent procentrioles are unstable and lack PCM, and functional centrosomes are not generated. When Sas-4 is mutated, so that it cannot form S-CAP complexes, centrosomes are present but with dramatically reduced levels of PCM. Finally, purified S-CAP complexes or recombinant Sas-4 can bind centrosomes stripped of PCM, whereas recombinant CNN or Asl cannot. In summary, PCM assembly begins in the cytosol where Sas-4 provides a scaffold for pre-assembled cytoplasmic complexes before tethering of the complexes in a centrosome.

  20. SAS-Pro: simultaneous residue assignment and structure superposition for protein structure alignment.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shweta B; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V

    2012-01-01

    Protein structure alignment is the problem of determining an assignment between the amino-acid residues of two given proteins in a way that maximizes a measure of similarity between the two superimposed protein structures. By identifying geometric similarities, structure alignment algorithms provide critical insights into protein functional similarities. Existing structure alignment tools adopt a two-stage approach to structure alignment by decoupling and iterating between the assignment evaluation and structure superposition problems. We introduce a novel approach, SAS-Pro, which addresses the assignment evaluation and structure superposition simultaneously by formulating the alignment problem as a single bilevel optimization problem. The new formulation does not require the sequentiality constraints, thus generalizing the scope of the alignment methodology to include non-sequential protein alignments. We employ derivative-free optimization methodologies for searching for the global optimum of the highly nonlinear and non-differentiable RMSD function encountered in the proposed model. Alignments obtained with SAS-Pro have better RMSD values and larger lengths than those obtained from other alignment tools. For non-sequential alignment problems, SAS-Pro leads to alignments with high degree of similarity with known reference alignments. The source code of SAS-Pro is available for download at http://eudoxus.cheme.cmu.edu/saspro/SAS-Pro.html.

  1. Spanish Validation of the School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR).

    PubMed

    Orgilés, Mireia; Fernández-Martínez, Iván; Lera-Miguel, Sara; Marzo, Juan Carlos; Medrano, Laura; Espada, José Pedro

    2016-11-04

    This study aimed to examine the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR) in a community sample of 315 Spanish children aged 5 to 12 years. Thirty-seven teachers from eleven schools completed the SAS-TR and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for each child. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original two-factor structure, but a better fit model was obtained after removing four items. The scale was found to have high internal consistency (α = 0.91) and satisfactory test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.87) for the Spanish sample. Convergent validity was supported by positive significant correlations between the SAS-TR and the Emotional Symptoms subscale of the SDQ. Lower correlations between the SAS-TR and the SDQ Conduct Problems subscale supported the divergent validity. Overall, the findings suggest that the Spanish version of the SAS-TR is a reliable and valid instrument for teachers to assess anxiety in Spanish children.

  2. Centriolar SAS-7 acts upstream of SPD-2 to regulate centriole assembly and pericentriolar material formation.

    PubMed

    Sugioka, Kenji; Hamill, Danielle R; Lowry, Joshua B; McNeely, Marie E; Enrick, Molly; Richter, Alyssa C; Kiebler, Lauren E; Priess, James R; Bowerman, Bruce

    2017-01-16

    The centriole/basal body is a eukaryotic organelle that plays essential roles in cell division and signaling. Among five known core centriole proteins, SPD-2/Cep192 is the first recruited to the site of daughter centriole formation and regulates the centriolar localization of the other components in C. elegans and in humans. However, the molecular basis for SPD-2 centriolar localization remains unknown. Here we describe a new centriole component, the coiled-coil protein SAS-7, as a regulator of centriole duplication, assembly and elongation. We also show that SAS-7 binds SPD-2 and regulates SPD-2 centriolar recruitment, while SAS-7 centriolar localization is SPD-2-independent. Furthermore, pericentriolar material (PCM) formation is abnormal in sas-7 mutants, and the PCM-dependent induction of cell polarity that defines the anterior-posterior body axis frequently fails. We conclude that SAS-7 functions at the earliest step in centriole duplication yet identified and plays important roles in the orchestration of centriole and PCM assembly.

  3. Determination and occurrence of secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS) in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Baena-Nogueras, Rosa María; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2013-05-01

    A new methodology has been developed for the determination of secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS), an anionic surfactant, in environmental matrices. Sediment and sludge samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction and sonication, whereas wastewater and surface water samples were processed using solid-phase extraction. Extraction recoveries were acceptable for both aqueous (78-120%) and solid samples (83-100%). Determination of SAS was carried out by high or ultra performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry using ion trap and time-of-flight detectors. The methodology was applied to samples from Guadalete River (SW Spain), where SAS concentrations below 1 μg L(-1) were measured in surface water, and from 72 to 9737 μg kg(-1) in sediments. Differential partitioning was observed for SAS homologues as those having a longer hydrocarbon chain which preferentially sorbed onto particulate matter. A preliminary environmental risk assessment also showed that SAS measured levels were not harmful to the aquatic community in the sampling area.

  4. Using the SAS reg sign system for an analysis and reporting system for effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T.

    1991-09-19

    A computerized analysis and reporting system was developed for personnel involved in effluent monitoring operations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-84OR21400. SAS/ACCESS{reg sign} interface to Rdb/VMS{reg sign}, SAS/BASE{reg sign}, SAS/GRAPH{reg sign}, SAS{reg sign} BATCH, the macro facility, and some aspects of Digital Command Language (DCL{trademark}) were utilized in the development of the reporting and analysis system. This system essentially contains three modules, each of which has its own function. The basic functions include the creation of monthly reports for easy perusal for excursions; run charts of the observational laboratory data; and a nonparametric trend analysis of monthly summary values, which involves the computation of the Mann-Kendall test for slope. Digital Control Language is utilized to pass user supplied parameters to individual SAS{reg sign} programs within each module and the SASBATCH command is used to regulate time consuming programs to a batch queue.

  5. The Centriole Cartwheel Protein SAS-6 in Trypanosoma brucei Is Required for Probasal Body Biogenesis and Flagellum Assembly.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiqing; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Qing; Siegel, Sara; Li, Ziyin

    2015-09-01

    The centriole in eukaryotes functions as the cell's microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) to nucleate spindle assembly, and its biogenesis requires an evolutionarily conserved protein, SAS-6, which assembles the centriole cartwheel. Trypanosoma brucei, an early branching protozoan, possesses the basal body as its MTOC to nucleate flagellum biogenesis. However, little is known about the components of the basal body and their roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellum assembly. Here, we report that the T. brucei SAS-6 homolog, TbSAS-6, is localized to the mature basal body and the probasal body throughout the cell cycle. RNA interference (RNAi) of TbSAS-6 inhibited probasal body biogenesis, compromised flagellum assembly, and caused cytokinesis arrest. Surprisingly, overexpression of TbSAS-6 in T. brucei also impaired probasal body duplication and flagellum assembly, contrary to SAS-6 overexpression in humans, which produces supernumerary centrioles. Furthermore, we showed that depletion of T. brucei Polo-like kinase, TbPLK, or inhibition of TbPLK activity did not abolish TbSAS-6 localization to the basal body, in contrast to the essential role of Polo-like kinase in recruiting SAS-6 to centrioles in animals. Altogether, these results identified the essential role of TbSAS-6 in probasal body biogenesis and flagellum assembly and suggest the presence of a TbPLK-independent pathway governing basal body duplication in T. brucei.

  6. SAS-4 Protein in Trypanosoma brucei Controls Life Cycle Transitions by Modulating the Length of the Flagellum Attachment Zone Filament.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiqing; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ziyin

    2015-12-18

    The evolutionarily conserved centriole/basal body protein SAS-4 regulates centriole duplication in metazoa and basal body duplication in flagellated and ciliated organisms. Here, we report that the SAS-4 homolog in the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, TbSAS-4, plays an unusual role in controlling life cycle transitions by regulating the length of the flagellum attachment zone (FAZ) filament, a specialized cytoskeletal structure required for flagellum adhesion and cell morphogenesis. TbSAS-4 is concentrated at the distal tip of the FAZ filament, and depletion of TbSAS-4 in the trypomastigote form disrupts the elongation of the new FAZ filament, generating cells with a shorter FAZ associated with a longer unattached flagellum and repositioned kinetoplast and basal body, reminiscent of epimastigote-like morphology. Further, we show that TbSAS-4 associates with six additional FAZ tip proteins, and depletion of TbSAS-4 disrupts the enrichment of these FAZ tip proteins at the new FAZ tip, suggesting a role of TbSAS-4 in maintaining the integrity of this FAZ tip protein complex. Together, these results uncover a novel function of TbSAS-4 in regulating the length of the FAZ filament to control basal body positioning and life cycle transitions in T. brucei.

  7. Testing the Short and Screener versions of the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR).

    PubMed

    Gameroff, Marc J; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M

    2012-03-01

    The 54-item Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR) is a measure of social functioning used in research studies and clinical practice. Two shortened versions were recently developed: the 24-item SAS-SR: Short and the 14-item SAS-SR: Screener. We briefly describe the development of the shortened scales and then assess their reliability and validity in comparison to the full SAS-SR in new analyses from two separate samples of convenience from a family study and from a primary care clinic. Compared to the full SAS-SR, the shortened scales performed well, exhibiting high correlations with full SAS-SR scores (r values between 0.81 and 0.95); significant correlations with health-related quality of life as measured by the Short Form 36 Health Survey; the ability to distinguish subjects with major depression versus other psychiatric disorders versus no mental disorders; and sensitivity to change in clinical status as measured longitudinally with the Symptom Checklist-90 and Global Assessment Scale. The SAS-SR: Short and SAS-SR: Screener retained the areas assessed by the full SAS-SR with fewer items in each area, and appear to be promising replacements for the full scale when a shorter administration time is desired and detailed information on performance in different areas is not required. Further work is needed to test the validity of the shortened measures.

  8. Symmetric space property and an inverse scattering formulation of the SAS Einstein--Maxwell field equations

    SciTech Connect

    Eris, A.; Guerses, M.; Karasu, A.

    1984-05-01

    We formulate stationary axially symmetric (SAS) Einstein--Maxwell fields in the framework of harmonic mappings of Riemannian manifolds and show that the configuration space of the fields is a symmetric space. This result enables us to embed the configuration space into an eight-dimensional flat manifold and formulate SAS Einstein--Maxwell fields as a sigma-model. We then give, in a coordinate free way, a Belinskii--Zakharov type of an inverse scattering transform technique for the field equations supplemented by a reduction scheme similar to that of Zakharov--Mikhailov and Mikhailov--Yarimchuk.

  9. Median and quantile tests under complex survey design using SAS and R.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi; Caudill, Samuel P; Li, Ruosha; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2014-11-01

    Techniques for conducting hypothesis testing on the median and other quantiles of two or more subgroups under complex survey design are limited. In this paper, we introduce programs in both SAS and R to perform such a test. A detailed illustration of the computations, macro variable definitions, input and output for the SAS and R programs are also included in the text. Urinary iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are used as examples for comparing medians between females and males as well as comparing the 75th percentiles among three salt consumption groups.

  10. SAS procedures for designing and analyzing sample surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, Joshua D.; Reinecke, Kenneth J.; Kaminski, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    Complex surveys often are necessary to estimate occurrence (or distribution), density, and abundance of plants and animals for purposes of re-search and conservation. Most scientists are familiar with simple random sampling, where sample units are selected from a population of interest (sampling frame) with equal probability. However, the goal of ecological surveys often is to make inferences about populations over large or complex spatial areas where organisms are not homogeneously distributed or sampling frames are in-convenient or impossible to construct. Candidate sampling strategies for such complex surveys include stratified,multistage, and adaptive sampling (Thompson 1992, Buckland 1994).

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT-A AND A ENVIRONMENTAL SEALS, INC., SEAL ASSIST SYSTEM (SAS) PHASE II REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Seal Assist System (SAS) for natural gas reciprocating compressor rod packing manufactured by A&A Environmental Seals, Inc. The SAS uses a secondary containment gland to collect natural g...

  12. Houston, We Have a Problem: Teachers Find No Value in the SAS Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS®)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Clarin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the SAS Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS®) in practice, as perceived and experienced by teachers in the Southwest School District (SSD). To evaluate teacher effectiveness, SSD is using SAS EVAAS® for high-stakes consequences more than any other district or state in the country. A mixed-method design including a…

  13. The yeast SAS (something about silencing) protein complex contains a MYST-type putative acetyltransferase and functions with chromatin assembly factor ASF1

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Shigehiro; Sutton, Ann; Muster, Nemone; Brown, Christine E.; Yates, John R.; Sternglanz, Rolf; Workman, Jerry L.

    2001-01-01

    It is well established that acetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins is intimately linked to transcriptional activation. However, loss of acetyltransferase activity has also been shown to cause silencing defects, implicating acetylation in gene silencing. The something about silencing (Sas) 2 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a member of the MYST (MOZ, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2, and TIP60) acetyltransferase family, promotes silencing at HML and telomeres. Here we identify a ∼450-kD SAS complex containing Sas2p, Sas4p, and the tf2f-related Sas5 protein. Mutations in the conserved acetyl-CoA binding motif of Sas2p are shown to disrupt the ability of Sas2p to mediate the silencing at HML and telomeres, providing evidence for an important role for the acetyltransferase activity of the SAS complex in silencing. Furthermore, the SAS complex is found to interact with chromatin assembly factor Asf1p, and asf1 mutants show silencing defects similar to mutants in the SAS complex. Thus, ASF1-dependent chromatin assembly may mediate the role of the SAS complex in silencing. PMID:11731479

  14. Colonic GLP-2 is not Sufficient to Promote Jejunal Adaptation in a PN-Dependent Rat Model of Human Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koopmann, Matthew C.; Liu, Xiaowen; Boehler, Christopher J.; Murali, Sangita G.; Holst, Jens J.; Ney, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bowel resection may lead to short bowel syndrome (SBS), which often requires parenteral nutrition (PN) due to inadequate intestinal adaptation. The objective of this study was to determine the time course of adaptation and proglucagon system responses after bowel resection in a PN-dependent rat model of SBS. Methods Rats underwent jugular catheter placement and a 60% jejunoileal resection + cecectomy with jejunoileal anastomosis or transection control surgery. Rats were maintained exclusively with PN and killed at 4 hours to 12 days. A nonsurgical group served as baseline. Bowel growth and digestive capacity were assessed by mucosal mass, protein, DNA, histology, and sucrase activity. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and bioactive glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results Jejunum cellularity changed significantly over time with resection but not transection, peaking at days 3–4 and declining by day 12. Jejunum sucrase-specific activity decreased significantly with time after resection and transection. Colon crypt depth increased over time with resection but not transection, peaking at days 7–12. Plasma bioactive GLP-2 and colon proglucagon levels peaked from days 4–7 after resection and then approached baseline. Plasma IGF-I increased with resection through day 12. Jejunum and colon GLP-2 receptor RNAs peaked by day 1 and then declined below baseline. Conclusions After bowel resection resulting in SBS in the rat, peak proglucagon, plasma GLP-2, and GLP-2 receptor levels are insufficient to promote jejunal adaptation. The colon adapts with resection, expresses proglucagon, and should be preserved when possible in massive intestinal resection. PMID:19644131

  15. Caenorhabditis elegans centriolar protein SAS-6 forms a spiral that is consistent with imparting a ninefold symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Manuel; Erat, Michèle C.; Hachet, Virginie; Guichard, Paul; Blank, Iris D.; Flückiger, Isabelle; Slater, Leanne; Lowe, Edward D.; Hatzopoulos, Georgios N.; Steinmetz, Michel O.; Gönczy, Pierre; Vakonakis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Centrioles are evolutionary conserved organelles that give rise to cilia and flagella as well as centrosomes. Centrioles display a characteristic ninefold symmetry imposed by the spindle assembly abnormal protein 6 (SAS-6) family. SAS-6 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Danio rerio was shown to form ninefold symmetric, ring-shaped oligomers in vitro that were similar to the cartwheels observed in vivo during early steps of centriole assembly in most species. Here, we report crystallographic and EM analyses showing that, instead, Caenorhabotis elegans SAS-6 self-assembles into a spiral arrangement. Remarkably, we find that this spiral arrangement is also consistent with ninefold symmetry, suggesting that two distinct SAS-6 oligomerization architectures can direct the same output symmetry. Sequence analysis suggests that SAS-6 spirals are restricted to specific nematodes. This oligomeric arrangement may provide a structural basis for the presence of a central tube instead of a cartwheel during centriole assembly in these species. PMID:23798409

  16. Caenorhabditis elegans centriolar protein SAS-6 forms a spiral that is consistent with imparting a ninefold symmetry.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Manuel; Erat, Michèle C; Hachet, Virginie; Guichard, Paul; Blank, Iris D; Flückiger, Isabelle; Slater, Leanne; Lowe, Edward D; Hatzopoulos, Georgios N; Steinmetz, Michel O; Gönczy, Pierre; Vakonakis, Ioannis

    2013-07-09

    Centrioles are evolutionary conserved organelles that give rise to cilia and flagella as well as centrosomes. Centrioles display a characteristic ninefold symmetry imposed by the spindle assembly abnormal protein 6 (SAS-6) family. SAS-6 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Danio rerio was shown to form ninefold symmetric, ring-shaped oligomers in vitro that were similar to the cartwheels observed in vivo during early steps of centriole assembly in most species. Here, we report crystallographic and EM analyses showing that, instead, Caenorhabotis elegans SAS-6 self-assembles into a spiral arrangement. Remarkably, we find that this spiral arrangement is also consistent with ninefold symmetry, suggesting that two distinct SAS-6 oligomerization architectures can direct the same output symmetry. Sequence analysis suggests that SAS-6 spirals are restricted to specific nematodes. This oligomeric arrangement may provide a structural basis for the presence of a central tube instead of a cartwheel during centriole assembly in these species.

  17. SAS macro programs for geographically weighted generalized linear modeling with spatial point data: applications to health research.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vivian Yi-Ju; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2012-08-01

    An increasing interest in exploring spatial non-stationarity has generated several specialized analytic software programs; however, few of these programs can be integrated natively into a well-developed statistical environment such as SAS. We not only developed a set of SAS macro programs to fill this gap, but also expanded the geographically weighted generalized linear modeling (GWGLM) by integrating the strengths of SAS into the GWGLM framework. Three features distinguish our work. First, the macro programs of this study provide more kernel weighting functions than the existing programs. Second, with our codes the users are able to better specify the bandwidth selection process compared to the capabilities of existing programs. Third, the development of the macro programs is fully embedded in the SAS environment, providing great potential for future exploration of complicated spatially varying coefficient models in other disciplines. We provided three empirical examples to illustrate the use of the SAS macro programs and demonstrated the advantages explained above.

  18. Interactions Between SAS-C Spacecraft Nutations and Spin-Rate Control System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The SAS-C spacecraft is stabilized by a momentum biased reaction wheel and passive nutation damper. A closed-loop low-speed spacecraft spin rate...control system is included which uses a single-axis gyro and a variable speed range on the reaction wheel . Dynamic instability can result from

  19. Measuring Statistics Anxiety: Cross-Country Validity of the Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina; Carmona, Jose

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to test the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Vigil-Colet et al.'s Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS), taking into account evidences based on (a) internal structure (factorial structure and cross-country invariance) and (b) relationships to other variables (the statistics anxiety's nomological network).…

  20. SAS-2 high-energy gamma-ray observations of the Vela pulsar. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Ogelman, H. B.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of additional data from SAS-2 experiment and improvements in the orbit-attitude data and analysis procedures have produced revised values for the flux from the Vela gamma-ray source. The pulsar phase plot shows two peaks, neither of which is in phase with the single radio pulse.

  1. Galactic plane gamma radiation. [SAS-2 and COS-b observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Ogelman, H. B.; Tuner, T.; Ozel, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of the complete data from SAS-2 accentuates the fact that the distribution of galactic gamma radiation has several similarities to that of other large-scale tracers of galactic structure. The gamma radiation shows no statistically significant variation with direction, and the spectrum seen along the plane is the same as that derived for the galactic component of the gamma radiation at high latitude. This uniformity of the energy spectrum, the smooth decrease in intensity as a function of galactic latitude, and the absence of any galactic gamma ray sources at high latitudes argue in favor of a diffuse origin for most of the galactic gamma radiation, rather than a collection of localized sources. All the localized sources identified in the SAS 2 data are associated with known compact objects on the basis of observed periodicities, except gamma195+5 Excluding those SAS 2 sources observed by COS-B and two other excesses (CG 312-1 and CG333+0) visible in the SAS 2 data associated with tangential directions of spiral arms, thera are eight remaining new sources in the COS-B catalog.

  2. A new SAS program for behavioral analysis of Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new program is introduced that uses SAS software to duplicate output of descriptive statistics from the Sarria Excel workbook for EPG waveform analysis. Not only are publishable means and standard errors or deviations output, the user also is guided through four relatively simple sub-programs for ...

  3. Loglinear Smoothing: An Alternative Numerical Approach Using SAS. Research Report. ETS RR-04-27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina A.; Casabianca, Jodi

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to demonstrate loglinear smoothing using SAS PROC GENMOD. The results from four published examples, which include the smoothing of a) univariate distributions, b) bivariate distributions, c) distributions with teeth, and d) bivariate distributions with structural zeros, are reproduced to show the flexibility of the…

  4. [Sleep apnea syndrome in patients with cardiac disease].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kazumi; Wada, Yuka; Aono, Takuya; Sugi, Gosuke; Ohta, Noriaki; Sueda, Shozo; Nomoto, Takahiko; Oshita, Akira

    2008-09-01

    We examined the incidence of sleep-apnea syndrome (SAS; 5 or more episodes of apnea/hypopnea in 1 hour) in 213 patients (152 male, 67.8 +/- 10.9 years) with various cardiac diseases by a modified sleep polygraph (morpheus; Teijin Pharma, Tokyo) from July 2005 to April 2007. Mild sleep disturbance was defined as 5< or = AHI<20, moderate sleep disturbance as 20< or = AHI<40, and severe sleep disturbance as 40< or = AHI. SAS was seen in 87.3% of the patients. This high incidence sharply contrasts with 7.5% reported in factory workers in Japan. Body mass index, though significant, was scarcely correlated with the severity of SAS (p<0.01). As sleep disturbance became severe, the proportion of an obstructive, central, and eventually mixed obstructive-central SAS increased. Although the overall severity was not different between different categories of cardiac diseases, obstructive-central SAS was seen far more frequent in congestive heart failure. Hypertension was closely associated with apnea/hypopnea. A tight correlation between SAS and various cardiac diseases was suggested.

  5. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B.; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  6. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS-II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS.

  7. Coupling the System Analysis Module with SAS4A/SASSYS-1

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, T. H.; Hu, R.

    2016-09-30

    SAS4A/SASSYS-1 is a simulation tool used to perform deterministic analysis of anticipated events as well as design basis and beyond design basis accidents for advanced reactors, with an emphasis on sodium fast reactors. SAS4A/SASSYS-1 has been under development and in active use for nearly forty-five years, and is currently maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Office of Advanced Reactor Technology. Although SAS4A/SASSYS-1 contains a very capable primary and intermediate system modeling component, PRIMAR-4, it also has some shortcomings: outdated data management and code structure makes extension of the PRIMAR-4 module somewhat difficult. The user input format for PRIMAR-4 also limits the number of volumes and segments that can be used to describe a given system. The System Analysis Module (SAM) is a fairly new code development effort being carried out under the U.S. DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. SAM is being developed with advanced physical models, numerical methods, and software engineering practices; however, it is currently somewhat limited in the system components and phenomena that can be represented. For example, component models for electromagnetic pumps and multi-layer stratified volumes have not yet been developed. Nor is there support for a balance of plant model. Similarly, system-level phenomena such as control-rod driveline expansion and vessel elongation are not represented. This report documents fiscal year 2016 work that was carried out to couple the transient safety analysis capabilities of SAS4A/SASSYS-1 with the system modeling capabilities of SAM under the joint support of the ART and NEAMS programs. The coupling effort was successful and is demonstrated by evaluating an unprotected loss of flow transient for the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) design. There are differences between the stand-alone SAS4A/SASSYS-1 simulations and the coupled SAS/SAM simulations, but these are mainly

  8. Multifractal spectra of laser Doppler flowmetry signals in healthy and sleep apnea syndrome subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buard, Benjamin; Trzepizur, Wojciech; Mahe, Guillaume; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Rousseau, David; Gagnadoux, Frédéric; Abraham, Pierre; Humeau, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals give a peripheral view of the cardiovascular system. To better understand the possible modifications brought by sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in LDF signals, we herein propose to analyze the complexity of such signals in obstructive SAS subjects, and to compare the results with those obtained in healthy subjects. SAS is a pathology that leads to a drop in the parasympathetic tone associated with an increase in the sympathetic tone in awakens SAS patients. Nine men with obstructive SAS and nine healthy men participated awaken in our study and LDF signals were recorded in the forearm. In our work, complexity of LDF signals is analyzed through the computation and analysis of their multifractal spectra. The multifractal spectra are estimated by first estimating the discrete partition function of the signals, then by determining their Renyi exponents with a linear regression, and finally by computing their Legendre transform. The results show that, at rest, obstructive SAS has no or little impact on the multifractal spectra of LDF signals recorded in the forearm. This study shows that the physiological modifications brought by obstructive SAS do not modify the complexity of LDF signals when recorded in the forearm.

  9. Assessment of the awareness and management of sleep apnea syndrome in acromegaly. The COM.E.TA (Comorbidities Evaluation and Treatment in Acromegaly) Italian Study Group.

    PubMed

    De Menis, E; Giustina, A; Colao, A; Degli Uberti, E; Ghigo, E; Minuto, F; Bogazzi, F; Drigo, R; Cattaneo, A; Aimaretti, G

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Italian COM.E.T.A. (COMorbidities Evaluation and Treatment in Acromegaly) study group started to assess the application in a clinical setting of the Versailles criteria for management of acromegaly complications by a first questionnaire focusing on cardiovascular co-morbidities. A further questionnaire on sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) was delivered by the COM.E.T.A. study group to 107 endocrine centers in Italy. The results of our survey suggest that SAS is a well-known comorbidity even if its estimated prevalence is lower than in the literature. Polysomnography is the preferred tool for diagnosis. Control of SAS is considered relevant both for quality of life and co-morbidities. Continuous positive airway pressure is the cornerstone of therapy, but patients' acceptance may be critical. Control of GH/IGF-I secretion is important to improve SAS. Management of SAS requires cooperation between specialists.

  10. Observation of celestial high energy gamma rays from SAS-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    The Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS)-II, launched on Nov. 15, 1973, carried into orbit a 32-deck magnetic-core digitized-spark-chamber gamma-ray telescope to study celestial gamma radiation in the energy range above 30 MeV. As of May 21, 1973, SAS-II had viewed approximately half the sky, including the galactic center region, the galactic anti-center, and several regions off the galactic plane, and about one-third of the data from eight weeks of viewing has been analyzed. A finite diffuse flux for regions with galactic latitudes greater than 20 deg has been detected with a very steep energy spectrum. Combining this result with low-energy gamma-ray data yields a picture suggesting a cosmological origin for this radiation.

  11. The PLK4–STIL–SAS-6 module at the core of centriole duplication

    PubMed Central

    Arquint, Christian; Nigg, Erich A.

    2016-01-01

    Centrioles are microtubule-based core components of centrosomes and cilia. They are duplicated exactly once during S-phase progression. Central to formation of each new (daughter) centriole is the formation of a nine-fold symmetrical cartwheel structure onto which microtubule triplets are deposited. In recent years, a module comprising the protein kinase polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) and the two proteins STIL and SAS-6 have been shown to stay at the core of centriole duplication. Depletion of any one of these three proteins blocks centriole duplication and, conversely, overexpression causes centriole amplification. In this short review article, we summarize recent insights into how PLK4, STIL and SAS-6 co-operate in space and time to form a new centriole. These advances begin to shed light on the very first steps of centriole biogenesis. PMID:27911707

  12. The PLK4-STIL-SAS-6 module at the core of centriole duplication.

    PubMed

    Arquint, Christian; Nigg, Erich A

    2016-10-15

    Centrioles are microtubule-based core components of centrosomes and cilia. They are duplicated exactly once during S-phase progression. Central to formation of each new (daughter) centriole is the formation of a nine-fold symmetrical cartwheel structure onto which microtubule triplets are deposited. In recent years, a module comprising the protein kinase polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) and the two proteins STIL and SAS-6 have been shown to stay at the core of centriole duplication. Depletion of any one of these three proteins blocks centriole duplication and, conversely, overexpression causes centriole amplification. In this short review article, we summarize recent insights into how PLK4, STIL and SAS-6 co-operate in space and time to form a new centriole. These advances begin to shed light on the very first steps of centriole biogenesis.

  13. System definition phase and acquisition phase project plan for Small Astronomy Satellite SAS-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The objective of the SAS-D project is to conduct spectral distribution studies of celestial ultraviolet sources using an Explorer-class spacecraft launched by a Delta vehicle into a geosynchronous orbit in the last half of 1975. The telescope system is intended for use by guest astronomers for a major portion of the total observing time. The concept of the overall system, designed to resemble functionally the operation of a ground-based observatory, should maximize the usefulness of the instrument to the astronomical community by limiting the amount of special instruction needed to use the spaceborne telescope. The SAS-D mission will obtain information on what stars, nebulae, and galaxies are and how they develop.

  14. Program planning using the GMAP procedure in SAS/GRAPH software

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.R.; Farrell, M.P.; Gross, T.J.; White, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology that produces Program Planning Charts using SAS/GRAPH software has been developed as an aid to program management in the CO/sub 2/ Research Program of the US Department of Energy. The methodology uses programs from MAPPER, a front-end program (written by D.A. Dahl) for DISSPLA to produce Logic Flow diagrams. Each research question, or set of questions, which comprise one phase of a research program, is represented by a boxed area containing the title of the particular research question(s). The GMAP procedure of SAS/GRAPH software reads user-supplied information regarding a variable aspect of each research question and shades the boxes accordingly. The result is a color-coded planning chart depicting the user supplied information for the individual research questions and, consequently, the status of the overall program. 4 figures, 1 table.

