Science.gov

Sample records for adaptations discussion questions

  1. Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: A Question of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…

  2. Discourse Integration Guided by the "Question under Discussion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Frazier, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    What makes a discourse coherent? One potential factor has been discussed in the linguistic literature in terms of a Question under Discussion (QUD). This approach claims that discourse proceeds by continually raising explicit or implicit questions, viewed as sets of alternatives, or competing descriptions of the world. If the interlocutor accepts…

  3. Teachers' Experiences Relative to Successful Questioning and Discussion Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitaille, Yvette Powell; Maldonado, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Questioning and discussion techniques are effective instructional methods, but there is often inconsistent implementation of these instructional methods. This case study explored teachers and evaluators' perceptions regarding exemplary questioning and discussion techniques. Participants included 9 teachers who earned exemplary marks on their…

  4. Classification and Framing in the Case Method: Discussion Leaders' Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, James

    2010-01-01

    Basil Bernstein's classification and framing was adopted as a theoretical model to analyse the instruction of two university professors who incorporated case studies into their graduate business and education courses. Classification and framing allows for a meaningful analysis of the discussion leader's questions that facilitate students'…

  5. Classroom Environments of Respect for Questioning and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitaille, Yvette Powell; Maldonado, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Questioning and discussion techniques are effective instructional methods that develop critical thinking and problem solving skills. There is often inconsistent implementation of these techniques, which can result in a negative effect on student achievement. This case study explored elementary, middle, and high school teachers and evaluators'…

  6. Socratic Questioning in the Paideia Method to Encourage Dialogical Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Maree; Sinclair, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of using Socratic questioning, based on the Paideia Method, on the nature of middle-schools students' patterns of interaction and on the cognitive complexity of their discussions. The hypothesis is that an experimental group will increase in both interaction focus and complexity at T3, which is the…

  7. Brine organisms and the question of habitat-specific adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, T.; Waber, J.; Stoecker, R.

    1984-01-01

    The question of adaptivity to extremely saline water environments is discussed, with attention given to the evolutionary performance of four common organisms including Cladonia skottsbergii, Penicillium notatum, Nostoc, and Dunaliella salina. Samples of each organism were collected and subjected to experimental conditions similar to extreme marine and limnetic environments in the Dead Sea and Don Juan Pond in the upper Wright valley of Antarctica. Measurements were made of isotope uptake and carbon dioxide production, and photoautotrophs were taken. It is found that all of the organisms responded quickly to the need to adapt to the extreme environments. It is concluded that a degree of uncertainty exists in the perception that the abundance of bulk water on the earth is in itself essential for life.

  8. The Contextual Adaptation of English Teachers' Questioning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Hong-mei; Li, Wang-zi; Lei, Ping

    2010-01-01

    In order to guarantee an interactive classroom atmosphere, English teachers pay much attention to the questioning strategies when they use question-answer teaching method. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis on English teachers' questioning strategies from the perspective of adaptation theory. It shows that the utilization of teachers'…

  9. Asking the Right Questions about Leadership: Discussion and Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, J. Richard; Wageman, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Five questions prompted by the articles in the American Psychologist special issue on leadership (January 2007, Vol. 62, No. 1) suggest some new directions for leadership research: (1) Not do leaders make a difference, but under what conditions does leadership matter? (2) Not what are the traits of leaders, but how do leaders' personal attributes…

  10. Using Questioning to Facilitate Discussion of Science Teaching Problems in Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Meilan; Lundeberg, Mary; McConnell, Tom J.; Koehler, Matthew J.; Eberhardt, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that questioning is a key strategy that facilitators use to promote discussion in Problem-Based Learning (PBL). Yet, there is a lack of detailed understanding on what questions facilitators ask and how those questions affect discussion. In this study we examined different types of questions that experienced facilitators…

  11. Ask and You Will Receive: How Question Type Influences Quantity and Quality of Online Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Megan E.; Thom, Lindsay R.; Hayes, Jennifer; Hay, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how question types influenced the quantity and quality of undergraduate students' online submissions. Discussion questions were structured based on one of six question types: direct link, course link, brainstorm, limited focal, open focal and application. Transcripts of eight online discussions involving 114 participants were…

  12. An Examination of the Questioning Interactions of Prospective Teachers during Mathematical Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darke, Kelly Marie

    2010-01-01

    Questioning is an essential and generative studying practice for prospective teachers (PTs) as they develop their mathematical content knowledge needed for teaching. This study examines PTs' questioning interactions by describing the types of questions they ask during small group discussions in a required mathematics content course and how their…

  13. How Can Discussion Forum Questions Be Effective in Online MBA Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A quasi-experiment compared two instructional approaches for an existing MBA online business strategy course at an accredited university to answer the question: how can discussion questions become more effective in online MBA courses? The treatment was an instructional approach that integrated Socratic questioning and conversation theory…

  14. Cues Matter: Learning Assistants Influence Introductory Biology Student Interactions during Clicker-Question Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jennifer K.; Wise, Sarah B.; Rentsch, Jeremy; Furtak, Erin M.

    2015-01-01

    The cues undergraduate biology instructors provide to students before discussions of clicker questions have previously been shown to influence student discussion. We further explored how student discussions were influenced by interactions with learning assistants (LAs, or peer coaches). We recorded and transcribed 140 clicker-question discussions in an introductory molecular biology course and coded them for features such as the use of reasoning and types of questions asked. Students who did not interact with LAs had discussions that were similar in most ways to students who did interact with LAs. When students interacted with LAs, the only significant changes in their discussions were the use of more questioning and more time spent in discussion. However, when individual LA–student interactions were examined within discussions, different LA prompts were found to generate specific student responses: question prompts promoted student use of reasoning, while students usually stopped their discussions when LAs explained reasons for answers. These results demonstrate that LA prompts directly influence student interactions during in-class discussions. Because clicker discussions can encourage student articulation of reasoning, instructors and LAs should focus on how to effectively implement questioning techniques rather than providing explanations. PMID:26590204

  15. Secondary Mathematics Student Teachers' Questions and Responses in Whole Class Discussion: Influences on Instructional Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspard, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined four high school mathematics student teachers' questions and responses in whole class discussion for eight weeks. Throughout the eight weeks, student teachers were teaching full time. With the use of video, interviews and written reflections the results make visible that student teachers attempted to ask questions that required…

  16. Discussion of David Thissen's Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The usual role of a discussant is to clarify and correct the paper being discussed, but in this case, the author, Howard Wainer, generally agrees with everything David Thissen says in his essay, "Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory." This essay expands on David Thissen's statement that there are typically two principal…

  17. Health literacy–listening skill and patient questions following cancer prevention and screening discussions

    PubMed Central

    Mazor, Kathleen M.; Rubin, Donald L.; Roblin, Douglas W.; Williams, Andrew E.; Han, Paul K. J.; Gaglio, Bridget; Cutrona, Sarah L.; Costanza, Mary E.; Wagner, Joann L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patient question-asking is essential to shared decision making. We sought to describe patients’ questions when faced with cancer prevention and screening decisions, and to explore differences in question-asking as a function of health literacy with respect to spoken information (health literacy–listening). Methods Four-hundred and thirty-three (433) adults listened to simulated physician–patient interactions discussing (i) prophylactic tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention, (ii) PSA testing for prostate cancer and (iii) colorectal cancer screening, and identified questions they would have. Health literacy–listening was assessed using the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Listening (CMLT-Listening). Two authors developed a coding scheme, which was applied to all questions. Analyses examined whether participants scoring above or below the median on the CMLT-Listening asked a similar variety of questions. Results Questions were coded into six major function categories: risks/benefits, procedure details, personalizing information, additional information, decision making and credibility. Participants who scored higher on the CMLT-Listening asked a greater variety of risks/benefits questions; those who scored lower asked a greater variety of questions seeking to personalize information. This difference persisted after adjusting for education. Conclusion Patients’ health literacy–listening is associated with distinctive patterns of question utilization following cancer screening and prevention counselling. Providers should not only be responsive to the question functions the patient favours, but also seek to ensure that the patient is exposed to the full range of information needed for shared decision making. PMID:26202787

  18. Combining peer discussion with instructor explanation increases student learning from in-class concept questions.

    PubMed

    Smith, M K; Wood, W B; Krauter, K; Knight, J K

    2011-01-01

    Use of in-class concept questions with clickers can transform an instructor-centered "transmissionist" environment to a more learner-centered constructivist classroom. To compare the effectiveness of three different approaches using clickers, pairs of similar questions were used to monitor student understanding in majors' and nonmajors' genetics courses. After answering the first question individually, students participated in peer discussion only, listened to an instructor explanation only, or engaged in peer discussion followed by instructor explanation, before answering a second question individually. Our results show that the combination of peer discussion followed by instructor explanation improved average student performance substantially when compared with either alone. When gains in learning were analyzed for three ability groups of students (weak, medium, and strong, based on overall clicker performance), all groups benefited most from the combination approach, suggesting that peer discussion and instructor explanation are synergistic in helping students. However, this analysis also revealed that, for the nonmajors, the gains of weak performers using the combination approach were only slightly better than their gains using instructor explanation alone. In contrast, the strong performers in both courses were not helped by the instructor-only approach, emphasizing the importance of peer discussion, even among top-performing students. PMID:21364100

  19. Students' Questions and Discursive Interaction: Their Impact on Argumentation during Collaborative Group Discussions in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of students' written and oral questions both as an epistemic probe and heuristic for initiating collaborative argumentation in science. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years from two countries, were asked to discuss which of two graphs best represented the change in temperature as ice was heated to steam.…

  20. Teachers' Education and Experiences Relative to Promoting Successful Questioning and Discussion Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitaille, Yvette Powell; Maldonado, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Questioning and discussion techniques are effective instructional methods that develop critical thinking and problem solving skills. Despite these positive associations, there is often inconsistent implementation of these techniques across disciplines and grade levels, often resulting in a negative effect on student achievement. This case study…

  1. Reviving the discussion on the rationale underlying the Comparison Question Test.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan

    2014-10-01

    There has been a long-standing debate around the rationale underlying the Comparison Question Test, which assumes that guilty suspects will have consistently larger responses to crime-related (relevant) than to general emotional (comparison) questions, whereas innocent suspects will show the opposite pattern of responding. This debate largely came to a close when the National Research Academy (2003 ) concluded that "The theoretical rationale for the polygraph is quite weak, especially in terms of differential fear, arousal, or other emotional states that are triggered in response to relevant or comparison questions" (p. 213). A recent study provides new insight into the test's logic and may restart a discussion about the nature of the test. PMID:25244552

  2. Towards spoken clinical-question answering: evaluating and adapting automatic speech-recognition systems for spoken clinical questions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifan; Tur, Gokhan; Hakkani-Tür, Dilek

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate existing automatic speech-recognition (ASR) systems to measure their performance in interpreting spoken clinical questions and to adapt one ASR system to improve its performance on this task. Design and measurements The authors evaluated two well-known ASR systems on spoken clinical questions: Nuance Dragon (both generic and medical versions: Nuance Gen and Nuance Med) and the SRI Decipher (the generic version SRI Gen). The authors also explored language model adaptation using more than 4000 clinical questions to improve the SRI system's performance, and profile training to improve the performance of the Nuance Med system. The authors reported the results with the NIST standard word error rate (WER) and further analyzed error patterns at the semantic level. Results Nuance Gen and Med systems resulted in a WER of 68.1% and 67.4% respectively. The SRI Gen system performed better, attaining a WER of 41.5%. After domain adaptation with a language model, the performance of the SRI system improved 36% to a final WER of 26.7%. Conclusion Without modification, two well-known ASR systems do not perform well in interpreting spoken clinical questions. With a simple domain adaptation, one of the ASR systems improved significantly on the clinical question task, indicating the importance of developing domain/genre-specific ASR systems. PMID:21705457

  3. Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Haley

    2007-01-01

    A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…

  4. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  5. Combining Peer Discussion with Instructor Explanation Increases Student Learning from In-Class Concept Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. K.; Wood, W. B.; Krauter, K.; Knight, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    Use of in-class concept questions with clickers can transform an instructor-centered "transmissionist" environment to a more learner-centered constructivist classroom. To compare the effectiveness of three different approaches using clickers, pairs of similar questions were used to monitor student understanding in majors' and nonmajors' genetics…

  6. Literacy Discussions in Low-Income Families: The Effect of Parent Questions on Fourth Graders' Retellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capotosto, Lauren; Kim, James S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of four types of reading comprehension questions--immediate, non-immediate, summary, and unanswerable questions--that linguistically diverse and predominantly low-income parents asked their fourth graders on children's text retellings. One-hundred-twenty (N = 120) parent and child dyads participated in a home visit…

  7. Discussion of David Thissen's Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Terry

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, University of North Carolina's associate dean of research and assessment at the School of Education Terry Ackerman poses questions and shares his thoughts on David Thissen's essay, "Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory" (this issue). Ackerman begins by considering the two purposes of Item Response…

  8. Compilation of Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Questions for Discussion. 104th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    This volume compiles and reprints the responses of 37 organizations to a series of questions issued by the House Committee on Agriculture in anticipation of debates concerning the Research Title of the 1995 Farm Bill due for updating and revision. The questions address some of the following topics: the role of the federal government in…

  9. Discussing the diagnosis of HPV-OSCC: common questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Fakhry, Carole; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2013-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a rising proportion of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers (OSCCs). HPV-positive OSCCs (HPV-OSCCs) are associated with oral HPV infection and sexual behavior. Patient questions regarding risk factors, prognosis and implications for past, present and future relationships often arise. This manuscript addresses frequently asked questions by patients with HPV-OSCC and their families. A framework for clinicians to address these conversations and the limitations of our present knowledge base is also presented. PMID:23876627

  10. Discussion Guide for Film Clip Series--"The Team Approach in Education: Twenty Questions on Film."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Garda W.; And Others

    This discussion guide is part of a multi-media package of audiovisual and written materials designed to assist trainers of teams in a school setting, particularly for use with teams of teachers and auxiliaries (paraprofessionals). The purpose of the film clip series--to stimulate discussion that is geared to problem solving--is discussed, and the…

  11. The Princess Storyteller, Clara Clarifier, Quincy Questioner, and the Wizard: Reciprocal Teaching Adapted for Kindergarten Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Pamela Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the author adapted reciprocal teaching strategies for use with her kindergarten students. Using puppets to help model strategies, she implemented a series of lessons that showed students how to retell, ask questions, and predict what would happen in a story that was read aloud. The purpose was to provide students with comprehension…

  12. On the Impact of Adaptive Test Question Selection for Learning Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barla, Michal; Bielikova, Maria; Ezzeddinne, Anna Bou; Kramar, Tomas; Simko, Marian; Vozar, Oto

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for adaptive selection of test questions according to the individual needs of students within a web-based educational system. It functions as a combination of three particular methods. The first method is based on the course structure and focuses on the selection of the most appropriate topic for learning. The…

  13. "We Have about Seven Minutes for Questions": The Discussion Sessions from a Specialized Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulff, Stefanie; Swales, John M.; Keller, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the "John Swales Conference Corpus" (JSCC), which contains the lectures and discussion sessions from an applied linguistics conference held in 2006 at the University of Michigan. This corpus constitutes a useful resource in that it provides insights into the language of a narrowly defined academic community. Moreover, it spans…

  14. Quiet or Questioning? Students' Discussion Behaviors in Student-Centered Education across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frambach, Janneke M.; Driessen, Erik W.; Beh, Philip; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2014-01-01

    A tool used in student-centered education is discussion among students in small learning groups. The Western origin of student-centered education, coupled with cross-cultural differences in communication styles, may detract from its cross-cultural applicability. This study investigates how in student-centered education, students' cultural…

  15. The Lightcraft Project: Multidisciplinary Framework With Some Questions for Discussion and Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, Yuri M.

    2005-04-01

    The primary motive for this article is that the Lightcraft project is far more likely to make progress toward its realization when an adequate plan is made available. The role of technical and social dimensions should be discussed on a multidisciplinary basis, since here are many useful ways to speculate about the future. This article is concerned with identifying certain non-physical trends that seem to be influencing the substance of the Lightcraft project.

  16. Open questions in autoimmunity: discussions from the 2013 Controversies in Rheumatology and Autoimmunity Meeting.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    The recent CORA (Controversies in Rheumatology and Autoimmunity) meeting held in 2013 represented a unique opportunity for rheumatologists to address several topics. Among these, four topics include: (i) the role of epigenetic changes in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as shown by studies in monozygotic twins; (ii) the cardiovascular and atherosclerotic risk in patients with RA treated with biologics; (iii) the use of new biomarkers for the diagnosis and follow-up of RA and other autoimmune diseases, as represented by the new automatic machines for anti-nuclear antibodies detection, or ultrasound imaging to follow RA progression; and (iv) the latest guidelines on how to use and manage biologic therapies in RA and other autoimmune diseases, such as lupus. In summary, we will herein present these topics of discussion and underline the conclusions obtained by rheumatologists during the 2013 CORA Meeting. PMID:24642104

  17. [Question discussion on Theories of Different Schools of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, "the twelfth five-year plan" teaching material].

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhen-Jin

    2014-02-01

    The several questions in Theories of Acupuncture and Moxibustion of Different Schools, "the twelfth five-year plan" teaching material, are analyzed and discussed. The expression of DOU Han-qing on "playing a role of meridians, collaterals, qi and blood" is not so accurate, which is suggested to modify as "attaching the importance to needles". "Theory of heaven, human being and earth" "theory of acupuncture on qi regulation" and "the eight therapeutic methods in treatment of disease" in Jinzhenfu (Ode to Golden Needles) are valuable academically and suggested to be supplemented. The expression of XI Hong on "reinforcing and reducing technique by following or against the running course of meridian" and the expression of XU Feng on "the magic turtle eight techniques" are not concrete. It is required to elaborate them in detail. These questions are put forward and needed to discuss with the editors so as to perfect the teaching material. PMID:24796066

  18. DISCUSSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an invited discussion of three invited papers on statistical disclosure limitation from the Second International Conference on Establishment Surveys, Buffalo, NY, June 2000. The three papers in this session deal with computing, estimates, and computing estimates in the c...

  19. Developing the learning physical science curriculum: Adapting a small enrollment, laboratory and discussion based physical science course for large enrollments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Robinson, Stephen; Boyd-Harlow, Danielle; McKean, Michael

    2012-06-01

    We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET), for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS) curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via “clicker” questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.

  20. [Adolescents and young adults with cancer between adaptation and addiction: state of the question].

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Solène; Flahault, Cécile; Laurence, Valérie; Levy, Dominique; Dolbeault, Sylvie

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to make a point on the state of health of adolescents and young adults (15-25 years) suffering from cancer. The adaptation strategies and the impact of the announcement of cancer will be discussed. In addition, we are going to consider the characteristics of teenagers and young adults, given the fact that development is still in progress. This period is especially punctuated by various experiments and the emergence of some clinical signs. Also, we have identified various studies concerning the use of licit and illicit substances. Furthermore, we have taken interest in behavioral addictions, particularly cyber addiction. While trying to cross these variables with a population of teenagers and young adults in the context of somatic diseases, it occurred that this population was not well known and studied. The interest of this synthesis is to underline the importance to make future researches in these perspectives. PMID:25953377

  1. Individual and Collaborative Technology-Mediated Learning Using Question & Answer Online Discussion Forums--Perceptions of Public Health Learners in Dubai, UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofeso, Niyi; Hassan, Moustafa; Hamidi, Samer

    2016-01-01

    This case study provides evidence-based suggestions for the use of Question and Answer discussion forums for improving quality and assessment of online learning. General online discussion forums are accessible at any time to all subscribers, making it possible for some learners to update, concur with or paraphrase discussions posted earlier by…

  2. An Introduction to Internet Resources for K-12 Educators. Part II: Question Answering, Listservs, Discussion Groups, Update 1996. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Nancy A.

    As K-12 schools connect to the Internet, a new means of communication opens up to educators and students. This updated digest describes some sample services and resources available to the K-12 community via electronic mail. Information sources covered include: question answering services, including AskERIC and the Online Writing Lab; listservs or…

  3. An Introduction to Internet Resources for K-12 Educators. Part II: Question Answering, Listservs, Discussion Groups, Update 1998. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Nancy A.; Batovsky, Steven

    As K-12 schools connect to the Internet, a new method of communication opens up to educators and their students. This ERIC Digest describes some sample services and resources that are available to the K-12 community by electronic mail over the Internet. Question Answering services, listservs, and Usenet newsgroups are listed. (Author/AEF)

  4. Adaptation of the "Ten Questions" to Screen for Autism and other Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Ssebyala, Keron; Karamagi, Charles; Kiguli, Sarah; Smith, Karen; Anderson, Meredith C.; Croen, Lisa A.; Trevathan, Edwin; Hansen, Robin; Smith, Daniel; Grether, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders are recognized to be relatively common in developing countries but little data exist for planning effective prevention and intervention strategies. In particular, data on autism spectrum disorders are lacking. For application in Uganda, we developed a 23-question screener (23Q) that includes the Ten Questions screener…

  5. Design of a Low-Cost Adaptive Question Answering System for Closed Domain Factoid Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Huey Ling

    2010-01-01

    Closed domain question answering (QA) systems achieve precision and recall at the cost of complex language processing techniques to parse the answer corpus. We propose a "query-based" model for indexing answers in a closed domain factoid QA system. Further, we use a phrase term inference method for improving the ranking order of related questions.…

  6. A Question of Trust: Predictive Conditions for Adaptive and Technical Leadership in Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Alan J.; Chrispeels, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that educational leaders enacting a balance of technical and adaptive leadership have an effect on increasing student achievement. Technical leadership focuses on problem-solving or first-order changes within existing structures and paradigms. Adaptive leadership involves deep or second-order changes that alter…

  7. Questions for Parents to Ask about School Adaptations. PHP-c91

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A child with a disability who has an Individualized Education Program (IEP) or Section 504 Accommodation Plan may need extra help and support to participate in school. It takes thoughtful planning to choose adaptations, based on a child's disability, to help the child learn or have access to learning. Appropriate accommodations vary with…

  8. Science questions for implementing climate refugia for cold-water fish as an adaptation strateby

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managing climate refugia has been proposed as a potential adaptation strategy that may be useful for protecting the biotic integrity of watersheds under a changing climate. Paleo-ecological evidence suggests that refugia allowed species to persist through prior periods of climate...

  9. An Association between High Intellectual Ability and an Imaginative and Analytic Approach to the Discussion of Open Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Lynn; Lambourne, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment was designed to find out whether there were any quantitative and qualitative differences in the spoken discourse of 'high' and 'low' ability 16-year-old pupils in discussions of problems arising from textual material. Cognitive, linguistic and quantitative analyses of the discourse were carried out. (Editor)

  10. Readers, Authors, and Page Structure: A Discussion of Four Questions Arising from a Content Analysis of Web Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Stephanie W.; Grams, Erika S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses research describing Web page and link classification systems resulting from a content analysis of over 75 Web pages. Topics include the decision-making processes of Web page authors and readers; syntactic analysis of labeled and isolated anchors; expansion and resource links; and where links lead. (Author/LRW)

  11. Adaptation of sleep and circadian rhythms to the Antarctic summer - A question of zeitgeber strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Macdonald, John A.; Montgomery, John C.; Paulin, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    Adaptation of sleep and circadian rhythms was examined in three temperate zone dwellers arriving in Antarctica during summer. Rectal temperature, wrist activity, and heart rate were monitored continuously, sleep timing and quality noted on awakening, and mood and fatigue rated every 2 h while awake. Sleep was poorer in 2/3 subjects in Antarctica, where all subjects reported more difficulty rising. Sleep occurred at the same clock times in New Zealand and Antarctica, however, the rhythms of temperature, activity, and heart rate underwent a delay of about of 2 h. The subject with the most Antarctic experience had the least difficulty adapting to sleeping during constant daylight. The subject with the most delayed circadian rhythms had the most difficulty. The delay in the circadian system with respect to sleep and clock time is hypothesized to be due to differences in zeitgeber strength and/or zeitgeber exposure between Antarctica and New Zealand.

