Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…
Facilitation of online discussions presents a challenge to online learning instructors. Unlike in face-to-face courses, students in online learning do not have physical contacts with instructors. They might view instructors as authoritarian figures and perceive instructor's comments as impersonal. This article details the author's personal…
Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.
Robitaille, Yvette Powell; Maldonado, Nancy
Questioning and discussion techniques are effective instructional methods, but there is often inconsistent implementation of these instructional methods. This case study explored teachers and evaluators' perceptions regarding exemplary questioning and discussion techniques. Participants included 9 teachers who earned exemplary marks on their…
Toledo, Cheri A.
One of the challenges of asynchronous online discussions is soliciting student responses that involve critical thinking. Too often students answer one another with "I agree" or "That's what I think" and the discussion dead ends. By providing students with models of good questioning techniques instructors will see the class…
Robitaille, Yvette Powell; Maldonado, Nancy
Questioning and discussion techniques are effective instructional methods that develop critical thinking and problem solving skills. There is often inconsistent implementation of these techniques, which can result in a negative effect on student achievement. This case study explored elementary, middle, and high school teachers and evaluators'…
Basil Bernstein's classification and framing was adopted as a theoretical model to analyse the instruction of two university professors who incorporated case studies into their graduate business and education courses. Classification and framing allows for a meaningful analysis of the discussion leader's questions that facilitate students'…
Robitaille, Yvette Jeannine Powell
Questioning and discussion techniques are effective instructional methods that develop critical thinking and problem solving skills. Despite these positive associations, there is inconsistent implementation of these techniques across disciplines and grade levels, often resulting in a negative effect on student achievement. This collective case…
Neff, Rose Ann, Ed.; Weimer, Maryellen, Ed.
This collection is intended to help teachers encourage active learning by involving students in classroom learning and to encourage teachers to cultivate critical thinking through thought-provoking questions. The readings include: (1) "The Dreaded Discussion: Ten Ways To Start" (Peter Frederick); (2) "Classroom Structures Which Encourage Student…
Davies, Maree; Sinclair, Anne
This study focused on the impact of using Socratic questioning, based on the Paideia Method, on the nature of middle-schools students' patterns of interaction and on the cognitive complexity of their discussions. The hypothesis is that an experimental group will increase in both interaction focus and complexity at T3, which is the face-to-face…
Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, T.; Waber, J.; Stoecker, R.
The question of adaptivity to extremely saline water environments is discussed, with attention given to the evolutionary performance of four common organisms including Cladonia skottsbergii, Penicillium notatum, Nostoc, and Dunaliella salina. Samples of each organism were collected and subjected to experimental conditions similar to extreme marine and limnetic environments in the Dead Sea and Don Juan Pond in the upper Wright valley of Antarctica. Measurements were made of isotope uptake and carbon dioxide production, and photoautotrophs were taken. It is found that all of the organisms responded quickly to the need to adapt to the extreme environments. It is concluded that a degree of uncertainty exists in the perception that the abundance of bulk water on the earth is in itself essential for life.
Xi, Hong-mei; Li, Wang-zi; Lei, Ping
In order to guarantee an interactive classroom atmosphere, English teachers pay much attention to the questioning strategies when they use question-answer teaching method. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis on English teachers' questioning strategies from the perspective of adaptation theory. It shows that the utilization of teachers'…
McGreal, Shirley Springer
The questions asked by nine secondary school English teachers while teaching three short stories were recorded and analyzed using a modified version of the Purves and Rippere (1968) system. Response preferences were also gathered from each teacher and from each student, using special question-preference questionnaires. The major finding of the…
Hackman, J. Richard; Wageman, Ruth
Five questions prompted by the articles in the American Psychologist special issue on leadership (January 2007, Vol. 62, No. 1) suggest some new directions for leadership research: (1) Not do leaders make a difference, but under what conditions does leadership matter? (2) Not what are the traits of leaders, but how do leaders' personal attributes…
A discussion of "introjection and the Idealizing Transference" by Theodore L. Dorpat, M.D. The analysis of a patient with a narcissistic disorder is the basis for Dr. Dorpat's thesis that introjections (i.e., object representations) of the analyst as a real person are the basis for subsequent identifications resulting in changes in the self. I disagree with his characterization of the material as representing an idealizing transference. I believe it is better understood as an example of an alter ego or twinship transference. His material demonstrates the crucial role of the analyst as a self-object in the transference, rather than as a real person. The hypothesis that a patient changes as a result of identification with the analyst suggests possible countertransference pitfalls: a rationalized expression of the analyst's unconscious archaic fantasies or the enhancement of the analyst's self-esteem. The perception of such identifications could reflect the personal experience of the analysand who seeks to acquire the characteristics of the training analyst, or they could be apparent rather than real, the result of other therapeutic factors. Dr. Dorpat's paper provides an excellent opportunity for consideration of these issues, but, at present, such introjection-internalization sequences cannot be accepted as scientific formulations.
Choi, Ikseon; Land, Susan M.; Turgeon, Alfred J.
Meaningful discussion that facilitates reflective thinking can be initiated when learners raise thoughtful questions or provide critical feedback; however, generating effective questions requires a certain level of domain knowledge and meta-cognitive skills of the question-askers. We propose a peer-questioning scaffolding framework intended to…
Bradley, Megan E.; Thom, Lindsay R.; Hayes, Jennifer; Hay, Cindy
This study examined how question types influenced the quantity and quality of undergraduate students' online submissions. Discussion questions were structured based on one of six question types: direct link, course link, brainstorm, limited focal, open focal and application. Transcripts of eight online discussions involving 114 participants were…
Strang, Kenneth David
Purpose: A quasi-experiment compared two instructional approaches for an existing MBA online business strategy course at an accredited university to answer the question: how can discussion questions become more effective in online MBA courses? The treatment was an instructional approach that integrated Socratic questioning and conversation theory…
Knight, Jennifer K.; Wise, Sarah B.; Rentsch, Jeremy; Furtak, Erin M.
The cues undergraduate biology instructors provide to students before discussions of clicker questions have previously been shown to influence student discussion. We further explored how student discussions were influenced by interactions with learning assistants (LAs, or peer coaches). We recorded and transcribed 140 clicker-question discussions in an introductory molecular biology course and coded them for features such as the use of reasoning and types of questions asked. Students who did not interact with LAs had discussions that were similar in most ways to students who did interact with LAs. When students interacted with LAs, the only significant changes in their discussions were the use of more questioning and more time spent in discussion. However, when individual LA–student interactions were examined within discussions, different LA prompts were found to generate specific student responses: question prompts promoted student use of reasoning, while students usually stopped their discussions when LAs explained reasons for answers. These results demonstrate that LA prompts directly influence student interactions during in-class discussions. Because clicker discussions can encourage student articulation of reasoning, instructors and LAs should focus on how to effectively implement questioning techniques rather than providing explanations. PMID:26590204
Knight, Jennifer K; Wise, Sarah B; Rentsch, Jeremy; Furtak, Erin M
The cues undergraduate biology instructors provide to students before discussions of clicker questions have previously been shown to influence student discussion. We further explored how student discussions were influenced by interactions with learning assistants (LAs, or peer coaches). We recorded and transcribed 140 clicker-question discussions in an introductory molecular biology course and coded them for features such as the use of reasoning and types of questions asked. Students who did not interact with LAs had discussions that were similar in most ways to students who did interact with LAs. When students interacted with LAs, the only significant changes in their discussions were the use of more questioning and more time spent in discussion. However, when individual LA-student interactions were examined within discussions, different LA prompts were found to generate specific student responses: question prompts promoted student use of reasoning, while students usually stopped their discussions when LAs explained reasons for answers. These results demonstrate that LA prompts directly influence student interactions during in-class discussions. Because clicker discussions can encourage student articulation of reasoning, instructors and LAs should focus on how to effectively implement questioning techniques rather than providing explanations.
Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Newby, Timothy J.; Bill, Robert L.
This study investigated the effects of using Socratic questioning to enhance students' critical thinking (CT) skills in asynchronous discussion forums (ADF) in university-level distance learning courses. The research effort empirically examined two coherent subjects: (a) the efficacy of teaching and modeling Socratic questioning for developing…
Liu, Feifan; Tur, Gokhan; Hakkani-Tür, Dilek
Objective To evaluate existing automatic speech-recognition (ASR) systems to measure their performance in interpreting spoken clinical questions and to adapt one ASR system to improve its performance on this task. Design and measurements The authors evaluated two well-known ASR systems on spoken clinical questions: Nuance Dragon (both generic and medical versions: Nuance Gen and Nuance Med) and the SRI Decipher (the generic version SRI Gen). The authors also explored language model adaptation using more than 4000 clinical questions to improve the SRI system's performance, and profile training to improve the performance of the Nuance Med system. The authors reported the results with the NIST standard word error rate (WER) and further analyzed error patterns at the semantic level. Results Nuance Gen and Med systems resulted in a WER of 68.1% and 67.4% respectively. The SRI Gen system performed better, attaining a WER of 41.5%. After domain adaptation with a language model, the performance of the SRI system improved 36% to a final WER of 26.7%. Conclusion Without modification, two well-known ASR systems do not perform well in interpreting spoken clinical questions. With a simple domain adaptation, one of the ASR systems improved significantly on the clinical question task, indicating the importance of developing domain/genre-specific ASR systems. PMID:21705457
A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…
Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan
This study investigated the potential of students' written and oral questions both as an epistemic probe and heuristic for initiating collaborative argumentation in science. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years from two countries, were asked to discuss which of two graphs best represented the change in temperature as ice was heated to steam.…
Robitaille, Yvette Powell; Maldonado, Nancy
Questioning and discussion techniques are effective instructional methods that develop critical thinking and problem solving skills. Despite these positive associations, there is often inconsistent implementation of these techniques across disciplines and grade levels, often resulting in a negative effect on student achievement. This case study…
Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy
Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.
Al-Faris, Eiad A.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmad A.; Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.
This paper is an attempt to produce a guide for improving the quality of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) used in undergraduate and postgraduate assessment. Multiple Choice Questions type is the most frequently used type of assessment worldwide. Well constructed, context rich MCQs have a high reliability per hour of testing. Avoidance of technical items flaws is essential to improve the validity evidence of MCQs. Technical item flaws are essentially of two types (i) related to testwiseness, (ii) related to irrelevant difficulty. A list of such flaws is presented together with discussion of each flaw and examples to facilitate learning of this paper and to make it learner friendly. This paper was designed to be interactive with self-assessment exercises followed by the key answer with explanations. PMID:21359033
Barla, Michal; Bielikova, Maria; Ezzeddinne, Anna Bou; Kramar, Tomas; Simko, Marian; Vozar, Oto
In this paper we present a method for adaptive selection of test questions according to the individual needs of students within a web-based educational system. It functions as a combination of three particular methods. The first method is based on the course structure and focuses on the selection of the most appropriate topic for learning. The…
Myers, Pamela Ann
In this study, the author adapted reciprocal teaching strategies for use with her kindergarten students. Using puppets to help model strategies, she implemented a series of lessons that showed students how to retell, ask questions, and predict what would happen in a story that was read aloud. The purpose was to provide students with comprehension…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.
This volume compiles and reprints the responses of 37 organizations to a series of questions issued by the House Committee on Agriculture in anticipation of debates concerning the Research Title of the 1995 Farm Bill due for updating and revision. The questions address some of the following topics: the role of the federal government in…
Capotosto, Lauren; Kim, James S.
This study examines the effects of four types of reading comprehension questions--immediate, non-immediate, summary, and unanswerable questions--that linguistically diverse and predominantly low-income parents asked their fourth graders on children's text retellings. One-hundred-twenty (N = 120) parent and child dyads participated in a home visit…
Fakhry, Carole; D’Souza, Gypsyamber
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a rising proportion of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers (OSCC). HPV-positive OSCCs (HPV-OSCC) are associated with oral HPV infection and sexual behavior. Patient questions regarding risk factors, prognosis and implications for past, present and future relationships often arise. This manuscript addresses frequently asked questions by patients with HPV-OSCC and their families. A framework for clinicians to address these conversations and the limitations of our present knowledge base is also presented. PMID:23876627
is negated, and focusing on any one part will upset the idiom . Although of small number, the bi- ased questions exemplified in (14) are illustrative... idioms (4%): But media-stock analyst Richard J. MacDonald of MacDonald Grippo Riely says Wall Street won’t take kindly to that. (ex. 2081) (14) biased
This discussion guide is intended to be used to help structure public input during the September 2011 webinar and discussion forum addressing the prioritization factors and data sources EPA plans to use to identify priority chemicals for review.
Wulff, Stefanie; Swales, John M.; Keller, Kristen
This paper discusses the "John Swales Conference Corpus" (JSCC), which contains the lectures and discussion sessions from an applied linguistics conference held in 2006 at the University of Michigan. This corpus constitutes a useful resource in that it provides insights into the language of a narrowly defined academic community.…
Frambach, Janneke M.; Driessen, Erik W.; Beh, Philip; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.
A tool used in student-centered education is discussion among students in small learning groups. The Western origin of student-centered education, coupled with cross-cultural differences in communication styles, may detract from its cross-cultural applicability. This study investigates how in student-centered education, students' cultural…
The several questions in Theories of Acupuncture and Moxibustion of Different Schools, "the twelfth five-year plan" teaching material, are analyzed and discussed. The expression of DOU Han-qing on "playing a role of meridians, collaterals, qi and blood" is not so accurate, which is suggested to modify as "attaching the importance to needles". "Theory of heaven, human being and earth" "theory of acupuncture on qi regulation" and "the eight therapeutic methods in treatment of disease" in Jinzhenfu (Ode to Golden Needles) are valuable academically and suggested to be supplemented. The expression of XI Hong on "reinforcing and reducing technique by following or against the running course of meridian" and the expression of XU Feng on "the magic turtle eight techniques" are not concrete. It is required to elaborate them in detail. These questions are put forward and needed to discuss with the editors so as to perfect the teaching material.
Grégoire, Solène; Flahault, Cécile; Laurence, Valérie; Levy, Dominique; Dolbeault, Sylvie
The purpose of this literature review is to make a point on the state of health of adolescents and young adults (15-25 years) suffering from cancer. The adaptation strategies and the impact of the announcement of cancer will be discussed. In addition, we are going to consider the characteristics of teenagers and young adults, given the fact that development is still in progress. This period is especially punctuated by various experiments and the emergence of some clinical signs. Also, we have identified various studies concerning the use of licit and illicit substances. Furthermore, we have taken interest in behavioral addictions, particularly cyber addiction. While trying to cross these variables with a population of teenagers and young adults in the context of somatic diseases, it occurred that this population was not well known and studied. The interest of this synthesis is to underline the importance to make future researches in these perspectives.
Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Ssebyala, Keron; Karamagi, Charles; Kiguli, Sarah; Smith, Karen; Anderson, Meredith C.; Croen, Lisa A.; Trevathan, Edwin; Hansen, Robin; Smith, Daniel; Grether, Judith K.
Neurodevelopmental disorders are recognized to be relatively common in developing countries but little data exist for planning effective prevention and intervention strategies. In particular, data on autism spectrum disorders are lacking. For application in Uganda, we developed a 23-question screener (23Q) that includes the Ten Questions screener…
Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Robinson, Stephen; Boyd-Harlow, Danielle; McKean, Michael
We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET), for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS) curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via “clicker” questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.
This is an invited discussion of three invited papers on statistical disclosure limitation from the Second International Conference on Establishment Surveys, Buffalo, NY, June 2000. The three papers in this session deal with computing, estimates, and computing estimates in the c...
Awofeso, Niyi; Hassan, Moustafa; Hamidi, Samer
This case study provides evidence-based suggestions for the use of Question and Answer discussion forums for improving quality and assessment of online learning. General online discussion forums are accessible at any time to all subscribers, making it possible for some learners to update, concur with or paraphrase discussions posted earlier by…
Huttunen, Sanna; Olsson, Sanna; Buchbender, Volker; Enroth, Johannes; Hedenäs, Lars; Quandt, Dietmar
Adaptive evolution has often been proposed to explain correlations between habitats and certain phenotypes. In mosses, a high frequency of species with specialized sporophytic traits in exposed or epiphytic habitats was, already 100 years ago, suggested as due to adaptation. We tested this hypothesis by contrasting phylogenetic and morphological data from two moss families, Neckeraceae and Lembophyllaceae, both of which show parallel shifts to a specialized morphology and to exposed epiphytic or epilithic habitats. Phylogeny-based tests for correlated evolution revealed that evolution of four sporophytic traits is correlated with a habitat shift. For three of them, evolutionary rates of dual character-state changes suggest that habitat shifts appear prior to changes in morphology. This suggests that they could have evolved as adaptations to new habitats. Regarding the fourth correlated trait the specialized morphology had already evolved before the habitat shift. In addition, several other specialized "epiphytic" traits show no correlation with a habitat shift. Besides adaptive diversification, other processes thus also affect the match between phenotype and environment. Several potential factors such as complex genetic and developmental pathways yielding the same phenotypes, differences in strength of selection, or constraints in phenotypic evolution may lead to an inability of phylogeny-based comparative methods to detect potential adaptations.
Huttunen, Sanna; Olsson, Sanna; Buchbender, Volker; Enroth, Johannes; Hedenäs, Lars; Quandt, Dietmar
Adaptive evolution has often been proposed to explain correlations between habitats and certain phenotypes. In mosses, a high frequency of species with specialized sporophytic traits in exposed or epiphytic habitats was, already 100 years ago, suggested as due to adaptation. We tested this hypothesis by contrasting phylogenetic and morphological data from two moss families, Neckeraceae and Lembophyllaceae, both of which show parallel shifts to a specialized morphology and to exposed epiphytic or epilithic habitats. Phylogeny-based tests for correlated evolution revealed that evolution of four sporophytic traits is correlated with a habitat shift. For three of them, evolutionary rates of dual character-state changes suggest that habitat shifts appear prior to changes in morphology. This suggests that they could have evolved as adaptations to new habitats. Regarding the fourth correlated trait the specialized morphology had already evolved before the habitat shift. In addition, several other specialized “epiphytic” traits show no correlation with a habitat shift. Besides adaptive diversification, other processes thus also affect the match between phenotype and environment. Several potential factors such as complex genetic and developmental pathways yielding the same phenotypes, differences in strength of selection, or constraints in phenotypic evolution may lead to an inability of phylogeny-based comparative methods to detect potential adaptations. PMID:23118967
Managing climate refugia has been proposed as a potential adaptation strategy that may be useful for protecting the biotic integrity of watersheds under a changing climate. Paleo-ecological evidence suggests that refugia allowed species to persist through prior periods of climate...
PACER Center, 2004
A child with a disability who has an Individualized Education Program (IEP) or Section 504 Accommodation Plan may need extra help and support to participate in school. It takes thoughtful planning to choose adaptations, based on a child's disability, to help the child learn or have access to learning. Appropriate accommodations vary with…
Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Ssebyala, Keron; Karamagi, Charles; Kiguli, Sarah; Smith, Karen; Anderson, Meredith C; Croen, Lisa A; Trevathan, Edwin; Hansen, Robin; Smith, Daniel; Grether, Judith K
Neurodevelopmental disorders are recognized to be relatively common in developing countries but little data exist for planning effective prevention and intervention strategies. In particular, data on autism spectrum disorders are lacking. For application in Uganda, we developed a 23-question screener (23Q) that includes the Ten Questions screener and additional questions on autism spectrum disorder behaviors. We then conducted household screening of 1169 children, 2-9 years of age, followed by clinical assessment of children who screened positive and a sample of those who screened negative to evaluate the validity of the screener. We found that 320 children (27% of the total) screened positive and 68 children received a clinical diagnosis of one or more moderate to severe neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder; cerebral palsy; epilepsy; cognitive, speech and language, hearing, or vision impairment), including 8 children with autism spectrum disorders. Prevalence and validity of the screener were evaluated under different statistical assumptions. Sensitivity of the 23Q ranged from 0.55 to 0.80 and prevalence for ≥1 neurodevelopmental disorders from 7.7/100 children to 12.8/100 children depending on which assumptions were used. The combination of screening positive on both autism spectrum disorders and Ten Questions items was modestly successful in identifying a subgroup of children at especially high risk of autism spectrum disorders. We recommend that autism spectrum disorders and related behavioral disorders be included in studies of neurodevelopmental disorders in low-resource settings to obtain essential data for planning local and global public health responses.
Gander, Philippa H.; Macdonald, John A.; Montgomery, John C.; Paulin, Michael G.
Adaptation of sleep and circadian rhythms was examined in three temperate zone dwellers arriving in Antarctica during summer. Rectal temperature, wrist activity, and heart rate were monitored continuously, sleep timing and quality noted on awakening, and mood and fatigue rated every 2 h while awake. Sleep was poorer in 2/3 subjects in Antarctica, where all subjects reported more difficulty rising. Sleep occurred at the same clock times in New Zealand and Antarctica, however, the rhythms of temperature, activity, and heart rate underwent a delay of about of 2 h. The subject with the most Antarctic experience had the least difficulty adapting to sleeping during constant daylight. The subject with the most delayed circadian rhythms had the most difficulty. The delay in the circadian system with respect to sleep and clock time is hypothesized to be due to differences in zeitgeber strength and/or zeitgeber exposure between Antarctica and New Zealand.
SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.
The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed. PMID:11786989
Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Rita
Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents has to be considered as the most severe health consequence of a nuclear reactor emergency with release of radioiodine into the atmosphere. High doses of potassium iodide are effective to block radioiodine thyroid uptake and to prevent development of thyroid cancer years later. However, there are controversies concerning thyroid cancer risk induced by radioiodine exposure in adults. Further, the interaction of nutritional supply of potassium iodide and radioiodine uptake as well as the interaction of radioiodine with certain drugs has not been addressed properly in existing guidelines and recommendations. How to proceed in case of repeated release of radioiodine is an open, very important question which came up again recently during the Fukushima accident. Lastly, the side effects of iodine thyroid blocking and alternatives of this procedure have not been addressed systematically up to now in guidelines and recommendations. These questions can be answered as follows: in adults, the risk to develop thyroid cancer is negligible. In countries, where nutritional iodine deficiency is still an issue, the risk to develop thyroid cancer after a nuclear reactor emergency has to be considered higher because the thyroid takes up more radioiodine as in the replete condition. Similarly, in patients suffering from thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism or endemic goitre not being adequately treated radioiodine uptake is higher than in healthy people. In case of repeated or continued radioiodine release, more than one dose of potassium iodide may be necessary and be taken up to 1 week. Repeated iodine thyroid blocking obviously is not harmful. Side effects of iodine thyroid blocking should not be overestimated; there is little evidence for adverse effects in adults. Newborns and babies, however, may be more sensitive to side effects. In the rare case of iodine hypersensitivity, potassium perchlorate may be applied as an alternative to iodine for
Haas, Stephanie W.; Grams, Erika S.