  15. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product for the SAS-He Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Ermold, B; Flynn, CJ; Barnard, J

    2013-11-27

    The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer – Hemispheric (SAS-He) is a ground-based, shadowband instrument that measures the direct and diffuse solar irradiance. In this regard, the instrument is similar to the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) – an instrument that has been in the ARM suite of instruments for more than 15 years. However, the two instruments differ significantly in wavelength resolution and range. In particular, the MFRSR only observes the spectrum in six discrete wavelength channels of about 10 nm width from 415 to 940 nm. The SAS-He, in contrast, incorporates two fiber-coupled grating spectrometers: a Si CCD spectrometer with over 2000 pixels covering the range from 325-1040 nm with ~ 2.5 nm resolution ,and an InGaAs array spectrometer with 256 pixels covering the wavelength range from 960-1700 nm with ~ 6 nm resolution.

  16. SAS-2 observations of celestial diffuse gamma radiation above 30 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Hartman, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The small astronomy satellite, SAS-2, used a 32-deck magnetic core digitized spark chamber to study gamma rays with energies above 30 MeV. Data for four regions of the sky away from the galactic plane were analyzed. These regions show a finite, diffuse flux of gamma rays with a steep energy spectrum, and the flux is uniform over all the regions. Represented by a power law, the differential energy spectrum shows an index of 2.5 + or - 0.4. The steep SAS-2 spectrum and the lower energy data are reasonably consistent with a neutral pion gamma-ray spectrum which was red-shifted (such as that proposed by some cosmological theories). It is concluded that the diffuse celestial gamma ray spectrum observed presents the possibility of cosmological studies and possible evidence for a residual cosmic ray density, and supports the galactic superclusters of matter and antimatter remaining from baryon-symmetric big bang.

  17. Hybrid measurement chains for the SAS-C spacecraft. [advantages over analog signal processing circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goeke, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Spacecraft electronic systems usually demand tight packaging. It was this consideration which initially forced us to consider hybrid circuits for the analog signal processing circuits in the Small Astronomy Satellite-C (SAS-C) scientific payload. We gradually discovered that increased reliability, low power consumption, and reduced program costs all followed. This paper will attempt to share our laboratory's first experience with hybrid circuits and indicate those areas which we found to be important.

  18. Recent results of X-ray observations from OSO-7 and SAS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Recent observations bearing on the nature of compact X-ray sources obtained from the MIT instruments aboard OSO-7 and SAS-3 are discussed. Results on the X-ray sky survey, new ultralow-energy X-ray sources, X-ray sources in globular clusters, slow X-ray pulsars, and variability and position of compact X-ray sources in Cen A are discussed. Descriptions of the satellite-borne X-ray instruments are provided.

  19. The ligand Sas and its receptor PTP10D drive tumour-suppressive cell competition.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masatoshi; Ohsawa, Shizue; Kunimasa, Kei; Igaki, Tatsushi

    2017-02-09

    Normal epithelial cells often exert anti-tumour effects against nearby oncogenic cells. In the Drosophila imaginal epithelium, clones of oncogenic cells with loss-of-function mutations in the apico-basal polarity genes scribble or discs large are actively eliminated by cell competition when surrounded by wild-type cells. Although c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling plays a crucial role in this cell elimination, the initial event, which occurs at the interface between normal cells and polarity-deficient cells, has not previously been identified. Here, through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we identify the ligand Sas and the receptor-type tyrosine phosphatase PTP10D as the cell-surface ligand-receptor system that drives tumour-suppressive cell competition. At the interface between the wild-type 'winner' and the polarity-deficient 'loser' clones, winner cells relocalize Sas to the lateral cell surface, whereas loser cells relocalize PTP10D there. This leads to the trans-activation of Sas-PTP10D signalling in loser cells, which restrains EGFR signalling and thereby enables elevated JNK signalling in loser cells, triggering cell elimination. In the absence of Sas-PTP10D, elevated EGFR signalling in loser cells switches the role of JNK from pro-apoptotic to pro-proliferative by inactivating the Hippo pathway, thereby driving the overgrowth of polarity-deficient cells. These findings uncover the mechanism by which normal epithelial cells recognize oncogenic polarity-deficient neighbours to drive cell competition.

  20. SAS-3 observations of an X-ray flare from Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canizares, C. R.; Bradt, H.; Buff, J.; Laufer, B.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for the SAS-3 observation of an X-ray flare from Cygnus X-1. The 1.5 to 6 keV intensity rose by a factor of four and exhibited variability on several time scales from seconds to hours. The 6 to 15 keV intensity showed less activity. The event is similar to that observed by ANS and Ariel 5, but lasted less than two weeks.

  1. Solubilization of the poorly water soluble drug, telmisartan, using supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process.

    PubMed

    Park, Junsung; Cho, Wonkyung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Ahn, Junhyun; Han, Kang; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2013-01-30

    Telmisartan is a biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) class II drug that has extremely low water solubility but is freely soluble in highly alkalized solutions. Few organic solvents can dissolve telmisartan. This solubility problem is the main obstacle achieving the desired bioavailability. Because of its unique characteristics, the supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process was used to BCS class II drug in a variety of ways including micronization, amorphization and solid dispersion. Solid dispersions were prepared using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose/polyvinylpyrrolidone (HPMC/PVP) at 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2 weight ratios of drug to polymer, and pure telmisartan was also treated using the SAS process. Processed samples were characterized for morphology, particle size, crystallinity, solubility, dissolution rate and polymorphic stability. After the SAS process, all samples were converted to the amorphous form and were confirmed to be hundreds nm in size. Solubility and dissolution rate were increased compared to the raw material. Solubility tended to increase with increases in the amount of polymer used. However, unlike the solubility results, the dissolution rate decreased with increases in polymer concentration due to gel layer formation of the polymer. Processed pure telmisartan showed the best drug release even though it had lower solubility compared to other solid dispersions; however, because there were no stabilizers in processed pure telmisartan, it recrystallized after 1 month under severe conditions, while the other solid dispersion samples remained amorphous form. We conclude that after controlling the formulation of solid dispersion, the SAS process could be a promising approach for improving the solubility and dissolution rate of telmisartan.

  2. Learning SAS’s Perl Regular Expression Matching the Easy Way: By Doing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-12

    form of the match results. But just as important as the practice itself would be a method for logging your “practice trail” in a file for future...reference and expansion as well as avoidance of wheel-reinventing. But how do you do this without this file becoming bloated, cluttered, and unmanageable...The answer is to let it become bloated and cluttered. Enter the regex_learning_tool consisting of a SAS Enterprise Guide project and an Excel file

  3. Catalog of SAS-2 gamma-ray observations (Fichtel, et al. 1990)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The machine-readable version of the catalog, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center, is described. The SAS-2 gamma ray catalog contains fluxes measured with the high energy gamma ray telescope flown aboard the second NASA Small Astronomy Satellite. The objects measured include various types of galaxies, quasi-stellar, and BL Lacertae objects, and pulsars. The catalog contains separate files for galaxies, pulsars, other objects, notes, and references.

  4. Immunomagnetic separation and visual fluorescence detection of Salmonella spp., using AOAC approved SAS Molecular Tests.

    PubMed

    Bapanpally, Chandra; Maganty, Gayatri; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Morey, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The SAS Molecular Tests method for detection of Salmonella spp. in various food matrixes has been certified by the AOAC Research Institute and designated Performance Tested Method No. 021202. The current method modification includes the optional immunomagnetic separation (IMS) to enrich the bacteria as well as optional visual fluorescence readout without the use of a turbidimeter. The modifications were validated against the U.S. Department of Agriculture/ Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) reference methods. Food matrixes (chicken carcass rinse, beef trim, and spinach) were inoculated with low levels of Salmonella spp. (0.2-2 CFU/test portion) to generate fractional positives (5-15) in 20 inoculated samples. Samples were enriched with SAS Enrichment medium and incubated at 42 +/- 1 degree C. Enrichments were tested directly and subjected to anti-Salmonella IMS prior to the SAS Molecular Tests. Results were determined via visual fluorescence and via turbidity using a turbidimeter. All replicates were confirmed using the MLG or BAM reference method procedures, regardless of presumptive result. The SAS Molecular Tests Salmonella Detection modified methods were determined to be equivalent to the reference methods for the detection of Salmonella in chicken carcass rinse, beef trim, and fresh spinach. The inclusion of IMS in the modified method improved the detection rate of Salmonella in chicken carcass rinses and spinach. The optional use of visual fluorescent reagent and heat block either with IMS or without IMS produced results that were comparable to the results obtained from using a real-time turbidimeter.

  5. PSHREG: a SAS macro for proportional and nonproportional subdistribution hazards regression.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Maria; Plischke, Max; Leffondré, Karen; Heinze, Georg

    2015-02-01

    We present a new SAS macro %pshreg that can be used to fit a proportional subdistribution hazards model for survival data subject to competing risks. Our macro first modifies the input data set appropriately and then applies SAS's standard Cox regression procedure, PROC PHREG, using weights and counting-process style of specifying survival times to the modified data set. The modified data set can also be used to estimate cumulative incidence curves for the event of interest. The application of PROC PHREG has several advantages, e.g., it directly enables the user to apply the Firth correction, which has been proposed as a solution to the problem of undefined (infinite) maximum likelihood estimates in Cox regression, frequently encountered in small sample analyses. Deviation from proportional subdistribution hazards can be detected by both inspecting Schoenfeld-type residuals and testing correlation of these residuals with time, or by including interactions of covariates with functions of time. We illustrate application of these extended methods for competing risk regression using our macro, which is freely available at: http://cemsiis.meduniwien.ac.at/en/kb/science-research/software/statistical-software/pshreg, by means of analysis of a real chronic kidney disease study. We discuss differences in features and capabilities of %pshreg and the recent (January 2014) SAS PROC PHREG implementation of proportional subdistribution hazards modelling.

  6. Characterizing flexible and intrinsically unstructured biological macromolecules by SAS using the Porod-Debye law.

    PubMed

    Rambo, Robert P; Tainer, John A

    2011-08-01

    Unstructured proteins, RNA or DNA components provide functionally important flexibility that is key to many macromolecular assemblies throughout cell biology. As objective, quantitative experimental measures of flexibility and disorder in solution are limited, small angle scattering (SAS), and in particular small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), provides a critical technology to assess macromolecular flexibility as well as shape and assembly. Here, we consider the Porod-Debye law as a powerful tool for detecting biopolymer flexibility in SAS experiments. We show that the Porod-Debye region fundamentally describes the nature of the scattering intensity decay by capturing the information needed for distinguishing between folded and flexible particles. Particularly for comparative SAS experiments, application of the law, as described here, can distinguish between discrete conformational changes and localized flexibility relevant to molecular recognition and interaction networks. This approach aids insightful analyses of fully and partly flexible macromolecules that is more robust and conclusive than traditional Kratky analyses. Furthermore, we demonstrate for prototypic SAXS data that the ability to calculate particle density by the Porod-Debye criteria, as shown here, provides an objective quality assurance parameter that may prove of general use for SAXS modeling and validation.

  7. Embedding SAS approach into conjugate gradient algorithms for asymmetric 3D elasticity problems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hsin-Chu; Warsi, N.A.; Sameh, A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we present two strategies to embed the SAS (symmetric-and-antisymmetric) scheme into conjugate gradient (CG) algorithms to make solving 3D elasticity problems, with or without global reflexive symmetry, more efficient. The SAS approach is physically a domain decomposition scheme that takes advantage of reflexive symmetry of discretized physical problems, and algebraically a matrix transformation method that exploits special reflexivity properties of the matrix resulting from discretization. In addition to offering large-grain parallelism, which is valuable in a multiprocessing environment, the SAS scheme also has the potential for reducing arithmetic operations in the numerical solution of a reasonably wide class of scientific and engineering problems. This approach can be applied directly to problems that have global reflexive symmetry, yielding smaller and independent subproblems to solve, or indirectly to problems with partial symmetry, resulting in loosely coupled subproblems. The decomposition is achieved by separating the reflexive subspace from the antireflexive one, possessed by a special class of matrices A, A {element_of} C{sup n x n} that satisfy the relation A = PAP where P is a reflection matrix (symmetric signed permutation matrix).

  8. The standardized functional support sectional for the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, M. R.

    1974-01-01

    The standardized functional support section for the improved Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS) spacecraft, which can be used virtually without change for a wide variety of experimental packages and missions, is described. This functional support section makes the spacecraft remarkably flexible for a small satellite. Able to point its thrust axis to any direction in space, it can also spin or slow its outer body rotation to zero for star- or earth-locked pointing of side-viewing experiments. It features a reprogrammable telemetry system, a delayed command system, and an improved control system. Experiments can be built independently and attached to the SAS spacecraft just prior to final acceptance testing and launch. The spacecraft subsystems are described in detail. Included are a summary of the spacecraft characteristics, special design considerations, project reliability requirements, and environmental test conditions. It is intended that this new functional support section afford virtual off-the-shelf availability of the SAS spacecraft to independently built experiments, thus providing quick response time and minimum cost in meeting a wide variety of experimenter needs.

  9. De novo centriole formation in human cells is error-prone and does not require SAS-6 self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Won-Jing; Acehan, Devrim; Kao, Chien-Han; Jane, Wann-Neng; Uryu, Kunihiro; Tsou, Meng-Fu Bryan

    2015-11-26

    Vertebrate centrioles normally propagate through duplication, but in the absence of preexisting centrioles, de novo synthesis can occur. Consistently, centriole formation is thought to strictly rely on self-assembly, involving self-oligomerization of the centriolar protein SAS-6. Here, through reconstitution of de novo synthesis in human cells, we surprisingly found that normal looking centrioles capable of duplication and ciliation can arise in the absence of SAS-6 self-oligomerization. Moreover, whereas canonically duplicated centrioles always form correctly, de novo centrioles are prone to structural errors, even in the presence of SAS-6 self-oligomerization. These results indicate that centriole biogenesis does not strictly depend on SAS-6 self-assembly, and may require preexisting centrioles to ensure structural accuracy, fundamentally deviating from the current paradigm.

  10. Repositioning the substrate activity screening (SAS) approach as a fragment-based method for identification of weak binders.

    PubMed

    Gladysz, Rafaela; Cleenewerck, Matthias; Joossens, Jurgen; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Augustyns, Koen; Van der Veken, Pieter

    2014-10-13

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has evolved into an established approach for "hit" identification. Typically, most applications of FBDD depend on specialised cost- and time-intensive biophysical techniques. The substrate activity screening (SAS) approach has been proposed as a relatively cheap and straightforward alternative for identification of fragments for enzyme inhibitors. We have investigated SAS for the discovery of inhibitors of oncology target urokinase (uPA). Although our results support the key hypotheses of SAS, we also encountered a number of unreported limitations. In response, we propose an efficient modified methodology: "MSAS" (modified substrate activity screening). MSAS circumvents the limitations of SAS and broadens its scope by providing additional fragments and more coherent SAR data. As well as presenting and validating MSAS, this study expands existing SAR knowledge for the S1 pocket of uPA and reports new reversible and irreversible uPA inhibitor scaffolds.

  11. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Estimating Ratios of Two Dietary Components that are Consumed Nearly Every Day

    Cancer.gov

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a bivariate distribution of usual intake of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day and to calculate percentiles of the population distribution of the ratio of usual intakes.

  12. Adaptations for marine habitat and the effect of Triassic and Jurassic predator pressure on development of decompression syndrome in ichthyosaurs.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, B M; Xiaoting, Z; Martin, L D

    2012-06-01

    Decompression syndrome (caisson disease or the "the bends") resulting in avascular necrosis has been documented in mosasaurs, sauropterygians, ichthyosaurs, and turtles from the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, but it was unclear that this disease occurred as far back as the Triassic. We have examined a large Triassic sample of ichthyosaurs and compared it with an equally large post-Triassic sample. Avascular necrosis was observed in over 15% of Late Middle Jurassic to Cretaceous ichthyosaurs with the highest occurrence (18%) in the Early Cretaceous, but was rare or absent in geologically older specimens. Triassic reptiles that dive were either physiologically protected, or rapid changes of their position in the water column rare and insignificant enough to prevent being recorded in the skeleton. Emergency surfacing due to a threat from an underwater predator may be the most important cause of avascular necrosis for air-breathing divers, with relative frequency of such events documented in the skeleton. Diving in the Triassic appears to have been a "leisurely" behavior until the evolution of large predators in the Late Jurassic that forced sudden depth alterations contributed to a higher occurrence of bends.

  13. Adaptations for marine habitat and the effect of Triassic and Jurassic predator pressure on development of decompression syndrome in ichthyosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothschild, B. M.; Xiaoting, Z.; Martin, L. D.

    2012-06-01

    Decompression syndrome (caisson disease or the "the bends") resulting in avascular necrosis has been documented in mosasaurs, sauropterygians, ichthyosaurs, and turtles from the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, but it was unclear that this disease occurred as far back as the Triassic. We have examined a large Triassic sample of ichthyosaurs and compared it with an equally large post-Triassic sample. Avascular necrosis was observed in over 15 % of Late Middle Jurassic to Cretaceous ichthyosaurs with the highest occurrence (18 %) in the Early Cretaceous, but was rare or absent in geologically older specimens. Triassic reptiles that dive were either physiologically protected, or rapid changes of their position in the water column rare and insignificant enough to prevent being recorded in the skeleton. Emergency surfacing due to a threat from an underwater predator may be the most important cause of avascular necrosis for air-breathing divers, with relative frequency of such events documented in the skeleton. Diving in the Triassic appears to have been a "leisurely" behavior until the evolution of large predators in the Late Jurassic that forced sudden depth alterations contributed to a higher occurrence of bends.

  14. Human SAS-6 C-Terminus Nucleates and Promotes Microtubule Assembly in Vitro by Binding to Microtubules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Hindol; Badarudeen, Binshad; George, Athira; Thomas, Geethu Emily; Gireesh, K K; Manna, Tapas K

    2015-10-20

    Centrioles are essential components of the animal centrosome and play crucial roles in the formation of cilia and flagella. They are cylindrical structures composed of nine triplet microtubules organized around a central cartwheel. Recent studies have identified spindle assembly abnormal protein SAS-6 as a critical component necessary for formation of the cartwheel. However, the molecular details of how the cartwheel participates in centriolar microtubule assembly have not been clearly understood. In this report, we show that the C-terminal tail (residues 470-657) of human SAS-6, HsSAS-6 C, the region that has been shown to extend toward the centriolar wall where the microtubule triplets are organized, nucleated and induced microtubule polymerization in vitro. The N-terminus (residues 1-166) of HsSAS-6, the domain known to be involved in formation of the central hub of the cartwheel, did not, however, exert any effect on microtubule polymerization. HsSAS-6 C bound to the microtubules and localized along the lengths of the microtubules in vitro. Microtubule pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) experiments with S-phase synchronized HeLa cell lysates showed that the endogenous HsSAS-6 coprecipitated with the microtubules, and it mediated interaction with tubulin. Isothermal calorimetry titration and size exclusion chromatography showed that HsSAS-6 C bound to the αβ-tubulin dimer in vitro. The results demonstrate that HsSAS-6 possesses an intrinsic microtubule assembly promoting activity and further implicate that its outer exposed C-terminal tail may play critical roles in microtubule assembly and stabilizing microtubule attachment with the centriolar cartwheel.

  15. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein is associated with the adapter protein Grb2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor in living cells.

    PubMed Central

    She, H Y; Rockow, S; Tang, J; Nishimura, R; Skolnik, E Y; Chen, M; Margolis, B; Li, W

    1997-01-01

    Src homology domains [i.e., Src homology domain 2 (SH2) and Src homology domain 3 (SH3)] play a critical role in linking receptor tyrosine kinases to downstream signaling networks. A well-defined function of the SH3-SH2-SH3 adapter Grb2 is to link receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), to the p21ras-signaling pathway. Grb2 has also been implicated to play a role in growth factor-regulated actin assembly and receptor endocytosis, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we show that Grb2 interacts through its SH3 domains with the human Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp), which plays a role in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We find that WASp is expressed in a variety of cell types and is exclusively cytoplasmic. Although the N-terminal SH3 domain of Grb2 binds significantly stronger than the C-terminal SH3 domain to WASp, full-length Grb2 shows the strongest binding. Both phosphorylation of WASp and its interaction with Grb2, as well as with another adapter protein Nck, remain constitutive in serum-starved or epidermal growth factor-stimulated cells. WASp coimmunoprecipitates with the activated EGFR after epidermal growth factor stimulation. Purified glutathione S-transferase-full-length-Grb2 fusion protein, but not the individual domains of Grb2, enhances the association of WASp with the EGFR, suggesting that Grb2 mediates the association of WASp with EGFR. This study suggests that Grb2 translocates WASp from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane and the Grb2-WASp complex may play a role in linking receptor tyrosine kinases to the actin cytoskeleton. Images PMID:9307968

  16. Gypenosides causes DNA damage and inhibits expression of DNA repair genes of human oral cancer SAS cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kung-Wen; Chen, Jung-Chou; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Yang, Jai-Sing; Weng, Shu-Wen; Ma, Yi-Shih; Tang, Nou-Ying; Lu, Pei-Jung; Weng, Jing-Ru; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2010-01-01

    Gypenosides (Gyp) are the major components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, a Chinese medical plant. Recently, Gyp has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. However, there is no available information to address the effects of Gyp on DNA damage and DNA repair-associated gene expression in human oral cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated whether Gyp induced DNA damage and DNA repair gene expression in human oral cancer SAS cells. The results from flow cytometric assay indicated that Gyp-induced cytotoxic effects led to a decrease in the percentage of viable SAS cells. The results from comet assay revealed that the incubation of SAS cells with Gyp led to a longer DNA migration smear (comet tail) when compared with control and this effect was dose-dependent. The results from real-time PCR analysis indicated that treatment of SAS cells with 180 mug/ml of Gyp for 24 h led to a decrease in 14-3-3sigma, DNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase (DNAPK), p53, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) and breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) mRNA expression. These observations may explain the cell death caused by Gyp in SAS cells. Taken together, Gyp induced DNA damage and inhibited DNA repair-associated gene expressions in human oral cancer SAS cells in vitro.

  17. [Features of brain mechanisms of regulation of the level of wakefulness, organization of cognitive functions and adaptive reactions in children with attention deficit with hyperactivity syndrome and healthy children].

    PubMed

    Iliukhina, V A; Krivoshchapova, M N; Manzhosova, G V

    2011-01-01

    In work results of research of features of infringement superslow cortical-truncal, limbic-reticular and upsegmentary mechanisms of regulation of a level of wakefulness at children of 6-7 years with a syndrome of deficiency of attention and hyperactivity and healthy children, pupils of 1 class of a comprehensive school with different type of psychological adaptation are generalized. At use system-integrativity psychophysiology the approach features are established: a) organization emotional-motivational and cognitive spheres; b) psychophysiology mechanisms of formation of adaptive reactions at tactile interaction about earlier unknown alive object--a dolphin at the surveyed contingent of healthy and ill children.

  18. Cells with regulatory function of the innate and adaptive immune system in primary Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Szodoray, P; Papp, G; Horvath, I F; Barath, S; Sipka, S; Nakken, B; Zeher, M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe subsets of cells with regulatory properties in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), and to correlate these cell populations with clinical symptoms. Among the 32 investigated patients, 23 had extraglandular manifestations (EGMs), while nine had only glandular symptoms. Twenty healthy individuals served as controls. The percentages of natural killer (NK), natural killer T cells (NK T), interleukin (IL)-10 producing T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) cells were determined by flow cytometry and serum cytokine levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Functional tests were carried out to assess the suppressor properties of Treg cells in patients and controls. Peripheral NK, NK T and Tr1 cell percentages were elevated in pSS, while CD4+CD25+ Treg cells showed reduced frequencies in patients compared to controls. In pSS, elevated percentages of NK T, Tr1 and CD4+CD25+ Treg cells were observed in patients with EGMs, when compared to patients with sicca symptoms only. CD4+CD25+ Treg cell percentages showed a negative correlation with sialometry values. The in vitro functional assay demonstrated lower suppression activity of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells in patients compared to controls. Serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels were elevated, while IL-10 was decreased in patients compared to controls. Negative correlation was found between IL-10 levels and the percentages of Tr1 cells. Changes in the investigated subsets of regulatory cells in pSS may contribute to the development and progression of the disease. PMID:19664141

  19. Autoinflammatory syndromes.

    PubMed

    Galeazzi, M; Gasbarrini, G; Ghirardello, A; Grandemange, S; Hoffman, H M; Manna, R; Podswiadek, M; Punzi, L; Sebastiani, G D; Touitou, I; Doria, A

    2006-01-01

    The autoinflammatory disorders are a new and expanding classification of inflammatory diseases characterized by recurrent episodes of systemic inflammation in the absence of pathogens, autoantibodies or antigen specific T cells. These disorders are caused by primary dysfunction of the innate immune system, without evidence of adaptive immune dysregulation. Innate immune abnormalities include aberrant responses to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) like lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, prominent neutrophilia in blood and tissues, and dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha) or their receptors. The autoinflammatory diseases comprise both hereditary (Familial Mediterranean Fever, FMF; Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency, MKD; TNF Receptor Associated Periodic Syndrome, TRAPS; Cryopyrin Associated Periodic Syndrome, CAPS; Blau syndrome; Pyogenic sterile Arthritis, Pyoderma gangrenosum and Acne syndrome, PAPA; Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis, CRMO) and multifactorial (Crohn's and Behçet's diseases) disorders. Mutations responsible for FMF, TRAPS, CAPS, PAPA are in proteins involved in modulation of inflammation and apoptosis.

  20. PREFACE Proceedings of the XIV International Conference on Small-Angle Scattering, SAS-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Stephen; Terrill, Nicholas

    2010-10-01

    The XIV International Conference on Small-Angle Scattering, SAS-2009, was held in Oxford UK, 13-18 September 2009, and was jointly organised under the auspices of the International Union of Crystallography Commission on SAS by a team from the Diamond Light Source and the ISIS Pulsed Neutron Source - their first such joint venture - with help from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. It was the first time that this long running and successful series of conferences on the application, science and technology of small-angle scattering techniques had been staged in the UK. The UK has a proud heritage in small-angle scattering: as home to one of the world's first SANS instruments (at AERE Harwell), as the site of the world's first 2nd generation X-ray Synchrotron (the SRS at Daresbury with its suite of SAXS beamlines), and latterly as the location of the world's most successful pulsed source SANS instrument. Indeed, 2009 also marked the 25th Anniversary of neutron operations at ISIS and the opening of a Second Target Station. Whilst the SRS ceased operations in 2008, its mantle has been inherited by the Diamond synchrotron. Many delegates took the opportunity to visit both Diamond and ISIS during a conference excursion. Despite the prevailing global economic downturn, we were delighted that 434 delegates from 32 different countries were able to attend SAS-2009; two-thirds were drawn from the UK, Germany, Japan, the USA and France, but there were also sizeable contingents from Australia, Korea, Taiwan and South America. In many ways this geographical spread reflects the present and emerging distribution, respectively, of 3rd generation X-ray synchrotrons and high-flux neutron sources, although the scope of the conference was not solely limited to these probes. Financial support from the IUCr enabled us to grant bursaries to attend SAS-2009 to 12 delegates from emerging countries (Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, India, Nepal, Romania, Russia and the Ukraine). The

  1. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Korean Version of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire: Its Clinical Evaluation in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Following Local Corticosteroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Jin; Kang, Ji-Hyoun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Wen, Lihui; Kim, Tae-Jong; Park, Yong-Wook; Nam, Tai-Seung; Kim, Myung-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and validate the Korean version of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (K-BCTQ) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). After translation and cultural adaptation of the BCTQ to a Korean version, the K-BCTQ was administered to 54 patients with CTS; it was administered again after 2 weeks to assess reliability. Additionally, we administered K-DASH and EQ-5D to assess construct-validity. In a prospective study of responsiveness to clinical change, 29 of 54 patients were treated by ultrasonography-guided local corticosteroid injection therapy. The internal consistency of the K-BCTQ was high (Cronbach's alpha: 0.915) and the intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.931 for the symptom severity scale (P<0.001) and 0.844 for the functional severity scale (P<0.001). The construct-validity between the symptom severity scale and the K-DASH, and between the functional severity scale and the K-DASH were significantly correlated (both P<0.001). Clinical improvement was noted in 29 patients with injection therapy. The effect size of symptom severity was 0.67, and that of functional severity was 0.58. In conclusion, the K-BCTQ shows good reliability, construct-validity, and acceptable responsiveness after local corticosteroid injection therapy (Clinical trial number, KCT0000050). PMID:23853496

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Korean version of the Boston carpal tunnel questionnaire: its clinical evaluation in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome following local corticosteroid injection.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Jin; Kang, Ji-Hyoun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Wen, Lihui; Kim, Tae-Jong; Park, Yong-Wook; Nam, Tai-Seung; Kim, Myung-Sun; Lee, Shin-Seok

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and validate the Korean version of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (K-BCTQ) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). After translation and cultural adaptation of the BCTQ to a Korean version, the K-BCTQ was administered to 54 patients with CTS; it was administered again after 2 weeks to assess reliability. Additionally, we administered K-DASH and EQ-5D to assess construct-validity. In a prospective study of responsiveness to clinical change, 29 of 54 patients were treated by ultrasonography-guided local corticosteroid injection therapy. The internal consistency of the K-BCTQ was high (Cronbach's alpha: 0.915) and the intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.931 for the symptom severity scale (P<0.001) and 0.844 for the functional severity scale (P<0.001). The construct-validity between the symptom severity scale and the K-DASH, and between the functional severity scale and the K-DASH were significantly correlated (both P<0.001). Clinical improvement was noted in 29 patients with injection therapy. The effect size of symptom severity was 0.67, and that of functional severity was 0.58. In conclusion, the K-BCTQ shows good reliability, construct-validity, and acceptable responsiveness after local corticosteroid injection therapy (Clinical trial number, KCT0000050).