  12. Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations:Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research

    PubMed Central

    SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed. PMID:11786989

  13. Toward a Theory of Adaptive Transfer: Expanding Disciplinary Discussions of "Transfer" in Second-Language Writing and Composition Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Michael-John; Ringer, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition studies have focused primarily on the reuse of past learning and thus have not adequately accounted for the adaptation of learned writing knowledge in unfamiliar situations. In an effort to expand disciplinary discussions of transfer in L2 writing and composition…

  14. IODP Deep Biosphere Research Workshop report - a synthesis of recent investigations, and discussion of new research questions and drilling targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; LaRowe, D. E.; Lloyd, K. G.; Mills, H.; Orsi, W.; Reese, B. K.; Sauvage, J.; Huber, J. A.; Amend, J.

    2014-04-01

    During the past decade, the IODP (International Ocean Discovery Program) has fostered a significant increase in deep biosphere investigations in the marine sedimentary and crustal environments, and scientists are well-poised to continue this momentum into the next phase of the IODP. The goals of this workshop were to evaluate recent findings in a global context, synthesize available biogeochemical data to foster thermodynamic and metabolic activity modeling and measurements, identify regional targets for future targeted sampling and dedicated expeditions, foster collaborations, and highlight the accomplishments of deep biosphere research within IODP. Twenty-four scientists from around the world participated in this one-day workshop sponsored by IODP-MI and held in Florence, Italy, immediately prior to the Goldschmidt 2013 conference. A major topic of discussion at the workshop was the continued need for standard biological sampling and measurements across IODP platforms. Workshop participants renew the call to IODP operators to implement recommended protocols.

  15. Developing the Learning Physical Science Curriculum: Adapting a Small Enrollment, Laboratory and Discussion Based Physical Science Course for Large Enrollments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Robinson, Stephen; Boyd-Harlow, Danielle; McKean, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, "Physical Science and Everyday Thinking" (PSET), for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new "Learning Physical Science" (LEPS) curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the…

  16. DISCUSSION OF: TREELETS—AN ADAPTIVE MULTI-SCALE BASIS FOR SPARSE UNORDERED DATA

    PubMed Central

    Tuglus, Catherine; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    We would like to congratulate Lee, Nadler and Wasserman on their contribution to clustering and data reduction methods for high p and low n situations. A composite of clustering and traditional principal components analysis, treelets is an innovative method for multi-resolution analysis of unordered data. It is an improvement over traditional PCA and an important contribution to clustering methodology. Their paper presents theory and supporting applications addressing the two main goals of the treelet method: (1) Uncover the underlying structure of the data and (2) Data reduction prior to statistical learning methods. We will organize our discussion into two main parts to address their methodology in terms of each of these two goals. We will present and discuss treelets in terms of a clustering algorithm and an improvement over traditional PCA. We will also discuss the applicability of treelets to more general data, in particular, the application of treelets to microarray data. PMID:25478036

  17. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  18. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

  19. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…

  20. Novel licensure pathways for expeditious introduction of new tuberculosis vaccines: a discussion of the adaptive licensure concept.

    PubMed

    Rustomjee, Roxana; Lockhart, Stephen; Shea, Jacqueline; Fourie, P Bernard; Hindle, Zoë; Steel, Gavin; Hussey, Gregory; Ginsberg, Ann; Brennan, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    The ultimate goal of vaccine development is licensure of a safe and efficacious product that has a well-defined manufacturing process resulting in a high quality product. In general, clinical development and regulatory approval occurs in a linear, sequential manner: Phase 1 - safety, immunogenicity; Phase 2 - immunogenicity, safety, dose ranging and preliminary efficacy; Phase 3 - definitive efficacy, safety, lot consistency; and, following regulatory approval, Phase 4 - post-marketing safety and effectiveness. For candidate TB vaccines, where correlates of protection are not yet identified, phase 2 and 3 efficacy of disease prevention trials are, by necessity, very large. Each trial would span 2-5 years, with full licensure expected only after 1 or even 2 decades of development. Given the urgent unmet need for a new TB vaccine, a satellite discussion was held at the International African Vaccinology Conference in Cape Town, South Africa in November 2012, to explore the possibility of expediting licensure by use of an "adaptive licensure" process, based on a risk/benefit assessment that is specific to regional needs informed by epidemiology. This may be appropriate for diseases such as TB, where high rates of morbidity, mortality, particularly in high disease burden countries, impose an urgent need for disease prevention. The discussion focused on two contexts: licensure within the South African regulatory environment - a high burden country where TB vaccine efficacy trials are on-going, and licensure by the United States FDA --a well-resourced regulatory agency where approval could facilitate global licensure of a novel TB vaccine. PMID:24360811

  1. An Introduction to Internet Resources for K-12 Educators. Part II: Question Answering, Electronic Discussion Groups, Newsgroups, Update 1999. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Nancy A.

    As K-12 schools connect to the Internet, a new method of communication opens up to educators and their students. This ERIC Digest describes some sample services and resources that are available to the K-12 community by electronic mail over the Internet (resources and addresses are subject to change). Question answering services, electronic…

  2. Guiding Students to the Right Questions: Adaptive Navigation Support in an E-Learning System for Java Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, I.-H.; Sosnovsky, S.; Brusilovsky, P.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid growth of the volume of interactive questions available to the students of modern E-Learning courses placed the problem of personalized guidance on the agenda of E-Learning researchers. Without proper guidance, students frequently select too simple or too complicated problems and ended either bored or discouraged. This paper explores a…

  3. Adaptation of Bharatanatyam Dance Pedagogy for Multicultural Classrooms: Questions and Relevance in a North American University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Suparna

    2013-01-01

    This article opens up questions around introducing Bharatanatyam, a form of Indian classical dance, to undergraduate learners within a North American university setting. The aim is to observe how the learners understood and received a particular cultural practice and to explore issues related to learning goals, curriculum content, approaches to…

  4. Reframing Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Recitations and discussions are two types of interactions which have long been of interest to researchers who study classroom discourse in secondary English and Social Studies. According to research, teachers control the discourse during recitations through "inauthentic" questions requiring pre-specified answers. In contrast, discussions involve…

  5. Any Questions, Please?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, Howard R.

    1989-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses the use of questioning in the college classroom and its contribution to learning. Starting with a brief examination of the ways children question, discussions cover: (1) the effects of linguistic and socio-linguistic characteristics in questioning; (2) questions in psychotherapy, law, and opinion polling; (3) classroom…

  6. Adaptation Processes of Recent Immigrants to the United States: A Review of the Demographic and Social Aspects. Policy Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodis, Tracy Ann

    This paper reviews the recent literature on the demographic and social aspects of immigrant adaptation. Demographic information includes age and family structure, fertility behavior, intermarriage, and residential segregation. Social dimensions refer to native-language retention, English-language acquisition, and educational attainment. Most…

  7. Analysis of the Possibilities for Discussing Questions of Global Justice in Geography Classes on the Use of Methods of Empirical Social Research When Analyzing the Teaching of Geography in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applis, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' orientations with regard to questions on the implementation of justice in production structures of the global textile industry. The students worked with the Mystery Method from the Thinking Through Geography approach by David Leat and with Lawrence Kohlberg's Method of Dilemma Discussion. During this process, the…

  8. "Do You Know Actimel?" The Adaptive Nature of Dialogic Teacher-Led Discussions in the CLIL Science Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar Urmeneta, Cristina; Evnitskaya, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    This interpretive case study is framed within recent sociocultural conceptualisations of learning. It draws on research on teacher-led classroom discussions, and investigates the conversational intricacies through which "dialogicity" is accomplished in adaptive ways in one content and language integrated learning (CLIL) science…

  9. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  10. Vaginitis: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adult & Child ADHD Alzheimer's & Dementia Anxiety Depression Improving Memory Mental Health Positive Psychology Stress Pain « Back Arthritis ... Eating (Print - Free U.S. Shipping!) $20.00 Improving Memory: Understanding Age-Related Memory Loss (PDF - Lowest Price!) $ ...

  11. Vaginitis: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... reserved. × Sign Up Now For HEALTH beat. Our FREE E-mail Newsletter In each issue of HEALTHbeat: ... on health books and reports Plus, receive your FREE Bonus Report, "101 Tips for Tip-Top Health" ...

  12. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  13. Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

  14. Questioning Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    Questions are so much a part of the classroom routine and they should stimulate learning and thinking. Introduces the Questioning and Understanding to Improve Learning and Thinking (QUILT) method which incorporates Bloom's Taxonomy and wait time. (ASK)

  15. Biology Today: Questions & Variations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student questions as tools of instruction and as indicators of student misconceptions. Suggests different ways in which students may gain an understanding of biological concepts through discussion of popular movies and biological problems. (CW)

  16. Critiquing Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Question formation is a basic part of teaching and learning English. However, teachers often focus on the ability to form the question properly and not as much on the quality of the information the question is seeking. Whether teaching English language learners or students who want to be English teachers, teachers need to carefully consider the…

  17. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  18. Essential Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

  19. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  20. Curiosity Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  1. Fermi questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Karen

    1999-05-01

    This column contains problems and solutions for the general category of questions known as "Fermi" questions. Forcing the students to use their ability to estimate, giving answers in terms of order-of-magnitude, is not only a challenge for a competition, but a teaching strategy to use in the classroom to develop self-confidence and the ability to analyze answers as to whether or not they make sense, as opposed to relying on the "precision" of a calculator value.

  2. Are There Any Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauterman, Philip

    1970-01-01

    The crucial variable in good classroom teaching is the verbal behavior of the teacher. Through his questioning techniques--what questions he asks, how and when he asks them, how he replies to students, and how he stimulates students to reply to each other--the teacher can evoke a high level of class discussion and force students to go beyond the…

  3. "This Guy Is Japanese Stuck in a White Man's Body": A Discussion of Meaning Making, Identity Slippage, and Cross-Cultural Adaption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, William S.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses two issues within a general theory of cross-cultural adaption. One concerns the extent to which cross-cultural adaption is activated by the ability to make meaning in Japanese as a foreign language; the second investigated the phenomenon of identity slippage. Six life histories of informants who had learned Japanese after age 11 are used…

  4. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  5. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  6. [Interview Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center, or GMSEC, was started in 2001 to create a new standard approach for managing GSFC missions. Standardized approaches in the past involved selecting and then integrating the most appropriate set of functional tools. Assumptions were made that "one size fits all" and that tool changes would not be necessary for many years. GMSEC took a very different approach and has proven to be very successful. The core of the GMSEC architecture consists of a publish/subscribe message bus, standardized message formats, and an Applications Programming Interface (API). The API supports multiple operating systems, programming languages and messaging middleware products. We use a GMSEC-developed free middleware for low-cost development. A high capacity, robust middleware is used for operations and a messaging system with a very small memory footprint is used for on-board flight software. Software components can use the standard message formats or develop adapters to convert from their native formats to the GMSEC formats. We do not want vendors to modify their core products. Over 50 software components are now available for use with the GMSEC architecture. Most available commercial telemetry and command systems, including the GMV hifly Satellite Control System, have been adapted to run in the GMSEC labs.

  7. "Here the Scientists Explain What I Said." Coordination Practices Elicited during the Enactment of the Results and Discussion Sections of Adapted Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Adapted primary literature (APL) is a novel text genre that retains the authentic characteristics of primary literature. Learning through APL represents an educational intervention with an authentic scientific context. In this case study, we analyzed the 80-min discourse developed during the enactment of an article from an APL-based curriculum in…

  8. Weighty Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the difference between mass and weight, which is discussed very early in most physics courses. Those who indulge in mathematical problems involving weights should know the difference. Mass is often defined as the amount of matter in an object. This usually means the sum of the masses of all the atoms that constitute that…

  9. What is a Question?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2003-03-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of logical inference to these sets of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous measure that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2N, whereas the lattice of assuredly real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 22N. Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance, and entropy.

  10. What is a Question?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  11. Scored Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a classroom strategy to help students learn to analyze and discuss significant issues from history and current policy debates. Describes scored discussions in which small groups of students receive points for participation. Provides an example of a discussion on gold mining. Includes an agenda. Explores uses of scored discussions and…

  12. The genomics of adaptation.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Jacek; Babik, Wiesław

    2012-12-22

    The amount and nature of genetic variation available to natural selection affect the rate, course and outcome of evolution. Consequently, the study of the genetic basis of adaptive evolutionary change has occupied biologists for decades, but progress has been hampered by the lack of resolution and the absence of a genome-level perspective. Technological advances in recent years should now allow us to answer many long-standing questions about the nature of adaptation. The data gathered so far are beginning to challenge some widespread views of the way in which natural selection operates at the genomic level. Papers in this Special Feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B illustrate various aspects of the broad field of adaptation genomics. This introductory article sets up a context and, on the basis of a few selected examples, discusses how genomic data can advance our understanding of the process of adaptation. PMID:23097510

  13. Strengthening Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Allison B.

    2013-01-01

    "Strategy sharing" is a certain type of discussion that centers on students' ideas and occurs when children present different approaches to problems and provide information about how they solved the problem (Wood, Williams, and McNeal 2004). A teacher may orchestrate a strategy-sharing discussion to achieve one or more of the…

  14. Orchestrating Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Margaret S.; Hughes, Elizabeth K.; Engle, Randi A.; Stein, Mary Kay

    2009-01-01

    The premise underlying this article is that identifying and using the "five practices model" can make discussions of cognitively challenging tasks more manageable for teachers. By giving teachers a roadmap that they can follow before and during whole-class discussions, these practices have the potential for helping teachers more effectively…

  15. Provocative Questions in Cancer: NCI Seminar

    Cancer.gov

    science writers' seminar to discuss various aspects of one of NCI’s signature efforts -- the Provocative Questions project. Discussion will focus on the scientific research that surrounds some of these questions.

  16. Summary discussions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Remarks intended to highlight topics of importance for future research were made by three of the participants at the conclusion of the Seminar. A brief listing is given of topics discussed by each of these rapporteurs.

  17. Case Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, Colleen; Mears, Simon C.; Sieber, Frederick E.; Votsis, Julie; Wood, Ronald C.; Friedman, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    This case presents a discussion of a 92-year-old man with multiple comorbidities, who presents with a subtrochanteric fracture. His course is complicated by large volume blood loss intraoperatively, requiring intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring postoperatively. His course is also complicated by delirium. PMID:23569687

  18. Risky Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Julian; Jacobs, Neil

    2006-01-01

    This article considers a hypothetical decision by a hypothetical learner about whether or not to participate in an online "discussion", viewed through the lens of risk analysis. It begins with the premise that participation online is desirable but that it involves the participant in risk, a fact that needs to be acknowledged and taken into account…

  19. Developing Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloch, Beth; Bomer, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and educators have long argued for the importance of providing time and space for rich conversations around literature. This column draws on research to consider how teachers make room for these discussions inside their classrooms. Particularly, the authors consider different dimensions along which teachers might examine and grow…

  20. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  1. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  2. Birds: Old Questions and New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

  3. Teaching About Adaptation: Why Evolutionary History Matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampourakis, Kostas

    2013-02-01

    Adaptation is one of the central concepts in evolutionary theory, which nonetheless has been given different definitions. Some scholars support a historical definition of adaptation, considering it as a trait that is the outcome of natural selection, whereas others support an ahistorical definition, considering it as a trait that contributes to the survival and reproduction of its possessors. Finally, adaptation has been defined as a process, as well. Consequently, two questions arise: the first is a philosophical one and focuses on what adaptation actually is; the second is a pedagogical one and focuses on what science teachers and educators should teach about it. In this article, the various definitions of adaptation are discussed and their uses in some textbooks are presented. It is suggested that, given elementary students' intuitions about purpose and design in nature and secondary students' teleological explanations for the origin of adaptations, any definition of adaptation as a trait should include some information about its evolutionary history.

  4. [Discussing abortion].

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Discussions with several groups of low-income, middle-aged women in various countries of Latin America showed that most disapproved of abortion. In the course of group discussions about the motives of women who seek abortions and the psychological and sanitary conditions under which abortion occurs, however, their disapproval became less categorical. They began to accept the need to decriminalize abortion in order to protect women. The majority, strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, believed that human life begins at conception. Others disapproved of abortion because they feared it would be used as a birth control method and would encourage promiscuity. Most disapproved of abortion for single women attempting to escape family or social censure of unmarried motherhood. Fear of health effects or death from abortion and fear of divine punishment were also mentioned. Recognition of the anguish and pain suffered by women deciding to seek abortion and the difficulty of providing for the material and other needs of many children were factors that led to reconsideration of the wholesale condemnation of abortion. The women realized that such condemnations never take the woman's circumstances into account. Some of the women felt that aborting an unwanted pregnancy would be preferable to abandoning or neglecting an unwanted child. Many of the women came to feel that abortion should be legalized at least under some circumstances. PMID:12348503

  5. Bell's Palsy: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Featured Content: Warming up a frozen shoulder » Do habits cause your neck pain? » New guidelines: Avoid opioids for chronic pain » Study shows mind-body approaches better than pain relievers ...

  6. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... lifestyle might help prevent cancer » What is a synthetic human genome? » See All In Case You Missed ... thyroid stimulating hormone, cortisol, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone) Pelvic ultrasound Pap smear Endometrial biopsy. Originally published: ...

  7. Bell's Palsy: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... products will be searched. Shopping Cart Description Qty Price The Harvard Medical School 6-Week Plan for ... Memory: Understanding Age-Related Memory Loss (PDF - Lowest Price!) $18.00 Harvard Health Letter (Print & Online Access ( ...

  8. Colonic Polyps: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... products will be searched. Shopping Cart Description Qty Price The Harvard Medical School 6-Week Plan for ... Memory: Understanding Age-Related Memory Loss (PDF - Lowest Price!) $18.00 Harvard Health Letter (Print & Online Access ( ...

  9. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adult & Child ADHD Alzheimer's & Dementia Anxiety Depression Improving Memory Mental Health Positive Psychology Stress Pain « Back Arthritis ... Eating (Print - Free U.S. Shipping!) $20.00 Improving Memory: Understanding Age-Related Memory Loss (PDF - Lowest Price!) $ ...

  10. Acoustic Neuroma: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... reserved. × Sign Up Now For HEALTH beat. Our FREE E-mail Newsletter In each issue of HEALTHbeat: ... on health books and reports Plus, receive your FREE Bonus Report, "101 Tips for Tip-Top Health" ...

  11. Colonic Polyps: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... reserved. × Sign Up Now For HEALTH beat. Our FREE E-mail Newsletter In each issue of HEALTHbeat: ... on health books and reports Plus, receive your FREE Bonus Report, "101 Tips for Tip-Top Health" ...

  12. After a Heart Attack: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... products will be searched. Shopping Cart Description Qty Price The Harvard Medical School 6-Week Plan for ... Memory: Understanding Age-Related Memory Loss (PDF - Lowest Price!) $18.00 Harvard Health Letter (Print & Online Access ( ...

  13. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  14. SNTEMP (In)frequently asked questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here, you will find a series of questions and answers resulting from many years of technical assistance with SNTEMP and SSTEMP. These (in)frequently asked questions are presented here so that you may get a feel for the range of questions posed, learn from the questions and their 'answers,' and share in the discussions if you wish. I certainly didn't answer all the questions, nor do I feel like I've got the only answer for them all.

  15. Improving case retrieval by remembering questions

    SciTech Connect

    Alterman, R.; Griffin, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses techniques that improve the performance of a case retrieval system, after it is deployed, as a result of the continued usage of the system, by remembering previous episodes of question answering. The user generates a request for information and the system responds with the retrieval of relevant case(s). A history of such transactional behavior over a given set of data is maintained by the system and used as a foundation for adapting its future retrieval behavior. With each transaction, the system acquires information about the usage of the system that is subsequently used to adjust the behavior of the system. This notion of a case retrieval system draws on a distinction between the system in isolation and the system as it is used for a particular set of cases. It also draws on distinctions between the designed system, the deployed system, and the system that emerges as it is used.

  16. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  17. Exam Question Exchange: Potential Energy Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Presents three examination questions, graded in difficulty, that explore the topic of potential energy surfaces using a diagrammatic approach. Provides and discusses acceptable solutions including diagrams. (CW)

  18. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, M L

    1995-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410

  19. Adaptive management of natural resources-framework and issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management, an approach for simultaneously managing and learning about natural resources, has been around for several decades. Interest in adaptive decision making has grown steadily over that time, and by now many in natural resources conservation claim that adaptive management is the approach they use in meeting their resource management responsibilities. Yet there remains considerable ambiguity about what adaptive management actually is, and how it is to be implemented by practitioners. The objective of this paper is to present a framework and conditions for adaptive decision making, and discuss some important challenges in its application. Adaptive management is described as a two-phase process of deliberative and iterative phases, which are implemented sequentially over the timeframe of an application. Key elements, processes, and issues in adaptive decision making are highlighted in terms of this framework. Special emphasis is given to the question of geographic scale, the difficulties presented by non-stationarity, and organizational challenges in implementing adaptive management. ?? 2010.

  20. Measuring victimization inside prisons: questioning the questions.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Jing Shi; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-10-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the prison victimization literature to elicit information on victimization from inmates, compared to questions used in the general victimization literature. The questions used in the National Violence Against Women and Men Surveys are used to estimate sexual and physical victimization rates for an entire prison system. Rates of victimization were found to vary significantly by specificity of the question, definition of perpetrator, and clustering of behaviors. Facts about victimization inside prison will become more certain when the methodology becomes more standardized and consistent with definitions of victimization. PMID:18309042

  1. Organizational Adaptation and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.

    1984-01-01

    Organizational adaptation and types of adaptation needed in academe in the future are reviewed and major conceptual approaches to organizational adaptation are presented. The probable environment that institutions will face in the future that will require adaptation is discussed. (MLW)

  2. Using Questions to Depress Student Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the traditional and prevailing view that teacher questions are effective stimulants to student thought. Through an examination of research, practice, and theory related to question use, the author develops a counterargument that questions inhibit thought and discussion, or at least do not stimulate student participation. (RH)

  3. Leading Questions and the Eyewitness Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    1975-01-01

    Investigates how the wording of questions asked immediately after an event may influence responses to questions asked considerably later. Discussion of the findings develops the thesis that questions asked about an event shortly after it occurs may distort the witness' memory of that event. (RC)

  4. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)

  5. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know when is the ...

  6. Burning Questions about Calories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  7. Constructivism and Objectivism: Additional Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Edmund S.

    2006-01-01

    In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.

  8. Promoting Discussions in ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teachers who work with English as a Second Language (ESL) students, struggle with promoting discussion during guided reading. When ESL students are asked comprehension questions during group discussions and throughout the reading of a book, often teachers receive minimal feedback. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify…

  9. Reading for Meaning: Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkle, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

  10. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  11. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Contains two articles relating to chemistry examination questions. One provides examples of how to sequence multiple choice questions so that partial credit may be given for some responses. The second includes a question and solution dealing with stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisometic substance. (TW)

  12. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  13. Questions for Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

  14. Making Questions Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  15. Teachers' Classroom Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Alpaslan

    2007-01-01

    There is a large body of literature on the types of questions asked by teachers. Questions are a way that teachers use to bring students around to the correct mathematical concepts and procedures through "the negotiation of meaning for necessary condition of learning" (Voigt, 1992, p. 43). Teachers ask many questions, but we are not sure what…

  16. Habituation of visual adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  17. Habituation of visual adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  18. Questioning: A Path to Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenbury, Leila; Kelly, Patricia P.