Discusses research describing Web page and link classification systems resulting from a content analysis of over 75 Web pages. Topics include the decision-making processes of Web page authors and readers; syntactic analysis of labeled and isolated anchors; expansion and resource links; and where links lead. (Author/LRW)
Graham, Iain; Norman, Linda
The purpose of this paper is to present elements of a discussion on the discipline of nursing that arose from a student-faculty exchange programme, as a reflection of the experiences the students and faculty had during the 3-year exchange. It suggests that the globalization of health and the international migration of nurses might prove to be an opportunity for nurses to learn more about nursing practice. It became apparent to the participants that the phenomenon of nursing, although understood by them all, was not easy to describe, and words used in Swedish, Finnish or British or American English were often not easy to interpret or explain. These reflections were noted by the authors when the group came together to plan the programme and design experiences for the participants. We were concerned how nursing could contribute to health-care improvement globally if it wasn't universally understood within the four countries concerned.
Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from
Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic
Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…
Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic
Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…
Alzu'bi, Mohammad Akram
The study aimed at analyzing English questions of the Jordanian Secondary Certificate Examinations via Blooms' cognitive levels. An analysis sheet was prepared by the researcher for the purpose of the study, which was ensured to be valid and reliable. The whole questions of the general secondary examinations for English course in both levels…
Greek, Ray; Hansen, Lawrence A
We surveyed the scientific literature regarding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the SOD1 mouse model, complex adaptive systems, evolution, drug development, animal models, and philosophy of science in an attempt to analyze the SOD1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the context of evolved complex adaptive systems. Humans and animals are examples of evolved complex adaptive systems. It is difficult to predict the outcome from perturbations to such systems because of the characteristics of complex systems. Modeling even one complex adaptive system in order to predict outcomes from perturbations is difficult. Predicting outcomes to one evolved complex adaptive system based on outcomes from a second, especially when the perturbation occurs at higher levels of organization, is even more problematic. Using animal models to predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease and drugs should have a very low predictive value. We present empirical evidence confirming this and suggest a theory to explain this phenomenon. We analyze the SOD1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in order to illustrate this position.
Hsiao, I.-H.; Sosnovsky, S.; Brusilovsky, P.
Rapid growth of the volume of interactive questions available to the students of modern E-Learning courses placed the problem of personalized guidance on the agenda of E-Learning researchers. Without proper guidance, students frequently select too simple or too complicated problems and ended either bored or discouraged. This paper explores a…
Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Yamaguchi, Takafumi; Sone, Tomomichi; Yanada, Kazuo; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Kurio, Wasako; Nishikawa, Tomoe; Yamamoto, Yumi; Maeda, Sadaaki
We adopted peer evaluation (mutual evaluation between students) for small group discussion (SGD) among first graders. The peer evaluation criteria were 5 grade scales for 5 fields: "preparation," "remark," "listening," "activeness," and "role." A comparison with tutor evaluation clarified the validity of peer evaluation for summative evaluation. Although the average of peer evaluation (4.2 (4.0-4.4)) was higher than that of tutor evaluation (3.8 (3.7-4.1)) (p=0.0601, Mann-Whitney U test), the value of the correlation coefficient between peer evaluation and summative evaluation of SGD (average 0.35 (0.12-0.54)) was almost the same as that of the coefficient between tutor evaluation and summative evaluation of SGD (average 0.36 (0.24-0.42)) (p=0.6761, Mann-Whitney U test). Principal component analysis showed that the tutor could not evaluate "remark" and "listening" independently, while students evaluate "listening" independently from other evaluation criteria. The combination of peer and tutor evaluation may be multilateral evaluation for SGD. The questionnaire about peer evaluation for students showed that they recognized the value of peer evaluation and favorably accepted its use.
Fenwick, John; McMillan, Rod
In a conventional teaching situation, a lecturer may use a wide range of questioning techniques aimed at helping students to become active learners. In distance learning, students are often isolated and have limited opportunities for interaction in a social learning environment. Hence, learning strategies in distance learning need to be structured…
scores computed over all submitted runs. 5 Title Body Our Answer Score (1-4) Why does my cat has 2 eyes? So tell me.. It is a defect. In show quality... cats , it is considered a fault. 2) Cats have TWO eyes, generally, unless they lose one. 1 Do you like dogs? - DOG – that’s GOD spelled back- wards say...example, all the answers to the following question: Why does my cat have 2 eyes? received the lowest possible score. Another drawback of our system is
Partin, Ronald L.
Guidelines are given to the teacher on using questions to improve classroom discussions. Included are: reasons for using questions, ways to ask questions and acknowledge students' responses, and types of questions which should and should not be used. (SJL)
Rustomjee, Roxana; Lockhart, Stephen; Shea, Jacqueline; Fourie, P Bernard; Hindle, Zoë; Steel, Gavin; Hussey, Gregory; Ginsberg, Ann; Brennan, Michael J
The ultimate goal of vaccine development is licensure of a safe and efficacious product that has a well-defined manufacturing process resulting in a high quality product. In general, clinical development and regulatory approval occurs in a linear, sequential manner: Phase 1 - safety, immunogenicity; Phase 2 - immunogenicity, safety, dose ranging and preliminary efficacy; Phase 3 - definitive efficacy, safety, lot consistency; and, following regulatory approval, Phase 4 - post-marketing safety and effectiveness. For candidate TB vaccines, where correlates of protection are not yet identified, phase 2 and 3 efficacy of disease prevention trials are, by necessity, very large. Each trial would span 2-5 years, with full licensure expected only after 1 or even 2 decades of development. Given the urgent unmet need for a new TB vaccine, a satellite discussion was held at the International African Vaccinology Conference in Cape Town, South Africa in November 2012, to explore the possibility of expediting licensure by use of an "adaptive licensure" process, based on a risk/benefit assessment that is specific to regional needs informed by epidemiology. This may be appropriate for diseases such as TB, where high rates of morbidity, mortality, particularly in high disease burden countries, impose an urgent need for disease prevention. The discussion focused on two contexts: licensure within the South African regulatory environment - a high burden country where TB vaccine efficacy trials are on-going, and licensure by the United States FDA --a well-resourced regulatory agency where approval could facilitate global licensure of a novel TB vaccine.
This study examines students' orientations with regard to questions on the implementation of justice in production structures of the global textile industry. The students worked with the Mystery Method from the Thinking Through Geography approach by David Leat and with Lawrence Kohlberg's Method of Dilemma Discussion. During this process, the…
Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.
Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)
Gómez Torres, Danelia
Qualitative research aimed to show the nurses role performed during the management challenge in nursing schools. A retrospective diachronic historical type study was conducted through data collection, critical evaluation and facts presentation based on Roy's adaptation theory. The study reveal that pioneer nurse managers achieved a professional projection inside the university academic scope, based on adaptation, interdependence, by transcending in optimal way between organization members and showing initially a compensatory adaptation level and later on integrated with innovation in the performance of manager's role, based on dialogue, with presence in several scenarios as well as participation in several sectors.
Broom, Donald M
The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and
Sykes, Rosetta A.
A rationale is given for the use of questioning techniques and strategies in classroom instruction. B. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is presented as one framework for questions. Five pitfalls, including avoiding vague questions and personal pronouns, are discussed. (CL)
Escobar Urmeneta, Cristina; Evnitskaya, Natalia
This interpretive case study is framed within recent sociocultural conceptualisations of learning. It draws on research on teacher-led classroom discussions, and investigates the conversational intricacies through which "dialogicity" is accomplished in adaptive ways in one content and language integrated learning (CLIL) science…
Sherry, Michael B.
Recitations and discussions are two types of interactions which have long been of interest to researchers who study classroom discourse in secondary English and Social Studies. According to research, teachers control the discourse during recitations through "inauthentic" questions requiring pre-specified answers. In contrast, discussions involve…
After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…
Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip
Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…
Bargatze, L. F.
Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted
Hawkins, C Matthew; Flug, Jonathan A; Metter, Darlene; Strax, Richard; Lozano, Kay Denise Spong; Herrington, William; Applegate, Kimberly E
Every year, multiple open-microphone sessions are hosted at the ACR AMCLC. These sessions allow members of the College to offer opinions, experiences, and questions regarding challenges facing radiologists and the future of the profession. At the 2014 AMCLC, 3 such sessions focused, respectively, on radiology's workforce, the obstacles slowing the shift from volume to value, and alternative reimbursement models and the shifting physician employment landscape. These open-microphone sessions framed contemporary obstacles and emerging challenges that professional radiology societies, such as the ACR, should target with new initiatives and use of resources; in addition, the sessions revealed opportunities for members, councilors, and state chapters to respond with meaningful resolutions and policy proposals.
Describes the author's evolution from a teacher set in his ways to one who adapted to students' voices. Contends that classrooms need to be environments where students are able to ask their own questions. Explains that key elements of such an environment include the following: interviews; mini-lessons; multi-genre projects; literature circles;…
How does a teacher use questioning effectively? This workshop will focus on writing those questions that engage students, spark their curiosity, help recap material, give you insight into their thinking, or help them learn critical ideas in physics. We will focus on ``peer instruction'' -- a research-tested method of requiring students to discuss challenging questions with one another. We will investigate the surprising power of multiple-choice questions to achieve critical thinking skills. Finally, we will look at writing questions that align with our goals for students, discuss the elements of effective questions, and practice writing questions and work on improving them.
Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn
This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…
Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie
Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad questions are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…
Lowe, Pardee, Jr.
Examines the suggestions found in Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," in the light of a possible U.S. Government's Interagency Language Roundtable receptive skills proficiency test which must supply the answer to the question of how well an individual can understand a particular…
Worthy, Jo; Hoffman, James V.
Offers responses from four readers of this journal, all reading and/or classroom teachers, to a question posed by another teacher: whether children who have had limited literacy experiences should start reading in whole-language readers and/or trade books or whether they should start in controlled-vocabulary preprimers. (SR)
Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.
Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…
Taylor, Nigel A S
In this overview, human morphological and functional adaptations during naturally and artificially induced heat adaptation are explored. Through discussions of adaptation theory and practice, a theoretical basis is constructed for evaluating heat adaptation. It will be argued that some adaptations are specific to the treatment used, while others are generalized. Regarding ethnic differences in heat tolerance, the case is put that reported differences in heat tolerance are not due to natural selection, but can be explained on the basis of variations in adaptation opportunity. These concepts are expanded to illustrate how traditional heat adaptation and acclimatization represent forms of habituation, and thermal clamping (controlled hyperthermia) is proposed as a superior model for mechanistic research. Indeed, this technique has led to questioning the perceived wisdom of body-fluid changes, such as the expansion and subsequent decay of plasma volume, and sudomotor function, including sweat habituation and redistribution. Throughout, this contribution was aimed at taking another step toward understanding the phenomenon of heat adaptation and stimulating future research. In this regard, research questions are posed concerning the influence that variations in morphological configuration may exert upon adaptation, the determinants of postexercise plasma volume recovery, and the physiological mechanisms that modify the cholinergic sensitivity of sweat glands, and changes in basal metabolic rate and body core temperature following adaptation.
The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center, or GMSEC, was started in 2001 to create a new standard approach for managing GSFC missions. Standardized approaches in the past involved selecting and then integrating the most appropriate set of functional tools. Assumptions were made that "one size fits all" and that tool changes would not be necessary for many years. GMSEC took a very different approach and has proven to be very successful. The core of the GMSEC architecture consists of a publish/subscribe message bus, standardized message formats, and an Applications Programming Interface (API). The API supports multiple operating systems, programming languages and messaging middleware products. We use a GMSEC-developed free middleware for low-cost development. A high capacity, robust middleware is used for operations and a messaging system with a very small memory footprint is used for on-board flight software. Software components can use the standard message formats or develop adapters to convert from their native formats to the GMSEC formats. We do not want vendors to modify their core products. Over 50 software components are now available for use with the GMSEC architecture. Most available commercial telemetry and command systems, including the GMV hifly Satellite Control System, have been adapted to run in the GMSEC labs.
Whiteley, John M.
Eight key areas suggested for discussion by the APA and APGA as bases for formulation of ethical standards are: (1) leader qualifications; (2) limits on procedure; (3) confidentiality of group participants; (4) participant selection; (5) informed consent of participants; (6) freedom of client to withdraw; (7) safeguards for participants against…
de Mestre, Neville
This paper examines the difference between mass and weight, which is discussed very early in most physics courses. Those who indulge in mathematical problems involving weights should know the difference. Mass is often defined as the amount of matter in an object. This usually means the sum of the masses of all the atoms that constitute that…
Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.
science writers' seminar to discuss various aspects of one of NCI’s signature efforts -- the Provocative Questions project. Discussion will focus on the scientific research that surrounds some of these questions.
Schmidt Bunkers, Sandra
In this column questions concerning wisdom are addressed, such as, what is wisdom? Can wisdom be taught in the academy? Several perspectives on wisdom from philosophy, education, business, and psychology are presented. Wisdom with creativity-creativity with wisdom is then explored through discussion of Parse's humanbecoming teaching-learning model and Laird Hamilton's life lessons learned from surfing, which he termed wisdom of the wave. The column concludes with consideration of the wise person.
Bunkers, Sandra S
This column focuses on the philosophical dialogue originated by Socrates. Six questions that Socrates would ask the ancient Greeks are explored in discussing a book written by Phillips entitled Six Questions of Socrates. These questions were: What is virtue? What is moderation? What is justice? What is good? What is courage? What is piety? A human becoming perspective is used as a lens to view the discussion on these questions and the question is posed, "What would it be like to frame discussions on health and quality of life around Socrates' questions?" Parse's teaching-learning processes are presented as a means of creating an environment where dialogue on these questions can occur.
Kalichman, Seth C.
This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV…
Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman
With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated question answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical question by retrieving similar questions that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar questions based on Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health question exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health questions received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic question answering approaches. PMID:28269825
Fisher, Kathleen M.; Lipson, Joseph Isaac
Discusses the value of studying errors made by students in the process of learning science. Addresses 20 research questions dealing with student learning errors. Attempts to characterize errors made by students and clarify some terms used in error research. (TW)
Flannery, Maura C.
Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)
Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth
Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)
Wilen, William W., Ed.
This book focuses on questioning techniques and strategies teachers may employ to make the difference between active and passive learning in the classroom. There are nine chapters: (1) Why Questions? (Ambrose A. Clegg, Jr.); (2) Review of Research on Questioning Techniques (Meredith D. Gall and Tom Rhody); (3) The Multidisciplinary World of…
Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat
Adapted primary literature (APL) is a novel text genre that retains the authentic characteristics of primary literature. Learning through APL represents an educational intervention with an authentic scientific context. In this case study, we analyzed the 80-min discourse developed during the enactment of an article from an APL-based curriculum in…
Koocher, Gerald P.
Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…
... Trials Database Supporting Research Raising Awareness Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The ... Detection- Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Questions What questions should ...
Ihara, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji
The possible use of a pulse compression system on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission to meet the requirement on the number of independent samples for the rain radar under the constraint on allowable power consumption. The applicability of a pulse compression system to the mission depends on the technological feasibility of reducing the range sidelobe levels of the strong surface echo down to at least -60 dB. It is found that applying the pulse compression technique to the mission is risky. The concept of adaptive scanning is examined, and its power saving efficiency is numerically evaluated for four kinds of rain searching schemes. It is shown that the power saving efficiency of adaptive scanning is considerably high for all the rain searching schemes evaluated.
We delineate some types of structured practice (modeling, requests, feedback, and space-making) that help students learn to pose appropriate questions and to initiate exploration of those questions. Developing skills requires practice, so we suggest ways to embed structured practice into existing class sessions. Including structured practice is…
From a very young age, children actively strive to make sense of their world through constant questioning. The ability to ask questions comes naturally for young children, but such natural inclination does not continue because it teachers who ask most of the questions. Sheena Hervey suggests that teaching students how to pose questions is a…
Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen
What is a routine question? The focus of this paper is routine questions and time (in years) since a hitherto routine question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…
Pedrosa de Jesus, Helena; Teixeira-Dias, Jose J. C.; Watts, Mike
Documents the use of student-generated questions as diagnostic of their willingness to engage in classroom interactions. Explores four ways of gathering students' written questions and their relative effectiveness. Examines students' capacity to design and present 'quality questions' and the extent to which these questions are indicative of…
Saelan, A.; Purwarianti, A.; Widyantoro, D. H.
Information seeking is one of human needs today. Comparing things using search engine surely take more times than search only one thing. In this paper, we analyzed comparative questions for comparative question answering system. Comparative question is a question that comparing two or more entities. We grouped comparative questions into 5 types: selection between mentioned entities, selection between unmentioned entities, selection between any entity, comparison, and yes or no question. Then we extracted 4 types of information from comparative questions: entity, aspect, comparison, and constraint. We built classifiers for classification task and information extraction task. Features used for classification task are bag of words, whether for information extraction, we used lexical, 2 previous and following words lexical, and previous label as features. We tried 2 scenarios: classification first and extraction first. For classification first, we used classification result as a feature for extraction. Otherwise, for extraction first, we used extraction result as features for classification. We found that the result would be better if we do extraction first before classification. For the extraction task, classification using SMO gave the best result (88.78%), while for classification, it is better to use naïve bayes (82.35%).
Brigden, M L
More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410
Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E.; Demner-Fushman, Dina
We present an approach for manually and automatically classifying the resource type of medical questions. Three types of resources are considered: patient-specific, general knowledge, and research. Using this approach, an automatic question answering system could select the best type of resource from which to consider answers. We first describe our methodology for manually annotating resource type on four different question corpora totaling over 5,000 questions. We then describe our approach for automatically identifying the appropriate type of resource. A supervised machine learning approach is used with lexical, syntactic, semantic, and topic-based feature types. This approach is able to achieve accuracies in the range of 80.9% to 92.8% across four datasets. Finally, we discuss the difficulties encountered in both manual and automatic classification of this challenging task. PMID:28269901
Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E; Demner-Fushman, Dina
We present an approach for manually and automatically classifying the resource type of medical questions. Three types of resources are considered: patient-specific, general knowledge, and research. Using this approach, an automatic question answering system could select the best type of resource from which to consider answers. We first describe our methodology for manually annotating resource type on four different question corpora totaling over 5,000 questions. We then describe our approach for automatically identifying the appropriate type of resource. A supervised machine learning approach is used with lexical, syntactic, semantic, and topic-based feature types. This approach is able to achieve accuracies in the range of 80.9% to 92.8% across four datasets. Finally, we discuss the difficulties encountered in both manual and automatic classification of this challenging task.
Rapid scientific progress in the fields of prenatal diagnostics, obstetrics and neonatology has enabled severe malformations and hereditary diseases to be detected at a very early fetal stage and has also led to the survival of very immature newborn infants in increasing numbers. Parents, doctors and nurses must all participate in the difficult decision making with regard to therapeutic alternatives and due respect must be paid to the intersects of the child, the impact on the family, but also to the professional opinion of the attending doctors and carers. Problems of the ethical limits of prenatal diagnostics, as well as the severity of malformations or organ failure justifying termination of pregnancy or intensive care measures are discussed with reference to clinical cases. Likewise, the question of precedence of the rights of the parents and siblings to quality of life versus the right of the infant to live is broached. From the neonatological point of view candid discussion with the parents, painstaking efforts to build up an atmosphere of confidence and the provision of supportive measures on the one hand, whilst avoiding the expression of dogmatic opinions and patronizing attitudes on the other hand, are essential prerequisites in dealing with the ethical dilemmas arising in the pre- and neonatal management of such cases.
Alexander, John J.
Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)
Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.
Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)
Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.
Meltzer, Edmund S.
In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.
Yildiz, Soner Onder
From the beginning of Turkish Republic till date, Turkish Education System (TES) has been steered by a handful of politicians and civil servants, who enjoy maximum centralized authority. Over the years, therefore, centralized management has repeatedly been blamed for the deadlocks hampering progress in the TES. Turkish scholars often seem to find…
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Interchange on Education, 1984
A panel discusses the importance of mission-oriented research in a university relative to that of curiosity-based research. Discussants include Wes Cragg, John Leyerle, Gordon Slemon, David Olson, Jack Stevenson, and Bob Czerny. (CJB)
White, Marilyn Domas
Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…
Alexander, John J., Ed.
Contains two articles relating to chemistry examination questions. One provides examples of how to sequence multiple choice questions so that partial credit may be given for some responses. The second includes a question and solution dealing with stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisometic substance. (TW)
Alexander, John J., Ed.
Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)
In the article that follows, I take up a debate that has arisen over the past three years concerning the following issue: Does every act of listening involve the listener in questioning? I argue that the answer to the questions is yes. I give background on the question and then consider one instance of listening that may suggest no role for…
Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.
Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…
Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.
Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…
Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet
Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…
Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy
The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…
Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi
This study investigates how different interrogative meanings interact with focus in determining the overall F0 profile of a question. We recorded eight native speakers of Mandarin producing statements, yes-no questions with and without a question particle, wh questions, incredulous questions, and confirmation questions. In each sentence, either the initial, medial, final, or no word was focused. The tonal components of the sentences are all high, all rising, all low, or all falling. F0 contours were extracted by measuring every complete vocal period in the initial, medial, and final disyllabic words in each sentence. Preliminary results show that in both statements and questions, the pitch range of the focused words is expanded and that of the postfocus words suppressed (compressed and lowered). However, postfocus pitch-range suppression seems less extensive in questions than in statements, and in some question types than in others. Finally, an extra F0 rise is often observed in the final syllable of a question unless the syllable is the question particle which has the neutral tone. This is indicative of a high or rising boundary tone associated with the interrogative meaning, which seems to be superimposed on the tone of the sentence-final syllable. [Work supported by NIDCD DC03902.