  3. Asperger syndrome and "non-verbal learning problems" in a longitudinal perspective: neuropsychological and social adaptive outcome in early adult life.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Bibbi S; Nydén, Agneta; Cederlund, Mats; Gillberg, Christopher

    2013-12-15

    Co-existence of Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) has been proposed based on the observation that people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal than performance IQ (VIQ > PIQ by ≥ 15 points), one of the core features of NLD. In the present study we examined neuropsychological and social adaptive profiles with "non-verbal learning problems" associated with NLD in a group of individuals with AS followed from childhood into early adult life. The group was divided into three subgroups: (i) persistent NLD (P-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) both in childhood and early adulthood occasions, (ii) childhood NLD (CO-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) only at original diagnosis, or (iii) No NLD (VIQ > PIQ) ever (NO-NLD). All three subgroups were followed prospectively from childhood into adolescence and young adult life. One in four to one in five of the whole group of males with AS had P-NLD. The P-NLD subgroup had poorer neuropsychological outcome in early adult life than did those with CO-NLD and those with NO-NLD. There were no unequivocal markers in early childhood that predicted subgroup status in early adult life, but early motor delay and a history of early speech-language problems tended to be associated with P-NLD.

  4. Physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability of amorphous atorvastatin hemi-calcium using spray-drying and SAS process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Hee Jun; Jin, Shun-Ji; Lee, Sibeum; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2008-07-09

    The objective of the study was to prepare amorphous atorvastatin hemi-calcium using spray-drying and supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process and evaluate its physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability. Atorvastatin hemi-calcium trihydrate was transformed to anhydrous amorphous form by spray-drying and SAS process. With the SAS process, the mean particle size and the specific surface area of amorphous atorvastatin were drastically changed to 68.7+/-15.8nm, 120.35+/-1.40m2/g and 95.7+/-12.2nm, 79.78+/-0.93m2/g from an acetone solution and a tetrahydrofuran solution, respectively and appeared to be associated with better performance in apparent solubility, dissolution and pharmacokinetic studies, compared with unprocessed crystalline atorvastatin. Oral AUC0-8h values in SD rats for crystalline and amorphous atorvastatin were as follow: 1121.4+/-212.0ngh/mL for crystalline atorvastatin, 3249.5+/-406.4ngh/mL and 3016.1+/-200.3ngh/mL for amorphous atorvastatin from an acetone solution and a tetrahydrofuran solution with SAS process, 2227.8+/-274.5 and 2099.9+/-339.2ngh/mL for amorphous atorvastatin from acetone and tetrahydrofuran with spray-drying. The AUCs of all amorphous atorvastatin significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with crystalline atorvastatin, suggesting that the enhanced bioavailability was attributed to amorphous nature and particle size reduction. In addition, the SAS process exhibits better bioavailability than spray-drying because of particle size reduction with narrow particle size distribution. It was concluded that physicochemical properties and bioavailability of crystalline atorvastatin could be improved by physical modification such as particle size reduction and generation of amorphous state using spray-drying and SAS process. Further, SAS process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of atorvastatin.

  5. SAS molecular tests Escherichia coli O157 detection kit. Performance tested method 031203.

    PubMed

    Bapanpally, Chandra; Montier, Laura; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The SAS Molecular tests Escherichia coli O157 Detection method, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method, performed as well as or better than the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference methods for ground beef, beef trim, bagged mixed lettuce, and fresh spinach. Ground beef (30% fat, 25 g test portion) was validated for 7-8 h enrichment, leafy greens were validated in a 6-7 h enrichment, and ground beef (30% fat, 375 g composite test portion) and beef trim (375 g composite test portion) were validated in a 16-20 h enrichment. The method performance for meat and leafy green matrixes was also shown to be acceptable under conditions of co-enrichment with Salmonella. Thus, after a short co-enrichment step, ground beef, beef trim, lettuce, and spinach can be tested for both Salmonella and E. coli O157. The SAS Molecular tests Salmonella Detection Kit was validated using the same test portions as for the SAS Molecular tests E. coli O157 Detection Kit and those results are presented in a separate report. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 50 E. coli 0157 strains, including H7 and non-motile strains, and 30 non-E. coli O157 strains examined. Finally, the method was shown to be robust when variations to DNA extract hold time and DNA volume were varied. The method comparison and robustness data suggest a full 7 h enrichment time should be used for 25 g ground beef test portions.

  6. Validation of SCALE (SAS2H) isotopic predictions for BWR spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.; DeHart, M.D.

    1998-09-01

    Thirty spent fuel samples obtained from boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel pins have been modeled at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the SAS2H sequence of the SCALE code system. The SAS2H sequence uses transport methods combined with the depletion and decay capabilities of the ORIGEN-S code to estimate the isotopic composition of fuel as a function of its burnup history. Results of these calculations are compared with chemical assay measurements of spent fuel inventories for each sample. Results show reasonable agreement between measured and predicted isotopic concentrations for important actinides; however, little data are available for most fission products considered to be important for spent fuel concerns (e.g., burnup credit, shielding, source-term calculations, etc.). This work is a follow-up to earlier works that studied the ability to predict spent fuel compositions in pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) fuel pins. Biases and uncertainties associated with BWR isotopic predictions are found to be larger than those of PWR calculations. Such behavior is expected, as the operation of a BWR is significantly more complex than that of a PWR plant, and in general the design of a BWR has a more heterogeneous configuration than that of a PWR. Nevertheless, this work shows that the simple models employed using SAS2H to represent such complexities result in agreement to within 5% (and often less than 1%) or less for most nuclides important for spent fuel applications. On the other hand, however, the set of fuel samples analyzed represent a small subset of the BWR fuel population, and results reported herein may not be representative of the full population of BWR spent fuel.

  7. Validation of SCALE (SAS2H) Isotopic Predictions for BWR Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.

    1998-01-01

    Thirty spent fuel samples obtained from boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel pins have been modeled at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the SAS2H sequence of the SCALE code system. The SAS2H sequence uses transport methods combined with the depletion and decay capabilities of the ORIGEN-S code to estimate the isotopic composition of fuel as a function of its burnup history. Results of these calculations are compared with chemical assay measurements of spent fuel inventories for each sample. Results show reasonable agreement between measured and predicted isotopic concentrations for important actinides; however, little data are available for most fission products considered to be important for spent fuel concerns (e.g., burnup credit, shielding, source-term calculations, etc.). This work is a follow-up to earlier works that studied the ability to predict spent fuel compositions in pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) fuel pins. Biases and uncertainties associated with BWR isotopic predictions are found to be larger than those of PWR calculations. Such behavior is expected, as the operation of a BWR is significantly more complex than that of a PWR plant, and in general the design of a BWR has a more heterogeneous configuration than that of a PWR. Nevertheless, this work shows that the simple models employed using SAS2H to represent such complexities result in agreement to within 5% (and often less than 1%) or less for most nuclides important for spent fuel applications. On the other hand, however, the set of fuel samples analyzed represent a small subset of the BWR fuel population, and results reported herein may not be representative of the full population of BWR spent fuel.

  8. SAS-2 observations of high energy gamma rays from discrete sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniffen, D. A.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Lamb, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    The SAS-2 identified six localized high energy (greater than 35 MeV) gamma ray sources. Four of these are the radio pulsars, PSR 0531+21, PSR 0833-45, PSR 1818-04, and PSR 1717-46 discovered in a search of 75 radio pulsars. The fact that only one of these is observed in X-rays, and the significant differences in pulse profiles in the gamma ray and radio observations, leads to the speculation that different mechanisms are involved.

  9. Interactions between SAS-C spacecraft nutations and spin control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tossman, B. E.; Thayer, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    The SAS-C spacecraft is stabilized by a momentum biased reaction wheel and passive nutation damper. A closed-loop low-speed spacecraft spin rate control system is included which uses a single-axis gyro and a variable speed range on the reaction wheel. Dynamic instability can result from interactions among the gyro, damper, and spacecraft dynamic unbalance. This instability may be aggravated by gyro angular misalignment, gyro error signals, and spacecraft nutations. Analytic eigenvector, and digital computer analyses of the coupled systems are presented. Mechanisms for instability are described as well as the effects that gyro error signal, tilt, and spacecraft dynamic unbalance produce on control system performance.

  10. SAS-4 is recruited to a dynamic structure in newly forming centrioles that is stabilized by the gamma-tubulin-mediated addition of centriolar microtubules.

    PubMed

    Dammermann, Alexander; Maddox, Paul S; Desai, Arshad; Oegema, Karen

    2008-02-25

    Centrioles are surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM), which is proposed to promote new centriole assembly by concentrating gamma-tubulin. Here, we quantitatively monitor new centriole assembly in living Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, focusing on the conserved components SAS-4 and SAS-6. We show that SAS-4 and SAS-6 are coordinately recruited to the site of new centriole assembly and reach their maximum levels during S phase. Centriolar SAS-6 is subsequently reduced by a mechanism intrinsic to the early assembly pathway that does not require progression into mitosis. Centriolar SAS-4 remains in dynamic equilibrium with the cytoplasmic pool until late prophase, when it is stably incorporated in a step that requires gamma-tubulin and microtubule assembly. These results indicate that gamma-tubulin in the PCM stabilizes the nascent daughter centriole by promoting microtubule addition to its outer wall. Such a mechanism may help restrict new centriole assembly to the vicinity of preexisting parent centrioles that recruit PCM.

  11. Mycobiome of the Bat White Nose Syndrome Affected Caves and Mines Reveals Diversity of Fungi and Local Adaptation by the Fungal Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Sunanda S.; Li, Xiaojiang; Okoniewski, Joseph C.; Hicks, Alan C.; Davis, April D.; Broussard, Kelly; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS) and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans (Pd) are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010–2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD) and culture-independent (CI) methods to catalogue all fungi (‘mycobiome’). CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS). The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture) even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR) suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS. PMID:25264864

  12. The homo-oligomerisation of both Sas-6 and Ana2 is required for efficient centriole assembly in flies.

    PubMed

    Cottee, Matthew A; Muschalik, Nadine; Johnson, Steven; Leveson, Joanna; Raff, Jordan W; Lea, Susan M

    2015-05-23

    Sas-6 and Ana2/STIL proteins are required for centriole duplication and the homo-oligomerisation properties of Sas-6 help establish the ninefold symmetry of the central cartwheel that initiates centriole assembly. Ana2/STIL proteins are poorly conserved, but they all contain a predicted Central Coiled-Coil Domain (CCCD). Here we show that the Drosophila Ana2 CCCD forms a tetramer, and we solve its structure to 0.8 Å, revealing that it adopts an unusual parallel-coil topology. We also solve the structure of the Drosophila Sas-6 N-terminal domain to 2.9 Å revealing that it forms higher-order oligomers through canonical interactions. Point mutations that perturb Sas-6 or Ana2 homo-oligomerisation in vitro strongly perturb centriole assembly in vivo. Thus, efficient centriole duplication in flies requires the homo-oligomerisation of both Sas-6 and Ana2, and the Ana2 CCCD tetramer structure provides important information on how these proteins might cooperate to form a cartwheel structure.

  13. SAS6-like protein in Plasmodium indicates that conoid-associated apical complex proteins persist in invasive stages within the mosquito vector

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Richard J.; Roques, Magali; Katris, Nicholas J.; Koreny, Ludek; Stanway, Rebecca R.; Brady, Declan; Waller, Ross F.; Tewari, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The SAS6-like (SAS6L) protein, a truncated paralogue of the ubiquitous basal body/centriole protein SAS6, has been characterised recently as a flagellum protein in trypanosomatids, but associated with the conoid in apicomplexan Toxoplasma. The conoid has been suggested to derive from flagella parts, but is thought to have been lost from some apicomplexans including the malaria-causing genus Plasmodium. Presence of SAS6L in Plasmodium, therefore, suggested a possible role in flagella assembly in male gametes, the only flagellated stage. Here, we have studied the expression and role of SAS6L throughout the Plasmodium life cycle using the rodent malaria model P. berghei. Contrary to a hypothesised role in flagella, SAS6L was absent during gamete flagellum formation. Instead, SAS6L was restricted to the apical complex in ookinetes and sporozoites, the extracellular invasive stages that develop within the mosquito vector. In these stages SAS6L forms an apical ring, as we show is also the case in Toxoplasma tachyzoites. The SAS6L ring was not apparent in blood-stage invasive merozoites, indicating that the apical complex is differentiated between the different invasive forms. Overall this study indicates that a conoid-associated apical complex protein and ring structure is persistent in Plasmodium in a stage-specific manner. PMID:27339728

  14. Effects of 2D and 3D Error Fields on the SAS Divertor Magnetic Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevisan, G. L.; Lao, L. L.; Strait, E. J.; Guo, H. Y.; Wu, W.; Evans, T. E.

    2016-10-01

    The successful design of plasma-facing components in fusion experiments is of paramount importance in both the operation of future reactors and in the modification of operating machines. Indeed, the Small Angle Slot (SAS) divertor concept, proposed for application on the DIII-D experiment, combines a small incident angle at the plasma strike point with a progressively opening slot, so as to better control heat flux and erosion in high-performance tokamak plasmas. Uncertainty quantification of the error fields expected around the striking point provides additional useful information in both the design and the modeling phases of the new divertor, in part due to the particular geometric requirement of the striking flux surfaces. The presented work involves both 2D and 3D magnetic error field analysis on the SAS strike point carried out using the EFIT code for 2D equilibrium reconstruction, V3POST for vacuum 3D computations and the OMFIT integrated modeling framework for data analysis. An uncertainty in the magnetic probes' signals is found to propagate non-linearly as an uncertainty in the striking point and angle, which can be quantified through statistical analysis to yield robust estimates. Work supported by contracts DE-FG02-95ER54309 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  15. Preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation of amorphous atorvastatin calcium nanoparticles using supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Jin, Shun-Ji; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Park, Hee Jun; Song, Ha-Seung; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2008-06-01

    In this work, amorphous atorvastatin calcium nanoparticles were successfully prepared using the supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process. The effect of process variables on particle size and distribution of atorvastatin calcium during particle formation was investigated. Solid state characterization, solubility, intrinsic dissolution, powder dissolution studies and pharmacokinetic study in rats were performed. Spherical particles with mean particle size ranging between 152 and 863 nm were obtained by varying process parameters such as precipitation vessel pressure and temperature, drug solution concentration and feed rate ratio of CO2/drug solution. XRD, TGA, FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and HPLC analysis indicated that atorvastatin calcium existed as anhydrous amorphous form and no degradation occurred after SAS process. When compared with crystalline form (unprocessed drug), amorphous atorvastatin calcium nanoparticles were of better performance in solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate, resulting in higher solubility and faster dissolution rate. In addition, intrinsic dissolution rate showed a good correlation with the solubility. The dissolution rates of amorphous atorvastatin calcium nanoparticles were highly increased in comparison with unprocessed drug by the enhancement of intrinsic dissolution rate and the reduction of particle size resulting in an increased specific surface area. The absorption of atorvastatin calcium after oral administration of amorphous atorvastatin calcium nanoparticles to rats was markedly increased.

  16. Final SAS-2 gamma ray results on sources in the galactic anticenter region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of SAS-2 high energy Gamma ray data from the direction of the galactic anticenter shows that this region is characterized by: a diffuse emission from the galactic plane which has a maximum along b=0 deg and an enhancement toward negative latitudes associated with Gould's Belt, a strong point source in the direction of the Crab nebula, and a second intense localized source near galactic coordinates 195 deg, +5 deg. Gamma ray emission from the Crab source is dominated by a pulsed flux from PSR 0531+21. The total flux above 100MeV is 3.7 + or - 0.8 million/sq cm s. The source near 195 deg, + 5 deg has a flux above 100 MeV of 4.3 + or - 0.9 million/sq cm s. Its spectrum appears flatter than that of the Crab. The diffuse galactic plane emission at negative lattitudes shows a general correlation with the local matter distribution associated with Gould's Belt. The calculated Gamma ray intensity agrees well with the SAS-2 observations.

  17. [Use of the anatomical cemented femoral stem SAS I: mid-term results].

    PubMed

    Mikláš, M; Pink, M; Valoušek, T

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY In view of increasing interest in a relationship between the surface of an implant and its behaviour and longevity in total hip arthroplasty (THA), the aim of this study is to present the clinical and radiographic results, as well as complications, of hip replacement surgery using the cemented femoral stem SAS I. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 298 cemented femoral stems SAS I were implanted in 275 patients at our department between 1996 and 2005. The patient average age was 72.1 years, with the range from 64 to 92 years. The pre-operative diagnoses were as follows: primary osteoarthritis in 179 (30.1%); post-dysplastic osteoarthritis in 41 (13.7%); femoral neck fracture in 44 (14.8%); avascular necrosis of the femoral head in 23 (7.7%); rheumatoid arthritis in nine (3%) and other causes in two (0.7%) patients. Of the 275 patients who had the surgery, 186 (204 THAs) underwent clinical and X-ray examination at an average follow-up of 11.5 years (range, 8 to 17 years). The clinical results were used to calculate the Harris hip score and radiographic evaluation was based on antero-posterior views. RESULTS The group of 186 assessed patients (204 THAs) comprised 106 women and 80 men, who were on average 85.4 years old on evaluation (range, 72 to 92 years). Of the remaining patients, 62 patients (64 THAs) died from causes unrelated to the surgery and 27 patients (30 THAs) were lost to follow-up. The functional outcome of surgery assessed by the Harris hip score was excellent in 61 (32.8%), good in 94 (50.5%), satisfactory in 26 (14%) and poor in five (2.7%) patients. The 93.1% SAS I stem longevity was recorded in relation to aseptic loosening; reimplantation for this indication was performed in 14 THAs. No revision surgery for failure due to valgus/varus deviations of the stem was carried out. Of the 204 hips, 188 had femoral stems aligned in neutral, 12 (5.9%) in valgus and four (2%) in varus positions. DISCUSSION The anatomical femoral stem SAS I

  18. Proteomic analysis of cellular response induced by boron neutron capture reaction in human squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Itoh, Tasuku; Imamichi, Shoji; Kikuhara, Sota; Fujimori, Hiroaki; Hirai, Takahisa; Saito, Soichiro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Minoru; Murakami, Yasufumi; Baiseitov, Diaz; Berikkhanova, Kulzhan; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Imahori, Yoshio; Itami, Jun; Ono, Koji; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Masutani, Mitsuko

    2015-12-01

    To understand the mechanism of cell death induced by boron neutron capture reaction (BNCR), we performed proteome analyses of human squamous tumor SAS cells after BNCR. Cells were irradiated with thermal neutron beam at KUR after incubation under boronophenylalanine (BPA)(+) and BPA(-) conditions. BNCR mainly induced typical apoptosis in SAS cells 24h post-irradiation. Proteomic analysis in SAS cells suggested that proteins functioning in endoplasmic reticulum, DNA repair, and RNA processing showed dynamic changes at early phase after BNCR and could be involved in the regulation of cellular response to BNCR. We found that the BNCR induces fragments of endoplasmic reticulum-localized lymphoid-restricted protein (LRMP). The fragmentation of LRMP was also observed in the rat tumor graft model 20 hours after BNCT treatment carried out at the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. These data suggest that dynamic changes of LRMP could be involved during cellular response to BNCR.

  19. Social Approach and Autistic Behavior in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane E.; Weisenfeld, Leigh Anne H.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Heath, Morgan; Kaufmann, Walter E.

    2007-01-01

    Social avoidance is a core phenotypic characteristic of fragile X syndrome (FXS) that has critical cognitive and social consequences. However, no study has examined modulation of multiple social avoidant behaviors in children with FXS. In the current study, we introduce the "Social Approach Scale" (SAS), an observation scale that includes physical…

  20. DmSAS is required for sialic acid biosynthesis in cultured Drosophila third instar larvae CNS neurons.

    PubMed

    Granell, Annelise E von Bergen; Palter, Karen B; Akan, Ihan; Aich, Udayanath; Yarema, Kevin J; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Thornhill, William B; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2011-11-18

    Sialylation is an important carbohydrate modification of glycoconjugates that has been shown to modulate many cellular/molecular interactions in vertebrates. In Drosophila melanogaster (Dm), using sequence homology, several enzymes of the sialylation pathway have been cloned and their function tested in expression systems. Here we investigated whether sialic acid incorporation in cultured Dm central nervous system (CNS) neurons required endogenously expressed Dm sialic acid synthase (DmSAS). We compared neurons derived from wild type Dm larvae with those containing a DmSAS mutation (148 bp deletion). The ability of these cells to produce Sia5NAz (sialic acid form) from Ac(4)ManNAz (azide-derivatized N-acetylmannosamine) and incorporate it into their glycoconjugates was measured by tagging the azide group of Sia5NAz with fluorescent agents via Click-iT chemistry. We found that most of the wild type Dm CNS neurons incorporated Sia5NAz into their glycoconjugates. Sialic acid incorporation was higher at the soma than at the neurite and could also be detected at perinuclear regions and the plasma membrane. In contrast, neurons from the DmSAS mutant did not incorporate Sia5NAz unless DmSAS was reintroduced (rescue mutant). Most of the neurons expressed α2,6-sialyltransferase. These results confirm that the mutation was a null mutation and that no redundant sialic acid biosynthetic activity exists in Dm cells, i.e., there is only one DmSAS. They also provide the strongest proof to date that DmSAS is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of sialic acids in Dm CNS neurons, and the observed subcellular distribution of the newly synthesized sialic acids offers insights into their biological function.

  1. A leave-one-out cross-validation SAS macro for the identification of markers associated with survival.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Christel; Bulusu, Anuradha; Hurwitz, Herbert I; Nixon, Andrew B; Pang, Herbert

    2015-02-01

    A proper internal validation is necessary for the development of a reliable and reproducible prognostic model for external validation. Variable selection is an important step for building prognostic models. However, not many existing approaches couple the ability to specify the number of covariates in the model with a cross-validation algorithm. We describe a user-friendly SAS macro that implements a score selection method and a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. We discuss the method and applications behind this algorithm, as well as details of the SAS macro.

  2. ARP: Automatic rapid processing for the generation of problem dependent SAS2H/ORIGEN-s cross section libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Hermann, O.W.; Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    In this report, a methodology is described which serves as an alternative to the SAS2H path of the SCALE system to generate cross sections for point-depletion calculations with the ORIGEN-S code. ARP, Automatic Rapid Processing, is an algorithm that allows the generation of cross-section libraries suitable to the ORIGEN-S code by interpolation over pregenerated SAS2H libraries. The interpolations are carried out on the following variables: burnup, enrichment, and water density. The adequacy of the methodology is evaluated by comparing measured and computed spent fuel isotopic compositions for PWR and BWR systems.

  3. Effects of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome on adaptation of multi-digit forces to object mass distribution for whole-hand manipulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a compression neuropathy of the median nerve that results in sensorimotor deficits in the hand. Until recently, the effects of CTS on hand function have been studied using mostly two-digit grip tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the coordination of multi-digit forces as a function of object center of mass (CM) during whole-hand grasping. Methods Fourteen CTS patients and age- and gender-matched controls were instructed to grasp, lift, hold, and release a grip device with five digits for seven consecutive lifts while maintaining its vertical orientation. The object CM was changed by adding a mass at different locations at the base of the object. We measured forces and torques exerted by each digit and object kinematics and analyzed modulation of these variables to object CM at object lift onset and during object hold. Our task requires a modulation of digit forces at and after object lift onset to generate a compensatory moment to counteract the external moment caused by the added mass and to minimize object tilt. Results We found that CTS patients learned to generate a compensatory moment and minimized object roll to the same extent as controls. However, controls fully exploited the available degrees of freedom (DoF) in coordinating their multi-digit forces to generate a compensatory moment, i.e., digit normal forces, tangential forces, and the net center of pressure on the finger side of the device at object lift onset and during object hold. In contrast, patients modulated only one of these DoFs (the net center of pressure) to object CM by modulating individual normal forces at object lift onset. During object hold, however, CTS patients were able to modulate digit tangential force distribution to object CM. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, although CTS did not affect patients’ ability to perform our manipulation task, it interfered with the modulation of specific grasp control variables. This

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PERFORMANCE TEST RESULTS FOR THE A AND A ENVIRONMENTAL SEALS' SEAL ASSIST SYSTEM (SAS), PHASE I--TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents results of tests determining the efficacy of A&A Environmental Seals, Inc's Seal Assist System (SAS) in preventing natural gas compressor station's compressor rod packing leaks from escaping into the atmosphere. The SAS consists of an Emission Containment Glan...

  5. A search for X-ray pulsations from the galactic center. [SAS-3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, F. A.; Garmire, G. P.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    1978-01-01

    Data from the SAS-3 satellite were used in a search for X-ray pulsations from the direction of the galactic center. No periodic X-ray behavior was detected in the frequency interval 0.6 Hz to 0.0006 Hz and energy range 2.5 - 35 keV. For periods less than 60 sec, the upper limit to the amplitude of any pulsation in the 2.5 - 10 keV band is approximately .0017 cts/sq cm/s. This corresponds to a pulsed fraction of approximately 1.3 percent of the total GCX flux. Somewhat higher limits apply for longer periods and for energies greater than 10 keV.

  6. SAS-2 observations of the high energy gamma radiation from the Vela region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Data from a scan of the galactic plane by the SAS-B high energy gamma ray experiment in the region 250 deg smaller than 12 smaller than 290 deg show a statistically significant excess over the general radiation from the galactic plane for gamma radiation of energy larger than 100 MeV. If the enhanced gamma radiation results from interactions of cosmic rays with galactic matter, as the energy spectrum suggests, it seems reasonable to associate the enhancement with large scale galactic features, such as spiral arm segments in that direction, or with the region surrounding the Vela supernova remnant with which PSR 0833-45 is associated. If the excess is attributed to cosmic rays released from the supernova interacting with the interstellar matter in that region, than on the order of 3 x 10 to the 50th power ergs would have been released by that supernova in the form of cosmic rays.

  7. Estimation of the concordance correlation coefficient for repeated measures using SAS and R.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Josep L; Phillips, Brenda R; Puig-Martinez, Josep; King, Tonya S; Chinchilli, Vernon M

    2013-03-01

    The concordance correlation coefficient is one of the most common approaches used to assess agreement among different observers or instruments when the outcome of interest is a continuous variable. A SAS macro and R package are provided here to estimate the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) where the design of the data involves repeated measurements by subject and observer. The CCC is estimated using U-statistics (UST) and variance components (VC) approaches. Confidence intervals and standard errors are reported along with the point estimate of the CCC. In the case of the VC approach, the linear mixed model output and variance components estimates are also provided. The performance of each function is shown by means of some examples with real data sets.

  8. SAS-2 observations of gamma rays from the galactic plane. [noting longitude and latitude observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary data are given for the SAS-2 high energy galactic gamma ray observation. These data include both latitude and longitude distributions. The longitude distribution shows a high density region. The latitude distributions toward the center and the anti-center are markedly different, the former showing a two-component structure of half-widths of approximately 3 and 6 deg. The energy spectrum in the range 35 to 200 MeV is hard, consistent with cosmic ray interactions with interstellar matter, including neutral pions decay and emission from energetic electron interactions. The data is consistent with an interpretation in terms of the confinement of the cosmic rays in the spiral arms.

  9. Observations of Hercules X-1 with SAS-3 during 1975 July

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joss, P. C.; Li, F. K.; Wang, Y.-M.; Hearn, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    X-ray pulsations from Her X-1 with energies between 0.1 and 30 keV were observed for four days with the SAS-3 satellite, during the 1975 July-August ON state of the source. The existence of a strong flux between 0.1 and 0.4 keV, with pulsations that are out of phase with those above 1 keV, is confirmed. A pulsed flux in the 19-30 keV band was discovered. The average fractional rate of change in pulse period between 1972 and 1975 was about 3 x 10 to the -6th/yr, and the absolute value of the average fractional rate of change in orbital period during the same interval was not greater than 5 x 10 to the -7th/yr

  10. SAS-2 high-energy gamma-ray observations of the Vela pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Ogelman, H. B.

    1975-01-01

    The Second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-2) high-energy (in excess of 35 MeV) gamma-ray telescope has detected pulsed gamma-ray emission at the radio period from PSR 0833-45, the Vela pulsar, as well as an unpulsed flux from the Vela region. The pulsed emission consists of two peaks following the single radio peak by about 13 ms and 48 ms. The luminosity of the pulsed emission above 100 MeV from Vela is about 0.1 that of the pulsar NP 0532 in the Crab nebula, whereas the pulsed emission from Vela at optical wavelengths is less than 0.0002 that from the Crab. The relatively high intensity of the pulsed gamma-ray emission, and the double peak structure, compared with the single pulse in the radio emission, suggest that the high-energy gamma-ray pulsar emission may be produced under different conditions from those at lower energies.

  11. Final SAS-2 gamma-ray results on sources in the galactic anticenter region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Final results are presented for SAS-2 observations of high-energy gamma-rays from the galactic anticenter region. Three main gamma-ray features are shown to characterize this region: a localized source associated with the Crab Nebula and its pulsar, another localized source near galactic coordinates 195 deg, +5 deg, and a general enhancement of the diffuse background 10 to 15 deg south of the galactic plane, which is associated with the Gould Belt. For the Crab, it is found that the radiation is mostly pulsed, the pulsed fraction increases with energy, and the intensity of the radiation in the main and interpulse peaks is approximately the same. The other localized source, provisionally designated as gamma 195+5, is found to have a harder spectrum than the Crab but no obvious radio counterpart; emission from an external galaxy is ruled out.

  12. SAS-2 gamma-ray observations of PSR 1747-46. [radio pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Ogelman, H. B.; Lamb, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence is reported for the observation of gamma-ray emission from the radio pulsar PSR 1747-46 by the gamma-ray telescope aboard SAS 2. The evidence is based on the presence of both an approximately 3-sigma enhancement of gamma rays at the pulsar's location and an approximately 4-sigma peak in the phase plot of 79 gamma-ray events whose phase was calculated from the pulsar's known period. The gamma-ray pulsation is found to appear at a phase lag of about 0.16 from that predicted by the radio observations. The pulsed gamma-ray fluxes above 35 MeV and 100 MeV are estimated, and it is shown that the gamma-ray pulse width is similar to the radio pulse width. It is concluded that PSR 1747-46 is a most likely candidate for pulsed gamma-ray emission.

  13. Tabulated data from the SAS-2 high energy gamma ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Ogelman, H. B.; Tuner, T.; Ozel, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    The second small astronomy satellite (SAS-2) carried a high energy gamma ray telescope into an equitorial orbit with a 2 D inclination, an apogee of 610 km, and a perigee of 440 km. The energy threshold of the instrument was about 30 MeV, the energy of the gamma rays could be measured up to about 200 MeV, and the integral intensity above 200 MeV could also be measured. Summary tables of the gamma ray data are presented in two energy bands, 35-100 MeV and 100 MeV. The sky was divided into 144 solid angle elements, and, in each solid angle element for which data exist, the number of gamma rays observed is given and also the exposure factor. Information is provided to permit conversion of these data into approximate intensities.

