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Sample records for adapted fish chionodraco

  1. Cloning and characterization of a Δ9-desaturase gene of the Antarctic fish Chionodraco hamatus and Trematomus bernacchii.

    PubMed

    Porta, Amalia; Fortino, Vittorio; Armenante, Annunziata; Maresca, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Chionodraco hamatus and Trematomus bernacchii are perciforms, members of the fish suborder Notothenioidei that live in the Antarctic Ocean and experience very cold and persistent environmental temperature. These fish have biochemical and molecular features that allow them to live at these extreme cold temperatures. Fine tuning of the level of unsaturated fatty acids content in membrane is a key mechanism of living organisms to adapt to cold and high temperatures. Desaturases are key enzymes that synthesize unsaturated fatty acyl-CoAs from saturated fatty acids. We cloned and sequenced a Δ(9)-desaturase gene and its cDNA of C. hamatus, and the cDNA of T. bernacchii. The coded proteins are virtually identical and share homology to other Δ(9)-desaturase fish sequences. These proteins contain, in the first trans-membrane domain, two cysteine residues that may form a disulfur bond present in the corresponding membrane region of Δ(9)-desaturase proteins of other Antarctic fish but not in Eleginops maclovinus that experiences higher environmental temperatures and in all other Δ(9)-desaturase genes of mammals present in data bases. C. hamatus Δ(9)-desaturase gene complements a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking Δ(9)-desaturase (Ole1) gene. Analysis of sequence homology of the trans-membrane domains of Δ(9)-desaturase and the cytoplasmic region of the same proteins of Antarctic fish, non-Antarctic fish and mammals suggest that the significant differences found in the homologous sequences of the first trans-membrane domain may be due to the specific lipid content of their membrane.

  2. Laser microdissection-based analysis of the Y sex chromosome of the Antarctic fish Chionodraco hamatus (Notothenioidei, Channichthyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cocca, Ennio; Petraccioli, Agnese; Morescalchi, Maria Alessandra; Odierna, Gaetano; Capriglione, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Microdissection, DOP-PCR amplification and microcloning were used to study the large Y chromosome of Chionodraco hamatus, an Antarctic fish belonging to the Notothenioidei, the dominant component of the Southern Ocean fauna. The species has evolved a multiple sex chromosome system with digametic males showing an X1YX2 karyotype and females an X1X1X2X2 karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, performed with a painting probe made from microdissected Y chromosomes, allowed a deeper insight on the chromosomal rearrangement, which underpinned the fusion event that generated the Y. Then, we used a DNA library established by microdissection and microcloning of the whole Y chromosome of Chionodraco hamatus for searching sex-linked sequences. One clone provided preliminary information on the presence on the Y chromosome of the CHD1 gene homologue, which is sex-linked in birds but in no other vertebrates. Several clones from the Y-chromosome mini-library contained microsatellites and transposable elements, one of which mapped to the q arm putative fusion region of the Y chromosome. The findings confirm that interspersed repetitive sequences might have fostered chromosome rearrangements and the emergence of the Y chromosome in Chionodraco hamatus. Detection of the CHD1 gene in the Y sex-determining region could be a classical example of convergent evolution in action. PMID:25893071

  3. A New APEH Cluster with Antioxidant Functions in the Antarctic Hemoglobinless Icefish Chionodraco hamatus

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Gianna; Balestrieri, Marco; Facchiano, Angelo; Rossi, Mosè; Palumbo, Stefania; Monti, Giuseppe; Cocca, Ennio

    2015-01-01

    Acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH) is a ubiquitous cytosolic protease that plays an important role in the detoxification of oxidised proteins. In this work, to further explore the physiological role of this enzyme, two apeh cDNAs were isolated from the Chionodraco hamatus icefish, which lives in the highly oxygenated Antarctic marine environment. The encoded proteins (APEH-1Ch and APEH-2Ch) were characterised in comparison with the uniquely expressed isoform from the temperate fish Dicentrarchus labrax (APEH-1Dl) and the two APEHs from the red-blooded Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii (APEH-1Tb and APEH-2Tb). Homology modelling and kinetic characterisation of the APEH isoforms provided new insights into their structure/function properties. APEH-2 isoforms were the only ones capable of hydrolysing oxidised proteins, with APEH-2Ch being more efficient than APEH-2Tb at this specific function. Therefore, this ability of APEH-2 isoforms is the result of an evolutionary adaptation due to the pressure of a richly oxygenated environment. The lack of expression of APEH-2 in the tissues of the temperate fish used as the controls further supported this hypothesis. In addition, analysis of gene expression showed a significant discrepancy between the levels of transcripts and those of proteins, especially for apeh-2 genes, which suggests the presence of post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms, triggered by cold-induced oxidative stress, that produce high basal levels of APEH-2 mRNA as a reserve that is ready to use in case of the accumulation of oxidised proteins. PMID:25946123

  4. Adaptation to wildfire: A fish story

    Treesearch

    John Kirkland; Rebecca Flitcroft; Gordon Reeves; Paul Hessburg

    2017-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, native salmon and trout are some of the toughest survivors on the block. Over time, these fish have evolved behavioral adaptations to natural disturbances, and they rely on these disturbances to deliver coarse sediment and wood that become complex stream habitat. Powerful disturbances such as wildfire, postfire landslides, and debris flows may...

  5. Parasite communities of icefish (Chionodraco hamatus) in the Ross Sea (Antarctica): influence of the host sex on the helminth infracommunity structure.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Cipriani, Paolo; Bellisario, Bruno; Romanelli, Francesco; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Parasite communities of Chionodraco hamatus were investigated from Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica) during host spawning time. Special attention was given to helminth infracommunities and effect of host sex on its structure. A total of 21 taxa including 5 ecto-parasites and 16 endo-parasites were identified. The number of ecto and endo-parasite species per individual host ranged from 1 to 3 and 3 to 10, respectively, while the mean numbers of parasite specimens per individual host were 4.7 and 1309.7, respectively. The rich abundance of infection suggests a rich concentration of helminth intermediate/paratenic hosts in the coastal waters of Terra Nova Bay. Chionodraco hamatus serves as a definitive host for 10 helminth taxa, while it acts as an intermediate/paratenic host for 6 helminth taxa. Larvae of 6 helminth taxa for which C. hamatus serves as intermediate/paratenic host represented 98.7% of all specimens found. Of these, the tetraphyllidean and diphyllobothridean cestodes and the nematode Contracaecum osculatum s.l. were the most prevalent and abundant. 'Larval' infracommunities had significantly higher species richness, total abundance and diversity than 'adult' infracommunities, suggesting the important role of C. hamatus in supporting the life cycles of those parasites in the study area as a paratenic/intermediate host. Significant differences in the pattern of helminth infracommunities of larval forms between male and female fish were found. These differences could be caused by physiological, and most probably by behavioral differences between sexes suggesting that sex is an important factor influencing parasite burden in C. hamatus during reproductive season.

  6. MHC and adaptive immunity in teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Anthony B

    2017-08-01

    The adaptive immune system has long been considered a key evolutionary innovation of the vertebrates, the product of two rounds of genome duplication that gave rise to the raw material necessary for the evolution of a highly specific immune response and immune memory. While comparative studies of a small number of model organisms have led to the commonly held view that the adaptive immune system has remained relatively static since its origin, recent studies of non-model organisms are challenging this notion, highlighting the fact that we have only begun to scratch the surface in terms of our understanding of immune system diversity. Some of the most exciting recent results have come from the comparative analysis of teleost fishes, a group that includes more than 40% of vertebrates, and shows remarkable diversity in immune system structure and function. Despite the repeated loss of key components of the adaptive immune machinery in this group, affected species are capable of mounting a robust response to immune challenge, suggesting that they have evolved alternative mechanisms of immune protection. Such deviations from the canonical model of vertebrate immunity create opportunities to explore common paradigms of immune function, and may contribute to new experimental approaches and methods of treatment.

  7. Nitrite modulates contractility of teleost (Anguilla anguilla and Chionodraco hamatus, i.e. the Antarctic hemoglobinless icefish) and frog (Rana esculenta) hearts.

    PubMed

    Cerra, M C; Angelone, T; Parisella, M L; Pellegrino, D; Tota, B

    2009-07-01

    Being the largest form of intravascular and tissue storage of nitric oxide (NO) and a signalling molecule itself, the nitrite anion (NO(2)(-)) has emerged as a key player in many biological processes. Since the heart is under an important NO-mediated autocrine-paracrine control, in mammals the cardiac effects of nitrite are under intensive investigation. In contrast, nothing is known in non-mammalian vertebrates. We evaluated nitrite influence on cardiac performance in the perfused beating heart of three different cold-blooded vertebrates, i.e. two teleost fishes, the temperate red-blooded Anguilla anguilla, the Antarctic stenotherm, hemoglobinless Chionodraco hamatus (icefish), and the frog Rana esculenta. We showed that, under basal conditions, in all animals nitrite influences cardiac mechanical performance, inducing negative inotropism in eel and frog, while being a positive inotrope in C. hamatus. In all species, these responses parallel the inotropic effects of authentic NO. We also demonstrated that the nitrite-dependent inotropic effects are i) dependent from NO synthase (NOS) activity in fish; ii) sensitive to NO scavenging in frog; iii) cGMP/PKG-dependent in both eel and frog. Results suggest that nitrite is an integral physiological source of NO and acts as a signalling molecule in lower vertebrate hearts, exerting relevant inotropic actions through different species-specific mechanisms.

  8. The hypoxia signaling pathway and hypoxic adaptation in fishes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wuhan

    2015-02-01

    The hypoxia signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved cellular signaling pathway present in animals ranging from Caenorhabditis elegans to mammals. The pathway is crucial for oxygen homeostasis maintenance. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α) are master regulators in the hypoxia signaling pathway. Oxygen concentrations vary a lot in the aquatic environment. To deal with this, fishes have adapted and developed varying strategies for living in hypoxic conditions. Investigations into the strategies and mechanisms of hypoxia adaptation in fishes will allow us to understand fish speciation and breed hypoxia-tolerant fish species/strains. This review summarizes the process of the hypoxia signaling pathway and its regulation, as well as the mechanism of hypoxia adaptation in fishes.

  9. Adapting to regional enforcement: fishing down the governance index.

    PubMed

    Osterblom, Henrik; Sumaila, U Rashid; Bodin, Orjan; Hentati Sundberg, Jonas; Press, Anthony J

    2010-09-17

    Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is a problem for marine resource managers, leading to depletion of fish stocks and negative impacts on marine ecosystems. These problems are particularly evident in regions with weak governance. Countries responsible for sustainable natural resource management in the Southern Ocean have actively worked to reduce IUU fishing in the region over a period of 15 years, leading to a sequence of three distinct peaks of IUU fishing. We reviewed existing public records relating to IUU fishing in the Southern Ocean between 1995-2009 and related this information to the governance capacity of flag states responsible for IUU vessels. IUU operators used a number of methods to adapt to enforcement actions, resulting in reduced risks of detection, apprehension and sanctioning. They changed fishing locations, vessel names and flag states, and ports for offloading IUU catches. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of IUU vessels flagged to CCAMLR countries, and a significant decrease in the average governance index of flag states. Despite a decreasing trend of IUU fishing, further actions are hampered by the regional scope of CCAMLR and the governance capacity of responsible states. This is the first study of long-term change in the modus operandi of IUU fishing operators, illustrating that IUU operators can adapt to enforcement actions and that such dynamics may lead to new problems elsewhere, where countries have a limited capacity. This outsourcing of problems may have similarities to natural resource extraction in other sectors and in other regions. IUU fishing is the result of a number of factors, and effectively addressing this major challenge to sustainable marine resource extraction will likely require a stronger focus on governance. Highly mobile resource extractors with substantial funds are able to adapt to changing regulations by exploiting countries and regions with limited capacity.

  10. Adapting to Regional Enforcement: Fishing Down the Governance Index

    PubMed Central

    Österblom, Henrik; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Bodin, Örjan; Hentati Sundberg, Jonas; Press, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is a problem for marine resource managers, leading to depletion of fish stocks and negative impacts on marine ecosystems. These problems are particularly evident in regions with weak governance. Countries responsible for sustainable natural resource management in the Southern Ocean have actively worked to reduce IUU fishing in the region over a period of 15 years, leading to a sequence of three distinct peaks of IUU fishing. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed existing public records relating to IUU fishing in the Southern Ocean between 1995–2009 and related this information to the governance capacity of flag states responsible for IUU vessels. IUU operators used a number of methods to adapt to enforcement actions, resulting in reduced risks of detection, apprehension and sanctioning. They changed fishing locations, vessel names and flag states, and ports for offloading IUU catches. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of IUU vessels flagged to CCAMLR countries, and a significant decrease in the average governance index of flag states. Despite a decreasing trend of IUU fishing, further actions are hampered by the regional scope of CCAMLR and the governance capacity of responsible states. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study of long-term change in the modus operandi of IUU fishing operators, illustrating that IUU operators can adapt to enforcement actions and that such dynamics may lead to new problems elsewhere, where countries have a limited capacity. This outsourcing of problems may have similarities to natural resource extraction in other sectors and in other regions. IUU fishing is the result of a number of factors, and effectively addressing this major challenge to sustainable marine resource extraction will likely require a stronger focus on governance. Highly mobile resource extractors with substantial funds are able to adapt to changing regulations by exploiting

  11. Molecular adaptations in Antarctic fish and marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Daniela; Russo, Roberta; di Prisco, Guido; Verde, Cinzia

    2012-06-01

    The Antarctic marine environment is one of the most extreme on Earth due to its stably low temperature and high oxygen content. Here we discuss various aspects of the molecular adaptations evolved by Antarctic fish and marine microorganisms living in this environment. This review will in particular focus on: (i) the genetic/genomic bases of adaptation in Antarctic notothenioid fish; (ii) the role of neuroglobin recently identified in the brain of Antarctic icefish; (iii) the structural and functional features of globins of the Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125.

  12. ADAPTIONS OF WILD POPULATIONS OF THE ESTUARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS TO PERSISTENT ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many aquatic species, including the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichogs), adapt to local environmental conditions. We conducted studies to evaluate whether highly exposed populations of mummichogs adapt to toxic environmental contaminants. These fish populations are ...

  13. Convergent evolution within an adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Muschick, Moritz; Indermaur, Adrian; Salzburger, Walter

    2012-12-18

    The recurrent evolution of convergent forms is a widespread phenomenon in adaptive radiations (e.g., [1-9]). For example, similar ecotypes of anoles lizards have evolved on different islands of the Caribbean, benthic-limnetic species pairs of stickleback fish emerged repeatedly in postglacial lakes, equivalent sets of spider ecomorphs have arisen on Hawaiian islands, and a whole set of convergent species pairs of cichlid fishes evolved in East African Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. In all these cases, convergent phenotypes originated in geographic isolation from each other. Recent theoretical models, however, predict that convergence should be common within species-rich communities, such as species assemblages resulting from adaptive radiations. Here, we present the most extensive quantitative analysis to date of an adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes, discovering multiple instances of convergence in body and trophic morphology. Moreover, we show that convergent morphologies are associated with adaptations to specific habitats and resources and that Lake Tanganyika's cichlid communities are characterized by the sympatric occurrence of convergent forms. This prevalent coexistence of distantly related yet ecomorphologically similar species offers an explanation for the greatly elevated species numbers in cichlid species flocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiological, behavioral and biochemical adaptations of intertidal fishes to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jeffrey G

    2011-01-15

    Hypoxia survival in fish requires a well-coordinated response to either secure more O(2) from the hypoxic environment or to limit the metabolic consequences of an O(2) restriction at the mitochondria. Although there is a considerable amount of information available on the physiological, behavioral, biochemical and molecular responses of fish to hypoxia, very little research has attempted to determine the adaptive value of these responses. This article will review current attempts to use the phylogenetically corrected comparative method to define physiological and behavioral adaptations to hypoxia in intertidal fish and further identify putatively adaptive biochemical traits that should be investigated in the future. In a group of marine fishes known as sculpins, from the family Cottidae, variation in hypoxia tolerance, measured as a critical O(2) tension (P(crit)), is primarily explained by variation in mass-specific gill surface area, red blood cell hemoglobin-O(2) binding affinity, and to a lesser extent variation in routine O(2) consumption rate (M(O(2))). The most hypoxia-tolerant sculpins consistently show aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and aerial emergence behavior during hypoxia exposure, but no phylogenetically independent relationship has been found between the thresholds for initiating these behaviors and P(crit). At O(2) levels below P(crit), hypoxia survival requires a rapid reorganization of cellular metabolism to suppress ATP consumption to match the limited capacity for O(2)-independent ATP production. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that the degree of metabolic rate suppression and the quantity of stored fermentable fuel is strongly selected for in hypoxia-tolerant fishes; however, these assertions have not been tested in a phylogenetic comparative model.

  15. The cytokine networks of adaptive immunity in fish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiehui; Secombes, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Cytokines, produced at the site of entry of a pathogen, drive inflammatory signals that regulate the capacity of resident and newly arrived phagocytes to destroy the invading pathogen. They also regulate antigen presenting cells (APCs), and their migration to lymph nodes to initiate the adaptive immune response. When naive CD4+ T cells recognize a foreign antigen-derived peptide presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex class II on APCs, they undergo massive proliferation and differentiation into at least four different T-helper (Th) cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17, and induced T-regulatory (iTreg) cells in mammals. Each cell subset expresses a unique set of signature cytokines. The profile and magnitude of cytokines produced in response to invasion of a foreign organism or to other danger signals by activated CD4+ T cells themselves, and/or other cell types during the course of differentiation, define to a large extent whether subsequent immune responses will have beneficial or detrimental effects to the host. The major players of the cytokine network of adaptive immunity in fish are described in this review with a focus on the salmonid cytokine network. We highlight the molecular, and increasing cellular, evidence for the existence of T-helper cells in fish. Whether these cells will match exactly to the mammalian paradigm remains to be seen, but the early evidence suggests that there will be many similarities to known subsets. Alternative or additional Th populations may also exist in fish, perhaps influenced by the types of pathogen encountered by a particular species and/or fish group. These Th cells are crucial for eliciting disease resistance post-vaccination, and hopefully will help resolve some of the difficulties in producing efficacious vaccines to certain fish diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in adaptive capacity of Kenyan fishing communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinner, Joshua E.; Huchery, Cindy; Hicks, Christina C.; Daw, Tim M.; Marshall, Nadine; Wamukota, Andrew; Allison, Edward H.

    2015-09-01

    Coastal communities are particularly at risk from the impacts of a changing climate. Building the capacity of coastal communities to cope with and recover from a changing environment is a critical means to reducing their vulnerability. Yet, few studies have quantitatively examined adaptive capacity in such communities. Here, we build on an emerging body of research examining adaptive capacity in natural resource-dependent communities in two important ways. We examine how nine indicators of adaptive capacity vary: among segments of Kenyan fishing communities; and over time. Socially disaggregated analyses found that the young, those who had migrated, and those who do not participate in decision-making seemed least prepared for adapting to change in these resource-dependent communities. These results highlight the most vulnerable segments of society when it comes to preparing for and adapting to change in resource-dependent communities. Comparisons through time showed that aspects of adaptive capacity seemed to have increased between 2008 and 2012 owing to higher observed community infrastructure and perceived availability of credit.

  17. 78 FR 19514 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy AGENCY: Fish..., Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy (NFWPCAS or Strategy). The purpose of the Strategy is to... natural systems provide, in a changing climate. Input from public comments and workshops has been...

  18. 76 FR 30193 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy; Notice of Intent: Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy; Notice of... National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy (Strategy). The Strategy will provide a... ensure that we are able to consider your comments and information as we develop our draft strategy...

  19. Ancient hybridization fuels rapid cichlid fish adaptive radiations

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Joana I.; Marques, David A.; Mwaiko, Salome; Wagner, Catherine E.; Excoffier, Laurent; Seehausen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why some evolutionary lineages generate exceptionally high species diversity is an important goal in evolutionary biology. Haplochromine cichlid fishes of Africa's Lake Victoria region encompass >700 diverse species that all evolved in the last 150,000 years. How this ‘Lake Victoria Region Superflock' could evolve on such rapid timescales is an enduring question. Here, we demonstrate that hybridization between two divergent lineages facilitated this process by providing genetic variation that subsequently became recombined and sorted into many new species. Notably, the hybridization event generated exceptional allelic variation at an opsin gene known to be involved in adaptation and speciation. More generally, differentiation between new species is accentuated around variants that were fixed differences between the parental lineages, and that now appear in many new combinations in the radiation species. We conclude that hybridization between divergent lineages, when coincident with ecological opportunity, may facilitate rapid and extensive adaptive radiation. PMID:28186104

  20. Adaptive morphological shifts to novel habitats in marine sculpin fishes.

    PubMed

    Knope, M L; Scales, J A

    2013-03-01

    Sculpin fishes of the North American Pacific Coast provide an ideal opportunity to examine whether adaptive morphological character shifts have facilitated occupation of novel habitat types because of their well-described phylogeny and ecology. In this group, the basal-rooted species primarily occupy the subtidal habitat, whereas the species in the most distal clades are found in the intertidal. We tested multiple evolutionary models to determine whether changes in body size and changes in number of scales are adaptive for habitat use in sculpins. Based on a statistically robust, highly resolved molecular phylogeny of 26 species of sculpins, in combination with morphometric and habitat affinity data, our analyses show that an adaptive model based on habitat use best explains changes in body size and number of scales. The habitat model was statistically supported over models of neutral evolution, stabilizing selection across all habitats, and three clade-based models. We suggest that loss of scales and reduction of body size in the intertidal may facilitate cutaneous breathing in air when tidepools become hypoxic during low tides. This study demonstrates how the combined use of phylogenetic, ecological and statistical approaches helps to identify traits that are likely adaptive to novel habitats. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Structure and membrane interactions of chionodracine, a piscidin-like antimicrobial peptide from the icefish Chionodraco hamatus.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Cristina; Buonocore, Francesco; Picchietti, Simona; Taddei, Anna Rita; Bernini, Chiara; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Dicke, Alysha A; Vostrikov, Vitaly V; Veglia, Gianluigi; Porcelli, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Chionodracine (Cnd) is a 22-residue peptide of the piscidin family expressed in the gills of the Chionodraco hamatus as protection from bacterial infections. Here, we report the effects of synthetic Cnd on both Psychrobacter sp. TAD1 and Escherichia coli bacteria, as well as membrane models. We found that Cnd perforates the inner and outer membranes of Psychrobacter sp. TAD1, making discrete pores that cause the cellular content to leak out. Membrane disruption studies using intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that Cnd behaves similarly to other piscidins, with comparable membrane partition coefficients. Membrane accessibility assays and structural studies using NMR in detergent micelles show that Cnd adopts a canonical topology of antimicrobial helical peptides, with the hydrophobic face toward the lipid environment and the hydrophilic face toward the bulk solvent. The analysis of Cnd free energy of binding to vesicles with different lipid contents indicates a preference for charged phospholipids and a more marked binding to native E. coli extracts. Taken with previous studies on piscidin-like peptides, we conclude that Cnd first adsorbs to the membrane, and then forms pores together with membrane fragmentation. Since Cnd has only marginal hemolytic activity, it constitutes a good template for developing new antimicrobial agents.