Hintz, Allison B.
"Strategy sharing" is a certain type of discussion that centers on students' ideas and occurs when children present different approaches to problems and provide information about how they solved the problem (Wood, Williams, and McNeal 2004). A teacher may orchestrate a strategy-sharing discussion to achieve one or more of the…
Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…
Adaptive management, an approach for simultaneously managing and learning about natural resources, has been around for several decades. Interest in adaptive decision making has grown steadily over that time, and by now many in natural resources conservation claim that adaptive management is the approach they use in meeting their resource management responsibilities. Yet there remains considerable ambiguity about what adaptive management actually is, and how it is to be implemented by practitioners. The objective of this paper is to present a framework and conditions for adaptive decision making, and discuss some important challenges in its application. Adaptive management is described as a two-phase process of deliberative and iterative phases, which are implemented sequentially over the timeframe of an application. Key elements, processes, and issues in adaptive decision making are highlighted in terms of this framework. Special emphasis is given to the question of geographic scale, the difficulties presented by non-stationarity, and organizational challenges in implementing adaptive management. ?? 2010.
Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.
Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485
In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…
English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…
Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.
This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to questions via teletype. The book contains one hundred questions typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…
According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…
Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet
Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirÃ©e en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet
This writing looks at an elemental aspect of learning and communication, the question, and contends that questions can be viewed as a technology for education. Questions that we ask in the classroom, online, or in discussion can shape learning and develop skills in students, and they should be more systematically employed in education. This…
Cameron, Kim S.
Organizational adaptation and types of adaptation needed in academe in the future are reviewed and major conceptual approaches to organizational adaptation are presented. The probable environment that institutions will face in the future that will require adaptation is discussed. (MLW)
Liu, Yu; Liu, Xu; Yang, Yi; Sun, Longhe; Liu, Hua
The use of opto-electronic Helmet Mounted Display And Sight System (HMDASS) will decrease responding time for fighter in near distance tussle. See-through type Helmet Mounted Display (HMD), instead of the simple graduation board display, will provide more information and so much as integrate the FLTR image. We research some questions of TFTLCD device in optic- electric HMDASS application, such as luminance, information content & format etc. This paper discuss the luminance question in perspective type LCD-HMD and put forward a display method to increase the reaction velocity for a pilot using opto-electronic Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS).
Michel, Carine; Gaveau, Jérémie; Pozzo, Thierry; Papaxanthis, Charalambos
The prediction of our actions and their interaction with the external environment is critical for sensorimotor adaptation. For instance, during prism exposure, which deviates laterally our visual field, we progressively correct movement errors by combining sensory feedback with forward model sensory predictions. However, very often we project our actions to the external environment without physically interacting with it (e.g., mental actions). An intriguing question is whether adaptation will occur if we imagine, instead of executing, an arm movement while wearing prisms. Here, we investigated prism adaptation during mental actions. In the first experiment, participants (n = 54) performed arm pointing movements before and after exposure to the optical device. They were equally divided into six groups according to prism exposure: Prisms-Active, Prisms-Imagery, Prisms-Stationary, Prisms-Stationary-Attention, No Conflict-Prisms-Imagery, No Prisms-Imagery. Adaptation, measured by the difference in pointing errors between pre-test and post-test, occurred only in Prisms-Active and Prisms-Imagery conditions. The second experiment confirmed the results of the first experiment and further showed that sensorimotor adaptation was mainly due to proprioceptive realignment in both Prisms-Active (n = 10) and Prisms-Imagery (n = 10) groups. In both experiments adaptation was greater following actual than imagined pointing movements. The present results are the first demonstration of prism adaptation by mental practice under prism exposure and they are discussed in terms of internal forward models and sensorimotor plasticity.
Cook, Julian; Jacobs, Neil
This article considers a hypothetical decision by a hypothetical learner about whether or not to participate in an online "discussion", viewed through the lens of risk analysis. It begins with the premise that participation online is desirable but that it involves the participant in risk, a fact that needs to be acknowledged and taken into account…
These answers to frequent questions (FQ) are intended to provide information to recipients of EPA financial assistance to help them understand EPA’s interpretations of the Uniform Grant Guidance (UGG) and EPA’s Subaward Policy.
Alexander, John J.
Provides exam questions and solutions for a problem in amplification sequence of reactions, and a problem in applying group theory techniques and making spectral assignments and structural determination by qualitative arguments in the bonding in metal complexes. (CS)
... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...
... EPA's Interim Health Advisory for Perchlorate in Public Water Systems On January 8, 2009, the Environmental Protection ... thyroid hormone. Questions and Answers about EPA’s Drinking Water Findings If perchlorate is present in my drinking ...
There is a widespread sentiment that panspermia is uninteresting is because it does not answer fundamental questions about the origin of life. The strongest version of panspermia asks entirely new questions. While barriers to the acceptance of panspermia are falling and evidence supporting it is accumulating, the mere possibility of panspermia unhinges the Darwinian account of evolutionary progress. The new theory removes an issue dividing science and religion, but it requires an amendment to the big bang theory.
This paper discusses some important questions to ask an insurance broker regarding liability insurance. The author based these questions on his interviews with Kathryn Hammerback, Craig Hammer, and Mike North: (1) Are centers covered when...?; (2) How can a center director cut costs on this policy?; (3) Is this an "occurrence" or a "claims-made"…
van Zee, Emily; Minstrell, Jim
Analyzes ways in which an experienced physics teacher uses questioning to guide student thinking during a benchmark discussion on measurement. Proposes that teachers may shift toward more reflective discourse by asking questions that help students clarify their meanings, consider various points of view, and monitor their own thinking. (Author/DKM)
This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…
Graen, George B.
Comments on the article by R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman (see record 2006-23492-007) which presented some directions for leadership research. Hackman and Wageman organized their article around their five reject-accept questions suggesting new directions. The current author discusses how each of the questions appears far too timid for real progress…
Whole person adaptive comfort is discussed with reference to recent findings in molecular scale systems biology. The observations are upscaled to hypotheses relating to less traditional interpretations of thermal processes, which have new implications for indoor climate management and design. Arguments are presented for a revision of current focus, model and paradigm. The issue is seen as a problem of integrating theoretical development, conceptual modeling and as an investigation of the extent to which environments and acclimatization can be used to achieve individual fitness and health, not only at the subjective comfort level, as hitherto promoted. It is argued that there are many questions yet to be asked about adaptability before celebrating a particular adaptive state.
Whole person adaptive comfort is discussed with reference to recent findings in molecular scale systems biology. The observations are upscaled to hypotheses relating to less traditional interpretations of thermal processes, which have new implications for indoor climate management and design. Arguments are presented for a revision of current focus, model and paradigm. The issue is seen as a problem of integrating theoretical development, conceptual modeling and as an investigation of the extent to which environments and acclimatization can be used to achieve individual fitness and health, not only at the subjective comfort level, as hitherto promoted. It is argued that there are many questions yet to be asked about adaptability before celebrating a particular adaptive state.
Thomas-MacLean, Roanne; Hamoline, Rita; Quinlan, Elizabeth; Ramsden, Vivian R.; Kuzmicz, Jennifer
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the essential components of a mentorship program as the first step in the ongoing development of a mentorship program for primary care physicians. DESIGN Mixed-methods study. SETTING Saskatchewan. PARTICIPANTS Forty-nine of 170 physicians responded positively to a letter of invitation. Of these, 25 physicians were purposively sampled based on location, sex, and experience. Fourteen participants practised in urban areas and 11 in rural settings; 11 were men and 14 were women; and 10 were junior physicians and 15 were senior. Junior physicians were defined as those who had graduated from medical school after 1995, and senior physicians were those who had graduated before 1980. METHODS This study employed qualitative, in-depth, semistructured interviews. Interview questions, based on an environmental scan, were developed then pilot-tested with a family physician. Interviews lasted approximately 60 minutes and were audiotaped. Digital audio files were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. MAIN FINDINGS Family physicians described positive and negative aspects of mentoring, or having a lack of experience with mentoring. They also outlined key components of a potential mentorship program: matching mentees with mentors; integrating formal and informal mentorship; and the evaluation process of the mentorship relationship and program. CONCLUSION Based on the feedback from family physicians, mentorship is viewed as an important and meaningful program of action that regional health stakeholders and medical educators in Saskatchewan could implement. A pilot test of a mentorship program model will be the culmination of this study. Further research will be undertaken to evaluate the model once it is implemented. This will have important implications for establishing a national mentorship program for family physicians across the country. PMID:20631262
Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min
Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917
Wilen, William W.; Hogg, James
Discussed is the need for teachers to improve their effectiveness in classroom skills such as questioning techniques. An instructor cognitive operation index is presented. For journal availability, see SO 505 192. (Author/DB)
Koegel, Robert; Bradshaw, Jessica; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Koegel, Lynn Kern
Social initiations make up a core deficit for children with autism spectrum disorder. In particular, initiated questions during social interactions are often minimal or absent in this population. In the context of a multiple baseline design, the efficacy of using the motivational procedures of Pivotal Response Treatment to increase social question asking for three young children with autism was assessed. Results indicated that participants initiated a greater number of targeted questions following intervention. Additionally, all children exhibited increases in initiation of untargeted questions during social interaction in novel settings. Furthermore, post intervention data revealed collateral gains in communication and adaptive behavior. Theoretical implications of incorporating motivational strategies into intervention to improve social initiations in young children with ASD are discussed. PMID:24014174
Cultural conditions required for the induction of an adaptive acid-tolerance response (ATR) in Sinorhizobium meliloti and the question as to whether or not the ATR helps rhizobia improve their symbiosis with alfalfa at low pH.
Draghi, Walter O; Del Papa, María Florencia; Pistorio, Mariano; Lozano, Mauricio; de Los Angeles Giusti, María; Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo A; Jofré, Edgardo; Boiardi, José Luis; Lagares, Antonio
Sinorhizobium meliloti associates with Medicago and Melilotus species to develop nitrogen-fixing symbioses. The agricultural relevance of these associations, the worldwide distribution of acid soils, and the remarkable acid sensitivity of the microsymbiont have all stimulated research on the responses of the symbionts to acid environments. We show here that an adaptive acid-tolerance response (ATR) can be induced in S. meliloti, as shown previously for Sinorhizobium medicae, when the bacteria are grown in batch cultures at the slightly acid pH of 6.1. In marked contrast, no increased tolerance to hydrogen ions is obtained if rhizobia are grown in a chemostat under continuous cultivation at the same pH. The adaptive ATR appears as a complex process triggered by an increased hydrogen-ion concentration, but operative only if other--as yet unknown--concomitant factors that depend on the culture conditions are present (although not provided under continuous cultivation). Although the stability of the ATR and its influence on acid tolerance has been characterized in rhizobia, no data have been available on the effect of the adapted state on symbiosis. Coinoculation experiments showed that acid-adapted indicator rhizobia (ATR+) were present in >90% of the nodules when nodulation was performed at pH 5.6, representing a >30% increase in occupancy compared with a control test. We show that the ATR represents a clear advantage in competing for nodulation at low pH. It is not yet clear whether such an effect results from an improved performance in the acid environment during preinfection, an enhanced ability to initiate infections, or both conditions. The practical use of ATR+ rhizobia will depend on validation experiments with soil microcosms and on field testing, as well as on the possibility of preserving the physiology of ATR+ bacteria in inoculant formulations.
The online environment provides benefits and limitations to the scope and implementation of homework questions. In this session we discussed this topic, as well as the methodology used to write effective computer-graded online homework questions, specifically discussing targeted feedback and randomization. I demonstrated a few existing online astronomy questions and then workshop participants worked in groups to write their own questions. We concluded with a discussion of effective strategies for writing online homework questions. We focused on developing and writing questions within an environment that includes randomization and targeted feedback, similar to Sapling Learning, MasteringAstronomy, and WebAssign.
Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Watts, Mike
This article aims to position students' classroom questioning within the literature surrounding affect and its impact on learning. The article consists of two main sections. First, the act of questioning is discussed in order to highlight how affect shapes the process of questioning, and a four-part genesis to question-asking that we call…
Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.
Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.
O'Neil, Robert M.
Beginning this past summer, all new employees at some Ohio public universities, including those accepting teaching positions, are being confronted with politically sensitive and intrusive questions. In addition to the "Have you solicited any individual for membership in an organization on the U.S. Department of State Terrorist…
Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies.
When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a…
Alexander, John J., Ed.
Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)
My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…
Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627
Davies, Ian; Flanagan, Bernie; Hogarth, Sylvia; Mountford, Paula; Philpott, Jenny
We raise questions about young people's participation in light of findings from a project ("Democracy through Citizenship") funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Limited, and managed by the Institute for Citizenship. Following a six-month feasibility study the project took place over a three-year period in one local authority in the…
As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable questions in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…
Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep
Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…
Woodruff, Melba D.
Second language educators need to examine in greater depth the learning processes of young children in order to provide them with the kind of teaching they need in order to really learn. This means searching other fields to learn as much as possible about: questioning strategies and the development of critical thinking skills; hemispheric…
The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…
Hyman, Ronald T.
This study investigates the pattern of teacher questioning regarding three elements: sequence, student respondent, and cognitive process. The rationale for this type of teaching rests on the claims for teaching students the process of critical (reflective) thinking. In this type of teaching it is necessary to have data before the students. Only…
Human memory has been thoroughly studied and modeled in psychology, but mainly in laboratory setting under simplified conditions. For application in practical adaptive educational systems we need simple and robust models which can cope with aspects like varied prior knowledge or multiple-choice questions. We discuss and evaluate several models of…
cymfony.com, firstname.lastname@example.org phone : (716) 565-9114 fax: (716) 565-0308 15 October, 1999 Abstract This paper discusses the use of our information...display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE 19 OCT 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-10-1999 to 00-10-1999 4. TITLE AND...SUBTITLE Information Extraction Supported Question Answering 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT
Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.
The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.
Höhn, Philipp Andres; Wever, Christopher S. P.
We reconstruct the explicit formalism of qubit quantum theory from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S 's state as O 's "catalog of knowledge" about S . From the rules we derive the state spaces for N elementary systems and show that (a) they coincide with the set of density matrices over an N -qubit Hilbert space C2N; (b) states evolve unitarily under the group PSU (2N) according to the von Neumann evolution equation; and (c) O 's binary questions correspond to projective Pauli operator measurements with outcome probabilities given by the Born rule. As a by-product, this results in a propositional formulation of quantum theory. Aside from offering an informational explanation for the theory's architecture, the reconstruction also unravels previously unnoticed structural insights. We show that, in a derived quadratic information measure, (d) qubits satisfy inequalities which bound the information content in any set of mutually complementary questions to 1 bit; and (e) maximal sets of mutually complementary questions for one and two qubits must carry precisely 1 bit of information in pure states. The latter relations constitute conserved informational charges which define the unitary groups and, together with their conservation conditions, the sets of pure quantum states. These results highlight information as a "charge of quantum theory" and the benefits of this informational approach. This work emphasizes the sufficiency of restricting to an observer's information to reconstruct the theory and completes the quantum reconstruction initiated in a companion paper (P. Höhn, arXiv:1412.8323).
Martin, Sara F.
The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?
Wesson, Kenneth A.
Questions current emphasis on standardized tests and discusses several factors about the tests that should prompt reevaluation of their usefulness. Issues discussed include: development and design of standardized tests; the correlation between test scores and socioeconomic position; the discrepancy between test designs and accurate reflection of…
Toledo, Cheri A.
In the online environment, the asynchronous discussion is an important tool for creating community, developing critical thinking skills, and checking for understanding. As students learn how to use Socratic questions for effective interactions, the discussion boards can become the most exciting part of the course. This sequel to the article…
This article discusses the conceptual relationship between questions, curiosity and learning as inquiry elaborated in the work of Chip Bruce and others as the Inquiry Cycle. The Inquiry Cycle describes learning in terms of a continuous dynamic of ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect. Of these elements "ask" has a privileged…
Mannheim, P.D. )
In this work, the authors discuss some outstanding open questions regarding the validity and uniqueness of the standard second-order Newton-Einstein classical gravitational theory. On the observational side the authors discuss the degree to which the realm of validity of Newton's law of gravity can actually be extended to distances much larger than the solar system distance scales on which the law was originally established. On the theoretical side the authors identify some commonly accepted (but actually still open to question) assumptions which go into the formulation of the standard second-order Einstein theory in the first place. In particular, it is shown that while the familiar second-order Poisson gravitational equation (and accordingly its second-order covariant Einstein generalization) may be sufficient to yield Newton's law of gravity they are not in fact necessary. The standard theory thus still awaits the identification of some principle which would then make it necessary too. It is shown that current observational information does not exclusively mandate the standard theory, and that the conformal invariant fourth-order theory of gravity considered recently by Mannheim and Kazanas is also able to meet the constraints of data, and in fact to do so without the need for any so far unobserved nonluminous or dark matter. 37 refs., 7 figs.
Discusses the importance of questioning as a means of achieving independent intelligence, critical thinking, and learning to learn. Advocates a science program that encourages investigation, discovery, and questioning. (MA)
Background: Teachers who work with English as a Second Language (ESL) students, struggle with promoting discussion during guided reading. When ESL students are asked comprehension questions during group discussions and throughout the reading of a book, often teachers receive minimal feedback. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify…
This article examines the acquisition of wh-questions and relative clauses in Sesotho, a language with no wh-movement in either questions or relatives, and in which wh-questions must be clefted. (10 references) (JL)
Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.
Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions…
Smith, Phil Em; Mucklow, John C
Written knowledge assessments for physicians in training typically involve multiple-choice questions that use a clinical scenario in a single-best-answer format. The Royal College of Physicians Part 1 MRCP(UK) examination includes basic sciences themes that are challenging to assess through a clinical scenario. A realistic clinical setting based on everyday clinical practice and integral to the question is the clearest demonstration that the knowledge being assessed is clinically relevant. However, without special attention to detail, the scenario in a clinical science question can appear redundant or artificial. Reading unnecessary material frustrates candidates and threatens the reputation of the assessment. In this paper we discuss why a clinical scenario is important for basic science questions and offer advice on setting realistic and plausible clinical scenarios for such questions.
The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.
Allen, Deborah; Tanner, Kimberly
There are many questions to be asked about the pedagogical practice of questioning. Questions provide insight into what students at any age or grade level already know about a topic, which provides a beginning point for teaching. Questions reveal misconceptions and misunderstandings that must be addressed for teachers to move student thinking…
Anfray, Caroline; Emery, Marie-Pierre; Conway, Katrin; Acquadro, Catherine
The Berne Convention and the national laws on intellectual property fully apply to PRO instruments. The identification of and access to an original PRO instrument is often associated with copyright ownership. This is the copyright holder of the instrument who will control its access (distribution and reproduction), its adaptation or modification, and its translation. Copyright is a means to protect the integrity of an instrument. The ownership of an instrument should be defined in the beginning between all parties involved, and each step of the instrument's life, including distribution, should be anticipated for purpose of copyright.
Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina
We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning-based method specifically for classifying consumer health questions. We demonstrate how previous approaches to medical question classification are insufficient to achieve high accuracy on this task. Additionally, we describe, manually annotate, and automatically classify three important question elements that improve question classification over previous techniques. Our results and analysis illustrate the difficulty of the task and the future directions that are necessary to achieve high-performing consumer health question classification. PMID:25954411
Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez
Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…
Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar
The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we
Center for IDEA Early Childhood Data Systems (DaSy), 2014
This 2014 document is an adaptation of the 2012 release of "Frequently Asked Questions--Disclosure Avoidance" intended for K-12 audiences. Presented here in the form of responses to frequently asked questions (FAQs) are suggestions intended to provide guidance to IDEA Part C early intervention and Part B 619 preschool special education…
In what ways might questioning techniques improve student learning? What kinds of questions enable educators to tap into different parts of the cognitive domain? How can questions engage students when their attention begins to wander? Many questions at the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy--particularly knowledge and comprehension--are closed-ended…
Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose
A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…
Tan, Seng-Chee; Seah, Lay-Hoon
In this study we explored questioning behaviors among elementary students engaging in inquiry science using the "Knowledge Forum", a computer-supported collaborative learning tool. Adapting the theory of systemic functional linguistics, we developed the Ideational Function of Question (IFQ) analytical framework by means of inductive analysis of…
Xin, Yu; Zhao, Dazun; Li, Chen
In the paper, a concept of an adaptation of adaptive optical system (AAOS) is proposed. The AAOS has certain real time optimization ability against the variation of the brightness of detected objects m, atmospheric coherence length rO and atmospheric time constant τ by means of changing subaperture number and diameter, dynamic range, and system's temporal response. The necessity of AAOS using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and some technical approaches are discussed. Scheme and simulation of an AAOS with variable subaperture ability by use of both hardware and software are presented as an example of the system.
Reprinted from the original Russian manuscript of Yakov Zeldovich, this article chronicles his studies of the universe and his attempts to construct a theory of its evolution. He provides the high school student with compelling cosmological discussions about uniformity, galactic clusters, radiation, evolution, the big bang, and gravitational…
McCarty, Teresa L.
This essay is based on a June 2014 interview with Bernard Spolsky, in which he discussed his life with educational linguistics. A self-described "accidental professor," Spolsky directed the first study of Navajo sociolinguistics, established educational linguistics as a field of study and practice, co-created a national language policy…
Porcelli, D; Butlin, R K; Gaston, K J; Joly, D; Snook, R R
Continued and accelerating change in the thermal environment places an ever-greater priority on understanding how organisms are going to respond. The paradigm of ‘move, adapt or die', regarding ways in which organisms can respond to environmental stressors, stimulates intense efforts to predict the future of biodiversity. Assuming that extinction is an unpalatable outcome, researchers have focussed attention on how organisms can shift in their distribution to stay in the same thermal conditions or can stay in the same place by adapting to a changing thermal environment. How likely these respective outcomes might be depends on the answer to a fundamental evolutionary question, namely what genetic changes underpin adaptation to the thermal environment. The increasing access to and decreasing costs of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, which can be applied to both model and non-model systems, provide a much-needed tool for understanding thermal adaptation. Here we consider broadly what is already known from non-NGS studies about thermal adaptation, then discuss the benefits and challenges of different NGS methodologies to add to this knowledge base. We then review published NGS genomics and transcriptomics studies of thermal adaptation to heat stress in metazoans and compare these results with previous non-NGS patterns. We conclude by summarising emerging patterns of genetic response and discussing future directions using these increasingly common techniques. PMID:25735594
van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P. C.