  14. XMM-Newton Data Analysis with SAS Software Over GRID Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, M. T.; Campos, I.; Orviz, P.; Tapiador, D.; Álvarez, R.; Ibarra, A.; Gabriel, C.; Rodón, J. R.

    The processing of data obtained by the XMM-Newton observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA) is done using the SAS (Software Analysis System) tools provided by the ESA XMM Science Operations Centre (SOC). In order to be operative, these tools must be downloaded from the official SOC web pages and then installed (eventually upgraded) and run locally in the computer used by the data analyser. This process can be in some cases cumbersome for some users and local resources. In this presentation, we summarise the initiative developed from the SOC at the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) in collaboration with the Instituto de Física de Cantabria (IFCA CSIC-UC), to run these tools in a GRID environment, and thus taking advantage of the resources distribution and the possibility of remote use of the analysis tools.

  15. NLMEM: a new SAS/IML macro for hierarchical nonlinear models.

    PubMed

    Galecki, A T

    1998-03-01

    Analysis of longitudinal data is one of the most challenging tasks in statistical modeling. In the analysis, it is often necessary to take into account nonlinear response to a set of parameters of interest and correlation between measurements taken from the same individual. In addition, between- and within-subject variation has to be handled properly. An example of addressing these issues is the hierarchical nonlinear model, where parameter estimation can be performed using linearization method. In this paper a new NLMEM SAS/IML macro for hierarchical nonlinear models is proposed. The program uses a portion of the code developed earlier in NLINMIX. NLMEM retains all the benefits of NLINMIX while allowing the systematic part of the model structure to be specified using IML syntax. Consequently, NLMEM allows estimation of models which are not tractable using NLINMIX. In particular, it allows us to address advanced population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics models specified by ordinary differential equations.

  16. Celestial diffuse gamma-ray emission observed by SAS-2 and its interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Hartman, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Gelman, H.; Ozel, M.; Tumer, T.

    1977-01-01

    A clearly established diffuse celestial gamma-ray component was seen by SAS-2 above 35 MeV, after examining several regions of the sky at different latitudes, including the north celestial pole. For energies above 100 MeV the gamma ray results are consistent with an equation of the form I(b)=C1+C2/sin b with the second term being dominant, suggesting that the radiation above 100 MeV comes largely from the local regions of the galactic disk. Between 35 and 100 MeV, a similar equation is also a reasonable representation of the data, but here the two terms are comparable, with the first, or isotropic term, actually being the larger one. In addition to indicating that the diffuse radiation is partially galactic, these results imply a steepness for the energy spectrum of the diffuse isotropic component which places significant constraints on possible theoretical models of this radiation.

  17. A search of the SAS-2 data for pulsed gamma-ray emission from radio pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogelman, H. B.; Fichtel, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    Data from the SAS-2 high energy gamma ray experiment were examined for pulsed emission from each of 75 radio pulsars which were viewed by the instrument and which have sufficiently well defined period and period derivative information from radio observations to allow for gamma ray periodicity searches. When gamma ray arrival times were converted to pulsar phase using the radio reference timing information, two pulsars, PSR 1747-46 and PSR 1818-04, showed positive effects, each with a probability less than 0.0001 of being a random fluctuation in the data for that pulsar. These are in addition to PSR 0531+21 and PSR 0833-45, previously reported. The results of this study suggest that gamma-ray astronomy has reached the detection threshold for gamma ray pulsars and that work in the near future should give important information on the nature of pulsars.

  18. GéoSAS: A modular and interoperable Open Source Spatial Data Infrastructure for research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, R.; Squividant, H.; Le Henaff, G.; Pichelin, P.; Ruiz, L.; Launay, J.; Vanhouteghem, J.; Aurousseau, P.; Cudennec, C.

    2015-05-01

    To-date, the commonest way to deal with geographical information and processes still appears to consume local resources, i.e. locally stored data processed on a local desktop or server. The maturity and subsequent growing use of OGC standards to exchange data on the World Wide Web, enhanced in Europe by the INSPIRE Directive, is bound to change the way people (and among them research scientists, especially in environmental sciences) make use of, and manage, spatial data. A clever use of OGC standards can help scientists to better store, share and use data, in particular for modelling. We propose a framework for online processing by making an intensive use of OGC standards. We illustrate it using the Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) GéoSAS which is the SDI set up for researchers' needs in our department. It is based on the existing open source, modular and interoperable Spatial Data Architecture geOrchestra.

  19. Radiation hazards to synchronous satellites: The IUE (SAS-D) mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    The ambient trapped particle fluxes incident on the IUE (SAS-D) satellite were studied. Several synchronous elliptical and circular flight paths were evaluated and the effect of inclination, eccentricity, and parking longitude on vehicle encountered intensities was investigated. Temporal variations in the electron environment were considered and partially accounted for. Magnetic field calculations were performed with a current field model extrapolated to a later epoch with linear time terms. Orbital flux integrations were performed with the latest proton and electron environment models using new improved computational methods. The results are presented in graphical and tabular form; they are analyzed, explained, and discussed. Estimates of energetic solar proton fluxes are given for a one year mission at selected integral energies ranging from 10 to 100 MeV, calculated for a year of maximum solar activity during the next solar cycle.

  20. Patterns of Growth in Adaptive Social Abilities among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Deborah K.; Oti, Rosalind S.; Lord, Catherine; Welch, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive social skills were assessed longitudinally at approximately ages 2, 3, 5, 9, and 13 years in a sample of 192 children with a clinical diagnosis of autism (n = 93), PDD-NOS (n = 51), or nonspectrum developmental disabilities (n = 46) at age 2. Growth curve analyses with SAS proc mixed were used to analyze social trajectories over time.…

  1. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes The Use Of Informatics Tools, GIS And SAS Software Applications

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Malcolm J.; Kashmar, Richard J.; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E.; Deol, Jasbir K.; Wilson, Alora

    2015-01-01

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning courses using instrumentation, data-collection, data-storage, statistical-modeling analysis, visualization, and computational techniques. In this revised curriculum, students begin with a traditional set of biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics major core-requirements, a geographic information systems (GIS) course, a choice of an instrumental analysis course or a statistical analysis systems (SAS) programming course, and then, students can add major-electives that further add depth and value to their future post-graduate specialty areas. Open-sourced georeferenced census, health and health disparity data were coupled with GIS and SAS tools, in a public health surveillance system project, based on US county zip-codes, to develop use-cases for chronic adult obesity where income, poverty status, health insurance coverage, education, and age were categorical variables. Across the 48 contiguous states, obesity rates are found to be directly proportional to high poverty and inversely proportional to median income and educational achievement. For the State of Delaware, age and educational attainment were found to be limiting obesity risk-factors in its adult population. Furthermore, the 2004–2010 obesity trends showed that for two of the less densely populated Delaware counties; Sussex and Kent, the rates of adult obesity were found to be progressing at much higher proportions when compared to the national average. PMID:26191337

  2. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes The Use Of Informatics Tools, GIS And SAS Software Applications.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Malcolm J; Kashmar, Richard J; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E; Deol, Jasbir K; Wilson, Alora

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning courses using instrumentation, data-collection, data-storage, statistical-modeling analysis, visualization, and computational techniques. In this revised curriculum, students begin with a traditional set of biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics major core-requirements, a geographic information systems (GIS) course, a choice of an instrumental analysis course or a statistical analysis systems (SAS) programming course, and then, students can add major-electives that further add depth and value to their future post-graduate specialty areas. Open-sourced georeferenced census, health and health disparity data were coupled with GIS and SAS tools, in a public health surveillance system project, based on US county zip-codes, to develop use-cases for chronic adult obesity where income, poverty status, health insurance coverage, education, and age were categorical variables. Across the 48 contiguous states, obesity rates are found to be directly proportional to high poverty and inversely proportional to median income and educational achievement. For the State of Delaware, age and educational attainment were found to be limiting obesity risk-factors in its adult population. Furthermore, the 2004-2010 obesity trends showed that for two of the less densely populated Delaware counties; Sussex and Kent, the rates of adult obesity were found to be progressing at much higher proportions when compared to the national average.

  3. An essential role of the basal body protein SAS-6 in Plasmodium male gamete development and malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Marques, Sara R; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Blagborough, Andrew M; Delves, Michael J; Talman, Arthur M; Sinden, Robert E

    2015-02-01

    Gametocytes are the sole Plasmodium parasite stages that infect mosquitoes; therefore development of functional gametes is required for malaria transmission. Flagellum assembly of the Plasmodium male gamete differs from that of most other eukaryotes in that it is intracytoplasmic but retains a key conserved feature: axonemes assemble from basal bodies. The centriole/basal body protein SAS-6 normally regulates assembly and duplication of these organelles and its depletion causes severe flagellar/ciliary abnormalities in a diverse array of eukaryotes. Since basal body and flagellum assembly are intimately coupled to male gamete development in Plasmodium, we hypothesized that SAS-6 disruption may cause gametogenesis defects and perturb transmission. We show that Plasmodium berghei sas6 knockouts display severely abnormal male gametogenesis presenting reduced basal body numbers, axonemal assembly defects and abnormal nuclear allocation. The defects in gametogenesis reduce fertilization and render Pbsas6 knockouts less infectious to mosquitoes. Additionally, we show that lack of Pbsas6 blocks transmission from mosquito to vertebrate host, revealing an additional yet undefined role in ookinete to sporulating oocysts transition. These findings underscore the vulnerability of the basal body/SAS-6 to malaria transmission blocking interventions.

  4. Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Surface Protein A (SasA) Protect Against Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis and Peritonitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yilong; Qian, Mengying; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Shuling; Li, Bing; Yu, Rui; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Changming; Li, Jianmin; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) imposes an increasing impact on public health. Due to multi-antibiotics resistance in MRSA strains, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics such as effective monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MRSA infections. Staphylococcus aureus surface protein A (SasA), a large surface-located protein (~240 kDa), is one of MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) and a potential target for immunotherapeutic approaches against S. aureus infections. In the present study, we analyzed the sequence of SasA with bioinformatics tools and generated a protective monoclonal antibody (2H7) targeting the conserved domain of SasA. 2H7 was shown to recognize wild-type S. aureus and promote opsonophagocytic killing of S. aureus. In both sepsis and peritoneal infection models, prophylactic administration of 2H7 improved the survival of BALB/c mice challenged by S. aureus strain USA300 and ST239 (prevalent MRSA clones in North America and Asian countries, respectively) and enhanced bacterial clearance in kidneys. Additionally, 2H7 prophylaxis prevented the formation of intraperitoneal abscess in a murine model of peritoneal infection and therapeutic administration of 2H7 showed protective efficacy in a murine sepsis model. Our results presented here provide supporting evidences that an anti-SasA mAb might be a potential component in an antibody-based immunotherapeutic treatment of MRSA infections. PMID:26926145

  5. SAS Code for Calculating Intraclass Correlation Coefficients and Effect Size Benchmarks for Site-Randomized Education Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Paul R.; Harrison, George M.; Lawton, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    When evaluators plan site-randomized experiments, they must conduct the appropriate statistical power analyses. These analyses are most likely to be valid when they are based on data from the jurisdictions in which the studies are to be conducted. In this method note, we provide software code, in the form of a SAS macro, for producing statistical…

  6. Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Surface Protein A (SasA) Protect Against Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis and Peritonitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yilong; Qian, Mengying; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Shuling; Li, Bing; Yu, Rui; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Changming; Li, Jianmin; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) imposes an increasing impact on public health. Due to multi-antibiotics resistance in MRSA strains, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics such as effective monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MRSA infections. Staphylococcus aureus surface protein A (SasA), a large surface-located protein (~240 kDa), is one of MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) and a potential target for immunotherapeutic approaches against S. aureus infections. In the present study, we analyzed the sequence of SasA with bioinformatics tools and generated a protective monoclonal antibody (2H7) targeting the conserved domain of SasA. 2H7 was shown to recognize wild-type S. aureus and promote opsonophagocytic killing of S. aureus. In both sepsis and peritoneal infection models, prophylactic administration of 2H7 improved the survival of BALB/c mice challenged by S. aureus strain USA300 and ST239 (prevalent MRSA clones in North America and Asian countries, respectively) and enhanced bacterial clearance in kidneys. Additionally, 2H7 prophylaxis prevented the formation of intraperitoneal abscess in a murine model of peritoneal infection and therapeutic administration of 2H7 showed protective efficacy in a murine sepsis model. Our results presented here provide supporting evidences that an anti-SasA mAb might be a potential component in an antibody-based immunotherapeutic treatment of MRSA infections.

  7. Development and Validation of the Self-Acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness: The SAS-EB

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of self-acceptance are critical to understanding the development and maintenance of psychological health. However, valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-acceptance in persons with early blindness have yet to be developed. The current research describes three studies designed to develop and validate the Self-acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness (SAS-EB). In Study 1, we developed the initial item pool. Thirty-three items were generated, based on data from specialized literature and from 2 focus groups. Items were organized in a three-factor structure, theoretically predicted for SAS-EB - (1) body acceptance, (2) self-protection from social stigmas, and (3) feeling and believing in one's capacities. In Study 2, information obtained from a panel of 9 experts and 22 persons with early blindness representing the target population was used to refine the initial item pool, generating a new pool of 27 items. In Study 3, 318 persons with early blindness (141 women and 177 men), between 18 and 60 years of age (M = 37.74 years, SD = 12.37) answered the new pool of 27 items. After the elimination of 9 items using confirmatory factor analysis, we confirmed the theoretical three-factor structure of the SAS-EB. Study 3 also provided support for the scale's internal consistency and construct validity. Finally, the psychometric properties of the SAS-EB, its utility, and its limitations are discussed along with considerations for future research. PMID:25268633

  8. SAS4A: A computer model for the analysis of hypothetical core disruptive accidents in liquid metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tentner, A.M.; Birgersson, G.; Cahalan, J.E.; Dunn, F.E.; Kalimullah; Miles, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    To ensure that the public health and safety are protected under any accident conditions in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), many accidents are analyzed for their potential consequences. The SAS4A code system, described in this paper, provides such an analysis capability, including the ability to analyze low probability events such as the Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDAs). The SAS4A code system has been designed to simulate all the events that occur in a LMFBR core during the initiating phase of a Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident. During such postulated accident scenarios as the Loss-of-Flow and Transient Overpower events, a large number of interrelated physical phenomena occur during a relatively short time. These phenomena include transient heat transfer and hydrodynamic events, coolant boiling and fuel and cladding melting and relocation. During to the strong neutronic feedback present in a nuclear reactor, these events can significantly influence the reactor power. The SAS4A code system is used in the safety analysis of nuclear reactors, in order to estimate the energetic potential of very low probability accidents. The results of SAS4A simulations are also used by reactor designers in order to build safer reactors and eliminate the possibility of any accident which could endanger the public safety.

  9. Development and validation of the self-acceptance scale for persons with early blindness: the SAS-EB.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of self-acceptance are critical to understanding the development and maintenance of psychological health. However, valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-acceptance in persons with early blindness have yet to be developed. The current research describes three studies designed to develop and validate the Self-acceptance Scale for Persons with Early Blindness (SAS-EB). In Study 1, we developed the initial item pool. Thirty-three items were generated, based on data from specialized literature and from 2 focus groups. Items were organized in a three-factor structure, theoretically predicted for SAS-EB - (1) body acceptance, (2) self-protection from social stigmas, and (3) feeling and believing in one's capacities. In Study 2, information obtained from a panel of 9 experts and 22 persons with early blindness representing the target population was used to refine the initial item pool, generating a new pool of 27 items. In Study 3, 318 persons with early blindness (141 women and 177 men), between 18 and 60 years of age (M = 37.74 years, SD = 12.37) answered the new pool of 27 items. After the elimination of 9 items using confirmatory factor analysis, we confirmed the theoretical three-factor structure of the SAS-EB. Study 3 also provided support for the scale's internal consistency and construct validity. Finally, the psychometric properties of the SAS-EB, its utility, and its limitations are discussed along with considerations for future research.

  10. Sleep apnea syndrome in the morbidly obese as an indication for weight reduction surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Peiser, J; Lavie, P; Ovnat, A; Charuzi, I

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen morbidly obese patients with Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS) were studied during nocturnal sleep before and between 2 to 4 months after a weight reduction surgery. Six patients were also recorded between 4 to 8 months after surgery. Postoperative recordings revealed a dramatic reduction in the sleep apnea index and an improvement in sleep motility and daytime vigilance levels. A further decrease in apneas and sleep motility was seen in the late post-treatment recording. These results indicate that weight reduction surgery is an effective definitive treatment for obesity associated SAS. PMID:6691724

  11. Analyses of Weapons-Grade MOX VVER-1000 Neutronics Benchmarks: Pin-Cell Calculations with SCALE/SAS2H

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.J.

    2001-01-11

    A series of unit pin-cell benchmark problems have been analyzed related to irradiation of mixed oxide fuel in VVER-1000s (water-water energetic reactors). One-dimensional, discrete-ordinates eigenvalue calculations of these benchmarks were performed at ORNL using the SAS2H control sequence module of the SCALE-4.3 computational code system, as part of the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) of the US DOE. Calculations were also performed using the SCALE module CSAS to confirm the results. The 238 neutron energy group SCALE nuclear data library 238GROUPNDF5 (based on ENDF/B-V) was used for all calculations. The VVER-1000 pin-cell benchmark cases modeled with SAS2H included zero-burnup calculations for eight fuel material variants (from LEU UO{sub 2} to weapons-grade MOX) at five different reactor states, and three fuel depletion cases up to high burnup. Results of the SAS2H analyses of the VVER-1000 neutronics benchmarks are presented in this report. Good general agreement was obtained between the SAS2H results, the ORNL results using HELIOS-1.4 with ENDF/B-VI nuclear data, and the results from several Russian benchmark studies using the codes TVS-M, MCU-RFFI/A, and WIMS-ABBN. This SAS2H benchmark study is useful for the verification of HELIOS calculations, the HELIOS code being the principal computational tool at ORNL for physics studies of assembly design for weapons-grade plutonium disposition in Russian reactors.

  12. Comparison of ArcGIS and SAS Geostatistical Analyst to Estimate Population-Weighted Monthly Temperature for US Counties.

    PubMed

    Xiaopeng, Q I; Liang, Wei; Barker, Laurie; Lekiachvili, Akaki; Xingyou, Zhang

    Temperature changes are known to have significant impacts on human health. Accurate estimates of population-weighted average monthly air temperature for US counties are needed to evaluate temperature's association with health behaviours and disease, which are sampled or reported at the county level and measured on a monthly-or 30-day-basis. Most reported temperature estimates were calculated using ArcGIS, relatively few used SAS. We compared the performance of geostatistical models to estimate population-weighted average temperature in each month for counties in 48 states using ArcGIS v9.3 and SAS v 9.2 on a CITGO platform. Monthly average temperature for Jan-Dec 2007 and elevation from 5435 weather stations were used to estimate the temperature at county population centroids. County estimates were produced with elevation as a covariate. Performance of models was assessed by comparing adjusted R(2), mean squared error, root mean squared error, and processing time. Prediction accuracy for split validation was above 90% for 11 months in ArcGIS and all 12 months in SAS. Cokriging in SAS achieved higher prediction accuracy and lower estimation bias as compared to cokriging in ArcGIS. County-level estimates produced by both packages were positively correlated (adjusted R(2) range=0.95 to 0.99); accuracy and precision improved with elevation as a covariate. Both methods from ArcGIS and SAS are reliable for U.S. county-level temperature estimates; However, ArcGIS's merits in spatial data pre-processing and processing time may be important considerations for software selection, especially for multi-year or multi-state projects.

  13. Comparison of ArcGIS and SAS Geostatistical Analyst to Estimate Population-Weighted Monthly Temperature for US Counties

    PubMed Central

    Xiaopeng, QI; Liang, WEI; BARKER, Laurie; LEKIACHVILI, Akaki; Xingyou, ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Temperature changes are known to have significant impacts on human health. Accurate estimates of population-weighted average monthly air temperature for US counties are needed to evaluate temperature’s association with health behaviours and disease, which are sampled or reported at the county level and measured on a monthly—or 30-day—basis. Most reported temperature estimates were calculated using ArcGIS, relatively few used SAS. We compared the performance of geostatistical models to estimate population-weighted average temperature in each month for counties in 48 states using ArcGIS v9.3 and SAS v 9.2 on a CITGO platform. Monthly average temperature for Jan-Dec 2007 and elevation from 5435 weather stations were used to estimate the temperature at county population centroids. County estimates were produced with elevation as a covariate. Performance of models was assessed by comparing adjusted R2, mean squared error, root mean squared error, and processing time. Prediction accuracy for split validation was above 90% for 11 months in ArcGIS and all 12 months in SAS. Cokriging in SAS achieved higher prediction accuracy and lower estimation bias as compared to cokriging in ArcGIS. County-level estimates produced by both packages were positively correlated (adjusted R2 range=0.95 to 0.99); accuracy and precision improved with elevation as a covariate. Both methods from ArcGIS and SAS are reliable for U.S. county-level temperature estimates; However, ArcGIS’s merits in spatial data pre-processing and processing time may be important considerations for software selection, especially for multi-year or multi-state projects. PMID:26167169

  14. SATB2-associated syndrome presenting with Rett-like phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Yoo, Y; Lim, B C; Kim, K J; Choi, M; Chae, J-H

    2016-06-01

    The SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) was proposed recently, after the SATB2 gene was initially discovered to be associated with isolated cleft palate. This syndrome is characterized by intellectual disability with delayed speech development, facial dysmorphism, cleft or high-arched palate, and dentition problems. Here, we describe two novel SATB2 sequence variants in two unrelated patients presenting with Rett-like phenotypes. We performed trio-based whole-exome sequencing in a 17-month-old girl presenting with severe retardation and Rett-like phenotypes, which revealed a de novo missense variant in SATB2 (p.Glu396Gln). Moreover, targeted sequencing of the SATB2 gene was performed in a 2-year-old girl with severe psychomotor retardation, facial hypotonia, and cleft palate who also exhibited some features of Rett syndrome. A nonsense variant in SATB2 was identified in this patient (p.Arg459*). This study expanded the clinical and genetic spectrum of SAS. SATB2 variants should be considered in cases with psychomotor retardation alone or in any cases with Rett-like phenotypes, regardless of the typical features of SAS such as cleft palate.

  15. Sylvian aqueduct syndrome with slit ventricles in shunted hydrocephalus due to adult aqueduct stenosis.

    PubMed

    Maroulis, Helen; Halmagyi, G Michael; Heard, Robert; Cook, Raymond J

    2008-11-01

    The authors report on 3 patients who developed sylvian aqueduct syndrome (SAS) in the context of shunt dysfunction and slit ventricles. All 3 patients had received shunts for adult onset hydrocephalus due to aqueduct stenosis and were stable for years before presenting with loss of upward gaze, convergence-retraction nystagmus, and slit ventricles, all due to shunt overdrainage. All 3 improved after either shunt revision or a third ventriculostomy procedure. Although it is well known that SAS can be caused by shunt blockage producing a transtentorial pressure gradient, these cases emphasize that an identical clinical pattern can occur with a reverse transtentorial pressure gradient and slit ventricles due to shunt overdrainage. The authors propose a simple management plan for patients with shunted hydrocephalus who develop SAS.

  16. Tetrandrine induces cell death in SAS human oral cancer cells through caspase activation-dependent apoptosis and LC3-I and LC3-II activation-dependent autophagy.

    PubMed

    Huang, An-Cheng; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Lin, Meng-Wei; Yang, Jai-Sing; Wu, Ping-Ping; Chang, Shu-Jen; Lai, Tung-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that autophagy is associated with cancer development. Thus, agents to induce autophagy could be employed in some cases for the treatment of cancer. Our results showed that tetrandrine significantly decreased the viability of SAS cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Tetrandrine induced nuclear condensation, demonstrated by DAPI staining. The early events in apoptosis analysed by Annexin V/PI staining indicated that the percentage of cells staining positive for Annexin V was slightly increased in SAS cells with tetrandrine treatment but was much lower following bafilomycin A1 pre-treatment. Tetrandrine caused AVO and MDC induction in SAS cells in a concentration-dependent manner by fluorescence microscopy. Tetrandrine also caused LC-3 expression in SAS cells in a time-dependent manner. Our results show that tetrandrine treatment induced the levels of cleaved caspase-3 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Tetrandrine treatment induced the levels of LC-3 II, Atg-5, beclin-1, p-S6, p-ULK, p-mTOR, p-Akt (S473) and raptor. Tetrandrine decreased cell viability, but bafilomycin A1, 3-MA, chloroquine and NAC protected tetrandrine-treated SAS cells against decrease of cell viability. Atg-5, beclin-1 siRNA decreased tetrandrine-induced cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP in SAS cells and protected tetrandrine-treated SAS cells against decrease in cell viability. Chloroquine, NAC and bafilomycin A1 also decreased tetrandrine-induced cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP in SAS cells. Our results indicate the tetrandrine induces apoptosis and autophagy of SAS human cancer cells via caspase-dependent and LC3-I and LC3-II‑dependent pathways.

  17. [Usefulness of a new sheet-like apparatus (SD-101) for screening of sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yoko; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Honda, Takayuki; Urushihata, Kazutoshi; Komatsu, Yoshimichi; Asawa, Teruko; Uhara, Miho; Ii, Asami; Yamauchi, Kazuyoshi; Katsuyama, Tsutomu

    2006-07-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). However, PSG is not suitable as a first-line examination for all people suspected as having SAS because PSG requires hospitalization. Therefore, it is hoped that a simple examination can be developed which is available for use in the home. The present study evaluated the usefulness of a new sheet-like apparatus (SD-101) which is equipped with 162 pressure sensors for SAS diagnosis. One hundred patients hospitalized for PSG were simultaneously examined using the SD-101, and 25 patients, who underwent both PSG and SAS screening with MORPHEUS R, were also studied. The SD-101 is inserted between a sheet and the bed, and detects pressure from many points on the patient's body as it presses against the bed. Continuous changes of these pressure points are converted to respiratory movement. A very close correlation was seen between the apnea hypopnea index of PSG and a respiratory disturbance index of SD-101 (r=0.90), although there was a significant but lower correlation between data obtained PSG and MORPHEUS R(r=0.84). The sensitivity and specificity of the examination using SD-101 were 98.2% and 55.8%, respectively. These findings suggested that a new apparatus, SD-101, may be useful for the screening of SAS.

  18. SAS-mediated acetylation of histone H4 Lys 16 is required for H2A.Z incorporation at subtelomeric regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Shia, Wei-Jong; Li, Bing; Workman, Jerry L.

    2006-01-01

    The yeast SAS (Something About Silencing) complex and the histone variant H2A.Z have both previously been linked to an antisilencing function at the subtelomeric regions. SAS is an H4 Lys 16-specific histone acetyltransferase complex. Here we demonstrate that the H4 Lys 16 acetylation by SAS is required for efficient H2A.Z incorporation near telomeres. The presence of H4 Lys 16 acetylation and H2A.Z synergistically prevent the ectopic propagation of heterochromatin. Overall, our data suggest a novel antisilencing mechanism near telomeres. PMID:16980580

  19. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) subverts normal development of adaptive immunity by proliferation of germline-encoded B cells with hydrophobic HCDR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolator piglets infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) develop severe hypergammaglobulinemia, lymph node adenopathy and autoimmune disease. The expanded B cell clones in this disease are unusual in bearing hydrophobic HCDR3 regions and these are disseminated to mo...

  20. A search of the SAS-2 data for pulsed gamma-ray emission from radio pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogelman, H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Data from the SAS-2 high-energy (above 35 MeV) gamma-ray experiment have been examined for pulsed emission from each of 75 radio pulsars which were viewed by the instrument and which have sufficiently well-defined period and period-derivative information from radio observations to allow for gamma-ray periodicity searches. When gamma-ray arrival times were converted to pulsar phase using the radio reference timing information, two pulsars, PSR 1747-46 and PSR 1818-04, showed positive effects, each with a probability of less than 1 part in 10,000 of being a random fluctuation in the data for that pulsar. These are in addition to PSR 0531+21 and PSR 0833-45, previously reported. The results of this study suggest that gamma-ray astronomy has reached the detection threshold for gamma-ray pulsars and that work in the near future should give important new information on the nature of pulsars.

  1. SAS-2 observations of the galactic gamma radiation from the Vela region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Data from a scan of the galactic plane by the SAS-2 high energy gamma ray experiment in the region 250 deg l2 290 deg show a statistically-significant excess over the general radiation from the galactic plane for gamma radiation of energy 100 MeV in the region 260 deg l2 270 deg and -7.5 deg b2 0 deg. If the enhanced gamma radiation results from interactions of cosmic rays with galactic matter, as the energy spectrum suggests, it seems reasonable to associate the enhancement with large scale galactic features, such as spiral arm segments in that direction, or with the region surrounding the Vela supernova remnant, with which PSR 0833-45 is associated. If the excess is attributed to cosmic rays released from this supernova interacting with the interstellar matter in that region, then on the order of 3.10 to the 50th power ergs would be released by that supernova in the form of cosmic rays.

  2. Sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) close to the water table: Examples from southern France, Austria, and Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Audra, Philippe; Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco; Plan, Lukas; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Bigot, Jean-Yves; Anoux, Catherine; Nobécourt, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Caves formed by rising sulfuric waters have been described from all over the world in a wide variety of climate settings, from arid regions to mid-latitude and alpine areas. H2S is generally formed at depth by reduction of sulfates in the presence of hydrocarbons and is transported in solution through the deep aquifers. In tectonically disturbed areas major fractures eventually allow these H2S-bearing fluids to rise to the surface where oxidation processes can become active producing sulfuric acid. This extremely strong acid reacts with the carbonate bedrock creating caves, some of which are among the largest and most spectacular in the world. Production of sulfuric acid mostly occurs at or close to the water table but also in subaerial conditions in moisture films and droplets in the cave environment. These caves are generated at or immediately above the water table, where condensation-corrosion processes are dominant, creating a set of characteristic meso- and micromorphologies. Due to their close connection to the base level, these caves can also precisely record past hydrological and geomorphological settings. Certain authigenic cave minerals, produced during the sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) phase, allow determination of the exact timing of speleogenesis. This paper deals with the morphological, geochemical and mineralogical description of four very typical sulfuric acid water table caves in Europe: the Grotte du Chat in the southern French Alps, the Acqua Fitusa Cave in Sicily (Italy), and the Bad Deutsch Altenburg and Kraushöhle caves in Austria.