    Intended to help upper elementary and secondary school teachers increase their students' critical thinking, this booklet discusses the theory and techniques behind the use of questioning to evoke prior knowledge and further inquiry. The first portion of the booklet discusses the theory and research that underlie the use of questioning, examining…

  19. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  20. Question-Asking and Question-Exploring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

  1. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  2. Problem of Questioning

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  3. Designing Great Hinge Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…

  4. Asking the Right Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Ruth Mehrtens

    1990-01-01

    Like good researchers, writers about research need to be able to tell whether scientific findings are valid. Six questions, to be asked of the researcher, can help the writer explain to others. A healthy skepticism is also important; there may be signals that more questions should be asked. (MSE)

  5. Let's Switch Questioning Around

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovani, Cris

    2015-01-01

    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  6. Questions About the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.

    This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to questions via teletype. The book contains one hundred questions typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…

  7. Questioning the Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephanie

    2001-01-01

    One way teachers can improve students' reading comprehension is to teach them to think while reading, questioning the text and carrying on an inner conversation. This involves: choosing the text for questioning; introducing the strategy to the class; modeling thinking aloud and marking the text with stick-on notes; and allowing time for guided…

  8. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  9. It's about the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearwald, Ronald R.

    2011-01-01

    The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

  10. The Technology of the Question: Structure and Use of Questions in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hokanson, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This writing looks at an elemental aspect of learning and communication, the question, and contends that questions can be viewed as a technology for education. Questions that we ask in the classroom, online, or in discussion can shape learning and develop skills in students, and they should be more systematically employed in education. This…

  11. Modeling Students' Memory for Application in Adaptive Educational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelánek, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Human memory has been thoroughly studied and modeled in psychology, but mainly in laboratory setting under simplified conditions. For application in practical adaptive educational systems we need simple and robust models which can cope with aspects like varied prior knowledge or multiple-choice questions. We discuss and evaluate several models of…

  12. Descriptive Question Answering with Answer Type Independent Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeo-Chan; Lee, Chang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Jang, Myung-Gil; Ryu, Pum Mo; Park, So-Young

    In this paper, we present a supervised learning method to seek out answers to the most frequently asked descriptive questions: reason, method, and definition questions. Most of the previous systems for question answering focus on factoids, lists or definitional questions. However, descriptive questions such as reason questions and method questions are also frequently asked by users. We propose a system for these types of questions. The system conducts an answer search as follows. First, we analyze the user's question and extract search keywords and the expected answer type. Second, information retrieval results are obtained from an existing search engine such as Yahoo or Google. Finally, we rank the results to find snippets containing answers to the questions based on a ranking SVM algorithm. We also propose features to identify snippets containing answers for descriptive questions. The features are adaptable and thus are not dependent on answer type. Experimental results show that the proposed method and features are clearly effective for the task.

  13. Knowledge and question asking.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez Molinero, Rafael; García-Madruga, Juan Antonio

    2011-02-01

    The ability and the motivation for question asking are, or should be, some of the most important aims of education. Unfortunately, students neither ask many questions, nor good ones. The present paper is about the capacity of secondary school pupils for asking questions and how this activity depends on prior knowledge. To examine this, we use texts containing different levels of information about a specific topic: biodiversity. We found a positive relationship between the amount of information provided and the number of questions asked about the texts, supporting the idea that more knowledgeable people ask more questions. Some students were warned that there would be an exam after the reading, and this led to a diminishing number of questions asked, and yet this still did not significantly improve their exam scores. In such a case, it seems that reading was more concerned with immediacy, hindering critical thinking and the dialog between their previous ideas and the new information. Thus, question asking seems to be influenced not only by the amount of knowledge, but also by the reader's attitude towards the information. PMID:21266138

  14. Discussion-Based Instruction in Drug Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruenitz, Peter C.

    1995-01-01

    A flexible strategy for large-group pharmacy instruction in drug metabolism has students prepare and discuss answers to fact-oriented study questions, addressing fundamentals covered in a textbook, with regular evaluation of in-class student responses to higher-order review questions. This discussion-based approach has brought sustained…

  15. Doing Science and Asking Questions II: An Exercise That Generates Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt Middlecamp, Catherine; Nickel, Anne-Marie L.

    2005-08-01

    Given the importance of questions in science, it is critical that students learn to ask questions as well as learning to answer them. This paper describes a classroom exercise to help students better ask their own questions. It has been classroom-tested in multiple formats and has also been used for curriculum development workshops for faculty. This exercise in creating questions can be easily customized to suit different instructional contexts; some variations are outlined. More broadly, this paper also discusses the pedagogical significance of questioning, raising four salient points: (1) learners are more likely to have a personal interest in the questions they raise; (2) questions can serve as entry points for issues relating to ethnicity and gender; (3) questions give control to the person who asks them; and (4) questions can challenge existing structures, categories, and norms.

  16. Improving Question-Asking Initiations in Young Children with Autism Using Pivotal Response Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Koegel, Robert; Bradshaw, Jessica; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2013-01-01

    Social initiations make up a core deficit for children with autism spectrum disorder. In particular, initiated questions during social interactions are often minimal or absent in this population. In the context of a multiple baseline design, the efficacy of using the motivational procedures of Pivotal Response Treatment to increase social question asking for three young children with autism was assessed. Results indicated that participants initiated a greater number of targeted questions following intervention. Additionally, all children exhibited increases in initiation of untargeted questions during social interaction in novel settings. Furthermore, post intervention data revealed collateral gains in communication and adaptive behavior. Theoretical implications of incorporating motivational strategies into intervention to improve social initiations in young children with ASD are discussed. PMID:24014174

  17. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...

  18. A Teacher's Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Presents questions and concerns of a teacher who served as a scoring assessor for the Early Adolescence/English Language Arts field test of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, run by the Educational Testing Service. (SR)

  19. Asking gender questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Jonathan; Masters, Karen; Allen, James; Contenta, Filippo; Huckvale, Leo; Wilkins, Stephen; Zocchi, Alice

    2014-12-01

    Jonathan Pritchard, Karen Masters, James Allen, Filippo Contenta, Leo Huckvale, Stephen Wilkins and Alice Zocchi report on a survey of the gender of astronomers attending and asking questions at this year's UK National Astronomy Meeting.

  20. Mathematics, Questions, and "Schools Without Failure"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Teri

    1974-01-01

    Most questions in the mathematics classroom deal with memorization and learning, and have one correct answer. Suggestions for using three other types of questions identified by Glasser (SCHOOLS WITHOUT FAILURE) are provided. Activities discussed include tangrams, attribute blocks, pattern recognition, and games. (SD)

  1. Questions to Ask Your Liability Insurance Broker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses some important questions to ask an insurance broker regarding liability insurance. The author based these questions on his interviews with Kathryn Hammerback, Craig Hammer, and Mike North: (1) Are centers covered when...?; (2) How can a center director cut costs on this policy?; (3) Is this an "occurrence" or a "claims-made"…

  2. Using Questioning To Guide Student Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zee, Emily; Minstrell, Jim

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes ways in which an experienced physics teacher uses questioning to guide student thinking during a benchmark discussion on measurement. Proposes that teachers may shift toward more reflective discourse by asking questions that help students clarify their meanings, consider various points of view, and monitor their own thinking. (Author/DKM)

  3. The Notion of Coercion in Courtroom Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulow-Moller, Anne Marie

    To account for coercive force in questions posed by counsel to defendants and witnesses, several levels of speech must be addressed. Forensic linguistics literature discusses the scale of coerciveness as reflected in the syntactic form of the questions. It is argued that this type of analysis fails to account for the inferences made by hearers…

  4. Questions and Answers in Mohawk Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurer, Hanny

    This dissertation surveys question-answer patterns in Mohawk conversation. After discussing some theoretical issues, a morpho-syntactic description of questions is presented and the description is expanded to the level of discourse. Although the approach followed is modelled on generative semantics, it departs from it in significant ways, in order…

  5. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  6. Questions for Collaboration: Lessons from Reggio Emilia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyfe, Brenda

    1998-01-01

    Identifies questions teachers are learning to ask themselves and each other as they move toward a negotiated, co-constructed and systematic approach that places documentation at the heart of an emergent curriculum. Discusses these questions in terms of documentation, discourse, and design, three components that define a dynamic system of learning…

  7. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  8. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  9. Advances and limits of using population genetics to understand local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tiffin, Peter; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Local adaptation shapes species diversity, can be a stepping stone to ecological speciation, and can facilitate species range expansion. Population genetic analyses, which complement organismal approaches in advancing our understanding of local adaptation, have become widespread in recent years. We focus here on using population genetics to address some key questions in local adaptation: what traits are involved? What environmental variables are the most important? Does local adaptation target the same genes in related species? Do loci responsible for local adaptation exhibit trade-offs across environments? After discussing these questions we highlight important limitations to population genetic analyses including challenges with obtaining high-quality data, deciding which loci are targets of selection, and limits to identifying the genetic basis of local adaptation. PMID:25454508

  10. Writing Effective Online Homework Questions for Astro 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, A.

    2014-07-01

    The online environment provides benefits and limitations to the scope and implementation of homework questions. In this session we discussed this topic, as well as the methodology used to write effective computer-graded online homework questions, specifically discussing targeted feedback and randomization. I demonstrated a few existing online astronomy questions and then workshop participants worked in groups to write their own questions. We concluded with a discussion of effective strategies for writing online homework questions. We focused on developing and writing questions within an environment that includes randomization and targeted feedback, similar to Sapling Learning, MasteringAstronomy, and WebAssign.

  11. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  12. Question Their Answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royce, Brenda

    2004-10-01

    Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by "questioning their answers."

  13. Asking Questions about Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian; Flanagan, Bernie; Hogarth, Sylvia; Mountford, Paula; Philpott, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    We raise questions about young people's participation in light of findings from a project ("Democracy through Citizenship") funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Limited, and managed by the Institute for Citizenship. Following a six-month feasibility study the project took place over a three-year period in one local authority in the north of…

  14. Asking the Right Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Rob

    2011-01-01

    As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable questions in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…

  15. Question: Who Can Vote?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Misty D.; Haas, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This year's rollercoaster primary elections and the pending national election, with an anticipated record voter turnout, provide the perfect backdrop for an examination of the questions: (1) Who can vote?; and (2) Who will vote? Historically, the American government refused voting rights to various groups based on race, gender, age, and even…

  16. My Favorite Exam Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  17. A Question of Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor.…

  18. More Fermi questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Karen

    1999-09-01

    "Fermi" questions are a popular component of most Physics Olympics meets. Asking students to make a reasonable assumption about a problem and give answers in terms of order of magnitude is not only a great challenge for a competition, but is also a valued teaching strategy in the classroom.

  19. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  20. A question of choice.

    PubMed

    Grabiner, Gene

    2011-01-01

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

  1. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  2. A Question of Choice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

  3. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

  4. My Favorite Exam Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styer, Dan

    2015-12-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical deformation, and so forth. How much does the flatcar weigh?

  5. Linking Research Questions to Mixed Methods Data Analysis Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of research questions in mixed methods studies. First, we discuss the ways that the goal of the study, the research objective(s), and the research purpose shape the formation of research questions. Second, we compare and contrast quantitative research questions and qualitative research…

  6. The environmental genomics of metazoan thermal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, D; Butlin, R K; Gaston, K J; Joly, D; Snook, R R

    2015-01-01

    Continued and accelerating change in the thermal environment places an ever-greater priority on understanding how organisms are going to respond. The paradigm of ‘move, adapt or die', regarding ways in which organisms can respond to environmental stressors, stimulates intense efforts to predict the future of biodiversity. Assuming that extinction is an unpalatable outcome, researchers have focussed attention on how organisms can shift in their distribution to stay in the same thermal conditions or can stay in the same place by adapting to a changing thermal environment. How likely these respective outcomes might be depends on the answer to a fundamental evolutionary question, namely what genetic changes underpin adaptation to the thermal environment. The increasing access to and decreasing costs of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, which can be applied to both model and non-model systems, provide a much-needed tool for understanding thermal adaptation. Here we consider broadly what is already known from non-NGS studies about thermal adaptation, then discuss the benefits and challenges of different NGS methodologies to add to this knowledge base. We then review published NGS genomics and transcriptomics studies of thermal adaptation to heat stress in metazoans and compare these results with previous non-NGS patterns. We conclude by summarising emerging patterns of genetic response and discussing future directions using these increasingly common techniques. PMID:25735594

  7. Living in the question.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally. PMID:10557490

  8. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  9. Dog Bite Reflections--Socratic Questioning Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Cheri A.

    2015-01-01

    In the online environment, the asynchronous discussion is an important tool for creating community, developing critical thinking skills, and checking for understanding. As students learn how to use Socratic questions for effective interactions, the discussion boards can become the most exciting part of the course. This sequel to the article…

  10. Questions, Curiosity and the Inquiry Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Leo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conceptual relationship between questions, curiosity and learning as inquiry elaborated in the work of Chip Bruce and others as the Inquiry Cycle. The Inquiry Cycle describes learning in terms of a continuous dynamic of ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect. Of these elements "ask" has a privileged…

  11. Neutrino Oscillations:. Hierarchy Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, D. J.; Cogswell, B. K.; Burroughs, H. R.; Escamilla-Roa, J.; Latimer, D. L.

    2014-09-01

    The only experimentally observed phenomenon that lies outside the standard model of the electroweak interaction is neutrino oscillations. A way to try to unify the extensive neutrino oscillation data is to add a phenomenological mass term to the Lagrangian that is not diagonal in the flavor basis. The goal is then to understand the world's data in terms of the parameters of the mixing matrix and the differences between the squares of the masses of the neutrinos. An outstanding question is what is the correct ordering of the masses, the hierarchy question. We point out a broken symmetry relevant to this question, the symmetry of the simultaneous interchange of hierarchy and the sign of θ13. We first present the results of an analysis of data that well determine the phenomenological parameters but are not sensitive to the hierarchy. We find θ13 = 0.152±0.014, θ 23 = 0.25{ - 0.05}{ + 0.03} π and Δ32 = 2.45±0.14×10-3 eV2, results consistent with others. We then include data that are sensitive to the hierarchy and the sign of θ13. We find, unlike others, four isolated minimum in the χ2-space as predicted by the symmetry. Now that Daya Bay and RENO have determined θ13 to be surprisingly large, the Super-K atmospheric data produce meaningful symmetry breaking such that the inverse hierarchy is preferred at the 97.2 % level.

  12. Questioning Many Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2015-04-01

    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  13. Discussion Technique: The Twice-Around

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Kent

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author offers a discussion technique: the twice-around. A variant on the circular response discussion, the twice-around engages students by beginning with students' questions, ensuring equal time for all participants and inviting discussants to build on previous contributions. In the twice-around, participants sit in a circle,…

  14. To Question or Not to Question: That Seems to Be the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.

    Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions…

  15. Writing clinical scenarios for clinical science questions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Phil Em; Mucklow, John C

    2016-04-01

    Written knowledge assessments for physicians in training typically involve multiple-choice questions that use a clinical scenario in a single-best-answer format. The Royal College of Physicians Part 1 MRCP(UK) examination includes basic sciences themes that are challenging to assess through a clinical scenario. A realistic clinical setting based on everyday clinical practice and integral to the question is the clearest demonstration that the knowledge being assessed is clinically relevant. However, without special attention to detail, the scenario in a clinical science question can appear redundant or artificial. Reading unnecessary material frustrates candidates and threatens the reputation of the assessment. In this paper we discuss why a clinical scenario is important for basic science questions and offer advice on setting realistic and plausible clinical scenarios for such questions. PMID:27037383

  16. Modified essay question (MEQ) paper: perestroika.

    PubMed

    Lockie, C; McAleer, S; Mulholland, H; Neighbour, R; Tombleson, P

    1990-11-01

    Traditionally the modified essay question (MEQ) paper has attempted to test problem solving and decision making based on an on-going family saga using seven or eight questions to be answered in 90 minutes. Candidates' scripts are double marked by two College examiners. This format imposes constraints on the range of questions asked and results in contrived scenarios. It is possible to be 'coached' for this and double marking is expensive in examiner time. Recent studies show that validity and reliability are improved by increasing the number and range of questions in a 'surgery type' paper. Single marking has been instituted and the MEQ paper will in future consist of 10 or more questions to be answered in 2 hours. Examiners' marking performance is monitored by senior examiners. Technical and statistical considerations are discussed, as are implications for candidates and course organizers. PMID:1670201

  17. Frequently Asked Questions: IDEA Early Childhood--Disclosure Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for IDEA Early Childhood Data Systems (DaSy), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This 2014 document is an adaptation of the 2012 release of "Frequently Asked Questions--Disclosure Avoidance" intended for K-12 audiences. Presented here in the form of responses to frequently asked questions (FAQs) are suggestions intended to provide guidance to IDEA Part C early intervention and Part B 619 preschool special education…

  18. Questioning and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-08-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

  19. Approaches to Cell Biology Teaching: Questions about Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah; Tanner, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    There are many questions to be asked about the pedagogical practice of questioning. Questions provide insight into what students at any age or grade level already know about a topic, which provides a beginning point for teaching. Questions reveal misconceptions and misunderstandings that must be addressed for teachers to move student thinking…

  20. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  1. Interactive Panel Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernius, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Quo Vadis? Here is the opportunity to ask panel members your questions: seek a forecast of current trends, where are we going as a collection of physicists in a wide variety of employment settings? What is the likelihood of remaining cohesive as those schooled in the fundamentals of physics? How might we better foster collaboration, with the disparate agendas of academia, government and commerce? Come with your questions, and share in this unique opportunity to quiz the experts.

  2. Exploring Relationship between Students' Questioning Behaviors and Inquiry Tasks in an Online Forum through Analysis of Ideational Function of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Seng-Chee; Seah, Lay-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    In this study we explored questioning behaviors among elementary students engaging in inquiry science using the "Knowledge Forum", a computer-supported collaborative learning tool. Adapting the theory of systemic functional linguistics, we developed the Ideational Function of Question (IFQ) analytical framework by means of inductive analysis of…

  3. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we

  4. Anatomy of a Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubinsky, Ed

    1987-01-01

    Why students have difficulty with a proof (such as Cantor's) is discussed, with the focus on proof by contradiction. Methods may fail due to the difficulty of the concept and lack of understanding of how students are thinking. (MNS)

  5. Framing Classroom Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Assuming that the issue of same-sex marriage should be discussed in schools, how should the discussion be framed? Michael Hand first distinguishes this question from the related but distinct question of whether discussion on this topic should be steered. He then examines three possible frames for discussion of same-sex marriage: the perfectionist…

  6. Translating questions for use with Samoan adults: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Siaki, Leilani A

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this article was to present the process of translating questions about perceived risk for diabetes into Samoan and describe important cultural adaptations to the modified Brislin's translation model for cross-cultural research. With the assistance of a culture broker and several Samoan translators, 14 questions were translated into the Samoan language. Cultural adaptations included using a group approach, working with a matai, and following protocols such as fa'alavelave. Questions were back-translated and then pilot tested. Results from the pilot testing supported the use of these cultural modifications in the translation model. PMID:21311087

  7. Internet Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Discusses newsgroups, listservs, and Web-based discussion groups. Highlights include major categories of international USENET discussion groups; newsgroups versus mailing lists; newsreaders; news servers; newsgroup subscriptions; newsgroups versus Web discussion groups; linking newsgroups, mailing lists, and the Web; and setting up a news host. A…

  8. A Universe of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldovich, Yakov

    1992-01-01

    Reprinted from the original Russian manuscript of Yakov Zeldovich, this article chronicles his studies of the universe and his attempts to construct a theory of its evolution. He provides the high school student with compelling cosmological discussions about uniformity, galactic clusters, radiation, evolution, the big bang, and gravitational…

  9. Gary O's Fence Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the problem of finding the amount of fence it would require for the outfield fence of a baseball field of given dimensions. Presents different solution methods for each of the levels from grades 9-12. The different methods incorporate geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, and calculus. (MDH)

  10. A Question of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the life and artwork of Roger Brown and describes the imagery and content of his work entitled "Celebration of the Uncultivated -- A Garden of the World." Provides a reprint of the painting and activities in visual and language arts, the social science, natural science, and geometry. (CMK)

  11. Is Consciousness Necessary for Conflict Adaptation? A State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Desender, Kobe; Van den Bussche, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Facing response conflict, subjects try to improve their responses by reducing the influence of the detrimental information which caused the conflict. It was speculated that this adaptation to conflict can only occur when the conflicting information is consciously perceived. In this review we give an overview of the research looking at the possibility of unconscious stimuli to provoke this conflict adaptation. In a first part we discuss adaptation to conflict on a trial-by-trial basis. When the previous trial contained conflicting information, subjects will adapt to this by reducing the influence of the conflicting information on the current trial. However, the interesting question is whether this is also possible when the conflicting information remains unconscious. In a second part we will discuss blockwise adaptation to conflict. If conflict is very frequent, subjects will adapt to this by reducing the conflicting information sustainably. Again the question is whether this is possible when the conflict was never experienced consciously. In a third part we will discuss the neural basis of conscious and unconscious conflict adaptation. We will critically discuss the research on these topics and highlight strengths and weaknesses of the used paradigms. Finally, we will give some suggestions how future research can be more conclusive in this respect. PMID:22347176

  12. The Basic Epistemological Questions--Are There Also Valid Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oderman, Dale B.

    Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that seeks answers to two main questions: How do we know? and How do we know we know? This paper is concerned with how four major schools of thought have addressed these questions and the implications that their answers to these questions have for education. The paper begins by discussing how four major…

  13. Open-Ended Questions and the Process Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Wendy B.

    2013-01-01

    Open-ended questions, as discussed in this article, are questions that can be solved or explained in a variety of ways, that focus on conceptual aspects of mathematics, and that have the potential to expose students' understanding and misconceptions. When working with teachers who are using open-ended questions with their students for the…

  14. Panel Discussion v: Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obraztsov, Vladimir; Konaka, Akira; Ikeda, Motoyasu; Jediny, Filip; Shirokov, Evgeny; Kalekin, Oleg; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    Questions to discuss: * Can sidereal time analysis of the long time neutrino observations give information about the galaxy distribution in the Local Universe? * How well do we need to know the PMNS matrix elements? * Is the existence of MSW effect proved experimentally? * Are there new species of neutrino (e.g. the sterile one)? * What are other most important problems in neutrino physics (CP-violation)? * Can sidereal time analysis of the long time neutrino observations give information about the galaxy distribution in the Local Universe? * Perspectives of existing and future neutrino experiments (LNBF, LAGUNA, ICARUS, SHIP ...)

  15. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle. PMID:11797741

  16. Questioning cochlear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Thirty years ago it was hypothesized that motile processes inject mechanical energy into cochlear traveling waves. This mechanical amplification, alternatively described as negative damping, is invoked to explain both the sensitivity and the nonlinear compression of cochlear responses. There is a recent trend to present cochlear amplification as an established fact, even though the evidence is at most circumstantial and several thorny problems have remained unresolved. We analyze several of these issues, and present new basilar membrane recordings that allowed us to quantify cochlear energy flow. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) Does auditory sensitivity require narrowband amplification? (2) Has the "RC problem" (lowpass filtering of outer hair cell receptor potential) been resolved? (3) Can OHC motility improve auditory sensitivity? (4) Is there a net power gain between neighboring locations on the basilar membrane? The analyses indicate that mechanical amplification in the cochlea is neither necessary nor useful, and that realizing it by known forms of motility would reduce sensitivity rather than enhance it. Finally, our experimental data show that the peaking of the traveling wave is realized by focusing the acoustic energy rather than amplifying it. (Abbreviations. BM: basilar membrane; CF: characteristic frequency; IHC: inner hair cell; ME: middle ear; MT; mechanotransducer; OHC: outer hair cell; SPL: sound pressure level.)