Thirty years ago it was hypothesized that motile processes inject mechanical energy into cochlear traveling waves. This mechanical amplification, alternatively described as negative damping, is invoked to explain both the sensitivity and the nonlinear compression of cochlear responses. There is a recent trend to present cochlear amplification as an established fact, even though the evidence is at most circumstantial and several thorny problems have remained unresolved. We analyze several of these issues, and present new basilar membrane recordings that allowed us to quantify cochlear energy flow. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) Does auditory sensitivity require narrowband amplification? (2) Has the "RC problem" (lowpass filtering of outer hair cell receptor potential) been resolved? (3) Can OHC motility improve auditory sensitivity? (4) Is there a net power gain between neighboring locations on the basilar membrane? The analyses indicate that mechanical amplification in the cochlea is neither necessary nor useful, and that realizing it by known forms of motility would reduce sensitivity rather than enhance it. Finally, our experimental data show that the peaking of the traveling wave is realized by focusing the acoustic energy rather than amplifying it. (Abbreviations. BM: basilar membrane; CF: characteristic frequency; IHC: inner hair cell; ME: middle ear; MT; mechanotransducer; OHC: outer hair cell; SPL: sound pressure level.)
Primack, J R; Abrams, N E
This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle.
Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Veasey, John Verrinder; Lellis, Rute Facchini
Ross syndrome is a rare disease characterized by peripheral nervous system dysautonomia with selective degeneration of cholinergic fibers. It is composed by the triad of unilateral or bilateral segmental anhidrosis, deep hyporeflexia and Holmes-Adie's tonic pupil. The presence of compensatory sweating is frequent, usually the symptom that most afflicts patients. The aspects of the syndrome are put to discussion due to the case of a male patient, caucasian, 47 years old, with clinical onset of 25 years. PMID:26982793
Poole, Gary; Poole, Scott
Intended for language arts teachers of the upper elementary grades, this guide suggests vocabulary and discussion questions for teaching novels. The questions are on an inferential level of interpretation, rather than literal, and address such topics as style, technique, and plot development. Novels for which questions are provided are: (1)…
Sanchez, Wendy B.
Open-ended questions, as discussed in this article, are questions that can be solved or explained in a variety of ways, that focus on conceptual aspects of mathematics, and that have the potential to expose students' understanding and misconceptions. When working with teachers who are using open-ended questions with their students for the…
Kumar, K. Magesh; Valarmathie, P.
Multimedia question answering systems have become very popular over the past few years. It allows users to share their thoughts by answering a given question or obtain information from a set of answered questions. However, existing QA systems support only textual answer which is not so instructive for many users. The user's discussion can be…
Su, Lei; Hu, Zuoliang; Yang, Bin; Li, Yiyang; Chen, Jun
An increasingly popular method for retrieving information is via the community question answering (CQA) systems such as Yahoo! Answers and Baidu Knows. In CQA, question classification plays an important role to find the answers. However, the labeled training examples for statistical question classifier are fairly expensive to obtain, as they require the experienced human efforts. Meanwhile, unlabeled data are readily available. This paper employs the method of domain adaptation via kernel mapping to solve this problem. In detail, the kernel approach is utilized to map the target-domain data and the source-domain data into a common space, where the question classifiers are trained under the closer conditional probabilities. The kernel mapping function is constructed by domain knowledge. Therefore, domain knowledge could be transferred from the labeled examples in the source domain to the unlabeled ones in the targeted domain. The statistical training model can be improved by using a large number of unlabeled data. Meanwhile, the Hadoop Platform is used to construct the mapping mechanism to reduce the time complexity. Map/Reduce enable kernel mapping for domain adaptation in parallel in the Hadoop Platform. Experimental results show that the accuracy of question classification could be improved by the method of kernel mapping. Furthermore, the parallel method in the Hadoop Platform could effective schedule the computing resources to reduce the running time.
Provides research-based answers to questions commonly posed by educators, parents, and others about the philosophy, methods, and impact of school sexual health education, discussing such issues as: whether these school programs are needed, what values they teach, whether the programs should teach about sexual orientation and abstinence, and…
Questions to a legal expert discuss athletes' right to sue for injuries occurring in inherently dangerous sports. Proposed legislation could establish that injuries are assumed to have occurred from inherent risks, unless it can be proved that they occurred from defendant negligence. (SM)
This article discusses the Equal Access Act (EAA) as it pertains to high-school student clubs. It raises basics questions about EAA: What does "equal" mean? What level of access is required? Does the First Amendment's free-speech clause offer broader protection to student clubs than the EAA? (WFA)
Question and answer column about the CD ROM medium discusses: (1) optical storage devices available; (2) language teaching applications; (3) types of courseware available; (4) costs to hook up a CD ROM drive as a peripheral to an existing system; (5) how to go about developing and mastering a disk; and (6) mastering and replication costs.…
In this commentary, differences between feature re-assembly and feature selection are discussed. Lardiere's proposals are compared to existing approaches to grammatical features in second language (L2) acquisition. Questions are raised about the predictive power of the feature re-assembly approach. (Contains 1 footnote.)
Lipski, John M.
The preposing of subject pronouns in questions containing an interrogative word has become common in several Caribbean countries. Use of preposing with "tu,""usted" and "ustedes" is discussed, including its relation to final "s" aspirated or dropped, preservation of morphological oppositions, and increased use of subject pronouns. (CHK)
Induru, Raghava R; Lagman, Ruth L
For a variety of reasons, cancer pain is often undertreated, adversely affecting the quality of life for patients and caregivers. To manage cancer pain effectively, physicians need to understand its pathogenesis, how to assess it, how to treat it, and, in particular, how to optimize opioid treatment. We discuss common questions faced by physicians in everyday practice.
This paper evaluates five polling resource: iPOLL, Polling the Nations, Gallup Brain, Public Opinion Poll Question Database, and Polls and Surveys. Content was evaluated on disclosure standards from major polling organizations, scope on a model for public opinion polls, and presentation on a flow chart discussing search limitations and usability.
Dwyer, Francis; Li, Ning
Discussion of the development of distance education for instruction and training due to new technologies and software focuses on questions that need to be asked to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Highlights include institutional and organizational concerns; content design analyses; development issues; implementation; evaluation; management…
Jorgensen, Estelle R.
In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…
Teachers often tell their classes that "there is no such thing as a stupid question." But this is not completely honest. Questions aren't asked in a vacuum; their intelligence or stupidity depends on a variety of contextual variables. The ideal question is the right one, posed to the right source in the right way at the right time for the right…
This article looks at the practice of educational questioning using the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. It first looks at questions and statements from a hermeneutic perspective, demonstrating some of the differences and similarities between the two. It then details Gadamer's notion of the "true question", asking whether it is…
Finkelstein, Judith M.; Ritter, Virginia F.
The purpose of this study was to determine if answering a child's question with a question produces further analytical questioning by the child. A sample of 80 children in nursery-kindergarten, first, second and third grades (ages ranging from 4-9 years) were divided into two groups. An abstract painting by Kandinsky was shown individually to each…
Carver, Priscilla R.; Egan, Susan K.; Perry, David G.
Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults report a period of childhood sexual questioning--an uneasy questioning of their heterosexuality brought on by same-sex attractions and motivating same-sex sexual exploration. This article evaluates hypotheses about the correlates, causes, and consequences of childhood sexual questioning. Participants were 182…
Graesser, Arthur C.
The development and testing of QUEST, a model of human question answering, are reported. QUEST accounts for answers adults produce for different categories of open-class questions, identifying the information sources associated with the content words in questions. Each information source is organized in a conceptual graph structure. The model…
Chouinard, Michael M
further suggest that tapping into existing conceptual knowledge to help process a current situation, and use that knowledge to generate appropriate questions, is an integral part of question asking. Together, the results of these four studies support the existence of the IRM as a way for children to learn about the world. Children ask information-seeking questions that are related in topic and structure to their cognitive development. Parents give answers to these questions, but when they do not, the children persist in asking for the information, suggesting that the goal of this behavior is to recruit needed information. The content of these questions shifts within exchanges and over the course of development in ways that reflect concept building. Finally, children generate questions efficiently in order to gather needed information, and then are able to use this information productively; they tap into their existing conceptual knowledge in order to do this. Thus, the ability to ask questions is a powerful tool that allows children to gather information they need in order to learn about the world and solve problems in it. Implications of this model for cognitive development are discussed.
Interchange (Population Education Newsletter), 1982
This issue of "Interchange" contains a reading, discussion questions, activities, and ideas to help educators teach secondary students and adults about immigration issues. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading entitled "Immigration: Questions and Answers." This reading analyzes the concerns about current levels of immigration and…
Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day
The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…
The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.
Cifuentes, Marta; Grandont, Laurie; Moore, Graham; Chèvre, Anne Marie; Jenczewski, Eric
Precise chromosome segregation is vital for polyploid speciation. Here, we highlight recent findings that revitalize the old question of the genetic control of diploid-like meiosis behaviour in polyploid species. We first review new information on the genetic control of autopolyploid and allopolyploid cytological diploidization, notably in wheat and Brassica. These major advances provide new opportunities for speculating about the adaptation of meiosis during polyploid evolution. Some of these advances are discussed, and it is suggested that research on polyploidy and on meiosis should no longer be unlinked.
Qureshi, S. U. H.
Theoretical work which has been effective in improving data transmission by telephone and radio links using adaptive equalization (AE) techniques is reviewed. AE has been applied to reducing the temporal dispersion effects, such as intersymbol interference, caused by the channel accessed. Attention is given to the Nyquist telegraph transmission theory, least mean square error adaptive filtering and the theory and structure of linear receive and transmit filters for reducing error. Optimum nonlinear receiver structures are discussed in terms of optimality criteria as a function of error probability. A suboptimum receiver structure is explored in the form of a decision-feedback equalizer. Consideration is also given to quadrature amplitude modulation and transversal equalization for receivers.
Desender, Kobe; Van den Bussche, Eva
Facing response conflict, subjects try to improve their responses by reducing the influence of the detrimental information which caused the conflict. It was speculated that this adaptation to conflict can only occur when the conflicting information is consciously perceived. In this review we give an overview of the research looking at the possibility of unconscious stimuli to provoke this conflict adaptation. In a first part we discuss adaptation to conflict on a trial-by-trial basis. When the previous trial contained conflicting information, subjects will adapt to this by reducing the influence of the conflicting information on the current trial. However, the interesting question is whether this is also possible when the conflicting information remains unconscious. In a second part we will discuss blockwise adaptation to conflict. If conflict is very frequent, subjects will adapt to this by reducing the conflicting information sustainably. Again the question is whether this is possible when the conflict was never experienced consciously. In a third part we will discuss the neural basis of conscious and unconscious conflict adaptation. We will critically discuss the research on these topics and highlight strengths and weaknesses of the used paradigms. Finally, we will give some suggestions how future research can be more conclusive in this respect. PMID:22347176
Drolet, Leon L., Jr.
Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)
Vacc, Nancy Nesbitt
Encourages teachers to allow students to engage in conversation and discuss what they do and do not understand. Discusses different types of questions found in classroom instruction: factual questions, reasoning questions, and open questions. To promote communication, teachers must change their beliefs about instruction. (PDD)
Brank, Eve; Wylie, Lindsey
Research consistently demonstrates the benefits of employing classroom discussions; however, there has been less attention given to teaching students about discussions. The current research compared 2 advanced social psychology courses: 1 without (control) and 1 with (experimental) a week devoted to learning about and discussing discussions.…
Kim, Hoe Kyeung; Bateman, Betzi
The purpose of this article was to explore student participation patterns in online discussion boards related to their characteristics and question types. The characteristics of students enrolled in an online course and the impact of types of discussion questions on student posts were examined. During the 16 weeks of a course, the participation…
On the verge of signing a contract to help design assessments for the common standards, ACT Inc. has withdrawn from the project amid conflict-of-interest questions sparked by its own development of a similar suite of tests. Even though it involves only a small subcontract, the move by the Iowa-based test-maker, and the questions from the state…
Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…
Sloan, Jamee Reid
This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…
Liu, Feifan; Antieau, Lamont D.; Yu, Hong
Objective Both healthcare professionals and healthcare consumers have information needs that can be met through the use of computers, specifically via medical question answering systems. However, the information needs of both groups are different in terms of literacy levels and technical expertise, and an effective question answering system must be able to account for these differences if it is to formulate the most relevant responses for users from each group. In this paper, we propose that a first step toward answering the queries of different users is automatically classifying questions according to whether they were asked by healthcare professionals or consumers. Design We obtained two sets of consumer questions (~10,000 questions in total) from Yahoo answers. The professional questions consist of two question collections: 4654 point-of-care questions (denoted as PointCare) obtained from interviews of a group of family doctors following patient visits and 5378 questions from physician practices through professional online services (denoted as OnlinePractice). With more than 20,000 questions combined, we developed supervised machine-learning models for automatic classification between consumer questions and professional questions. To evaluate the robustness of our models, we tested the model that was trained on the Consumer-PointCare dataset on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. We evaluated both linguistic features and statistical features and examined how the characteristics in two different types of professional questions (PointCare vs. OnlinePractice) may affect the classification performance. We explored information gain for feature reduction and the back-off linguistic category features. Results 10-fold cross-validation results showed the best F1-measure of 0.936 and 0.946 on Consumer-PointCare and Consumer-OnlinePractice respectively, and the best F1-measure of 0.891 when testing the Consumer-PointCare model on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset
Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.
Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399
In this article, the author offers a discussion technique: the twice-around. A variant on the circular response discussion, the twice-around engages students by beginning with students' questions, ensuring equal time for all participants and inviting discussants to build on previous contributions. In the twice-around, participants sit in a circle,…
participation in TREC, we submitted a single run using a hybrid Natural Language Processing ( NLP )-driven approach to accomplish the given task. Evaluation re...for the CDS track uses a variety of NLP - based techniques to address the clinical questions provided. We present a description of our approach, and...discuss our experimental setup, results and eval- uation in the subsequent sections. 2 Description of Our Approach Our hybrid NLP -driven method presents a
Bouwer, Laurens M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H
This paper examines the topic of financing adaptation in future climate change policies. A major question is whether adaptation in developing countries should be financed under the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or whether funding should come from other sources. We present an overview of financial resources and propose the employment of a two-track approach: one track that attempts to secure climate change adaptation funding under the UNFCCC; and a second track that improves mainstreaming of climate risk management in development efforts. Developed countries would need to demonstrate much greater commitment to the funding of adaptation measures if the UNFCCC were to cover a substantial part of the costs. The mainstreaming of climate change adaptation could follow a risk management path, particularly in relation to disaster risk reduction. 'Climate-proofing' of development projects that currently do not consider climate and weather risks could improve their sustainability.
Assuming that the issue of same-sex marriage should be discussed in schools, how should the discussion be framed? Michael Hand first distinguishes this question from the related but distinct question of whether discussion on this topic should be steered. He then examines three possible frames for discussion of same-sex marriage: the perfectionist…
Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting
Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.
Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting
Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:23805178
Scarth, John; And Others
Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…
Safety and oxygenate operations made HF alkylation a hot topic of discussion at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association annual question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology. This paper provides answers to a variety of questions regarding the mechanical, process, and safety aspects of the HF alkylation process. Among the issues discussed were mitigation techniques, removal of oxygenates from alkylation unit feed, and amylene alkylation.
Over the past 20 years, focus groups have become increasingly popular with nursing researchers as a data collection method, as has the use of computer-based technologies to support all forms of nursing research. This article describes the conduct of a series of focus groups in which the participants were in the same room as part of a "real-time" discussion during which they also used personal computers as an interface between each other and the moderator. Synchronous Computer Mediated Group Discussion differed from other forms of focus group discussion in that participants used personal computers rather than verbal expressions to respond to specific questions, engage in communication with other participants, and to record their thoughts. This form of focus group maintained many of the features of spoken exchanges, a cornerstone of the focus group, while capturing the advantages of online discussion.
Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.
Mather, John C.
John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.
General Questions and Answers Concerning Confidential Business Information (CBI) Provisions of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), as amended by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act
Observations of X-ray emission -- a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields -- from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526
... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...
Frequent questions such as Who is affected by the universal waste regulations? What is “mercury-containing equipment”? How are waste batteries managed under universal waste? How are waste pesticides managed under universal waste?
Matsumura, Naohiro; Kawahara, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masashi; Kurohashi, Sadao; Nishida, Toyoaki
To overcome the limitation of conventional text-mining approaches in which frequent patterns of word occurrences are to be extracted to understand obvious user needs, this paper proposes an approach to extracting questions behind messages to understand potential user needs. We first extract characteristic case frames by comparing the case frames constructed from target messages with the ones from 25M sentences in the Web and 20M sentences in newspaper articles of 20 years. Then we extract questions behind messages by transforming the characteristic case frames into interrogative sentences based on new information and old information, i.e., replacing new information with WH-question words. The proposed approach is, in other words, a kind of classification of word occurrence pattern. Qualitative evaluations of our preliminary experiments suggest that extracted questions show problem consciousness and alternative solutions -- all of which help to understand potential user needs.
Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy
It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…
When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then
Curtis, Jim; Graham, Alex; Ghafoori, Eraj; Pyke, Susan; Kaufman, Stefan; Boulet, Mark
Interim evaluations of government programs can sometimes reveal lower than expected outcomes, leading to the question of how adjustments can be made while the program is still underway. Although adaptive management frameworks can provide a practical roadmap to address this question, a lack of successful learnings and poor implementation have hampered the progress and wider application of adaptive management. Using a case study involving an energy efficiency government program targeting low-income households, this article provides supporting evidence on how adaptive management can be facilitated and applied. Factors such as proactive and responsive leadership, establishing a research-practice interface, and recognizing the skills, expertise, and contributions of multiple stakeholders guided adjustments to the program, and later paved the way for longer-term organizational learning that impacted how other programs are delivered. Implications for knowledge and practice, and a discussion of the challenges faced in the program, advance current thinking in adaptive management.
Brodsky, Stanley L; Titcomb, Caroline; Sams, David M; Dickson, Kara; Benda, Yves
Professor John Henry Wigmore in 1940 described the hypothetical question as an intolerable obstruction of truth. Since that time, the nature and application of the hypothetical question in the courtroom, as well as responses to this line of questioning during expert testimony, have been sources of controversy. Governed by legal philosophical foundations, the hypothetical construct addresses what there is, in a general sense, and what can or ought to be. Alexy (2004) has described the nature of legal philosophy as the epistemological question of what we can know. This article begins by examining the philosophical underpinnings, legal parameters, and teaching purposes of posing hypothetical queries. A social-psychological backdrop for the use of hypothetical questions is then discussed followed by a broader discussion of the hypothetical question's role in court procedures. This paper identifies hypothetical questions used in court as devices to elicit information, or as predictions that potentially change underlying factual interpretations of evidence. In particular, on cross examination hypothetical questions seek to make opposing experts assume facts that are incongruent with their conclusions or opinions. Sometimes in these situations, experts are led to re-evaluate opinions based on alternative understandings of events and behaviors. Thus, this paper's final aim is to explore a foundational understanding of hypothetical questions asked of expert witnesses with special reference to mental health issues. Options for responding to hypothetical questions on the stand are considered along the dimensions of assertiveness-passivity, compliance-resistance, and possible redefinitions of the hypothetical issues.
Apple, Michael W.
Among the most important questions critical educators can ask today are the following: Can schools play a role in making a more just society possible? If not, why not? If so, what can they do? These questions provide the basis for this article by Michael Apple, as well as for the books under discussion here. The books by David Blacker, John Marsh,…
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.
This booklet on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) attempts to provide an overview of the FBI's functions. Presented in a question and answer format, the 99 questions and answers discuss the federal government agency's history, administrative matters, jurisdiction, criminal investigations, security matters, foreign counter-intelligence, and…
Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk
Provides results from a study that examined queries in question format submitted to two Web search engines, Ask Jeeves and Excite. Identifies four types of user Web queries: keyword, Boolean, question, and request; discusses implications for Web search services; and suggests further research needs. (Author/LRW)
Pedrosa De Jesus, Helena; Almeida, Patricia; Watts, Mike
A study of the relationships between students' questioning and learning styles is being conducted on data collected in two university semesters with a sample of 300 students. This report discusses the results of case studies looking in depth at four of the students. These were involved in further data collection through written and oral questions,…
Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan
This study explores how student-generated questions can support argumentation in science. Students were asked to discuss which of two graphs showing the change in temperature with time when ice is heated to steam was correct. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years, from two countries, first wrote questions about the phenomenon. Then, working…
Gullo, Dominic F.; Hughes, Kim
Part II of "Reclaiming Kindergarten" continues the discussion related to responding to the crisis in today's kindergarten. In Part II, two policy questions are posed, the answers to which seek to respond to this continuing crisis. The questions center on issues related to engaging families in kindergarten and the need to consider a new early…
Bishop, Bradley Wade
The purpose of this article is to explore location-based questions as a weakness of virtual reference consortia and discuss how to mitigate related issues. Content analysis of how both local and non-local academic librarians responded to location-based questions provides insight into considerations academic libraries must make when participating…
Hall, Richard; Winn, Joss
This article considers the impact that peak oil and climate change may have on the future of higher education. In particular, it questions the role of technology in supporting the provision of a higher education which is resilient to a scenario both of energy depletion and the need to adapt to the effects of global warming. One emerging area of…
Perunov, Nikolay; Marsland, Robert A.; England, Jeremy L.