  3. Observations of the giant radio lobes region of Centaurus A with SAS 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, F. J.; Clark, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of the X-ray flux from the extended radio lobes of the galaxy Centaurus A obtained with the SAS 3 observatory are reported. The 15 x 15 deg region that includes the lobes was mapped by superposing data from raster scans with the horizontal tubular collimator detectors, which have a 1.7 deg FWHM circular field of view. Data obtained is consistent with the presence of superposed emission from the point sources NGC 5128 and MX 1312-42, a previously unreported source detected by the Einstein Observatory IPC. Fluxes of 4.63 + or - 0.14 x 10 to the -10th and 4.6 + or - 0.6 x 10 to the -11th ergs/sq cm per sec were measured for NGC 5128 and MX 1312-42, respectively, with best fit power law spectra of indices 0.83 + or - 0.04 and 0.62 + or - 0.10 and hydrogen column densities of 1.23 + or - 0.10 x 10 to the 23rd and 9.7 + or - 15.0 x 10 to the 21st atoms/sq cm. Results imply an upper limit of 2.9 x 10 to the 11th for the X-ray emission from the extended radio lobes of Cen A between 2 and 10 keV, which indicates a lower limit to the magnetic field in the lobes of 1.6 x 10 to the -6th gauss.

  4. Further analysis of SAS 3 observations of the rapid burster /MXB 1730-335/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, H. L.; Hoffman, J. A.; Doty, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Ulmer, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    SAS 3 observations of the rapid burster MXB 1730-335 are analyzed with specific reference to the rapidly repetitive type II bursts and also the type I bursts. It is found that: (1) there are two stable patterns in the recurrence of the rapidly repetitive type II bursts, designated modes I and II; (2) the range of type II burst energies is a factor of about 100 for mode I and a factor of about 10 for mode II; (3) type II burst spectra are best fitted by a blackbody of constant temperature (of the order of 18 million K), constant column density, and decreasing intensity; and (4) type I bursts are best fitted by a blackbody spectrum with decreasing temperature (approximately 24 million K during the first few seconds and 16 million K about 10 sec later). The spectral fits for both types of burst are shown to yield sizes for the emission region comparable to the radius of a neutron star. A model for the rapid burster is suggested.

  5. Diffuse gamma radiation. [intensity, energy spectrum and spatial distribution from SAS 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Simpson, G. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported for an investigation of the intensity, energy spectrum, and spatial distribution of the diffuse gamma radiation detected by SAS 2 away from the galactic plane in the energy range above 35 MeV. The gamma-ray data are compared with relevant data obtained at other wavelengths, including 21-cm emission, radio continuum radiation, and the limited UV and radio information on local molecular hydrogen. It is found that there are two quite distinct components to the diffuse radiation, one of which shows a good correlation with the galactic matter distribution and continuum radiation, while the other has a much steeper energy spectrum and appears to be isotropic at least on a coarse scale. The galactic component is interpreted in terms of its implications for both local and more distant regions of the Galaxy. The apparently isotropic radiation is discussed partly with regard to the constraints placed on possible models by the steep energy spectrum, the observed intensity, and an upper limit on the anisotropy.

  6. Integrating SAS and GIS software to improve habitat-use estimates from radiotelemetry data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, K.P.; Wright, R.G.; Samuel, M.D.; Rasmussen, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    Radiotelemetry has been used commonly to remotely determine habitat use by a variety of wildlife species. However, habitat misclassification can occur because the true location of a radiomarked animal can only be estimated. Analytical methods that provide improved estimates of habitat use from radiotelemetry location data using a subsampling approach have been proposed previously. We developed software, based on these methods, to conduct improved habitat-use analyses. A Statistical Analysis System (SAS)-executable file generates a random subsample of points from the error distribution of an estimated animal location and formats the output into ARC/INFO-compatible coordinate and attribute files. An associated ARC/INFO Arc Macro Language (AML) creates a coverage of the random points, determines the habitat type at each random point from an existing habitat coverage, sums the number of subsample points by habitat type for each location, and outputs tile results in ASCII format. The proportion and precision of habitat types used is calculated from the subsample of points generated for each radiotelemetry location. We illustrate the method and software by analysis of radiotelemetry data for a female wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

  7. SAS 3 observations of two X-ray transient events with precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Doty, J.; Jernigan, J. G.; Haney, M.; Richardson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    SAS 3 has observed two unusual fast transient X-ray events from different sources, one lasting about 150 s and one, approximately 1500 s. Both events were preceded by precursor pulses which lasted a few seconds and which rose and fell in less than 0.4 s. The precursors were separated from the 'main' events by several seconds, during which no X-rays were detected. There are similarities between the two main events and X-ray bursts in both their temporal and spectral evolution. The spectra of the main events started out much softer than the spectra of the precursors, became harder as they approached maximum intensity, and softened as they decayed. In the 1500-s event, X-rays with energies greater than 10 keV were delayed by about 80 s compared with 1.5-6-keV X-rays. A blackbody fit to the spectral data of the main event of approximately 1500-s duration gives a maximum temperature of 29 million K and a radius for the emitting region of at least about 9 km (at a distance of 10 kpc); this is similar to the temperature and sizes found for several X-ray burst sources.

  8. Age-related changes in the bone marrow and spleen of SAS/4 mice.

    PubMed

    Coggle, J E; Gordon, M Y; Proukakis, C; Bogg, C E

    1975-01-01

    The total number of nucleated cells in the bone marrow of SAS/4 mice increase some twofold between 1 and 24 months of age but when related to body weight remains essentially constant over a wide range of ages. The concentration of CFU-S in femoral marrow is also constant with age and since other bones containing marrow appear, at least in young mice, to have the same CFU-S concentration as the femur it is concluded that the CFU-S compartment size of the whole bone marrow is independent of age when expressed on a body weight basis, In contrast, both the absolute number and the concentration of exogenous CFU-S in the spleen decline markedly in old mice. Smilary there is a decline in the number of endogenous colony-forming cells and the spleens of 24-month-old mice seem virtually devoid of such colonies. Not only were older mice less capable of supporting the growth of endogenous colonies, but their spleens also appear to provide a poorer environment for exogenous colony growth when compared with growth in younger recipient spleens.

  9. SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models.

    PubMed

    Preacher, Kristopher J; Hayes, Andrew F

    2004-11-01

    Researchers often conduct mediation analysis in order to indirectly assess the effect of a proposed cause on some outcome through a proposed mediator. The utility of mediation analysis stems from its ability to go beyond the merely descriptive to a more functional understanding of the relationships among variables. A necessary component of mediation is a statistically and practically significant indirect effect. Although mediation hypotheses are frequently explored in psychological research, formal significance tests of indirect effects are rarely conducted. After a brief overview of mediation, we argue the importance of directly testing the significance of indirect effects and provide SPSS and SAS macros that facilitate estimation of the indirect effect with a normal theory approach and a bootstrap approach to obtaining confidence intervals, as well as the traditional approach advocated by Baron and Kenny (1986). We hope that this discussion and the macros will enhance the frequency of formal mediation tests in the psychology literature. Electronic copies of these macros may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society's Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  10. SAS-2 gamma-ray observations of PSR 1747-46

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.; Oegelman, H. B.

    1976-01-01

    Observations with the SAS-2 high energy ( 35 MeV) gamma-ray telescope show evidence of gamma-ray emission from the radio pulsar PSR 1747-46. When the arrival times of gamma-rays from the region of the pulsar were converted to pulsar phases using the radio period and period derivative, a single peak was found in the phase plot, with a Poisson probability of occurring by chance of .00008. Independently, the time-averaged data for the PSR 1747-46 region show an enhancement over the surrounding region of the sky at the same galactic latitude, with a Poisson probability of chance occurrence of less than .008. The probability that these results are chance is the product of these two probabilities times the number of radio pulsars examined (73). This overall probability is sufficiently small (.00005) to suggest an identification of a new gamma-ray pulsar. In the gamma-ray pulsar plot, the peak falls 0.16 + or - 0.03 period after the radio pulsar peak. This phase shift is, within uncertainties, the same as that observed between the single radio peak and the first of the two gamma-ray peaks seen in the phase plot for PSR-0833-45 (the Vela pulsar).

  11. Celestial diffuse gamma radiation above 30 MeV observed by SAS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Hartman, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    The Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS)-2, launched on November 15, 1972, carried into orbit a 32-deck magnetic-core digitized spark chamber gamma ray telescope to study celestial gamma radiation in the energy range above 30 MeV. In the study of several regions with b sub 2 15 deg, a finite, diffuse flux of gamma rays with a steep energy spectrum in the energy region from 35 to 200 MeV is observed. Representing the energy spectrum by a power law of the form dJ/dE = AE to - alpha power over this energy range, alpha is found along with the integral flux above 100 MeV. Combining this result with existing low energy gamma ray data yields an energy spectrum which is not a simple power law in energy, as in the X-ray region, but which demonstrates first an increase and then a decrease in slope, consistent within uncertainties with that predicted by cosmological theories, including the continuous production of high energy gamma rays primarily from neutral pi mesons throughout the history of the universe.

  12. Cdk1 Phosphorylates Drosophila Sas-4 to Recruit Polo to Daughter Centrioles and Convert Them to Centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Novak, Zsofia A; Wainman, Alan; Gartenmann, Lisa; Raff, Jordan W

    2016-06-20

    Centrosomes and cilia are organized by a centriole pair comprising an older mother and a younger daughter. Centriole numbers are tightly regulated, and daughter centrioles (which assemble in S phase) cannot themselves duplicate or organize centrosomes until they have passed through mitosis. It is unclear how this mitotic "centriole conversion" is regulated, but it requires Plk1/Polo kinase. Here we show that in flies, Cdk1 phosphorylates the conserved centriole protein Sas-4 during mitosis. This creates a Polo-docking site that helps recruit Polo to daughter centrioles and is required for the subsequent recruitment of Asterless (Asl), a protein essential for centriole duplication and mitotic centrosome assembly. Point mutations in Sas-4 that prevent Cdk1 phosphorylation or Polo docking do not block centriole disengagement during mitosis, but block efficient centriole conversion and lead to embryonic lethality. These observations can explain why daughter centrioles have to pass through mitosis before they can duplicate and organize a centrosome.

  13. Evidence for the binary nature of A0535+26. [SAS-3 observation of transient X ray source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S.; Bradt, H.; Clark, G. W.; Jernigan, J. G.; Joss, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    The transient X-ray source A0535+26 was observed extensively with the SAS-3 satellite on two occasions. Sufficient timing data on the 104-s periodicity were obtained to indicate that the pulse period was changing during both of the observations. The possibility that these period changes are intrinsic to the compact star (e.g., due to accretion torques) cannot be completely excluded. However, it is demonstrated that all of the SAS-3 timing data can be explained by orbital motion of the X-ray star about a companion. Constraints are then placed on the orbital elements of the system. The results indicate a model for this source that consists of a neutron star in a long-period orbit (period of at least 17 days) about an OB star with a variable stellar wind.

  14. Functional characterization of the microtubule-binding and -destabilizing domains of CPAP and d-SAS-4.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Bin; Hung, Liang-Yi; Tang, Chieh-Ju C; Su, Chia-Li; Chang, Yulin; Tang, Tang K

    2008-08-15

    We previously identified a novel centrosomal protein CPAP, which carries a 112-residue motif that is essential for microtubule destabilization. In this report, we define both the microtubule (MT) binding and destabilizing domains in human CPAP and analyze the mutations that affect its MT-destabilizing activity. Analysis of a series of CPAP truncated proteins showed that the MT-binding domain (MBD; residues 423-607) of CPAP is located next to its MT-destabilizing domain (MDD; residues 311-422). Site-specific mutagenesis revealed that the mutations that either disrupt the alpha-helical structure (Y341P, I346P, L348P, and triple-P) or alter the charge property (KR377EE) of the MDD significantly affect its MT-destabilizing ability. The activity for binding to a tubulin heterodimer was also significantly reduced in KR377EE mutant. Furthermore, we have analyzed the putative function of Drosophila d-SAS-4, a distant relative of human CPAP, which shares a conserved approximately 20-aa sequence with the MDD of CPAP. Our results show that mutations in this conserved sequence also eliminate d-SAS-4's MT-destabilizing activity, suggesting that d-SAS-4 and CPAP may play similar roles within cells.

  15. Cucurbitacin E as Inducer of Cell Death and Apoptosis in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line SAS

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chao-Ming; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lin, Chen-Wei; Ko, Shun-Yao; Hsu, Yi-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common form of malignant cancer, for which radiotherapy or chemotherapy are the main treatment methods. Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound previously shown to be an antifeedant as well as a potent chemopreventive agent against several types of cancer. The present study investigates anti-proliferation (using MTT assay, CuE demonstrated cytotoxic activity against SAS cell with IC50 values at 3.69 μM) and induced apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells after 24 h treatment with CuE. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and caspase activity were studied and our results indicate that CuE inhibits cell proliferation as well as the activation of apoptois in SAS cells. Both effects increased in proportion to the dosage of CuE and apoptosis was induced via mitochondria- and caspase-dependent pathways. CuE can induce cell death by a mechanism that is not dependent on apoptosis induction, and thus represents a promising anticancer agent for prevention and treatment of OSCC. PMID:23965977

  16. Cucurbitacin E as inducer of cell death and apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line SAS.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chao-Ming; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lin, Chen-Wei; Ko, Shun-Yao; Hsu, Yi-Chiang

    2013-08-20

    Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common form of malignant cancer, for which radiotherapy or chemotherapy are the main treatment methods. Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound previously shown to be an antifeedant as well as a potent chemopreventive agent against several types of cancer. The present study investigates anti-proliferation (using MTT assay, CuE demonstrated cytotoxic activity against SAS cell with IC50 values at 3.69 µM) and induced apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells after 24 h treatment with CuE. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and caspase activity were studied and our results indicate that CuE inhibits cell proliferation as well as the activation of apoptois in SAS cells. Both effects increased in proportion to the dosage of CuE and apoptosis was induced via mitochondria- and caspase-dependent pathways. CuE can induce cell death by a mechanism that is not dependent on apoptosis induction, and thus represents a promising anticancer agent for prevention and treatment of OSCC.

  17. Novel acridine-based N-acyl-homoserine lactone analogs induce endoreduplication in the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hongbo; Hazawa, Masaharu; Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Igarashi, Jun; Suga, Hiroaki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of novel acridine-based N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) analogs was investigated on the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS. One analog induced G2/M phase arrest at 5.3-10.6 µM and induced polyploidy at a higher dose (21.2 µM). Importantly, treatment of SAS cells with a combination of the AHL analog and the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125, prevented mitosis and induced polyploidy. The AHL analog synergized with X-irradiation to inhibit clonogenic survival of SAS cells; however, its radiosensitizing effects were relative to not X-irradiation-induced apoptosis but mitotic failure following enhanced expression of Aurora A and B. These results suggest that the active AHL analog showed growth-suppressive and radiosensitizing effects, which involve polyploidy followed by G2/M accumulation and atypical cell death in the SAS cell line.

  18. [Syndromes 2. Pfeiffer syndrome].

    PubMed

    Freihofer, H P

    1998-07-01

    Acrocephalosyndactylias are syndromes characterized by abnormalities of the head (craniosynostosis), the face (hypertelorism, retromaxillism), hands and feet (cutaneous or bony syndactyly). Inheritance is autosomal dominant, but spontaneous cases are described also. The group is divided into several syndromes with varying penetrance and expressivity. As an example of an acrocephalosyndactylia is the Pfeiffer syndrome presented.

  19. An economic evaluation of aripiprazole vs olanzapine adapted to the Italian setting using outcomes of metabolic syndrome and risk for diabetes in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giorgio L; Caruggi, Mauro; Di Matteo, Sergio; Rossi, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of aripiprazole and olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Data from a double-blind, randomized study demonstrating the efficacy of aripiprazole and olanzapine were used to observe new incidence of metabolic syndrome (26-week therapy) and to model the risk of developing diabetes over 5 years of therapy. Cumulative incidence of metabolic syndrome was compared using Kaplan–Meier estimates; diabetes risk was estimated using a validated, general population risk-prediction model. Economic assessment was conducted from the third-party payer perspective by evaluating pharmacotherapy costs of treating schizophrenia and medical costs associated with treating adverse metabolic effects in a hypothetical cohort of 1000 patients. Resource utilization and costs were derived from the underlying study and published data, using a 3% rate to discount costs and benefits. Results For the patients switched from olanzapine to aripiprazole, treatment with aripiprazole was a dominant cost-saving strategy. Use of aripiprazole avoided 184 events of metabolic syndrome over 26 weeks of treatment, contributing to a real-world (RW) cost savings of €2.53 per patient and a total savings of approximately €465.52 over a 5-year period. For the same cohort, the risk-prediction model indicated that 34 occurrences of diabetes could be avoided over 5 years, corresponding to a RW cost savings of €56.86 per patient and a total saving of approximately €1,933.24. These savings reflect avoided costs in treating adverse metabolic events and comparable costs in the acquisition of aripiprazole. Conclusions Maintenance aripiprazole therapy offers medical and economic benefits over olanzapine, reflected by reduced incidence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes and associated lower costs. PMID:19183788

  20. Mexican Seismic Alert System's SAS-I algorithm review considering strong earthquakes felt in Mexico City since 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuellar Martinez, A.; Espinosa Aranda, J.; Suarez, G.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Ramos Perez, S.; Camarillo Barranco, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) uses three algorithms for alert activation that involve the distance between the seismic sensing field station (FS) and the city to be alerted; and the forecast for earthquake early warning activation in the cities integrated to the system, for example in Mexico City, the earthquakes occurred with the highest accelerations, were originated in the Pacific Ocean coast, whose distance this seismic region and the city, favors the use of algorithm called Algorithm SAS-I. This algorithm, without significant changes since its beginning in 1991, employs the data that generate one or more FS during P wave detection until S wave detection plus a period equal to the time employed to detect these phases; that is the double S-P time, called 2*(S-P). In this interval, the algorithm performs an integration process of quadratic samples from FS which uses a triaxial accelerometer to get two parameters: amplitude and growth rate measured until 2*(S-P) time. The parameters in SAS-I are used in a Magnitude classifier model, which was made from Guerrero Coast earthquakes time series, with reference to Mb magnitude mainly. This algorithm activates a Public or Preventive Alert if the model predicts whether Strong or Moderate earthquake. The SAS-I algorithm has been operating for over 23 years in the subduction zone of the Pacific Coast of Mexico, initially in Guerrero and followed by Oaxaca; and since March 2012 in the seismic region of Pacific covering the coasts among Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero and Oaxaca, where this algorithm has issued 16 Public Alert and 62 Preventive Alerts to the Mexico City where its soil conditions increase damages by earthquake such as the occurred in September 1985. This work shows the review of the SAS-I algorithm and possible alerts that it could generate from major earthquakes recordings detected by FS or seismometers near the earthquakes, coming from Pacific Ocean Coast whose have been felt in Mexico

  1. RHESSI/SAS Observations of the Optical Solar Limb Over More Than 14 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fivian, Martin; Hudson, Hugh S.; Krucker, Sam

    2016-05-01

    The Solar Aspect System (SAS) of the RHESSI satellite measures the optical solar limb with a cadence typically set at 100 samples/s.RHESSI has observed the Sun continuously since its launch in early 2002, and we have acquired a unique data set ranging over more than a full 11-year solar cycle and consisting of about 4x10^10 single data points.The optics has a point spread of about 4.5 arcsec FWHM imaging the red continuum onto three linear CCD sensors with a pixel resolution of 1.7 arcsec.However, careful study of systematics, masking of contaminated data, and accumulation of data over appropriate time intervals has led to measurementswith sub-milli arcsec accuracy.Analyzing data for an initial period in 2004, these measurements have led to the most accurate oblateness measurement to date, 8.01+-0.14 milli arcsec (Fivian et al., 2008), a value consistent with models predicting an oblateness from surface rotation.An excess oblateness term can be attributed to magnetic elements possibly located in the enhanced network.We also study photometric properties of our data. Previous observations of latitude-dependent brightness variations at the limb had suggested the presence of a polar temperature excess as large as 1.5 K.The RHESSI observations, made with a rotating telescope in space, have great advantages in the rejection of systematic errors in the very precise photometry required for such an observation.Our measurements of latitude-dependent brightness variations at the limb lead to a quadrupolar term (a pole-to-equator temperature variation) of the order of 0.1 K, an order of magnitude smaller than previously reported.We present the analysis of these unique data, an overview of some results and we report on our progress as we apply our developed analysis method to the whole 14 years of data.

  2. Sub-Milli Arcsecond Resolution Observations of the Optical Solar Limb with RHESSI/SAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fivian, Martin D.; Hudson, Hugh; Krucker, Sam

    2015-04-01

    The Solar Aspect System (SAS) of the RHESSI satellite measures the optical solar limb with a cadence typically set at 100 samples/s. RHESSI has observed the Sun continuously since its launch in early 2002, and we have acquired a unique data set ranging over more than a full 11-year solar cycle and consisting of about 4x10^10 single data points. The optics has a point spread of about 4.5 arcsec FWHM imaging the red continuum onto three linear CCD sensors with a pixel resolution of 1.7 arcsec. However, careful study of systematics, masking of contaminated data, and accumulation of data over appropriate time intervals has led to measurements with sub-milli arcsec accuracy. Analyzing data for an initial period in 2004, these measurements have led to the most accurate oblateness measurement to date, 8.01+-0.14 milli arcsec (Fivian et al., 2008), a value consistent with models predicting an oblateness from surface rotation. An excess oblateness term can be attributed to magnetic elements possibly located in the enhanced network. We also study photometric properties of our data. Previous observations of latitude-dependent brightness variations at the limb had suggested the presence of a polar temperature excess as large as 1.5 K. The RHESSI observations, made with a rotating telescope in space, have great advantages in the rejection of systematic errors in the very precise photometry required for such an observation. Our measurements of latitude-dependent brightness variations at the limb lead to a quadrupolar term (a pole-to-equator temperature variation) of the order of 0.1 K, an order of magnitude smaller than previously reported. We present the analysis of these unique data, an overview of some results and we report on our progress as we apply our developed analysis method to the whole 13 years of data.

  3. A Comparison of Three Programming Models for Adaptive Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Hong-Zhang; Singh, Jaswinder Pal; Oliker, Leonid; Biswa, Rupak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We study the performance and programming effort for two major classes of adaptive applications under three leading parallel programming models. We find that all three models can achieve scalable performance on the state-of-the-art multiprocessor machines. The basic parallel algorithms needed for different programming models to deliver their best performance are similar, but the implementations differ greatly, far beyond the fact of using explicit messages versus implicit loads/stores. Compared with MPI and SHMEM, CC-SAS (cache-coherent shared address space) provides substantial ease of programming at the conceptual and program orchestration level, which often leads to the performance gain. However it may also suffer from the poor spatial locality of physically distributed shared data on large number of processors. Our CC-SAS implementation of the PARMETIS partitioner itself runs faster than in the other two programming models, and generates more balanced result for our application.

  4. Moebius Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... children with Moebius syndrome have some degree of autism. There are four recognized categories of Moebius syndrome: ... children with Moebius syndrome have some degree of autism. There are four recognized categories of Moebius syndrome: ...

  5. Past and future corollaries of theories on causes of metabolic syndrome and obesity related co-morbidities part 2: a composite unifying theory review of human-specific co-adaptations to brain energy consumption.

    PubMed

    McGill, Anne-Thea

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) predicts type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, and their rates have escalated over the last few decades. Obesity related co-morbidities also overlap the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, understanding of the syndrome's underlying causes may have been misapprehended. The current paper follows on from a theory review by McGill, A-T in Archives of Public Health, 72: 30. This accompanying paper utilises research on human evolution and new biochemistry to theorise on why MetS and obesity arise and how they affect the population. The basis of this composite unifying theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A 'dual system' is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals. In humans who consume a nutritious diet, the NRF2 system has become highly energy efficient. Other relevant human-specific co-adaptations are explored. In order to 'test' this composite unifying theory it is important to show that the hypothesis and sub-theories pertain throughout the whole of human evolution and history up till the current era. Corollaries of the composite unifying theory of MetS are examined with respect to past under-nutrition and malnutrition since agriculture began 10,000 years ago. The effects of man-made pollutants on degenerative change are examined. Projections are then made from current to future patterns on the state of 'insufficient micronutrient and/or unbalanced high energy malnutrition with central obesity and metabolic dysregulation' or 'malnubesity'. Forecasts

  6. Considerations for Serving Adolescents with Usher's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillman, Robyn D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Usher's syndrome is described, with emphasis on the visual symptomatology characteristic of retinitis pigmentosa. Also discussed are the services needed by individuals with Usher's Syndrome, the syndrome's psychosocial aspects, ways to prevent self-defeating behavior, orientation and mobility, and classroom adaptations. (JDD)

  7. Causes of metabolic syndrome and obesity-related co-morbidities Part 1: A composite unifying theory review of human-specific co-adaptations to brain energy consumption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    One line summary Metabolic syndrome and obesity-related co-morbidities are largely explained by co-adaptations to the energy use of the large human brain in the cortico-limbic-striatal and NRF2 systems. The medical, research and general community is unable to effect significantly decreased rates of central obesity and related type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. All conditions seem to be linked by the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the underlying causes are not known. MetS markers may have been mistaken for causes, thus many treatments are destined to be suboptimal. The current paper aims to critique current paradigms, give explanations for their persistence, and to return to first principles in an attempt to determine and clarify likely causes of MetS and obesity related comorbidities. A wide literature has been mined, study concepts analysed and the basics of human evolution and new biochemistry reviewed. A plausible, multifaceted composite unifying theory is formulated. The basis of the theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A ‘dual system’ is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals, becoming highly energy efficient in humans. The still-evolving, complex human cortico-limbic-striatal system generates strong behavioural drives for energy dense food procurement, including motivating agricultural technologies and social system development. Addiction to such foods, leading to neglect of nutritious but less appetizing ‘common or garden’ food, appears to have occurred

  8. Atomistic modelling of scattering data in the Collaborative Computational Project for Small Angle Scattering (CCP-SAS).

    PubMed

    Perkins, Stephen J; Wright, David W; Zhang, Hailiang; Brookes, Emre H; Chen, Jianhan; Irving, Thomas C; Krueger, Susan; Barlow, David J; Edler, Karen J; Scott, David J; Terrill, Nicholas J; King, Stephen M; Butler, Paul D; Curtis, Joseph E

    2016-12-01

    The capabilities of current computer simulations provide a unique opportunity to model small-angle scattering (SAS) data at the atomistic level, and to include other structural constraints ranging from molecular and atomistic energetics to crystallography, electron microscopy and NMR. This extends the capabilities of solution scattering and provides deeper insights into the physics and chemistry of the systems studied. Realizing this potential, however, requires integrating the experimental data with a new generation of modelling software. To achieve this, the CCP-SAS collaboration (http://www.ccpsas.org/) is developing open-source, high-throughput and user-friendly software for the atomistic and coarse-grained molecular modelling of scattering data. Robust state-of-the-art molecular simulation engines and molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo force fields provide constraints to the solution structure inferred from the small-angle scattering data, which incorporates the known physical chemistry of the system. The implementation of this software suite involves a tiered approach in which GenApp provides the deployment infrastructure for running applications on both standard and high-performance computing hardware, and SASSIE provides a workflow framework into which modules can be plugged to prepare structures, carry out simulations, calculate theoretical scattering data and compare results with experimental data. GenApp produces the accessible web-based front end termed SASSIE-web, and GenApp and SASSIE also make community SAS codes available. Applications are illustrated by case studies: (i) inter-domain flexibility in two- to six-domain proteins as exemplified by HIV-1 Gag, MASP and ubiquitin; (ii) the hinge conformation in human IgG2 and IgA1 antibodies; (iii) the complex formed between a hexameric protein Hfq and mRNA; and (iv) synthetic 'bottlebrush' polymers.

  9. Phenethyl isothiocyanate suppresses EGF-stimulated SAS human oral squamous carcinoma cell invasion by targeting EGF receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Jye; Lin, Chung-Ming; Lee, Chao-Ying; Shih, Nai-Chen; Amagaya, Sakae; Lin, Yung-Chang; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2013-08-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is a natural compound that is involved in chemoprevention as well as inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in several types of cancer cells. Previous studies have revealed that PEITC suppresses the invasion of AGS gastric and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. However, the effects of PEITC on the metastasis of SAS oral cancer cells remain to be determined. Our results showed that PEITC treatment inhibited the invasion of EGF-stimulated SAS cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but appeared not to affect the cell viability. The expression and enzymatic activities of matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) were suppressed by PEITC. Concomitantly, we observed an increase in the protein expression of both tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and -2 (TIMP-2) in treated cells. Furthermore, PEITC treatments decreased the protein phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and downstream signaling proteins including PDK1, PI3K (p85), AKT, phosphorylated IKK and IκB to inactivate NF-κB for the suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. In addition, PEITC can trigger the MAPK signaling pathway through the increase in phosphorylated p38, JNK and ERK in treated cells. Our data indicate that PEITC is able to inhibit the invasion of EGF-stimulated SAS oral cancer cells by targeting EGFR and its downstream signaling molecules and finally lead to the reduced expression and enzymatic activities of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. These results suggest that PEITC is promising for the therapy of oral cancer metastasis.