  2. Predation risk influences adaptive morphological variation in fish populations.

    PubMed

    Eklöv, Peter; Svanbäck, Richard

    2006-03-01

    Predators can cause a shift in both density and frequency of a prey phenotype that may lead to phenotypic divergence through natural selection. What is less investigated is that predators have a variety of indirect effects on prey that could potentially have large evolutionary responses. We conducted a pond experiment to test whether differences in predation risk in different habitats caused shifts in behavior of prey that, in turn, would affect their morphology. We also tested whether the experimental data could explain the morphological variation of perch in the natural environment. In the experiment, predators caused the prey fish to shift to the habitat with the lower predation risk. The prey specialized on habitat-specific resources, and there was a strong correlation between diet of the prey fish and morphological variation, suggesting that resource specialization ultimately affected the morphology. The lack of differences in competition and mortality suggest that the morphological variation among prey was induced by differences in predation risk among habitats. The field study demonstrated that there are differences in growth related to morphology of perch in two different habitats. Thus, a trade-off between foraging and predator avoidance could be responsible for adaptive morphological variation of young perch.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the plateau fish (Triplophysa dalaica): Implications for adaptation to hypoxia in fishes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Liandong; Wu, Bo; Song, Zhaobin; He, Shunping

    2015-07-10

    Triplophysa dalaica, endemic species of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is informative for understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to hypoxic conditions of high altitude habitats. Here, a comprehensive gene repertoire for this plateau fish was generated using the Illumina deep paired-end high-throughput sequencing technology. De novo assembly yielded 145, 256 unigenes with an average length of 1632 bp. Blast searches against GenBank non-redundant database annotated 74,594 (51.4%) unigenes encoding for 30,047 gene descriptions in T. dalaica. Functional annotation and classification of assembled sequences were performed using Gene Ontology (GO), clusters of euKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. After comparison with other fish transcriptomes, including silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and mud loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), 2621 high-quality orthologous gene alignments were constructed among these species. 61 (2.3%) of the genes were identified as having undergone positive selection in the T. dalaica lineage. Within the positively selected genes, 13 genes were involved in hypoxia response, of which 11 were listed in HypoxiaDB. Furthermore, duplicated hif-α (hif-1αA/B and hif-2αA/B), EGLN1 and PPARA candidate genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia were identified in T. dalaica transcriptome. Branch-site model in PAML validated that hif-1αB and hif-2αA genes have undergone positive selection in T.dalaica. Finally, 37,501 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 19,497 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in T. dalaica. The identified SSR and SNP markers will facilitate the genetic structure, population geography and ecological studies of Triplophysa fishes.

  4. A Demonstration of Nesting in Two Antarctic Icefish (Genus Chionodraco) Using a Fin Dimorphism Analysis and Ex Situ Videos

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Sara; Castellano, Laura; Gallus, Lorenzo; Ghigliotti, Laura; Masini, Maria Angela; Pisano, Eva; Vacchi, Marino

    2014-01-01

    Visual observations and videos of Chionodraco hamatus icefish at the “Acquario di Genova” and histological analyses of congeneric species C. hamatus and C. rastrospinosus adults sampled in the field provided new anatomical and behavioral information on the reproductive biology of these white blooded species that are endemic to the High-Antarctic region. During the reproductive season, mature males of both species, which are different from females and immature males, display fleshy, club-like knob modifications of their anal fin that consisted of a much thicker epithelium. Histology indicated that the knobs were without any specialized glandular or sensorial organization, thus suggesting a mechanical and/or ornamental role of the modified anal fin. In addition, the occurrence of necrotic regions at the base of the thickened epithelium and the detachment of the knobs in post-spawning C. hamatus males indicated the temporary nature of the knobs. The role of these structures was confirmed as mechanical and was clarified using visual observations and videos of the behavior of two C. hamatus during a reproductive event that occurred in an exhibit tank at the “Acquario di Genova”. The reproductive process included pre-spawning activity, preparation of the nest, egg guarding and successfully ended with egg hatching. When the spawning event approached, the male prepared the nest. The nest was constructed on an accurately selected bottom surface, which was flattened and maintained free from sand or debris by a combination of radial body movements and continuous anal fin sweeping, thus demonstrating the important mechanical/abrasive function of the anal fin knobs. The present data are the first records of active nesting in icefish and clarify the meaning of dimorphic temporary structures, whose function would have been difficult to obtain in the field. PMID:24598889

  5. A demonstration of nesting in two antarctic icefish (genus Chionodraco) using a fin dimorphism analysis and ex situ videos.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Sara; Castellano, Laura; Gallus, Lorenzo; Ghigliotti, Laura; Masini, Maria Angela; Pisano, Eva; Vacchi, Marino

    2014-01-01

    Visual observations and videos of Chionodraco hamatus icefish at the "Acquario di Genova" and histological analyses of congeneric species C. hamatus and C. rastrospinosus adults sampled in the field provided new anatomical and behavioral information on the reproductive biology of these white blooded species that are endemic to the High-Antarctic region. During the reproductive season, mature males of both species, which are different from females and immature males, display fleshy, club-like knob modifications of their anal fin that consisted of a much thicker epithelium. Histology indicated that the knobs were without any specialized glandular or sensorial organization, thus suggesting a mechanical and/or ornamental role of the modified anal fin. In addition, the occurrence of necrotic regions at the base of the thickened epithelium and the detachment of the knobs in post-spawning C. hamatus males indicated the temporary nature of the knobs. The role of these structures was confirmed as mechanical and was clarified using visual observations and videos of the behavior of two C. hamatus during a reproductive event that occurred in an exhibit tank at the "Acquario di Genova". The reproductive process included pre-spawning activity, preparation of the nest, egg guarding and successfully ended with egg hatching. When the spawning event approached, the male prepared the nest. The nest was constructed on an accurately selected bottom surface, which was flattened and maintained free from sand or debris by a combination of radial body movements and continuous anal fin sweeping, thus demonstrating the important mechanical/abrasive function of the anal fin knobs. The present data are the first records of active nesting in icefish and clarify the meaning of dimorphic temporary structures, whose function would have been difficult to obtain in the field.

  6. The genomic substrate for adaptive radiation in African cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Malinsky, Milan; Keller, Irene; Fan, Shaohua; Simakov, Oleg; Ng, Alvin Y.; Lim, Zhi Wei; Bezault, Etienne; Turner-Maier, Jason; Johnson, Jeremy; Alcazar, Rosa; Noh, Hyun Ji; Russell, Pamela; Aken, Bronwen; Alföldi, Jessica; Amemiya, Chris; Azzouzi, Naoual; Baroiller, Jean-François; Barloy-Hubler, Frederique; Berlin, Aaron; Bloomquist, Ryan; Carleton, Karen L.; Conte, Matthew A.; D'Cotta, Helena; Eshel, Orly; Gaffney, Leslie; Galibert, Francis; Gante, Hugo F.; Gnerre, Sante; Greuter, Lucie; Guyon, Richard; Haddad, Natalie S.; Haerty, Wilfried; Harris, Rayna M.; Hofmann, Hans A.; Hourlier, Thibaut; Hulata, Gideon; Jaffe, David B.; Lara, Marcia; Lee, Alison P.; MacCallum, Iain; Mwaiko, Salome; Nikaido, Masato; Nishihara, Hidenori; Ozouf-Costaz, Catherine; Penman, David J.; Przybylski, Dariusz; Rakotomanga, Michaelle; Renn, Suzy C. P.; Ribeiro, Filipe J.; Ron, Micha; Salzburger, Walter; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Santos, M. Emilia; Searle, Steve; Sharpe, Ted; Swofford, Ross; Tan, Frederick J.; Williams, Louise; Young, Sarah; Yin, Shuangye; Okada, Norihiro; Kocher, Thomas D.; Miska, Eric A.; Lander, Eric S.; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Fernald, Russell D.; Meyer, Axel; Ponting, Chris P.; Streelman, J. Todd; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Seehausen, Ole; Di Palma, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Cichlid fishes are famous for large, diverse and replicated adaptive radiations in the Great Lakes of East Africa. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying cichlid phenotypic diversity, we sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of five lineages of African cichlids: the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), an ancestral lineage with low diversity; and four members of the East African lineage: Neolamprologus brichardi/pulcher (older radiation, Lake Tanganyika), Metriaclima zebra (recent radiation, Lake Malawi), Pundamilia nyererei (very recent radiation, Lake Victoria), and Astatotilapia burtoni (riverine species around Lake Tanganyika). We found an excess of gene duplications in the East African lineage compared to tilapia and other teleosts, an abundance of non-coding element divergence, accelerated coding sequence evolution, expression divergence associated with transposable element insertions, and regulation by novel microRNAs. In addition, we analysed sequence data from sixty individuals representing six closely related species from Lake Victoria, and show genome-wide diversifying selection on coding and regulatory variants, some of which were recruited from ancient polymorphisms. We conclude that a number of molecular mechanisms shaped East African cichlid genomes, and that amassing of standing variation during periods of relaxed purifying selection may have been important in facilitating subsequent evolutionary diversification. PMID:25186727

  7. The genomic substrate for adaptive radiation in African cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Brawand, David; Wagner, Catherine E; Li, Yang I; Malinsky, Milan; Keller, Irene; Fan, Shaohua; Simakov, Oleg; Ng, Alvin Y; Lim, Zhi Wei; Bezault, Etienne; Turner-Maier, Jason; Johnson, Jeremy; Alcazar, Rosa; Noh, Hyun Ji; Russell, Pamela; Aken, Bronwen; Alföldi, Jessica; Amemiya, Chris; Azzouzi, Naoual; Baroiller, Jean-François; Barloy-Hubler, Frederique; Berlin, Aaron; Bloomquist, Ryan; Carleton, Karen L; Conte, Matthew A; D'Cotta, Helena; Eshel, Orly; Gaffney, Leslie; Galibert, Francis; Gante, Hugo F; Gnerre, Sante; Greuter, Lucie; Guyon, Richard; Haddad, Natalie S; Haerty, Wilfried; Harris, Rayna M; Hofmann, Hans A; Hourlier, Thibaut; Hulata, Gideon; Jaffe, David B; Lara, Marcia; Lee, Alison P; MacCallum, Iain; Mwaiko, Salome; Nikaido, Masato; Nishihara, Hidenori; Ozouf-Costaz, Catherine; Penman, David J; Przybylski, Dariusz; Rakotomanga, Michaelle; Renn, Suzy C P; Ribeiro, Filipe J; Ron, Micha; Salzburger, Walter; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Santos, M Emilia; Searle, Steve; Sharpe, Ted; Swofford, Ross; Tan, Frederick J; Williams, Louise; Young, Sarah; Yin, Shuangye; Okada, Norihiro; Kocher, Thomas D; Miska, Eric A; Lander, Eric S; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Fernald, Russell D; Meyer, Axel; Ponting, Chris P; Streelman, J Todd; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Seehausen, Ole; Di Palma, Federica

    2014-09-18

    Cichlid fishes are famous for large, diverse and replicated adaptive radiations in the Great Lakes of East Africa. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying cichlid phenotypic diversity, we sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of five lineages of African cichlids: the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), an ancestral lineage with low diversity; and four members of the East African lineage: Neolamprologus brichardi/pulcher (older radiation, Lake Tanganyika), Metriaclima zebra (recent radiation, Lake Malawi), Pundamilia nyererei (very recent radiation, Lake Victoria), and Astatotilapia burtoni (riverine species around Lake Tanganyika). We found an excess of gene duplications in the East African lineage compared to tilapia and other teleosts, an abundance of non-coding element divergence, accelerated coding sequence evolution, expression divergence associated with transposable element insertions, and regulation by novel microRNAs. In addition, we analysed sequence data from sixty individuals representing six closely related species from Lake Victoria, and show genome-wide diversifying selection on coding and regulatory variants, some of which were recruited from ancient polymorphisms. We conclude that a number of molecular mechanisms shaped East African cichlid genomes, and that amassing of standing variation during periods of relaxed purifying selection may have been important in facilitating subsequent evolutionary diversification.

  8. GENETIC ADAPTATION TO CHRONIC CONTAMINANT EXPOSURE BY A SMALL ESTUARINE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigations of the non-migratory fish species Fundulus heteroclitus indigenous to a highly chemically contaminated site is providing novel insights into stressor costs and adaptive strategies. Specifically, we are studying an abundant and persistent population of F. heterocli...

  9. GENETIC ADAPTATION TO CHRONIC CONTAMINANT EXPOSURE BY A SMALL ESTUARINE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigations of the non-migratory fish species Fundulus heteroclitus indigenous to a highly chemically contaminated site is providing novel insights into stressor costs and adaptive strategies. Specifically, we are studying an abundant and persistent population of F. heterocli...

  10. Fish traders as key actors in fisheries: gender and adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Lindström, Lars; Jiddawi, Narriman S

    2013-12-01

    This paper fills an important gap towards adaptive management of small-scale fisheries by analyzing the gender dimension of fish trade in Zanzibar, Tanzania. We hypothesize that gender-based differences are present in the fish value chain and to test the hypothesis interviews were performed to analyze: (i) markets, customers, and mobility, (ii) material and economic resources, (iii) traded fish species, (iv) contacts and organizations, and (v) perceptions and experiences. Additionally, management documents were analyzed to examine the degree to which gender is considered. Results show that women traders had less access to social and economic resources, profitable markets, and high-value fish, which resulted in lower income. These gender inequalities are linked, among others, to women's reproductive roles such as childcare and household responsibilities. Formal fisheries management was found to be gender insensitive, showing how a crucial feedback element of adaptive management is missing in Zanzibar's management system, i.e., knowledge about key actors, their needs and challenges.

  11. Fisheries-induced neutral and adaptive evolution in exploited fish populations and consequences for their adaptive potential

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Lise; Dieckmann, Ulf; Ernande, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Fishing may induce neutral and adaptive evolution affecting life-history traits, and molecular evidence has shown that neutral genetic diversity has declined in some exploited populations. Here, we theoretically study the interplay between neutral and adaptive evolution caused by fishing. An individual-based eco-genetic model is devised that includes neutral and functional loci in a realistic ecological setting. In line with theoretical expectations, we find that fishing induces evolution towards slow growth, early maturation at small size and higher reproductive investment. We show, first, that the choice of genetic model (based on either quantitative genetics or gametic inheritance) influences the evolutionary recovery of traits after fishing ceases. Second, we analyse the influence of three factors possibly involved in the lack of evolutionary recovery: the strength of selection, the effect of genetic drift and the loss of adaptive potential. We find that evolutionary recovery is hampered by an association of weak selection differentials with reduced additive genetic variances. Third, the contribution of fisheries-induced selection to the erosion of functional genetic diversity clearly dominates that of genetic drift only for the traits related to maturation. Together, our results highlight the importance of taking into account population genetic variability in predictions of eco-evolutionary dynamics. PMID:25667602

  12. Fisheries-induced neutral and adaptive evolution in exploited fish populations and consequences for their adaptive potential.

    PubMed

    Marty, Lise; Dieckmann, Ulf; Ernande, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Fishing may induce neutral and adaptive evolution affecting life-history traits, and molecular evidence has shown that neutral genetic diversity has declined in some exploited populations. Here, we theoretically study the interplay between neutral and adaptive evolution caused by fishing. An individual-based eco-genetic model is devised that includes neutral and functional loci in a realistic ecological setting. In line with theoretical expectations, we find that fishing induces evolution towards slow growth, early maturation at small size and higher reproductive investment. We show, first, that the choice of genetic model (based on either quantitative genetics or gametic inheritance) influences the evolutionary recovery of traits after fishing ceases. Second, we analyse the influence of three factors possibly involved in the lack of evolutionary recovery: the strength of selection, the effect of genetic drift and the loss of adaptive potential. We find that evolutionary recovery is hampered by an association of weak selection differentials with reduced additive genetic variances. Third, the contribution of fisheries-induced selection to the erosion of functional genetic diversity clearly dominates that of genetic drift only for the traits related to maturation. Together, our results highlight the importance of taking into account population genetic variability in predictions of eco-evolutionary dynamics.

  13. Adaptation to coastal hazards: the livelihood struggles of a fishing community in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Santha, Sunil D

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines the coastal hazard adaptation strategies of a fishing community in a village in Kerala, India. It shows that formal adaptation strategies are highly techno-centric, costly, and do not take into account the vulnerabilities of the fishing community. Instead, they have contributed to ecological, livelihood, and knowledge uncertainties. The adaptation strategies of the fishing community are a response to these uncertainties. However, they may not lead to the fishing community's recovery from its vulnerability contexts. This case study is primarily qualitative in nature. Data were collected through in-depth interviews. Insights reveal that when actors with diverse values, interests, knowledge, and power evolve or design their respective adaptation strategies, the resulting interface often aggravates existing uncertainties associated with hazards. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that local discourses on coastal hazards are livelihood-centric and socially constructed within the struggle of the fishing community to access resources and to acquire the right to development. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  14. Determinants of climate change adaptation strategies used by fish farmers in Epe Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arimi, Kayode S

    2014-05-01

    Undesirable impacts of climate change have been a common occurrence that has made fish farmers in developing countries adopt some climate-change adaptation strategies. However, little is known about determinants of climate-change adaptation strategies used by these fish farmers. This study, therefore, articulates novelties on adaptation to climate change, as well ascertains determinants of adaptation strategies used by fish farmers in Epe, Lagos State, Nigeria. Climate change adaptation strategies mostly used by fish farmers include frequent seeking for early warning information about climate change (76.7%) and avoidance of areas susceptible to flooding (60.0%). Climate-change adaptation strategies used by fish farmers were significantly influenced by access to early warning information (β = 7.21), knowledge of farmers about climate change adaptation strategies (β = 8.86), access to capital (β = 28.25), and participation in workshop and conferences (β = 37.19) but were reduced by number of fish stocking (β = -2.06). The adaptation strategies used by fish farmers were autonomous and mostly determined by the access to credit facilities and information. Development policy should focus on carbon capture and storage technology in order to reduce adverse impacts of climate change, as well as making early warning information on climate change available to fish farmers. These will enhance adaptation to climate change. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Adaptive capacity of fishing communities at marine protected areas: a case study from the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rocío del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio

    2013-12-01

    Departing from a theoretical methodology, we estimate empirically an index of adaptive capacity (IAC) of a fishing community to the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). We carried out household surveys, designed to obtain information for indicators and sub-indicators, and calculated the IAC. Moreover, we performed a sensitivity analysis to check for robustness of the results. Our findings show that, despite being located between two MPAs, the fishing community of Bazán in the Colombian Pacific is highly vulnerable and that the socioeconomic dimension of the IAC constitutes the most binding dimension for building adaptive capacity. Bazán is characterized by extreme poverty, high dependence on resources, and lack of basic public infrastructure. Notwithstanding, social capital and local awareness about ecological conditions may act as enhancers of adaptive capacity. The establishment of MPAs should consider the development of strategies to confer adaptive capacity to local communities highly dependent on resource extraction.

  16. Complementary effect of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintains differentiation between locally adapted fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plath, Martin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Oranth, Alexandra; Dzienko, Justina; Karau, Nora; Schießl, Angela; Stadler, Stefan; Wigh, Adriana; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Schlupp, Ingo; Tobler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Adaptation to ecologically heterogeneous environments can drive speciation. But what mechanisms maintain reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations? Using poeciliid fishes in a system with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide, we show that (a) fish from non-sulfidic sites ( Poecilia mexicana) show high mortality (95 %) after 24 h when exposed to the toxicant, while locally adapted fish from sulfidic sites ( Poecilia sulphuraria) experience low mortality (13 %) when transferred to non-sulfidic water. (b) Mate choice tests revealed that P. mexicana females exhibit a preference for conspecific males in non-sulfidic water, but not in sulfidic water, whereas P. sulphuraria females never showed a preference. Increased costs of mate choice in sulfidic, hypoxic water, and the lack of selection for reinforcement due to the low survival of P. mexicana may explain the absence of a preference in P. sulphuraria females. Taken together, our study may be the first to demonstrate independent—but complementary—effects of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintaining differentiation between locally adapted fish populations.