  17. Answer This Simple Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. Elspeth S.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, the author discusses her journey from her first year of the PhD program at USC, and the work she is doing now for a company that builds infrastructure in Afghanistan. She explores the ways in which studies for her 1985 PhD in Rhetoric, Linguistics and Literature did and did not prepare her for the work she does now. Her memoir…

  18. Syndrome in question.

    PubMed

    Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Veasey, John Verrinder; Lellis, Rute Facchini

    2016-02-01

    Ross syndrome is a rare disease characterized by peripheral nervous system dysautonomia with selective degeneration of cholinergic fibers. It is composed by the triad of unilateral or bilateral segmental anhidrosis, deep hyporeflexia and Holmes-Adie's tonic pupil. The presence of compensatory sweating is frequent, usually the symptom that most afflicts patients. The aspects of the syndrome are put to discussion due to the case of a male patient, caucasian, 47 years old, with clinical onset of 25 years. PMID:26982793

  19. Syndrome in question*

    PubMed Central

    Dalapicola, Monique Coelho; Veasey, John Verrinder; Lellis, Rute Facchini

    2016-01-01

    Ross syndrome is a rare disease characterized by peripheral nervous system dysautonomia with selective degeneration of cholinergic fibers. It is composed by the triad of unilateral or bilateral segmental anhidrosis, deep hyporeflexia and Holmes-Adie's tonic pupil. The presence of compensatory sweating is frequent, usually the symptom that most afflicts patients. The aspects of the syndrome are put to discussion due to the case of a male patient, caucasian, 47 years old, with clinical onset of 25 years. PMID:26982793

  20. Cross-domain question classification in community question answering via kernel mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Lei; Hu, Zuoliang; Yang, Bin; Li, Yiyang; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    An increasingly popular method for retrieving information is via the community question answering (CQA) systems such as Yahoo! Answers and Baidu Knows. In CQA, question classification plays an important role to find the answers. However, the labeled training examples for statistical question classifier are fairly expensive to obtain, as they require the experienced human efforts. Meanwhile, unlabeled data are readily available. This paper employs the method of domain adaptation via kernel mapping to solve this problem. In detail, the kernel approach is utilized to map the target-domain data and the source-domain data into a common space, where the question classifiers are trained under the closer conditional probabilities. The kernel mapping function is constructed by domain knowledge. Therefore, domain knowledge could be transferred from the labeled examples in the source domain to the unlabeled ones in the targeted domain. The statistical training model can be improved by using a large number of unlabeled data. Meanwhile, the Hadoop Platform is used to construct the mapping mechanism to reduce the time complexity. Map/Reduce enable kernel mapping for domain adaptation in parallel in the Hadoop Platform. Experimental results show that the accuracy of question classification could be improved by the method of kernel mapping. Furthermore, the parallel method in the Hadoop Platform could effective schedule the computing resources to reduce the running time.

  1. Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

  2. Promoting Student Learning Through Questioning: A Study of Classroom Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sandra; Bowman, Mary Ann

    1996-01-01

    A study in a graduate-level occupational therapy class found that questions asked by teachers and the instructional format in which they were asked influenced the frequency and level of student questioning. Subjects were 5 undergraduate and 15 graduate students. It was concluded that improved classroom questioning strategies may contribute to…

  3. Panel Discussion III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, F.; Batten, A.; Budding, E.; Devinney, E.; Eggleton, P.; Hatzes, A.; Hubeny, I.; Kley, W.; Lammer, H.; Linnell, A.; Trimble, V.; Wilson, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    I. Hubeny Does anyone from the panel have a theme question to start with today? V. Trimble It's another one-liner: From an active galaxy meeting many years ago when people talked about spiral structure. I was reminded by Dr. Rucinski's talk of Lodewijk Woltjer's remark: ``The larger our ignorance, the stronger the magnetic field.''

  4. Online Discussion, Student Engagement, and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Leonard; Lahman, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Recent research into the merits of online discussion (computer-mediated communication) has shown that it promotes active learning behaviors and enhances learner outcomes. Scholars have also shown that, when instructors employ effective questioning and moderating skills, students can show higher levels of critical thinking in online discussion. In…

  5. Integrating Online Discussion: Broadening the Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2006-01-01

    This article shares an approach to teaching mathematics teacher education courses incorporating asynchronous online discussions. Specifically, this research is guided by the following research questions: (a) How would online discussions contribute or hinder teachers' learning in mathematics methods courses? and (b) What pedagogical strategies need…

  6. Engineering a Classroom Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes physical science activities that civil/mechanical engineers (serving as resource persons) can use with students during units on force, work, center of gravity, simple machines, and other basic mechanics concepts. Activities are adapted from Career Oriented Modules to Explore Topics in Science for grades 5-9 (COMETS). (Author/JN)

  7. Discussion Starters. Technical Note No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Ibrahim; Dilts, Russ

    Discussion starters, the result of collaboration between the Indonesian Directorate General of Nonformal Education, Youth, and Sports, and World Education, Inc., are simple learning tools used to generate discussion among community groups involved in nonformal education. Appropriate in and adaptable to a variety of settings, content areas, and…

  8. Open questions in computational motor control.

    PubMed

    Karniel, Amir

    2011-09-01

    Computational motor control covers all applications of quantitative tools for the study of the biological movement control system. This paper provides a review of this field in the form of a list of open questions. After an introduction in which we define computational motor control, we describe: a Turing-like test for motor intelligence; internal models, inverse model, forward model, feedback error learning and distal teacher; time representation, and adaptation to delay; intermittence control strategies; equilibrium hypotheses and threshold control; the spatiotemporal hierarchy of wide sense adaptation, i.e., feedback, learning, adaptation, and evolution; optimization based models for trajectory formation and optimal feedback control; motor memory, the past and the future; and conclude with the virtue of redundancy. Each section in this paper starts with a review of the relevant literature and a few more specific studies addressing the open question, and ends with speculations about the possible answer and its implications to motor neuroscience. This review is aimed at concisely covering the topic from the author's perspective with emphasis on learning mechanisms and the various structures and limitations of internal models. PMID:21960308

  9. A question of character.

    PubMed

    Wetlaufer, S

    1999-01-01

    For the most part, Glamor-a-Go-Go's board has been thrilled with CEO Joe Ryan's performance. Ryan, after all, had transformed the private-label cosmetics company into a retail powerhouse with flashy outlets from New York to Los Angeles. In addition to saving the company from bankruptcy shortly after his arrival in 1992, Ryan had made Glamor-a-Go-Go a fun and exciting place to work, increasing workers' wages and creating boundless opportunities for anyone willing to work hard and think out of the box. He had also brought more women and people of color on board. And he had made many employees wealthy, with generous stock giveaways and options for the most senior employees down to the most junior. Glamor-a-Go-Go's stock price had grown tenfold during Ryan's tenure. But Ryan's personal affairs were beginning to call into question his leadership abilities. The local paper's gossip column recently ran a photo of Ryan--a married man--leaving a gala event with a beautiful young woman from the company, with the headline "Who's That Girl?" Indeed, rumors about Ryan's philandering were starting to take on a harsher edge. Some people believed his secretary left because Ryan had sexually harassed her. Others believed a mail-room employee had been promoted to factory supervisor because of her affair with the CEO. Having warned Ryan several times about his alleged infidelities, the board is stuck. What should it do about Ryan's extracurricular behavior? Does Ryan's personal behavior even affect the company? Is what Ryan does outside the office the board's concern? Six commentators weigh in. PMID:10621266

  10. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... Many ear infections Top of Page Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Examples of How Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Click for ...

  11. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment options? Questions & Answers about the NIMH RAISE Project What is RAISE? Why is RAISE important? What ... more information Questions & Answers about the NIMH RAISE Project Q: What is RAISE? A: In 2008, the ...

  12. A question of balance

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.; Brown, H.; Strawn, N.

    1996-12-31

    Nature seeks a balance. The global carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans through natural processes such as absorption, photosynthesis, and respiration, is one of those balances. This constant exchange promotes an equilibrium in which atmospheric carbon dioxide is keep relatively steady over long periods of time. For the last 10,000 years, up to the 19th century, the global carbon cycle has maintained atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide between 260 and 290 ppm. This article discusses the disturbance of the balance, how ethanol fuels address the carbon dioxide imbalance, and a bioethanol strategy.

  13. School Law: A Question of Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the Equal Access Act (EAA) as it pertains to high-school student clubs. It raises basics questions about EAA: What does "equal" mean? What level of access is required? Does the First Amendment's free-speech clause offer broader protection to student clubs than the EAA? (WFA)

  14. Some Questions about Feature Re-Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    In this commentary, differences between feature re-assembly and feature selection are discussed. Lardiere's proposals are compared to existing approaches to grammatical features in second language (L2) acquisition. Questions are raised about the predictive power of the feature re-assembly approach. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  15. Answering Young Children's Questions about Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Gladys

    Intended for use by parents and teachers of preschool age children, this short booklet provides some guidelines to follow when introducing sex education to young children. It discusses issues such as where to begin, how to encourage the child to ask questions about sex, how to handle sex-related problems, child molestation, nudity and the family,…

  16. Public Opinion Poll Question Databases: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates five polling resource: iPOLL, Polling the Nations, Gallup Brain, Public Opinion Poll Question Database, and Polls and Surveys. Content was evaluated on disclosure standards from major polling organizations, scope on a model for public opinion polls, and presentation on a flow chart discussing search limitations and usability.

  17. Questionable Exercises--Some Safer Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Ruth; Corbin, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Some commonly misused or abused exercises which are potentially harmful are identified. Each questionable exercise is illustrated, its potential for harm discussed, and an alternative suggested. Ten general rules are offered to help teachers, coaches, exercise leaders, and individuals avoid exercise-related injuries. (IAH)

  18. Three Questions for the Multiculturalism Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Larry

    1992-01-01

    The debate over political correctness and cultural diversity in U.S. higher education is examined, and three basic questions are raised: who is to be taught?, what is to be taught?, and who will teach it?. Higher education's contribution to social change is seen to be its ability to discuss issues with openness, candor, and reason. (DB)

  19. Promoting Discussion in Peer Instruction: Discussion Partner Assignment and Accountability Scoring Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Lin, Pin-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Peer instruction (PI) involves students answering questions and peer discussion learning activities. PI can enhance student performance and engagement in classroom instruction. However, some students do not engage in the discussions. This study proposes two mechanisms, discussion partner assignment and accountability scoring mechanisms, to form…

  20. Children Who Question Their Heterosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Priscilla R.; Egan, Susan K.; Perry, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults report a period of childhood sexual questioning--an uneasy questioning of their heterosexuality brought on by same-sex attractions and motivating same-sex sexual exploration. This article evaluates hypotheses about the correlates, causes, and consequences of childhood sexual questioning. Participants were 182…

  1. Questions for Music Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  2. Improving your IQ -- Intelligent Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassner, Kirk

    1998-01-01

    Stresses the importance for teachers to analyze their Intelligent Questioning (IQ) and Responding to Answers (RSA) scores. Provides three methods for measuring IQ and RSA: Flowchart for Asking Effective Questions, Questioning Observation form, and Flanders Technique of Interaction Analysis. Contends that by improving these teaching skills,…

  3. Improving the Questions Students Ask

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue-Smith, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    Teachers often tell their classes that "there is no such thing as a stupid question." But this is not completely honest. Questions aren't asked in a vacuum; their intelligence or stupidity depends on a variety of contextual variables. The ideal question is the right one, posed to the right source in the right way at the right time for the right…

  4. Questions to Sergej Kovalev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvarchelia, Liana; Gaina, Alex

    2008-08-01

    The geopolitical problems of the evolution of the Countries of the former USSR and former authonomous republics of the Russian Federation and some of the Newly Independent Countries are discussed. The number of such authonomous Republics in the former USSR was 16, while a great number of nations had more limited rights, such as authonomous regions and authonomous districts. The most important for the International Community is to give a prompt sign concerning the preservation of the boundaries, since in many cases they were depicted arbitrarily by Joseph Stalin, without sufficient arguments. The problems of the boundaries (of their preservation or of their change) should be solved by the Organization of the United Nations.

  5. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  6. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  7. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  8. Curriculum for Discussion Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhoff, Mary E.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in implementing two 10-meeting series of group discussions designed to enhance the process of the socialialization of students enrolled in an associate degree nursing program. Addressed in the discussion sessions are the following topics: developing an awareness of self-concept and gaining…

  9. Statistical Physics of Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perunov, Nikolay; Marsland, Robert A.; England, Jeremy L.

    2016-04-01

    Whether by virtue of being prepared in a slowly relaxing, high-free energy initial condition, or because they are constantly dissipating energy absorbed from a strong external drive, many systems subject to thermal fluctuations are not expected to behave in the way they would at thermal equilibrium. Rather, the probability of finding such a system in a given microscopic arrangement may deviate strongly from the Boltzmann distribution, raising the question of whether thermodynamics still has anything to tell us about which arrangements are the most likely to be observed. In this work, we build on past results governing nonequilibrium thermodynamics and define a generalized Helmholtz free energy that exactly delineates the various factors that quantitatively contribute to the relative probabilities of different outcomes in far-from-equilibrium stochastic dynamics. By applying this expression to the analysis of two examples—namely, a particle hopping in an oscillating energy landscape and a population composed of two types of exponentially growing self-replicators—we illustrate a simple relationship between outcome-likelihood and dissipative history. In closing, we discuss the possible relevance of such a thermodynamic principle for our understanding of self-organization in complex systems, paying particular attention to a possible analogy to the way evolutionary adaptations emerge in living things.

  10. Human adaptation to smog

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.W. Jacobs, S.V.; Frager, N.B.

    1982-10-01

    This study examined the health effects of human adaptation to photochemical smog. A group of recent arrivals to the Los Angeles air basin were compared to long-term residents of the basin. Evidence for adaptation included greater irritation and respiratory problems among the recent arrivals and desensitization among the long-term residents in their judgments of the severity of the smog problem to their health. There was no evidence for biochemical adaptation as measured by hemoglobin response to oxidant challenge. The results were discussed in terms of psychological adaption to chronic environmental stressors.

  11. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.

  12. Discussion Forum for Technical Codes Users

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspar, Bryce P.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2006-03-30

    One goal of the Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) is to provide useful, easy to understand information about the national energy codes. A forum where users could ask for, and receive clarification on these codes and software from other users would allow the Energy codes project to reach and instruct a broader audience for a modest resource cost. The forum proposed would be a staff moderated discussion board where staff would post topics, and users would post discussion of those topics, with staff joining in to the discussions. The forum would be moderated by staff members, to remove objectionable and irrelevant postings, and to answer any technical questions that arise. The topics and discussions would be archived and searchable to allow users to answer their own questions, if they pertain to a previously discussed topic.

  13. Deliberative Discussion Focus Groups.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses a new approach for the conduct of focus groups in health research. Identifying ways to educate and inform participants about the topic of interest prior to the focus group discussion can promote more quality data from informed opinions. Data on this deliberative discussion approach are provided from research within three federally funded studies. As healthcare continues to improve from scientific and technological advancements, educating the research participants prior to data collection about these complexities is essential to gather quality data. PMID:26078330

  14. Adaptive deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Beudel, M; Brown, P

    2016-01-01

    Although Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), there are still limitations in terms of effectivity, side-effects and battery consumption. One of the reasons for this may be that not only pathological but also physiological neural activity can be suppressed whilst stimulating. For this reason, adaptive DBS (aDBS), where stimulation is applied according to the level of pathological activity, might be advantageous. Initial studies of aDBS demonstrate effectiveness in PD, but there are still many questions to be answered before aDBS can be applied clinically. Here we discuss the feedback signals and stimulation algorithms involved in adaptive stimulation in PD and sketch a potential road-map towards clinical application. PMID:26411502

  15. Adaptive Learning Resources Sequencing in Educational Hypermedia Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Sampson, Demetrios

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive learning resources selection and sequencing is recognized as among the most interesting research questions in adaptive educational hypermedia systems (AEHS). In order to adaptively select and sequence learning resources in AEHS, the definition of adaptation rules contained in the Adaptation Model, is required. Although, some efforts have…

  16. Technology transfer for adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  17. Reference Readiness for AV Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

  18. A New Look at Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttolph, Diana

    1992-01-01

    Examines terms used to describe the changing of an innovation by an adopter, including reinvention, fidelity, adaptation, and mutual adaptation. Three explanations for adaptation of innovation--interpretation, adopter innovativeness, and generative learning--are discussed; and the theory of generative learning is used to explain internal…

  19. An Authoring Environment for Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Eduardo; Conejo, Ricardo; Garcia-Hervas; Emilio

    2005-01-01

    SIETTE is a web-based adaptive testing system. It implements Computerized Adaptive Tests. These tests are tailor-made, theory-based tests, where questions shown to students, finalization of the test, and student knowledge estimation is accomplished adaptively. To construct these tests, SIETTE has an authoring environment comprising a suite of…

  20. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  1. Questions Dog Design of Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    On the verge of signing a contract to help design assessments for the common standards, ACT Inc. has withdrawn from the project amid conflict-of-interest questions sparked by its own development of a similar suite of tests. Even though it involves only a small subcontract, the move by the Iowa-based test-maker, and the questions from the state…

  2. Kids Ask the Best Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Debby; Sterling, Donna

    1997-01-01

    According to 1995 National Science Education Standards, "inquiry into authentic questions generated from student experiences is the central strategy for teaching science." Effective classroom questions promote relevance, encourage ownership, help students interpret their observations, and link new learning to what students already know. Two…

  3. Test Pool Questions, Area III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Jamee Reid

    This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

  4. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  5. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  6. Discussions That Drive Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Adults in the United States have been migrating to ideologically homogenous communities, a phenomenon that researchers have called "the big sort." Thus, the need for young Americans to engage in civil discussion of controversial issues has never been greater. Public schools are an ideal place to undo the big sort because controversial issues fit…

  7. A Discussion of "Ceremony."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Kathleen M., Ed.; Ruoff, A. Lavonne, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Seminar participants discuss the novel "Ceremony" as a curing ceremony, the function of memory in the novel, and the distinctly American Indian aspects of the novel (role of animals, circular images, ritual, mythology, Laguna cultural traditions, and use of oral tradition). (CM)

  8. Designing "Educationally Effective" Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses data from a curriculum intervention project designed to introduce new forms of discussion, seen as educationally effective, into the primary classroom. While the introduction of talk as an aid to learning is premised on a social approach to learning, such interventions are often evaluated in terms of cognitive benefits and…

  9. Framing Discussions about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Danielson's Framework for Teaching has provided a common language for discussions of teaching practice for almost 20 years. Many educators love the Framework's comprehensiveness; they find the specific language to be useful as they strive to improve their practice. For other educators, however, the Framework's 22 components and 76 smaller elements…

  10. Promoting Lively Literature Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    When students create personal connections with literature during whole-class discussion, they make sense both of text and of their life experiences. In this article, the author shares tips that help students make text-to-self, text-to-world, and text-to-text connections. She offers classroom examples to illustrate how conversations that encourage…

  11. [Discussion paper participation research].

    PubMed

    Farin, Erik

    2012-12-01

    This contribution introduces the "Diskussionspapier Teilhabeforschung" (discussion paper participation research) of the German Association for Rehabilitation (DVfR) and German Society for Rehabilitation Science (DGRW). The aim of this paper is to more clearly define current scientific research activity on the subject of participation and the significance of interdisciplinary participation research. The authors emphasise the desirability of a stronger scientific basis for instruments designed to improve the participation of disabled individuals. The paper is meant to be understood as an initial basis for the discussion about participation research development, and the authors are open to suggestions and elaboration.Participation research is understood in this discussion paper as an interdisciplinary research field with 7 goals and characteristics: 1. focussing on participation and self-determination; 2. contextual approach (taking environmental and personal factors into consideration that affect participation); 3. the participation of disabled persons in participation research; 4. interdisciplinary cooperation; 5. involving organisations and institutions whose approaches to participation research overlap; 6. referring to social and healthcare policies; 7. national and international orientations.The authors discuss the rationale behind increasing the support for participation research and theoretical models thereof. Fundamental concepts with high relevance to participation research include the biopsychosocial model of the International Classification of Functionality, Disability and Health (ICF), the inclusion concept, empowerment concept, and capabilities concept. The authors conclude their paper with recommendations for strengthening the research funding for participation research, and specify concrete steps toward greater participation research. PMID:23235948

  12. Mini-Discussion Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maston, Robert C.; Hagenbuch, Barbara A.

    1976-01-01

    Mini-discussions were held at the 62nd Annual Meeting of the Association of American Colleges and were intended as continuations of the general sessions. Topics included: educational implications of the limits to growth; changes in our operative social values; dilemmas and strategies for American higher education in the next century. (LBH)

  13. John Cage Discusses Fluxus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Ellsworth

    1992-01-01

    Presents an informal discussion with composer John Cage which includes his response to George Maciunas' work, his recollections of Marcel Duchamp, the complex relationship between inelegant material and revealing works of art, neo-Dada and neo-Fluxus, Wittgenstein and the artist's ultimate responsibility to initiate a change in the viewer or…

  14. Facilitating Productive Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cengiz, Nesrin

    2013-01-01

    Whole-group classroom discussions about solutions allow teachers to promote reasoning that moves students beyond merely noticing mathematical ideas toward developing a well-connected knowledge of concepts. Creating classroom environments where teachers promote reasoning and engage students in investigating important mathematical phenomena is…

  15. A Discussion of Future Time Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    2004-01-01

    A growing area of research in educational psychology is future time perspective and its relationship to desired educational outcomes. This article discusses and critiques five reviews of current research on future time perspective. Key questions addressed are when do individuals begin to articulate a future, how far into the future does this…

  16. Discussed Issues in Preventive Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocak, Sakire

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of studies in the field of prevention science and related advancements in evidence based programs leads to some discussions about the fundamental issues such as efficacy, effectiveness, dissemination, adaptation, fidelity and continuity in recent years. In this article it is intended to report the common views of early childhood…

  17. Adaptive Assessment of Student's Knowledge in Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzopoulou, D. I.; Economides, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents Programming Adaptive Testing (PAT), a Web-based adaptive testing system for assessing students' programming knowledge. PAT was used in two high school programming classes by 73 students. The question bank of PAT is composed of 443 questions. A question is classified in one out of three difficulty levels. In PAT, the levels of…

  18. A Set of Questions, A Question of Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics in School, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Two versions of a page of exercises using set ideas are presented, one in plain language and one in technical language. Some questions and answers about the appropriateness of set terminology and symbols are then given. (MNS)

  19. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  20. Science leaders discuss budget crunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Although funding for research fared relatively well in the budget proposed by the Reagan Administration for fiscal year (FY) 1987, leaders of the science community should expect lean times ahead for federal funding and should plan accordingly. This was the message delivered February 26-27, 1986, to nearly 400 participants in a conference at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, D.C.Leaders and policymakers from all segments of the research establishment were invited to attend the 2-day conference, which was sponsored by the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable, an independent group associated with NAS, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Discussions at the conference revolved around the question “What research strategies best serve the national interest in a period of budgetary stress?” After hearing perspectives from representatives from the Administration, industry, federal agencies, universities, and a federal laboratory, participants were divided into seven working groups. Each group was assigned a topic of discussion, such as “Management at the Campus Level,” “The Relative Roles of Federal Laboratories and Outside Research Institutions,” and “Possible Non-Federal Sources of Support: States, Industry, and Foundations.” On the second day of the conference, the working group chairmen reported back to the conference at large.

  1. Exploration of question intonation in read American English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrdal, Ann K.; Jilka, Matthias

    2003-10-01

    Several generally accepted intonational features of questions in American English have not been the subject of much empirical study: namely that wh-questions end in L-L% phrasal accents, and that their intonational contours are identical to those of declarative sentences, while yes/no questions end in H-H% phrasal accents. The study addresses the following questions about question intonation: How frequently do yes/no questions end in H-H% phrasal tones, and how often do wh-questions end in L-L% phrasal tones? How similar are the intonational contours and features of declarative sentences and wh-questions with phrase-final falls (L-L%)? How do the sentence pitch ranges of yes/no questions, wh-questions, and declarative sentences compare? Does a speaker's characteristic pitch range affect the character or frequency of occurrence of question phrasal-tones? Speaker and utterance pitch ranges and their relation to prosodic features of pitch accents and phrasal tones were observed in yes/no and in wh-questions, and compared to a sample of simple declarative sentences spoken by the same speakers: 5 female and 3 male American English professional voice talents. The same set of 12 sentences were read by each of the 8 speakers in the same contexts. Theoretical and practical implications of the results will be discussed.