  10. Atomistic modelling of scattering data in the Collaborative Computational Project for Small Angle Scattering (CCP-SAS)1

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Stephen J.; Wright, David W.; Zhang, Hailiang; Brookes, Emre H.; Chen, Jianhan; Irving, Thomas C.; Krueger, Susan; Barlow, David J.; Edler, Karen J.; Scott, David J.; Terrill, Nicholas J.; King, Stephen M.; Butler, Paul D.; Curtis, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    The capabilities of current computer simulations provide a unique opportunity to model small-angle scattering (SAS) data at the atomistic level, and to include other structural constraints ranging from molecular and atomistic energetics to crystallography, electron microscopy and NMR. This extends the capabilities of solution scattering and provides deeper insights into the physics and chemistry of the systems studied. Realizing this potential, however, requires integrating the experimental data with a new generation of modelling software. To achieve this, the CCP-SAS collaboration (http://www.ccpsas.org/) is developing open-source, high-throughput and user-friendly software for the atomistic and coarse-grained molecular modelling of scattering data. Robust state-of-the-art molecular simulation engines and molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo force fields provide constraints to the solution structure inferred from the small-angle scattering data, which incorporates the known physical chemistry of the system. The implementation of this software suite involves a tiered approach in which GenApp provides the deployment infrastructure for running applications on both standard and high-performance computing hardware, and SASSIE provides a workflow framework into which modules can be plugged to prepare structures, carry out simulations, calculate theoretical scattering data and compare results with experimental data. GenApp produces the accessible web-based front end termed SASSIE-web, and GenApp and SASSIE also make community SAS codes available. Applications are illustrated by case studies: (i) inter-domain flexibility in two- to six-domain proteins as exemplified by HIV-1 Gag, MASP and ubiquitin; (ii) the hinge conformation in human IgG2 and IgA1 antibodies; (iii) the complex formed between a hexameric protein Hfq and mRNA; and (iv) synthetic ‘bottlebrush’ polymers. PMID:27980506

  11. Airborne measurements of black carbon aerosol over the Southeastern U.S. during the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, M. Z.; Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.; Watts, L.; Holloway, J.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Welti, A.; Liao, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) field campaign was a large-scale, collaborative project, which took place in the Southeastern U.S. in June and July of 2013. The goal of the campaign was to investigate the impacts of biogenic and anthropogenic gases and aerosols on the formation of haze and anomalous climate cooling in the region. During SAS, a NOAA Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) instrument was utilized onboard NOAA WP-3D research aircraft for measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosol mass and microphysical properties. BC aerosol is emitted into the atmosphere from biomass burning (BB) and incomplete combustion of fossil and biofuel. Hence, BC sources are strongly linked to anthropogenic activity. BC aerosol is currently the second largest anthropogenic climate forcing agent after CO2(g), and its climate impacts, which depend on vertical burden and internal mixing, are not fully understood. In the Southeast, BC aerosol is expected to provide surface area for the condensation of semi-volatile products of VOC oxidation and subsequent formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Hence, BC is expected to impact the haze formation and regional climate. In this work we present an overview of BC measurements during Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study, the NOAA contribution to SAS. Geographical variations in mass mixing ratios, mass size distributions, and mixing state of BC over the Southeast U.S. are discussed. Relationships of BC with carbon monoxide (CO), acetonitrile (ACN) and other trace gases are used to investigate the impacts of urban, BB, natural gas development, and power plant emissions on the distribution and properties of BC aerosol in the region. Among studied urban centers, St. Louis and Atlanta were determined to be the largest source regions of BC. A clear weekend effect in BC mass mixing ratios and microphysical properties was observed in the metropolitan Atlanta region. Compared to BB and urban centers, power plants and natural gas developments

  12. Recent results from observations of 4U1700-37 using SAS-3. [X-ray source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matilsky, T.

    1978-01-01

    SAS-3 observations of a complete orbital cycle (approximately 3.5 d) of the X-ray source 4U1700-37 are presented. A persistent, approximately sinusoidal modulation of approximately 60% amplitude is present in the data at 97 m. Satellite orbital effects are ruled out by using other detectors pointed away from the source but sampled at the same time. The effect of such a long rotation period (if indeed the period is rotational) on current ideas involving accretion torques and stellar wind is discussed.

  13. Search for an X-ray identification of a strong gamma-ray source. [sas-3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    X-rays from Cygnus X-3 were observed during early 1978 with the detectors of the SAS-3 satellite. These observations in conjunction with earlier UHURU and ANS data indicate that the 4.8 hr period of Cygnus X-3 is increasing at the rate of P/P = (5/1 plus or minus 1.3) x 10 to the minus 6 power/1 yr. The sign and magnitude for this change are incompatible with a rotation model for the period and are in reasonable agreement with model predictions for orbital changes associated with mass loss and transfer in a binary system.

  14. Observations of discrete gamma ray sources with SAS-2. [compact sources centered on Crab nebula and Vela X supernova remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    Compact gamma ray sources centered on the Crab nebula and the Vela X supernova remnant are considered. An excess in the galactic radiation was observed in both regions. Data indicate that a large fraction of this flux is pulsed. The excess from the Vela region could reflect either a large-scale galactic feature, such as a superposition of spiral arm segments, or it could be associated with the Vela supernova remnant. Low-energy gamma ray bursts were observed in the SAS-2 anticoincidence shielding.

  15. High energy galactic gamma radiation from cosmic rays concentrated in spiral arms. [using SAS-B satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    A model for the emission of high energy ( 100 MeV) gamma rays from the galactic disk was developed and compared to recent SAS-2 observations. In the calculation, it is assumed that (1) the high energy galactic gamma rays result primarily from the interaction of cosmic rays with galactic matter; (2) on the basis of theoretical and experimental arguments the cosmic ray density is proportional to the matter density on the scale of galactic arms; and (3) the matter in the galaxy, atomic and molecular, is distributed in a spiral pattern consistent with density wave theory and the experimental data on the matter distribution.

  16. C-A5-04: A Simple, Accurate SAS Algorithm for Electronic Abstraction of Race from Digitized Progress Notes

    PubMed Central

    Roblin, Douglas; Joski, Peter; Ren, Junling; Farmer, Robert; Baldwin, David; Carrell, David; Hart, Gene; Pardee, Roy; Bachman, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: Individual-level race/ethnicity is important for research into causes and consequences of health disparities. For various non-research reasons, it has rarely been collected on enrollees in integrated delivery systems. Individual-level race/ethnicity can be found in medical record documentation. Manual abstraction on large numbers of medical records is costly. We developed a simple SAS algorithm for electronic abstraction of white and African American race from digitized progress notes and evaluated its accuracy by comparing electronically abstracted race with other data sources. Methods: A simple SAS algorithm, based on text search strings (e.g. white male, African American woman), scanned digitized progress notes for provider face-to-face visits from 2005 through July 2009 in Kaiser Permanente Georgia’s (KPG) and Group Health Cooperative’s (GHC) electronic medical record systems. White and African American race was abstracted. If the patient had more than 1 visit with abstracted race, the patient was classified using the earliest visit. Abstracted race was linked at the individual-level to survey datasets with self-reported race (2005 survey of working age adults, 2007 survey of adults with hypertension, 2000–2005 Medicare surveys) and mother’s race on 2000–2006 birth certificates. White and African American race was abstracted from GHC progress notes from 2005 through July 2009 using the same algorithm and compared to self-reported race on health risk appraisals. Accuracy of the SAS algorithm was assessed by overall proportion matching race from the other datasets, Cohen’s kappa, and McNemar’s test. Results: White or African American race was electronically abstracted for 56,261 KPG and 6,427 GHC enrollees. Abstracted race matched race from the other datasets in 97–99% of enrollees. Cohen’s kappas were highly significant (p<0.05), ranging from 0.939 ± 0.013 (N=657 matches with hypertension survey records) to 0.994 ± 0

  17. Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarte, Andrea R.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on Fragile X Syndrome, and how that knowledge can be used to guide successful intervention. The genetic etiology of Fragile X is reviewed and the physical, cognitive, adaptive, behavioral, and emotional phenotypes of children with the disorder are described, highlighting the differences in…

  18. Dressler's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome may also be called postpericardiotomy syndrome, post-myocardial infarction syndrome and post-cardiac injury syndrome. With recent ... Dressler's syndrome. References LeWinter MM. Pericardial complications of myocardial infarction. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 27, ...

  19. Benchmark of SCALE (SAS2H) isotopic predictions of depletion analyses for San Onofre PWR MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.

    2000-02-01

    The isotopic composition of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, fabricated with both uranium and plutonium, after discharge from reactors is of significant interest to the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The validation of the SCALE (SAS2H) depletion code for use in the prediction of isotopic compositions of MOX fuel, similar to previous validation studies on uranium-only fueled reactors, has corresponding significance. The EEI-Westinghouse Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program examined the use of MOX fuel in the San Onofre PWR, Unit 1, during cycles 2 and 3. Isotopic analyses of the MOX spent fuel were conducted on 13 actinides and {sup 148}Nd by either mass or alpha spectrometry. Six fuel pellet samples were taken from four different fuel pins of an irradiated MOX assembly. The measured actinide inventories from those samples has been used to benchmark SAS2H for MOX fuel applications. The average percentage differences in the code results compared with the measurement were {minus}0.9% for {sup 235}U and 5.2% for {sup 239}Pu. The differences for most of the isotopes were significantly larger than in the cases for uranium-only fueled reactors. In general, comparisons of code results with alpha spectrometer data had extreme differences, although the differences in the calculations compared with mass spectrometer analyses were not extremely larger than that of uranium-only fueled reactors. This benchmark study should be useful in estimating uncertainties of inventory, criticality and dose calculations of MOX spent fuel.

  20. Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Darcy; Gohil, Kartik; Basson, Marc D

    2012-11-28

    Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation, short-gut syndrome, obesity, and bariatric surgery. Broadly, these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation. These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal, immune, dietary, nervous, and mechanical stimuli. It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation. This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation, delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan. Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes.

  1. Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Darcy; Gohil, Kartik; Basson, Marc D

    2012-01-01

    Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation, short-gut syndrome, obesity, and bariatric surgery. Broadly, these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation. These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal, immune, dietary, nervous, and mechanical stimuli. It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation. This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation, delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan. Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:23197881

  2. Prenatal nicotine exposure in rhesus monkeys compromises development of brainstem and cardiac monoamine pathways involved in perinatal adaptation and sudden infant death syndrome: amelioration by vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Seidler, Frederic J; Spindel, Eliot R

    2011-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy greatly enhances perinatal morbidity/mortality and is the major risk factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Studies in developing rodents indicate that nicotine is a neuroteratogen that targets monoamine pathways involved in the responses to hypoxia that are in turn, hypothesized to contribute to these adverse events. We administered nicotine to pregnant Rhesus monkeys from gestational day 30 through 160 by continuous infusion, achieving maternal plasma levels comparable to those in smokers; we examined neurochemical parameters immediately after Cesarean delivery at the end of the exposure period. Nicotine evoked elevations in brainstem serotonin levels and serotonin turnover, indicating hyperactivity of these pathways. The same treatment evoked a deficit in cardiac norepinephrine levels. Both effects were offset by coadministration of the antioxidant, Vitamin C. Brainstem serotonin hyperinnervation is a hallmark of SIDS, and the hyperactivity seen here can also account for the downregulation of serotonin receptors noted in this disorder. Deficient cardiac sympathetic innervation is also consistent with increased vulnerability to hypoxia during delivery or in the agonal event in SIDS. Our results thus indicate that nicotine exposure in a primate model produces brainstem and autonomic abnormalities of the key monoamine systems that govern the response to hypoxia, indicate an important role of oxidative stress in the adverse effects, and point to potential amelioration strategies that could offset these particular effects of nicotine.

  3. A randomised trial of adaptive pacing therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, graded exercise, and specialist medical care for chronic fatigue syndrome (PACE): statistical analysis plan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The publication of protocols by medical journals is increasingly becoming an accepted means for promoting good quality research and maximising transparency. Recently, Finfer and Bellomo have suggested the publication of statistical analysis plans (SAPs).The aim of this paper is to make public and to report in detail the planned analyses that were approved by the Trial Steering Committee in May 2010 for the principal papers of the PACE (Pacing, graded Activity, and Cognitive behaviour therapy: a randomised Evaluation) trial, a treatment trial for chronic fatigue syndrome. It illustrates planned analyses of a complex intervention trial that allows for the impact of clustering by care providers, where multiple care-providers are present for each patient in some but not all arms of the trial. Results The trial design, objectives and data collection are reported. Considerations relating to blinding, samples, adherence to the protocol, stratification, centre and other clustering effects, missing data, multiplicity and compliance are described. Descriptive, interim and final analyses of the primary and secondary outcomes are then outlined. Conclusions This SAP maximises transparency, providing a record of all planned analyses, and it may be a resource for those who are developing SAPs, acting as an illustrative example for teaching and methodological research. It is not the sum of the statistical analysis sections of the principal papers, being completed well before individual papers were drafted. Trial registration ISRCTN54285094 assigned 22 May 2003; First participant was randomised on 18 March 2005. PMID:24225069

  4. Intestinal adaptation following resection.

    PubMed

    Tappenden, Kelly A

    2014-05-01

    Intestinal adaptation is a natural compensatory process that occurs following extensive intestinal resection, whereby structural and functional changes in the intestine improve nutrient and fluid absorption in the remnant bowel. In animal studies, postresection structural adaptations include bowel lengthening and thickening and increases in villus height and crypt depth. Functional changes include increased nutrient transporter expression, accelerated crypt cell differentiation, and slowed transit time. In adult humans, data regarding adaptive changes are sparse, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal adaptation remain to be fully elucidated. Several factors influence the degree of intestinal adaptation that occurs post resection, including site and extent of resection, luminal stimulation with enteral nutrients, and intestinotrophic factors. Two intestinotrophic growth factors, the glucagon-like peptide 2 analog teduglutide and recombinant growth hormone (somatropin), are now approved for clinical use in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Both agents enhance fluid absorption and decrease requirements for parenteral nutrition (PN) and/or intravenous fluid. Intestinal adaptation has been thought to be limited to the first 1-2 years following resection in humans. However, recent data suggest that a significant proportion of adult patients with SBS can achieve enteral autonomy, even after many years of PN dependence, particularly with trophic stimulation.

  5. Visual Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems continuously mold themselves to the widely varying contexts in which they must operate. Studies of these adaptations have played a long and central role in vision science. In part this is because the specific adaptations remain a powerful tool for dissecting vision, by exposing the mechanisms that are adapting. That is, “if it adapts, it's there.” Many insights about vision have come from using adaptation in this way, as a method. A second important trend has been the realization that the processes of adaptation are themselves essential to how vision works, and thus are likely to operate at all levels. That is, “if it's there, it adapts.” This has focused interest on the mechanisms of adaptation as the target rather than the probe. Together both approaches have led to an emerging insight of adaptation as a fundamental and ubiquitous coding strategy impacting all aspects of how we see. PMID:26858985

  6. Maxi-K channels contribute to urinary potassium excretion in the ROMK-deficient mouse model of Type II Bartter's syndrome and in adaptation to a high-K diet.

    PubMed

    Bailey, M A; Cantone, A; Yan, Q; MacGregor, G G; Leng, Q; Amorim, J B O; Wang, T; Hebert, S C; Giebisch, G; Malnic, G

    2006-07-01

    Type II Bartter's syndrome is a hereditary hypokalemic renal salt-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the ROMK channel (Kir1.1; Kcnj1), mediating potassium recycling in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) and potassium secretion in the distal tubule and cortical collecting duct (CCT). Newborns with Type II Bartter are transiently hyperkalemic, consistent with loss of ROMK channel function in potassium secretion in distal convoluted tubule and CCT. Yet, these infants rapidly develop persistent hypokalemia owing to increased renal potassium excretion mediated by unknown mechanisms. Here, we used free-flow micropuncture and stationary microperfusion of the late distal tubule to explore the mechanism of renal potassium wasting in the Romk-deficient, Type II Bartter's mouse. We show that potassium absorption in the loop of Henle is reduced in Romk-deficient mice and can account for a significant fraction of renal potassium loss. In addition, we show that iberiotoxin (IBTX)-sensitive, flow-stimulated maxi-K channels account for sustained potassium secretion in the late distal tubule, despite loss of ROMK function. IBTX-sensitive potassium secretion is also increased in high-potassium-adapted wild-type mice. Thus, renal potassium wasting in Type II Bartter is due to both reduced reabsorption in the TAL and K secretion by max-K channels in the late distal tubule.

  7. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... example, polycystic ovary syndrome can cause menstrual disturbances, weight gain beginning in adolescence, excess hair growth, and impaired insulin action and diabetes. Metabolic syndrome-a combination of ...

  8. CVD silicon carbide monofilament reinforced SrO-Al2O3-2SiO2 (SAS) glass-ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1995-01-01

    Unidirectional CVD SiC fiber-reinforced SrO.Al2O3.2SiO2 (SAS) glass-ceramic matrix composites have been fabricated by hot pressing at various combinations of temperature, pressure and time. Both carbon-rich surface coated SCS-6 and uncoated SCS-0 fibers were used as reinforcements. Almost fully dense composites have been obtained. Monoclinic celsian, SrAl2Si2O8, was the only crystalline phase observed in the matrix from x-ray diffraction. During three point flexure testing of composites, a test span to thickness ratio of approximately 25 or greater was necessary to avoid sample delamination. Strong and tough SCS-6/SAS composites having a first matrix crack stress of approximately 300 MPa and an ultimate bend strength of approximately 825 MPa were fabricated. No chemical reaction between the SCS-6 fibers and the SAS matrix was observed after high temperature processing. The uncoated SCS-0 fiber-reinforced SAS composites showed only limited improvement in strength over SAS monolithic. The SCS-0/SAS composite having a fiber volume fraction of 0.24 and hot pressed at 1400 deg C exhibited a first matrix cracking stress of approximately 231 +/- 20 MPa and ultimate strength of 265 +/- 17 MPa. From fiber push-out tests, the fiber/matrix interfacial debonding strength (tau(sub debond)) and frictional sliding stress (tau(sub friction)) in the SCS-6/SAS system were evaluated to be approximately 6.7 +/- 2.3 MPa and 4.3 +/- 0.6 MPa, respectively, indicating a weak interface. However, for the SCS-0/SAS composite, much higher values of approximately 17.5 +/- 2.7 MPa for tau(sub debond) and 11.3 +/- 1.6 MPa for tau(sub friction) respectively, were observed; some of the fibers were so strongly bonded to the matrix that they could not be pushed out. Examination of fracture surfaces revealed limited short pull-out length of SCS-0 fibers. The applicability of various micromechanical models for predicting the values of first matrix cracking stress and ultimate strength of these

  9. Immunomagnetic separation and visual fluorescence detection of E. coli O157 using AOAC approved SAS Molecular Tests.

    PubMed

    Bapanpally, Chandra; Maganty, Gayatri; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Morey, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The SAS Molecular Tests method for the detection of E. coli O157 in various food matrixes has been certified by the AOAC Research Institute and designated Performance Tested Method No. 031203. The current method modification includes the optional immunomagnetic separation (IMS) to enrich the bacteria as well as optional visual fluorescence readout without the use of a turbidimeter. The following study was conducted to validate the proposed modifications against the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (MLG) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) reference methods. E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 35150 and NM (non-motile) 700377 strains were used to inoculate the ground beef, beef trim, and spinach to obtain 20 low (0.23-2 CFU/test portion) and five high levels (3-5 CFU/test portion) of inoculations. Enriched samples were tested directly and subjected to anti-E. coli IMS prior to the SAS Molecular Tests. Results were determined via visual fluorescence and via turbidity using a turbidimeter. All the replicates, irrespective of the results, were confirmed using MLG 5.05 or BAM Chapter 4A methods. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in the detection of fractional positives (5-15 positives out of 20 replicates) with any of the methods tested above as compared to the reference methods. No false positives or negatives were detected except for two in the ground beef with IMS+Turbidity method. No false-negative samples were detected. Statistical analysis indicated that the modified methods were equivalent to the reference methods in detecting E. coli O157:H7 in the food matrixes tested. SAS Molecular Tests E. coli O157 Detection Kit can be used to detect E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef, beef trim, and spinach. The inclusion of IMS in the modified method improved the detection rate of E. coli O157:H7 in spinach and showed comparable detection rate in ground

  10. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  11. VecDec4SAS program for analyzing the dynamic processes observed by the small-angle scattering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodenskii, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    A VecDec4SAS program has been developed to provide a fast and easy description of the dynamics of any process occurring in a nanoparticle solution observed by the small-angle scattering technique. The process should be characterized by the some conditional initial and final stages, in fractions of which all intermediate data are expanded. The program makes it possible to estimate the adequacy of two-basis approximation and indicate the presence of an additional process introducing a systematic error into the initial data. Scattering curves for human serum albumin protein in solutions with pH 7.4 and 3.0 and a concentration of 20 mg/mL, obtained on the DICSY station at the National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute" in the solution temperature range from 25 to 70°C, were taken to be initial data to illustrate the potential of the program.

  12. DEFORM-4: fuel pin characterization and transient response in the SAS4A accident analysis code system

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, K.J.; Hill, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The DEFORM-4 module is the segment of the SAS4A Accident Analysis Code System that calculates the fuel pin characterization in response to a steady state irradiation history, thereby providing the initial conditions for the transient calculation. The various phenomena considered include fuel porosity migration, fission gas bubble induced swelling, fuel cracking and healing, fission gas release, cladding swelling, and the thermal-mechanical state of the fuel and cladding. In the transient state, the module continues the thermal-mechanical response calculation, including fuel melting and central cavity pressurization, until cladding failure is predicted and one of the failed fuel modules is initiated. Comparisons with experimental data have demonstrated the validity of the modeling approach.

  13. First results of MWC SAS3 electromagnetic wave experiment on board of the Chibis-M satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, Stanislav; Ferencz, Csaba; Bodnár, László; Szegedi, Péter; Steinbach, Péter; Gotlib, Vladimir; Novikov, Denis; Belyayev, Serhiy; Marusenkov, Andrey; Ferencz, Orsolya; Korepanov, Valery; Lichtenberger, János; Hamar, Dániel

    2014-11-01

    The main goals of the Chibis-M mission are the testing of a new micro-satellite technology, the study of new physical processes related to lightning activity and the verification of possible monitoring techniques of Space Weather phenomena. In frames of the Chibis-M mission an electromagnetic wave complex MWC is installed on board of the satellite composed of electromagnetic sensors and SAS3 measuring unit. The obtained data show that the scientific instrumentation operates properly and produces interesting information. Here we present the first results of the first year of operation of the MWC in the ELF-VLF bands in different operation modes. An important conclusion is that basing on the experience of the first year it is possible to realize an effective and reliable Space Weather monitoring system using micro-satellites and simultaneously operating ground support equipments.

  14. Mediation analysis allowing for exposure-mediator interactions and causal interpretation: theoretical assumptions and implementation with SAS and SPSS macros

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, Linda; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2012-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a useful and widely employed approach to studies in the field of psychology and in the social and biomedical sciences. The contributions of this paper are several-fold. First we seek to bring the developments in mediation analysis for non linear models within the counterfactual framework to the psychology audience in an accessible format and compare the sorts of inferences about mediation that are possible in the presence of exposure-mediator interaction when using a counterfactual versus the standard statistical approach. Second, the work by VanderWeele and Vansteelandt (2009, 2010) is extended here to allow for dichotomous mediators and count outcomes. Third, we provide SAS and SPSS macros to implement all of these mediation analysis techniques automatically and we compare the types of inferences about mediation that are allowed by a variety of software macros. PMID:23379553

  15. Battlefield Utility of Antipersonnel Landmines and Proposed Alternatives (Analysis in Support of the NATO SAS-023 APM Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Crandley, J F; Greenwalt, R J; Magnoli, D E; Randazzo, A S

    2002-02-05

    This study consists of work done in support of the U.S. delegation to the NATO SAS-023 Antipersonnel Landmine Study Group, supplemented by additional work done for the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense Antipersonnel Landmine Alternative Concept Exploration Program (Track III). It explores the battlefield utility of current antipersonnel landmines (APL) in both pure and mixed APL/antitank minefields and evaluates the value of military suggested non-materiel alternatives. The historical record is full of examples where the presence (or absence) of antipersonnel landmines made a critical difference in battle. The current generation of military thinkers and writers lack any significant combat experience employing either mixed or antipersonnel minefields, which leaves a critical gap in available expert advice for policy and decision-makers. Because of this lack of experienced-based professional military knowledge, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed the employment of antipersonnel landmines in tactical mixed minefields and in protective antipersonnel minefields. The scientific method was employed where hypotheses were generated from the tactics and doctrine of the antipersonnel landmine era and tested in a simulation laboratory. A high-resolution, U.S. Joint Forces Command combat simulation model (the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation--JCATS) was used as the laboratory instrument. A realistic European scenario was obtained from a multi-national USAREUR exercise and was approved by the SAS-023 panel members. Additional scenarios were provided by U.S. CINC conferences and were based on Southwest Asia and Northeast Asia. Weapons data was obtained from the U.S. family of Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manuals. The U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Agency conducted a limited verification and validation assessment of JCATS for purposes of this study.

  16. The Spectral Analysis of X-Ray Binaries from the XMM-Newton Space Craft Data using SAS Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baki, P.; Mito, C. O.

    2009-10-01

    A spectral data analysis on a luminous object of sky-coordinates 12h52m24.28s-29d115'02.3'12.6arcsec using Science Analysis Software (SAS) is presented. The analysis, based on data acquired by the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) camera aboard the XMM-Newton Space satellite, shows that the primary constituents of the X-ray source are Fe (Iron) and O (oxygen). This suggests that the source may be a magnetized plasma in a binary system and as this magnetic field accelerates the cooling of a star, one may speculate that this may be a compact star in its last stages of a thermonuclear fusion process. Nous présentons une analyse du spectre d'une source a rayons X située -- en coordonnées sidérales - à 12h52m24.28s - 29d115'02.312.6 arcsec. Science Analysis Software (SAS) est le programme informatique utilisé pour l'analyse des données. Cette analyse est basée sur les données provenant du spectromètre à haute résolution (RGS) à bord du satellite spatiale XMM-Newton. Nous montrons que ladite source est principalement constituée de Fer (Fe) et d'oxygene (O). Ce résultat suggère que la source pourrait être un plasma magnétisé au sein d'un système binaire. Et du fait que ce champ magnétique accélère le refroidissement de l'étoile, nous supposons que cette étoile pourrait ètre un objet compact en phase terminale d'un processus de fusion thermonucléaire.

  17. EDITORIAL Proceedings of the XIV International Conference on Small-Angle Scattering, SAS-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungar, Goran; Heenan, Richard

    2010-10-01

    particles based on the radial pair distance distribution function. The model takes account of different types of disorder, i.e. of both 1st ('thermal') and 2nd ('paracrystalline') kind, as well as finite size, stacking and orientational disorder. In paper 012014 Salvino Ciccariello works out the 3D correlation function of plane objects, specifically a triangle of a general shape. This paves the way to analysing morphologies that can be approximated by cylinders of different cross-sections. Papers 012051 (Polte et al.) and 012047 (Bras et al.) report the use of SAS in combination with X-ray spectroscopy. Ristic et al. describe a real-time study of crystal nucleation induced by ultrasound (012049), while Marianne Imperor-Clerc et al. present an investigation of lyotropic liquid crystals under shear (012052). In the Polymers section Geoff Mitchell describes modelling of SANS data on electrospun fibres (012042), while Cabral et al. describes a study of nanoparticle aggregation in bulk and thin polymer films (012046). Work on phospholipid membranes was reported by Spinozzi et al. and by Onai et al. in papers 012019 and 012018, respectively. The latter deals with the effect of osmotic pressure on model 'lipid rafts', these being considered as having an important role in the function of the mammalian cell membrane. Readers interested in biological systems will find a number of other interesting papers describing the use of either SAXS or SANS in the Biological Systems and Membranes section. A number of descriptions of recent designs of SAXS (synchrotron) and SANS beamlines, as well as detector developments can be found in the section on Beamlines and Instrumentation. Goran Ungar, Editor-in-Chief Richard Heenan, Deputy Editor-in-Chief

  18. An SAS Macro for Implementing the Modified Bollen-Stine Bootstrap for Missing Data: Implementing the Bootstrap Using Existing Structural Equation Modeling Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Craig K.

    2005-01-01

    The Bollen-Stine bootstrap can be used to correct for standard error and fit statistic bias that occurs in structural equation modeling (SEM) applications due to nonnormal data. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the use of a custom SAS macro program that can be used to implement the Bollen-Stine bootstrap with existing SEM software.…

  19. SAS2H input for computing core activities of 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 weight % {sup 235}U fuel for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.

    1994-08-01

    Sequoyah Nuclear Plant core activities at initial fuel enrichments of 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 wt% {sup 235}U, required in nuclear safety evaluations, were computed by the SAS2H analysis sequence and the ORIGEN-S code within the SCALE-4.2 code system.

  20. Comparing Two Non-parallel Regression Lines with the Parametric Alternative to Analysis of Covariance Using SPSS-X or SAS--the Johnson-Neyman Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpman, Mitchell

    1986-01-01

    The Johnson-Neyman (JN) technique is a parametric alternative to analysis of covariance that permits nonparallel regression lines. This article presents computer programs for J-N using the transformational languages of SPSS-X and SAS. The programs are designed for two groups and one covariate. (Author/JAZ)

  1. Past and future corollaries of theories on causes of metabolic syndrome and obesity related co-morbidities part 2: a composite unifying theory review of human-specific co-adaptations to brain energy consumption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Forward A composite unifying theory on causes of obesity related-MetS has been formulated and published in an accompanying article (1). In the current article, the historical and recent past, present and future corollaries of this theory are discussed. By presenting this composite theory and corollaries, it is hoped that human evolution and physiology will be viewed and studied from a new vantage point. The politics of management of ecological farming and nutrition will change, a profound reconfiguration of scientific theory generation and advancement in a ‘high-tech’ world can be made, and pathways for solutions recognised. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) predicts type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, and their rates have escalated over the last few decades. Obesity related co-morbidities also overlap the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, understanding of the syndrome’s underlying causes may have been misapprehended. The current paper follows on from a theory review by McGill, A-T in Archives of Public Health, 72: 30. This accompanying paper utilises research on human evolution and new biochemistry to theorise on why MetS and obesity arise and how they affect the population. The basis of this composite unifying theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A ‘dual system’ is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals. In humans who consume a nutritious diet, the NRF2 system has become highly energy efficient. Other relevant human-specific co-adaptations are explored. In order to

  2. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  3. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  4. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  5. Alport syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome (ADAS) -- This is the rarest type. Males and females have equally severe disease. Symptoms KIDNEYS With all types of Alport syndrome the kidneys are affected. The tiny blood vessels in the glomeruli of the kidneys are ...