  17. Adaptive capabilities and fitness consequences associated with pollution exposure in fish

    PubMed Central

    Rolshausen, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Many fish populations are exposed to harmful levels of chemical pollution and selection pressures associated with these exposures have led to the evolution of tolerance. Our understanding of the physiological basis for these adaptations is limited, but they are likely to include processes involved with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and/or excretion of the target chemical. Other potential adaptive mechanisms include enhancements in antioxidant responses, an increased capacity for DNA and/or tissue repair and alterations to the life cycle of fish that enable earlier reproduction. Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism frequencies has shown that tolerance to hydrocarbon pollutants in both marine and estuarine fish species involves alteration in the expression of the xenobiotic metabolism enzyme CYP1A. In this review, we present novel data showing also that variants of the CYP1A gene have been under selection in guppies living in Trinidadian rivers heavily polluted with crude oil. Potential costs associated with these adaptations could reduce fitness in unpolluted water conditions. Integrating knowledge of local adaptation to pollution is an important future consideration in conservation practices such as for successful restocking, and improving connectivity within river systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences’. PMID:27920387

  18. Adaptive capabilities and fitness consequences associated with pollution exposure in fish.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Patrick B; Rolshausen, Gregor; Uren Webster, Tamsyn M; Tyler, Charles R

    2017-01-19

    Many fish populations are exposed to harmful levels of chemical pollution and selection pressures associated with these exposures have led to the evolution of tolerance. Our understanding of the physiological basis for these adaptations is limited, but they are likely to include processes involved with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and/or excretion of the target chemical. Other potential adaptive mechanisms include enhancements in antioxidant responses, an increased capacity for DNA and/or tissue repair and alterations to the life cycle of fish that enable earlier reproduction. Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism frequencies has shown that tolerance to hydrocarbon pollutants in both marine and estuarine fish species involves alteration in the expression of the xenobiotic metabolism enzyme CYP1A. In this review, we present novel data showing also that variants of the CYP1A gene have been under selection in guppies living in Trinidadian rivers heavily polluted with crude oil. Potential costs associated with these adaptations could reduce fitness in unpolluted water conditions. Integrating knowledge of local adaptation to pollution is an important future consideration in conservation practices such as for successful restocking, and improving connectivity within river systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'.

  19. The adaptive radiation of cichlid fish in lake tanganyika: a morphological perspective.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsumi; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika is the oldest of the Great Ancient Lakes in the East Africa. This lake harbours about 250 species of cichlid fish, which are highly diverse in terms of morphology, behaviour, and ecology. Lake Tanganyika's cichlid diversity has evolved through explosive speciation and is treated as a textbook example of adaptive radiation, the rapid differentiation of a single ancestor into an array of species that differ in traits used to exploit their environments and resources. To elucidate the processes and mechanisms underlying the rapid speciation and adaptive radiation of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species assemblage it is important to integrate evidence from several lines of research. Great efforts have been, are, and certainly will be taken to solve the mystery of how so many cichlid species evolved in so little time. In the present review, we summarize morphological studies that relate to the adaptive radiation of Lake Tanganyika's cichlids and highlight their importance for understanding the process of adaptive radiation.

  20. The Adaptive Radiation of Cichlid Fish in Lake Tanganyika: A Morphological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tetsumi; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika is the oldest of the Great Ancient Lakes in the East Africa. This lake harbours about 250 species of cichlid fish, which are highly diverse in terms of morphology, behaviour, and ecology. Lake Tanganyika's cichlid diversity has evolved through explosive speciation and is treated as a textbook example of adaptive radiation, the rapid differentiation of a single ancestor into an array of species that differ in traits used to exploit their environments and resources. To elucidate the processes and mechanisms underlying the rapid speciation and adaptive radiation of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species assemblage it is important to integrate evidence from several lines of research. Great efforts have been, are, and certainly will be taken to solve the mystery of how so many cichlid species evolved in so little time. In the present review, we summarize morphological studies that relate to the adaptive radiation of Lake Tanganyika's cichlids and highlight their importance for understanding the process of adaptive radiation. PMID:21716857

  1. Lake morphometry and resource polymorphism determine niche segregation between cool- and cold-water-adapted fish.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Brian; Harrod, Chris; Kahilaineni, Kimmo K

    2014-02-01

    Climate change is increasing ambient temperatures in Arctic and subarctic regions, facilitating latitudinal range expansions of freshwater fishes adapted to warmer water temperatures. The relative roles of resource availability and interspecific interactions between resident and invading species in determining the outcomes of such expansions has not been adequately evaluated. Ecological interactions between a cool-water adapted fish, the perch (Perca fluviatilis), and the cold-water adapted European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), were studied in both shallow and deep lakes with fish communities dominated by (1) monomorphic whitefish, (2) monomorphic whitefish and perch, and (3) polymorphic whitefish and perch. A combination of stomach content, stable-isotope, and invertebrate prey availability data were used to identify resource use and niche overlap among perch, the trophic generalist large sparsely rakered (LSR) whitefish morph, and the pelagic specialist densely rakered (DR) whitefish morph in 10 subarctic lakes at the contemporary distribution limit of perch in northern Scandinavia. Perch utilized its putative preferred littoral niche in all lakes. LSR whitefish utilized both littoral and pelagic resources in monomorphic whitefish-dominated lakes. When found in sympatry with perch, LSR whitefish exclusively utilized pelagic prey in deep lakes, but displayed niche overlap with perch in shallow littoral lakes. DR whitefish was a specialist zooplanktivore, relegating LSR whitefish from pelagic habitats, leading to an increase in niche overlap between LSR whitefish and perch in deep lakes. Our results highlight how resource availability (lake depth and fish community) governs ecological interactions between native and invading species, leading to different outcomes even at the same latitudes. These findings suggest that lake morphometry and fish community structure data should be included in bioclimate envelope-based models of species distribution shifts

  2. Genetic linkage of distinct adaptive traits in sympatrically speciating crater lake cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Kovacova, Viera; Elmer, Kathryn R.; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of how biological diversity arises is limited, especially in the case of speciation in the face of gene flow. Here we investigate the genomic basis of adaptive traits, focusing on a sympatrically diverging species pair of crater lake cichlid fishes. We identify the main quantitative trait loci (QTL) for two eco-morphological traits: body shape and pharyngeal jaw morphology. These traits diverge in parallel between benthic and limnetic species in the repeated adaptive radiations of this and other fish lineages. Remarkably, a single chromosomal region contains the highest effect size QTL for both traits. Transcriptomic data show that the QTL regions contain genes putatively under selection. Independent population genomic data corroborate QTL regions as areas of high differentiation between the sympatric sister species. Our results provide empirical support for current theoretical models that emphasize the importance of genetic linkage and pleiotropy in facilitating rapid divergence in sympatry. PMID:27597183

  3. Metabolic cold adaptation in fishes occurs at the level of whole animal, mitochondria and enzyme.

    PubMed

    White, Craig R; Alton, Lesley A; Frappell, Peter B

    2012-05-07

    Metabolic cold adaptation (MCA), the hypothesis that species from cold climates have relatively higher metabolic rates than those from warm climates, was first proposed nearly 100 years ago and remains one of the most controversial hypotheses in physiological ecology. In the present study, we test the MCA hypothesis in fishes at the level of whole animal, mitochondria and enzyme. In support of the MCA hypothesis, we find that when normalized to a common temperature, species with ranges that extend to high latitude (cooler climates) have high aerobic enzyme (citrate synthase) activity, high rates of mitochondrial respiration and high standard metabolic rates. Metabolic compensation for the global temperature gradient is not complete however, so when measured at their habitat temperature species from high latitude have lower absolute rates of metabolism than species from low latitudes. Evolutionary adaptation and thermal plasticity are therefore insufficient to completely overcome the acute thermodynamic effects of temperature, at least in fishes.

  4. Unique Features of Fish Immune Repertoires: Particularities of Adaptive Immunity Within the Largest Group of Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Magadan, Susana; Sunyer, Oriol J; Boudinot, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Fishes (i.e., teleost fishes) are the largest group of vertebrates. Although their immune system is based on the fundamental receptors, pathways, and cell types found in all groups of vertebrates, fishes show a diversity of particular features that challenge some classical concepts of immunology. In this chapter, we discuss the particularities of fish immune repertoires from a comparative perspective. We examine how allelic exclusion can be achieved when multiple Ig loci are present, how isotypic diversity and functional specificity impact clonal complexity, how loss of the MHC class II molecules affects the cooperation between T and B cells, and how deep sequencing technologies bring new insights about somatic hypermutation in the absence of germinal centers. The unique coexistence of two distinct B-cell lineages respectively specialized in systemic and mucosal responses is also discussed. Finally, we try to show that the diverse adaptations of immune repertoires in teleosts can help in understanding how somatic adaptive mechanisms of immunity evolved in parallel in different lineages across vertebrates.

  5. Unique Features of Fish Immune Repertoires: Particularities of Adaptive Immunity Within the Largest Group of Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, Oriol J.

    2016-01-01

    Fishes (i.e., teleost fishes) are the largest group of vertebrates. Although their immune system is based on the fundamental receptors, pathways, and cell types found in all groups of vertebrates, fishes show a diversity of particular features that challenge some classical concepts of immunology. In this chapter, we discuss the particularities of fish immune repertoires from a comparative perspective. We examine how allelic exclusion can be achieved when multiple Ig loci are present, how isotypic diversity and functional specificity impact clonal complexity, how loss of the MHC class II molecules affects the cooperation between T and B cells, and how deep sequencing technologies bring new insights about somatic hypermutation in the absence of germinal centers. The unique coexistence of two distinct B-cell lineages respectively specialized in systemic and mucosal responses is also discussed. Finally, we try to show that the diverse adaptations of immune repertoires in teleosts can help in understanding how somatic adaptive mechanisms of immunity evolved in parallel in different lineages across vertebrates. PMID:26537384

  6. Scientifically defensible fish conservation and recovery plans: Addressing diffuse threats and developing rigorous adaptive management plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maas-Hebner, Kathleen G.; Schreck, Carl B.; Hughes, Robert M.; Yeakley, Alan; Molina, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the importance of addressing diffuse threats to long-term species and habitat viability in fish conservation and recovery planning. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmonid management plans have typically focused on degraded freshwater habitat, dams, fish passage, harvest rates, and hatchery releases. However, such plans inadequately address threats related to human population and economic growth, intra- and interspecific competition, and changes in climate, ocean, and estuarine conditions. Based on reviews conducted on eight conservation and/or recovery plans, we found that though threats resulting from such changes are difficult to model and/or predict, they are especially important for wide-ranging diadromous species. Adaptive management is also a critical but often inadequately constructed component of those plans. Adaptive management should be designed to respond to evolving knowledge about the fish and their supporting ecosystems; if done properly, it should help improve conservation efforts by decreasing uncertainty regarding known and diffuse threats. We conclude with a general call for environmental managers and planners to reinvigorate the adaptive management process in future management plans, including more explicitly identifying critical uncertainties, implementing monitoring programs to reduce those uncertainties, and explicitly stating what management actions will occur when pre-identified trigger points are reached.

  7. Evolution of genomic structural variation and genomic architecture in the adaptive radiations of African cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shaohua; Meyer, Axel

    2014-01-01

    African cichlid fishes are an ideal system for studying explosive rates of speciation and the origin of diversity in adaptive radiation. Within the last few million years, more than 2000 species have evolved in the Great Lakes of East Africa, the largest adaptive radiation in vertebrates. These young species show spectacular diversity in their coloration, morphology and behavior. However, little is known about the genomic basis of this astonishing diversity. Recently, five African cichlid genomes were sequenced, including that of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a basal and only relatively moderately diversified lineage, and the genomes of four representative endemic species of the adaptive radiations, Neolamprologus brichardi, Astatotilapia burtoni, Metriaclima zebra, and Pundamila nyererei. Using the Tilapia genome as a reference genome, we generated a high-resolution genomic variation map, consisting of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), short insertions and deletions (indels), inversions and deletions. In total, around 18.8, 17.7, 17.0, and 17.0 million SNPs, 2.3, 2.2, 1.4, and 1.9 million indels, 262, 306, 162, and 154 inversions, and 3509, 2705, 2710, and 2634 deletions were inferred to have evolved in N. brichardi, A. burtoni, P. nyererei, and M. zebra, respectively. Many of these variations affected the annotated gene regions in the genome. Different patterns of genetic variation were detected during the adaptive radiation of African cichlid fishes. For SNPs, the highest rate of evolution was detected in the common ancestor of N. brichardi, A. burtoni, P. nyererei, and M. zebra. However, for the evolution of inversions and deletions, we found that the rates at the terminal taxa are substantially higher than the rates at the ancestral lineages. The high-resolution map provides an ideal opportunity to understand the genomic bases of the adaptive radiation of African cichlid fishes. PMID:24917883

  8. Behavioural Adaptation to diminished Gravity in Fish - a Parabolic Aircraft Flight Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, A.; Anken, R.; Hilbig, R.

    During the micro gravity phases in the course of parabolic aircraft flights PFs some fish of a given batch were frequently shown to exhibit sensorimotor disorders in terms of revealing so-called looping responses LR or spinning movements SM both forms of motion sickness a kinetosis In order to gain some insights into the time-course of the behavioural adaptation towards diminished gravity in total 272 larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus were subjected to PFs and their respective behaviour was monitored With the onset of the first parabola P1 15 9 of the animals revealed a kinetotic behaviour whereas kinetoses were shown in 6 5 1 5 and 1 of the animals in P5 P10 and P15 With P20 the animals had adapted completely 0 swimming kinetotically Since the relative decrease of kinetotic animals was especially prominent from P5 to P10 a detailed analysis of the behaviour was undertaken Regarding SM a ratio of 2 9 in P5 decreased to 0 5 in P10 Virtually all individuals showing a SM in P5 had regained a normal behaviour with P10 The SM animals in P10 had all exhibited a normal swimming behaviour in P5 The ratio of LR-fish also decreased from P5 3 6 to P10 1 0 In contrast to the findings regarding SM numerous LM specimens did not regain a normal postural control and only very few animals behaving normally in P5 began to sport a LM behaviour by P10 Summarizing most kinetotic animals rapidly adapted to diminished gravity but few individual fish who swam normally at the beginning of the flights may loose sensorimotor control

  9. The Genome of Spironucleus salmonicida Highlights a Fish Pathogen Adapted to Fluctuating Environments

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feifei; Jerlström-Hultqvist, Jon; Einarsson, Elin; Ástvaldsson, Ásgeir; Svärd, Staffan G.; Andersson, Jan O.

    2014-01-01

    Spironucleus salmonicida causes systemic infections in salmonid fish. It belongs to the group diplomonads, binucleated heterotrophic flagellates adapted to micro-aerobic environments. Recently we identified energy-producing hydrogenosomes in S. salmonicida. Here we present a genome analysis of the fish parasite with a focus on the comparison to the more studied diplomonad Giardia intestinalis. We annotated 8067 protein coding genes in the ∼12.9 Mbp S. salmonicida genome. Unlike G. intestinalis, promoter-like motifs were found upstream of genes which are correlated with gene expression, suggesting a more elaborate transcriptional regulation. S. salmonicida can utilise more carbohydrates as energy sources, has an extended amino acid and sulfur metabolism, and more enzymes involved in scavenging of reactive oxygen species compared to G. intestinalis. Both genomes have large families of cysteine-rich membrane proteins. A cluster analysis indicated large divergence of these families in the two diplomonads. Nevertheless, one of S. salmonicida cysteine-rich proteins was localised to the plasma membrane similar to G. intestinalis variant-surface proteins. We identified S. salmonicida homologs to cyst wall proteins and showed that one of these is functional when expressed in Giardia. This suggests that the fish parasite is transmitted as a cyst between hosts. The extended metabolic repertoire and more extensive gene regulation compared to G. intestinalis suggest that the fish parasite is more adapted to cope with environmental fluctuations. Our genome analyses indicate that S. salmonicida is a well-adapted pathogen that can colonize different sites in the host. PMID:24516394

  10. Testing the stages model in the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika

    PubMed Central

    Muschick, Moritz; Nosil, Patrik; Roesti, Marius; Dittmann, Marie Theres; Harmon, Luke; Salzburger, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive radiation (AR) is a key process in the origin of organismal diversity. However, the evolution of trait disparity in connection with ecological specialization is still poorly understood. Available models for vertebrate ARs predict that diversification occurs in the form of temporal stages driven by different selective forces. Here, we investigate the AR of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika and use macroevolutionary model fitting to evaluate whether diversification happened in temporal stages. Six trait complexes, for which we also provide evidence of their adaptiveness, are analysed with comparative methods: body shape, pharyngeal jaw shape, gill raker traits, gut length, brain weight and body coloration. Overall, we do not find strong evidence for the ‘stages model’ of AR. However, our results suggest that trophic traits diversify earlier than traits implicated in macrohabitat adaptation and that sexual communication traits (i.e. coloration) diversify late in the radiation. PMID:25274371

  11. Testing the stages model in the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Muschick, Moritz; Nosil, Patrik; Roesti, Marius; Dittmann, Marie Theres; Harmon, Luke; Salzburger, Walter

    2014-11-22

    Adaptive radiation (AR) is a key process in the origin of organismal diversity. However, the evolution of trait disparity in connection with ecological specialization is still poorly understood. Available models for vertebrate ARs predict that diversification occurs in the form of temporal stages driven by different selective forces. Here, we investigate the AR of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika and use macroevolutionary model fitting to evaluate whether diversification happened in temporal stages. Six trait complexes, for which we also provide evidence of their adaptiveness, are analysed with comparative methods: body shape, pharyngeal jaw shape, gill raker traits, gut length, brain weight and body coloration. Overall, we do not find strong evidence for the 'stages model' of AR. However, our results suggest that trophic traits diversify earlier than traits implicated in macrohabitat adaptation and that sexual communication traits (i.e. coloration) diversify late in the radiation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential for adaptation to climate change in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Munday, Philip L; Donelson, Jennifer M; Domingos, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the impacts of climate change requires knowledge of the potential to adapt to rising temperatures, which is unknown for most species. Adaptive potential may be especially important in tropical species that have narrow thermal ranges and live close to their thermal optimum. We used the animal model to estimate heritability, genotype by environment interactions and nongenetic maternal components of phenotypic variation in fitness-related traits in the coral reef damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus. Offspring of wild-caught breeding pairs were reared for two generations at current-day and two elevated temperature treatments (+1.5 and +3.0 °C) consistent with climate change projections. Length, weight, body condition and metabolic traits (resting and maximum metabolic rate and net aerobic scope) were measured at four stages of juvenile development. Additive genetic variation was low for length and weight at 0 and 15 days posthatching (dph), but increased significantly at 30 dph. By contrast, nongenetic maternal effects on length, weight and body condition were high at 0 and 15 dph and became weaker at 30 dph. Metabolic traits, including net aerobic scope, exhibited high heritability at 90 dph. Furthermore, significant genotype x environment interactions indicated potential for adaptation of maximum metabolic rate and net aerobic scope at higher temperatures. Net aerobic scope was negatively correlated with weight, indicating that any adaptation of metabolic traits at higher temperatures could be accompanied by a reduction in body size. Finally, estimated breeding values for metabolic traits in F2 offspring were significantly affected by the parental rearing environment. Breeding values at higher temperatures were highest for transgenerationally acclimated fish, suggesting a possible role for epigenetic mechanisms in adaptive responses of metabolic traits. These results indicate a high potential for adaptation of aerobic scope to higher temperatures

  13. Fine-scale local adaptation in an invasive freshwater fish has evolved in contemporary time

    PubMed Central

    Westley, Peter A. H.; Ward, Eric J.; Fleming, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive evolutionary change in only a few generations can increase the ability of non-native invasive species to spread, and yet adaptive divergence is rarely assessed in recently established populations. In this study, we experimentally test for evidence of fine-scale local adaptation in juvenile survival and growth among three populations of an invasive freshwater fish with reciprocal transplants and common-garden experiments. Despite intrinsic differences in habitat quality, in two of three populations we detected evidence of increased survival in ‘home’ versus ‘away’ environments with a Bayesian occupancy model fitted to mark–recapture data. We found support for the ‘local’ versus ‘foreign’ criterion of local adaptation as 14 of 15 pairwise comparisons of performance were consistent with local adaptation (p < 0.001). Patterns in growth were less clear, though we detected evidence of location- and population-level effects. Although the agents of divergent ecological selection are not known in this system, our results combine to indicate that adaptive divergence—reflected by higher relative survival of local individuals—can occur in a small number of generations and only a few kilometres apart on the landscape. PMID:23193126

  14. Detection of Anthropogenic Particles in Fish Stomachs: An Isolation Method Adapted to Identification by Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Collard, France; Gilbert, Bernard; Eppe, Gauthier; Parmentier, Eric; Das, Krishna

    2015-10-01

    Microplastic particles (MP) contaminate oceans and affect marine organisms in several ways. Ingestion combined with food intake is generally reported. However, data interpretation often is circumvented by the difficulty to separate MP from bulk samples. Visual examination often is used as one or the only step to sort these particles. However, color, size, and shape are insufficient and often unreliable criteria. We present an extraction method based on hypochlorite digestion and isolation of MP from the membrane by sonication. The protocol is especially well adapted to a subsequent analysis by Raman spectroscopy. The method avoids fluorescence problems, allowing better identification of anthropogenic particles (AP) from stomach contents of fish by Raman spectroscopy. It was developed with commercial samples of microplastics and cotton along with stomach contents from three different Clupeiformes fishes: Clupea harengus, Sardina pilchardus, and Engraulis encrasicolus. The optimized digestion and isolation protocol showed no visible impact on microplastics and cotton particles while the Raman spectroscopic spectrum allowed the precise identification of microplastics and textile fibers. Thirty-five particles were isolated from nine fish stomach contents. Raman analysis has confirmed 11 microplastics and 13 fibers mainly made of cellulose or lignin. Some particles were not completely identified but contained artificial dyes. The novel approach developed in this manuscript should help to assess the presence, quantity, and composition of AP in planktivorous fish stomachs.