  2. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  3. Summaries of group discussions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    Group discussions following the presentations of reports on the remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay resources are presented. The parameters to be investigated by the remote sensors and the specifications of the sensors are described. Specific sensors for obtaining data on various aspects of the ecology are identified. Recommendations for establishing a data bank and additional efforts to obtain increased understanding of the ecology are submitted.

  4. DISCUSSION ON MENINGITIS

    PubMed Central

    1929-01-01

    (1) Meningitis: two groups of cases. (2) A method of washing out the subarachnoid space in cases of septic meningitis secondary to infection of the ear. (3) Discussion on the value of maintaining a positive pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid when operating on a septic region communicating with the subarachnoid space. (4) Leaking cerebrospinal fluid from the region of the ear: operative treatment. PMID:19986899

  5. Questioning Strategies to Develop Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Carol P.

    Major research on questioning has focused on the numbers and types of questions asked by teachers, the effects of teachers' questions on students, the questioning process, questioning as used in textbooks, and the questioning pattern (what the teacher does immediately after asking a question). Teachers who have few skills to utilize questioning…

  6. Questioning Technology in the Development of a Resilient Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard; Winn, Joss

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the impact that peak oil and climate change may have on the future of higher education. In particular, it questions the role of technology in supporting the provision of a higher education which is resilient to a scenario both of energy depletion and the need to adapt to the effects of global warming. One emerging area of…

  7. Adaptation is automatic.

    PubMed

    Samuel, A G; Kat, D

    1998-04-01

    Two experiments were used to test whether selective adaptation for speech occurs automatically or instead requires attentional resources. A control condition demonstrated the usual large identification shifts caused by repeatedly presenting an adapting sound (/wa/, with listeners identifying members of a /ba/-/wa/ test series). Two types of distractor tasks were used: (1) Subjects did a rapid series of arithmetic problems during the adaptation periods (Experiments 1 and 2), or (2) they made a series of rhyming judgments, requiring phonetic coding (Experiment 2). A control experiment (Experiment 3) demonstrated that these tasks normally impose a heavy attentional cost on phonetic processing. Despite this, for both experimental conditions, the observed adaptation effect was just as large as in the control condition. This result indicates that adaptation is automatic, operating at an early, preattentive level. The implications of these results for current models of speech perception are discussed. PMID:9599999

  8. Solar physics: Dynamo theory questioned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Observations of X-ray emission -- a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields -- from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526

  9. Organ Transplantation: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... contact. What questions should I ask the transplant team? What kind of medical tests are done in ... listing? Who are the members of the transplant team and what are their jobs? How many attending ...

  10. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Planning Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... I do if I get stranded in cold weather? Tie a brightly colored cloth to the antenna ...

  11. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  12. Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate Home > Education > Questions to Ask Your Doctor Education What is mbc? Diagnosis Guide for the Newly ... treatment in a community-based medical office. Consider distance from home, availability of specialists, access to clinical ...

  13. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  14. Six Questions on Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, John F.; Sanayei, Ali

    2011-09-01

    This paper includes an interview with John F. Symons regarding some important questions in "complex systems" and "complexity". In addition, he has stated some important open problems concerning complex systems in his research area from a philosophical point of view.

  15. China's satellite communications discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhou, Z.

    1986-04-01

    In 1972, China began to enter the age of satellite comunications, and it was realized that satellites could play a large role in television transmission in China. The experimental broadcasting of satellite television programs was begun in 1978, and satisfactory results were obtained. The success of the television transmission demonstration has led to important decisions regarding development of a domestic satellite communications system. Before specialized communications satellites are launched, the decision was made to lease an international communications satellite transmitter. The responsibility of the ground stations were discussed.

  16. Supporting Argumentation through Students' Questions: Case Studies in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how student-generated questions can support argumentation in science. Students were asked to discuss which of two graphs showing the change in temperature with time when ice is heated to steam was correct. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years, from two countries, first wrote questions about the phenomenon. Then, working…

  17. Relating to One's Students: Identity, Morality, Stories, and Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, Jo Anne

    1991-01-01

    Discusses student criticism of higher education. Responds in the context of moral questions. Argues that education is about the development of a moral imagination. Suggests that students be encouraged to locate their own questions in material to be studied. Concludes that through storytelling teachers and students can find common ground as well as…

  18. How to Help Students Confront Life's "Big Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walvoord, Barbara E.

    2008-01-01

    Many college students are interested in spirituality and the "big questions" about life's meaning and values, but many professors seem not to know how to respond to that interest. In this article, the author offers several strategies to help students confront the "big questions". One way is to structure assignments and discussions so that students…

  19. Can Consortial Reference Partners Answer Your Local Users' Library Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Bradley Wade

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore location-based questions as a weakness of virtual reference consortia and discuss how to mitigate related issues. Content analysis of how both local and non-local academic librarians responded to location-based questions provides insight into considerations academic libraries must make when participating…

  20. Questioning Chemistry: The Role of Level, Familiarity, Language and Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Susan; Taylor, Neil; Cameron, Margaret; Syme-Smith, Lorraine; Fortuna, Colette

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on data collected via an audience response system, where a convenience sample of 300 adults aged 17-50 pressed a button to register their answers for twenty multiple choice questions. The responses were then discussed with the respondents at the time. The original dataset includes physics, biology and chemistry questions. The…

  1. 99 Facts about the FBI: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

    This booklet on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) attempts to provide an overview of the FBI's functions. Presented in a question and answer format, the 99 questions and answers discuss the federal government agency's history, administrative matters, jurisdiction, criminal investigations, security matters, foreign counter-intelligence, and…

  2. Reframing the Question of Whether Education Can Change Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Among the most important questions critical educators can ask today are the following: Can schools play a role in making a more just society possible? If not, why not? If so, what can they do? These questions provide the basis for this article by Michael Apple, as well as for the books under discussion here. The books by David Blacker, John Marsh,…

  3. Characteristics of Question Format Web Queries: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk

    2002-01-01

    Provides results from a study that examined queries in question format submitted to two Web search engines, Ask Jeeves and Excite. Identifies four types of user Web queries: keyword, Boolean, question, and request; discusses implications for Web search services; and suggests further research needs. (Author/LRW)

  4. An explanatory framework for adaptive personality differences

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Max; Weissing, Franz J.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a conceptual framework for the understanding of animal personalities in terms of adaptive evolution. We focus on two basic questions. First, why do behavioural types exhibit limited behavioural plasticity, that is, behavioural correlations both across contexts and over time? Second, how can multiple behavioural types coexist within a single population? We emphasize differences in ‘state’ among individuals in combination with state-dependent behaviour. Some states are inherently stable and individual differences in such states can explain stable differences in suites of behaviour if it is adaptive to make behaviour in various contexts dependent on such states. Behavioural stability and cross-context correlations in behaviour are more difficult to explain if individual states are potentially more variable. In such cases stable personalities can result from state-dependent behaviour if state and behaviour mutually reinforce each other by feedback mechanisms. We discuss various evolutionary mechanisms for the maintenance of variation (in states and/or behaviour), including frequency-dependent selection, spatial variation with incomplete matching between habitat and phenotype, bet-hedging in a temporally fluctuating environment, and non-equilibrium dynamics. Although state differences are important, we also discuss how social conventions and social signalling can give rise to adaptive personality differences in the absence of state differences. PMID:21078648

  5. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then

  6. Fitness seascapes and adaptive evolution of the influenza virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassig, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The seasonal human influenza A virus undergoes rapid genome evolution. This process is triggered by interactions with the host immune system and produces significant year-to-year sequence turnover in the population of circulating viral strains. We develop a dynamical fitness model that predicts the evolution of the viral population from one year to the next. Two factors are shown to determine the fitness of a viral strain: adaptive changes, which are under positive selection, and deleterious mutations, which affect conserved viral functions such as protein stability. Combined with the influenza strain tree, this fitness model maps the adaptive history of influenza A. We discuss the implications of our results for the statistical theory of adaptive evolution in asexual populations. Based on this and related systems, we touch upon the fundamental question of when evolution can be predicted. Joint work with Marta Luksza, Columbia University.

  7. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    PubMed

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2008-06-01

    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use. PMID:17985247

  8. Robust Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narendra, K. S.; Annaswamy, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Several concepts and results in robust adaptive control are are discussed and is organized in three parts. The first part surveys existing algorithms. Different formulations of the problem and theoretical solutions that have been suggested are reviewed here. The second part contains new results related to the role of persistent excitation in robust adaptive systems and the use of hybrid control to improve robustness. In the third part promising new areas for future research are suggested which combine different approaches currently known.

  9. Intonational Differences According to the Meanings of Yes/No Questions--Focusing on Genuine and Confirmation Yes/No Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Myeong-Hee; Kim, Hwa-Young; Kim, Kee-Ho; Park, Kyung-Ja

    2002-01-01

    Investigates intonational differences according to the meanings of genuine yes/no questions and confirmation yes/no questions. Productions and perception tests were conducted. Results are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  10. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding.

    PubMed

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the "teaching games for understanding" (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches' learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580

  11. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Teaching Games for Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Memmert, Daniel; Almond, Len; Bunker, David; Butler, Joy; Fasold, Frowin; Griffin, Linda; Hillmann, Wolfgang; Hüttermann, Stefanie; Klein-Soetebier, Timo; König, Stefan; Nopp, Stephan; Rathschlag, Marco; Schul, Karsten; Schwab, Sebastian; Thorpe, Rod; Furley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we elaborate on 10 current research questions related to the “teaching games for understanding” (TGfU) approach with the objective of both developing the model itself and fostering game understanding, tactical decision making, and game-playing ability in invasion and net/wall games: (1) How can existing scientific approaches from different disciplines be used to enhance game play for beginners and proficient players? (2) How can state-of-the-art technology be integrated to game-play evaluations of beginners and proficient players by employing corresponding assessments? (4) How can complexity thinking be utilized to shape day-to-day physical education (PE) and coaching practices? (5) How can game making/designing be helpfully utilized for emergent learning? (6) How could purposeful game design create constraints that enable tactical understanding and skill development through adaptive learning and distributed cognition? (7) How can teacher/coach development programs benefit from game-centered approaches? (8) How can TGfU-related approaches be implemented in teacher or coach education with the goal of facilitating preservice and in-service teachers/coaches’ learning to teach and thereby foster their professional development from novices to experienced practitioners? (9) Can the TGfU approach be considered a helpful model across different cultures? (10) Can physical/psychomotor, cognitive, affective/social, and cultural development be fostered via TGfU approaches? The answers to these questions are critical not only for the advancement of teaching and coaching in PE and sport-based clubs, but also for an in-depth discussion on new scientific avenues and technological tools. PMID:26452580

  12. Student and Teacher Questioning during Conversations about Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zee, Emily H.; Iwasyk, Marletta; Kurose, Akiko; Simpson, Dorothy; Wild, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes case studies developed by a group of collaborating educators. Investigates ways of speaking that encourage students to formulate insightful questions about science topics and express their own ideas during reflective discussions. (Contains 68 references.) (Author/YDS)

  13. Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan

    1993-01-01

    With the advent of sophisticated space facilities we discuss the overall nature of some biological questions that can be addressed. We point out the need for broad participation by the biological community, the necessary facilities, and some unique requirements.

  14. Stopping and Questioning Suspected Shoplifters Without Creating Civil Liability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jack R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Legal problems concerned with shoplifting suspects are addressed, including common law, criminal penalties, and the merchant's liability. Tangential questions and answers are presented along with discussion of pertinent court cases. (LBH)

  15. Low temperature benefits discussed.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    At a recent educational workshop event hosted by Advanced Sterilization Products, expert speakers including Authorising Engineers, and delegates, discussed some of their experiences of low temperature sterilisation of 'hi-tech' medical devices, and highlighted the benefits of a process which allows decontamination of instruments and, for example, parts of robotic surgery systems, that cannot be decontaminated using standard methods. Also examined,and reported on here in an article that first appeared in HEJ's sister publication, The Clinical Services Journal, were some of the disadvantages of low temperature sterilisation, the key considerations and options when choosing such a system, and a focus on how the technology's use had benefited a major London-based NHS Trust. PMID:27132304

  16. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    2004-01-01

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to

  17. Negotiating the question: using science-manager communication to develop management-relevant science products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beechie, T. J.; Snover, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Natural resource managers often ask scientists to answer questions that cannot be answered, and scientists commonly offer research that is not useful to managers. To produce management-relevant science, managers and scientists must communicate clearly to identify research that is scientifically doable and will produce results that managers find useful. Scientists might also consider that journals with high impact scores are rarely used by managers, while managers might consider that publishing in top tier journals is important to maintain scientific credentials. We offer examples from climate change and river restoration research, in which agency scientists and managers worked together to identify key management questions that scientists could answer and which could inform management. In our first example, we describe how climate scientists worked with agency staff to develop guidance for selecting appropriate climate change scenarios for use in ecological impacts assessments and Endangered Species Act decision making. Within NOAA Fisheries, agency researchers provide science to guide agency managers, and a key question has been how to adapt river restoration efforts for climate change. Based on discussions with restoration practitioners and agency staff, we developed adaptation guidance that summarizes current science to lead managers to develop climate-resilient restoration plans, as well as maps of population vulnerability for endangered steelhead. From these experiences we have learned that collaborative definition of relevant and producible knowledge requires (1) iterative discussions that go beyond simply asking managers what they need or scientists what they can produce, and (2) candid conversation about the intended applications and potential limitations of the knowledge.

  18. Beyond Questions and Discussions, There Is a Need for Action: A Response to Mio and Iwamasa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, J. Manuel; San Miguel, Stephanie

    1993-01-01

    Responds to earlier article by Mio and Iwamasa (1993) on white researchers investigating ethnic-minority populations and other cross-cultural issues. Selectively and critically highlights, clarifies, and/or expands on some of the points contained in the Mio and Iwamasa article that are reflective of comments of respective participants in symposium…

  19. Who’s Asking the Important Questions? Sexual Topics Discussed among Young Pregnant Couples

    PubMed Central

    Albritton, Tashuna; Day, Kyla M.; Divney, Anna; Gordon, Derrick; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim was to examine gender differences in sexual risk communication among young couples and factors influencing communication. Methods Sample consisted of 296 young pregnant couples. We assessed individual, interpersonal, and community factors on sexual risk communication. The Actor-Partner Independence Model was used to assess actor and partner effects on sexual risk communication. Results For actor effects, being female, older, not being Hispanic, and higher condom use self-efficacy was associated with sexual risk communication. The significant partner effect was avoidant romantic attachment. Gender interactions were significant for high risk behaviors and family functioning. High risk behaviors and family functioning were associated with sexual risk communication for females but not for males. Conclusion The study emphasizes the need to promote sexual risk communication among young high risk couples, particularly for males. Family support could serve as a catalyst for sexual risk communication and other sexual protective behaviors among young couples. PMID:24043405

  20. Toward Adaptability: Where to from Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Vaughn, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the collection of articles in this issue are synthesized to discuss conceptualizations of adaptive teaching as a means to foster spaces for adaptive teaching in today's complex educational system. Themes that exist across this collection of articles include adaptive teachers as constructivists, adaptive teachers as knowledgeable…

  1. Solving the puzzle of autoimmunity: critical questions

    PubMed Central

    Smilek, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in delineating the pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune disease, the puzzle that reveals the true picture of these diverse immunological disorders is yet to be solved. We know that the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci as well as many different genetic susceptibility loci with relatively small effect sizes predispose to various autoimmune diseases and that environmental factors are involved in triggering disease. Models for mechanisms of disease become increasingly complex as relationships between components of both the adaptive and innate immune systems are untangled at the molecular level. In this article, we pose some of the important questions about autoimmunity where the answers will advance our understanding of disease pathogenesis and improve the rational design of novel therapies. How is autoimmunity triggered, and what components of the immune response drive the clinical manifestations of disease? What determines whether a genetically predisposed individual will develop an autoimmune disease? Is restoring immune tolerance the secret to finding cures for autoimmune disease? Current research efforts seek answers to these big questions. PMID:25750735

  2. On asking the right questions.

    PubMed

    Rayner, P

    1986-03-01

    Despite the vast array of theoretical formulations now available, none is sufficiently well developed. Some of the philosophical questions thrown up by such material are posed. Under the heading of "Discourse," the questions of what constitutes reasonableness and how logical validity is established are raised. Under the heading of "Epistemology," the nature of concept formulation and causality is raised. Under the heading of "Language," the nature of linguistic representation and artificially constructed language or "artificial intelligence" is raised. It is suggested that these and other issues in the philosophy of science require the urgent attention of family therapy theorists. PMID:3754225

  3. Response times to conceptual questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric; Ibrahim, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    We measured the time taken by students to respond to individual Force Concept Inventory (FCI) questions. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers, both before and after instruction. We also determine the relation between response time and expressed confidence. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response times are longer for incorrect answers than for correct ones, indicating that distractors are not automatic choices. Second, response times increase after instruction for both correct and incorrect answers, supporting the notion that instruction changes students' approach to conceptual questions. Third, response times are inversely related to students' expressed confidence; the lower their confidence, the longer it takes to respond.

  4. National GAP Conference 2007-Discussion Groups Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratz, Joan M.; Lamb, Berton Lee

    2010-01-01

    We led two discussion groups during the 2007 National GAP Conference. These discussion groups provided information to help develop a survey of National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) data users. One group discussed technical issues, and the second group discussed the use of GAP data for decisionmaking. Themes emerging from the technical issues group included concerns about data quality, need for information on how to use data, and passive data distribution. The decisionmaking discussion included a wide range of topics including the need to understand presentation of information, the need to connect with and understand users of data, the revision of GAP's mission, and the adaptability of products and data. The decisionmaking group also raised concerns regarding technical issues. One conclusion is that a deep commitment to ongoing information transfer and support is a key component of success for the GAP program.

  5. Adaptation and risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.

  6. [Questions by adolescents about dieting].

    PubMed

    Bloch, A

    1989-12-15

    In recent years there has been increasing concern and involvement of Israeli adolescents with dieting. An increase in the incidence of obesity has been emphasized by the mass media. This has been marked by an increase in the number of questions on dieting sent anonymously by 12 to 14 year-olds to a column in a popular youth magazine about adolescent sexuality. These letters include requests for diets to prevent obesity in general and fatness of certain parts of the body in particular, such as the thighs or buttocks; questions as to side-effects of diets already started, particularly amenorrhea; and questions about the onset of bulimia and anorexia nervosa, expressing fear of the consequences. This study gives examples of the questions and the answers, and indicates the professions of those to whom the applicants were referred for further diagnosis and treatment. Newer techniques of health education with regard to adolescent dieting are urgently needed so that the health staff can promote insight and indicate the need for treatment at as early a stage as possible. The use of mass media in a suitable manner is critical, given the increase in diet-advertising. PMID:2620891

  7. Explaining Errors in Children's Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Caroline F.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…

  8. Looming Questions in Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2010-01-01

    When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

  9. ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

  10. Questioning Shakespeare through Student Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Kathleen K.

    Reader-response journals were successfully employed in a "Reading Shakespeare" course for non-majors, making literary tradition accessible to students untrained in classical rhetoric. Students were encouraged to employ any combination of four approaches. First, students were invited to ask questions about the language, sequence of events,…

  11. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  12. Questioning Centre-Periphery Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Gerard A.

    2005-01-01

    How much is hegemony and how much is self-determination in the higher education systems in Southeast Asia? This paper argues that while the question of centre and periphery is still relevant to the analysis of international university systems, the analytical frameworks from which it has arisen may lose viability in the long term. Southeast Asian…

  13. Four Questions to Ask Yourself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abilock, Debbie, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…

  14. What Children Learn from Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  15. Education Answers That Vouchers Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, Gerald E.

    This speech explains education voucher programs and responds to criticisms of such programs. The education voucher system is described as one that questions traditional structures and methods while it equalizes opportunities to purchase education, fosters federally funded and controlled alternative school settings and programs, and gives parents…

  16. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions…

  17. Multiple True-False Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, G. C.; Woods, G. T.

    1974-01-01

    Two types of objective questions are compared: the multiple choice item, in which one and only one of several stated alternatives is correct for a given initial statement, and the multiple true-false item, where the stem is followed by several completions of which one or more can be correct. (DT)

  18. Ten Practical Questions about Branding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    "Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

  19. Landslides: A Question of Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devitt, John; Loader, Pete

    2008-01-01

    The impression given in some textbooks is that a landslide can be generated by increasing the weight of an unstable block or adding water to a potential slip plane. This demonstration, which might easily be adapted as a student investigation in physics at advanced level, was an attempt to rectify such oversimplifications and explain to students…

  20. Recent models for adaptive personality differences: a review

    PubMed Central

    Dingemanse, Niels J.; Wolf, Max

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review recent models that provide adaptive explanations for animal personalities: individual differences in behaviour (or suites of correlated behaviours) that are consistent over time or contexts. We start by briefly discussing patterns of variation in behaviour that have been documented in natural populations. In the main part of the paper we discuss models for personality differences that (i) explain animal personalities as adaptive behavioural responses to differences in state, (ii) investigate how feedbacks between state and behaviour can stabilize initial differences among individuals and (iii) provide adaptive explanations for animal personalities that are not based on state differences. Throughout, we focus on two basic questions. First, what is the basic conceptual idea underlying the model? Second, what are the key assumptions and predictions of the model? We conclude by discussing empirical features of personalities that have not yet been addressed by formal modelling. While this paper is primarily intended to guide empiricists through current adaptive theory, thereby stimulating empirical tests of these models, we hope it also inspires theoreticians to address aspects of personalities that have received little attention up to now. PMID:21078647

  1. The most intriguing question in synesthesia research.

    PubMed

    Rouw, Romke; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper forms an insightful addition to the synesthesia literature. Accompanying a steep increase in recent publications on synesthesia, it helps remedy the conspicuous paucity of mechanistic process models explaining the condition. The paper furthermore addresses what is arguably among the most interesting questions: Why do most synesthetes *not* get confused by their additional sensations? This is particularly interesting when phrased in a broader context: What are the mechanisms for deciding which of the sensations we experience reflect something "real" (phenomena in the outside world) and which reflect something that is "not real" (internally generated and private phenomena). PMID:24735051

  2. Adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels.

    PubMed

    Buss, D M; Haselton, M G; Shackelford, T K; Bleske, A L; Wakefield, J C

    1998-05-01

    Adaptation and natural selection are central concepts in the emerging science of evolutionary psychology. Natural selection is the only known causal process capable of producing complex functional organic mechanisms. These adaptations, along with their incidental by-products and a residue of noise, comprise all forms of life. Recently, S. J. Gould (1991) proposed that exaptations and spandrels may be more important than adaptations for evolutionary psychology. These refer to features that did not originally arise for their current use but rather were co-opted for new purposes. He suggested that many important phenomena--such as art, language, commerce, and war--although evolutionary in origin, are incidental spandrels of the large human brain. The authors outline the conceptual and evidentiary standards that apply to adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels and discuss the relative utility of these concepts for psychological science. PMID:9612136

  3. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

  4. Applying the results of education research to help students learn more: peer instruction and clicker questions in upper-division courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Rachel E.; Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Pollock, Steven J.; Perkins, Katherine K.

    2014-11-01

    The physics faculty at the University of Colorado have transformed four upper-division courses: Classical Mechanics/Math Methods, Electricity and Magnetism (E&M) I and II, and Quantum Mechanics. We discuss these transformations as a model for other upper-division courses, such as fluid mechanics, focusing on one of the changes made in the transformation effort: the addition of peer instruction (``clicker questions'') to lecture. The goals of our course transformation were to improve student learning and to develop materials and approaches that other faculty could easily adopt or adapt. In this talk, we review the evidence for effectiveness of peer instruction, discuss our implementation, and present evidence of improved student learning in our transformed upper division courses. Tips for effective use of peer instruction and banks of clicker questions available for fluid mechanics will also be discussed. Our curriculum materials are free and available at http://per.colorado.edu/sei.