  6. Reye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome has occurred in children who were given aspirin when they had chickenpox or the flu. Reye syndrome has become very rare. This is because aspirin is no longer recommended for routine use in ...

  7. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental and nervous system problems, mostly in girls. It's related to autism spectrum disorder. Babies with Rett syndrome seem to grow and develop normally at first. ...

  8. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... will order several other tests like blood tests, EEG, and brain scans. How Is Tourette Syndrome Treated? ... connected to Tourette syndrome, like ADHD and anxiety. Stress or being upset can make the tics worse, ...

  9. LEOPARD syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    LEOPARD syndrome is a very rare inherited disorder in which there are problems with the skin, face, ... LEOPARD syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. This means the person only needs the abnormal ...

  10. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... help with blood clotting. If you have a myelodysplastic syndrome, the stem cells do not mature into healthy ... can lead to infection, anemia, or easy bleeding. Myelodysplastic syndromes often do not cause early symptoms and are ...

  11. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Like for Kids With Marfan Syndrome? en español Síndrome de Marfan Evan couldn't wait for school ... for Marfan syndrome runs in families, getting passed down to children from parents who have the disease. ...

  12. Edwards' syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Doreen; Dearmun, Annette

    2016-12-08

    Edwards' syndrome is a serious genetic condition that affects fetal cellular functions, tissue development and organogenesis. Most infants with the syndrome are female, but there is no race predominance.

  13. Proteus Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate Cash Donation Life Insurance Gift Matching Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome ... approved by the Proteus Syndrome Foundation Assessment and management of the orthopedic and other complications of Proteus ...

  14. Apert Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Datta, Saikat; Saha, Sandip; Kar, Arnab; Mondal, Souvonik; Basu, Syamantak

    2014-09-01

    Apert syndrome is one of the craniosynostosis syndromes which, due to its association with other skeletal anomalies, is also known as acrocephalosyndactyly. It is a rare congenital anomaly which stands out from other craniosynostosis due to its characteristic skeletal presentations.

  15. Reducing incapacitating symptoms during space flight: is postural deficiency syndrome an applicable model?

    PubMed

    Souvestre, P A; Landrock, C K; Blaber, A P

    2008-08-01

    Severe and prolonged unmitigated SAS and SMS related symptoms have been thoroughly described in Astronauts during adaptation periods for orbital flight and post orbital flight. It has recently been shown that there is a strong correlation between these symptoms most often suffered by astronauts to that of the symptoms of patients suffering from Postural Deficiency Syndrome (PDS) on Earth that have been successfully assessed, diagnosed and treated. International peer-reviewed literature identifies PDS as a trauma induced medical condition which originates from central neural dysregulation of sensory-motor and cognitive controls; these dysfunctions can be accurately identified, measured, and monitored via a specific ocular-vestibular-postural monitoring system along with relevant clinical data. This higher level of understanding is necessary in order to reach the next stage of success for humans living and working in Space. Central sensory-motor and cognitive controls dysfunction underlie symptoms that can adversely impact and reflect alteration of eye-hand coordination, fine tuned dexterity, body positioning in space, space projection and trajectory control, perception of environment/obstacles, orientation in space and time, sensory motor and cognitive aspects of decision making, sensory-motor/cognitive error proneness. All of these factors are necessary for Astronaut's mission capabilities, while both carrying out operations in Space and performing the tasks required during and after re-entry. The objective of this paper is to elucidate how PDS related medical conditions are currently assessed, identified and monitored, and how these methodologies and technologies translate into a potential for better understanding of astronauts' potential incapacitation during space flight operations.

  16. From Uhuru at CfA to SAS-3 at MIT: Looking for X-Ray Binaries in all the Right Places

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2013-01-01

    My career in X-ray astronomy started almost accidentally, when in 1975 I was hired fresh out of college as a “data aide” for the Uhuru satellite, in Riccardo Giacconi’s group at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Working first for Mel Ulmer, and later for Bill Forman and Christine Jones, I learned the fundamentals of data analysis, and helped produce the Fourth Uhuru catalog of X-ray sources (Forman et al. 1978), as well as studying transient X-ray sources (Cominsky et al. 1978). Christine was the first woman scientist I had ever met, and with her encouragement, I applied to graduate school to continue on in X-ray astronomy. Lured down the street to MIT by the chance to work on SAS-3, I eagerly learned how to operate the satellite from a control room in the Center for Space Research. The SAS-3 group was led by Prof. George Clark, and it was my good luck that he was around during the holiday break in January 1978 when everyone else in the group was at an AAS meeting in Hawaii. A source I recognized from my Uhuru work, 4U0115+63, had reappeared, and I knew that it was likely to be a pulsar. With the help of George and Project Scientist Bill Mayer, I managed to send the commands to stop SAS-3 and point at the source. The 3.6 second pulsations were so strong that they could be seen in the raw data! This discovery made the New York Times, as 4U0115+63 was the first transient x-ray source shown to be in a binary system (Cominsky et al. 1978, Rappaport et al. 1978). Another personal SAS-3 highlight included working on Prof. Walter Lewin’s “World-wide Burst Watch” - coordinated multi-wavelength observations of x-ray burst sources which led to the discoveries of slightly delayed but coincident optical bursts (Grindlay et al. 1978, McClintock et al. 1979). Although live operations of SAS-3 ended when it re-entered on April 9, 1979, many years of additional data analysis remained. And later, as a continuation of work I began in my Ph.D. Thesis on X

  17. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the…

  18. Fraser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kalpana Kumari, M K; Kamath, Sulata; Mysorekar, Vijaya V; Nandini, G

    2008-01-01

    Fraser syndrome or cryptophthalmos is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by major features such as cryptophthalmos, syndactyly and abnormal genitalia. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be made on clinical examination and perinatal autopsy. We present the autopsy findings of a rare case of Fraser syndrome in a male infant.

  19. SNP_NLMM: A SAS Macro to Implement a Flexible Random Effects Density for Generalized Linear and Nonlinear Mixed Models

    PubMed Central

    Vock, David M.; Davidian, Marie; Tsiatis, Anastasios A.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized linear and nonlinear mixed models (GMMMs and NLMMs) are commonly used to represent non-Gaussian or nonlinear longitudinal or clustered data. A common assumption is that the random effects are Gaussian. However, this assumption may be unrealistic in some applications, and misspecification of the random effects density may lead to maximum likelihood parameter estimators that are inconsistent, biased, and inefficient. Because testing if the random effects are Gaussian is difficult, previous research has recommended using a flexible random effects density. However, computational limitations have precluded widespread use of flexible random effects densities for GLMMs and NLMMs. We develop a SAS macro, SNP_NLMM, that overcomes the computational challenges to fit GLMMs and NLMMs where the random effects are assumed to follow a smooth density that can be represented by the seminonparametric formulation proposed by Gallant and Nychka (1987). The macro is flexible enough to allow for any density of the response conditional on the random effects and any nonlinear mean trajectory. We demonstrate the SNP_NLMM macro on a GLMM of the disease progression of toenail infection and on a NLMM of intravenous drug concentration over time. PMID:24688453

  20. Prediction of the space adaptation syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Homick, J. L.; Ryan, P.; Moseley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The univariate and multivariate relationships of provocative measures used to produce motion sickness symptoms were described. Normative subjects were used to develop and cross-validate sets of linear equations that optimally predict motion sickness in parabolic flights. The possibility of reducing the number of measurements required for prediction was assessed. After describing the variables verbally and statistically for 159 subjects, a factor analysis of 27 variables was completed to improve understanding of the relationships between variables and to reduce the number of measures for prediction purposes. The results of this analysis show that none of variables are significantly related to the responses to parabolic flights. A set of variables was selected to predict responses to KC-135 flights. A series of discriminant analyses were completed. Results indicate that low, moderate, or severe susceptibility could be correctly predicted 64 percent and 53 percent of the time on original and cross-validation samples, respectively. Both the factor analysis and the discriminant analysis provided no basis for reducing the number of tests.

  1. Joint observations of 4U1223-62 by the SAS-3 satellite and Columbia University proportional counter experiment on NASA rocket 26.054 UH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novick, R.; Wolff, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The pulsating X-ray binary 4U1223-62 and Vela X-1 were observed by Aerobee rocket-borne proportional counters. Valid X-ray events were telemetered and analyzed for possible flaring, quasiperiodic, and periodic pulsations, and for other nonstatistical behavior in the source. Both fast Fourier transform and autocorrelation programs were used. For several hours four days before and after the rocket flight, the SAS-3 satellite scanned the galactic plane in order to identify X-ray sources in the vicinity of 4U1223-62 and their intensities, and to provide positional accuracy of 0.25 for sources with intensity greater than 10% of the target. Observations of the source near the main peak of its pulsating period as defined by SAS-3 are discussed. There is no evidence of a spectral feature although twice as many photons were received as than from Vela X-1.

  2. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  3. [Autoinflammatory syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroaki; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2009-03-01

    The autoinflammatory syndromes include a group of inherited diseases that are characterized by 1) seemingly unprovoked episodes of systemic inflammations, 2) absence of high titer of autoantibody or auto-reactive T cell, and 3) inborn error of innate immunity. In this article, we will focus on the clinical features, the pathogenesis related the genetic defects, and the therapeutic strategies in the representative disorders including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), hyper-IgD with periodic fever syndrome (HIDS), syndrome of pyogenic arthritis with pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA), and Blau syndrome. Recent advances in genetics and molecular biology have proceeded our understanding of the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory syndromes.

  4. Asperger syndrome related suicidal behavior: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva; Koutek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Asperger syndrome hinders adaptation to developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, particularly with regard to interpersonal relationships. Individuals with Asperger syndrome display lack of empathy and limited ability to understand social and emotional exchanges with other people. Individuals with Asperger syndrome are significantly exposed to the risk of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. The authors describe cases of suicidal behavior in two adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome.

  5. Asperger syndrome related suicidal behavior: two case studies

    PubMed Central

    Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva; Koutek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Asperger syndrome hinders adaptation to developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, particularly with regard to interpersonal relationships. Individuals with Asperger syndrome display lack of empathy and limited ability to understand social and emotional exchanges with other people. Individuals with Asperger syndrome are significantly exposed to the risk of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. The authors describe cases of suicidal behavior in two adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome. PMID:24294002

  6. Studies on prevalence of biofilm associated genes and primary observation on sasX gene in clinical isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS).

    PubMed

    Soumya, Kandammuriyil Radhakrishnan; Mathew, Shiji; Sugathan, Sheela; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, Edayileveettil Krishnankutty

    2016-04-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are nosocomial pathogens that cause indwelling medical device associated infections due to its biofilm forming potential and multiple antibiotic resistance. The current study focused on species identification, antibiotic resistance profile and molecular basis of biofilm formation and attachment of CoNS isolated from clinical samples. Along with this, molecular screening for mecA and newly identified surface colonization protein encoded by sasX gene was also conducted. S. epidermidis (n = 19, 47%) was identified as the most prevalent CoNS species and very interestingly two biofilm forming, mecA positive S. epidermidis isolates were found to carry all the biofilm associated genes screened in this study, which indicates its potential to form the strong biofilm. Another novel observation of the study is the detection of sasX gene in one biofilm positive S. epidermidis isolate. The study also identified one doxycycline resistant mecA positive, multidrug resistant S. haemolyticus isolate. In conclusion, the study signifies the existence of multiple biofilm related genes, multidrug resistance and the presence of sasX gene among clinical isolates of CoNS.

  7. Fetal origins of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xita, Nektaria; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles

    2010-09-01

    The natural history of metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which shares many components of metabolic syndrome, may originate in intrauterine life. Evidence from epidemiological observations, clinical, and experimental animal studies suggest that the nutritional, hormonal, and metabolic environment afforded by the mother may permanently program differentiating target tissues of the offspring toward the development of metabolic syndrome/PCOS phenotype in adult life. The mechanisms of fetal programming are not well understood. Thus, the altered tissue differentiation may be the result of fetal adaptive responses representing homeostatic adaptations due to alterations in fetal nutrition. Also, tissues under the influence of androgen excess may be directed toward a more masculine phenotype with regard to reproductive, neuroendocrine, and metabolic traits, while the importance of epigenetics in fetal origin of metabolic syndrome/PCOS cannot be overlooked.

  8. Quercetin inhibits migration and invasion of SAS human oral cancer cells through inhibition of NF-κB and matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wan-Wen; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Chueh, Fu-Shih; Chen, Ya-Yin; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lin, Jing-Pin; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2013-05-01

    Quercetin, a principal flavanoid compound in onions, has been shown to possess a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties, including anticancer activities. Our earlier study showed that quercetin induced cytotoxic effects on SAS human oral cancer cells. In this study, we found that quercetin significantly reduced wound closure of SAS cells in culture plates after 12- and 24-h treatments. Results indicated that quercetin inhibited the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, as measured by western blotting and gelatin zymography. The results from western blotting also showed that quercetin reduced the protein levels of MMP-2, -7, -9 and -10, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) p65, inductible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), phosphatidylinositide-3 kinases (PI3K), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IKBα), IKB-α/β, phosphorylated nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor kinase, alpha/beta (p-IKKα/β), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), son of sevenless homolog-1 (SOS1), growth factor receptor-bound protein-2 (GRB2), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase-3 (MEKK3), MEKK7, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p-ERK1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), p38, p-p38, Jun proto-oncogene (c-JUN) and p-c-JUN but it did not affect Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA), Protein kinase C (PKC) and rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (RAS) in SAS cells. Confocal laser microscopy also showed that quercetin promoted the expressions of RhoA and Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase-1 (ROCK1), but inhibited the expression of NF-κB p65 in SAS cells. It is concluded from these data that inhibition of migration and invasion of SAS cells by quercetin is associated with the down

  9. An analysis of the number of parking bays and checkout counters for a supermarket using SAS simulation studio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2014-07-01

    Two important factors that influence customer satisfaction in large supermarkets or hypermarkets are adequate parking facilities and short waiting times at the checkout counters. This paper describes the simulation analysis of a large supermarket to determine the optimal levels of these two factors. SAS Simulation Studio is used to model a large supermarket in a shopping mall with car park facility. In order to make the simulation model more realistic, a number of complexities are introduced into the model. For example, arrival patterns of customers vary with the time of the day (morning, afternoon and evening) and with the day of the week (weekdays or weekends), the transport mode of arriving customers (by car or other means), the mode of payment (cash or credit card), customer shopping pattern (leisurely, normal, exact) or choice of checkout counters (normal or express). In this study, we focus on 2 important components of the simulation model, namely the parking area, the normal and express checkout counters. The parking area is modeled using a Resource Pool block where one resource unit represents one parking bay. A customer arriving by car seizes a unit of the resource from the Pool block (parks car) and only releases it when he exits the system. Cars arriving when the Resource Pool is empty (no more parking bays) leave without entering the system. The normal and express checkouts are represented by Server blocks with appropriate service time distributions. As a case study, a supermarket in a shopping mall with a limited number of parking bays in Bangsar was chosen for this research. Empirical data on arrival patterns, arrival modes, payment modes, shopping patterns, service times of the checkout counters were collected and analyzed to validate the model. Sensitivity analysis was also performed with different simulation scenarios to identify the parameters for the optimal number the parking spaces and checkout counters.

  10. [Autoinflammatory syndromes].

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, P; Gross, W L

    2009-06-01

    In its strict sense, the term "autoinflammatory syndromes" comprises the hereditary periodic fever syndromes (HPF), which are caused by mutations of pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) and perturbations of the cytokine balance. These include the crypyrinopathies, familial Mediterranean fever, TNF-receptor associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), hyper-IgD and periodic syndrome (HIDS), pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome, NALP12-HPF, and the Blau syndrome. The diseases are characterized by spontaneous activation of cells of the innate immunity in the absence of ligands. Autoantibodies are usually not found. HPF clinically present with recurrent fever episodes and inflammation, especially of serosal and synovial interfaces and the skin. Intriguingly, PRR-mediated autoinflammtory mechanisms also play a role in a number of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  11. Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Devi, Basanti; Behera, Binodini; Patro, Sibasish; Pattnaik, Subhransu S; Puhan, Manas R

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  12. Overgrowth Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Andrew C.; Kalish, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous multiple malformation syndromes associated with pathologic overgrowth have been described and, for many, their molecular bases elucidated. This review describes the characteristic features of these overgrowth syndromes, as well as the current understanding of their molecular bases, intellectual outcomes, and cancer predispositions. We review syndromes such as Sotos, Malan, Marshall–Smith, Weaver, Simpson–Golabi–Behmel, Perlman, Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba, PI3K-related, Proteus, Beckwith–Wiedemann, fibrous dysplasia, Klippel–Trenaunay–Weber, and Maffucci. PMID:27617124

  13. Adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  14. Proteus Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome Foundation The Proteus Syndrome Foundation , a 501c3 ... 1 Trial with ARQ 092 in Proteus Syndrome Proteus Syndrome Patient Registry The Proteus Syndrome Foundation Contact ...

  15. Non‐arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and presumed sleep apnoea syndrome screened by the Sleep Apnea scale of the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SA‐SDQ)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; McGwin, Gerald; Vaphiades, Michael S; Owsley, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Background Two recent studies reported over 70% of the patients with non‐arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) had sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS) diagnosed by overnight polysomnography. The current study used the Sleep Apnea scale of the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SA‐SDQ) to evaluate this association. Methods A matched case‐control study was conducted among 73 cases of NAION matched on age and gender to 73 controls without a history of NAION. Information regarding demographics, medical conditions, health behaviours and SAS was obtained via a telephone questionnaire that included the SA‐SDQ. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between NAION and the SA‐SDQ. Results Cases were significantly more likely to report symptoms and characteristics consistent with SAS than controls (OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.03 to 6.60) when adjusted for medical and health behaviour characteristics. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that patients with SAS are at increased risk of NAION. Additional research in a larger population is needed to confirm the observed results and validate the use of the SA‐SDQ in patients with NAION. PMID:17504857

  16. Short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilmore, D W; Robinson, M K

    2000-12-01

    The short bowel syndrome is a symptom complex that occurs in adults who have less than 200 cm of jejunum-ileum remaining after intestinal resection. Similar symptoms are observed in infants and children following massive bowel resection or congenital anomalies and in individuals with longer segments of intestine with severe mucosal disease. Initial care should focus on a thorough excision of nonviable bowel, an exact measurement of the remaining viable bowel, placing all intestine in continuity at the initial or subsequent operation, and controlling initial food intake. With time, adaptation of the remnant intestine occurs, and absorptive function may be maximized by enhancing the enteral diet and minimizing parenteral nutrition. Growth factors and specialized nutrients may also enhance this process. Intestinal transplantation should be considered in selected individuals with the short bowel syndrome who fail intestinal rehabilitation protocols.

  17. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  18. Adaptation of adaptive optics systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yu; Zhao, Dazun; Li, Chen

    1997-10-01

    In the paper, a concept of an adaptation of adaptive optical system (AAOS) is proposed. The AAOS has certain real time optimization ability against the variation of the brightness of detected objects m, atmospheric coherence length rO and atmospheric time constant τ by means of changing subaperture number and diameter, dynamic range, and system's temporal response. The necessity of AAOS using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and some technical approaches are discussed. Scheme and simulation of an AAOS with variable subaperture ability by use of both hardware and software are presented as an example of the system.

  19. [Pregnancy and antiphospholipid syndrome].

    PubMed

    Costedoat-Chalumeau, N; Guettrot-Imbert, G; Leguern, V; Leroux, G; Le Thi Huong, D; Wechsler, B; Morel, N; Vauthier-Brouzes, D; Dommergues, M; Cornet, A; Aumaître, O; Pourrat, O; Piette, J-C; Nizard, J

    2012-04-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is associated with a risk of obstetrical complications, affecting both the mother and the fetus. Obstetrical APS is defined by a history of three consecutive spontaneous miscarriages before 10 weeks of gestation (WG), an intra-uterine fetal death after 10 WG, or a premature birth before 34 WG because of severe pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or placental adverse outcomes (intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios). Pregnancy in women with a diagnosis of obstetric APS is at increased risk for placental abruption, HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet count) syndrome and thrombosis that may be part of a catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS). A previous thrombosis and the presence of a lupus anticoagulant are risk factors for pregnancy failure. A multidisciplinary approach, associating the internist, the anesthesiologist and the obstetrician, is recommended for these high-risk pregnancies. Preconception counseling is proposed to identify pregnancy contraindications, and to define and adapt the treatment prior and during the upcoming pregnancy. Heparin and low-dose aspirin are the main treatments. The choice between therapeutic or prophylactic doses of heparin will depend on the patient's medical history. The anticoagulant therapeutic window for delivery should be as narrow as possible and adapted to maternal thrombotic risk. There is a persistent maternal risk in the postpartum period (thrombosis, HELLP syndrome, CAPS) justifying an antithrombotic coverage during this period. We suggest a monthly clinical and biological monitoring which can be more frequent towards the end of pregnancy. The persistence of notches at the Doppler-ultrasound evaluation seems to be the best predictor for a higher risk of placental vascular complications. Treatment optimization and multidisciplinary antenatal care improve the prognosis of pregnancies in women with obstetric APS, leading to a favorable outcome most of the time.

  20. Supplier Assessment System (SAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sponsored by NASA Headquarters; Charter - provide information to assist the quality assurance community in evaluating and determining supplier risk; Comprehensive on-line repository of supplier information; Available to approved civil service personnel from all NASA Centers, other U.S. Government Agencies, Prime Contractors, and NASA direct support contractors; User access to specific data types or documents is controlled as needed.

  1. Tourette Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Look, Kathy

    Tourette Syndrome has a history of being misdiagnosed or undiagnosed due to its unusual and complex symptoms. This paper describes: the symptoms of Tourette Syndrome; its etiology; age of onset; therapeutic methods, such as drug therapy, psychotherapy, diet control, and hypnosis; educational implications; and employment prospects. Several…

  2. Cardiorenal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Kidney dysfunction in patients with heart failure and cardiovascular disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease are common. A recently proposed consensus definition of cardiorenal syndrome stresses the bidirectional nature of these heart-kidney interactions. The treatment of cardiorenal syndrome is challenging, however, promising new therapeutic options are currently being investigated in recent and ongoing clinical trials. PMID:20948701

  3. Down syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents and caregivers should learn to help a person with Down syndrome deal with frustration. At the same time, it is important to encourage independence. Teen girls and women with Down syndrome are usually able to get pregnant. There is an increased risk of sexual abuse ...

  4. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... opportunity to exchange ideas, develop coping strategies and locate resources. Peer groups for girls with Turner syndrome can help reinforce your daughter's self-esteem and provide her with a social network of people who understand her experience with Turner syndrome. References ...

  5. Turner syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... at birth is often smaller than average. A child with Turner syndrome is much shorter than children who are the ... Growth hormone may help a child with Turner syndrome grow taller. ... started when the girl is 12 or 13 years old. These help trigger ...

  6. Syndromic craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Derderian, Christopher; Seaward, James

    2012-05-01

    Although most cases of craniosynostosis are nonsyndromic, craniosynostosis is known to occur in conjunction with other anomalies in well-defined patterns that make up clinically recognized syndromes. Patients with syndromic craniosynostoses are much more complicated to care for, requiring a multidisciplinary approach to address all of their needs effectively. This review describes the most common craniosynostosis syndromes, their characteristic features and syndrome-specific functional issues, and new modalities utilized in their management. General principles including skull development, the risk of developing increased intracranial pressure in craniosynostosis syndromes, and techniques to measure intracranial pressure are discussed. Evolving techniques of the established operative management of craniosynostosis are discussed together with more recent techniques including spring cranioplasty and posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis.

  7. Linburg syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, William R.J.; Muller, Hellmuth

    1998-01-01

    Objective To review the causes and demographics of Linburg syndrome. Design An illustrative case report and a demographic study. Setting Adult and pediatric orthopedic clinics at the Health Sciences Centre in Winnipeg. Patients One patient with Linburg syndrome and 200 patients and relatives presenting to adult and pediatric orthopedic clinics with conditions not involving their hands, wrists or forearms. Outcome measures The presence of the intertendinous anomaly and of carpal tunnel syndrome. Results Tendinous connection(s) between flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus muscles were found in 20% of the study population. The anomaly was found in all age groups. No association was found between Linburg syndrome and the presence of carpal tunnel syndrome or previous injury to the hand or forearm. Conclusion Tendinous connection between flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus muscles is a common anomaly that rarely causes clinical symptoms. PMID:9711164

  8. Escobar syndrome mimicing congenital patellar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ezirmik, Naci; Yildiz, Kadri; Can, Cahit Emre

    2012-08-01

    Multiple pterygium syndrome (MPS) is a syndrome that is characterized abnormal face, short length and skin pterygiums on some body legions (servical, antecubital, popliteal, interdigital and on neck). It is also called as Pterygium Colli syndrome, Escobar syndrome or Pterygium syndrome. Escobar (multyple pterygium) syndrome is a rare syndrome. Intrauterin growth reterdation, abnormal face, wide-spead pterygiums that resulted in joint contractures, ptosis, chryptoorchidism, patellar dysplasia and foot deformities are seen on this syndrome. Primarly autosomal resesive crossing are observed; also autosomal dominant and X-linked crossing. This case were presented as it has components of Escobar syndrome and Isolated Patellar Aplasia syndrome in same time.

  9. Adaptive equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, S. U. H.

    1985-09-01

    Theoretical work which has been effective in improving data transmission by telephone and radio links using adaptive equalization (AE) techniques is reviewed. AE has been applied to reducing the temporal dispersion effects, such as intersymbol interference, caused by the channel accessed. Attention is given to the Nyquist telegraph transmission theory, least mean square error adaptive filtering and the theory and structure of linear receive and transmit filters for reducing error. Optimum nonlinear receiver structures are discussed in terms of optimality criteria as a function of error probability. A suboptimum receiver structure is explored in the form of a decision-feedback equalizer. Consideration is also given to quadrature amplitude modulation and transversal equalization for receivers.

  10. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  11. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  12. Dual Role of a SAS10/C1D Family Protein in Ribosomal RNA Gene Expression and Processing Is Essential for Reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Jiun C.; Wang, Huei-Jing

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are transcribed, processed, and assembled with ribosomal proteins in the nucleolus. Regulatory mechanisms of rRNA gene (rDNA) transcription and processing remain elusive in plants, especially their connection to nucleolar organization. We performed an in silico screen for essential genes of unknown function in Arabidopsis thaliana and identified Thallo (THAL) encoding a SAS10/C1D family protein. THAL disruption caused enlarged nucleoli in arrested embryos, aberrant processing of precursor rRNAs at the 5’ External Transcribed Spacer, and repression of the major rDNA variant (VAR1). THAL overexpression lines showed de-repression of VAR1 and overall reversed effects on rRNA processing sites. Strikingly, THAL overexpression also induced formation of multiple nucleoli per nucleus phenotypic of mutants of heterochromatin factors. THAL physically associated with histone chaperone Nucleolin 1 (NUC1), histone-binding NUC2, and histone demethylase Jumonji 14 (JMJ14) in bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, suggesting that it participates in chromatin regulation. Furthermore, investigation of truncated THAL proteins revealed that the SAS10 C-terminal domain is likely important for its function in chromatin configuration. THAL also interacted with putative Small Subunit processome components, including previously unreported Arabidopsis homologue of yeast M Phase Phosphoprotein 10 (MPP10). Our results uncovering the dual role of THAL in transcription and processing events critical for proper rRNA biogenesis and nucleolar organization during reproduction are the first to define the function of SAS10/C1D family members in plants. PMID:27792779

  13. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  14. [HELLP syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vigil-De Gracia, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are one of the most common complications of pregnancy, but one of the most serious expressions of this pathology is HELLP syndrome. The HELLP syndrome is characterized by the presence of hypertension disorder more a triad: microangiopathic hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. Patient with HELLP syndrome is associated with increased maternal risk complications such as: cerebral hemorrhage, retinal detachment, hematoma/ hepatic rupture, acute renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, placental abruption and therefore a maternal death. For all these reasons it is recommended to search for findings of HELLP syndrome in patients with hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. The main clinical confusion of HELLP syndrome is acute fatty liver of pregnancy, however there are parameters that help correct identification. The presence of HELLP syndrome involves a rapid termination of pregnancy and the administration of corticosteroids does not improve maternal morbidity and mortality but may help raise the platelet count, thus decreasing the need for transfusion and shorten hospital stay. Much of the decline in maternal morbidity and mortality associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is in proper diagnosis and effective management of HELLP syndrome.

  15. A comparison of three programming models for adaptive applications on the Origin2000

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Hongzhang; Singh, Jaswinder Pal; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    2001-05-30

    Adaptive applications have computational workloads and communication patterns which change unpredictably at runtime, requiring dynamic load balancing to achieve scalable performance on parallel machines. Efficient parallel implementations of such adaptive applications is therefore a challenging task. In this paper, we compare the performance of and the programming effort required for two major classes of adaptive applications under three leading parallel programming models on an SGI Origin2000 system, a machine which supports all three models efficiently. Results indicate that the three models deliver comparable performance; however, the implementations differ significantly beyond merely using explicit messages versus implicit loads/stores even though the basic parallel algorithms are similar. Compared with the message-passing (using MPI) and SHMEM programming models, the cache-coherent shared address space (CC-SAS) model provides substantial ease of programming at both the conceptual and program orchestration levels, often accompanied by performance gains. However, CC-SAS currently has portability limitations and may suffer from poor spatial locality of physically distributed shared data on large numbers of processors.