  15. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in the Midas cichlid fish pharyngeal jaw and its relevance in adaptive radiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Phenotypic evolution and its role in the diversification of organisms is a central topic in evolutionary biology. A neglected factor during the modern evolutionary synthesis, adaptive phenotypic plasticity, more recently attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists and is now recognized as an important ingredient in both population persistence and diversification. The traits and directions in which an ancestral source population displays phenotypic plasticity might partly determine the trajectories in morphospace, which are accessible for an adaptive radiation, starting from the colonization of a novel environment. In the case of repeated colonizations of similar environments from the same source population this "flexible stem" hypothesis predicts similar phenotypes to arise in repeated subsequent radiations. The Midas Cichlid (Amphilophus spp.) in Nicaragua has radiated in parallel in several crater-lakes seeded by populations originating from the Nicaraguan Great Lakes. Here, we tested phenotypic plasticity in the pharyngeal jaw of Midas Cichlids. The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of cichlids, a second set of jaws functionally decoupled from the oral ones, is known to mediate ecological specialization and often differs strongly between sister-species. Results We performed a common garden experiment raising three groups of Midas cichlids on food differing in hardness and calcium content. Analyzing the lower pharyngeal jaw-bones we find significant differences between diet groups qualitatively resembling the differences found between specialized species. Observed differences in pharyngeal jaw expression between groups were attributable to the diet's mechanical resistance, whereas surplus calcium in the diet was not found to be of importance. Conclusions The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of Midas Cichlids can be expressed plastically if stimulated mechanically during feeding. Since this trait is commonly differentiated - among other traits - between

  16. Candidate genes and adaptive radiation: insights from transcriptional adaptation to the limnetic niche among coregonine fishes (Coregonus spp., Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Jeukens, Julie; Bittner, David; Knudsen, Rune; Bernatchez, Louis

    2009-01-01

    In the past 40 years, there has been increasing acceptance that variation in levels of gene expression represents a major source of evolutionary novelty. Gene expression divergence is therefore likely to be involved in the emergence of incipient species, namely, in a context of adaptive radiation. In the lake whitefish species complex (Coregonus clupeaformis), previous microarray experiments have led to the identification of candidate genes potentially implicated in the parallel evolution of the limnetic dwarf lake whitefish, which is highly distinct from the benthic normal lake whitefish in life history, morphology, metabolism, and behavior, and yet diverged from it only approximately 15,000 years before present. The aim of the present study was to address transcriptional divergence for six candidate genes among lake whitefish and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) species pairs, as well as lake cisco (Coregonus artedi) and vendace (Coregonus albula). The main goal was to test the hypothesis that parallel phenotypic adaptation toward the use of the limnetic niche in coregonine fishes is accompanied by parallelism in candidate gene transcription as measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results obtained for three candidate genes, whereby parallelism in expression was observed across all whitefish species pairs, provide strong support for the hypothesis that divergent natural selection plays an important role in the adaptive radiation of whitefish species. However, this parallelism in expression did not extend to cisco and vendace, thereby infirming transcriptional convergence between limnetic whitefish species and their limnetic congeners for these genes. As recently proposed (Lynch 2007a. The evolution of genetic networks by non-adaptive processes. Nat Rev Genet. 8:803-813), these results may suggest that convergent phenotypic evolution can result from nonadaptive shaping of genome architecture in independently evolved coregonine

  17. The effect of temperature adaptation on the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in notothenioid fishes.

    PubMed

    Todgham, Anne E; Crombie, Timothy A; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2017-02-01

    There is an accumulating body of evidence suggesting that the sub-zero Antarctic marine environment places physiological constraints on protein homeostasis. Levels of ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugated proteins, 20S proteasome activity and mRNA expression of many proteins involved in both the Ub tagging of damaged proteins as well as the different complexes of the 26S proteasome were measured to examine whether there is thermal compensation of the Ub-proteasome pathway in Antarctic fishes to better understand the efficiency of the protein degradation machinery in polar species. Both Antarctic (Trematomus bernacchii, Pagothenia borchgrevinki) and non-Antarctic (Notothenia angustata, Bovichtus variegatus) notothenioids were included in this study to investigate the mechanisms of cold adaptation of this pathway in polar species. Overall, there were significant differences in the levels of Ub-conjugated proteins between the Antarctic notothenioids and B. variegatus, with N. angustata possessing levels very similar to those of the Antarctic fishes. Proteasome activity in the gills of Antarctic fishes demonstrated a high degree of temperature compensation such that activity levels were similar to activities measured in their temperate relatives at ecologically relevant temperatures. A similar level of thermal compensation of proteasome activity was not present in the liver of two Antarctic fishes. Higher gill proteasome activity is likely due in part to higher cellular levels of proteins involved in the Ub-proteasome pathway, as evidenced by high mRNA expression of relevant genes. Reduced activity of the Ub-proteasome pathway does not appear to be the mechanism responsible for elevated levels of denatured proteins in Antarctic fishes, at least in the gills.

  18. Diversity and disparity through time in the adaptive radiation of Antarctic notothenioid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, M; Damerau, M; Hanel, R; Salzburger, W; Matschiner, M

    2015-01-01

    According to theory, adaptive radiation is triggered by ecological opportunity that can arise through the colonization of new habitats, the extinction of antagonists or the origin of key innovations. In the course of an adaptive radiation, diversification and morphological evolution are expected to slow down after an initial phase of rapid adaptation to vacant ecological niches, followed by speciation. Such ‘early bursts’ of diversification are thought to occur because niche space becomes increasingly filled over time. The diversification of Antarctic notothenioid fishes into over 120 species has become one of the prime examples of adaptive radiation in the marine realm and has likely been triggered by an evolutionary key innovation in the form of the emergence of antifreeze glycoproteins. Here, we test, using a novel time-calibrated phylogeny of 49 species and five traits that characterize notothenioid body size and shape as well as buoyancy adaptations and habitat preferences, whether the notothenioid adaptive radiation is compatible with an early burst scenario. Extensive Bayesian model comparison shows that phylogenetic age estimates are highly dependent on model choice and that models with unlinked gene trees are generally better supported and result in younger age estimates. We find strong evidence for elevated diversification rates in Antarctic notothenioids compared to outgroups, yet no sign of rate heterogeneity in the course of the radiation, except that the notothenioid family Artedidraconidae appears to show secondarily elevated diversification rates. We further observe an early burst in trophic morphology, suggesting that the notothenioid radiation proceeds in stages similar to other prominent examples of adaptive radiation. PMID:25495187

  19. Diversity and disparity through time in the adaptive radiation of Antarctic notothenioid fishes.

    PubMed

    Colombo, M; Damerau, M; Hanel, R; Salzburger, W; Matschiner, M

    2015-02-01

    According to theory, adaptive radiation is triggered by ecological opportunity that can arise through the colonization of new habitats, the extinction of antagonists or the origin of key innovations. In the course of an adaptive radiation, diversification and morphological evolution are expected to slow down after an initial phase of rapid adaptation to vacant ecological niches, followed by speciation. Such 'early bursts' of diversification are thought to occur because niche space becomes increasingly filled over time. The diversification of Antarctic notothenioid fishes into over 120 species has become one of the prime examples of adaptive radiation in the marine realm and has likely been triggered by an evolutionary key innovation in the form of the emergence of antifreeze glycoproteins. Here, we test, using a novel time-calibrated phylogeny of 49 species and five traits that characterize notothenioid body size and shape as well as buoyancy adaptations and habitat preferences, whether the notothenioid adaptive radiation is compatible with an early burst scenario. Extensive Bayesian model comparison shows that phylogenetic age estimates are highly dependent on model choice and that models with unlinked gene trees are generally better supported and result in younger age estimates. We find strong evidence for elevated diversification rates in Antarctic notothenioids compared to outgroups, yet no sign of rate heterogeneity in the course of the radiation, except that the notothenioid family Artedidraconidae appears to show secondarily elevated diversification rates. We further observe an early burst in trophic morphology, suggesting that the notothenioid radiation proceeds in stages similar to other prominent examples of adaptive radiation. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Rapid evolution of piRNA pathway in the teleost fish: implication for an adaptation to transposon diversity.

    PubMed

    Yi, Minhan; Chen, Feng; Luo, Majing; Cheng, Yibin; Zhao, Huabin; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2014-05-19

    The Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is responsible for germline specification, gametogenesis, transposon silencing, and genome integrity. Transposable elements can disrupt genome and its functions. However, piRNA pathway evolution and its adaptation to transposon diversity in the teleost fish remain unknown. This article unveils evolutionary scene of piRNA pathway and its association with diverse transposons by systematically comparative analysis on diverse teleost fish genomes. Selective pressure analysis on piRNA pathway and miRNA/siRNA (microRNA/small interfering RNA) pathway genes between teleosts and mammals showed an accelerated evolution of piRNA pathway genes in the teleost lineages, and positive selection on functional PAZ (Piwi/Ago/Zwille) and Tudor domains involved in the Piwi-piRNA/Tudor interaction, suggesting that the amino acid substitutions are adaptive to their functions in piRNA pathway in the teleost fish species. Notably five piRNA pathway genes evolved faster in the swamp eel, a kind of protogynous hermaphrodite fish, than the other teleosts, indicating a differential evolution of piRNA pathway between the swamp eel and other gonochoristic fishes. In addition, genome-wide analysis showed higher diversity of transposons in the teleost fish species compared with mammals. Our results suggest that rapidly evolved piRNA pathway in the teleost fish is likely to be involved in the adaption to transposon diversity.

  1. Rapid Evolution of piRNA Pathway in the Teleost Fish: Implication for an Adaptation to Transposon Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Minhan; Chen, Feng; Luo, Majing; Cheng, Yibin; Zhao, Huabin; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2014-01-01

    The Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is responsible for germline specification, gametogenesis, transposon silencing, and genome integrity. Transposable elements can disrupt genome and its functions. However, piRNA pathway evolution and its adaptation to transposon diversity in the teleost fish remain unknown. This article unveils evolutionary scene of piRNA pathway and its association with diverse transposons by systematically comparative analysis on diverse teleost fish genomes. Selective pressure analysis on piRNA pathway and miRNA/siRNA (microRNA/small interfering RNA) pathway genes between teleosts and mammals showed an accelerated evolution of piRNA pathway genes in the teleost lineages, and positive selection on functional PAZ (Piwi/Ago/Zwille) and Tudor domains involved in the Piwi–piRNA/Tudor interaction, suggesting that the amino acid substitutions are adaptive to their functions in piRNA pathway in the teleost fish species. Notably five piRNA pathway genes evolved faster in the swamp eel, a kind of protogynous hermaphrodite fish, than the other teleosts, indicating a differential evolution of piRNA pathway between the swamp eel and other gonochoristic fishes. In addition, genome-wide analysis showed higher diversity of transposons in the teleost fish species compared with mammals. Our results suggest that rapidly evolved piRNA pathway in the teleost fish is likely to be involved in the adaption to transposon diversity. PMID:24846630

  2. Sensitivity Differences in Fish Offer Near-Infrared Vision as an Adaptable Evolutionary Trait

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbakov, Denis; Knörzer, Alexandra; Espenhahn, Svenja; Hilbig, Reinhard; Haas, Ulrich; Blum, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) light constitutes an integrated part of solar radiation. The principal ability to sense NIR under laboratory conditions has previously been demonstrated in fish. The availability of NIR in aquatic habitats, and thus its potential use as a cue for distinct behaviors such as orientation and detection of prey, however, depends on physical and environmental parameters. In clear water, blue and green light represents the dominating part of the illumination. In turbid waters, in contrast, the relative content of red and NIR radiation is enhanced, due to increased scattering and absorption of short and middle range wavelengths by suspended particles and dissolved colored materials. We have studied NIR detection thresholds using a phototactic swimming assay in five fish species, which are exposed to different NIR conditions in their natural habitats. Nile and Mozambique tilapia, which inhabit waters with increased turbidity, displayed the highest spectral sensitivity, with thresholds at wavelengths above 930 nm. Zebrafish, guppy and green swordtail, which prefer clearer waters, revealed significantly lower thresholds of spectral sensitivity with 825–845 nm for green swordtail and 845–910 nm for zebrafish and guppy. The present study revealed a clear correlation between NIR sensation thresholds and availability of NIR in the natural habitats, suggesting that NIR vision, as an integral part of the whole spectrum of visual abilities, can serve as an evolutionarily adaptable trait in fish. PMID:23691215

  3. Whole-body calcium flux rates in cichlid teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus adapted to freshwater

    SciTech Connect

    Flik, G.; Fenwick, J.C.; Kolar, Z.; Mayer-Gostan, N.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    1985-10-01

    Radiotracer techniques were used to measure influx and efflux rates of CaS in freshwater-adapted Oreochromis mossambicus. The influx rate of CaS is related to body weight (W) as Fin = 50W0.805 nmol CaS /h. For a 20-g fish the calculated influx rate was 558 nmol CaS /h, and this was attributed largely to extraintestinal uptake since the drinking rate was estimated to be only 28 microliter water/h, which corresponds to an intake of 22.4 nmol CaS /h. The CaS efflux rate was calculated using the initial rate of appearance of radiotracer in the ambient water and the specific activity of plasma CaS . Tracer efflux rates were constant over 6-8 h, which indicated that there was no substantial loss of tracer in either the urine or the feces because this would have resulted in random bursts of tracer loss. Efflux rates then primarily represent integumentary and presumably branchial efflux rates. The efflux rate of CaS is related to body weight as Fout = 30W0.563 nmol CaS /h, which means an efflux rate of 162 nmol CaS /h for a 20-g fish. The net whole-body CaS influx, calculated as Fnet = Fin - Fout, was 396 nmol/h for a 20-g fish, which proves that the ambient water is an important source of CaS .

  4. Genetic Adaptation of Schizothoracine Fish to the Phased Uplifting of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Yu, Mengchao; Hu, Peng; Peng, Sihua; Liu, Yimeng; Li, Weiwen; Wang, Congcong; He, Shunping; Zhai, Wanying; Xu, Qianghua; Chen, Liangbiao

    2017-01-01

    Many species of Schizothoracine, a subfamily of Cyprinidae, are highly endemic to the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP). To characterize the adaptive changes associated with the Schizothoracine expansion at high altitudes, we sequenced tissue transcriptomes of two highland and two subhighland Schizothoracines and analyzed gene evolution patterns by comparing with lowland cyprinids. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction and divergence time estimation indicated that the common ancestor of Schizothoracine fish lived ∼32.7 million years ago (MYA), coinciding with the timing of the first phase of QTP uplifting. Both high- and subhigh-Schizothoracines demonstrated elevated dN/dS ratios in the protein-coding genes compared to lowland cyprinids, from which some biological processes implicated in altitude adaptation were commonly identified. On the other hand, the highland and subhighland lineages presented drastically divergent landscapes of positively selected genes (PSGs), enriched with very different gene ontology (GO) profiles, including those in “sensory organ morphogenesis,” “regulation of protein ubiquitination,” “blood circulation,” and “blood vessel development.” These results indicated different selection pressures imposed on the highland and subhighland lineages of the Schizothoracine subfamily, with a higher number of genes in the high-altitude species involved in adaptations such as sensory perception, blood circulation, and protein metabolism. Our study indicated divergent genetic adaptations in the aquatic species facing the phased uplifting of QTP. PMID:28209761

  5. Genetic Adaptation of the Schizothoracine Fishes to the Phased Uplifting of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Yu, Mengchao; Hu, Peng; Peng, Sihua; Liu, Yimeng; Li, Weiwen; Wang, Congcong; He, Shunping; Zhai, Wanying; Xu, Qianghua; Chen, Liangbiao

    2017-02-16

    Many species of Schizothoracine, a sub-family of Cyprinidae, are highly endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). To characterize the adaptive changes associated with the Schizothoracine expansion in high-altitudes, we sequenced tissue transcriptomes of two highland and two sub-highland Schizothoracines, and analyzed gene evolution patterns by comparing to lowland cyprinids. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction and divergence time estimation indicated that the common ancestor of Schizothoracine fishes lived around 32.7 million years ago (MYA), coincided with the timing of the first phase of QTP uplifting. Both high- and subhigh-Schizothoracines demonstrated elevated dN/dS ratios in the protein coding genes compared to lowland cyprinids, from which some biological processes implicated in altitude adaptation were commonly identified. On the other hand, the highland and subhighland lineages presented drastically divergent landscapes of positively selected genes (PSGs), enriched with very different gene ontology profiles, including those in "sensory organ morphogenesis", "regulation of protein ubiquitination", "blood circulation" and "blood vessel development". These results indicated different selection pressures imposed to the highland and subhighland lineages of the Schizothoracine subfamily, with a higher number of genes in the high altitude species involved in adaptations such as sensory perception, blood circulation and protein metabolism. Our study indicated divergent genetic adaptations in the aquatic species facing the phased uplifting of QTP.

  6. Adaptive responses of energy storage and fish life histories to climatic gradients.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Henrique C; Shuter, Brian J

    2013-12-21

    Energy storage is a common adaptation of fish living in seasonal environments. For some species, the energy accumulated during the growing season, and stored primarily as lipids, is crucial to preventing starvation mortality over winter. Thus, in order to understand the adaptive responses of fish life history to climate, it is important to determine how energy should be allocated to storage and how it trades off with the other body components that contribute to fitness. In this paper, we extend previous life history theory to include an explicit representation of how the seasonal allocation of energy to storage acts as a constraint on fish growth. We show that a strategy that privileges allocation to structural mass in the first part of the growing season and switches to storage allocation later on, as observed empirically in several fish species, is the strategy that maximizes growth efficiency and hence is expected to be favored by natural selection. Stochastic simulations within this theoretical framework demonstrate that the relative performance of this switching strategy is robust to a wide range of fluctuations in growing season length, and to moderate short-term (i.e., daily) fluctuations in energy intake and/or expenditure within the growing season. We then integrate this switching strategy with a biphasic growth modeling framework to predict typical growth rates of walleye Sander vitreus, a cool water species, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, a cold water specialist, across a climatic gradient in North America. As predicted, growth rates increased linearly with the duration of the growing season. Regression line intercepts were negative, indicating that growth can only occur when growing season length exceeds a threshold necessary to produce storage for winter survival. The model also reveals important differences between species, showing that observed growth rates of lake trout are systematically higher than those of walleye in relatively colder lakes

  7. The Genome of the Myxosporean Thelohanellus kitauei Shows Adaptations to Nutrient Acquisition within Its Fish Host

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhigang; Huo, Fengmin; Miao, Wei; Ran, Chao; Liu, Yuchun; Zhang, Jinyong; Feng, Jinmei; Wang, Meng; Wang, Min; Wang, Lei; Yao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Members of Myxozoa, a parasitic metazoan taxon, have considerable detrimental effects on fish hosts and also have been associated with human food-borne illness. Little is known about their biology and metabolism. Analysis of the genome of Thelohanellus kitauei and comparative analysis with genomes of its two free-living cnidarian relatives revealed that T. kitauei has adapted to parasitism, as indicated by the streamlined metabolic repertoire and the tendency toward anabolism rather than catabolism. Thelohanellus kitauei mainly secretes proteases and protease inhibitors for nutrient digestion (parasite invasion), and depends on endocytosis (mainly low-density lipoprotein receptors-mediated type) and secondary carriers for nutrient absorption. Absence of both classic and complementary anaerobic pathways and gluconeogenesis, the lack of de novo synthesis and reduced activity in hydrolysis of fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides indicated that T. kitauei in this vertebrate host–parasite system has adapted to inhabit a physiological environment extremely rich in both oxygen and nutrients (especially glucose), which is consistent with its preferred parasitic site, that is, the host gut submucosa. Taking advantage of the genomic and transcriptomic information, 23 potential nutrition-related T. kitauei-specific chemotherapeutic targets were identified. This first genome sequence of a myxozoan will facilitate development of potential therapeutics for efficient control of myxozoan parasites and ultimately prevent myxozoan-induced fish-borne illnesses in humans. PMID:25381665

  8. Population genomics of local adaptation versus speciation in coral reef fishes (Hypoplectrus spp, Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Picq, Sophie; McMillan, W Owen; Puebla, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    Are the population genomic patterns underlying local adaptation and the early stages of speciation similar? Addressing this question requires a system in which (i) local adaptation and the early stages of speciation can be clearly identified and distinguished, (ii) the amount of genetic divergence driven by the two processes is similar, and (iii) comparisons can be repeated both taxonomically (for local adaptation) and geographically (for speciation). Here, we report just such a situation in the hamlets (Hypoplectrus spp), brightly colored reef fishes from the wider Caribbean. Close to 100,000 SNPs genotyped in 126 individuals from three sympatric species sampled in three repeated populations provide genome-wide levels of divergence that are comparable among allopatric populations (F st estimate = 0.0042) and sympatric species (F st estimate = 0.0038). Population genetic, clustering, and phylogenetic analyses reveal very similar patterns for local adaptation and speciation, with a large fraction of the genome undifferentiated (F st estimate ≈ 0), a very small proportion of F st outlier loci (0.05-0.07%), and remarkably few repeated outliers (1-3). Nevertheless, different loci appear to be involved in the two processes in Hypoplectrus, with only 7% of the most differentiated SNPs and outliers shared between populations and species comparisons. In particular, a tropomyosin (Tpm4) and a previously identified hox (HoxCa) locus emerge as candidate loci (repeated outliers) for local adaptation and speciation, respectively. We conclude that marine populations may be locally adapted notwithstanding shallow levels of genetic divergence, and that from a population genomic perspective, this process does not appear to differ fundamentally from the early stages of speciation.