  5. Fostering Knowledge Construction in University Students through Asynchronous Discussion Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Does collaborative learning in asynchronous discussion groups result in enhancing academic discourse and knowledge construction? This general research question has been researched in a study involving 300 students, working during six months in 38 electronic discussion groups. The transcripts of the discussions were coded and analysed to test…

  6. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  7. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  8. On a question of Gross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  9. Adaptive Sampling Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flournoy, Nancy

    Designs for sequential sampling procedures that adapt to cumulative information are discussed. A familiar illustration is the play-the-winner rule in which there are two treatments; after a random start, the same treatment is continued as long as each successive subject registers a success. When a failure occurs, the other treatment is used until…

  10. Adapted Minds and Evolved Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology raises questions about how cognitive adaptations might be related to the emergence of formal schooling. Is there a special role for natural domains of cognition such as folk physics, folk psychology and folk biology? These domains may vary from small fragments of reasoning to large integrated systems. This heterogeneity…

  11. Student and teacher questioning during conversations about science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zee, Emily H.; Iwasyk, Marletta; Kurose, Akiko; Simpson, Dorothy; Wild, Judy

    2001-02-01

    This paper summarizes case studies developed by a group of collaborating educators. We investigated ways of speaking that encourage students to (a) formulate insightful questions about science topics and (b) express their own ideas during reflective discussions. The authors include elementary, high school, and college faculty. Subject-matter contexts included phases of the moon, motion, electricity, light, and waves. In developing case studies, we documented and interpreted student and teacher questions during the three ways of speaking we value most: guided discussions, student-generated inquiry discussions, and peer collaborations. Student questions occurred when we set up discourse structures that explicitly elicited student questions, engaged students in conversations about familiar contexts in which they had made many observations over a long time period, created comfortable discourse environments in which students could try to understand one another's thinking, and established small groups where students were collaborating with one another. Typically we elicited student thinking by asking questions that develop conceptual understanding. These included questions to help students clarify their meanings, explore various points of view in a neutral and respectful manner, and monitor the discussion and their own thinking. We also elicited student thinking by practicing quietness through long wait times, attentive silence, and reticence.

  12. Gate questions in psychiatric interviewing: the case of suicide assessment.

    PubMed

    Barber, M E; Marzuk, P M; Leon, A C; Portera, L

    2001-01-01

    Gate questions are commonly used to shorten structured interviews, by not probing negative responses with more detailed questions. This study quantified cases of aborted suicide attempts that would have been missed, if we had skipped detailed questions following a gate. To accomplish this, we interviewed a random sample of 135 adult psychiatric inpatients concerning their past suicidal behavior. Using our structured interview, subjects were asked a general question about aborted suicide attempts, and then asked method-specific questions regardless of their response to the general "gate" question. Of the seventy subjects who were found to have histories of aborted attempts, 44.3% answered "no" to the gate question. Comparing these "false negative" subjects to "true positives," who had answered "yes" to the gate question and reported bona fide aborted attempts yielded no significant associations with demographics, psychiatric diagnoses, or reported histories of actual suicide attempts. Thus, a large number of subjects with aborted attempts would have been missed if a negative response to the gate question had not been probed. Clinical and reasearch implications generally, as well as implications for suicide assessment, are discussed. PMID:11287058

  13. Four open questions in massive star evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynet, G.; Eggenberger, P.; Ekström, S.; Georgy, C.; Groh, J.; Maeder, A.; Saio, H.; Moriya, T.

    2013-12-01

    We discuss four questions dealing with massive star evolution. The first one is about the origin of slowly rotating, non-evolved, nitrogen rich stars. We propose that these stars may originate from initially fast rotating stars whose surface has been braked down. The second question is about the evolutionary status of α-Cygni variables. According to their pulsation properties, these stars should be post red supergiant stars. However, some stars at least present surface abundances indicating that they should be pre red supergiant stars. How to reconcile these two contradictory requirements? The third one concerns the various supernova types which are the end point of the evolution of stars with initial masses between 18 and 30M⊙, i.e. the most massive stars which go through a red supergiant phase during their lifetime. Do they produce types IIP, IIL, IIn, IIb or Ib supernovae or do they end without producing any SN event? Finally, we shall discuss reasons why so few progenitors of type Ibc supernovae have yet been detected?

  14. Phase Adaptation and Correction by Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiziani, Hans J.

    2010-04-01

    Adaptive optical elements and systems for imaging or laser beam propagation are used for some time in particular in astronomy, where the image quality is degraded by atmospheric turbulence. In astronomical telescopes a deformable mirror is frequently used to compensate wavefront-errors due to deformations of the large mirror, vibrations as well as turbulence and hence to increase the image quality. In the last few years interesting elements like Spatial Light Modulators, SLM's, such as photorefractive crystals, liquid crystals and micro mirrors and membrane mirrors were introduced. The development of liquid crystals and micro mirrors was driven by data projectors as consumer products. They contain typically a matrix of individually addressable pixels of liquid crystals and flip mirrors respectively or more recently piston mirrors for special applications. Pixel sizes are in the order of a few microns and therefore also appropriate as active diffractive elements in digital holography or miniature masks. Although liquid crystals are mainly optimized for intensity modulation; they can be used for phase modulation. Adaptive optics is a technology for beam shaping and wavefront adaptation. The application of spatial light modulators for wavefront adaptation and correction and defect analysis as well as sensing will be discussed. Dynamic digital holograms are generated with liquid crystal devices (LCD) and used for wavefront correction as well as for beam shaping and phase manipulation, for instance. Furthermore, adaptive optics is very useful to extend the measuring range of wavefront sensors and for the wavefront adaptation in order to measure and compare the shape of high precision aspherical surfaces.

  15. Monocular and binocular mechanisms mediating flicker adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaohua; Shevell, Steven K

    2015-12-01

    Flicker adaptation reduces subsequent temporal contrast sensitivity. Recent studies show that this adaptation likely results from neural changes in the magnocellular visual pathway, but whether this adaptation occurs at a monocular or a binocular level, or both, is unclear. Here, two experiments address this question. The first experiment exploits the observation that flicker adaptation is stronger at higher than lower temporal frequencies. Observers' two eyes adapted to 3Hz flicker with an incremental pulse at 1/4 duty cycle, either in-phase or out-of-phase in the two eyes. At the binocular level, the flicker rate was 6Hz in the out-of-phase condition if the two eyes' pulse trains sum. Similar sensitivity reduction was found in both phase conditions, as expected for independent monocular adapting mechanisms. The second experiment tested for interocular transfer of adaptation between eyes. Results showed that (1) flicker adaptation was strongest with adapting and test fields in only the same eye, (2) adaptation can be partially transferred interocularly with adaptation in only the opposite eye, and (3) adaptation was weakened when both eyes were adapted simultaneously at different contrasts, compared to test-eye adaptation alone. Taken together, the findings are consistent with mechanisms of flicker adaptation at both the monocular and binocular level. PMID:26505684

  16. Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davson-Galle, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Explains Philip Higgs' post modern pluralist thought by reaction to the monolithic rigidities of the decreed dogma of his country's (South Africa) past. Author argues that Higgs has overreacted and has become over tolerant of diversity of thought and that intellectual endeavors should be relativised to particular intellectual parochial…

  17. Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, K.

    Presenter, T. P. Grazulis, private consultant [Grazulis et al., this volume, advances in tornado climatology, hazards, and risk assessment since Tornado Symposium II]. (C. Anderson, North Carolina State University.) At one time, I lived in Wisconsin and used to consider tornado climatology there. I noticed some very strange reporting, also. There were a number of counties along the Lake Michigan shore that showed no reported tornadoes from 1915 to 1950. Did you find something like this as well?

  18. Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Author argues that the philosophical movement known as postmodernism seriously undermined the notion that truth can be at all objective and that truth depends entirely on democratic consensus. Addresses Davon-Galle's criticism of the author's assertions and explains that the certainty that Davon-Galle seeks is not to be found in philosophy or any…

  19. Informal Discussions in Substance Abuse Treatment Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Steve; Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami L.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which counselors initiated informal discussions (i.e., general discussions and self-disclosures about matters unrelated to treatment) with their clients during treatment sessions within two National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trial Network protocols involving adaptations of motivational interviewing (MI). Sixty counselors across the two protocols had 736 sessions independently rated for counselor treatment fidelity and the occurrence of informal discussions. The results showed that 88% of the counselors initiated informal discussions in their sessions and that the majority of these discussions involved counselors sharing personal information or experiences they had in common with their clients. The major finding was that counselor training in MI was associated with significantly less informal discussion across sessions. A higher frequency of informal discussion was related to less counselor MI proficiency and less in-session change in client motivation, though unrelated to client program retention and substance use outcomes. The findings suggest that while some informal discussion may help build an alliance between counselors and clients, too much of it may hinder counselors' proficient implementation of MI treatment strategies and the clients' motivational enhancement process. PMID:18835679

  20. An adaptive two-stage sequential design for sampling rare and clustered populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, J.A.; Salehi, M.M.; Moradi, M.; Bell, G.; Smith, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    How to design an efficient large-area survey continues to be an interesting question for ecologists. In sampling large areas, as is common in environmental studies, adaptive sampling can be efficient because it ensures survey effort is targeted to subareas of high interest. In two-stage sampling, higher density primary sample units are usually of more interest than lower density primary units when populations are rare and clustered. Two-stage sequential sampling has been suggested as a method for allocating second stage sample effort among primary units. Here, we suggest a modification: adaptive two-stage sequential sampling. In this method, the adaptive part of the allocation process means the design is more flexible in how much extra effort can be directed to higher-abundance primary units. We discuss how best to design an adaptive two-stage sequential sample. ?? 2008 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer.

  1. Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

  2. Adaptable Learning Assistant for Item Bank Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuntiyagul, Atorn; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Wongsawang, Damras

    2008-01-01

    We present PKIP, an adaptable learning assistant tool for managing question items in item banks. PKIP is not only able to automatically assist educational users to categorize the question items into predefined categories by their contents but also to correctly retrieve the items by specifying the category and/or the difficulty level. PKIP adapts…

  3. The Adaptability Evaluation of Enterprise Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junjuan; Xue, Chaogai; Dong, Lili

    In this paper, a set of evaluation system is proposed by GQM (Goal-Question-Metrics) for enterprise information systems. Then based on Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), the evaluation model is proposed to evaluate enterprise information systems' adaptability. Finally, the application of the evaluation system and model is proved via a case study, which provides references for optimizing enterprise information systems' adaptability.

  4. Computerized Adaptive Testing under Nonparametric IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xueli; Douglas, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Nonparametric item response models have been developed as alternatives to the relatively inflexible parametric item response models. An open question is whether it is possible and practical to administer computerized adaptive testing with nonparametric models. This paper explores the possibility of computerized adaptive testing when using…

  5. Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

    2010-01-01

    System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

  6. How should we question young children's understanding of aspectuality?

    PubMed

    Waters, Gillian M; Beck, Sarah R

    2012-09-01

    In two experiments, we investigated whether 4- to 5-year-old children's ability to demonstrate their understanding of aspectuality was influenced by how the test question was phrased. In Experiment 1, 60 children chose whether to look or feel to gain information about a hidden object (identifiable by sight or touch). Test questions referred either to the perceptual aspect of the hidden object (e.g., whether it was red or blue), the modality dimension (e.g., what colour it was), or the object's identity (e.g., which one it was). Children who heard the identity question performed worse than those who heard the aspect or dimension question. Further investigation in Experiment 2 (N= 23) established that children's difficulty with the identity question was not due to a problem recalling the objects. We discuss how the results of these methodological investigations impact on researchers' assessment of the development of aspectuality understanding. PMID:22882369

  7. Answering Your Digital Imaging Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koelling, Jill Marie

    1998-01-01

    Discusses two reasons why institutions should create digital image files--access and preservation. Suggests a collection survey for determining what to scan. Describes the five most important technical issues of digital imaging: resolution, file formats, storage, refreshment, and copyright. Discusses digitization of manuscript collections and…

  8. Adaptive resolution simulation in equilibrium and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Agarwal, A.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the equilibrium statistical properties of both the force and potential interpolations of adaptive resolution simulation (AdResS) under the theoretical framework of grand-canonical like AdResS (GC-AdResS). The thermodynamic relations between the higher and lower resolutions are derived by considering the absence of fundamental conservation laws in mechanics for both branches of AdResS. In order to investigate the applicability of AdResS method in studying the properties beyond the equilibrium, we demonstrate the accuracy of AdResS in computing the dynamical properties in two numerical examples: The velocity auto-correlation of pure water and the conformational relaxation of alanine dipeptide dissolved in water. Theoretical and technical open questions of the AdResS method are discussed in the end of the paper.

  9. How Humans Adapt To Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses adaptive responses of humans to hot environment. Describes thermoregulation by integrated responses of nervous system, vascular/fluid/electrolyte system, and endocrine system. Considers disorders resulting from failure of thermoregulation and less serious heat stress.

  10. Open forum: Question and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation).

  11. The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  12. Teaching adaptive leadership to family medicine residents: what? why? how?

    PubMed

    Eubank, Daniel; Geffken, Dominic; Orzano, John; Ricci, Rocco

    2012-09-01

    Health care reform calls for patient-centered medical homes built around whole person care and healing relationships. Efforts to transform primary care practices and deliver these qualities have been challenging. This study describes one Family Medicine residency's efforts to develop an adaptive leadership curriculum and use coaching as a teaching method to address this challenge. We review literature that describes a parallel between the skills underlying such care and those required for adaptive leadership. We address two questions: What is leadership? Why focus on adaptive leadership? We then present a synthesis of leadership theories as a set of process skills that lead to organization learning through effective work relationships and adaptive leadership. Four models of the learning process needed to acquire such skills are explored. Coaching is proposed as a teaching method useful for going beyond information transfer to create the experiential learning necessary to acquire the process skills. Evaluations of our efforts to date are summarized. We discuss key challenges to implementing such a curriculum and propose that teaching adaptive leadership is feasible but difficult in the current medical education and practice contexts. PMID:22906156

  13. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  14. Let's Discuss: Teaching Students about Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brank, Eve; Wylie, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates the benefits of employing classroom discussions; however, there has been less attention given to teaching students about discussions. The current research compared 2 advanced social psychology courses: 1 without (control) and 1 with (experimental) a week devoted to learning about and discussing discussions.…

  15. Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

  16. Living and Learning in EcCoWell Cities: Discussion Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    These notes and questions have been prepared to promote discussion of the ideas set out in the Clarifying paper, "Living and learning in EcCoWell cities" to be found on the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) website. This Discussion Paper sets ten questions for discussion. We are hoping to encourage discussions of these issues around the world.

  17. Adaptive SAR ATR problem set (AdaptSAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Angela R.; Fitzgerald, Donna; Ross, Timothy D.

    2004-09-01

    A strong and growing interest in systems that adapt to changing circumstances was evident in panel discussions at the "Algorithms for SAR Imagery" Conference of the AeroSense Symposium in April 2003, with DARPA, Air Force, industry and academia participation. As a result, Conference Co-Chair Mr. Ed Zelnio suggested producing a dynamic model to create problem sets suitable for adaptive system research and development. Such a problem set provides a framework for the overall problem, including organization of operating conditions, performance measures and specific test cases. It is hoped that this AdaptSAPS framework will help provide the community with a more concrete base for discussing adaptation in SAR imagery exploitation. AdaptSAPS Version 1.0 was produced by the AFRL COMPASE and SDMS organizations and posted on 5 August 2003. AdaptSAPS consists of over a dozen MatLab programs that allow the user to create "missions" with SAR data of varying complexities and then present that test data one image at a time, first as unexploited imagery and then later with the exploitation results that an ATR could use for adaptation in an operational environment. AdaptSAPS keeps track of performance results and reports performance measures. This paper describes AdaptSAPS - its application process and possible improvements as a problem set.

  18. Les questions de migrations internationales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  19. [The questions of international migration].

    PubMed

    Samman, M L

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument, and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic, and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in diffusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programs address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution in order that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in light of the complementary or competing actions of the media. (author's modified) PMID:12286405

  20. Diving Medicine: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... re-evaluating your fitness to dive. Thyroid Conditions Fitness to Dive Asthma and Scuba Diving Bone Considerations ... Healthy, But Overweight DAN Discusses the Issue of Fitness and Diving By Joel Dovenbarger, Vice President, DAN ...

  1. The artful dodger: answering the wrong question the right way.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Todd; Norton, Michael I

    2011-06-01

    What happens when speakers try to "dodge" a question they would rather not answer by answering a different question? In 4 studies, we show that listeners can fail to detect dodges when speakers answer similar-but objectively incorrect-questions (the "artful dodge"), a detection failure that goes hand-in-hand with a failure to rate dodgers more negatively. We propose that dodges go undetected because listeners' attention is not usually directed toward a goal of dodge detection (i.e., Is this person answering the question?) but rather toward a goal of social evaluation (i.e., Do I like this person?). Listeners were not blind to all dodge attempts, however. Dodge detection increased when listeners' attention was diverted from social goals toward determining the relevance of the speaker's answers (Study 1), when speakers answered a question egregiously dissimilar to the one asked (Study 2), and when listeners' attention was directed to the question asked by keeping it visible during speakers' answers (Study 4). We also examined the interpersonal consequences of dodge attempts: When listeners were guided to detect dodges, they rated speakers more negatively (Study 2), and listeners rated speakers who answered a similar question in a fluent manner more positively than speakers who answered the actual question but disfluently (Study 3). These results add to the literatures on both Gricean conversational norms and goal-directed attention. We discuss the practical implications of our findings in the contexts of interpersonal communication and public debates. PMID:21517203

  2. Refiners discuss fluid catalytic cracking at technology meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-24

    At the National Petroleum Refiners Association`s question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology, engineers and technical specialists from around the world gather each year to exchange experience and information on refining and petrochemical issues. Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts were a topic of great interest at the most recent NPRA Q and A session, held Oct. 11--13, 1994, in Washington, DC. The discussions of FCC catalysts included questions about: reduction of olefins in FCC naphtha; tolerance of FCC catalysts to oxygen enrichment; use of mild hydrocracking catalyst in an FCC feed hydrotreater. At this renowned meeting, a panel of industry representatives answers presubmitted questions. Moderator and NPRA technical director Terrence S. Higgins then invites audience members to respond or ask additional questions on the subjects under discussion. This paper presents the discussions of the above three topics.

  3. Adaptive Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative adaptive seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-adaptive clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. Adaptive sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).

  4. Alchemies and Governing: Or, Questions about the Questions We Ask

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.

    2007-01-01

    This article turns one of most cited philosopher's John Dewey's title, "How We Think" (1933/1998) back upon itself to consider how "thought" or "reason" are cultural practices that historically order and generate principles for reflection and action. The discussion proceeds thusly: (1) Schooling is about changing people; (2) Changing people…

  5. [Nursing] Test Pool Questions. Area II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob

    This manual consists of area 2 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 2 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…

  6. [Nursing] Test Pool Questions. Area I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob

    This manual consists of area 1 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 1 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…

  7. 29 CFR 18.104 - Preliminary questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary questions. 18.104 Section 18.104 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence § 18.104 Preliminary questions. (a) Questions of admissibility generally. Preliminary questions concerning the qualification of a person to be a witness,...

  8. 29 CFR 18.104 - Preliminary questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary questions. 18.104 Section 18.104 Labor Office... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence § 18.104 Preliminary questions. (a) Questions of admissibility generally. Preliminary questions concerning the qualification of a person to be a witness,...

  9. The Questioning Strategies Observation System (QSOS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Kevin R.; Davis, O. L., Jr.

    The Questioning Strategies Observation System (QSOS) is designed to record verbal behaviors occurring in the classroom which are associated with the teacher's use of questions. Twenty-four categories are used in three main sections: initiation of the question, response to the question, and reaction to the response. Under initiation, the categories…

  10. Five Strategies for Questioning with Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2015-01-01

    Masterful teachers don't just ask a lot of questions; they ask questions in a purposeful way. In this article, Costa and Kallick describe five strategies that can help teachers become more purposeful in designing and posing questions. One strategy is to plan questions that elicit student thinking at various cognitive levels, from simple recall of…

  11. Improving Teacher Questions in Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers need to be able to ask quality questions in the teaching of reading--questions to assess student comprehension and to clarify content, questions to enable learners to engage in higher levels of cognition such as creative and critical thinking, questions to help students engage in meaningful reading experiences and become lifelong…

  12. Introduction to Small Group Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dan Pyle

    To bring educational research into focus with tested classroom practice, this booklet provides an introduction to small group discussion. The theory and research section discusses the importance of small group discussion, characteristics of small group discussions, group attraction based on Maslow's hierarchy of basic human needs, group decision…

  13. Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshev, Yurij; Teerikorpi, Pekka

    The book guides the reader (astronomer, physicist, university student) through central questions of Practical Cosmology, a term used by the late Allan Sandage to denote the modern scientific enterprise to find out the cosmological model best describing the universe of galaxies, its geometry, size, age, and material contents. The authors draw from their personal experience in astrophysics and cosmology to explain key concepts of cosmology, both observational and theoretical, and to highlight several items which give cosmology its special character: - idiosyncratic features of the "cosmic laboratory" - Malmquist bias in determination of cosmic distances - theory of gravitation as a cornerstone of cosmological models - crucial tests checking the reality of space expansion - methods of analyzing the structures of the universe as mapped by galaxies - usefulness of fractal as a model to describe the large-scale structure - new cosmological physics inherent in the Friedmann world model

  14. Big questions about the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  15. Knowledge exchange for climate adaptation planning in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfin, Gregg; Orr, Barron

    2015-04-01

    In western North America, the combination of sustained drought, rapid ecosystem changes, and land use changes associated with urban population growth has motivated concern among ecosystem managers about the implications of future climate changes for the landscapes which they manage. Through literature review, surveys, and workshop discussions, we assess the process of moving from concern, to planning, to action, with an emphasis on questions, such as: What are the roles of boundary organizations in facilitating knowledge exchange? Which practices lead to effective interactions between scientists, decision-makers, and knowledge brokers? While there is no "one size fits all" science communication method, the co-production of science and policy by research scientists, science translators, and decision-makers, as co-equals, is a resource intensive, but effective practice for moving adaptation planning forward. Constructive approaches make use of alliances with early adopters and opinion leaders, and make strong communication links between predictions, impacts and solutions. Resource managers need information on the basics of regional climate variability and global climate change, region-specific projections of climate changes and impacts, frank discussion of uncertainties, and opportunities for candid exploration of these topics with peers and subject experts. Research scientists play critical roles in adaptation planning discussions, because they assist resource managers in clarifying the cascade of interactions leading to potential impacts and, importantly, because decision-makers want to hear the information straight from the scientists conducting the research, which bolsters credibility. We find that uncertainty, formerly a topic to avoided, forms the foundation for constructive progress in adaptation planning. Candid exploration of the array of uncertainties, including those due to modeling, institutional, policy and economic factors, with practitioners, science

  16. Session: Discussion of Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2004-09-01

    This final session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop was lead by a facilitator who asked participants for their overall reaction to the research that had been presented during the workshop. Questions addressed by workshop participants included: how do you develop trust and confidence in the research, what are some of the specific gaps in our understanding of wind energy's impact on birds and bats; how do we prioritize and proceed with closing the data/research gaps; how do we connect the dots and bring various research and mapping efforts together; given gaps in the data, what are the critical questions we need to answer to make project decisions now; and, how do we track/influence the policies that will shape wind energy development. Conclusions reached regarding these questions are included in summary form.