Whether by virtue of being prepared in a slowly relaxing, high-free energy initial condition, or because they are constantly dissipating energy absorbed from a strong external drive, many systems subject to thermal fluctuations are not expected to behave in the way they would at thermal equilibrium. Rather, the probability of finding such a system in a given microscopic arrangement may deviate strongly from the Boltzmann distribution, raising the question of whether thermodynamics still has anything to tell us about which arrangements are the most likely to be observed. In this work, we build on past results governing nonequilibrium thermodynamics and define a generalized Helmholtz free energy that exactly delineates the various factors that quantitatively contribute to the relative probabilities of different outcomes in far-from-equilibrium stochastic dynamics. By applying this expression to the analysis of two examples—namely, a particle hopping in an oscillating energy landscape and a population composed of two types of exponentially growing self-replicators—we illustrate a simple relationship between outcome-likelihood and dissipative history. In closing, we discuss the possible relevance of such a thermodynamic principle for our understanding of self-organization in complex systems, paying particular attention to a possible analogy to the way evolutionary adaptations emerge in living things.
van Zee, Emily H.; Iwasyk, Marletta; Kurose, Akiko; Simpson, Dorothy; Wild, Judy
Summarizes case studies developed by a group of collaborating educators. Investigates ways of speaking that encourage students to formulate insightful questions about science topics and express their own ideas during reflective discussions. (Contains 68 references.) (Author/YDS)
Reed, Jack R., Jr.
Legal problems concerned with shoplifting suspects are addressed, including common law, criminal penalties, and the merchant's liability. Tangential questions and answers are presented along with discussion of pertinent court cases. (LBH)
Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan
With the advent of sophisticated space facilities we discuss the overall nature of some biological questions that can be addressed. We point out the need for broad participation by the biological community, the necessary facilities, and some unique requirements.
Evans, G.W. Jacobs, S.V.; Frager, N.B.
This study examined the health effects of human adaptation to photochemical smog. A group of recent arrivals to the Los Angeles air basin were compared to long-term residents of the basin. Evidence for adaptation included greater irritation and respiratory problems among the recent arrivals and desensitization among the long-term residents in their judgments of the severity of the smog problem to their health. There was no evidence for biochemical adaptation as measured by hemoglobin response to oxidant challenge. The results were discussed in terms of psychological adaption to chronic environmental stressors.
Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.
Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.
When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to
Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip
In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the “teaching games for understanding” (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches’ learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580
Vasko, Francis J.
Since 1986, Marilyn Vos Savant, who is listed in the Guinness Book of World Records Hall of Fame for the highest IQ, has had a weekly column that is published in Parade Magazine. In this column, she answers readers' questions on a wide variety of subjects including mathematics and particularly probability. Many of the mathematically oriented questions are directly relevant to high school and undergraduate college level mathematics courses. For nearly 20 years, I have incorporated many of these questions into a variety of mathematics courses that I teach. In this note, I will discuss some of the questions that I use dealing with probability.
Calcerrada, Matías; García-Ruiz, Carmen
During the last years (2000-2014), many publications concerning the forensic analysis of questioned documents have been published, and new techniques and methodologies are nowadays employed to overcome forensic caseworks. This article reviews a comprehensive collection of the works focused on this issue, including dating studies, the analysis of inks from pens and printers, the analysis of paper, the analysis of other samples related to questioned documents and studies on intersecting lines. These sections highlight the most relevant analytical studies by a wide range of analytical techniques. Separation and spectrometric techniques are critically discussed and compared, emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Finally, concluding remarks on the research published are included.
Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia
Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.
Diamond, Lisa M
In this article I discuss three questions that should be priorities for future research on lesbian love and relationships. The first question concerns the very definition of "lesbian relationship," given how many women may be engaged in same-sex relationships without identifying as lesbian. The second question concerns the potential influence of childhood neglect and abuse on adult women's same-sex relationships, a topic that has important implications for both psychological well-being and relationship functioning. The third question concerns the potential downsides of legal marriage for women's same-sex relationships, a topic that is particularly important in light of the newfound legal recognition of same-sex marriage in all 50 states. Although there are many understudied questions in the domain of women's same-sex relationships, research on these three questions has particularly strong potential to advance our understanding of lesbian love and relationships in important ways.
Truelove, Jacob C.; Saville, Bryan K.; Van Patten, Ryan
Researchers have yet to examine whether discussion group size affects student performance in an interteaching-based course. In the current study, we addressed this question by manipulating discussion group size (smaller groups of 2 students vs. larger groups of 4 students) across 2 sections of an undergraduate psychology course. We found no…
This article shares an approach to teaching mathematics teacher education courses incorporating asynchronous online discussions. Specifically, this research is guided by the following research questions: (a) How would online discussions contribute or hinder teachers' learning in mathematics methods courses? and (b) What pedagogical strategies need…
Quo Vadis? Here is the opportunity to ask panel members your questions: seek a forecast of current trends, where are we going as a collection of physicists in a wide variety of employment settings? What is the likelihood of remaining cohesive as those schooled in the fundamentals of physics? How might we better foster collaboration, with the disparate agendas of academia, government and commerce? Come with your questions, and share in this unique opportunity to quiz the experts.
Rowland, Caroline F.
The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…
Felton, Randall G.; Allen, Rodney F.
This exercise shows how to turn the expository treatment of a topic or event into a mystery or puzzling situation that students are asked to solve. Once a puzzle is presented, students may pose only questions that can be answered yes or no. Three sample lessons are included to illustrate the process. (JDH)
Abilock, Debbie, Ed.
One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…
answer clustering, composition, and scoring. Moreover, with the effort dedicated to improving monolingual system performance, system parameters are...text collections: document type, manual or automatic annotations (if any), and stylistic and notational differences in technical terms. Monolingual ...forum in which cross language retrieval systems and question answering systems are tested for various Eu- ropean languages. The CLEF QA monolingual task
Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…
Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…
In this article, veteran educator Otis Kriegel provides eight questions that teachers can ask themselves as they create or tweak lesson plans. With practical, straightforward advice, Kriegel suggests that teachers be mindful of who their audience is, how much students already know, and what materials they'll need. He also urges teachers to…
Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne
"Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…
Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.
This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as…
Beechie, T. J.; Snover, A. K.
Natural resource managers often ask scientists to answer questions that cannot be answered, and scientists commonly offer research that is not useful to managers. To produce management-relevant science, managers and scientists must communicate clearly to identify research that is scientifically doable and will produce results that managers find useful. Scientists might also consider that journals with high impact scores are rarely used by managers, while managers might consider that publishing in top tier journals is important to maintain scientific credentials. We offer examples from climate change and river restoration research, in which agency scientists and managers worked together to identify key management questions that scientists could answer and which could inform management. In our first example, we describe how climate scientists worked with agency staff to develop guidance for selecting appropriate climate change scenarios for use in ecological impacts assessments and Endangered Species Act decision making. Within NOAA Fisheries, agency researchers provide science to guide agency managers, and a key question has been how to adapt river restoration efforts for climate change. Based on discussions with restoration practitioners and agency staff, we developed adaptation guidance that summarizes current science to lead managers to develop climate-resilient restoration plans, as well as maps of population vulnerability for endangered steelhead. From these experiences we have learned that collaborative definition of relevant and producible knowledge requires (1) iterative discussions that go beyond simply asking managers what they need or scientists what they can produce, and (2) candid conversation about the intended applications and potential limitations of the knowledge.
Experiencing and the significance of menstruation could possibly be a decisive factor in your physiology or pathologic physiology, in accordance with blood flow disturbance or endometriosis. Menstruation is a systemic, characteristic experience. Evolution, family, culture, community, media, health service and even the economy have an influence on the "period system". Damage and use, sense and the nonsensical of regular bleeding stand to the test. The cycle comes under increasing "pressure" and is no longer in "rhythm". Counter regulation, through regulation of the period seems to prevent the personal, community and health-wise restrictions. The price for this is unknown. Clearly, there is no longer a path between a natural, relaxed acceptance of and an artificial abolition of blood flow. The question of direction is posed in the menarche. This question remains unanswered even in our time.
Chou, Chih-Yueh; Lin, Pin-Hsun
Peer instruction (PI) involves students answering questions and peer discussion learning activities. PI can enhance student performance and engagement in classroom instruction. However, some students do not engage in the discussions. This study proposes two mechanisms, discussion partner assignment and accountability scoring mechanisms, to form…
Rouw, Romke; Ridderinkhof, K Richard
This discussion paper forms an insightful addition to the synesthesia literature. Accompanying a steep increase in recent publications on synesthesia, it helps remedy the conspicuous paucity of mechanistic process models explaining the condition. The paper furthermore addresses what is arguably among the most interesting questions: Why do most synesthetes *not* get confused by their additional sensations? This is particularly interesting when phrased in a broader context: What are the mechanisms for deciding which of the sensations we experience reflect something "real" (phenomena in the outside world) and which reflect something that is "not real" (internally generated and private phenomena).
Devitt, John; Loader, Pete
The impression given in some textbooks is that a landslide can be generated by increasing the weight of an unstable block or adding water to a potential slip plane. This demonstration, which might easily be adapted as a student investigation in physics at advanced level, was an attempt to rectify such oversimplifications and explain to students…
Yunus, Ibrahim; Dilts, Russ
Discussion starters, the result of collaboration between the Indonesian Directorate General of Nonformal Education, Youth, and Sports, and World Education, Inc., are simple learning tools used to generate discussion among community groups involved in nonformal education. Appropriate in and adaptable to a variety of settings, content areas, and…
Webster, Michael A.
Sensory systems continuously mold themselves to the widely varying contexts in which they must operate. Studies of these adaptations have played a long and central role in vision science. In part this is because the specific adaptations remain a powerful tool for dissecting vision, by exposing the mechanisms that are adapting. That is, “if it adapts, it's there.” Many insights about vision have come from using adaptation in this way, as a method. A second important trend has been the realization that the processes of adaptation are themselves essential to how vision works, and thus are likely to operate at all levels. That is, “if it's there, it adapts.” This has focused interest on the mechanisms of adaptation as the target rather than the probe. Together both approaches have led to an emerging insight of adaptation as a fundamental and ubiquitous coding strategy impacting all aspects of how we see. PMID:26858985
Golde, Todd E
Perhaps more definitively than any other class of novel Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy, pre-clinical studies in mouse models of amyloid β (Aβ) deposition have established the disease-modifying potential of anti-Aβ immunotherapy. Despite disappointing results to date from anti-Aβ immunotherapy therapeutic trials, there is continued hope that such immunotherapies, especially if used in the preclinical stages, could prove to be the first disease-modifying therapies available for AD. The general optimism that Aβ-targeting and emerging tau-targeting immunotherapies may prove to be disease modifying is tempered by many unanswered questions regarding these therapeutic approaches, including but not limited to i) lack of precise understanding of mechanisms of action, ii) the factors that regulate antibody exposure in the brain, iii) the optimal target epitope, and iv) the mechanisms underlying side effects. In this review I discuss how answering these and other questions could increase the likelihood of therapeutic success. As passive immunotherapies are also likely to be extremely expensive, I also raise questions relating to cost-benefit of biologic-based therapies for AD that could limit future impact of these therapies by limiting access due to economic constraints.
Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim
Discusses newsgroups, listservs, and Web-based discussion groups. Highlights include major categories of international USENET discussion groups; newsgroups versus mailing lists; newsreaders; news servers; newsgroup subscriptions; newsgroups versus Web discussion groups; linking newsgroups, mailing lists, and the Web; and setting up a news host. A…
Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.
Brualdi, Amy C.
Questioning is one of the most popular modes of teaching, but it has the capacity to turn a child off to learning if done incorrectly. This digest provides teachers with information on the types of questions and questioning behaviors that can facilitate the learning process and on the types of questions that are ineffective. Good questions foster…
Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...
The seasonal human influenza A virus undergoes rapid genome evolution. This process is triggered by interactions with the host immune system and produces significant year-to-year sequence turnover in the population of circulating viral strains. We develop a dynamical fitness model that predicts the evolution of the viral population from one year to the next. Two factors are shown to determine the fitness of a viral strain: adaptive changes, which are under positive selection, and deleterious mutations, which affect conserved viral functions such as protein stability. Combined with the influenza strain tree, this fitness model maps the adaptive history of influenza A. We discuss the implications of our results for the statistical theory of adaptive evolution in asexual populations. Based on this and related systems, we touch upon the fundamental question of when evolution can be predicted. Joint work with Marta Luksza, Columbia University.
Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem
Since the first demonstration that CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against phages and plasmids, numerous studies have yielded key insights into the molecular mechanisms governing how these systems attack and degrade foreign DNA. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation stage, in which new immunological memory is formed, have until recently represented a major unresolved question. In this Progress article, we discuss recent discoveries that have shown both how foreign DNA is identified by the CRISPR-Cas adaptation machinery and the molecular basis for its integration into the chromosome to form an immunological memory. Furthermore, we describe the roles of each of the specific CRISPR-Cas components that are involved in memory formation, and consider current models for their evolutionary origin.
Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang
Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from one natural sign language to another. Two tests which have been adapted for several other sign languages are focused upon: the Test for American Sign Language and the British Sign Language Receptive Skills Test. A brief description is given of each test as well as insights from ongoing adaptations of these tests for other sign languages. The problems reported in these adaptations were found to be grounded in linguistic and cultural differences, which need to be considered for future test adaptations. Other reported shortcomings of test adaptation are related to the question of how well psychometric measures transfer from one instrument to another.
Barber, M E; Marzuk, P M; Leon, A C; Portera, L
Gate questions are commonly used to shorten structured interviews, by not probing negative responses with more detailed questions. This study quantified cases of aborted suicide attempts that would have been missed, if we had skipped detailed questions following a gate. To accomplish this, we interviewed a random sample of 135 adult psychiatric inpatients concerning their past suicidal behavior. Using our structured interview, subjects were asked a general question about aborted suicide attempts, and then asked method-specific questions regardless of their response to the general "gate" question. Of the seventy subjects who were found to have histories of aborted attempts, 44.3% answered "no" to the gate question. Comparing these "false negative" subjects to "true positives," who had answered "yes" to the gate question and reported bona fide aborted attempts yielded no significant associations with demographics, psychiatric diagnoses, or reported histories of actual suicide attempts. Thus, a large number of subjects with aborted attempts would have been missed if a negative response to the gate question had not been probed. Clinical and reasearch implications generally, as well as implications for suicide assessment, are discussed.
Pepper, Rachel E.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Pollock, Steven J.; Perkins, Katherine K.
The physics faculty at the University of Colorado have transformed four upper-division courses: Classical Mechanics/Math Methods, Electricity and Magnetism (E&M) I and II, and Quantum Mechanics. We discuss these transformations as a model for other upper-division courses, such as fluid mechanics, focusing on one of the changes made in the transformation effort: the addition of peer instruction (``clicker questions'') to lecture. The goals of our course transformation were to improve student learning and to develop materials and approaches that other faculty could easily adopt or adapt. In this talk, we review the evidence for effectiveness of peer instruction, discuss our implementation, and present evidence of improved student learning in our transformed upper division courses. Tips for effective use of peer instruction and banks of clicker questions available for fluid mechanics will also be discussed. Our curriculum materials are free and available at http://per.colorado.edu/sei.
Air agencies and other stakeholders have raised technical questions and issues related to implementation since the EPA promulgated the EER. This Question and Answer (Q&A) document is intended to respond to some of these frequently asked questions.
This document considers the position, plight, and needs of recent Central American immigrants to Canada. It seeks to answer three questions: What kind of support do they need? What kind of programs can respond to their needs? How can they be helped to integrate into Canadian society? Several facts are uncovered, and conclusions are reached based…
Kaspar, Bryce P.; Dillon, Heather E.
One goal of the Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) is to provide useful, easy to understand information about the national energy codes. A forum where users could ask for, and receive clarification on these codes and software from other users would allow the Energy codes project to reach and instruct a broader audience for a modest resource cost. The forum proposed would be a staff moderated discussion board where staff would post topics, and users would post discussion of those topics, with staff joining in to the discussions. The forum would be moderated by staff members, to remove objectionable and irrelevant postings, and to answer any technical questions that arise. The topics and discussions would be archived and searchable to allow users to answer their own questions, if they pertain to a previously discussed topic.
Weissing, Franz J; Edelaar, Pim; van Doorn, G Sander
Speciation-the origin of new species-is the source of the diversity of life. A theory of speciation is essential to link poorly understood macro-evolutionary processes, such as the origin of biodiversity and adaptive radiation, to well understood micro-evolutionary processes, such as allele frequency change due to natural or sexual selection. An important question is whether, and to what extent, the process of speciation is 'adaptive', i.e., driven by natural and/or sexual selection. Here, we discuss two main modelling approaches in adaptive speciation theory. Ecological models of speciation focus on the evolution of ecological differentiation through divergent natural selection. These models can explain the stable coexistence of the resulting daughter species in the face of interspecific competition, but they are often vague about the evolution of reproductive isolation. Most sexual selection models of speciation focus on the diversification of mating strategies through divergent sexual selection. These models can explain the evolution of prezygotic reproductive isolation, but they are typically vague on questions like ecological coexistence. By means of an integrated model, incorporating both ecological interactions and sexual selection, we demonstrate that disruptive selection on both ecological and mating strategies is necessary, but not sufficient, for speciation to occur. To achieve speciation, mating must at least partly reflect ecological characteristics. The interaction of natural and sexual selection is also pivotal in a model where sexual selection facilitates ecological speciation even in the absence of diverging female preferences. In view of these results, it is counterproductive to consider ecological and sexual selection models as contrasting and incompatible views on speciation, one being dominant over the other. Instead, an integrative perspective is needed to achieve a thorough and coherent understanding of adaptive speciation.
Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.
System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.
Narendra, K. S.; Annaswamy, A. M.
Several concepts and results in robust adaptive control are are discussed and is organized in three parts. The first part surveys existing algorithms. Different formulations of the problem and theoretical solutions that have been suggested are reviewed here. The second part contains new results related to the role of persistent excitation in robust adaptive systems and the use of hybrid control to improve robustness. In the third part promising new areas for future research are suggested which combine different approaches currently known.
Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.
In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.
Smith, Walter E.
Describes physical science activities that civil/mechanical engineers (serving as resource persons) can use with students during units on force, work, center of gravity, simple machines, and other basic mechanics concepts. Activities are adapted from Career Oriented Modules to Explore Topics in Science for grades 5-9 (COMETS). (Author/JN)
Pollard, Thomas D
Although we have a good grasp of many important processes in cell biology, including knowledge of many molecules involved and how they interact with each other, we still do not understand most of the dynamical features that are the essence of living systems. Fortunately, we now have the ability to dissect biological systems in enough detail to understand their dynamics, including the use of mathematical models to account for past observations and predict future experiments. This deep level of mechanistic understanding should be our goal—not simply to satisfy our scientific curiosity, but also to understand the causes of disease well enough to predict risks, make early diagnoses, and treat effectively. Many big questions remain to be answered before we reach this goal of understanding cellular dynamics.
Samman, Mouna Liliane
International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.
... the future. In December 1998, a re-entry algorithm for anti-HBc was discussed at FDA's Blood ... to FDA, did not recommend the re-entry algorithm at that time. Individuals can be perfectly healthy, ...
Popkewitz, Thomas S.
This article turns one of most cited philosopher's John Dewey's title, "How We Think" (1933/1998) back upon itself to consider how "thought" or "reason" are cultural practices that historically order and generate principles for reflection and action. The discussion proceeds thusly: (1) Schooling is about changing people; (2) Changing people…
This article discusses instruction by objectives. Suggestions include relating objectives to the notion of evaluation, so that improvement in objectives implies change in examinations; making the objectives clear to the learner; and taking into account the changing needs of the learner at each stage of learning. (Text is in French.) (AM)
Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob
This manual consists of area 2 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 2 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…
Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena
Masterful teachers don't just ask a lot of questions; they ask questions in a purposeful way. In this article, Costa and Kallick describe five strategies that can help teachers become more purposeful in designing and posing questions. One strategy is to plan questions that elicit student thinking at various cognitive levels, from simple recall of…
Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725
Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.
Parsons, Seth A.; Vaughn, Margaret
In this article, the collection of articles in this issue are synthesized to discuss conceptualizations of adaptive teaching as a means to foster spaces for adaptive teaching in today's complex educational system. Themes that exist across this collection of articles include adaptive teachers as constructivists, adaptive teachers as knowledgeable…
Tubaro, Andrea; Puccini, Federica; De Nunzio, Cosimo
No consensus has ever been reached on the predictive value of serum prostate specific antigen(PSA) for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Limitations of PSA testing in clinical practice have beenoften discussed in the peer-reviewed literature following data derived from clinical trials such as theProstate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events(REDUCE) study that showed a linear rise in the risk of prostate cancer with increasing PSA levels.Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a known confounding factor for the use of PSA as a marker of prostatecancer. Increased prostate volume observed with ageing, urinary retention, acute and chronicinflammatory conditions of the prostate, sexual activity and digital rectal examination may all cause anincrease of PSA values. Both finasteride and dutasteride, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARI) used inthe treatment of BPH, are known to induce a significant decrease of serum PSA levels close to 50%.The observed change in PSA values following 5ARI treatment has raised questions about the accuracyof PSA testing for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients on finasteride/dutasteride treatment.Careful analysis of data from various clinical trials on pharmacological treatment of LUTS due toBPH suggested that the accuracy of PSA testing is not just maintained but rather increased following5ARI use. Then, the question of PSA accuracy during 5ARI treatment can be considered closed.
Casas, J. Manuel; San Miguel, Stephanie
Responds to earlier article by Mio and Iwamasa (1993) on white researchers investigating ethnic-minority populations and other cross-cultural issues. Selectively and critically highlights, clarifies, and/or expands on some of the points contained in the Mio and Iwamasa article that are reflective of comments of respective participants in symposium…
Govender, Kevin; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Wolter, Anna; Haghighipour, Nader; Yan, Yihua; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Silva, David; Guinan, Edward
The main purpose of this panel discussion was to encourage conversation around potential collaborations between the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) and IAU Divisions. The discussion was facilitated by the OAD and the conversation revolved mainly around two questions: (i) What should the OAD be doing to enhance the work of the Divisions? (ii) What could the Divisions (both members and respective scientific discipline in general) contribute towards the implementation of the IAU strategic plan?
Brunner, Edmund deS.; And Others
Research on the use of discussion in adult education has been largely concerned with comparing it with the use of other instructional techniques and with measuring opinion change. Many studies, such as Kurt Lewin's study of food habits, have compared the effectiveness of group discussion as contrasted with lecture in changing opinions and…
Gonzalez, Gloriana; DeJarnette, Anna F.