  9. Adapt, move or die - how will tropical coral reef fishes cope with ocean warming?

    PubMed

    Habary, Adam; Johansen, Jacob L; Nay, Tiffany J; Steffensen, John F; Rummer, Jodie L

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies hailed thermal tolerance and the capacity for organisms to acclimate and adapt as the primary pathways for species survival under climate change. Here we challenge this theory. Over the past decade, more than 365 tropical stenothermal fish species have been documented moving poleward, away from ocean warming hotspots where temperatures 2-3 °C above long-term annual means can compromise critical physiological processes. We examined the capacity of a model species - a thermally sensitive coral reef fish, Chromis viridis (Pomacentridae) - to use preference behaviour to regulate its body temperature. Movement could potentially circumvent the physiological stress response associated with elevated temperatures and may be a strategy relied upon before genetic adaptation can be effectuated. Individuals were maintained at one of six temperatures (23, 25, 27, 29, 31 and 33 °C) for at least 6 weeks. We compared the relative importance of acclimation temperature to changes in upper critical thermal limits, aerobic metabolic scope and thermal preference. While acclimation temperature positively affected the upper critical thermal limit, neither aerobic metabolic scope nor thermal preference exhibited such plasticity. Importantly, when given the choice to stay in a habitat reflecting their acclimation temperatures or relocate, fish acclimated to end-of-century predicted temperatures (i.e. 31 or 33 °C) preferentially sought out cooler temperatures, those equivalent to long-term summer averages in their natural habitats (~29 °C). This was also the temperature providing the greatest aerobic metabolic scope and body condition across all treatments. Consequently, acclimation can confer plasticity in some performance traits, but may be an unreliable indicator of the ultimate survival and distribution of mobile stenothermal species under global warming. Conversely, thermal preference can arise long before, and remain long after, the harmful effects of elevated

  10. Adaptive divergence between lake and stream populations of an East African cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Theis, Anya; Ronco, Fabrizia; Indermaur, Adrian; Salzburger, Walter; Egger, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Divergent natural selection acting in different habitats may build up barriers to gene flow and initiate speciation. This speciation continuum can range from weak or no divergence to strong genetic differentiation between populations. Here, we focus on the early phases of adaptive divergence in the East African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, which occurs in both Lake Tanganyika (LT) and inflowing rivers. We first assessed the population structure and morphological differences in A. burtoni from southern LT. We then focused on four lake-stream systems and quantified body shape, ecologically relevant traits (gill raker and lower pharyngeal jaw) as well as stomach contents. Our study revealed the presence of several divergent lake-stream populations that rest at different stages of the speciation continuum, but show the same morphological and ecological trajectories along the lake-stream gradient. Lake fish have higher bodies, a more superior mouth position, longer gill rakers and more slender pharyngeal jaws, and they show a plant/algae and zooplankton-biased diet, whereas stream fish feed more on snails, insects and plant seeds. A test for reproductive isolation between closely related lake and stream populations did not detect population-assortative mating. Analyses of F1 offspring reared under common garden conditions indicate that the detected differences in body shape and gill raker length do not constitute pure plastic responses to different environmental conditions, but also have a genetic basis. Taken together, the A. burtoni lake-stream system constitutes a new model to study the factors that enhance and constrain progress towards speciation in cichlid fishes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Neurovestibular adaptation in the utricular otolith in fish to hypergravity exposure and re-adaptation to 1G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, R.; Popova, Ye.; Varelas, J.; Mofrad, A.

    The inner ear utricular organ senses the sum of inertial force due to head translation and head tilt relative to the gravitational vertical. A change in gravitational force has a profound effect on how an organism maintains equilibrium, and the neural response might involve the peripheral otolith receptors, the brain or both. If the influence of G leads to adaptation and subsequent re-adaptation processes in otolith function upon return to 1G, then this raises fundamental questions: does the transfer from 1G to 3G impart the opposite effects on changes of synaptic structure and gravitational sensitivity seen following G exposure? Do the effects accompanying transfer from the 3G to the 1G conditions resemble in part (as an analog) the transfer from 1G to the G? The use of well-controlled hyper-G experiments allows us to address these questions. Adult fish were placed in groups and exposed to 3G for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 16, 24, and 32 days. Re-adaptation to 1G was studied in 3G exposure (4-and 16-day) following 1-8 day of recovery. Typically ∼60 afferents are well characterized in each fish. Directional sensitivity of each afferent defined as the vector with the magnitude measured in unit gain (imp/s/g) is determined. It allows us to consider the diagram of directional sensitivity of the whole macula. For quantitative estimates of the change of afferent sensitivity in hyper-G experiments two functions have been introduced: probability function (maximum sensitivity of each afferent is plotted as a percentage of population sensitivity whose values is less than the individual sensitivity) and the frequency function (or probability density function-PDF) of the population of afferents on the gain. These functions enable us to extract additional information about the details of evolution of gain-afferent distribution. Results to date show a biphasic pattern in reaction to 3G exposures: an initial sensitivity up-regulation (3-and 4-day) followed by a significant decrease

  12. Tracking adaptive evolution in the structure, function and molecular phylogeny of haemoglobin in non-Antarctic notothenioid fish species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, Cinzia; Parisi, Elio; di Prisco, Guido

    2006-04-01

    With the notable exception of Antarctic icefishes, haemoglobin (Hb) is present in all vertebrates. In polar fish, Hb evolution has included adaptations with implications at the biochemical, physiological and molecular levels. Cold adaptation has been shown to be also linked to small changes in primary structure and post-translational modifications in proteins, including hydrophobic remodelling and increased flexibility. A wealth of knowledge is available on the oxygen-transport system of fish inhabiting Antarctic waters, but very little is known on the structure and function of Hb of non-Antarctic notothenioid fishes. The comparison of the biochemical and physiological adaptations between cold-adapted and non-cold-adapted species is a powerful tool to understand whether (and to what extent) extreme environments require specific adaptations or simply select for phenotypically different life styles. This study focuses on structure, function and molecular phylogeny of Hb in Antarctic and non-Antarctic notothenioid fishes. The rationale is to use the primary structure of Hb as tool of choice to gain insight into the pathways of the evolution history of α and β globins of notothenioids and also as a basis for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships among Antarctic and non-Antarctic species.

  13. Whole genome sequencing of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus; Pleuronectiformes): a fish adapted to demersal life

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, Antonio; Robledo, Diego; Corvelo, André; Hermida, Miguel; Pereiro, Patricia; Rubiolo, Juan A.; Gómez-Garrido, Jèssica; Carreté, Laia; Bello, Xabier; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo Glynne; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Galán, Beatriz; García, José Luis; Abal-Fabeiro, José Luis; Pardo, Belen G.; Taboada, Xoana; Fernández, Carlos; Vlasova, Anna; Hermoso-Pulido, Antonio; Guigó, Roderic; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Viñas, Ana; Maside, Xulio; Gabaldón, Toni; Novoa, Beatriz; Bouza, Carmen; Alioto, Tyler; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-01-01

    The turbot is a flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) with increasing commercial value, which has prompted active genomic research aimed at more efficient selection. Here we present the sequence and annotation of the turbot genome, which represents a milestone for both boosting breeding programmes and ascertaining the origin and diversification of flatfish. We compare the turbot genome with model fish genomes to investigate teleost chromosome evolution. We observe a conserved macrosyntenic pattern within Percomorpha and identify large syntenic blocks within the turbot genome related to the teleost genome duplication. We identify gene family expansions and positive selection of genes associated with vision and metabolism of membrane lipids, which suggests adaptation to demersal lifestyle and to cold temperatures, respectively. Our data indicate a quick evolution and diversification of flatfish to adapt to benthic life and provide clues for understanding their controversial origin. Moreover, we investigate the genomic architecture of growth, sex determination and disease resistance, key traits for understanding local adaptation and boosting turbot production, by mapping candidate genes and previously reported quantitative trait loci. The genomic architecture of these productive traits has allowed the identification of candidate genes and enriched pathways that may represent useful information for future marker-assisted selection in turbot. PMID:26951068

  14. Whole genome sequencing of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus; Pleuronectiformes): a fish adapted to demersal life.

    PubMed

    Figueras, Antonio; Robledo, Diego; Corvelo, André; Hermida, Miguel; Pereiro, Patricia; Rubiolo, Juan A; Gómez-Garrido, Jèssica; Carreté, Laia; Bello, Xabier; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo Glynne; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Forn-Cuní, Gabriel; Galán, Beatriz; García, José Luis; Abal-Fabeiro, José Luis; Pardo, Belen G; Taboada, Xoana; Fernández, Carlos; Vlasova, Anna; Hermoso-Pulido, Antonio; Guigó, Roderic; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Viñas, Ana; Maside, Xulio; Gabaldón, Toni; Novoa, Beatriz; Bouza, Carmen; Alioto, Tyler; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-06-01

    The turbot is a flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) with increasing commercial value, which has prompted active genomic research aimed at more efficient selection. Here we present the sequence and annotation of the turbot genome, which represents a milestone for both boosting breeding programmes and ascertaining the origin and diversification of flatfish. We compare the turbot genome with model fish genomes to investigate teleost chromosome evolution. We observe a conserved macrosyntenic pattern within Percomorpha and identify large syntenic blocks within the turbot genome related to the teleost genome duplication. We identify gene family expansions and positive selection of genes associated with vision and metabolism of membrane lipids, which suggests adaptation to demersal lifestyle and to cold temperatures, respectively. Our data indicate a quick evolution and diversification of flatfish to adapt to benthic life and provide clues for understanding their controversial origin. Moreover, we investigate the genomic architecture of growth, sex determination and disease resistance, key traits for understanding local adaptation and boosting turbot production, by mapping candidate genes and previously reported quantitative trait loci. The genomic architecture of these productive traits has allowed the identification of candidate genes and enriched pathways that may represent useful information for future marker-assisted selection in turbot. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  15. Niche divergence facilitated by fine‐scale ecological partitioning in a recent cichlid fish adaptive radiation

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Antonia G. P.; Rüber, Lukas; Newton, Jason; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Balarin, John D.; Bruun, Kristoffer; Day, Julia J.

    2016-01-01

    Ecomorphological differentiation is a key feature of adaptive radiations, with a general trend for specialization and niche expansion following divergence. Ecological opportunity afforded by invasion of a new habitat is thought to act as an ecological release, facilitating divergence, and speciation. Here, we investigate trophic adaptive morphology and ecology of an endemic clade of oreochromine cichlid fishes (Alcolapia) that radiated along a herbivorous trophic axis following colonization of an isolated lacustrine environment, and demonstrate phenotype‐environment correlation. Ecological and morphological divergence of the Alcolapia species flock are examined in a phylogenomic context, to infer ecological niche occupation within the radiation. Species divergence is observed in both ecology and morphology, supporting the importance of ecological speciation within the radiation. Comparison with an outgroup taxon reveals large‐scale ecomorphological divergence but shallow genomic differentiation within the Alcolapia adaptive radiation. Ancestral morphological reconstruction suggests lake colonization by a generalist oreochromine phenotype that diverged in Lake Natron to varied herbivorous morphologies akin to specialist herbivores in Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi. PMID:27659769

  16. Population genomic tests of models of adaptive radiation in Lake Victoria region cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Bezault, Etienne; Mwaiko, Salome; Seehausen, Ole

    2011-12-01

    Adaptive radiation is usually thought to be associated with speciation, but the evolution of intraspecific polymorphisms without speciation is also possible. The radiation of cichlid fish in Lake Victoria (LV) is perhaps the most impressive example of a recent rapid adaptive radiation, with 600+ very young species. Key questions about its origin remain poorly characterized, such as the importance of speciation versus polymorphism, whether species persist on evolutionary time scales, and if speciation happens more commonly in small isolated or in large connected populations. We used 320 individuals from 105 putative species from Lakes Victoria, Edward, Kivu, Albert, Nabugabo and Saka, in a radiation-wide amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genome scan to address some of these questions. We demonstrate pervasive signatures of speciation supporting the classical model of adaptive radiation associated with speciation. A positive relationship between the age of lakes and the average genomic differentiation of their species, and a significant fraction of molecular variance explained by above-species level taxonomy suggest the persistence of species on evolutionary time scales, with radiation through sequential speciation rather than a single starburst. Finally the large gene diversity retained from colonization to individual species in every radiation suggests large effective population sizes and makes speciation in small geographical isolates unlikely.

  17. Expression of a cold-adapted fish trypsin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Macouzet, Martin; Simpson, Benjamin K; Lee, Byong H

    2005-06-01

    Trypsin is a highly valuable protease that has many industrial and biomedical applications. The growing demand for non-animal sources of the enzyme and for trypsins with special properties has driven the interest to clone and express this protease in microorganisms. Reports about expression of recombinant trypsins show wide differences in the degree of success and are contained mainly in patent applications, which disregard the difficulties associated with the developments. Although the yeast Pichia pastoris appears to be the microbial host with the greatest potential for the production of trypsin, it has shown problems when expressing cold-adapted fish trypsins (CAFTs). CAFTs are considered of immense value for their comparative advantage over other trypsins in a number of food-processing and biotechnological applications. Thus, to investigate potential obstacles related to the production of CAFTs in P. pastoris, the cunner fish trypsin (CFT) was cloned in different Pichia expression vectors. The vectors were constructed targeting both internal and secreted expression and keeping the CFT native signal peptide. Western-blotting analysis confirmed the expression with evident differences for each construct, observing a major effect of the leader peptide sequence on the expression patterns. Immobilized nickel affinity chromatography yielded a partially purified recombinant CFT, which exhibited trypsin-specific activity after activation with bovine enterokinase.

  18. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Six Catfish Species from an Altitude Gradient Reveals Adaptive Evolution in Tibetan Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiuhui; Dai, Wei; Kang, Jingliang; Yang, Liandong; He, Shunping

    2015-01-01

    Glyptosternoid fishes (Siluriformes), one of the three broad fish lineages (the two other are schizothoracines and Triplophysa), have a limited distribution in the rivers in the Tibetan Plateau and peripheral regions. To investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying adaptation to the Tibetan Plateau in several fish species from gradient altitudes, a total of 20,659,183–37,166,756 sequence reads from six species of catfish were generated by Illumina sequencing, resulting in six assemblies. Analysis of the 1,656 orthologs among the six assembled catfish unigene sets provided consistent evidence for genome-wide accelerated evolution in the three glyptosternoid lineages living at high altitudes. A large number of genes refer to functional categories related to hypoxia and energy metabolism exhibited rapid evolution in the glyptosternoid lineages relative to yellowhead catfish living in plains areas. Genes showing signatures of rapid evolution and positive selection in the glyptosternoid lineages were also enriched in functions associated with energy metabolism and hypoxia. Our analyses provide novel insights into highland adaptation in fishes and can serve as a foundation for future studies aiming to identify candidate genes underlying the genetic basis of adaptation in Tibetan fishes. PMID:26564948

  19. Adaption of egg and larvae sampling techniques for lake sturgeon and broadcast spawning fishes in a deep river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Craig, Jaquelyn; Boase, James; Soper, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In this report we describe how we adapted two techniques for sampling lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and other fish early life history stages to meet our research needs in the Detroit River, a deep, flowing Great Lakes connecting channel. First, we developed a buoy-less method for sampling fish eggs and spawning activity using egg mats deployed on the river bottom. The buoy-less method allowed us to fish gear in areas frequented by boaters and recreational anglers, thus eliminating surface obstructions that interfered with recreational and boating activities. The buoy-less method also reduced gear loss due to drift when masses of floating aquatic vegetation would accumulate on buoys and lines, increasing the drag on the gear and pulling it downstream. Second, we adapted a D-frame drift net system formerly employed in shallow streams to assess larval lake sturgeon dispersal for use in the deeper (>8 m) Detroit River using an anchor and buoy system.

  20. Parallel ecological diversification in Antarctic notothenioid fishes as evidence for adaptive radiation.

    PubMed

    Rutschmann, Sereina; Matschiner, Michael; Damerau, Malte; Muschick, Moritz; Lehmann, Moritz F; Hanel, Reinhold; Salzburger, Walter

    2011-11-01

    Antarctic notothenioid fishes represent a rare example of a marine species flock. They evolved special adaptations to the extreme environment of the Southern Ocean including antifreeze glycoproteins. Although lacking a swim bladder, notothenioids have diversified from their benthic ancestor into a wide array of water column niches, such as epibenthic, semipelagic, cryopelagic and pelagic habitats. Applying stable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope analyses to gain information on feeding ecology and foraging habitats, we tested whether ecological diversification along the benthic-pelagic axis followed a single directional trend in notothenioids, or whether it evolved independently in several lineages. Population samples of 25 different notothenioid species were collected around the Antarctic Peninsula, the South Orkneys and the South Sandwich Islands. The C and N stable isotope signatures span a broad range (mean δ(13) C and δ(15) N values between -25.4‰ and -21.9‰ and between 8.5‰ and 13.8‰, respectively), and pairwise niche overlap between four notothenioid families was highly significant. Analysis of isotopic disparity-through-time on the basis of Bayesian inference and maximum-likelihood phylogenies, performed on a concatenated mitochondrial (cyt b) and nuclear gene (myh6, Ptr and tbr1) data set (3148 bp), showed that ecological diversification into overlapping feeding niches has occurred multiple times in parallel in different notothenioid families. This convergent diversification in habitat and trophic ecology is a sign of interspecific competition and characteristic for adaptive radiations.

  1. Rapid and parallel adaptive evolution of the visual system of Neotropical Midas cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Pierotti, Michele E R; Härer, Andreas; Karagic, Nidal; Woltering, Joost M; Henning, Frederico; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2017-04-21

    Midas cichlid fish are a Central American species flock containing 13 described species that has been dated to only few thousand years old, a historical timescale infrequently associated with speciation. Their radiation involved the colonization of several clear water crater lakes from two turbid great lakes. Therefore, Midas cichlids have been subjected to widely varying photic conditions during their radiation. Being a primary signal relay for information from the environment to the organism, the visual system is under continuing selective pressure and a prime organ system for accumulating adaptive changes during speciation, particularly in the case of dramatic shifts in photic conditions. Here, we characterize the full visual system of Midas cichlids at organismal and genetic levels, to determine what types of adaptive changes evolved within the short time span of their radiation. We show that Midas cichlids have a diverse visual system with unexpectedly high intra- and interspecific variation in color vision sensitivity and lens transmittance. Midas cichlid populations in the clear crater lakes have convergently evolved visual sensitivities shifted towards shorter wavelengths compared to the ancestral populations from the turbid great lakes. This divergence in sensitivity is driven by changes in chromophore usage, differential opsin expression, opsin coexpression, and to a lesser degree by opsin coding sequence variation. The visual system of Midas cichlids has the evolutionary capacity to rapidly integrate multiple adaptations to changing light environments. Our data may indicate that, in early stages of divergence, changes in opsin regulation could precede changes in opsin coding sequence evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. On the maintenance of genetic variation and adaptation to environmental change: considerations from population genomics in fishes.

    PubMed

    Bernatchez, L

    2016-12-01

    The first goal of this paper was to overview modern approaches to local adaptation, with a focus on the use of population genomics data to detect signals of natural selection in fishes. Several mechanisms are discussed that may enhance the maintenance of genetic variation and evolutionary potential, which have been overlooked and should be considered in future theoretical development and predictive models: the prevalence of soft sweeps, polygenic basis of adaptation, balancing selection and transient polymorphisms, parallel evolution, as well as epigenetic variation. Research on fish population genomics has provided ample evidence for local adaptation at the genome level. Pervasive adaptive evolution, however, seems to almost never involve the fixation of beneficial alleles. Instead, adaptation apparently proceeds most commonly by soft sweeps entailing shifts in frequencies of alleles being shared between differentially adapted populations. One obvious factor contributing to the maintenance of standing genetic variation in the face of selective pressures is that adaptive phenotypic traits are most often highly polygenic, and consequently the response to selection should derive mostly from allelic co-variances among causative loci rather than pronounced allele frequency changes. Balancing selection in its various forms may also play an important role in maintaining adaptive genetic variation and the evolutionary potential of species to cope with environmental change. A large body of literature on fishes also shows that repeated evolution of adaptive phenotypes is a ubiquitous evolutionary phenomenon that seems to occur most often via different genetic solutions, further adding to the potential options of species to cope with a changing environment. Moreover, a paradox is emerging from recent fish studies whereby populations of highly reduced effective population sizes and impoverished genetic diversity can apparently retain their adaptive potential in some

  3. Predominant processing adaptability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains isolated from Chinese traditional low-salt fermented whole fish.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xuefeng; He, Laping; Guo, Xu; Deng, Li; Yang, Wangen; Zhu, Qiujin; Duan, Zhenhua

    2017-02-02

    This study aimed to determine the predominant processing adaptability of 27 selected isolates of Staphylococcus xylosus in 'Suan yu', a traditional Chinese low-salt fermented whole-fish product. The isolates were screened for proteolytic, lipolytic, and enzymatic profiles; amino-acid decarboxylase content; antimicrobial activities; and tolerance to low temperatures, pH5.0, and salt. Two S. xylosus strains grew at 10°C in the presence of 10% NaCl and at pH5.0. Agar-plate assays and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that 21 and 8 of the strains exhibited appropriate proteolytic activities against myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins, respectively. All S. xylosus strains also displayed different enzymatic profiles, and most strains showed negative decarboxylase activities. The results of this step were used as input data for a Principal Component Analysis; therefore, the most technologically relevant strain 3 and 8 were combined with L. plantarum 120 as MS1 and MS2, respectively, were further selected for the fermented fish surimi, and the fish surimi inoculated with mixed starter cultures (MS1, MS2) scored high for overall acceptability. Free amino acid contents of 1757 and 1765mg/100g sample were found in fish surimi inoculated with MS1 and MS2, respectively, after 72h of fermentation. Therefore, Sx-3 and Sx-8, which presented the best predominant processing adaptability, is an eligible starter culture for fermented fish production.

  4. Evaluating Adaptive Divergence Between Migratory and Nonmigratory Ecotypes of a Salmonid Fish, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Matthew C.; Thrower, Frank P.; Berntson, Ewann A.; Miller, Michael R.; Nichols, Krista M.