  17. The Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative: Climate Resilient Local Governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    Local governments, the first responders to public health, safety and environmental hazards, must act now to lessen vulnerabilities to climate change. They must plan for and invest in "adapting" to inevitable impacts such as flood, fire, and draught that will occur notwithstanding best efforts to mitigate climate change. CCAP's Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative is developing a framework for informed decision making on climate adaptation. Looking ahead to projected climate impacts and 'back casting' can identify what is needed now to both reduce greenhouse gas emissions and build local resiliency to climate change. CCAP's partnership with King County (WA), Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami-Dade County (FL), Milwaukee, Nassau County (NY), Phoenix, San Francisco, and Toronto is advancing policy discussions to ensure that state and local governments consider climate change when making decisions about infrastructure, transportation, land use, and resource management. Through the Initiative, local leaders will incorporate climate change into daily urban management and planning activities, proactively engage city and county managers and the public in developing solutions, and build community resilience. One goal is to change both institutional and public attitudes and behaviors. Determining appropriate adaptation strategies for each jurisdiction requires Asking the Climate Question: "How does what we are doing increase our resilience to climate change?" Over the next three years, the Initiative will design and implement specific adaptation plans, policies and 'catalytic' projects, collect and disseminate "best practices," and participate in framing national climate policy discussions. In the coming years, policy-makers will have to consider climate change in major infrastructure development decisions. If they are to be successful and have the resources they need, national climate change policy and emerging legislation will have to support these communities. The Urban Leaders

  18. [5ARI and PSA: open questions.

    PubMed

    Tubaro, Andrea; Puccini, Federica; De Nunzio, Cosimo

    2014-09-23

    No consensus has ever been reached on the predictive value of serum prostate specific antigen(PSA) for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Limitations of PSA testing in clinical practice have beenoften discussed in the peer-reviewed literature following data derived from clinical trials such as theProstate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events(REDUCE) study that showed a linear rise in the risk of prostate cancer with increasing PSA levels.Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a known confounding factor for the use of PSA as a marker of prostatecancer. Increased prostate volume observed with ageing, urinary retention, acute and chronicinflammatory conditions of the prostate, sexual activity and digital rectal examination may all cause anincrease of PSA values. Both finasteride and dutasteride, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARI) used inthe treatment of BPH, are known to induce a significant decrease of serum PSA levels close to 50%.The observed change in PSA values following 5ARI treatment has raised questions about the accuracyof PSA testing for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients on finasteride/dutasteride treatment.Careful analysis of data from various clinical trials on pharmacological treatment of LUTS due toBPH suggested that the accuracy of PSA testing is not just maintained but rather increased following5ARI use. Then, the question of PSA accuracy during 5ARI treatment can be considered closed. PMID:25350562

  19. Autoantibodies in Systemic Sclerosis: Unanswered Questions

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Cristiane; Fritzler, Marvin J.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by vascular abnormalities, and cutaneous and visceral fibrosis. Serum autoantibodies directed to multiple intracellular antigens are present in more than 95% of patients and are considered a hallmark of SSc. They are helpful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of SSc and are associated with distinctive clinical manifestations. With the advent of more sensitive, multiplexed immunoassays, new and old questions about the relevance of autoantibodies in SSc are emerging. In this review, we discuss the clinical relevance of autoantibodies in SSc emphasizing the more recently published data. Moreover, we will summarize recent advances regarding the stability of SSc autoantibodies over the course of disease, whether they are mutually exclusive and their potential roles in the disease pathogenesis. PMID:25926833

  20. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: a clot in question.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavin; Pakala, Aneesh; Aronson, Willard; Magharyous, Hany; Brown, Brent

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a group of disorders characterized by a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right heart failure and premature death. We present an unusual case of PAH diagnosed initially as Idiopathic PAH (IPAH) after secondary causes were excluded which was successfully managed for a number of years with vasodilators and anticoagulation. Over the months after stopping anticoagulation (because of recurring small bowel hemorrhaging) patient developed progressive findings of right heart failure, which failed to respond to escalating doses of prostacyclin. The patient died and an autopsy revealed the surprising finding of extensive organized central pulmonary artery thrombi as is seen in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We discuss the question of whether these thrombi are generally embolic or develop in situ and recommend that clinicians have a high index of suspicion for central thrombi in patients with IPAH were anticoagulation is contraindicated. PMID:25223151

  1. Fetal research: the question in the states.

    PubMed

    Baron, C H

    1985-04-01

    Baron, a law professor, traces the history of state and federal regulation of fetal research from 1973 to 1983. He explores the dilemmas raised by research on fetuses, particularly aborted fetuses, and the aspects of fetal research that the federal regulations and state laws were enacted to control. While criticizing many of the states' actions for lack of uniformity and blanket prohibitions based on the status of the fetus or abortus, Baron acknowledges that less-than-perfect legislation is the price of rule making in a pluralistic society that is still working toward a consensus on controversial issues such as abortion and fetal research. Using as an example the 1973-1974 debate between researchers and law makers in Massachusetts, he discusses how advocates on both sides of the fetal research question might educate and persuade each other to reach an acceptable regulatory compromise. PMID:4008234

  2. Rift Valley fever virus: Unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Bird, Brian H; McElroy, Anita K

    2016-08-01

    This mosquito-borne pathogen of humans and animals respects no international or geographic boundaries. It is currently found in parts of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula where periodic outbreaks of severe and fatal disease occur, and threatens to spread into other geographic regions. In recent years, modern molecular techniques have led to many breakthroughs deepening our understanding of the mechanisms of RVFV virulence, phylogenetics, and the creation of several next-generation vaccine candidates. Despite tremendous progress in these areas, other challenges remain in RVF disease pathogenesis, the virus life-cycle, and outbreak response preparedness that deserve our attention. Here we discuss and highlight ten key knowledge gaps and challenges in RVFV research. Answers to these key questions may lead to the development of new effective therapeutics and enhanced control strategies for this serious human and veterinary health threat. PMID:27400990

  3. Panel Discussion With PR/PRL Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Panelists: Peter Adams, Physical Review B Irwin Oppenheim, Physical Review E & Massachsetts Institute of Technology Jack Sandweiss, Physical Review Letters & Yale University Reinhardt Schuhmann, Physical Review Letters The panel will include Editors from Physical Review Letters, Physical Review B, and Physical Review E. They will briefly discuss some current issues facing the journals, such as raising the standards for PRL acceptance and the role of electronic media attachments (e.g., movies) to journal articles. Opinions on these issues from the audience will be solicited. The Editors will also respond to questions and comments from the audience.

  4. Adapting Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John; Wedman, Judy

    1985-01-01

    The "Animals" program found on the Apple II and IIe system master disk can be adapted for use in the mathematics classroom. Instructions for making the necessary changes and suggestions for using it in lessons related to geometric shapes are provided. (JN)

  5. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  6. Adaptive homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kelvin J A

    2016-06-01

    Homeostasis is a central pillar of modern Physiology. The term homeostasis was invented by Walter Bradford Cannon in an attempt to extend and codify the principle of 'milieu intérieur,' or a constant interior bodily environment, that had previously been postulated by Claude Bernard. Clearly, 'milieu intérieur' and homeostasis have served us well for over a century. Nevertheless, research on signal transduction systems that regulate gene expression, or that cause biochemical alterations to existing enzymes, in response to external and internal stimuli, makes it clear that biological systems are continuously making short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of 'normal' capacity. These transient adaptations typically occur in response to relatively mild changes in conditions, to programs of exercise training, or to sub-toxic, non-damaging levels of chemical agents; thus, the terms hormesis, heterostasis, and allostasis are not accurate descriptors. Therefore, an operational adjustment to our understanding of homeostasis suggests that the modified term, Adaptive Homeostasis, may be useful especially in studies of stress, toxicology, disease, and aging. Adaptive Homeostasis may be defined as follows: 'The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events.' PMID:27112802

  7. Studying the clinical encounter with the Adaptive Leadership framework

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Donald E; Docherty, Sharron L; Adams, Judith A; Carthron, Dana L; Corazzini, Kirsten; Day, Jennifer R; Neglia, Elizabeth; Thygeson, Marcus; Anderson, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the concept of leadership as a personal capability, not contingent on one's position in a hierarchy. This type of leadership allows us to reframe both the care-giving and organizational roles of nurses and other front-line clinical staff. Little research has been done to explore what leadership means at the point of care, particularly in reference to the relationship between health care practitioners and patients and their family caregivers. The Adaptive Leadership framework, based on complexity science theory, provides a useful lens to explore practitioners' leadership behaviors at the point of care. This framework proposes that there are two broad categories of challenges that patients face: technical and adaptive. Whereas technical challenges are addressed with technical solutions that are delivered by practitioners, adaptive challenges require the patient (or family member) to adjust to a new situation and to do the work of adapting, learning, and behavior change. Adaptive leadership is the work that practitioners do to mobilize and support patients to do the adaptive work. The purpose of this paper is to describe this framework and demonstrate its application to nursing research. We demonstrate the framework's utility with five exemplars of nursing research problems that range from the individual to the system levels. The framework has the potential to guide researchers to ask new questions and to gain new insights into how practitioners interact with patients at the point of care to increase the patient's ability to tackle challenging problems and improve their own health care outcomes. It is a potentially powerful framework for developing and testing a new generation of interventions to address complex issues by harnessing and learning about the adaptive capabilities of patients within their life contexts. PMID:24409083

  8. Studying the clinical encounter with the Adaptive Leadership framework.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Donald E; Docherty, Sharron L; Adams, Judith A; Carthron, Dana L; Corazzini, Kirsten; Day, Jennifer R; Neglia, Elizabeth; Thygeson, Marcus; Anderson, Ruth A

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we discuss the concept of leadership as a personal capability, not contingent on one's position in a hierarchy. This type of leadership allows us to reframe both the care-giving and organizational roles of nurses and other front-line clinical staff. Little research has been done to explore what leadership means at the point of care, particularly in reference to the relationship between health care practitioners and patients and their family caregivers. The Adaptive Leadership framework, based on complexity science theory, provides a useful lens to explore practitioners' leadership behaviors at the point of care. This framework proposes that there are two broad categories of challenges that patients face: technical and adaptive. Whereas technical challenges are addressed with technical solutions that are delivered by practitioners, adaptive challenges require the patient (or family member) to adjust to a new situation and to do the work of adapting, learning, and behavior change. Adaptive leadership is the work that practitioners do to mobilize and support patients to do the adaptive work. The purpose of this paper is to describe this framework and demonstrate its application to nursing research. We demonstrate the framework's utility with five exemplars of nursing research problems that range from the individual to the system levels. The framework has the potential to guide researchers to ask new questions and to gain new insights into how practitioners interact with patients at the point of care to increase the patient's ability to tackle challenging problems and improve their own health care outcomes. It is a potentially powerful framework for developing and testing a new generation of interventions to address complex issues by harnessing and learning about the adaptive capabilities of patients within their life contexts. PMID:24409083

  9. Questioning Intuition through Reflective Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on ethics and moral development focuses on discussion concerning the impact of intuition on moral decision-making. Through the use of student journal reflections over the course of one semester, this study utilized a grounded theory approach in order to explore and understand participant levels of awareness and understanding of…

  10. Questions of Mind Over Immunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the possibility of disturbed immunity among people experiencing either clinical depression or some type of severe stress. Psychoneuroimmunology, the study of psychological treatment and its ability to shore up a person's immunity and slow the spread of infectious disease, is reviewed. (KR)

  11. Medical Questions? Medline has Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modlin, Melanie

    1998-01-01

    Developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the electronic version of "Index Medicus," Medline is the world's largest collection of published medical knowledge. Discussion includes accessing Medline (cost-free) with a Web browser, librarians as links between patients and physicians; and examples of Medline searches. (AEF)

  12. Discussion on ``Frontiers of the Second Law''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth; Bejan, Adrian; Bennett, Charles; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Butler, Howard; Gordon, Lyndsay; Grmela, Miroslav; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Hatsopoulos, George N.; Jou, David; Kjelstrup, Signe; Lior, Noam; Miller, Sam; Rubi, Miguel; Schneider, Eric D.; Sekulic, Dusan P.; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 4, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Adrian Bejan, Bjarne Andresen, Miguel Rubi, Signe Kjelstrup, David Jou, Miroslav Grmela, Lyndsay Gordon, and Eric Schneider. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Is the second law relevant when we trap single ions, prepare, manipulate and measure single photons, excite single atoms, induce spin echoes, measure quantum entanglement? Is it possible or impossible to build Maxwell demons that beat the second law by exploiting fluctuations? • Is the maximum entropy generation principle capable of unifying nonequilibrium molecular dynamics, chemical kinetics, nonlocal and nonequilibrium rheology, biological systems, natural structures, and cosmological evolution? • Research in quantum computation and quantum information has raised many fundamental questions about the foundations of quantum theory. Are any of these questions related to the second law?

  13. Facilitating Effective Small Group Discussions of Controversial Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Jon R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes four components of a packet of materials designed for small-group discussions on alphafetoprotein (AFP) screening for neural tube defects. Components consist of instructional guidelines for group leader, informational packet on AFP, list of specific discussion questions, and student evaluation form. Copies of these materials are…

  14. Facilitating Cross-Cultural Online Discussion Groups: Implications for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Saundra Wall; Watkins, Karen; Daley, Barbara; Courtenay, Bradley; Davis, Mike; Dymock, Darryl

    2001-01-01

    Discusses research that examined the issues and challenges experienced by facilitators in cross-cultural group discussions in a Web conferencing program, using action research methods of data collection and analysis. Considers questioning, participation, interpersonal and group dynamics, facilitator expectations, and student expectations.…

  15. Miles Discusses Experiment With NASA Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Lexington, Massachusetts high school student, Judith Miles, discusses her proposed Skylab experiment with Keith Demorest (right) and Henry Floyd, both of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In her experiment, called the 'Web Formation in Zero Gravity', called for spiders to be released into a box and their actions recorded to determine how well they adapt to the absence of gravity. Spiders are known to adapt quickly to other changes in the environment but nothing was known of their ability to adapt to weightlessness. At the same time spiders were weaving webs in Earth orbit, similar spiders were spinning webs in identical boxes on Earth under full gravity conditions. Miles was among the 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab Mission. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of equipment.

  16. Miles Discusses Skylab Experiment With NASA Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Lexington, Massachusetts high school student, Judith Miles, discusses her proposed Skylab experiment with engineers and scientists during a design review of the experiment equipment. At left is Ron Pavlue of Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC), holding a box is Keith Demorest of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Right of Miles is Dr. Raymond Gause, also of MSFC, who is Miles' scientific advisor. In her experiment, called the 'Web Formation in Zero Gravity', spiders were released into a box and their actions recorded to determine how well they adapt to the absence of gravity. Spiders are known to adapt quickly to other changes in the environment but nothing was known of their ability to adapt to weightlessness. At the same time spiders were weaving webs in Earth orbit, similar spiders were spinning webs in identical boxes on Earth under full gravity conditions. Miles was among the 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of equipment.

  17. Adapting Music Instruction for Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Kate O'Brien

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how several simple adaptations in the music classroom can greatly enhance dyslexic students' learning. The sections included in this article are: (1) What Is Dyslexia?; (2) Students with Dyslexia; (3) What to Look for; (4) Adapting Instruction; (5) Reading Notation; and (6) Motor Skills. A list of practical adaptations; and…

  18. Adaptive Force Control in Compliant Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling a manipulator in compliant motion while in contact with an environment having an unknown stiffness. Two classes of solutions are discussed: adaptive admittance control and adaptive compliance control. In both admittance and compliance control schemes, compensator adaptation is used to ensure a stable and uniform system performance.

  19. From Concept to Measurement in Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Henry

    The concept of adaptation is approached from several directions: (1) a discussion of the meanings of adaptation; (2) a functional socio-cultural set of considerations on which one can base measurement in adaptive behavior; and (3) a practical, applied conceptualization relative to the utilization of the obtained information and the reasons for…

  20. Is adaptive co-management ethical?

    PubMed

    Fennell, David; Plummer, Ryan; Marschke, Melissa

    2008-07-01

    'Good' governance and adaptive co-management hold broad appeal due to their positive connotations and 'noble ethical claims'. This paper poses a fundamental question: is adaptive co-management ethical? In pursuing an answer to this question, the concept of adaptive co-management is succinctly summarized and three ethical perspectives (deontology, teleology and existentialism) are explored. The case of adaptive co-management in Cambodia is described and subsequently considered through the lens of ethical triangulation. The case illuminates important ethical considerations and directs attention towards the need for meditative thinking which increases the value of tradition, ecology, and culture. Giving ethics a central position makes clear the potential for adaptive co-management to be an agent for governance, which is good, right and authentic as well as an arena to embrace uncertainty. PMID:17391840

  1. Students' Questions: Building a Bridge between Kolb's Learning Styles and Approaches to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jesus, Helena T. Pedrosa; Almeida, Patricia Albergaria; Teixeira-Dias, Jose Joaquim; Watts, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the types of questions that students ask during the learning of chemistry; discuss the role of students' questions in the process of constructing knowledge, and investigate the relationship between students' questions, approaches to learning, and learning styles. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  2. Emerging Model of Questioning through the Process of Teaching and Learning Electrochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iksan, Zanaton Haji; Daniel, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Verbal questioning is a technique used by teachers in the teaching and learning process. Research in Malaysia related to teachers' questioning in the chemistry teaching and learning process is more focused on the level of the questions asked rather than the content to ensure that students understand. Thus, the research discussed in this paper is…

  3. Using Positive Visual Stimuli to Lighten the Online Learning Experience through in Class Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Chia-Hung; Liu, Ming-Chi; Liu, Chia-Ju; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2016-01-01

    Using in-class questions is an efficient instructional strategy to keep abreast of the state of student learning in a class. Some studies have found that discussing in-class questions in synchronous learning is helpful. These studies demonstrated that synchronous questions not only provide students with timely feedback, but also allow teachers to…

  4. AH-Questionnaire: An Adaptive Hierarchical Questionnaire for Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortigosa, Alvaro; Paredes, Pedro; Rodriguez, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    One of the main concerns when providing learning style adaptation in Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems is the number of questions the students have to answer. Most of the times, adaptive material available will discriminate among a few categories for each learning style dimension. Consequently, it is only needed to take into account the…

  5. Common questions about Barrett esophagus.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Thomas G

    2014-01-15

    Barrett esophagus is a precancerous metaplasia of the esophagus that is more common in patients with chronic reflux symptoms, although it also occurs in patients without symptomatic reflux. Other risk factors include smoking, male sex, obesity, white race, hiatal hernia, and increasing age (particularly older than 50 years). Although Barrett esophagus is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, its management and the need for screening or surveillance endoscopy are debatable. The annual incidence of progression to esophageal cancer is 0.12% to 0.33%; progression is more common in patients with high-grade dysplasia and long-segment Barrett esophagus. Screening endoscopy should be considered for patients with multiple risk factors, and those who have lesions with high-grade dysplasia should undergo endoscopic mucosal resection or other endoscopic procedures to remove the lesions. Although the cost-effectiveness is questionable, patients with nondysplastic Barrett esophagus can be followed with endoscopic surveillance. Lowgrade dysplasia should be monitored or eradicated via endoscopy. Although there is no evidence that medical or surgical therapies to reduce acid reflux prevent neoplastic progression, proton pump inhibitors can be used to help control reflux symptoms. PMID:24444576

  6. A Discussion of Population Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The discussion here covers five articles that are linked in the sense that they all treat population invariance. This discussion of population invariance is a somewhat broader treatment of the subject than simply a discussion of these five articles. In particular, occasional reference is made to publications other than those in this issue. The…

  7. Round Table Discussion about JIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhl, H.

    After the talks about the CESAR Grid and the Joint Information System (JIS) a round table discussion was scheduled. The author, who was the convener of the discussion was asked to summarize the discussion: The main suggestions are to make access to JIS easier and especially give all users unlimited access to the personal data.

  8. Ten questions about systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise ‘ten questions’ broadly related to ‘omics’, the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist perspective about the contribution of genes and genetic variants to disease is a key reason ‘omics’ has failed to deliver the anticipated breakthroughs. We then point out the critical utility of key concepts from physiology like homeostasis, regulated systems and redundancy as major intellectual tools to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as ‘systems biology’ by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many common diseases. Finally, we attempt to integrate our critique of reductionism into a broader social framework about so-called translational research in specific and the root causes of common diseases in general. Throughout we offer ideas and suggestions that might be incorporated into the current biomedical environment to advance the understanding of disease through the perspective of physiology in conjunction with epidemiology as opposed to bottom-up reductionism alone. PMID:21224238

  9. The consequences of pairing questions: context effects in personality measurement.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, L

    2001-08-01

    The effect of context on responses to questions has been a prominent focus in social and political survey research. However, little investigation of context effects has been done for the measurement of psychological constructs. A measure of anger experience and expression in development uses vignettes describing interpersonal situations that provoke varying degrees of anger and require respondents to indicate their affective and/or expressive response to the situation. In this study, the consequences of pairing the two questions for each vignette are investigated. Pairing the anger-experience and likelihood-of-expression questions changes the item's context. Item response theory analysis similar to that used to detect differential item functioning was performed. For some of the items, responding to a single or paired question affected the extremity of responses. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for personality measurement. PMID:11519936

  10. Adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L.

    2016-01-01

    This review starts with a brief history and description of adaptive optics (AO) technology, followed by a showcase of the latest capabilities of AO systems for imaging the human retina and an extensive review of the literature on where AO is being used clinically. The review concludes with a discussion on future directions and guidance on usage and interpretation of images from AO systems for the eye. PMID:26973867

  11. Open problems in color constancy: discussion.

    PubMed

    van Trigt, C

    2014-02-01

    This paper discusses a number of open problems in color constancy theory whose correct solution is a prerequisite for the theory of the phenomenon. Solutions employing suitable visually meaningful versus physically meaningful basis functions (principal components) are examined. In the former case the starting point is an estimate of the first derivative of the reflectance (illuminant), essential for defining color, instead of an estimate of the reflectance (illuminant), as in the latter. Conceptual consequences are discussed. Mathematical and physical constraints are identified. We compare the results of theories that do or do not ignore them. The following questions are considered. (1) Do unique solutions of the estimation problem exist everywhere in the object-color solid belonging to the illuminant? (2) Are they physically meaningful, i.e., at least nonnegative? (3) Are they representative for reflectance and spectral distribution functions? (4) What role plays metamerism? PMID:24562033

  12. Computerized Adaptive Personality Testing: A Review and Illustration With the MMPI-2 Computerized Adaptive Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbey, Johnathan D.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing in personality assessment can improve efficiency by significantly reducing the number of items administered to answer an assessment question. Two approaches have been explored for adaptive testing in computerized personality assessment: item response theory and the countdown method. In this article, the authors…

  13. The adaptation of Chinese adolescents in two societies: a comparison of Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong and Australia.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cynthia; Karnilowicz, Wally

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the adaptation of two groups of migrant Chinese adolescents with their nonmigrant peers. The migrant adolescents included 55 Chinese migrant adolescents who migrated to Australia (Chinese-Australian) and 111 China-born adolescents who migrated to Hong Kong (Chinese-Hong Kong). The nonmigrant adolescents included 157 Anglo-Australian adolescents residing in Australia and 456 Hong Kong-born Chinese adolescents residing in Hong Kong. There were three research questions in this study. First, would there be any differences in the adaptation of Chinese migrant adolescents in different societies of settlement? Second, would migrant adolescents experience more adaptation problems than nonmigrant adolescents? Third, would there be any differences in the adaptation of adolescents in the two societies, Australia and Hong Kong? It was hypothesized that: (1) mainland Chinese migrant adolescents in Hong Kong would experience more adaptation problems than Chinese migrant adolescents in Australia; (2) migrant adolescents would report better adaptation than nonmigrant adolescents; (3) adolescents in Hong Kong would report poorer adaptation than adolescents in Australia. The participants were requested to complete a questionnaire on various adaptation outcome measures including life satisfaction, self-esteem, psychological symptoms, academic satisfaction, and behaviour problems. The results indicated that Chinese-Australian adolescents reported better psychological adaptation but Chinese-Hong Kong adolescents reported better sociocultural adaptation. Adolescents resident in Australia reported higher psychological adaptation but lower sociocultural adaptation than those in Hong Kong. Migrant adolescents reported better psychological and sociocultural adaptation than their nonmigrant counterparts. The results were discussed in relation to the social and educational systems of the two societies. PMID:22029492

  14. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  15. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Bobby L.; Aeby, Ian

    1982-01-01

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data having variable frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  16. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  17. Panel Discussion on Multi-Disciplinary Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is hosting the Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS) during the week of September 10, 2001. Included in this year's TFAWS is a panel session on Multidisciplinary Analysis techniques. The intent is to provide an opportunity for the users to gain information as to what product may be best suited for their applications environment and to provide feedback to you, the developers, on future desired developments. Potential users of multidisciplinary analysis (MDA) techniques are often overwhelmed by the number of choices available to them via commercial products and by the pace of new developments in this area. The purpose of this panel session is to provide a forum wherein MDA tools available and under development can be discussed, compared, and contrasted. The intent of this panel is to provide the end-user with the information necessary to make educated decisions on how to proceed with selecting their MDA tool. It is anticipated that the discussions this year will focus on MDA techniques that couple discipline codes or algorithms (as opposed to monolithic, unified MDA approaches). The MDA developers will be asked to prepare a product overview presentation addressing specific questions provided by the panel organizers. The purpose of these questions will be to establish the method employed by the particular MDA technique for communication between the discipline codes, to establish the similarities and differences amongst the various approaches, and to establish the range of experience and applications for each particular MDA approach.