Classroom discourse is a valuable teaching and learning tool. Discussions allow students to improve their communication and reasoning skills in mathematics and help teachers assess students' understanding of mathematical ideas. To get the greatest benefit from discussion, teachers must elicit student thinking, listen carefully to their ideas,…
Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.
This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…
Schmidt, Christopher D.
Current literature on ethics and moral development focuses on discussion concerning the impact of intuition on moral decision-making. Through the use of student journal reflections over the course of one semester, this study utilized a grounded theory approach in order to explore and understand participant levels of awareness and understanding of…
Raybould, E. C.; Solity, J. E.
Precision teaching can accelerate basic skills progress of special needs children. Issues discussed include using probes as performance tests, charting daily progress, using the charted data to modify teaching methods, determining appropriate age levels, assessing the number of students to be precision taught, and carefully allocating time. (JDD)
Discussed is the possibility of disturbed immunity among people experiencing either clinical depression or some type of severe stress. Psychoneuroimmunology, the study of psychological treatment and its ability to shore up a person's immunity and slow the spread of infectious disease, is reviewed. (KR)
Caroff, Lawrence J.
A panel discussion was held on the future of IR astronomy. The chairman gave a brief introduction to current planned programs for NASA and other space agencies, followed by short contributions from the six panel members on a variety of special topics. After that, a short question and answer session was held.
Preston, Benjamin L
Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.
Kharrazi, M; Epstein, D; Hopkins, B; Kreutzer, R; Doebbert, G; Hiatt, R; Swan, S; Eskenazi, B; Pirkle, J L; Bernert, J T
OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated four questions about maternal smoking during pregnancy for use on birth certificates. METHODS: Question 1 (yes/no format) and Question 2 (trimester-specific design) were tested among 1171 women who delivered at two Kaiser Permanente medical centers in northern California. Responses to Questions 1 and 2 were compared with smoking information provided by participants in telephone interviews conducted during pregnancy. Question 3 (multiple choice format) and Question 4 (month- and grouped month-specific design) were tested among 900 women who enrolled in a statewide prenatal screening program and who delivered in 20 hospitals in four Central Valley counties. Responses to Questions 3 and 4 were compared with mid-pregnancy serum cotinine levels. The authors evaluated the four questions in terms of conciseness, response rate, data accuracy, and type of data requested. RESULTS: Questions 1 and 2 were the most concise. Response rates could not be calculated for Questions 1 and 2. Response rates were 86.0% for Question 3 and 74.2% for Question 4. Sensitivity was 47.3% for Question 1, 62.1% for Question 2, 83.8% for Question 3, and 86.7% for Question 4. The types of data requested by Questions 2 and 4 seem to best satisfy the needs of the broad audience of birth certificate users. CONCLUSIONS: No single question was clearly superior. The authors propose a combination of Questions 2 and 4, which asks about average number of cigarettes smoked per day in the three months before pregnancy and in each trimester of pregnancy. PMID:9925173
Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal
The recent discovery of giant viruses exhibiting double-stranded DNA genomes larger than a million base pairs, encoding more than a thousand proteins and packed in near micron-sized icosahedral particles, opened a new and unexpected chapter in virology. As of today, these giant viruses and their closest relatives of lesser dimensions infect unicellular eukaryotes found in aquatic environments, but belonging to a wide diversity of early branching phyla. This broad phylogenetic distribution of hosts is consistent with the hypothesis that giant viruses originated prior to the radiation of the eukaryotic domain and/or might have been involved in the partition of nuclear versus cytoplasmic functions in ancestral cells. The distinctive features of the known giant viruses, in particular the recurrent presence of components of the translation apparatus in their proteome, raise a number of fundamental questions about their origin, their mode of evolution, and the relationship they may entertain with other dsDNA viruses, the genome size of which exhibits the widest distribution among all biological entities, from less than 5 kb to more than 1.25 Mb (a ratio of 1:250). At a more conceptual level, the convergence between the discovery of increasingly reduced parasitic cellular organisms and that of giant viruses exhibiting a widening array of cellular-like functions may ultimately abolish the historical discontinuity between the viral and the cellular world.
Kinzig, Ann P.
This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.
do the -niad Stes end thi Soviet U ion com- pare in de,-,se equipmn Mid persorwd? 2.S How and to ea e have the Uit States and the Soviet Union pe A...limited military use of biological weapons (Carlton and Schaerf, 1975). The outcome was the 1972 Biological Warfare Treaty, which prohibits the producton ...discussed the utility of chemical weapons, concluding that Li only arms-limitation will permanently remove the threat of chem- ical warfare and that
The growing number of studies in the field of prevention science and related advancements in evidence based programs leads to some discussions about the fundamental issues such as efficacy, effectiveness, dissemination, adaptation, fidelity and continuity in recent years. In this article it is intended to report the common views of early childhood…
Lai, Chia-Hung; Liu, Ming-Chi; Liu, Chia-Ju; Huang, Yueh-Min
Using in-class questions is an efficient instructional strategy to keep abreast of the state of student learning in a class. Some studies have found that discussing in-class questions in synchronous learning is helpful. These studies demonstrated that synchronous questions not only provide students with timely feedback, but also allow teachers to…
Iksan, Zanaton Haji; Daniel, Esther
Verbal questioning is a technique used by teachers in the teaching and learning process. Research in Malaysia related to teachers' questioning in the chemistry teaching and learning process is more focused on the level of the questions asked rather than the content to ensure that students understand. Thus, the research discussed in this paper is…
Harris, Robin Lee
Argues that questioning used artfully can transform a classroom from a traditional lecture setting into a lively student-centered community. Outlines three different kinds of questions. Compares learning to ask good questions with learning to bat in professional baseball, and discusses several elements involved in developing excellent questioning…
de Jesus, Helena T. Pedrosa; Almeida, Patricia Albergaria; Teixeira-Dias, Jose Joaquim; Watts, Mike
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the types of questions that students ask during the learning of chemistry; discuss the role of students' questions in the process of constructing knowledge, and investigate the relationship between students' questions, approaches to learning, and learning styles. Design/methodology/approach: The…
Many of our most pressing societal challenges arise from our inability to move on from present practices and structures and do what is needed. Healthcare struggles to improve safety and quality. It resists adoption of best practices and persists in high levels of unwarranted variation in care delivery, and clings to financially unsustainable models of care. One explanation for this state of affairs is not a lack of will, but that we are experiencing system inertia--a consequence of the increasing complexity of our human systems. In this paper I explore three possible system level interventions that may help design systems that are less likely to approach inertia, as well as help change our current systems so that they again become adaptive, and move to the outcomes we desire. Firstly, I question our religious belief in the power of standards, an intervention designed to minimise adaptation and almost from first principles designed to lead to inertia. Next I explore the power of apoptosis, a process that sees existing structures and practices programmatically removed to free up resource for adaptation. Finally I explore a flexible but controversial approach to system management called market-based control. Whether any of these, together or in tandem, are a way out of inertia is an open question. However, it is time for us to engage with the challenge of system inertia, and find a way out.
van Bruggen, Lisette; Manrique-van Woudenbergh, Margreet; Spierenburg, Emely; Vos, Jacqueline
Clinical reasoning is a core competence of doctors. Therefore, the assessment of clinical reasoning of undergraduate students is an important part of medical education. Three medical universities in the Netherlands wish to develop a shared question database in order to assess clinical reasoning of undergraduate students in Computer-Based Assessments (CBA). To determine suitable question types for this purpose a literature study was carried out. Search of ERIC and PubMed and subsequent cross referencing yielded 30 articles which met the inclusion criteria of a focus on question types suitable to assess clinical reasoning of medical students and providing recommendations for their use. Script Concordance Tests, Extended Matching Questions, Comprehensive Integrative Puzzles, Modified Essay Questions/Short Answer Questions, Long Menu Questions, Multiple Choice Questions, Multiple True/False Questions and Virtual Patients meet the above-mentioned criteria, but for different reasons not all types can be used easily in CBA. A combination of Comprehensive Integrative Puzzles and Extended Matching Questions seems to assess most aspects of clinical reasoning and these question types can be adapted for use in CBA. Regardless of the question type chosen, patient vignettes should be used as a standard stimulus format to assess clinical reasoning. Further research is necessary to ensure that the combination of these question types produces valid assessments and reliable test results.
Keil, Frank C.
Evolutionary psychology raises questions about how cognitive adaptations might be related to the emergence of formal schooling. Is there a special role for natural domains of cognition such as folk physics, folk psychology and folk biology? These domains may vary from small fragments of reasoning to large integrated systems. This heterogeneity…
Brown, J.A.; Salehi, M.M.; Moradi, M.; Bell, G.; Smith, D.R.
How to design an efficient large-area survey continues to be an interesting question for ecologists. In sampling large areas, as is common in environmental studies, adaptive sampling can be efficient because it ensures survey effort is targeted to subareas of high interest. In two-stage sampling, higher density primary sample units are usually of more interest than lower density primary units when populations are rare and clustered. Two-stage sequential sampling has been suggested as a method for allocating second stage sample effort among primary units. Here, we suggest a modification: adaptive two-stage sequential sampling. In this method, the adaptive part of the allocation process means the design is more flexible in how much extra effort can be directed to higher-abundance primary units. We discuss how best to design an adaptive two-stage sequential sample. ?? 2008 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer.
Designs for sequential sampling procedures that adapt to cumulative information are discussed. A familiar illustration is the play-the-winner rule in which there are two treatments; after a random start, the same treatment is continued as long as each successive subject registers a success. When a failure occurs, the other treatment is used until…
Dowell, B.; Govett, M.; Mccormick, S.; Quinlan, D.
The progress of a project for the design and analysis of a multilevel adaptive algorithm (AFAC/HM/) targeted for the Navier Stokes Computer is discussed. The results of initial timing tests of AFAC, coupled with multigrid and an efficient load balancer, on a 16-node Intel iPSC/2 hypercube are included. The results of timing tests are presented.
Van Slyke, Paul; Goode, Chris
Discusses how to collaborate with administrators, physical plant representatives, department heads, lawmakers, and design professionals to create flexible school facilities that adapt to changing needs, noting the importance of utilizing a programming process that determines the true needs of a facility, based on the potential activities that will…
Block, Martin E.; Conatser, Phillip
Presents strategies and techniques to help instructors and directors promote successful inclusive aquatics programs for students with disabilities, discussing the importance of considering issues related to: teaching style, collaborative planning, goal determination, appropriate inclusive placement, personnel preparation, curriculum adaptation,…
Several months after Romania's dictator, Ceausescu, came to power in 1966, he made abortion the sole method of fertility control, illegal. Births grew in Romania 200% between enactment of this law and 1967. Some other pronatalist actions included taxes on singles and childless couples, assistance to families with many children, discouragement of divorces, and required gynecological exams at large women collectives (e.g. schools and businesses). The population adapted every quickly to these coercive pronatalist measures, however. By 1970, fertility fell steadily. By 1985, it was at the same level as it was pre-Ceausescu (1965). After Ceausescu's fall, repeal of the antiabortion law was one of the first actions taken by the new government, resulting in a 10-fold increase in legal abortions after several months. It also introduced free contraceptive methods which were not available during the Ceausescu years, e.g.. oral contraceptives. This new situation placed the responsibility to make decisions about procreation on people's shoulders. The government chose a population education strategy that emphasizes couples' responsibilities towards upcoming generations and towards improvement of the quality of life. Thus, education networks concerning family life and population grew, principally in 1991. The government created most family life and population education programs in schools, public health institutions and social service agencies, particularly those in large cities. It also called for the media and nongovernmental organizations to also promote programs which encourage parental responsibility, raise the demographic conscience of each person, and explain the moral, social, and economic context of fertility decisions. These education programs have replaced political indoctrination programs and have been integrated into a variety of disciplines. They stress prevention education, including sexual health, prevention of AIDS, drug and alcohol abuse, environmental
Mather, John C.
Dark matter, dark energy, the Big Bang, testing relativity -- all are physics questions accessible to astrophysicists -- but all require new equipment. As Harwit's "Cosmic Discovery" pointed out, almost all great surprises in astronomy came from new equipment or new uses of equipment designed for other purposes, and many of those had military applications. I will outline prospects for new equipment and discuss how that equipment can be developed and built. Bigger and lighter mirrors, wavefront sensing and control, new detector technology, cryogenics -- each has its own social network, its own special possibilities, and its own funding sources outside science. I will discuss some examples drawn from real-life experience with the James Webb Space Telescope, a telescope that was said to have a "giggle factor" when it was proposed in 1995. Now each of the 10 major technologies has been brought to maturity, flight hardware is being built, and launch is planned for 2014. As an instrument builder all my life, I will speculate a little on what may be within our reach over the next few decades.
von Renteln, Daniel; Pohl, Heiko
Detection and complete removal of precancerous neoplastic polyps are central to effective colorectal cancer screening. The prevalence of neoplastic polyps in the screening population in the United States is likely >50%. However, most persons with neoplastic polyps are never destined to develop cancer, and do not benefit for finding and removing polyps, and may only be harmed by the procedure. Further 70-80% of polyps are diminutive (≤5 mm) and such polyps almost never contain cancer. Given the questionable benefit, the high-cost and the potential risk changing our approach to the management of diminutive polyps is currently debated. Deemphasizing diminutive polyps and shifting our efforts to detection and complete removal of larger and higher-risk polyps deserves discussion and study. This article explores three controversies, and emerging concepts related to endoscopic polyp resection. First, we discuss challenges of optical resect-and-discard strategy and possible alternatives. Second, we review recent studies that support the use of cold snare resection for ≥5 mm polyps. Thirdly, we examine current evidence for prophylactic clipping after resection of large polyps.
Sastry, S. Shankar; Isidori, Alberto
Initial results are reported regarding the adaptive control of minimum-phase nonlinear systems which are exactly input-output linearizable by state feedback. Parameter adaptation is used as a technique to make robust the exact cancellation of nonlinear terms, which is called for in the linearization technique. The application of the adaptive technique to control of robot manipulators is discussed. Only the continuous-time case is considered; extensions to the discrete-time and sampled-data cases are not obvious.
Nuntiyagul, Atorn; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Wongsawang, Damras
We present PKIP, an adaptable learning assistant tool for managing question items in item banks. PKIP is not only able to automatically assist educational users to categorize the question items into predefined categories by their contents but also to correctly retrieve the items by specifying the category and/or the difficulty level. PKIP adapts…
Regional Screening Level RSL frequently asked question FAQ page provides risk assessors answers to common questions about the preliminary remediation goal PRG risk based concentration RBC and risk calculator for the assessment of human Health.
The Testicular Cancer Resource Center Questions for your Doctor: Your First Visit This list of questions is intended to help ... cancer, be happy, but also be aware that testicular cancer is misdiagnosed as epididymitis or something similar almost ...
The EPA compiled this question and answer document from inquiries received after the publication of the 1999 final architectural coatings rule and from questions raised at meetings with industry associations.
Spargo, Peter E.; Enderstein, L. Gus
Investigates what questions elementary students would ask when presented with various situations relating to the natural environment. Findings reveal the extraordinary range of questions that elementary students have concerning the solar system and space. (JRH)
Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael
Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question…
Olson, Arthur V.
Discusses two frequently recommended tests for the evaluation of visual perception in relation to reading ability: the Frostig Development Test of Visual Perception and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Questions the content validity of the former and suggests that the latter is a reasonable predictor of reading achievement. (FL)
Bakke, Bruce L.
This guide to preventing self-injurious behavior, in question-and-answer format, is intended for parents, teachers, and other caregivers of people with disabilities. It describes the more common types of self-injurious behavior, discusses methods for identifying causes of self injury, and outlines interventions. Specifically, the guide covers: (1)…
Anti-IgE treatment for severe allergic asthma has been available for more than seven years now. This treatment has clear clinical benefits and a good safety record. However, important questions concerning long-term dosing and treatment duration remain unanswered. This paper discusses the available information concerning the long-term use of omalizumab.
Edelson, Daniel C.
Components of a case-based teaching architecture in a computer-based learning environment are discussed. Highlights include examples of "Creanimate," a program in which students interactively create a new animal while the "storyteller" monitors their actions looking for opportunities to present stories and questions that will…
What does it mean to use, or do, theory in the scholarship of teaching and learning? The article approaches the question by considering the role of design anthropology in developing studio-based engineering programmes. Central to my discussion within situated contexts of learning is the idea of practice-based exploration conceived as a way of…
Armagost, James L.
This paper seeks to discover the rules active in the formation of tags (intonation tags, declarative tags, and tag questions) in English. The author discusses former analyses of these constructions and presents his own thoughts with many examples, concluding that English has at least two tag formation rules: one that accounts (perhaps…
In this article, author John Baldacchino presents twenty reflections on art, doubt, and error. In the first five reflections, he produces a discussion of a number of unmediated narratives that tend to aggregate and span across the plural horizon of arts practice. In terms of the arts "as well as" education, these questions are approached…
DeVito, Angela, Ed.; Medine, Peter, Ed.
The discussion questions and essay prompts in this collection were compiled from contributions made by participants in the 1991 Arizona Shakespeare-Milton Institute. After an introduction which presents some general guidelines for teachers and students, the collection addresses the following works: "As You Like It"; "The…
Mills, Roger E.
Answers a question about operating frequency of metal locators, discussing signal attenuation due to inverse square law and interaction with conducting media. Compares frequency to conductivity for various media and resultant penetration of media by signal, relating to transmission of extremely low frequency signals for submarine communications by…
Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Dowsett, Chantelle J.
Existing data sets can be an efficient, powerful, and readily available resource for addressing questions about developmental science. Many of the available databases contain hundreds of variables of interest to developmental psychologists, track participants longitudinally, and have representative samples. In this article, the authors discuss the…
Presents a case study of radio broadcasting that could be used with students in an investigation of competition and regulation. Discusses the British Broadcasting Act and its attempts at privatization, encouragement of competition, and deregulation of markets. Includes questions and the Hotelling Model of a market to explain the situation in radio…
Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney
This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…
Wang, H.; Agarwal, A.
In this paper, we investigate the equilibrium statistical properties of both the force and potential interpolations of adaptive resolution simulation (AdResS) under the theoretical framework of grand-canonical like AdResS (GC-AdResS). The thermodynamic relations between the higher and lower resolutions are derived by considering the absence of fundamental conservation laws in mechanics for both branches of AdResS. In order to investigate the applicability of AdResS method in studying the properties beyond the equilibrium, we demonstrate the accuracy of AdResS in computing the dynamical properties in two numerical examples: The velocity auto-correlation of pure water and the conformational relaxation of alanine dipeptide dissolved in water. Theoretical and technical open questions of the AdResS method are discussed in the end of the paper.
Deed, Craig; Lesko, Thomas M.; Lovejoy, Valerie
Personalized learning spaces are emerging in schools as a critical reaction to "industrial-era" school models. As the form and function of schools and pedagogy change, this places pressure on teachers to adapt their conventional practice. This paper addresses the question of how teachers can adapt their classroom practice to create…
Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.
Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for…
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…
Describes a study designed to identify the mental operations that contribute to people's ability to answer wh- questions, that is, questions which request information that plays a particular role in relation to some action or event. Wh- questions are signaled by interrogative pronouns and adverbs like who, what, when, and where. (SED)
Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.
Many of the frequent questions which arise concerning the relationship between Indians and the Federal Government are answered in this document. These questions and answers, in general, relate to Indians with whom the Federal government still retains a special relationship. Questions and answers pertain to the following areas: (1) the Indian…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the comprehension of questions beginning with different wh- question words presented in two referential conditions to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Thirty-nine school-age participants completed a battery of who, what, where, when, why, and how questions with and without a picture…
Norman, Donald A.
An examination of the nature of memory reveals that the representation of knowledge cannot be separated from the uses of knowledge. The answering of questions is not a simple retrieval and response of stored information; rather the process is embedded in a general structural framework containing knowledge of the questioner, the question, and the…
Creating opportunities and encouraging student-centered questioning requires a special teacher-student dynamic. Students need to be empowered to ask questions. The article explores what teachers can learn from questions students ask, focusing on learning outcomes for teachers, and using a second-grade lesson on Harriet Tubman as an example. (SM)
Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)
Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert
The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…
Wiggins, Grant; Wilbur, Denise
Good essential questions rarely emerge in the first draft. Common first-draft questions typically are convergent low-level questions designed to support content acquisition. They either point toward the one official "right" answer, or they elicit mere lists and thus no further inquiry. So how can teachers ensure that subsequent drafts…
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS Examination System § 13.215 Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of...
The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…
... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...
... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...
... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...
... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...
... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...
Explores the relation between interrogative, a category of grammatical form, and question, a category of meaning. Mismatches between interrogative phrases and questioned elements are also investigated. Two kinds of interrogative and three kinds of question are distinguished. (47 references) (Author/CK)
The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…
Despite years of training, teaching experience, reading professional literature, attending conferences, and learning from expert colleagues, when it comes to the teaching of culture, the author wishes she knew more answers to many critical questions. Her questions are framed by the basic questions that all curricula seek to answer: WHAT is the…
Eubank, Daniel; Geffken, Dominic; Orzano, John; Ricci, Rocco
Health care reform calls for patient-centered medical homes built around whole person care and healing relationships. Efforts to transform primary care practices and deliver these qualities have been challenging. This study describes one Family Medicine residency's efforts to develop an adaptive leadership curriculum and use coaching as a teaching method to address this challenge. We review literature that describes a parallel between the skills underlying such care and those required for adaptive leadership. We address two questions: What is leadership? Why focus on adaptive leadership? We then present a synthesis of leadership theories as a set of process skills that lead to organization learning through effective work relationships and adaptive leadership. Four models of the learning process needed to acquire such skills are explored. Coaching is proposed as a teaching method useful for going beyond information transfer to create the experiential learning necessary to acquire the process skills. Evaluations of our efforts to date are summarized. We discuss key challenges to implementing such a curriculum and propose that teaching adaptive leadership is feasible but difficult in the current medical education and practice contexts.
Zeder, Melinda A.