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing and the application of population genomic and association approaches have made it possible to detect selection and unravel the genetic basis to variable phenotypic traits. The use of these two approaches in parallel is especially attractive in nonmodel organisms that lack a sequenced and annotated genome, but only works well when population structure is not confounded with the phenotype of interest. Herein, we use population genomics in a nonmodel fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), to better understand adaptive divergence between migratory and nonmigratory ecotypes and to further our understanding about the genetic basis of migration. Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) tag sequencing was used to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in migrant and resident O. mykiss from two systems, one in Alaska and the other in Oregon. A total of 7920 and 6755 SNPs met filtering criteria in the Alaska and Oregon data sets, respectively. Population genetic tests determined that 1423 SNPs were candidates for selection when loci were compared between resident and migrant samples. Previous linkage mapping studies that used RAD DNA tag SNPs were available to determine the position of 1990 markers. Several significant SNPs are located in genome regions that contain quantitative trait loci for migratory-related traits, reinforcing the importance of these regions in the genetic basis of migration/residency. Annotation of genome regions linked to significant SNPs revealed genes involved in processes known to be important in migration (such as osmoregulatory function). This study adds to our growing knowledge on adaptive divergence between migratory and nonmigratory ecotypes of this species; across studies, this complex trait appears to be controlled by many loci of small effect, with some in common, but many loci not shared between populations studied. PMID:23797103

  5. Neuro- and sensoriphysiological Adaptations to Microgravity using Fish as Model System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anken, R.

    The phylogenetic development of all organisms took place under constant gravity conditions, against which they achieved specific countermeasures for compensation and adaptation. On this background, it is still an open question to which extent altered gravity such as hyper- or microgravity (centrifuge/spaceflight) affects the normal individual development, either on the systemic level of the whole organism or on the level of individual organs or even single cells. The present review provides information on this topic, focusing on the effects of altered gravity on developing fish as model systems even for higher vertebrates including humans, with special emphasis on the effect of altered gravity on behaviour and particularly on the developing brain and vestibular system. Overall, the results speak in favour of the following concept: Short-term altered gravity (˜ 1 day) can induce transient sensorimotor disorders (kinetoses) due to malfunctions of the inner ear, originating from asymmetric otoliths. The regain of normal postural control is likely due to a reweighing of sensory inputs. During long-term altered gravity (several days and more), complex adptations on the level of the central and peripheral vestibular system occur. This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) e.V. (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  6. Osmoregulatory adaptations of freshwater air-breathing snakehead fish (Channa striata) after exposure to brackish water.

    PubMed

    Nakkrasae, La-iad; Wisetdee, Khanitha; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2015-07-01

    NaCl-rich rock salt dissolved in natural water source leads to salinity fluctuation that profoundly affects freshwater ecosystem and aquatic fauna. The snakehead (Channa striata) can live in saline water, but the osmoregulatory mechanisms underlying this ability remain unclear. Herein, we found that exposure to salinities ≥ 10‰ NaCl markedly elevated plasma cortisol and glucose levels, and caused muscle dehydration. In a study of time-dependent response after being transferred from fresh water (0‰ NaCl, FW) to salt-dissolved brackish water (10‰ NaCl, SW), FW-SW, cortisol increased rapidly along with elevations of plasma glucose and lactate. Interestingly, plasma cortisol returned to baseline after prolonged exposure, followed by a second peak that probably enhanced the branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Under SW-FW condition, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was not altered as compared to SW-adapted fish. In conclusion, salinity change, especially FW-SW, induced a stress response and hence cortisol release in C. striata, which might increase plasma glucose and lactate to energize the branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.

  7. Taurine Biosynthesis in a Fish Liver Cell Line (ZFL) Adapted to a Serum-Free Medium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chieh-Lun; Watson, Aaron M; Place, Allen R; Jagus, Rosemary

    2017-05-25

    Although taurine has been shown to play multiple important physiological roles in teleosts, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying dietary requirements. Cell lines can provide useful tools for deciphering biosynthetic pathways and their regulation. However, culture media and sera contain variable taurine levels. To provide a useful cell line for the investigation of taurine homeostasis, an adult zebrafish liver cell line (ZFL) has been adapted to a taurine-free medium by gradual accommodation to a commercially available synthetic medium, UltraMEM™-ITES. Here we show that ZFL cells are able to synthesize taurine and be maintained in medium without taurine. This has allowed for the investigation of the effects of taurine supplementation on cell growth, cellular amino acid pools, as well as the expression of the taurine biosynthetic pathway and taurine transporter genes in a defined fish cell type. After taurine supplementation, cellular taurine levels increase but hypotaurine levels stay constant, suggesting little suppression of taurine biosynthesis. Cellular methionine levels do not change after taurine addition, consistent with maintenance of taurine biosynthesis. The addition of taurine to cells grown in taurine-free medium has little effect on transcript levels of the biosynthetic pathway genes for cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSAD), or cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO). In contrast, supplementation with taurine causes a 30% reduction in transcript levels of the taurine transporter, TauT. This experimental approach can be tailored for the development of cell lines from aquaculture species for the elucidation of their taurine biosynthetic capacity.

  8. Convergence of gut microbiotas in the adaptive radiations of African cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Laura; Pretus, Joan Lluís; Riera, Joan Lluís; Musilova, Zuzana; Bitja Nyom, Arnold Roger; Salzburger, Walter

    2017-09-01

    Ecoevolutionary dynamics of the gut microbiota at the macroscale level, that is, in across-species comparisons, are largely driven by ecological variables and host genotype. The repeated explosive radiations of African cichlid fishes in distinct lakes, following a dietary diversification in a context of reduced genetic diversity, provide a natural setup to explore convergence, divergence and repeatability in patterns of microbiota dynamics as a function of the host diet, phylogeny and environment. Here we characterized by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing the gut microbiota of 29 cichlid species from two distinct lakes/radiations (Tanganyika and Barombi Mbo) and across a broad dietary and phylogenetic range. Within each lake, a significant deviation between a carnivorous and herbivorous lifestyle was found. Herbivore species were characterized by an increased bacterial taxonomic and functional diversity and converged in key compositional and functional community aspects. Despite a significant lake effect on the microbiota structure, this process has occurred with remarkable parallels in the two lakes. A metabolic signature most likely explains this trend, as indicated by a significant enrichment in herbivores/omnivores of bacterial taxa and functions associated with fiber degradation and detoxification of plant chemical compounds. Overall, compositional and functional aspects of the gut microbiota individually and altogether validate and predict main cichlid dietary habits, suggesting a fundamental role of gut bacteria in cichlid niche expansion and adaptation.

  9. Antarctic Fishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  10. Antarctic Fishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  11. [THE ROLE OF FOOD OBJECTS AND ENTERAL MICROBIOTA PROTEASES IN NUTRITIVE AND TEMPERATURE ADAPTATIONS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM IN FISH].

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, V V

    2015-01-01

    The review presents data on the activity and some temperature characteristics of proteases in the potential food objects of fishes and some enteral microbiota representatives that provide induced autolysis and symbiotic digestion. It is shown that during the active feeding period the total protease activity in the prey tissues exceeds the total protease activity in the fish gastric mucosa by 5-10 times. At low temperature, the relative activity of the prey tissue lysosomal hydrolases (20-35%) and the enteral microbiota enzymes (up to 45%) may exceed that of proteases synthesized by the hepatopancreas and functioning in the consumers' intestinal mucosa (less than 10% maximal activity). The data presented indicate the important role of proteases of food objects and enteral microbiota in nutritive adaptations of the fish digestive system.

  12. A unique mode of tissue oxygenation and the adaptive radiation of teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Randall, D J; Rummer, J L; Wilson, J M; Wang, S; Brauner, C J

    2014-04-15

    for CO2 hydration/dehydration. Finally, RBC organophosphates (e.g. NTP) could be reduced during hypoxia to further increase Hb-O2 affinity without compromising tissue O2 delivery because high-affinity Hbs could still adequately deliver O2 to the tissues via Bohr/Root shifts. We suggest that the evolution of this unique mode of tissue O2 transfer evolved in the Triassic/Jurassic Period, when O2 levels were low, ultimately giving rise to the most extensive adaptive radiation of extant vertebrates, the teleost fishes.

  13. Experimental evidence for trait utility of gill raker number in adaptive radiation of a north temperate fish.

    PubMed

    Roesch, C; Lundsgaard-Hansen, B; Vonlanthen, P; Taverna, A; Seehausen, O

    2013-07-01

    North temperate fish in post-glacial lakes are textbook examples for rapid parallel adaptive radiation into multiple trophic specialists within individual lakes. Speciation repeatedly proceeded along the benthic-limnetic habitat axis, and benthic-limnetic sister species diverge in the number of gill rakers. Yet, the utility of different numbers of gill rakers for consuming benthic vs. limnetic food has only very rarely been experimentally demonstrated. We bred and raised families of a benthic-limnetic species pair of whitefish under common garden conditions to test whether these species (i) show heritable differentiation in feeding efficiency on zooplankton, and (ii) whether variation in feeding efficiency is predicted by variation in gill raker numbers. We used zooplankton of three different size classes to investigate prey size dependency of divergence in feeding efficiency and to investigate the effect strength of variation in the number of gill rakers. Our results show strong interspecific differences in feeding efficiency. These differences are largest when fish were tested with the smallest zooplankton. Importantly, feeding efficiency is significantly positively correlated with the number of gill rakers when using small zooplankton, also when species identity is statistically controlled for. Our results support the hypothesis that a larger number of gill rakers are of adaptive significance for feeding on zooplankton and provide one of the first experimental demonstrations of trait utility of gill raker number when fish feed on zooplankton. These results are consistent with the suggested importance of divergent selection driven feeding adaptation during adaptive radiation of fish in post-glacial lakes.

  14. Structural and functional diversity of the lectin repertoire in teleost fish: Relevance to innate and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vasta, Gerardo R.; Nita-Lazar, Mihai; Giomarelli, Barbara; Ahmed, Hafiz; Du, Shaojun; Cammarata, Matteo; Parrinello, Nicolò; Bianchet, Mario A.; Amzel, L. Mario

    2012-01-01

    Protein–carbohydrate interactions mediated by lectins have been recognized as key components of innate immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates, not only for recognition of potential pathogens, but also for participating in downstream effector functions, such as their agglutination, immobilization, and complement-mediated opsonization and killing. More recently, lectins have been identified as critical regulators of mammalian adaptive immune responses. Fish are endowed with virtually all components of the mammalian adaptive immunity, and are equipped with a complex lectin repertoire. In this review, we discuss evidence suggesting that: (a) lectin repertoires in teleost fish are highly diversified, and include not only representatives of the lectin families described in mammals, but also members of lectin families described for the first time in fish species; (b) the tissue-specific expression and localization of the diverse lectin repertoires and their molecular partners is consistent with their distinct biological roles in innate and adaptive immunity; (c) although some lectins may bind endogenous ligands, others bind sugars on the surface of potential pathogens; (d) in addition to pathogen recognition and opsonization, some lectins display additional effector roles, such as complement activation and regulation of immune functions; (e) some lectins that recognize exogenous ligands mediate processes unrelated to immunity: they may act as anti-freeze proteins or prevent polyspermia during fertilization. PMID:21896283

  15. Adaptive responses to osmotic stress in kidney-derived cell lines from Scatophagus argus, a euryhaline fish.

    PubMed

    Gui, Lang; Zhang, Peipei; Liang, Xuemei; Su, Maoliang; Wu, Di; Zhang, Junbin

    2016-06-01

    The euryhaline fish, the spotted scat (Scatophagus argus), is exceptional for its ability to tolerate rapid fluctuations in salinity. To better understand fish osmoregulation and enable more precise analyses of specific features of adaptive responses to the osmotic stress in fish, a S. argus kidney-derived cell line (SK) was developed and subcultured for more than 70 passages. The cells were mostly fibroblast-like, with a normal diploid karyotype (2n=48). A low-osmolarity-adapted SK cell line (SK-la) was induced by growth in a hypotonic solution (150 mOsm). Effects of different osmotic stresses (150, 300 and 450 mOsm) on cell growth, cell morphology, cell volume changes and cell damage in SK, SK-la and CIK (a kidney-derived cell line from freshwater grass carp) cells were studied. These were compared by use of microscopic observation, flow cytometry and a Na-K-ATPase (NKA) assay. SK cells became smaller and grew rapidly in response to hypotonic stress (150 mOsm), and exhibited no visible morphological changes in response to hypertonic stress (450 mOsm). SK-la grew well by moderate hypertonicity (300 mOsm) but depressed in severe hypertonicity (450 mOsm), the number of unhealthy SK-la cells rose as osmolarity increased. In contrast, CIK cells became unhealthy with anisotonic challenge. The NKA activities of SK and CIK cells were assayed after exposure to anisotonic conditions, and rapid decreases were detected immediately except SK cells which were not affected in hypotonicity. Unlike in SK and CIK, an increase following a down-regulation of NKA activity was observed in SK-la cells upon moderate hypertonic stress. These results suggested that SK and SK-la cells had stronger osmoregulatory capacity than CIK cells, and provided new insights on the osmosensing and osmotic adaption in euryhaline fish kidney. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaption of egg and larvae sampling techniques for lake sturgeon and broadcast spawning fishes in a deep river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, E.F.; Boase, J.; Kennedy, G.; Craig, J.; Soper, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this report we describe how we adapted two techniques for sampling lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and other fish early life history stages to meet our research needs in the Detroit River, a deep, flowing Great Lakes connecting channel. First, we developed a buoy-less method for sampling fish eggs and spawning activity using egg mats deployed on the river bottom. The buoy-less method allowed us to fish gear in areas frequented by boaters and recreational anglers, thus eliminating surface obstructions that interfered with recreational and boating activities. The buoy-less method also reduced gear loss due to drift when masses of floating aquatic vegetation would accumulate on buoys and lines, increasing the drag on the gear and pulling it downstream. Second, we adapted a D-frame drift net system formerly employed in shallow streams to assess larval lake sturgeon dispersal for use in the deeper (>8m) Detroit River using an anchor and buoy system. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  17. PREDICTING THE OCCURRANCE OF ADAPTATION TO DIOXINLIKE COMPOUNDS IN POPULATIONS OF THE ESTUARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A population of the non-migratory estuarine fish species Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog) indigenous to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated Superfund site (New Bedford Harbor, NBH, MA, USA) demonstrates an inherited tolerance to local, dioxin-like contaminants (DLCs). ...

  18. Microtubule-associated proteins from Antarctic fishes.

    PubMed

    Detrich, H W; Neighbors, B W; Sloboda, R D; Williams, R C

    1990-01-01

    Microtubules and presumptive microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) were isolated from the brain tissues of four Antarctic fishes (Notothenia gibberifrons, N. coriiceps neglecta, Chaenocephalus aceratus, and a Chionodraco sp.) by means of a taxol-dependent, microtubule-affinity procedure (cf. Vallee: Journal of Cell Biology 92:435-442, 1982). MAPs from these fishes were similar to each other in electrophoretic pattern. Prominent in each preparation were proteins in the molecular weight ranges 410,000-430,000, 220,000-280,000, 140,000-155,000, 85,000-95,000, 40,000-45,000, and 32,000-34,000. The surfaces of MAP-rich microtubules were decorated by numerous filamentous projections. Exposure to elevated ionic strength released the MAPs from the microtubules and also removed the filamentous projections. Addition of fish MAPs to subcritical concentrations of fish tubulins at 0-5 degrees C induced the assembly of microtubules. Both the rate and the extent of this assembly increased with increasing concentrations of the MAPs. Sedimentation revealed that approximately six proteins, with apparent molecular weights between 60,000 and 300,000, became incorporated into the microtubule polymer. Bovine MAPs promoted microtubule formation by fish tubulin at 2-5 degrees C, and proteins corresponding to MAPs 1 and 2 co-sedimented with the polymer. MAPs from C. aceratus also enhanced the polymerization of bovine tubulin at 33 degrees C, but the microtubules depolymerized at 0 degrees C. We conclude that MAPs are part of the microtubules of Antarctic fishes, that these proteins promote microtubule assembly in much the same way as mammalian MAPs, and that they do not possess special capacities to promote microtubule assembly at low temperatures or to prevent cold-induced microtubule depolymerization.

  19. Genome Sequencing of the Perciform Fish Larimichthys crocea Provides Insights into Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Stress Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qiong; Zhu, Lv-Yun; Li, Ting; Ding, Yang; Nie, Li; Li, Qiuhua; Dong, Wei-ren; Jiang, Liang; Sun, Bing; Zhang, XinHui; Li, Mingyu; Zhang, Hai-Qi; Xie, ShangBo; Zhu, YaBing; Jiang, XuanTing; Wang, Xianhui; Mu, Pengfei; Chen, Wei; Yue, Zhen; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Jun; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    The large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (L. crocea) is one of the most economically important marine fish in China and East Asian countries. It also exhibits peculiar behavioral and physiological characteristics, especially sensitive to various environmental stresses, such as hypoxia and air exposure. These traits may render L. crocea a good model for investigating the response mechanisms to environmental stress. To understand the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying the adaptation and response of L. crocea to environmental stress, we sequenced and assembled the genome of L. crocea using a bacterial artificial chromosome and whole-genome shotgun hierarchical strategy. The final genome assembly was 679 Mb, with a contig N50 of 63.11 kb and a scaffold N50 of 1.03 Mb, containing 25,401 protein-coding genes. Gene families underlying adaptive behaviours, such as vision-related crystallins, olfactory receptors, and auditory sense-related genes, were significantly expanded in the genome of L. crocea relative to those of other vertebrates. Transcriptome analyses of the hypoxia-exposed L. crocea brain revealed new aspects of neuro-endocrine-immune/metabolism regulatory networks that may help the fish to avoid cerebral inflammatory injury and maintain energy balance under hypoxia. Proteomics data demonstrate that skin mucus of the air-exposed L. crocea had a complex composition, with an unexpectedly high number of proteins (3,209), suggesting its multiple protective mechanisms involved in antioxidant functions, oxygen transport, immune defence, and osmotic and ionic regulation. Our results reveal the molecular and genetic basis of fish adaptation and response to hypoxia and air exposure. The data generated by this study will provide valuable resources for the genetic improvement of stress resistance and yield potential in L. crocea. PMID:25835551

  20. Biochemical adaptations of notothenioid fishes: comparisons between cold temperate South American and New Zealand species and Antarctic species.

    PubMed

    Petricorena, Zulema L Coppes; Somero, George N

    2007-07-01

    Fishes of the perciform suborder Notothenioidei afford an excellent opportunity for studying the evolution and functional importance of diverse types of biochemical adaptation to temperature. Antarctic notothenioids have evolved numerous biochemical adaptations to stably cold waters, including antifreeze glycoproteins, which inhibit growth of ice crystals, and enzymatic proteins with cold-adapted specific activities (k(cat) values) and substrate binding abilities (K(m) values), which support metabolism at low temperatures. Antarctic notothenioids also exhibit the loss of certain biochemical traits that are ubiquitous in other fishes, including the heat-shock response (HSR) and, in members of the family Channichthyidae, hemoglobins and myoglobins. Tolerance of warm temperatures is also truncated in stenothermal Antarctic notothenioids. In contrast to Antarctic notothenioids, notothenioid species found in South American and New Zealand waters have biochemistries more reflective of cold-temperate environments. Some of the contemporary non-Antarctic notothenioids likely derive from ancestral species that evolved in the Antarctic and later "escaped" to lower latitude waters when the Antarctic Polar Front temporarily shifted northward during the late Miocene. Studies of cold-temperate notothenioids may enable the timing of critical events in the evolution of Antarctic notothenioids to be determined, notably the chronology of acquisition and amplification of antifreeze glycoprotein genes and the loss of the HSR. Genomic studies may reveal how the gene regulatory networks involved in acclimation to temperature differ between stenotherms like the Antarctic notothenioids and more eurythermal species like cold-temperate notothenioids. Comparative studies of Antarctic and cold-temperate notothenioids thus have high promise for revealing the mechanisms by which temperature-adaptive biochemical traits are acquired - or through which traits that cease to be of advantage under

  1. Role of peptidases of the intestinal microflora and prey in temperature adaptations of the digestive system in planktivorous and benthivorous fish.

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, V V; Skvortsova, E G; Shalygin, M V; Kovalenko, K E

    2015-12-01

    Many fish enzymatic systems possess limited adaptations to low temperature; however, little data are available to judge whether enzymes of fish prey and intestinal microbiota can mitigate this deficiency. In this study, the activity of serine peptidases (casein-lytic, mainly trypsin and hemoglobin-lytic, mainly chymotrypsin) of intestinal mucosa, chyme and intestinal microflora in four species of planktivorous (blue bream) and benthivorous (roach, crucian carp, perch) was investigated across a wide temperature range (0-70 °C) to identify adaptations to low temperature. At 0 °C, the relative activity of peptidases of intestinal mucosa (<13%) and usually intestinal microflora (5-12.6%) is considerably less than that of chyme peptidases (up to 40% of maximal activity). The level of peptidase relative activity in crucian carp intestinal microflora was 45% of maximal activity. The shape of t°-function curves of chyme peptidase also differs in fish from different biotopes. Fish from the littoral group are characterized by a higher degree of adaptation of chyme casein-lytic peptidases to functioning at low temperatures as compared to fish from the pelagic group. The role of intestinal microbiota and prey peptidases in digestive system adaptations of planktivorous and benthivorous fish to low temperatures is discussed.

  2. Population Structure and Adaptive Divergence in a High Gene Flow Marine Fish: The Small Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing-Jian; Zhang, Bai-Dong; Xue, Dong-Xiu; Gao, Tian-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of genetic diversity has been long considered as a key component of policy development for management and conservation of marine fishes. However, unraveling the population genetic structure of migratory fish species is challenging due to high potential for gene flow. Despite the shallow population differentiation revealed by putatively neutral loci, the higher genetic differentiation with panels of putatively adaptive loci could provide greater resolution for stock identification. Here, patterns of population differentiation of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) were investigated by genotyping 15 highly polymorphic microsatellites in 337 individuals of 15 geographic populations collected from both spawning and overwintering grounds. Outlier analyses indicated that the locus Lpol03 might be under directional selection, which showed a strong homology with Grid2 gene encoding the glutamate receptor δ2 protein (GluRδ2). Based on Lpol03, two distinct clusters were identified by both STRUCTURE and PCoA analyses, suggesting that there were two overwintering aggregations of L. polyactis. A novel migration pattern was suggested for L. polyactis, which was inconsistent with results of previous studies based on historical fishing yield statistics. These results provided new perspectives on the population genetic structure and migratory routes of L. polyactis, which could have significant implications for sustainable management and utilization of this important fishery resource.