  18. Context-based questions: optics in animal eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltakci, Derya; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2011-05-01

    Context is important as a motivational factor for student involvement with physics. The diversity in the types and the functions of animal eyes is an excellent context in which to achieve this goal. There exists a range of subtopics in optics including pinhole, reflection, refraction, and superposition that can be discussed in the context of the animal eye. In addition to ordinary textbook optics questions, the use of context-based questions that model the real world may increase the students' motivation toward optics concepts and their understanding of them. In this article, different optical systems in animal eyes are discussed as a context to teach optics topics with context-based questions. The preliminary version of this study was presented at the International Conference of GIREP 2008 in Cyprus.

  19. Graded Multiple Choice Questions: Rewarding Understanding and Preventing Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denyer, G. S.; Hancock, D.

    2002-08-01

    This paper describes an easily implemented method that allows the generation and analysis of graded multiple-choice examinations. The technique, which uses standard functions in user-end software (Microsoft Excel 5+), can also produce several different versions of an examination that can be employed to prevent the reward of plagarism. The manuscript also discusses the advantages of having a graded marking system for the elimination of ambiguities, use in multi-step calculation questions, and questions that require extrapolation or reasoning. The advantages of the scrambling strategy, which maintains the same question order, is discussed with reference to student equity. The system provides a non-confrontational mechanism for dealing with cheating in large-class multiple-choice examinations, as well as providing a reward for problem solving over surface learning.

  20. 76 FR 22091 - California Independent System, Operator Corporation; Supplemental Notice of Agenda and Discussion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Agenda and Discussion Topics for Staff Technical Conference This notice establishes the agenda and topics... Corp., 134 FERC ] 61,211 at P2 (2011). The topics and related questions to be discussed during this.... Parties may also file questions or potential discussion topics in the docket prior to the...

  1. Understanding Clicker Discussions: Student Reasoning and the Impact of Instructional Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer K.; Wise, Sarah B.; Southard, Katelyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that undergraduate science students learn from peer discussions of in-class clicker questions. However, the features that characterize such discussions are largely unknown, as are the instructional factors that may lead students into productive discussions. To explore these questions, we recorded and transcribed 83…

  2. Basic Physics Questions Addressed by Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter, dark energy, the Big Bang, testing relativity -- all are physics questions accessible to astrophysicists -- but all require new equipment. As Harwit's "Cosmic Discovery" pointed out, almost all great surprises in astronomy came from new equipment or new uses of equipment designed for other purposes, and many of those had military applications. I will outline prospects for new equipment and discuss how that equipment can be developed and built. Bigger and lighter mirrors, wavefront sensing and control, new detector technology, cryogenics -- each has its own social network, its own special possibilities, and its own funding sources outside science. I will discuss some examples drawn from real-life experience with the James Webb Space Telescope, a telescope that was said to have a "giggle factor" when it was proposed in 1995. Now each of the 10 major technologies has been brought to maturity, flight hardware is being built, and launch is planned for 2014. As an instrument builder all my life, I will speculate a little on what may be within our reach over the next few decades.

  3. Does a warning help children to more accurately remember an event, to resist misleading questions, and to identify unanswerable questions?

    PubMed

    Beuscher, Eva; Roebers, Claudia M

    2005-01-01

    This study examined potential effects of a warning instruction prior to an eyewitness interview including answerable and unanswerable questions, which both were either unbiased or misleading. A total of 84 six-, eight- and ten-year-old children were shown a short video about the production of sugar and they were individually questioned about it one week later. Half of the children received the warning instruction. The results revealed clear age effects in the correct answers and accuracy to answerable questions and in the appropriate "don't know" answers to unanswerable questions, but no effect of warning across all dependent measures. These findings suggest that preschool and elementary school age children cannot use such information adequately to increase their number of correct answers in the interview. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive explanations for these deficits. PMID:16076071

  4. Two-Year-Old Children Differentiate Test Questions from Genuine Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question…

  5. Frequently Asked Questions (Palliative Care: Conversations Matter)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions Frequently Asked Questions: What is pediatric palliative care? Pediatric palliative (pal-lee-uh-tiv) care is ... for patients and families. Who provides pediatric palliative care? Every palliative care team is different. The team ...

  6. Answers to Common Questions about Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donation Volunteer Efforts Answers to Common Questions About Scars skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information for Parents & Individuals Answers to Common Questions About Scars To download the PDF version of this factsheet, ...

  7. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  8. Secondary Data Analysis: An Important Tool for Addressing Developmental Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Existing data sets can be an efficient, powerful, and readily available resource for addressing questions about developmental science. Many of the available databases contain hundreds of variables of interest to developmental psychologists, track participants longitudinally, and have representative samples. In this article, the authors discuss the…

  9. Important Questions about "Diploma Mills" and "Accreditation Mills."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Higher Education Accreditation, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet discusses "diploma mills" and "accreditation mills," dubious providers of educational offerings or operations that offer certificates and degrees that are considered bogus. Because it is not always easy to identify these operations, questions are provided to help the potential student determine whether a provider is a diploma mill…

  10. Questions Students Ask: The Red-Eye Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the question of why a dog's eyes appear red and glow when a flash photograph is taken. Conditions for the red-eye effect, light paths involved, structure of the eye, and typical cameras and lenses are discussed. Also notes differences between the eyes of nocturnal animals and humans. (JN)

  11. A Questioned Practice: Twenty Reflections on Art, Doubt, and Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, John

    2013-01-01

    In this article, author John Baldacchino presents twenty reflections on art, doubt, and error. In the first five reflections, he produces a discussion of a number of unmediated narratives that tend to aggregate and span across the plural horizon of arts practice. In terms of the arts "as well as" education, these questions are approached…

  12. Can linking databases answer questions about paediatric heart failure?

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sara K; Schumacher, Kurt R; Davies, Ryan R

    2015-08-01

    Numerous data sets collect information on patients with paediatric cardiovascular disease, including paediatric heart failure and transplant patients. This review discusses methodologies available for linking and integrating information across data sets, which may help facilitate answering important questions in the field of paediatric heart failure and transplant that cannot be answered with individual data sets or single-centre data alone. PMID:26377723

  13. Educational Rituals: Questioning How We Educate Our Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trowbridge, Steve

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his views on impacts of educational rituals on students. He points out that these rituals have nothing to do with education and have a negative effect on education. He questions why teachers still practice these rituals, even if these rituals have negative impacts on students. The following rituals are discussed:…

  14. Teachers' Treatment of Different Types of Student Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Dogan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how two experienced instructors of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) literature treated questions posed by students during classroom discussions. Data came from two semester-long college-level classes in Turkey. Video recordings of the classes in one semester, field notes taken during the observations, and interviews with…

  15. Family, Environment, and Value Questions in Today's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, Lila E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how the values of the larger society are reflected in life-styles of families and individual decisions. Questions the cause and effect connection of dominant value systems, economy, and policy as being appropriate and relevant to an environmentally healthy symbiosis between man and the ecosystem. (Author)

  16. Statements Not Questions: A Reading Comprehension Instruction Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockrum, Ward A.; Timmerman, Jamie; Kurth, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Reading comprehension instruction that helps guide the students' interactions with text needs to include discussions about the material that was read and the meaning the students have formed from reading it. Statements Not Questions is a reading comprehension instruction strategy that can promote students' ability to understand stories they are…

  17. Learning to Ask Naive Questions with IT Product Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    What does it mean to use, or do, theory in the scholarship of teaching and learning? The article approaches the question by considering the role of design anthropology in developing studio-based engineering programmes. Central to my discussion within situated contexts of learning is the idea of practice-based exploration conceived as a way of…

  18. Questions Students Ask: The Frequencies of Metal Locators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Roger E.

    1984-01-01

    Answers a question about operating frequency of metal locators, discussing signal attenuation due to inverse square law and interaction with conducting media. Compares frequency to conductivity for various media and resultant penetration of media by signal, relating to transmission of extremely low frequency signals for submarine communications by…

  19. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  20. The Drug Question: The Constitution and Public Policy. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    This document presnts a series of lesson plans on the subject of illegal drugs. Each lesson plan includes readings, discussion questions, and other activities that teachers can use to help students understand the problems surrounding drugs and to work toward solutions. Units include: (1) "Problems and Proposals"; (2) "Assessing Public Opinion:…

  1. A Thesaurus-Linked Science Question-Banking System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sandra; Maher, Brian

    1984-01-01

    Outlines implementation and uses of the computerized question-banking system of the thesaurus-linked browse procedure used by APU National Assessment in Science Programme. The ROOT Thesaurus, a comprehensive indexing and searching tool for technological applications, is described and its modifications are discussed as the basis for the…

  2. Service-Learning Projects Developed from Institutional Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zack, Maria; Crow, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Institutional research questions provide an excellent source of interesting problems for service-learning projects for undergraduates in mathematics. This paper discusses how this model has been implemented at Point Loma Nazarene University and provides both examples and practical details. (Contains 6 figures.)

  3. Questions for the Study and Teaching of Shakespeare and Milton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Angela, Ed.; Medine, Peter, Ed.

    The discussion questions and essay prompts in this collection were compiled from contributions made by participants in the 1991 Arizona Shakespeare-Milton Institute. After an introduction which presents some general guidelines for teachers and students, the collection addresses the following works: "As You Like It"; "The Tempest"; "Richard II";…

  4. Self-Injury: Answers to Questions for Parents, Teachers, & Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakke, Bruce L.

    This guide to preventing self-injurious behavior, in question-and-answer format, is intended for parents, teachers, and other caregivers of people with disabilities. It describes the more common types of self-injurious behavior, discusses methods for identifying causes of self injury, and outlines interventions. Specifically, the guide covers: (1)…

  5. Language Disabilities in Adolescents: A Question of Cognitive Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiig, Elisabeth

    1984-01-01

    Research is reviewed on language growth between 10-14 years in children with language-learning disabilities. Delays are discussed in semantic development, concept formation, syntactic development, memory, and pragmatics. A strategies-based intervention focus is described along with the need for counseling and for developing adaptive coping and…

  6. Fungal secondary metabolite dynamics in fungus–grazer interactions: novel insights and unanswered questions

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfs, Marko

    2015-01-01

    In response to fungivore grazing fungi are assumed to have evolved secondary metabolite-based defense mechanisms that harm and repel grazers, and hence provide a benefit to the metabolite producer. However, since research into the ecological meaning of highly diverse fungal secondary metabolites is still in its infancy, many central questions still remain. Which components of the enormous metabolite diversity of fungi act as direct chemical defense mechanisms against grazers? Is the proposed chemical defense of fungi induced by grazer attack? Which role do volatile compounds play in communicating noxiousness to grazers? What is the relative impact of grazers and that of interactions with competing microbes on the evolution of fungal secondary metabolism? Here, I briefly summarize and discuss the results of the very few studies that have tried to tackle some of these questions by (i) using secondary metabolite mutant fungi in controlled experiments with grazers, and by (ii) investigating fungal secondary metabolism as a flexible means to adapt to grazer-rich niches. PMID:25628619

  7. Computerized Adaptive Diagnosis and Testing of Mental Health Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Robert D; Weiss, David J; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David

    2016-03-28

    In this review we explore recent developments in computerized adaptive diagnostic screening and computerized adaptive testing for the presence and severity of mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and mania. The statistical methodology is unique in that it is based on multidimensional item response theory (severity) and random forests (diagnosis) instead of traditional mental health measurement based on classical test theory (a simple total score) or unidimensional item response theory. We show that the information contained in large item banks consisting of hundreds of symptom items can be efficiently calibrated using multidimensional item response theory, and the information contained in these large item banks can be precisely extracted using adaptive administration of a small set of items for each individual. In terms of diagnosis, computerized adaptive diagnostic screening can accurately track an hour-long face-to-face clinician diagnostic interview for major depressive disorder (as an example) in less than a minute using an average of four questions with unprecedented high sensitivity and specificity. Directions for future research and applications are discussed. PMID:26651865

  8. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 354.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT...) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel question... discretionary referral of material questions of copyright law to the Register of Copyrights by the...

  9. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 354.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT...) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel question... discretionary referral of material questions of copyright law to the Register of Copyrights by the...

  10. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 354.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT...) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel question... discretionary referral of material questions of copyright law to the Register of Copyrights by the...

  11. 32 CFR 17.4 - Interlocutory questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... trial by military commission. In accordance with 32 CFR 9.4(a)(5)(iv), however, the Presiding Officer... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interlocutory questions. 17.4 Section 17.4... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 17.4 Interlocutory questions. (a) Certification of interlocutory questions....

  12. 32 CFR 17.4 - Interlocutory questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... trial by military commission. In accordance with 32 CFR 9.4(a)(5)(iv), however, the Presiding Officer... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interlocutory questions. 17.4 Section 17.4... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 17.4 Interlocutory questions. (a) Certification of interlocutory questions....

  13. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Novel questions. 354.2... ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES SUBMISSIONS TO THE REGISTER OF COPYRIGHTS § 354.2 Novel questions. (a) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel...

  14. Using Questioning to Stimulate Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    Good questioning techniques have long been regarded as a fundamental tool of effective teachers and research has found that "differences in students' thinking and reasoning could be attributed to the type of questions that teachers asked" (Wood, 2002). Past research shows that 93% of teacher questions were "lower order" knowledge-based questions…

  15. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Novel questions. 354.2... ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES SUBMISSIONS TO THE REGISTER OF COPYRIGHTS § 354.2 Novel questions. (a) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel...

  16. Questioning Profiles in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Patricia; de Souza, Francisle Neri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the role of both teachers and students' questioning in classroom interaction. Bearing in mind that the current guidelines point out to student centred teaching, our aim is to analyse and characterise the questioning patterns of contemporary secondary science classes and compare them to the questioning profiles…

  17. Doctors' questions as displays of understanding.

    PubMed

    Deppermann, Arnulf; Spranz-Fogasy, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Based on German data from history-taking in doctor-patient interaction, the paper shows that the three basic syntactic types of questions (questions fronted by a question-word (w-questions), verb-first (V1) questions, and declarative questions) provide different opportunities for displaying understanding in medical interaction. Each syntactic question-format is predominantly used in a different stage of topical sequences in history taking: w-questions presuppose less knowledge and are thus used to open up topical sequences; declarative questions are used to check already achieved understandings and to close topical sequences. Still, the expected scope of answers to yes/no-questions and to declarative questions is less restricted than previously thought. The paper focuses in detail on the doctors' use of formulations as declarative questions, which are designed to make patients elaborate on already established topics, giving more details or accounting for a confirmation. Formulations often involve a shift to psychological aspects of the illness. Although patients confirm doctors' empathetic formulations, they, however, regularly do not align with this shift, returning to the description of symptoms and to biomedical accounts instead. The study shows how displays of understanding are responded to not only in terms of correctness, but also (and more importantly) in terms of their relevance for further action. PMID:23264976

  18. Critical Thinking: Crucial Distinctions for Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Linda; Paul, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Stresses the importance of questioning as a key element in the art of learning. Defines three types of questions: (1) multisystem, which considers more than one relevant viewpoint in thinking through a problem, issue, or question; (2) one-system, which can be tested with a multiple-choice format; and (3) no-system, which are matters of sheer…

  19. Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for student…

  20. Good Student Questions in Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombard, François E.; Schneider, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of scientific reasoning is one of the big challenges in education. A popular educational strategy advocated for acquiring deep knowledge is inquiry-based learning, which is driven by emerging "good questions". This study will address the question: "Which design features allow learners to refine questions while preserving…

  1. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  2. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  3. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  4. How to Make Your Questions Essential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Grant; Wilbur, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Good essential questions rarely emerge in the first draft. Common first-draft questions typically are convergent low-level questions designed to support content acquisition. They either point toward the one official "right" answer, or they elicit mere lists and thus no further inquiry. So how can teachers ensure that subsequent drafts…

  5. EXPOSURE FACTORS HANDBOOK - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This page provides a list of the most frequently asked questions and answers related to exposure factors. The following questions and answers have been compiled from inquiries made by users of the Exposure Factors Handbook. These questions and answers provide general information ...

  6. Delivery of QTIiv2 Question Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…

  7. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  8. Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Tish

    2009-01-01

    The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

  9. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  10. Visual adaptation dominates bimodal visual-motor action adaptation.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Stephan; Ferstl, Ylva; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2016-01-01

    A long standing debate revolves around the question whether visual action recognition primarily relies on visual or motor action information. Previous studies mainly examined the contribution of either visual or motor information to action recognition. Yet, the interaction of visual and motor action information is particularly important for understanding action recognition in social interactions, where humans often observe and execute actions at the same time. Here, we behaviourally examined the interaction of visual and motor action recognition processes when participants simultaneously observe and execute actions. We took advantage of behavioural action adaptation effects to investigate behavioural correlates of neural action recognition mechanisms. In line with previous results, we find that prolonged visual exposure (visual adaptation) and prolonged execution of the same action with closed eyes (non-visual motor adaptation) influence action recognition. However, when participants simultaneously adapted visually and motorically - akin to simultaneous execution and observation of actions in social interactions - adaptation effects were only modulated by visual but not motor adaptation. Action recognition, therefore, relies primarily on vision-based action recognition mechanisms in situations that require simultaneous action observation and execution, such as social interactions. The results suggest caution when associating social behaviour in social interactions with motor based information. PMID:27029781

  11. Visual adaptation dominates bimodal visual-motor action adaptation

    PubMed Central

    de la Rosa, Stephan; Ferstl, Ylva; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.

    2016-01-01

    A long standing debate revolves around the question whether visual action recognition primarily relies on visual or motor action information. Previous studies mainly examined the contribution of either visual or motor information to action recognition. Yet, the interaction of visual and motor action information is particularly important for understanding action recognition in social interactions, where humans often observe and execute actions at the same time. Here, we behaviourally examined the interaction of visual and motor action recognition processes when participants simultaneously observe and execute actions. We took advantage of behavioural action adaptation effects to investigate behavioural correlates of neural action recognition mechanisms. In line with previous results, we find that prolonged visual exposure (visual adaptation) and prolonged execution of the same action with closed eyes (non-visual motor adaptation) influence action recognition. However, when participants simultaneously adapted visually and motorically – akin to simultaneous execution and observation of actions in social interactions - adaptation effects were only modulated by visual but not motor adaptation. Action recognition, therefore, relies primarily on vision-based action recognition mechanisms in situations that require simultaneous action observation and execution, such as social interactions. The results suggest caution when associating social behaviour in social interactions with motor based information. PMID:27029781

  12. Chemical Kinetics Laboratory Discussion Worksheet

    PubMed Central

    Demoin, Dustin Wayne; Jurisson, Silvia S.

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory discussion worksheet and its answer key provide instructors and students a discussion model to further the students’ understanding of chemical kinetics. This discussion worksheet includes a section for students to augment their previous knowledge about chemical kinetics measurements, an initial check on students’ understanding of basic concepts, a group participation model where students work on solving complex-conceptual problems, and a conclusion to help students connect this discussion to their laboratory or lecture class. Additionally, the worksheet has a detailed solution to a more advanced problem to help students understand how the concepts they have put together relate to problems they will encounter during later formal assessments. PMID:24092948

  13. Adaptive Optics for the German Solar Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltau, D.; Brunner, R.; von der Lühe, O.

    Adaptive Optics is a precondition to get high resolution observations near the diffraction limit when the integration times become larger than a few milliseconds At the KIS there is a project to upgrade the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Tenerife with an adaptive optics system (KAOS = Kiepenheuer-Institut adaptives Optiksystem). The optical concept is discussed and first measurements with the KAOS wavefront sensor and their implications are presented. Considerations with respect to AO for the future GREGOR telescope are also discussed.

  14. Effects of incomplete adaption and disturbance in adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    This investigation focused attention on the fact that the synthesis of adaptive control systems has often been discussed in the framework of idealizations which may represent over simplifications. A condition for boundedness of the tracking error has been derived for the case in which incomplete adaption and disturbance are present. When using Parks' design it is shown that instability of the adaptive gains can result due to the presence of disturbance. The theory has been applied to a nontrivial example in order to illustrate the concepts involved.

  15. Evolutionary genetics of plant adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jill T.; Willis, John H.; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Plants provide unique opportunities to study the mechanistic basis and evolutionary processes of adaptation to diverse environmental conditions. Complementary laboratory and field experiments are important for testing hypothesis reflecting long term ecological and evolutionary history. For example, these approaches can infer whether local adaptation results from genetic tradeoffs (antagonistic pleiotropy), where native alleles are best adapted to local conditions, or if local adaptation is caused by conditional neutrality at many loci, where alleles show fitness differences in one environment, but not in the contrasting environment. Ecological genetics in natural populations of perennial or outcrossing plants also may differ substantially from model systems. In this review of the evolutionary genetics of plant adaptation, we emphasize the importance of field studies for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of model and non-model systems, highlight a key life history trait (flowering time), and discuss emerging conservation issues. PMID:21550682

  16. Core questions in domestication research

    PubMed Central

    Zeder, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared. PMID:25713127

  17. Do Rewards Shape Online Discussions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2008-01-01

    This research attempted to test whether the granting of points for receiving the most votes as the "best post" would affect the quality of subsequent postings to online discussions. Five online discussions were held in a small graduate-level course in leadership theory, and postings were coded into Bloom's taxonomy. Quality was defined…

  18. Techtalk: Expanding the Online Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Lucy; Caverly, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the use of "type 2 discussion," in which the teacher creates an online conversation with the class. Suggests that, by adding type 2 discussions to a face-to-face developmental education class, faculty help students build their own knowledge base. Adds that the online component gives all students equal access to this knowledge…

  19. Summary of Linac Group discussions

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses upgrading of the LAMPF I linac. Particular topics discussed are: sources of and cures for linac beam halos, ion source, RFQ, chopper and drift-tube linac, cavity-coupled linac, superconducting linac structure, new rf power sources, EHF linac design, and cost projections. (LSP)

  20. Acquiring Knowledge from Asynchronous Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Yiong Hwee; Webster, Len

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a study which was designed to explore how online scaffolding can be incorporated to support knowledge acquisition in asynchronous discussion. A group of Singapore preservice teachers engaged in collaborative critiquing of videos before they embarked on their video projects to illustrate what constitutes good and bad video…