The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared. PMID:25713127
Presents an informal discussion with composer John Cage which includes his response to George Maciunas' work, his recollections of Marcel Duchamp, the complex relationship between inelegant material and revealing works of art, neo-Dada and neo-Fluxus, Wittgenstein and the artist's ultimate responsibility to initiate a change in the viewer or…
Whole-group classroom discussions about solutions allow teachers to promote reasoning that moves students beyond merely noticing mathematical ideas toward developing a well-connected knowledge of concepts. Creating classroom environments where teachers promote reasoning and engage students in investigating important mathematical phenomena is…
Danielson's Framework for Teaching has provided a common language for discussions of teaching practice for almost 20 years. Many educators love the Framework's comprehensiveness; they find the specific language to be useful as they strive to improve their practice. For other educators, however, the Framework's 22 components and 76 smaller elements…
When students create personal connections with literature during whole-class discussion, they make sense both of text and of their life experiences. In this article, the author shares tips that help students make text-to-self, text-to-world, and text-to-text connections. She offers classroom examples to illustrate how conversations that encourage…
Exceptional Parent, 1987
Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)
Greenleaf, John E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna
Report discusses adaptive responses of humans to hot environment. Describes thermoregulation by integrated responses of nervous system, vascular/fluid/electrolyte system, and endocrine system. Considers disorders resulting from failure of thermoregulation and less serious heat stress.
HIEBER, CAROLINE E.
TRADITIONAL METHODS OF ANALYZING QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS AS THEY OCCUR IN REFERENCE LIBRARIES ARE DISCUSSED AND CRITICIZED. METHODS OF EXAMINING QUESTIONS, THE QUESTION-ANSWERING PROCESS, AND ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ARE EVALUATED. A PRAGMATIC SCHEME IS SUGGESTED WHICH CLASSIFIES ANSWERS BY THEIR FORMATS, DIVIDING THEM INTO EXACT-REPRODUCTION TYPE,…
Cline, Kelly; Zullo, Holly; Duncan, Jonathan; Stewart, Ann; Snipes, Marie
We present a study of classroom voting in linear algebra, in which the instructors posed multiple-choice questions to the class and then allowed a few minutes for consideration and small-group discussion. After each student in the class voted on the correct answer using a classroom response system, a set of clickers, the instructor then guided a class-wide discussion of the results. We recorded the percentage of students voting for each option on each question used in 18 sections of linear algebra, taught by 10 instructors, at 8 institutions, over the course of 5 years, together recording the results of 781 votes on a collection of 311 questions. To find the questions most likely to provoke significant discussions, we identify the six questions for which votes were most broadly distributed. Here we present these questions, we discuss how we used them to advance student learning, and we discuss the common features of these questions, to identify why they were so good at stimulating discussions.
(1) Meningitis: two groups of cases. (2) A method of washing out the subarachnoid space in cases of septic meningitis secondary to infection of the ear. (3) Discussion on the value of maintaining a positive pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid when operating on a septic region communicating with the subarachnoid space. (4) Leaking cerebrospinal fluid from the region of the ear: operative treatment. PMID:19986899
Vehicle Power & Mobility PA Discussion Topics UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public releas Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302
Brucker, Mary; McGuire, Stephanie; Merrill, Lisa; Rossing, Francine; Sayaseng, Kammi
Diaper dermatitis in infants is commonly seen by clinicians in both primary care and acute care settings. The condition can cause significant discomfort for infants and distress for their parents and caregivers. Nursing for Women's Health convened a group of nursing clinicians who work in a variety of settings to discuss the issues and challenges related to preventing and treating diaper dermatitis in both healthy term newborns and premature newborns.
Garfin, Gregg; Orr, Barron
In western North America, the combination of sustained drought, rapid ecosystem changes, and land use changes associated with urban population growth has motivated concern among ecosystem managers about the implications of future climate changes for the landscapes which they manage. Through literature review, surveys, and workshop discussions, we assess the process of moving from concern, to planning, to action, with an emphasis on questions, such as: What are the roles of boundary organizations in facilitating knowledge exchange? Which practices lead to effective interactions between scientists, decision-makers, and knowledge brokers? While there is no "one size fits all" science communication method, the co-production of science and policy by research scientists, science translators, and decision-makers, as co-equals, is a resource intensive, but effective practice for moving adaptation planning forward. Constructive approaches make use of alliances with early adopters and opinion leaders, and make strong communication links between predictions, impacts and solutions. Resource managers need information on the basics of regional climate variability and global climate change, region-specific projections of climate changes and impacts, frank discussion of uncertainties, and opportunities for candid exploration of these topics with peers and subject experts. Research scientists play critical roles in adaptation planning discussions, because they assist resource managers in clarifying the cascade of interactions leading to potential impacts and, importantly, because decision-makers want to hear the information straight from the scientists conducting the research, which bolsters credibility. We find that uncertainty, formerly a topic to avoided, forms the foundation for constructive progress in adaptation planning. Candid exploration of the array of uncertainties, including those due to modeling, institutional, policy and economic factors, with practitioners, science
Heckmann, Martin; Berthommier, Frédéric; Kroschel, Kristian
It has been shown that integration of acoustic and visual information especially in noisy conditions yields improved speech recognition results. This raises the question of how to weight the two modalities in different noise conditions. Throughout this paper we develop a weighting process adaptive to various background noise situations. In the presented recognition system, audio and video data are combined following a Separate Integration (SI) architecture. A hybrid Artificial Neural Network/Hidden Markov Model (ANN/HMM) system is used for the experiments. The neural networks were in all cases trained on clean data. Firstly, we evaluate the performance of different weighting schemes in a manually controlled recognition task with different types of noise. Next, we compare different criteria to estimate the reliability of the audio stream. Based on this, a mapping between the measurements and the free parameter of the fusion process is derived and its applicability is demonstrated. Finally, the possibilities and limitations of adaptive weighting are compared and discussed.
Reinsvold, Lori Ann
Discourse interactions between a teacher and students in an inquiry-based fourth-grade science classroom were analyzed to investigate how power dynamics and questioning strategies within elementary science lessons help support students in building their science understanding. Five inquiry-based classroom sessions were observed; verbal interactions were audio- and video-recorded. Research data consisted of observation transcripts, teacher interviews, student work, and instructional materials. Analyses were conducted on the frequencies of utterances, participation roles, power categories, and questioning categories. Results revealed that when students used more frequent power, (a) no significant differences were noted between frequencies of teacher and student talk, (b) the teacher posed more questions than did the students, and (c) students explained what they knew and asked questions to clarify their understanding. When the teacher used more frequent power, she asked questions to provide students opportunities to negotiate investigative processes and explain what they knew and how they knew it. Evidence of student understanding of the science concepts was found in how students used subject matter to discuss what they knew and how they knew it. Pre-service and in-service teachers should be encouraged to consider how their use of power and questioning strategies can engage students to reflect on how they build understanding of science concepts. Teachers can use Professional Learning Communities to reflect on how their practice engages students. Future research should be employed to observe classrooms across an entire school year to determine how power and questioning dynamics flow among students and teachers and change over time. Research can also be used to understand the influence of gender and culture on power and questioning dynamics in classroom settings.
Foster, J. G.
Local governments, the first responders to public health, safety and environmental hazards, must act now to lessen vulnerabilities to climate change. They must plan for and invest in "adapting" to inevitable impacts such as flood, fire, and draught that will occur notwithstanding best efforts to mitigate climate change. CCAP's Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative is developing a framework for informed decision making on climate adaptation. Looking ahead to projected climate impacts and 'back casting' can identify what is needed now to both reduce greenhouse gas emissions and build local resiliency to climate change. CCAP's partnership with King County (WA), Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami-Dade County (FL), Milwaukee, Nassau County (NY), Phoenix, San Francisco, and Toronto is advancing policy discussions to ensure that state and local governments consider climate change when making decisions about infrastructure, transportation, land use, and resource management. Through the Initiative, local leaders will incorporate climate change into daily urban management and planning activities, proactively engage city and county managers and the public in developing solutions, and build community resilience. One goal is to change both institutional and public attitudes and behaviors. Determining appropriate adaptation strategies for each jurisdiction requires Asking the Climate Question: "How does what we are doing increase our resilience to climate change?" Over the next three years, the Initiative will design and implement specific adaptation plans, policies and 'catalytic' projects, collect and disseminate "best practices," and participate in framing national climate policy discussions. In the coming years, policy-makers will have to consider climate change in major infrastructure development decisions. If they are to be successful and have the resources they need, national climate change policy and emerging legislation will have to support these communities. The Urban Leaders
The aim of the comment "Use of pellet guns for crowd control in Kashmir: How lethal is 'non-lethal'?" was neither to disparage the armed forces, nor recommend counterinsurgency strategies, nor support any particular community or group. It sought to raise discussions around the question pointed out by the responder himself, namely, "the ethical point of view" on the use of pellet guns in controlling violent mobs. The author also feels that the question is not so much about "favouring" the protestors or the security forces, but whether an instrument that causes significant fatalities and morbidities among bystanders should continue to be used as a method of crowd control.
Pérez-Álvarez, R.; García-Moliner, F.; Velasco, V. R.
The characterization of the spectrum of eigenstates of quasiperiodic heterostructures is discussed by focusing on three questions. Arguments are advanced to justify the often indiscriminate use of different approximants in the calculation of the eigenvalue spectra. It is stressed that the calculation of the fractal dimension may be rather inaccurate if the high eigenvalue range is not included, even if physically the interest is limited to the low range. The question of self-similarity is critically examined and found to have a very limited range of validity in practice. The unique properties of the Rudin-Shapiro sequence are also stressed.
Barrocas, Albert; Cohen, Michael L
Clinical nutrition specialists (CNSs) are often confronted with technological, ethical, and legal questions, that is, what can be done technologically, what should be done ethically, and what must be done legally, which conflict at times. The conflict represents a "troubling trichotomy" as discussed in the lead article of this issue of Nutrition in Clinical Practice (NCP). During Clinical Nutrition Week in 2006, a symposium covering these 3 topics was presented, and later that year, an article covering the same topic was published in NCP In this article, we revisit several legal questions/issues that were raised 10 years ago and discuss current answers and approaches. Some of the answers remain unchanged. Other answers have been modified by additional legislation, court decisions, or regulations. In addition, new questions/issues have arisen. Some of the most common questions regarding nutrition support involve the following: liability, informed consent, medical decisional incapacity vs legal competence, advance directive specificity, surrogate decision making, physician orders for life-sustaining treatment and electronic medical orders for life-sustaining treatment, legal definition of death, patient vs family decision making, the noncompliant patient, and elder abuse obligations. In the current healthcare environment, these questions and issues are best addressed via a transdisciplinary team that focuses on function rather than form. The CNS can play a pivotal role in dealing with these challenges by applying the acronym ACT: being Accountable and Communicating with all stakeholders while actively participating as an integral part of the transdisciplinary Team.
Lopez, R. E.; Gross, N. A.; Knipp, D. J.
The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) holds a two-week Space Weather Summer School for introductory graduate students and space weather professionals to gain a system level understanding of the space environment and the effects of space weather. A typical day in the summer school consists of three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. After the morning lectures, the participants are each asked to submit a question about the mornings topics on a question card. The lecturers then take the time to answer these questions prior to afternoon sessions. In the last 5 years over 1000 such question cards have been collected and cataloged. Despite detailed lectures by experts similar questions appear every year. We have analyzed over 150 questions related to the introductory lectures on solar physics and solar activity. Questions content was categorized using the AGU Index, and question sophistication was categorized using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Specific analysis results along with lists of questions will be presented. We hope that these results can be used to improve the lecture and classroom content and allow students to move beyond low level education objectives and ask more sophisticated questions.
In the 19th century, several scientists attempted to relate bone trabecular morphology to its mechanical, load-bearing function. It was suggested that bone architecture was an answer to requirements of optimal stress transfer, pairing maximal strength to minimal weight, according to particular mathematical design rules. Using contemporary methods of analysis, stress transfer in bones was studied and compared with anatomical specimens, from which it was hypothesised that trabecular architecture is associated with stress trajectories. Others focused on the biological processes by which trabecular architectures are formed and on the question of how bone could maintain the relationship between external load and architecture in a variable functional environment. Wilhelm Roux introduced the principle of functional adaptation as a self-organising process based in the tissues. Julius Wolff, anatomist and orthopaedic surgeon, entwined these 3 issues in his book The Law of Bone Remodeling (translation), which set the stage for biomechanical research goals in our day. ‘Wolff's Law’ is a question rather than a law, asking for the requirements of structural optimisation. In this article, based on finite element analysis (FEA) results of stress transfer in bones, it is argued that it was the wrong question, putting us on the wrong foot. The maximal strength/minimal weight principle does not provide a rationale for architectural formation or adaptation; the similarity between trabecular orientation and stress trajectories is circumstantial, not causal. Based on computer simulations of bone remodelling as a regulatory process, governed by mechanical usage and orchestrated by osteocyte mechanosensitivity, it is shown that Roux's paradigm, conversely, is a realistic proposition. Put in a quantitative regulatory context, it can predict both trabecular formation and adaptation. Hence, trabecular architecture is not an answer to Wolff's question, in the sense of this article
Ratz, Joan M.; Lamb, Berton Lee
We led two discussion groups during the 2007 National GAP Conference. These discussion groups provided information to help develop a survey of National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) data users. One group discussed technical issues, and the second group discussed the use of GAP data for decisionmaking. Themes emerging from the technical issues group included concerns about data quality, need for information on how to use data, and passive data distribution. The decisionmaking discussion included a wide range of topics including the need to understand presentation of information, the need to connect with and understand users of data, the revision of GAP's mission, and the adaptability of products and data. The decisionmaking group also raised concerns regarding technical issues. One conclusion is that a deep commitment to ongoing information transfer and support is a key component of success for the GAP program.
Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin
Does collaborative learning in asynchronous discussion groups result in enhancing academic discourse and knowledge construction? This general research question has been researched in a study involving 300 students, working during six months in 38 electronic discussion groups. The transcripts of the discussions were coded and analysed to test…
Bean, Thomas W.; Valerio, Paul Cantu; Mallette, Marla H.; Readence, John E.
Explores preservice elementary teachers' literature-circle discussion of a multicultural young-adult novel with a focus on two research questions: how preservice teachers discuss a multicultural young-adult novel, and what are the views and theories that informed their understanding of literature response discussion. Participants in the discussion…
O'Connor, A M; Anderson, K M; Goodell, C K; Sargeant, J M
This article is the fourth of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. Previous articles in the series have introduced systematic reviews, discussed study designs and hierarchies of evidence, and provided details on conducting randomized controlled trials, a common design for use in systematic reviews. This article describes development of a review protocol and the first two steps in a systematic review: formulating a review question, and searching the literature for relevant research. The emphasis is on systematic reviews of questions related to interventions. The review protocol is developed prior to conducting the review and specifies the plan for the conduct of the review, identifies the roles and responsibilities of the review team and provides structured definitions related to the review question. For intervention questions, the review question should be defined by the PICO components: population, intervention, comparison and outcome(s). The literature search is designed to identify all potentially relevant original research that may address the question. Search terms related to some or all of the PICO components are entered into literature databases, and searches for unpublished literature also are conducted. All steps of the literature search are documented to provide transparent reporting of the process.
In 1972, China began to enter the age of satellite comunications, and it was realized that satellites could play a large role in television transmission in China. The experimental broadcasting of satellite television programs was begun in 1978, and satisfactory results were obtained. The success of the television transmission demonstration has led to important decisions regarding development of a domestic satellite communications system. Before specialized communications satellites are launched, the decision was made to lease an international communications satellite transmitter. The responsibility of the ground stations were discussed.
Hill, Kevin P.
With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202
Pogorelov, I. A.; Struchalin, G. I.; Straupe, S. S.; Radchenko, I. V.; Kravtsov, K. S.; Kulik, S. P.
Adaptive measurements were recently shown to significantly improve the performance of quantum state tomography. Utilizing information about the system for the online choice of optimal measurements allows one to reach the ultimate bounds of precision for state reconstruction. In this article we generalize an adaptive Bayesian approach to the case of process tomography and experimentally show its superiority in the task of learning unknown quantum operations. Our experiments with photonic polarization qubits cover all types of single-qubit channels. We also discuss instrumental errors and the criteria for evaluation of the ultimate achievable precision in an experiment. It turns out that adaptive tomography provides a lower noise floor in the presence of strong technical noise.
Buryanov, Ya I
Enzymatic reactions of post-synthetic modification of macromolecules occur in the cells of all organisms. These reactions, which can be designated as epibiochemical, are of a special type and, as discriminated from reactions with low molecular weight substrates, occur on the level of biopolymers, causing their covalent modification. The majority of epibiochemical modifications of proteins, DNA, and RNA are reversible and are carried out by modification transferases and de-modification enzymes, respectively. Epibiochemical, i.e. those located above the low molecular weight metabolites, modifications of proteins and nucleic acids perform various functions, including participation in molecular mechanisms of adaptive epigenetic heredity. This paper presents an overview of some adaptive epibiochemical modifications of macromolecules and the adaptive epigenetic processes on their basis. The features of epigenetic inheritance of acquired characteristics and the limits of biological evolution are discussed.
The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.
Bailey, Donald E; Docherty, Sharron L; Adams, Judith A; Carthron, Dana L; Corazzini, Kirsten; Day, Jennifer R; Neglia, Elizabeth; Thygeson, Marcus; Anderson, Ruth A
In this paper we discuss the concept of leadership as a personal capability, not contingent on one's position in a hierarchy. This type of leadership allows us to reframe both the care-giving and organizational roles of nurses and other front-line clinical staff. Little research has been done to explore what leadership means at the point of care, particularly in reference to the relationship between health care practitioners and patients and their family caregivers. The Adaptive Leadership framework, based on complexity science theory, provides a useful lens to explore practitioners' leadership behaviors at the point of care. This framework proposes that there are two broad categories of challenges that patients face: technical and adaptive. Whereas technical challenges are addressed with technical solutions that are delivered by practitioners, adaptive challenges require the patient (or family member) to adjust to a new situation and to do the work of adapting, learning, and behavior change. Adaptive leadership is the work that practitioners do to mobilize and support patients to do the adaptive work. The purpose of this paper is to describe this framework and demonstrate its application to nursing research. We demonstrate the framework's utility with five exemplars of nursing research problems that range from the individual to the system levels. The framework has the potential to guide researchers to ask new questions and to gain new insights into how practitioners interact with patients at the point of care to increase the patient's ability to tackle challenging problems and improve their own health care outcomes. It is a potentially powerful framework for developing and testing a new generation of interventions to address complex issues by harnessing and learning about the adaptive capabilities of patients within their life contexts.
Shaw, Darcy; Gohil, Kartik; Basson, Marc D
Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation, short-gut syndrome, obesity, and bariatric surgery. Broadly, these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation. These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal, immune, dietary, nervous, and mechanical stimuli. It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation. This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation, delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan. Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes.
Shaw, Darcy; Gohil, Kartik; Basson, Marc D
Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation, short-gut syndrome, obesity, and bariatric surgery. Broadly, these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation. These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal, immune, dietary, nervous, and mechanical stimuli. It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation. This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation, delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan. Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:23197881
These notes and questions have been prepared to promote discussion of the ideas set out in the Clarifying paper, "Living and learning in EcCoWell cities" to be found on the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) website. This Discussion Paper sets ten questions for discussion. We are hoping to encourage discussions of these issues around the world.
Teacher questions play an important role in facilitating classroom discourse. Using appropriate question types and proper questioning techniques help to create reflective-active learners. Teacher questions can elicit students' explanations, elaboration of their ideas and thinking, and they can be used to disclose students' misconceptions. Despite…
This study explores the relationship between question intonation patterns in French using dislocated questions and question-focus (Q- focus). A dislocated question is defined as an interrogative sentence whose sequence is interrupted by the topicalization of a constituent at the left ("Toi, tu viens?"), at the right (Tu viens,…
Hudson, Ross D.
This research inquires into the effectiveness of the two predominant forms of questions--multiple-choice questions and short-answer questions--used in the State University Entrance Examination for Chemistry including the relationship between performance and gender. It examines not only the style of question but also the content type examined…
Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.
Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.
Order Code RL33537 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Updated May 20, 2008 Richard A. Best Jr. Specialist in National Defense Foreign...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 20 MAY 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Summary The primary mission of the military health system, which
Chichester, Christine; Digles, Daniela; Siebes, Ronald; Loizou, Antonis; Groth, Paul; Harland, Lee
Modern data-driven drug discovery requires integrated resources to support decision-making and enable new discoveries. The Open PHACTS Discovery Platform (http://dev.openphacts.org) was built to address this requirement by focusing on drug discovery questions that are of high priority to the pharmaceutical industry. Although complex, most of these frequently asked questions (FAQs) revolve around the combination of data concerning compounds, targets, pathways and diseases. Computational drug discovery using workflow tools and the integrated resources of Open PHACTS can deliver answers to most of these questions. Here, we report on a selection of workflows used for solving these use cases and discuss some of the research challenges. The workflows are accessible online from myExperiment (http://www.myexperiment.org) and are available for reuse by the scientific community.
Ortigosa, Alvaro; Paredes, Pedro; Rodriguez, Pilar
One of the main concerns when providing learning style adaptation in Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems is the number of questions the students have to answer. Most of the times, adaptive material available will discriminate among a few categories for each learning style dimension. Consequently, it is only needed to take into account the…
Okasha, S; Paternotte, C
We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis.
This paper addresses the problem of controlling a manipulator in compliant motion while in contact with an environment having an unknown stiffness. Two classes of solutions are discussed: adaptive admittance control and adaptive compliance control. In both admittance and compliance control schemes, compensator adaptation is used to ensure a stable and uniform system performance.
Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence. The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to provide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the observation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch's method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set of matched filters (one for each velocity component of interest) and filtering the blood process over slow-time and averaging over depth to find the PSD. The methods are tested using various experiments and simulations. First, controlled flow-rig experiments with steady laminar flow are carried out. Simulations in Field II for pulsating flow resembling the femoral artery are also analyzed. The simulations are followed by in vivo measurement on the common carotid artery. In all simulations and experiments it was concluded that the adaptive methods display superior performance for short observation windows compared with the averaged periodogram. Computational costs and implementation details are also discussed.