  3. Evolutionary Origin of the Scombridae (Tunas and Mackerels): Members of a Paleogene Adaptive Radiation with 14 Other Pelagic Fish Families

    PubMed Central

    Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P.; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G.; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae “Pelagia” in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families. PMID:24023883

  4. Population Structure and Adaptive Divergence in a High Gene Flow Marine Fish: The Small Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis)

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Dong-Xiu; Gao, Tian-Xiang; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of genetic diversity has been long considered as a key component of policy development for management and conservation of marine fishes. However, unraveling the population genetic structure of migratory fish species is challenging due to high potential for gene flow. Despite the shallow population differentiation revealed by putatively neutral loci, the higher genetic differentiation with panels of putatively adaptive loci could provide greater resolution for stock identification. Here, patterns of population differentiation of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) were investigated by genotyping 15 highly polymorphic microsatellites in 337 individuals of 15 geographic populations collected from both spawning and overwintering grounds. Outlier analyses indicated that the locus Lpol03 might be under directional selection, which showed a strong homology with Grid2 gene encoding the glutamate receptor δ2 protein (GluRδ2). Based on Lpol03, two distinct clusters were identified by both STRUCTURE and PCoA analyses, suggesting that there were two overwintering aggregations of L. polyactis. A novel migration pattern was suggested for L. polyactis, which was inconsistent with results of previous studies based on historical fishing yield statistics. These results provided new perspectives on the population genetic structure and migratory routes of L. polyactis, which could have significant implications for sustainable management and utilization of this important fishery resource. PMID:27100462

  5. Evolutionary origin of the Scombridae (tunas and mackerels): members of a paleogene adaptive radiation with 14 other pelagic fish families.

    PubMed

    Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae "Pelagia" in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families.

  6. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary adaptation to toxic pollution in wild fish.

    PubMed

    Reid, Noah M; Proestou, Dina A; Clark, Bryan W; Warren, Wesley C; Colbourne, John K; Shaw, Joseph R; Karchner, Sibel I; Hahn, Mark E; Nacci, Diane; Oleksiak, Marjorie F; Crawford, Douglas L; Whitehead, Andrew

    2016-12-09

    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-based signaling pathway as a shared target of selection. This suggests evolutionary constraint on adaptive solutions to complex toxicant mixtures at each site. However, distinct molecular variants apparently contribute to adaptive pathway modification among tolerant populations. Selection also targets other toxicity-mediating genes and genes of connected signaling pathways; this indicates complex tolerance phenotypes and potentially compensatory adaptations. Molecular changes are consistent with selection on standing genetic variation. In killifish, high nucleotide diversity has likely been a crucial substrate for selective sweeps to propel rapid adaptation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Signatures of polygenic adaptation associated with climate across the range of a threatened fish species with high genetic connectivity.

    PubMed

    Harrisson, K A; Amish, S J; Pavlova, A; Narum, S; Telonis-Scott, M; Rourke, M L; Lyon, J; Tonkin, Z; Gilligan, D M; Ingram, B A; Lintermans, M; Gan, H M; Austin, C M; Luikart, G; Sunnucks, P

    2017-10-04

    Adaptive differences across species' ranges can have important implications for population persistence and conservation management decisions. Despite advances in genomic technologies, detecting adaptive variation in natural populations remains challenging. Key challenges in gene-environment association studies involve distinguishing the effects of drift from those of selection, and identifying subtle signatures of polygenic adaptation. We used paired-end restriction-site associated-DNA sequencing data (6605 biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) to examine population structure and test for signatures of adaptation across the geographic range of an iconic Australian endemic freshwater fish species, the Murray cod Maccullochella peelii. Two univariate gene-association methods identified 61 genomic regions associated with climate variation. We also tested for subtle signatures of polygenic adaptation using a multivariate method (redundancy analysis; RDA). The RDA analysis suggested that climate (temperature- and precipitation-related variables) and geography had similar magnitudes of effect in shaping the distribution of SNP genotypes across the sampled range of Murray cod. Although there was poor agreement among the candidate SNPs identified by the univariate methods, the top 5% of SNPs contributing to significant RDA axes included 67% of the SNPs identified by univariate methods. We discuss the potential implications of our findings for the management of Murray cod and other species generally, particularly in relation to informing conservation actions such as translocations to improve evolutionary resilience of natural populations. Our results highlight the value of using a combination of different approaches, including polygenic methods, when testing for signatures of adaptation in landscape genomics studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Patterns of lake occupancy by fish indicate different adaptations to life in a harsh Arctic environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Trevor B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on these patterns, we propose an overall model of primary controls on the distribution of fish on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Harsh conditions, including lake freezing, limit occupancy in winter through extinction events while lake occupancy in spring and summer is driven by directional migration (large-bodied species) and undirected dispersal (small-bodied species).

  9. Dim light vision--morphological and functional adaptations of the eye of the mormyrid fish, Gnathonemus petersii.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, Meik; von der Emde, Gerhard; Haverkate, Dorothee; Schuster, Stefan; Gentsch, Janina; Ulbricht, Elke; Reichenbach, Andreas; Makarov, Felix; Wagner, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The African weakly electric fish Gnathonemus petersii is well known for its electrosensory capabilities. These animals can detect and distinguish objects through active electrolocation in complete darkness. Because of their nocturnal lifestyle, a low contribution of vision for orientation and object detection has been expected. However, as we show in this review, the retina of G. petersii is highly specialized with hundreds of rods and tens of cones grouped together in bundles in a complex way, ensheathed by a tapetum lucidum. The structure of the bundles goes beyond what would be expected if only photon catch was supposed to be increased. During daytime, the structure of these "macro-receptors" changes dramatically depending on retinomotor movements. During the day, the rods and cones are located in different compartments of the bundle, separated by a narrow canal in the form of a "bottle neck". Investigations on cell structure and neurochemistry in the retina indicate a general organization that is simpler in terms of bipolar and ganglion cell diversity than in tetrachromatic species such as goldfish, yet similar in terms of neurochemical differentiation of amacrine cells. In both respects, the inner retina of the elephantnose fish bears the greatest similarity to catfish and some deep-sea fish retinae. Neuronal circuits and bundle structure give hints of possible adaptations for contrast and/or movement detection. Behavioral experiments suggest that, in contrast to the vision specialists Lepomis gibbosus, pattern detection of G. petersii is not affected by higher spatial frequencies. A pattern of low spatial frequencies, however, was equally well detected by G. petersii and L. gibbosus. Optomotor response experiments indicate that motion vision is important for Gnathonemus, narrowing down the search for the functional specialization of the Gnathonemus retina and providing a starting point for work on multisensory integration in these fish.

  10. Population size, habitat fragmentation, and the nature of adaptive variation in a stream fish.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Dylan J; Debes, Paul V; Bernatchez, Louis; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2014-09-07

    Whether and how habitat fragmentation and population size jointly affect adaptive genetic variation and adaptive population differentiation are largely unexplored. Owing to pronounced genetic drift, small, fragmented populations are thought to exhibit reduced adaptive genetic variation relative to large populations. Yet fragmentation is known to increase variability within and among habitats as population size decreases. Such variability might instead favour the maintenance of adaptive polymorphisms and/or generate more variability in adaptive differentiation at smaller population size. We investigated these alternative hypotheses by analysing coding-gene, single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with different biological functions in fragmented brook trout populations of variable sizes. Putative adaptive differentiation was greater between small and large populations or among small populations than among large populations. These trends were stronger for genetic population size measures than demographic ones and were present despite pronounced drift in small populations. Our results suggest that fragmentation affects natural selection and that the changes elicited in the adaptive genetic composition and differentiation of fragmented populations vary with population size. By generating more variable evolutionary responses, the alteration of selective pressures during habitat fragmentation may affect future population persistence independently of, and perhaps long before, the effects of demographic and genetic stochasticity are manifest. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary adaptation to toxic pollution in wild fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl h...

  12. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary adaptation to toxic pollution in wild fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl h...

  13. Adaptation of the macular vestibuloocular reflex to altered gravitational conditions in a fish (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Horn, E; Sebastian, C

    2002-01-01

    Young fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) were exposed to microgravity (micro g) for 9 to 10 days, or to hypergravity (hg) for 9 days. For several weeks after termination of micro g and hg, the roll-induced static vestibuloocular reflex (rVOR) was recorded. In stage 11/12-fish, the rVOR amplitude (angle between the maximal up and down movement of an eye during a complete 360 degree lateral roll) of micro g-animals increased significantly by 25% compared to 1 g-controls during the first post-flight week but decreased to the control level during the second post-flight week. Microgravity had no effect in stage 14/16 fish on the rVOR amplitude. After 3 g-exposure, the rVOR amplitude was significantly reduced for both groups compared to their 1 g-controls. Readaptation to 1 g-condition was completed during the second post-3 g week. We postulate a critical period during which the development of the macular vestibuloocular reflex depends on gravitational input, and which is limited by the first appearance of the rVOR. At this period of early development, exposure to microgravity sensitizes the vestibular system while hypergravity desensitizes it.

  14. Adaptation of the macular vestibuloocular reflex to altered gravitational conditions in a fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, E.; Sebastian, C.

    Young fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) were exposed to microgravity (μg) for 9 to 10 days, or to hypergravity (hg) for 9 days. For several weeks after termination of μg and hg, the roll-induced static vestibuloocular reflex (rVOR) was recorded. In stage 11/12-fish, the rVOR amplitude (angle between the maximal up and down movement of an eye during a complete 360° lateral roll) of μg-animals increased significantly by 25% compared to 1g-controls during the first post-flight week but decreased to the control level during the second post-flight week. Microgravity had no effect in stage 14/16 fish on the rVOR amplitude. After 3g-exposure, the rVOR amplitude was significantly reduced for both groups compared to their 1g-controls. Readaptation to 1g-condition was completed during the second post-3g week. We postulate a critical period during which the development of the macular vestibuloocular reflex depends on gravitational input, and which is limited by the first appearence of the rVOR. At this period of early development, exposure to microgravity sensitizes the vestibular system while hypergravity desensitizes it.

  15. Assisted protein folding at low temperature: evolutionary adaptation of the Antarctic fish chaperonin CCT and its client proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar, Jorge; Yébenes, Hugo; Parker, Sandra K.; Carranza, Gerardo; Serna, Marina; Valpuesta, José María; Zabala, Juan Carlos; Detrich, H. William

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eukaryotic ectotherms of the Southern Ocean face energetic challenges to protein folding assisted by the cytosolic chaperonin CCT. We hypothesize that CCT and its client proteins (CPs) have co-evolved molecular adaptations that facilitate CCT–CP interaction and the ATP-driven folding cycle at low temperature. To test this hypothesis, we compared the functional and structural properties of CCT–CP systems from testis tissues of an Antarctic fish, Gobionotothen gibberifrons (Lönnberg) (habitat/body T = −1.9 to +2°C), and of the cow (body T = 37°C). We examined the temperature dependence of the binding of denatured CPs (β-actin, β-tubulin) by fish and bovine CCTs, both in homologous and heterologous combinations and at temperatures between −4°C and 20°C, in a buffer conducive to binding of the denatured CP to the open conformation of CCT. In homologous combination, the percentage of G. gibberifrons CCT bound to CP declined linearly with increasing temperature, whereas the converse was true for bovine CCT. Binding of CCT to heterologous CPs was low, irrespective of temperature. When reactions were supplemented with ATP, G. gibberifrons CCT catalyzed the folding and release of actin at 2°C. The ATPase activity of apo-CCT from G. gibberifrons at 4°C was ∼2.5-fold greater than that of apo-bovine CCT, whereas equivalent activities were observed at 20°C. Based on these results, we conclude that the catalytic folding cycle of CCT from Antarctic fishes is partially compensated at their habitat temperature, probably by means of enhanced CP-binding affinity and increased flexibility of the CCT subunits. PMID:24659247

  16. Science questions for implementing climate refugia for cold-water fish as an adaptation strateby

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managing climate refugia has been proposed as a potential adaptation strategy that may be useful for protecting the biotic integrity of watersheds under a changing climate. Paleo-ecological evidence suggests that refugia allowed species to persist through prior periods of climate...

  17. 77 FR 2996 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... natural systems provide, in a changing climate. In addition to this request for written comments, several..., Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy (Strategy). The adverse impacts of climate change... wildlife and society against the effects of climate change. When finalized, this draft Strategy will...

  18. Science questions for implementing climate refugia for cold-water fish as an adaptation strateby

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managing climate refugia has been proposed as a potential adaptation strategy that may be useful for protecting the biotic integrity of watersheds under a changing climate. Paleo-ecological evidence suggests that refugia allowed species to persist through prior periods of climate...

  19. Evolution of opercle shape in cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika - adaptive trait interactions in extant and extinct species flocks

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Laura A. B.; Colombo, Marco; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Phenotype-environment correlations and the evolution of trait interactions in adaptive radiations have been widely studied to gain insight into the dynamics underpinning rapid species diversification. In this study we explore the phenotype-environment correlation and evolution of operculum shape in cichlid fishes using an outline-based geometric morphometric approach combined with stable isotope indicators of macrohabitat and trophic niche. We then apply our method to a sample of extinct saurichthyid fishes, a highly diverse and near globally distributed group of actinopterygians occurring throughout the Triassic, to assess the utility of extant data to inform our understanding of ecomorphological evolution in extinct species flocks. A series of comparative methods were used to analyze shape data for 54 extant species of cichlids (N = 416), and 6 extinct species of saurichthyids (N = 44). Results provide evidence for a relationship between operculum shape and feeding ecology, a concentration in shape evolution towards present along with evidence for convergence in form, and significant correlation between the major axes of shape change and measures of gut length and body elongation. The operculum is one of few features that can be compared in extant and extinct groups, enabling reconstruction of phenotype-environment interactions and modes of evolutionary diversification in deep time. PMID:26584885

  20. Genetic basis for rapidly evolved tolerance in the wild: adaptation to toxic pollutants by an estuarine fish species.

    PubMed

    Nacci, Diane; Proestou, Dina; Champlin, Denise; Martinson, John; Waits, Eric R

    2016-11-01

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) residing in some urban and industrialized estuaries of the US eastern seaboard demonstrate recently evolved and extreme tolerance to toxic aryl hydrocarbon pollutants, characterized as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Here, we provide an unusually comprehensive accounting (69%) through quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of the genetic basis for DLC tolerance in killifish inhabiting an urban estuary contaminated with PCB congeners, the most toxic of which are DLCs. Consistent with mechanistic knowledge of DLC toxicity in fish and other vertebrates, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (ahr2) region accounts for 17% of trait variation; however, QTL on independent linkage groups and their interactions have even greater explanatory power (44%). QTL interpreted within the context of recently available Fundulus genomic resources and shared synteny among fish species suggest adaptation via interacting components of a complex stress response network. Some QTL were also enriched in other killifish populations characterized as DLC-tolerant and residing in distant urban estuaries contaminated with unique mixtures of pollutants. Together, our results suggest that DLC tolerance in killifish represents an emerging example of parallel contemporary evolution that has been driven by intense human-mediated selection on natural populations.

  1. Evolution of opercle shape in cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika - adaptive trait interactions in extant and extinct species flocks.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura A B; Colombo, Marco; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-11-20

    Phenotype-environment correlations and the evolution of trait interactions in adaptive radiations have been widely studied to gain insight into the dynamics underpinning rapid species diversification. In this study we explore the phenotype-environment correlation and evolution of operculum shape in cichlid fishes using an outline-based geometric morphometric approach combined with stable isotope indicators of macrohabitat and trophic niche. We then apply our method to a sample of extinct saurichthyid fishes, a highly diverse and near globally distributed group of actinopterygians occurring throughout the Triassic, to assess the utility of extant data to inform our understanding of ecomorphological evolution in extinct species flocks. A series of comparative methods were used to analyze shape data for 54 extant species of cichlids (N = 416), and 6 extinct species of saurichthyids (N = 44). Results provide evidence for a relationship between operculum shape and feeding ecology, a concentration in shape evolution towards present along with evidence for convergence in form, and significant correlation between the major axes of shape change and measures of gut length and body elongation. The operculum is one of few features that can be compared in extant and extinct groups, enabling reconstruction of phenotype-environment interactions and modes of evolutionary diversification in deep time.

  2. Toxic hydrogen sulfide and dark caves: life-history adaptations in a livebearing fish (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

    2010-05-01

    Life-history traits are very sensitive to extreme environmental conditions, because resources that need to be invested in somatic maintenance cannot be invested in reproduction. Here we examined female life-history traits in the Mexican livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana from a variety of benign surface habitats, a creek with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a sulfidic cave, and a non-sulfidic cave. Previous studies revealed pronounced genetic and morphological divergence over very small geographic scales in this system despite the absence of physical barriers, suggesting that local adaptation to different combinations of two selection factors, toxicity (H2S) and darkness, is accompanied by very low rates of gene flow. Hence, we investigated life-history divergence between these populations in response to the selective pressures of darkness and/or toxicity. Our main results show that toxicity and darkness both select for (or impose constraints on) the same female trait dynamics: reduced fecundity and increased offspring size. Since reduced fecundity in the sulfur cave population was previously shown to be heritable, we discuss how divergent life-history evolution may promote further ecological divergence: for example, reduced fecundity and increased offspring autonomy are clearly beneficial in extreme environments, but fish with these traits are outcompeted in benign habitats.

  3. Structure, function and molecular adaptations of haemoglobins of the polar cartilaginous fish Bathyraja eatonii and Raja hyperborea.

    PubMed

    Verde, Cinzia; De Rosa, M Cristina; Giordano, Daniela; Mosca, Donato; De Pascale, Donatella; Raiola, Luca; Cocca, Ennio; Carratore, Vitale; Giardina, Bruno; Di Prisco, Guido

    2005-07-15

    Cartilaginous fish are very ancient organisms. In the Antarctic sea, the modern chondrichthyan genera are poorly represented, with only three species of sharks and eight species of skates; the paucity of chondrichthyans is probably an ecological consequence of unusual trophic or habitat conditions in the Southern Ocean. In the Arctic, there are 26 species belonging to the class Chondrichthyes. Fish in the two polar regions have been subjected to different regional histories that have influenced the development of diversity: Antarctic marine organisms are highly stenothermal, in response to stable water temperatures, whereas the Arctic communities are exposed to seasonal temperature variations. The structure and function of the oxygen-transport haem protein from the Antarctic skate Bathyraja eatonii and from the Arctic skate Raja hyperborea (both of the subclass Elasmobranchii, order Rajiformes, family Rajidae) is reported in the present paper. These species have a single major haemoglobin (Hb 1; over 80% of the total). The Bohr-proton and the organophosphate-binding sites are absent. Thus the haemoglobins of northern and southern polar skates appear functionally similar, whereas differences were observed with several temperate elasmobranchs. Such evidence suggests that, in temperate and polar habitats, physiological adaptations have evolved along distinct pathways, whereas, in this case, the effect of the differences characterizing the two polar environments is negligible.

  4. Zebra Fish Lacking Adaptive Immunity Acquire an Antiviral Alert State Characterized by Upregulated Gene Expression of Apoptosis, Multigene Families, and Interferon-Related Genes.

    PubMed

    García-Valtanen, Pablo; Martínez-López, Alicia; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Bello-Perez, Melissa; Medina-Gali, Regla M; Ortega-Villaizán, María Del Mar; Varela, Monica; Figueras, Antonio; Mulero, Víctoriano; Novoa, Beatriz; Estepa, Amparo; Coll, Julio

    2017-01-01

    To investigate fish innate immunity, we have conducted organ and cell immune-related transcriptomic as well as immunohistologic analysis in mutant zebra fish (Danio rerio) lacking adaptive immunity (rag1(-/-)) at different developmental stages (egg, larvae, and adult), before and after infection with spring viremia carp virus (SVCV). The results revealed that, compared to immunocompetent zebra fish (rag1(+/+) ), rag1(-/-) acquired increased resistance to SVCV with age, correlating with elevated transcript levels of immune genes in skin/fins and lymphoid organs (head kidney and spleen). Gene sets corresponding to apoptotic functions, immune-related multigene families, and interferon-related genes were constitutively upregulated in uninfected adult rag1(-/-) zebra fish. Overexpression of activated CASPASE-3 in different tissues before and after infection with SVCV further confirmed increased apoptotic function in rag1(-/-) zebra fish. Concurrently, staining of different tissue samples with a pan-leukocyte antibody marker showed abundant leukocyte infiltrations in SVCV-infected rag1(-/-) fish, coinciding with increased transcript expression of genes related to NK-cells and macrophages, suggesting that these genes played a key role in the enhanced immune response of rag1(-/-) zebra fish to SVCV lethal infection. Overall, we present evidence that indicates that rag1(-/-) zebra fish acquire an antiviral alert state while they reach adulthood in the absence of adaptive immunity. This antiviral state was characterized by (i) a more rapid response to viral infection, which resulted in increased survival, (ii) the involvement of NK-cell- and macrophage-mediated transcript responses rather than B- and/or T-cell dependent cells, and (iii) enhanced apoptosis, described here for the first time, as well as the similar modulation of multigene family/interferon-related genes previously associated to fish that survived lethal viral infections. From this and other studies, it might

  5. Biogeographic history and high-elevation adaptations inferred from the mitochondrial genome of Glyptosternoid fishes (Sisoridae, Siluriformes) from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiuhui; Kang, Jingliang; Chen, Weitao; Zhou, Chuanjiang; He, Shunping

    2015-10-28

    The distribution of the Chinese Glyptosternoid catfish is limited to the rivers of the Tibetan Plateau and peripheral regions, especially the drainage areas of southeastern Tibet. Therefore, Glyptosternoid fishes are ideal for reconstructing the geological history of the southeastern Tibet drainage patterns and mitochondrial genetic adaptions to high elevations. Our phylogenetic results support the monophyly of the Sisoridae and the Glyptosternoid fishes. The reconstructed ancestral geographical distribution suggests that the ancestral Glyptosternoids was widely distributed throughout the Brahmaputra drainage in the eastern Himalayas and Tibetan area during the Late Miocene (c. 5.5 Ma). We found that the Glyptosternoid fishes lineage had a higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions than those found in non-Glyptosternoids. In addition, ωpss was estimated to be 10.73, which is significantly higher than 1 (p-value 0.0002), in COX1, which indicates positive selection in the common ancestral branch of Glyptosternoid fishes in China. We also found other signatures of positive selection in the branch of specialized species. These results imply mitochondrial genetic adaptation to high elevations in the Glyptosternoids. We reconstructed a possible scenario for the southeastern Tibetan drainage patterns based on the adaptive geographical distribution of the Chinese Glyptosternoids in this drainage. The Glyptosternoids may have experienced accelerated evolutionary rates in mitochondrial genes that were driven by positive selection to better adapt to the high-elevation environment of the Tibetan Plateau.