  16. Neuroacanthocytosis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hans H; Danek, Adrian; Walker, Ruth H

    2011-10-25

    Neuroacanthocytosis (NA) syndromes are a group of genetically defined diseases characterized by the association of red blood cell acanthocytosis and progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia. NA syndromes are exceptionally rare with an estimated prevalence of less than 1 to 5 per 1'000'000 inhabitants for each disorder. The core NA syndromes include autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome which have a Huntington's disease-like phenotype consisting of a choreatic movement disorder, psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline, and additional multi-system features including myopathy and axonal neuropathy. In addition, cardiomyopathy may occur in McLeod syndrome. Acanthocytes are also found in a proportion of patients with autosomal dominant Huntington's disease-like 2, autosomal recessive pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration and several inherited disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, namely abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome) and hypobetalipoproteinemia leading to vitamin E malabsorption. The latter disorders are characterized by a peripheral neuropathy and sensory ataxia due to dorsal column degeneration, but movement disorders and cognitive impairment are not present. NA syndromes are caused by disease-specific genetic mutations. The mechanism by which these mutations cause neurodegeneration is not known. The association of the acanthocytic membrane abnormality with selective degeneration of the basal ganglia, however, suggests a common pathogenetic pathway. Laboratory tests include blood smears to detect acanthocytosis and determination of serum creatine kinase. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging may demonstrate striatal atrophy. Kell and Kx blood group antigens are reduced or absent in McLeod syndrome. Western blot for chorein demonstrates absence of this protein in red blood cells of chorea-acanthocytosis patients. Specific genetic testing is possible in all NA syndromes. Differential diagnoses

  17. Gerstmann's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Benton, A L

    1992-05-01

    Recent case reports describe the occurrence of a more or less pure Gerstmann syndrome in association with a focal lesion in the posterior perisylvian territory of the brain's left hemisphere. In addition, an electrocortical stimulation study reported the Gerstmann symptom combination and a number of other symptom combinations on stimulation of small areas in the left posterior parietotemporal cortex. The neuropsychological implications of these and other recent findings are considered in light of the variety of "syndromes" produced by lesions in this region, the rare occurrence of Gerstmann's syndrome, and its appearance as a consequence of lesions in diverse cerebral areas.

  18. Rapunzel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Altonbary, Ahmed Youssef; Bahgat, Monir Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Bezoars are concretions of human or vegetable fibers that accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract. Trichobezoars are common in patients with underlying psychiatric disorders who chew and swallow their own hair. Rapunzel syndrome is a rare form of gastric trichobezoar with a long tail extending into the small bowel. This syndrome was first described in 1968 by Vaughan et al. and since then till date just 64 cases have been described in the literature. We present the only documented case with Rapunzel syndrome in Egypt. PMID:27847892

  19. [Autoinflammatory syndromes/fever syndromes].

    PubMed

    Schedel, J; Bach, B; Kümmerle-Deschner, J B; Kötter, I

    2011-05-01

    Hereditary periodic (fever) syndromes, also called autoinflammatory syndromes, are characterized by relapsing fever and additional manifestations such as skin rashes, mucosal manifestations, or joint symptoms. Some of these disorders present with organ involvement and serological signs of inflammation without fever. There is a strong serological inflammatory response with an elevation of serum amyloid A (SAA), resulting in an increased risk of secondary amyloidosis. There are monogenic disorders (familial mediterranean fever (FMF), hyper-IgD-syndrome (HIDS), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), "pyogenic arthritis, acne, pyoderma gangrenosum" (PAPA), and "pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) where mutations in genes have been described, which in part by influencing the function of the inflammasome, in part by other means, lead to the induction of the production of IL-1β. In "early-onset of enterocolitis (IBD)", a functional IL-10 receptor is lacking. Therapeutically, above all, the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra is used. In case of TRAPS and PGA, TNF-antagonists (etanercept) may also be used; in FMF colchicine is first choice. As additional possible autoinflammatory syndromes, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis), Schnitzler syndrome, Still's disease of adult and pediatric onset, Behçet disease, gout, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and Crohn's disease also are mentioned.

  20. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... during the development of the egg, sperm or embryo. Translocation Down syndrome is the only form of ... risk of passing along certain genetic conditions. The embryo is tested for genetic abnormalities before it's implanted ...

  1. Behcet's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Behcet's syndrome is a disease that involves vasculitis, which is inflammation of the blood vessels. It causes problems in many parts of the body. The ... National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

  2. Hunter syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hunter syndrome is a disease in which long chains of sugar molecules (glycosaminoglycans, formerly called mucopolysaccharides ) are ... of the enzyme iduronate sulfatase. Without this enzyme, chains of sugar molecules build up in various body ...

  3. Horner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... birth Tumor of the hormonal and nervous systems (neuroblastoma) Unknown causes In some cases the cause of ... a tumor of the hormonal and nervous systems (neuroblastoma). There's no specific treatment for Horner syndrome. Often, ...

  4. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person is concentrating (like working on a computer) or relaxing (like listening to music). The type ... doctor who knows a lot about the nervous system). All kids who have Tourette syndrome have tics — ...

  5. Reye's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms such as confusion, seizures and loss of consciousness require emergency treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment of ... which can cause seizures, convulsions or loss of consciousness. The signs and symptoms of Reye's syndrome typically ...

  6. Tourette syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicines are available to treat Tourette syndrome. The exact medicine that is used depends on the symptoms ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  7. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur in different parts of the body) can cause similar problems with cortisol balance. Common symptoms of Cushing's syndrome include upper body obesity, severe fatigue and muscle weakness, high blood pressure, ...

  8. HELLP syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... out of 1,000 pregnancies. In women with preeclampsia or eclampsia , the condition develops in 10 to ... have high blood pressure and are diagnosed with preeclampsia before they develop HELLP syndrome. In some cases, ...

  9. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help improve skills. They may include speech, physical, occupational, and/or educational therapy. With support and treatment, many people with Down syndrome live happy, productive lives. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  10. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone that your adrenal gland makes. Sometimes, ... can cause your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper ...

  11. Aase syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... make ribosomal proteins) This condition is similar to Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and the 2 conditions should not ... chromosome 19 is found in some people with Diamond-Blackfan anemia. The anemia in Aase syndrome is ...

  12. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... do before that she or he can no longer do? How severe are your child's signs and ... as children become older — it's usually necessary throughout life. Treating Rett syndrome requires a team approach. Treatments ...

  13. Caplan syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with rheumatoid arthritis who have breathed in mining dust that contains coal. This lung disease is ... Caplan syndrome is caused by breathing in coal mining dust. This causes inflammation and can lead to ...

  14. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a condition in which your body's connective tissue is abnormal. Connective tissue helps support all parts of your body. It ... and develops. Marfan syndrome most often affects the connective tissue of the heart and blood vessels, eyes, bones, ...

  15. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, blood vessels, and other organs. One of these proteins is fibrillin. A problem with the ...

  16. Marfan syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. Marfan syndrome is a disorder of connective tissue. This is the tissue that strengthens the body's structures. Disorders of connective tissue affect the skeletal system, cardiovascular system, eyes, and ...

  17. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? In the more severely affected cases of Brown ... acquired and congenital cases. In congenital cases, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  18. Carcinoid syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... things such as blue cheese, chocolate, or red wine. Exams and Tests Most of these tumors are ... outlook is more favorable thanks to new treatment methods. Possible Complications Complications of carcinoid syndrome may include: ...

  19. Piriformis syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sciatic nerve. The syndrome, which affects more women than men, is uncommon. But when it occurs, it can cause sciatica . Causes The piriformis muscle is involved in nearly every movement you make with your lower body, from walking ...

  20. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... will probably do some painless exams — like taking measurements of the body, including an arm span. You ... doors" inside the heart that help direct the flow of blood). In someone with Marfan syndrome, those ...

  1. Metabolic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... obesity ). This body type may be described as "apple-shaped." Insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone produced ... Syndrome Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  2. Duane Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye muscles. In Duane syndrome, the sixth cranial nerve that controls the lateral rectus muscle (the muscle ... abnormal innervation of a branch from the third cranial nerve, which normally controls the medial rectus muscle (the ...

  3. Menkes syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menkes syndrome, cells in the body can absorb copper, but they are unable to release it. It ... makes it hard for the body to distribute copper in food from the intestines into the bloodstream ...

  4. Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Eesha; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of the connective tissue, with skeletal, ligamentous, orooculofacial, pulmonary, abdominal, neurological and the most fatal, cardiovascular manifestations. It has no cure but early diagnosis, regular monitoring and preventive lifestyle regimen ensure a good prognosis. However, the diagnosis can be difficult as it is essentially a clinical one, relying on family history, meticulous physical examination and investigation of involved organ systems. Patients of Marfan syndrome portray very typical physical and orofacial characteristics, suggesting obvious recognition, but due to variable phenotypic expression, cases often go unnoticed unless a full range of attributing features is apparent. Dental practitioners are very likely to encounter patients of Marfan syndrome at an early age as they frequently present for dental treatment. The present case report illustrates the preliminary screening of Marfan syndrome in a dental office followed by timely diagnosis and appropriate referrals. PMID:24336584

  5. Klinefelter syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Testosterone therapy may be prescribed. This can help: Grow body hair Improve appearance of muscles Improve concentration Improve mood and self esteem Increase energy and sex drive Increase strength Most men with this syndrome are not able to get ...

  6. Sjogren's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... to developing cavities if your mouth is dry. Yeast infections. People with Sjogren's syndrome are much more likely to develop oral thrush, a yeast infection in the mouth. Vision problems. Dry eyes ...

  7. Beals Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... have many of the skeletal (bone) and aortic enlargement problems as people with Marfan syndrome, and treatments ... appearance to the top of the ear Aortic enlargement and/or mitral valve regurgitation (occasionally) People with ...

  8. [Mobius syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vladuţiu, Cristina; Duma, Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Mobius syndrom, an anomaly in cranial nerve developement, presents with a remarkable clinical polymorphism. The rare occurence of this pathology and the questions raised by the diagnosis and treatment determined us to make this presentation.

  9. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... turnersyndrome. html • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institutes of Child Health & Human Development (NIH): www. nichd. nih. gov/ health/ topics/ Turner_ Syndrome. cfm • Mayo Clinic: www. mayoclinic. com/ health/ turner- ...

  10. Cushing syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Cushing syndrome have: Round, red, full face ( moon face ) Slow growth rate (in children) Weight gain ... constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial ...

  11. Short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Claire L; Reynolds, John V

    2010-10-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

  12. [HELLP syndrome].

    PubMed

    Filipowicz, Ewa; Staszków, Monika

    2015-01-01

    HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count) is a relatively rare complication of pregnancy. It usually develops in the IIId trimester or after delivery. HELLP syndrome is associated with increased maternal (placental abruption, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatic hematomas and rupture, and acute kidney injury) and neonatal (prematurity, low birth weight) risk complications. In this article the diagnosis, clinical picture and treatment of this disease have been shortly reviewed.

  13. SAPHO syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Sueli; Sampaio-Barros, Percival D

    2013-05-01

    SAPHO syndrome is a disorder characterized by Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, and Osteitis. As the osteoarticular and skin manifestations often do not occur simultaneously and there are no validated diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical and imaging investigation is necessary to establish the many differential diagnoses of SAPHO syndrome. The etiopathogenesis involves infectious (probably Propionibacterium acnes), immunologic, and genetic factors. Treatment is based on information gathered from case reports and small series, and is related to specific skin or articular symptoms.

  14. Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Amy E; Allanson, Judith E; Tartaglia, Marco; Gelb, Bruce D

    2013-01-26

    Noonan syndrome is a genetic multisystem disorder characterised by distinctive facial features, developmental delay, learning difficulties, short stature, congenital heart disease, renal anomalies, lymphatic malformations, and bleeding difficulties. Mutations that cause Noonan syndrome alter genes encoding proteins with roles in the RAS-MAPK pathway, leading to pathway dysregulation. Management guidelines have been developed. Several clinically relevant genotype-phenotype correlations aid risk assessment and patient management. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease could help development of pharmacogenetic treatments.

  15. Validation of the integration of CFD and SAS4A/SASSYS-1: Analysis of EBR-II shutdown heat removal test 17

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Vilim, R.; Briggs, L. L.

    2012-07-01

    Recent analyses have demonstrated the need to model multidimensional phenomena, particularly thermal stratification in outlet plena, during safety analyses of loss-of-flow transients of certain liquid-metal cooled reactor designs. Therefore, Argonne's reactor systems safety code SAS4A/SASSYS-1 is being enhanced by integrating 3D computational fluid dynamics models of the plena. A validation exercise of the new tool is being performed by analyzing the protected loss-of-flow event demonstrated by the EBR-II Shutdown Heat Removal Test 17. In this analysis, the behavior of the coolant in the cold pool is modeled using the CFD code STAR-CCM+, while the remainder of the cooling system and the reactor core are modeled with SAS4A/SASSYS-1. This paper summarizes the code integration strategy and provides the predicted 3D temperature and velocity distributions inside the cold pool during SHRT-17. The results of the coupled analysis should be considered preliminary at this stage, as the exercise pointed to the need to improve the CFD model of the cold pool tank. (authors)

  16. Re-examining the role of Drosophila Sas-4 in centrosome assembly using two-colour-3D-SIM FRAP.

    PubMed

    Conduit, Paul T; Wainman, Alan; Novak, Zsofia A; Weil, Timothy T; Raff, Jordan W

    2015-11-04

    Centrosomes have many important functions and comprise a 'mother' and 'daughter' centriole surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM). The mother centriole recruits and organises the PCM and templates the formation of the daughter centriole. It has been reported that several important Drosophila PCM-organising proteins are recruited to centrioles from the cytosol as part of large cytoplasmic 'S-CAP' complexes that contain the centriole protein Sas-4. In a previous paper (Conduit et al., 2014b) we showed that one of these proteins, Cnn, and another key PCM-organising protein, Spd-2, are recruited around the mother centriole before spreading outwards to form a scaffold that supports mitotic PCM assembly; the recruitment of Cnn and Spd-2 is dependent on another S-CAP protein, Asl. We show here, however, that Cnn, Spd-2 and Asl are not recruited to the mother centriole as part of a complex with Sas-4. Thus, PCM recruitment in fly embryos does not appear to require cytosolic S-CAP complexes.

  17. Yng1p Modulates the Activity of Sas3p as a Component of the Yeast NuA3 Histone Acetyltransferase Complex

    PubMed Central

    Howe, LeAnn; Kusch, Thomas; Muster, Nemone; Chaterji, Ranjana; Yates III, John R.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2002-01-01

    The mammalian ING1 gene encodes a tumor suppressor required for the function of p53. In this study we report a novel function for YNG1, a yeast homolog of ING1. Yng1p is a stable component of the NuA3 histone acetyltransferase complex, which contains Sas3p, the yeast homolog of the mammalian MOZ proto-oncogene product, as its catalytic subunit. Yng1p is required for NuA3 function in vivo but surprisingly is not required for the integrity of the complex. Instead, we find that Yng1p mediates the interaction of Sas3p with nucleosomes and is thus required for the ability of NuA3 to modify histone tails. These data, and the observations that other ING1 homologs are found in additional yeast complexes that posttranslationally modify histones, suggest that members of the ING1 class of proteins may have broad roles in enhancing or modifying the activities of chromatin-modifying complexes, thereby regulating their activities in transcription control. PMID:12077334

  18. Re-examining the role of Drosophila Sas-4 in centrosome assembly using two-colour-3D-SIM FRAP

    PubMed Central

    Conduit, Paul T; Wainman, Alan; Novak, Zsofia A; Weil, Timothy T; Raff, Jordan W

    2015-01-01

    Centrosomes have many important functions and comprise a ‘mother’ and ‘daughter’ centriole surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM). The mother centriole recruits and organises the PCM and templates the formation of the daughter centriole. It has been reported that several important Drosophila PCM-organising proteins are recruited to centrioles from the cytosol as part of large cytoplasmic ‘S-CAP’ complexes that contain the centriole protein Sas-4. In a previous paper (Conduit et al., 2014b) we showed that one of these proteins, Cnn, and another key PCM-organising protein, Spd-2, are recruited around the mother centriole before spreading outwards to form a scaffold that supports mitotic PCM assembly; the recruitment of Cnn and Spd-2 is dependent on another S-CAP protein, Asl. We show here, however, that Cnn, Spd-2 and Asl are not recruited to the mother centriole as part of a complex with Sas-4. Thus, PCM recruitment in fly embryos does not appear to require cytosolic S-CAP complexes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08483.001 PMID:26530814

  19. Scale Adaptive Simulation Model for the Darrieus Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowski, K.; Hansen, M. O. L.; Maroński, R.; Lichota, P.

    2016-09-01

    Accurate prediction of aerodynamic loads for the Darrieus wind turbine using more or less complex aerodynamic models is still a challenge. One of the problems is the small amount of experimental data available to validate the numerical codes. The major objective of the present study is to examine the scale adaptive simulation (SAS) approach for performance analysis of a one-bladed Darrieus wind turbine working at a tip speed ratio of 5 and at a blade Reynolds number of 40 000. The three-dimensional incompressible unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are used. Numerical results of aerodynamic loads and wake velocity profiles behind the rotor are compared with experimental data taken from literature. The level of agreement between CFD and experimental results is reasonable.

  20. Melatonin in Chronic Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Danilov, Andrei; Kurganova, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by epiphysis and extrapineal structures. It performs several functions including chronobiotic, antioxidant, oncostatic, immune modulating, normothermal, and anxiolytic functions. Melatonin affects the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract, participates in reproduction and metabolism, and body mass regulation. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated melatonin efficacy in relation to pain syndromes. The present paper reviews the studies on melatonin use in fibromyalgia, headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic back pain, and rheumatoid arthritis. The paper discusses the possible mechanisms of melatonin analgesic properties. On one hand, circadian rhythms normalization results in sleep improvement, which is inevitably disordered in chronic pain syndromes, and activation of melatonin adaptive capabilities. On the other hand, there is evidence of melatonin-independent analgesic effect involving melatonin receptors and several neurotransmitter systems.

  1. Cardiac Syndrome X

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kawasaki Disease Long Q-T Syndrome Marfan Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Mitral Valve Prolapse Myocardial Bridge Myocarditis Obstructive Sleep Apnea Pericarditis Peripheral Vascular Disease Rheumatic Fever Sick Sinus Syndrome Silent Ischemia Stroke Sudden ...

  2. Russell-Silver syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Silver-Russell syndrome; Silver syndrome; RSS; Russell-Silver syndrome ... Organization for Rare Disorders -- rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/russell-silver-syndrome NIH/NLM Genetics Home Reference -- ghr. ...

  3. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome) is a memory disorder that results from vitamin B1 deficiency and is associated with alcoholism. Korsakoff's syndrome damages ... syndrome) is a memory disorder that results from vitamin B1 deficiency and is associated with alcoholism. Korsakoff's syndrome damages ...

  4. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Metabolic Syndrome? Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of ... that may play a role in causing metabolic syndrome. Outlook Metabolic syndrome is becoming more common due to a ...

  5. Emotional Responsivity in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Debbie J.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Most, David E.; Philofsky, Amy; Rogers, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that young children with Williams syndrome show higher rates of emotional responsivity relative to other children with developmental disabilities was explored. Performance of 23 young children with Williams syndrome and 30 MA-matched children with developmental disabilities of nonspecific etiologies was compared on an adaptation of…

  6. Attentional Set-Shifting in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Molen, M. J. W.; Van der Molen, M. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. R.; Hamel, B. C. J.; Curfs, L. M. G.; Ramakers, G. J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to flexibly adapt to the changing demands of the environment is often reported as a core deficit in fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, the cognitive processes that determine this attentional set-shifting deficit remain elusive. The present study investigated attentional set-shifting ability in fragile X syndrome males with the…

  7. A Comparison of Oral Structure and Oral-Motor Function in Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Elizabeth F.; Roberts, Joanne; Mirrett, Penny; Sideris, John; Misenheimer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the oral structure and oral-motor skills of 59 boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), 34 boys with Down syndrome (DS), and 36 developmentally similar typically developing (TD) boys. An adaptation of the J. Robbins and T. Klee (1987) Oral Speech Motor Protocol was administered to participants and their scores on measures of oral…

  8. Can Myelodysplastic Syndromes Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myelodysplastic Syndromes Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Myelodysplastic Syndromes Be Prevented? Since smoking is linked to the ... Syndromes? Can Myelodysplastic Syndromes Be Prevented? More In Myelodysplastic Syndromes About Myelodysplastic Syndromes Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  9. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic condition. The gene linked to the syndrome is known as PTCH (" ...

  10. Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vogels, Annick; Fryns, Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that associates craniosynostosis, broad and deviated thumbs and big toes, and partial syndactyly on hands and feet. Hydrocephaly may be found occasionally, along with severe ocular proptosis, ankylosed elbows, abnormal viscera, and slow development. Based on the severity of the phenotype, Pfeiffer syndrome is divided into three clinical subtypes. Type 1 "classic" Pfeiffer syndrome involves individuals with mild manifestations including brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia and finger and toe abnormalities; it is associated with normal intelligence and generally good outcome. Type 2 consists of cloverleaf skull, extreme proptosis, finger and toe abnormalities, elbow ankylosis or synostosis, developmental delay and neurological complications. Type 3 is similar to type 2 but without a cloverleaf skull. Clinical overlap between the three types may occur. Pfeiffer syndrome affects about 1 in 100,000 individuals. The disorder can be caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor genes FGFR-1 or FGFR-2. Pfeiffer syndrome can be diagnosed prenatally by sonography showing craniosynostosis, hypertelorism with proptosis, and broad thumb, or molecularly if it concerns a recurrence and the causative mutation was found. Molecular genetic testing is important to confirm the diagnosis. Management includes multiple-staged surgery of craniosynostosis. Midfacial surgery is performed to reduce the exophthalmos and the midfacial hypoplasia.

  11. Preexcitation Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Atul; Sra, Jasbir; Akhtar, Masood

    2016-03-01

    The classic electrocardiogram in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is characterized by a short PR interval and prolonged QRS duration in the presence of sinus rhythm with initial slurring. The clinical syndrome associated with above electrocardiogram finding and the history of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is referred to as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Various eponyms describing accessory or anomalous conduction pathways in addition to the normal pathway are collectively referred to as preexcitation syndromes. The latter form and associated eponyms are frequently used in literature despite controversy and disagreements over their actual anatomical existence and electrophysiological significance. This communication highlights inherent deficiencies in the knowledge that has existed since the use of such eponyms began. With the advent of curative ablation, initially surgical, and then catheter based, the knowledge gaps have been mostly filled with better delineation of the anatomic and electrophysiological properties of anomalous atrioventricular pathways. It seems reasonable, therefore, to revisit the clinical and electrophysiologic role of preexcitation syndromes in current practice.

  12. Sheehan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Keleştimur, Fahrettin

    2003-01-01

    Sheehan's syndrome occurs as a result of ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum hemorrhage. It may be rarely seen without massive bleeding or after normal delivery. Improvement in obstetric care and availability of rapid blood transfusion coincided with a remarkable reduction in the frequency of Sheehan's syndrome particularly in western society. But it has recently been reported more often from well-developed countries. It is one of the most common causes of hypopituitarism in underdeveloped or developing countries. Enlargement of pituitary gland, small sella size, disseminated intravascular coagulation and autoimmunity have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of Sheehan's syndrome in women who suffer from severe postpartum hemorrhage. The patients may seek medical advice because of various presentations ranging from non-specific symptoms to coma and the clinical manifestation may change from one patient to another. Failure of postpartum lactation and failure to resume menses after delivery are the most common presenting symptoms. Although a small percentage of patients with Sheehan's syndrome may cause abrupt onset severe hypopituitarism immediately after delivery, most patients have a mild disease and go undiagnosed and untreated for a long time. It may result in partial or panhypopituitarism and GH is one of the hormones lost earliest. The great majority of the patients has empty sella on CT or MRI. Lymphocytic hypophysitis should be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. In this review, the old and recent data regarding Sheehan's syndrome are presented.

  13. Efficacy of Phase 3 Trial of RTS, S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine in infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Shima; Keshavarz, Hossein

    2017-01-06

    Although vaccines would be the ideal tool for control, prevention, elimination, and eradication of many infectious diseases, developing of parasites vaccines such as malaria vaccine is very complex. The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate is RTS,S, a pre-erythrocytic vaccine for which pivotal phase III trial design is underway. Few recent malaria vaccine review articles have attempted to outline of all clinical trials that have occurred globally and no meta-analysis was performed on efficacy of Phase 3 Trial of RTS, S/AS01 Malaria vaccine up to now in infants. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to review new and existing data on efficacy of Phase 3 Trial of RTS, S/AS01 Malaria Vaccine in infants. The electronic databases searched were Pubmed (1965-present) and Web of Science (1970-present) (Search date: May, 2016). After full-text review of the papers evaluating clinical/severe malaria in several well-designed phase III field efficacy trials, 5 were determined to meet the eligibility criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. Four out of the 5 publications dealing with efficacy of Phase 3 Trial of RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine were included in the qualitative analysis. Pooled estimate of vaccine efficacy in clinical and severe malaria in children aged 5-17 mo was 29% (95% CL: 19%-46%) and 39% (95% CI 20%-74%), while this estimate vaccine in clinical and severe malaria in children aged 6-12 mo was 19% (95% CI 14%-24%) and 21 (95% CI 19%-37%), respectively. On the other hand, higher VE was seen in both per- protocol and intention-to-treat population in children aged 5-17 than the children aged 6-12 mo. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that this candidate malaria vaccine has relatively little efficacy, and the vaccine apparently will not meet the goal of malaria eradication by itself.

  14. Apert's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jyothsna, Mandapati; Ahmed, Syed Basheer; Sree Lakshmi, Ketham Reddy

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Apert's syndrome (acrocephalosyndactyly) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by craniosynostosis, midfacial malforma­tion and symmetrical syndactyly of hands and feet. Craniofacial deformities include cone-shaped calvarium, fat forehead, prop-tosis, hypertelorism and short nose with a bulbous tip. Intraoral findings include high arched palate with pseudocleft, maxillary transverse and sagittal hypoplasia with concomitant dental crowding, skeletal and dental anterior open bite and several retained primary teeth. We report one such case of 14-year-old boy having all the classical features of Apert's syndrome with particular emphasis on brief review of genetic features. How to cite this article: Kumar GR, Jyothsna M, Ahmed SB, Lakshmi KRS. Apert's Syndrome. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):69-72. PMID:25206244

  15. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  16. Flammer syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The new term Flammer syndrome describes a phenotype characterized by the presence of primary vascular dysregulation together with a cluster of symptoms and signs that may occur in healthy people as well as people with disease. Typically, the blood vessels of the subjects with Flammer syndrome react differently to a number of stimuli, such as cold and physical or emotional stress. Nearly all organs, particularly the eye, can be involved. Although the syndrome has some advantages, such as protection against the development of atherosclerosis, Flammer syndrome also contributes to certain diseases, such as normal tension glaucoma. The syndrome occurs more often in women than in men, in slender people than in obese subjects, in people with indoor rather than outdoor jobs, and in academics than in blue collar workers. Affected subjects tend to have cold extremities, low blood pressure, prolonged sleep onset time, shifted circadian rhythm, reduced feeling of thirst, altered drug sensitivity, and increased general sensitivity, including pain sensitivity. The plasma level of endothelin-1 is slightly increased, and the gene expression in lymphocytes is changed. In the eye, the retinal vessels are stiffer and their spatial variability larger; the autoregulation of ocular blood flow is decreased. Glaucoma patients with Flammer syndrome have an increased frequency of the following: optic disc hemorrhages, activated retinal astrocytes, elevated retinal venous pressure, optic nerve compartmentalization, fluctuating diffuse visual field defects, and elevated oxidative stress. Further research should lead to a more concise definition, a precise diagnosis, and tools for recognizing people at risk. This may ultimately lead to more efficient and more personalized treatment. PMID:25075228

  17. [Wilkie's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bognár, Gábor; Ledniczky, György; Palik, Eva; Zubek, László; Sugár, István; Ondrejka, Pál

    2008-10-01

    Loss of retroperitoneal fatty tissue as a result of a variety of debilitating conditions and noxa is believed to be the etiologic factor of superior mesenteric artery syndrome. A case of a 35 years old female patient with severe malnutrition and weight loss is presented, who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Various theories of etiology, clinical course and treatment options of this uncommon disease are discussed. In our case, conservative management was inefficient, while surgical treatment aiming to bypass the obstruction by an anastomosis between the jejunum and the proximal duodenum (duodenojejunostomy) was successful. An interdisciplinary teamwork provides the most beneficial diagnostic and therapeutic result in this often underestimated disease.

  18. Morbihan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Veraldi, Stefano; Persico, Maria Chiara; Francia, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of severe Morbihan syndrome (chronic erythematous edema of the upper portion of the face) in a 60-year-old man. The syndrome was characterized clinically by erythematous edema involving the forehead, glabella, and both eyelids, because of which the patient was not able to open completely his eyes. Furthermore, erythema and telangiectasiae were visible on the nose and cheeks. Laboratory and instrumental examinations were within normal ranges or negative. Histopathological examination showed dermal edema, perivascular and periadnexal lympho-histiocytic infiltrate, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia. Oral isotretinoin was ineffective despite the relatively long duration of the therapy (26 weeks). PMID:23741671

  19. [PFAPA syndrome].

    PubMed

    André, Suzete Costa Anjos; Vales, Fernando; Cardoso, Eduardo; Santos, Margarida

    2009-01-01

    PFAPA syndrome is characterized by periodic fever, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis and aphthous stomatitis. The bouts of fever can last for days or even weeks. Between crises, patients remain asymptomatic for variable periods. It appears before the age of five and has limited duration (4-8 years). Its aetiopathogeny is unknown. Corticoids are the treatment of choice. Tonsillectomy has been proposed as a solution but remains controversial. We present the case of a 4-year-old girl with PFAPA syndrome who underwent tonsillectomy in January, 2008, and we review the literature.

  20. SAS-2 gamma-ray results from the galactic plane and their implications for galactic structure and galactic cosmic-ray dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    The final SAS-2 results related to high energy galactic gamma-ray emission show a strong correlation with galactic structural features seen at other wavelenghts, when the known gamma-ray sources are subtracted. Theoretical considerations and analysis of the gamma-ray data suggest that the galactic cosmic rays are dynamically coupled to the interstellar matter through the magnetic fields, and hence the cosmic ray density is enhanced where the matter density is greatest on the scale of the galactic arms. This concept has been explored in a galactic model that assumes: (1) cosmic rays are galactic and not universal; (2)on the scale of the galactic arms, the cosmic ray column (surface) density is proportional to the total interstellar gas column density; (3)the cosmic ray scale height is significantly larger than the scale height to the matter; and (4) ours is a spiral galaxy characterized by an arm to interarm density ratio of over 2:1.