Rimmele, Thomas R; Marino, Jose
Adaptive optics (AO) has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO) will be given.
Bremer, P. -T.
ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.
Schmerse, Daniel; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael
In this article we report two studies: a detailed longitudinal analysis of errors in wh-questions from six German-learning children (age 2 ; 0-3 ; 0) and an analysis of the prosodic characteristics of wh-questions in German child-directed speech. The results of the first study demonstrate that German-learning children frequently omit the initial wh-word. A lexical analysis of wh-less questions revealed that children are more likely to omit the wh-word was ('what') than other wh-words (e.g. wo 'where'). In the second study, we performed an acoustic analysis of sixty wh-questions that one mother produced during her child's third year of life. The results show that the wh-word was is much less likely to be accented than the wh-word wo, indicating a relationship between children's omission of wh-words and the stress patterns associated with wh-questions. The findings are discussed in the light of discourse-pragmatic and metrical accounts of omission errors.
Day, E. A.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Craig, L.; Streule, M. J.; Passmore, E.; Irving, J. C. E.
The jump to university level exams can be challenging for some students, often resulting in poor marks, which may be detrimental to their confidence and ultimately affect their overall degree class. Previous studies have found that question structure can have a strong impact on the performance of students in college level exams (see Gibson et al., 2015, for a discussion of its impact on physics undergraduates). Here, we investigate the effect of question structure on the exam results of geology and geophysics undergraduate students. Specifically, we analyse the performance of students in questions that have a 'scaffolded' framework and compare them to their performance in open-ended questions and coursework. We also investigate if observed differences in exam performance are correlated with the educational background and gender of students, amongst other factors. It is important for all students to be able to access their degree courses, no matter what their backgrounds may be. Broadening participation in the geosciences relies on removing systematic barriers to achievement. Therefore we recommend that exams are either structured with scaffolding in questions at lower levels, or students are explicitly prepared for this transition. We also recommend that longitudinal studies of exam performance are conducted within individual departments, and this work outlines one approach to analysing performance data.
Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L
This review starts with a brief history and description of adaptive optics (AO) technology, followed by a showcase of the latest capabilities of AO systems for imaging the human retina and an extensive review of the literature on where AO is being used clinically. The review concludes with a discussion on future directions and guidance on usage and interpretation of images from AO systems for the eye.
Armstrong, Chelsey Geralda; Shoemaker, Anna C; McKechnie, Iain; Ekblom, Anneli; Szabó, Péter; Lane, Paul J; McAlvay, Alex C; Boles, Oliver J; Walshaw, Sarah; Petek, Nik; Gibbons, Kevin S; Quintana Morales, Erendira; Anderson, Eugene N; Ibragimow, Aleksandra; Podruczny, Grzegorz; Vamosi, Jana C; Marks-Block, Tony; LeCompte, Joyce K; Awâsis, Sākihitowin; Nabess, Carly; Sinclair, Paul; Crumley, Carole L
This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural.
Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn
What makes a discourse coherent? One potential factor has been discussed in the linguistic literature in terms of a Question under Discussion (QUD). This approach claims that discourse proceeds by continually raising explicit or implicit questions, viewed as sets of alternatives, or competing descriptions of the world. If the interlocutor accepts the question, it becomes the QUD, a narrowed set of alternatives to be addressed (Roberts, 1996/To appear). Three eye movement recording studies are reported that investigated the effect of a preceding explicit QUD (Experiment 1) or implicit QUD (Experiments 2 and 3) on the processing of following text. Experiment 1 revealed an effect of whether the question queried alternative propositions or alternative entities. Reading times in the answer were faster when the answer it provided was of the same semantic type as was queried. Experiment 2 tested QUDs implied by the alternative description of reality introduced by a non-actuality implicature trigger such as should X or want to X. The results, when combined with the results of Experiment 3 (which ruled out a possible alternative interpretation) showed disrupted reading of a following verb phrase that failed to resolve the implicit QUD (Did the discourse participant actually X?), compared to reading the same material in the absence of a clear QUD. The findings support an online role for QUDs in guiding readers’ structuring and interpretation of discourse. PMID:22683609
McKechnie, Iain; Ekblom, Anneli; Szabó, Péter; Lane, Paul J.; McAlvay, Alex C.; Boles, Oliver J.; Walshaw, Sarah; Petek, Nik; Gibbons, Kevin S.; Quintana Morales, Erendira; Anderson, Eugene N.; Ibragimow, Aleksandra; Podruczny, Grzegorz; Vamosi, Jana C.; Marks-Block, Tony; LeCompte, Joyce K.; Awâsis, Sākihitowin; Nabess, Carly; Sinclair, Paul; Crumley, Carole L.
This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural. PMID:28235093
Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.
Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.
Answers to 27 questions about aeronautics, space, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are provided in this pamphlet. Among the topics dealt with in these questions are: costs of the space program; NASA's role in aeronautics; benefits received from the space program; why the United States hasn't developed means of rescuing…
Chouinard, Michelle M.
Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…
Ruminator generates a question such as: “Is Gabriela Mistral central to the story of Chile?” Examples of the types of journalist questions generated by...generated by the system are: “Is Bin Laden associated with Saddam Hussein?” “How is Gabriela Mistral related to Augusto Pinochet Ugarte?” “Who
Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah
Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)
This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…
Wilson, E. B.
The best way for trustees to fully understand and fulfill their responsibility to ensure that their institution is providing quality education and meeting academic goals is by asking appropriate questions. Collaboration among trustees, faculty members, and administrators is essential to framing questions from a strategic perspective. Just the act…
Shiang, Ching-Pyng; McDaniel, Ernest
This study investigated the effects of self-generated questions and external questions on thinking processes. Thirty-three college students acted as investigators in a computer simulation of a Congressional investigation into the Pearl Harbor attack. The simulation--known as "The Attack on Pearl Harbor: Cloud of Mystery?"--presented the…
This paper argues that provocative questions can be used by teachers to help students write. Described are a series of questions drawn from rhetorical theory, such as "How many times can I change focus so as to get the most complete understanding of a topic?""When does X occur?""Why does X occur?" and "What does X cause or prompt?" Several…
Quan, Xiaojun; Liu, Wenyin; Qiu, Bite
Term weighting has proven to be an effective way to improve the performance of text categorization. Very recently, with the development of user-interactive question answering or community question answering, there has emerged a need to accurately categorize questions into predefined categories. However, as a question is usually a piece of short text, can the existing term-weighting methods perform consistently in question categorization as they do in text categorization? The answer is not clear, since to the best of our knowledge, we have not seen any work related to this problem despite of its significance. In this study, we investigate the popular unsupervised and supervised term-weighting methods for question categorization. At the same time, we propose three new supervised term-weighting methods, namely, qf*icf, iqf*qf*icf, and vrf. Comparisons of them with existing unsupervised and supervised term-weighting methods are made through a series of experiments on question collections of Yahoo! Answers. The experimental results show that iqf*qf*icf achieves the best performance among all term-weighting methods, while qf*icf and vrf are also competitive for question categorization. Meanwhile, tf*OR is proven to be the most significant one among existing methods. In addition, iqf*qf*icf and vrf are also effective for long document categorization.
Hill, Joan Buchanan
This study took place in an independent all girls' school which serves over six hundred students in grades pre-kindergarten through twelve. This study seeks to answer the question: To what extent do teachers use questions to encourage deeper thinking and fuller responses. Through a review of literature, observations, interviews and analysis,…
Hartford, Fred; Good, Ron
In previous studies, science students have been trained to ask more and better questions through intensive instruction apart from the ongoing academic program. Cognitive strategies (such as questioning) are developed best, however, within the framework of an academic subject. In the current study, questioning skills were taught to high school chemistry students in the context of their laboratory experiments. Since both intellectual development and questioning skills are causally related to problem solving, the effect of intellectual development on the learning of questioning skills also was investigated. The Piagetian model of intellectual development was chosen for its demonstrated effects on many important aspects of science instruction. The number and quality of student research questions was measured by the Science Inquiry Assessment Instrument. The student's level of intellectual development was measured by the Classroom Test of Formal Operations. The twelve-week experimental treatment involved printed lessons which taught students to ask research questions in response to unanticipated observations in their regularly scheduled laboratory experiments. The pretest exaggerated the effect of this treatment. This effect, however, was significant among unpretested students, accounting for 14% of the post-test score variance. The level of intellectual development has no effect on these post-test scores. These important questioning skills can be acquired within the framework of the regularly scheduled classroom activities by high school chemistry students, irrespective of their level of Piagetian intellectual development.
This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…
Seabury, Marcia Bundy
Argues that a true general education should encourage the exploration of religious questions. Describes the author's use of works showing dystopian societies based on existing values, such as Huxley's "Brave New World," to encourage students to rethink their assumptions and develop openness toward the questions that religions address. (22…
Lewis, Mark Rose; Mensink, Michael C.
Prereading questions can be an effective tool for directing students' learning. However, it is not always clear what the online effects of a set of prereading questions will be. In two experiments, this study investigated whether readers direct additional attention to and learn more from sentences that are potentially relevant to a set of…
In this inquiry-based project, student-generated questions became the basis for student-directed individual and group projects that provided practice with problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills while digging deeper into the Earth science curriculum. The author used her students' high-level questions to provide relevance,…
This study presents the results of the analysis of a group of teacher-made test questions for statistics courses at the university level. Teachers were asked to submit tests they had used in their previous two semesters. Ninety-seven tests containing 978 questions were gathered and classified according to the SOLO taxonomy (Biggs & Collis,…
Mahmood, Samina; Visser, John
This article draws upon a study completed in a specific school in Bangalore where most children enter at the pre-school level and continue till high school. While the particular children in the study constitute a small number--four--it was observed that questions of identity mainly arose when they started questioning the circumstances behind their…
A study of question and response patterns in middle and secondary schools in Indonesia is presented. The study examines questioning from the point of view of several previous studies. Interactions in 12 classes in English and in Bahasa Indonesian were videotaped in three middle schools and three secondary schools. Analysis of the data revealed…
"From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…
According to Dylan Wiliam, the traditional classroom practice in which a teacher asks a question, students raise their hands, and the teacher calls on a volunteer does not actually provide much useful information--and it may even impede learning. When teachers ask questions in this way, they're only engaging the most confident students in the…
As teachers plan instruction--even instruction about punctuation--they have the opportunity to engage students' minds and create new labels: question-asking, problem-solving. How teachers teach embeds a vision of who they think kids are and what they think kids are capable of. Are they destined for a future of critical thinking, questioning,…
The author examines some basic questions as to why there should be astronomical facilities on the far side of the moon. The questions are ones of appropriateness, i.e., is this a proper use for human resources, what the real goals are, and are the present concepts the best match for the goals.
Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.
Presented in a simple and straightforward manner, this publication answers questions basic to an understanding of the American Indian and his socioeconomic position in the United States. The following identify major areas covered and representative questions: (1) The Indian People (Who is an Indian?); (2) The Legal Status of Indians (Are Indians…
Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna
Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…
Bergren, Martha Dewey
This Question and Answer (Q&A) article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation that were posed by school nurses in the field. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: education records, medication privacy issues, sharing of sensitive health information, privacy of…
What were you doing on September 11th? This seems like an obvious question to prompt conversations about the World Trade Center tragedy, but is it a good question to ask high school students a decade removed from the event? Many students now in high school were toddlers at the time. What do they really remember from that day? Are these memories…
Martin, Laurey K.
Types of questions that will stimulate student participation in French literature classes are discussed. After a summary of ineffective approaches, factors influencing development of effective questions are assessed: preparation, reformulation, and progression. Examples are included. (Contains nine references.) (LB)
Background Granting dispensing pharmacists the authority to prescribe has significant implications for pharmaceutical and health human resources policy, and quality of care. Despite the growing number of jurisdictions that have given pharmacists such privileges, there are few rigorous evaluations of these policy changes. This study will examine a January 2009 policy change in British Columbia (BC), Canada that allowed pharmacists to independently adapt and renew prescriptions. We hypothesize this policy increased drug utilization and drug costs, increased patient adherence to medication, and reduced total healthcare resource use. Methods/Design We will study a population-based cohort of approximately 4 million BC residents from 2004 through 2010. We will use data from BC PharmaNet on all of the prescriptions obtained by this cohort during the study period, and link it to administrative billings from physicians and hospital discharges. Using interrupted time series analysis, we will study longitudinal changes in drug utilization and costs, medication adherence, and short-term health care use. Further, using hierarchical modelling, we will examine the factors at the regional, pharmacy, patient, and prescription levels that are associated with prescription adaptations and renewals. Discussion In a recent survey of Canadian policymakers, many respondents ranked the issue of prescribing privileges as one of their most pressing policy questions. No matter the results of our study, they will be important for policymakers, as our data will make policy decisions surrounding pharmacist prescribing more evidence-based. PMID:21083922
Sanders, Eric J; Irvin, Dwight W; Belardi, Katie; McCune, Luke; Boyd, Brian A; Odom, Samuel L
This study investigated questions adults asked to children with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive pre-kindergarten classrooms, and whether child (e.g. autism severity) and setting (i.e. adult-to-child ratio) characteristics were related to questions asked during center-time. Videos of verbal children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 42) were coded based on the following question categories adapted from the work of Massey et al.: management, low cognitive challenging, or cognitively challenging. Results indicated that management questions (mean = 19.97, standard deviation = 12.71) were asked more than less cognitively challenging questions (mean = 14.22, standard deviation = 8.98) and less cognitively challenging questions were asked more than cognitively challenging questions (mean = 10.00, standard deviation = 6.9). Children with higher language levels had a greater likelihood of receiving cognitively challenging questions (odds ratio = 1.025; p = 0.007). Cognitively challenging questions had a greater likelihood of being asked in classrooms with more adults relative to children (odds ratio = 1.176; p = 0.037). The findings present a first step in identifying the questions directed at preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive classrooms.
modality.’ Propositions include predicates, arguments, and modifiers, while modality subsumes grammatical categories such as tense, aspect, and mood ...though, as illustrated below. In these examples, nonmanual marking is omitted but will be discussed below: (1) LIKE CHOCOLATE , INDEX2? ‘Do you like... chocolate ?’ (2) DON’T-WANT MARRY, INDEX1 ‘I don’t want to get married.’ Sentence (1) is a yes-no question with a postposed subject, while sentence
Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)
An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.
Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.
An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.
Henriksen, R. N.
In this discussion of molecular outflows the author isolates the basic theoretical questions, and discusses some of the model options in the light of a few decisive observational facts. In addition several new lines of theoretical argument are introduced regarding the behaviour of the protostar environment. These concern the global energy and momentum balance and the nature of the steady state that is compatible with a non-zero Poynting flux. Finally brief reference is made to a thorough study by Fiege and Henriksen, 1995 of the global model suggested in Henriksen and Valls-Gabaud, 1994.
Westman, W.E. )
A discussion is presented of efficient strategies for species preservationin spite of continued human alteration of the environment. Current policy and unresolved questions are included in the discussion. Incentives to maintain seminatural areas as a conservation strategy are recommended: planting of hedgerows or windbreaks to provide corridors for migration of species during climate change; purchase of development rights of natural and seminatural land for conversion to park reserves when climate stabilizes; use of intercropping, traditional forest gardens and crop plantings in the tropics; and maintenance of seminatural habitats on public and private lands.
de la Rosa, Stephan; Ferstl, Ylva; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.
A long standing debate revolves around the question whether visual action recognition primarily relies on visual or motor action information. Previous studies mainly examined the contribution of either visual or motor information to action recognition. Yet, the interaction of visual and motor action information is particularly important for understanding action recognition in social interactions, where humans often observe and execute actions at the same time. Here, we behaviourally examined the interaction of visual and motor action recognition processes when participants simultaneously observe and execute actions. We took advantage of behavioural action adaptation effects to investigate behavioural correlates of neural action recognition mechanisms. In line with previous results, we find that prolonged visual exposure (visual adaptation) and prolonged execution of the same action with closed eyes (non-visual motor adaptation) influence action recognition. However, when participants simultaneously adapted visually and motorically – akin to simultaneous execution and observation of actions in social interactions - adaptation effects were only modulated by visual but not motor adaptation. Action recognition, therefore, relies primarily on vision-based action recognition mechanisms in situations that require simultaneous action observation and execution, such as social interactions. The results suggest caution when associating social behaviour in social interactions with motor based information. PMID:27029781
The structure, function, and services of urban ecosystems evolve over time scales from seconds to centuries as Earth's population grows, infrastructure ages, and management decisions alter them. The concept of "urban evolution" was proposed in order to study changes in urban ecosystems over time. Urban evolution has exerted a major influence on Earth's water and elemental cycles from local to global scales over human history. A current understanding of urban evolution allows urban planning, management, and restoration to move beyond reactive management to predictive management. We explore two key mechanisms of urban evolution, urban selective pressure and adaptation, and their relationship to the evolution of modern water and biogeochemical cycles. Urban selective pressure is an environmental or societal driver contributing to urban adaptation. Urban adaptation is the sequential process by which an urban structure, function, or services becomes more fitted to its changing environment or human choices. We show how hydrological and biogeochemical traits evolve across successive generations of urban ecosystems via shifts in selective pressures and adaptations. We also discuss how urban evolution can be divided into distinct stages and transition periods of growth and expansion and decay and repair during the Anthropocene epoch. We explore multiple examples and drivers of urban evolution and adaptations including the role of unintended consequences and societal drivers. We also present a conceptual model for the evolution of urban waters from the Industrial Revolution to the present day emphasizing the role of urban adaptations in response to selective pressures. Finally, we conclude by proposing new concepts and questions for future research related to the urban evolution of water, material, and energy cycles.
This paper focuses on a specific aspect of formative assessment, namely questioning. Given that computers have gained widespread use in learning and teaching, specific attention should be made when organizing formative assessment in computer learning environments (CLEs). A course including various workshops was designed to develop knowledge and skills of questioning in CLEs. This study investigates how pre-service mathematics teachers used formative questioning with technological tools such as Geogebra and Graphic Calculus software. Participants are 35 pre-service mathematics teachers. To analyse formative questioning, two types of questions are investigated: mathematical questions and technical questions. Data were collected through lesson plans, teaching notes, interviews and observations. Descriptive statistics of the number of questions in the lesson plans before and after the workshops are presented. Examples of two types of questions are discussed using the theoretical framework. One pre-service teacher was selected and a deeper analysis of the way he used questioning during his three lessons was also investigated. The findings indicated an improvement in using technical questions for formative purposes and that the course provided a guideline in planning and using mathematical and technical questions in CLEs.
Grau, Lauretta E; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Kozlov, Andrei P; Abdala, Nadia
Cultural adaptation is an important step in the process of implementing health promotion interventions that, having been proven to be effective in one culture, are being applied in another. This study describes the results of a formative investigation to culturally adapt a STI/HIV risk reduction intervention for use in St. Petersburg, Russia. Analyses of data from brief elicitation interviews, focus groups, community experts, and a pilot test of the adapted intervention identified environmental, cognitive-information processing, and affect-motivation factors that needed to be addressed during the adaptation process. The participant/counselor relationship was adapted to reflect a hierarchical (cf. collaborative) relationship in order to accommodate Russian expectations about patient interactions with healthcare experts. Key skills building activities (e.g., identification of personal risk behaviors, role-playing) were approached gradually or indirectly in order to maintain participants' engagement in the intervention, and close-ended questions were added to assist participants in understanding unfamiliar concepts such as "triggers" and self-efficacy. Information about the prevalence of HIV/STI infections and alcohol use included data specific to St. Petersburg to increase the personal relevance of these materials and messages. Intervention components were tailored to participants' risk reduction and informational needs. No gender differences that would have justified adaptation of the intervention approach or content were noted. Examples of specific adaptations and the key issues to attend to when adapting behavioral interventions for use in Russian clinical settings are discussed.
Ingvarsson, Einar T; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Hanley, Gregory P; Stephenson, Kasey M
Four preschool children (with and without disabilities), who often responded inappropriately to questions, participated in the current study. Pretest results were used to create sets of questions that the children either did or did not answer correctly (i.e., known and unknown questions). We then sequentially taught two different responses to a subset of unknown questions: (a) “I don't know” (IDK), and (b) “I don't know, please tell me” (IDKPTM). Results showed that following acquisition with the target set, both responses generalized across questions and teachers for all participants. Following IDK training, some undesirable generalization of IDK to known questions occurred for 3 participants. Training of IDKPTM with the addition of a restricted reinforcement contingency was sufficient to establish correct answers to a portion of previously unknown questions. The importance of teaching generalized responses that enable the acquisition of novel intraverbals is discussed. PMID:17970257
Jo, Injeong; Bednarz, Sarah W.
This study investigates the location and varying spatiality of questions in geography textbooks. The results show that study questions posed in page margins address the three components of spatial thinking--concepts of space, using tools of representation, and processes of reasoning--more than questions in other locations within the text. Three…
MacNeill, A Luke; Bradley, M T; Cullen, M C; Arsenault, Andrea M
The effect of situational factors on perceptions of items on the polygraph Comparison Question Test (CQT) was assessed. In an initial experiment, 86 students (30 men, 56 women; M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 4.0) imagined one of eight scenarios that varied by guilt or innocence, the commission of a real crime or mock crime, and interrogation by a police officer or a professor. They then rated generic CQT questions for importance and emotional concern. All participants rated crime-relevant questions as being more important than past-crime comparison questions. "Guilty" participants also rated these questions as being more emotionally concerning, but "innocent" participants showed no differences in their ratings of concern for the two question types. Interrogator or crime type did not affect the general pattern of responding. A second experiment involving 80 students (21 men, 58 women, 1 non-specified; M age = 22.5 yr., SD = 7.3) replaced the generic CQT questions with content-specific questions developed by the participant. Those imagining guilt showed no differencesin their ratings of relevant and comparison questions, whereas those imagining innocence rated comparison questions as more concerning. Again, interrogator type and crime type had little effect on results. Overall these findings indicated distinctions in cognitive and emotional appraisal for CQT questions, with the nature of emotional concern dependent on guilt/innocence status and the personal relevance of comparison questions. Evidence suggests that the CQT is robust to other situational factors, such as crime type and interrogator type.
Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul
Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax. Thirteen…