  6. Information as Adaptation to a Changing Climate: Managing the Intersection of Forests, Fish, Fire, and Water Resources on Public Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, C.; Morgan, P.; Dwire, K. A.; Isaak, D.; Holden, Z. A.; Rieman, B.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is altering the wildlands of the west, principally through changes in the water cycle. In many places there is and will be less water than there once was, and such water as there is will runoff from mountain snowpacks earlier each year. A drier climate in the western U.S. will promote a greater role of fire and other mortality events for many forests. Consequently, how managers prepare for and respond to events such as fire, or large scale insect outbreaks is becoming more important as the climate changes. Sometimes, these events punctuate gradual changes to ecosystems, and sometimes they generate stepwise changes in ecosystems, making it clear that climate vulnerability assessments should account for disturbance in their calculus. We describe a framework of how fire and climate change work together to affect forest and fish communities. Learning how to adapt will come from testing, probing, and pushing that framework to discover the most robust strategies to increased disturbance risks. The western U.S. defies generalizations, and much learning must necessarily be local in implication. We argue that successful adaptation does not simply constitute setting forest and stream communities on the appropriate path, rather it requires teaching wildland resource managers how to learn quickly and respond insightfully as the events associated climate change unfold.

  7. Adaptive radiation in the Congo River: an ecological speciation scenario for African weakly electric fish (Teleostei; Mormyridae; Campylomormyrus).

    PubMed

    Feulner, Philine G D; Kirschbaum, Frank; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this study is to better understand the diversification of African weakly electric fish in the Congo River. Based on a robust phylogenetic hypothesis we examined the radiation within the mormyrid genus Campylomormyrus. Morphological traits relevant for the divergence between the identified species were detected. Among them, the variation in the shape of the trunk-like elongated snout suggested the presence of different trophic specializations. Furthermore, the chosen model taxon, the genus Campylomormyrus, exhibits a wide diversity of electric organ discharge (EOD) waveforms. A comparison of EOD waveform types and phylogenetic relationships showed major differences in EOD between closely related species. This indicates that the EOD might function as a reproductive isolation mechanism. In conclusion, we provide a plausible scenario of an adaptive radiation triggered by sexual selection and assortative mating based on EOD characteristics, but caused by a divergent selection on the feeding apparatus. These findings point towards an adaptive radiation of at least some Campylomormyrus species occurring in the Lower Congo River.

  8. H2S exposure elicits differential expression of candidate genes in fish adapted to sulfidic and non-sulfidic environments.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Michael; Henpita, Chathurika; Bassett, Brandon; Kelley, Joanna L; Shaw, Jennifer H

    2014-09-01

    Disentangling the effects of plasticity, genetic variation, and their interactions on organismal responses to environmental stressors is a key objective in ecological physiology. We quantified the expression of five candidate genes in response to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposure in fish (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae) from a naturally sulfide-rich environment as well as an ancestral, non-sulfidic population to test for constitutive and environmentally dependent population differences in gene expression patterns. Common garden raised individuals that had never encountered environmental H2S during their lifetime were subjected to short or long term H2S exposure treatments or respective non-sulfidic controls. The expression of genes involved in responses to H2S toxicity (cytochrome c oxidase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cytochrome P450-2J6), H2S detoxification (sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase), and endogenous H2S production (cystathionine γ lyase) was determined in both gill and liver tissues by real time PCR. The results indicated complex changes in expression patterns that--depending on the gene--not only differed between organs and populations, but also on the type of H2S exposure. Populations differences, both constitutive and H2S exposure dependent (i.e., plastic), in gene expression were particularly evident for sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and to a lesser degree for cytochrome P450-2J6. Our study uncovered putatively adaptive modifications in gene regulation that parallel previously documented adaptive changes in phenotypic traits.

  9. The interruption of thyroid and interrenal and the inter-hormonal interference in fish: does it promote physiologic adaptation or maladaptation?

    PubMed

    Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2011-12-01

    Endocrines, the chief components of chemical centers which produce hormones in tune with intrinsic and extrinsic clues, create a chemical bridge between the organism and the environment. In fishes also hormones integrate and modulate many physiologic functions and its synthesis, release, biological actions and metabolic clearance are well regulated. Consequently, thyroid hormones (THs) and cortisol, the products of thyroid and interrenal axes, have been identified for their common integrative actions on metabolic and osmotic functions in fish. On the other hand, many anthropogenic chemical substances, popularly known as endocrine disrupting chemicals, have been shown to disrupt the hormone-receptor signaling pathways in a number fish species. These chemicals which are known for their ability to induce endocrine disruption particularly on thyroid and interrenals can cause malfunction or maladaptation of many vital processes which are involved in the development, growth and reproduction in fish. On the contrary, evidence is presented that the endocrine interrupting agents (EIAs) can cause interruption of thyroid and interrenals, resulting in physiologic compensatory mechanisms which can be adaptive, though such hormonal interactions are less recognized in fishes. The EIAs of physical, chemical and biological origins can specifically interrupt and modify the hormonal interactions between THs and cortisol, resulting in specific patterns of inter-hormonal interference. The physiologic analysis of these inter-hormonal interruptions during acclimation and post-acclimation to intrinsic or extrinsic EIAs reveals that combinations of anti-hormonal, pro-hormonal or stati-hormonal interference may help the fish to fine-tune their metabolic and osmotic performances as part of physiologic adaptation. This novel hypothesis on the phenomenon of inter-hormonal interference and its consequent physiologic interference during thyroid and interrenal interruption thus forms the basis of

  10. Testing for adaptive evolution of the female reproductive protein ZPC in mammals, birds and fishes reveals problems with the M7-M8 likelihood ratio test.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Sofia; Smith, Nick G C

    2005-11-10

    Adaptive evolution appears to be a common feature of reproductive proteins across a very wide range of organisms. A promising way of addressing the evolutionary forces responsible for this general phenomenon is to test for adaptive evolution in the same gene but among groups of species, which differ in their reproductive biology. One can then test evolutionary hypotheses by asking whether the variation in adaptive evolution is consistent with the variation in reproductive biology. We have attempted to apply this approach to the study of a female reproductive protein, zona pellucida C (ZPC), which has been previously shown by the use of likelihood ratio tests (LRTs) to be under positive selection in mammals. We tested for evidence of adaptive evolution of ZPC in 15 mammalian species, in 11 avian species and in six fish species using three different LRTs (M1a-M2a, M7-M8, and M8a-M8). The only significant findings of adaptive evolution came from the M7-M8 test in mammals and fishes. Since LRTs of adaptive evolution may yield false positives in some situations, we examined the properties of the LRTs by several different simulation methods. When we simulated data to test the robustness of the LRTs, we found that the pattern of evolution in ZPC generates an excess of false positives for the M7-M8 LRT but not for the M1a-M2a or M8a-M8 LRTs. This bias is strong enough to have generated the significant M7-M8 results for mammals and fishes. We conclude that there is no strong evidence for adaptive evolution of ZPC in any of the vertebrate groups we studied, and that the M7-M8 LRT can be biased towards false inference of adaptive evolution by certain patterns of non-adaptive evolution.

  11. Reduction in muscle fibre number during the adaptive radiation of notothenioid fishes: a phylogenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Ian A; Fernández, Daniel A; Calvo, Jorge; Vieira, Vera L A; North, Anthony W; Abercromby, Marguerite; Garland, Theodore

    2003-08-01

    The fish fauna of the continental shelf of the Southern Ocean is dominated by a single sub-order of Perciformes, the Notothenioidei, which have unusually large diameter skeletal muscle fibres. We tested the hypothesis that in fast myotomal muscle a high maximum fibre diameter (FD(max)) was related to a reduction in the number of muscle fibres present at the end of the recruitment phase of growth. We also hypothesized that the maximum fibre number (FN(max)) would be negatively related to body size, and that both body size and size-corrected FN(max) would show phylogenetic signal (tendency for related species to resemble each other). Finally, we estimated ancestral values for body size and FN(max). A molecular phylogeny was constructed using 12S mitochondrial rRNA sequences. A total of 16 species were studied from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego (5-11 degrees C), Shag Rocks, South Georgia (0.5-4 degrees C), and Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula (-1.5 to 0.5 degrees C). The absence of muscle fibres of less than 10 micro m diameter was used as the criterion for the cessation of fibre recruitment. FD(max) increased linearly with standard length (SL), reaching 500-650 micro m in most species. Maximum body size was a highly significant predictor of species variation in FN(max), and both body size and size-corrected FN(max) showed highly significant phylogenetic signal (P<0.001). Estimates of trait values at nodes of the maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree were consistent with a progressive reduction in fibre number during part of the notothenioid radiation, perhaps serving to reduce basal energy requirements to compensate for the additional energetic costs of antifreeze production. For example, FN(max) in Chaenocephalus aceratus (12 700+/-300, mean +/- S.E.M., N=18) was only 7.7% of the value found in Eleginops maclovinus (164 000+/-4100, N=17), which reaches a similar maximum length (85 cm). Postembryonic muscle fibre recruitment in teleost fish normally

  12. Genetic dissection of adaptive form and function in rapidly-speciating cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Henning, Frederico; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Baumgarten, Lukas; Meyer, Axel

    2017-02-17

    Genes of major phenotypic effects and strong genetic correlations can facilitate adaptation, direct selective responses and potentially lead to phenotypic convergence. However, the preponderance of this type of genetic architecture in repeatedly-evolved adaptations remains unknown. Using hybrids between Haplochromis chilotes (thick-lipped) and H. nyererei (thin-lipped) we investigated the genetics underlying hypertrophied lips and elongated heads, traits that evolved repeatedly in cichlids. At least 25 loci of small-to-moderate and mainly additive effects were detected. Phenotypic variation in lip and head morphology was largely independent. Although several QTL overlapped for lip and head morphology traits, they were often of opposite effects. The distribution of effect signs suggests strong selection on lips. The fitness implications of several detected loci were demonstrated using a laboratory assay testing for the association between genotype and variation in foraging performance. The persistence of low fitness alleles in head morphology appears to be maintained through antagonistic pleiotropy/close linkage with positive-effect lip morphology alleles. Rather than being based on few major loci with strong positive genetic correlations, our results indicate that the evolution of the Lake Victoria thick-lipped ecomorph is the result of selection on numerous loci distributed throughout the genome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Introgressive Hybridization and the Evolution of Lake-Adapted Catostomid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Thomas E.; Markle, Douglas F.; Tranah, Greg J.; Carson, Evan W.; Wagman, David W.; May, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization has been identified as a significant factor in the evolution of plants as groups of interbreeding species retain their phenotypic integrity despite gene exchange among forms. Recent studies have identified similar interactions in animals; however, the role of hybridization in the evolution of animals has been contested. Here we examine patterns of gene flow among four species of catostomid fishes from the Klamath and Rogue rivers using molecular and morphological traits. Catostomus rimiculus from the Rogue and Klamath basins represent a monophyletic group for nuclear and morphological traits; however, the Klamath form shares mtDNA lineages with other Klamath Basin species (C. snyderi, Chasmistes brevirostris, Deltistes luxatus). Within other Klamath Basin taxa, D. luxatus was largely fixed for alternate nuclear alleles relative to C. rimiculus, while Ch. brevirostris and C. snyderi exhibited a mixture of these alleles. Deltistes luxatus was the only Klamath Basin species that exhibited consistent covariation of nuclear and mitochondrial traits and was the primary source of mismatched mtDNA in Ch. brevirostris and C. snyderi, suggesting asymmetrical introgression into the latter species. In Upper Klamath Lake, D. luxatus spawning was more likely to overlap spatially and temporally with C. snyderi and Ch. brevirostris than either of those two with each other. The latter two species could not be distinguished with any molecular markers but were morphologically diagnosable in Upper Klamath Lake, where they were largely spatially and temporally segregated during spawning. We examine parallel evolution and syngameon hypotheses and conclude that observed patterns are most easily explained by introgressive hybridization among Klamath Basin catostomids. PMID:26959681

  14. Adaptive significance of the formation of multi-species fish spawning aggregations near submerged capes.

    PubMed

    Karnauskas, Mandy; Chérubin, Laurent M; Paris, Claire B

    2011-01-01

    Many fishes are known to spawn at distinct geomorphological features such as submerged capes or "promontories," and the widespread use of these sites for spawning must imply some evolutionary advantage. Spawning at these capes is thought to result in rapid offshore transport of eggs, thereby reducing predation levels and facilitating dispersal to areas of suitable habitat. To test this "off-reef transport" hypothesis, we use a hydrodynamic model and explore the effects of topography on currents at submerged capes where spawning occurs and at similar capes where spawning does not occur, along the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. All capes modeled in this study produced eddy-shedding regimes, but specific eddy attributes differed between spawning and non-spawning sites. Eddies at spawning sites were significantly stronger than those at non-spawning sites, and upwelling and fronts were the products of the eddy formation process. Frontal zones, present particularly at the edges of eddies near the shelf, may serve to retain larvae and nutrients. Spawning site eddies were also more predictable in terms of diameter and longevity. Passive particles released at spawning and control sites were dispersed from the release site at similar rates, but particles from spawning sites were more highly aggregated in their distributions than those from control sites, and remained closer to shore at all times. Our findings contradict previous hypotheses that cape spawning leads to high egg dispersion due to offshore transport, and that they are attractive for spawning due to high, variable currents. Rather, we show that current regimes at spawning sites are more predictable, concentrate the eggs, and keep larvae closer to shore. These attributes would confer evolutionary advantages by maintaining relatively similar recruitment patterns year after year.

  15. Adaptive Significance of the Formation of Multi-Species Fish Spawning Aggregations near Submerged Capes

    PubMed Central

    Karnauskas, Mandy; Chérubin, Laurent M.; Paris, Claire B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many fishes are known to spawn at distinct geomorphological features such as submerged capes or “promontories,” and the widespread use of these sites for spawning must imply some evolutionary advantage. Spawning at these capes is thought to result in rapid offshore transport of eggs, thereby reducing predation levels and facilitating dispersal to areas of suitable habitat. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this “off-reef transport” hypothesis, we use a hydrodynamic model and explore the effects of topography on currents at submerged capes where spawning occurs and at similar capes where spawning does not occur, along the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. All capes modeled in this study produced eddy-shedding regimes, but specific eddy attributes differed between spawning and non-spawning sites. Eddies at spawning sites were significantly stronger than those at non-spawning sites, and upwelling and fronts were the products of the eddy formation process. Frontal zones, present particularly at the edges of eddies near the shelf, may serve to retain larvae and nutrients. Spawning site eddies were also more predictable in terms of diameter and longevity. Passive particles released at spawning and control sites were dispersed from the release site at similar rates, but particles from spawning sites were more highly aggregated in their distributions than those from control sites, and remained closer to shore at all times. Conclusions/Significance Our findings contradict previous hypotheses that cape spawning leads to high egg dispersion due to offshore transport, and that they are attractive for spawning due to high, variable currents. Rather, we show that current regimes at spawning sites are more predictable, concentrate the eggs, and keep larvae closer to shore. These attributes would confer evolutionary advantages by maintaining relatively similar recruitment patterns year after year. PMID:21760954

  16. Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Yersinia ruckeri SC09 Provides Insights into Niche Adaptation and Pathogenic Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Kai-Yu; Wang, Jun; Chen, De-Fang; Huang, Xiao-Li; Ouyang, Ping; Geng, Yi; He, Yang; Zhou, Yi; Min, Jie

    2016-04-14

    Yersinia ruckeri is the etiologic agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), a severe fish disease prevailing in worldwide aquaculture industries. Here we report for the first time the complete genome of Y. ruckeri (Yersinia ruckeri) SC09, a highly virulent strain isolated from Ictalurus punctatus with severe septicemia. SC09 possesses a single chromosome of 3,923,491 base pairs, which contains 3651 predicted protein coding sequences (CDS), 19 rRNA genes, and 79 tRNA genes. Among the CDS, we have identified a Ysa locus containing genes encoding all the components of a type III secretion system (T3SS). Comparative analysis suggest that SC09-Ysa share extensive similarity in sequence, gene content, and gene arrangement with Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) and chromosome-encoded T3SS from Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1B. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis shown that SC09-Ysa and SPI1-T3SS belong on the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. These results suggest that SC09-Ysa and SPI1-T3SS appear to mediate biological function to adapt to specific hosts with a similar niche, and both of them are likely to facilitate the development of an intracellular niche. In addition, our analysis also indicated that a substantial part of the SC09 genome might contribute to adaption in the intestinal microenvironment, including a number of proteins associated with aerobic or anaerobic respiration, signal transduction, and various stress reactions. Genomic analysis of the bacterium offered insights into the pathogenic mechanism associated with intracellular infection and intestinal survivability, which constitutes an important first step in understanding the pathogenesis of Y. ruckeri.

  17. Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Yersinia ruckeri SC09 Provides Insights into Niche Adaptation and Pathogenic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Kai-Yu; Wang, Jun; Chen, De-Fang; Huang, Xiao-Li; Ouyang, Ping; Geng, Yi; He, Yang; Zhou, Yi; Min, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia ruckeri is the etiologic agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), a severe fish disease prevailing in worldwide aquaculture industries. Here we report for the first time the complete genome of Y. ruckeri (Yersinia ruckeri) SC09, a highly virulent strain isolated from Ictalurus punctatus with severe septicemia. SC09 possesses a single chromosome of 3,923,491 base pairs, which contains 3651 predicted protein coding sequences (CDS), 19 rRNA genes, and 79 tRNA genes. Among the CDS, we have identified a Ysa locus containing genes encoding all the components of a type III secretion system (T3SS). Comparative analysis suggest that SC09-Ysa share extensive similarity in sequence, gene content, and gene arrangement with Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) and chromosome-encoded T3SS from Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1B. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis shown that SC09-Ysa and SPI1-T3SS belong on the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. These results suggest that SC09-Ysa and SPI1-T3SS appear to mediate biological function to adapt to specific hosts with a similar niche, and both of them are likely to facilitate the development of an intracellular niche. In addition, our analysis also indicated that a substantial part of the SC09 genome might contribute to adaption in the intestinal microenvironment, including a number of proteins associated with aerobic or anaerobic respiration, signal transduction, and various stress reactions. Genomic analysis of the bacterium offered insights into the pathogenic mechanism associated with intracellular infection and intestinal survivability, which constitutes an important first step in understanding the pathogenesis of Y. ruckeri. PMID:27089334

  18. Fish oil diet in pregnancy and lactation reduces pup weight and modifies newborn hepatic metabolic adaptations in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Maria J; Bocos, Carlos; Panadero, Maribel; Herrera, Emilio

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effects of a diet containing fish oil (FD) during pregnancy and lactation in rats on the metabolic adaptations made by the offspring during early extrauterine life and to compare it to an olive oil diet (OD). Rats were mated and randomly allocated to OD or FD containing 10 % of the corresponding oil. During lactation, litters were adjusted to eight pups per dam. Fetuses of 20 days and pups of 0, 1, 10, 20 and 30 days of age were studied. Body weight and length were lower in pups of the FD group from birth. The diet, milk, pups' plasma and liver of FD group had higher proportions of n-3 LCPUFA, but the content of arachidonic acid (ARA) was lower. Plasma glucose was higher, but unesterified fatty acids, triacylglycerols (TAG), 3-hydroxybutyrate and liver TAG in 1-day-old pups were lower in the FD group, and differences in some of these variables were also found in pups up to 30 days old. Liver lipoprotein lipase activity and mRNA expression, and the expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, acyl-CoA oxidase and 3-hydroxy 3-methyl glutaryl-CoA synthase increased more at birth in pups of the FD group, but the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and Δ6-desaturase mRNA was lower in the FD group. Maternal intake of high n-3 LCPUFA retards postnatal development, which could be the result of impaired ARA synthesis, and affects hepatic metabolic adaptations to extrauterine life.

  19. Leap of faith: voluntary emersion behaviour and physiological adaptations to aerial exposure in a non-aestivating freshwater fish in response to aquatic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Mauricio A; Forster, Malcolm E; Glover, Chris N

    2011-05-03

    Lowland stream fauna in areas of intensive agriculture are increasingly under threat from anthropogenic activities leading to eutrophication and subsequent hypoxia. Survival of hypoxic episodes depends upon a combination of behavioural and physiological adaptations. Responses of inanga (Galaxias maculatus: Galaxiidae) to aquatic hypoxia were investigated in the laboratory. Contrary to expectation inanga did not display behaviour that might reduce energy expenditure during oxygen limitation, with swimming activity slightly, but significantly elevated relative to normoxia. Instead, as dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased, the fish moved higher in the water column, increased their swimming speed and exhibited aquatic surface respiration. Physiological changes such as enhanced opercular frequency were also noted. As hypoxia deepened inanga started to leap out of the water, emersing themselves on a floating platform. Once emersed, fish exhibited an enhanced oxygen consumption rate compared to hypoxic fish. Thus inanga appear better adapted to escape hypoxia (a behavioural adaptation) rather than tolerate it (physiological adaptation). The emersion strategy used for inanga in response to severe hypoxia is in agreement with their ability to take up more oxygen from the air than from hypoxic water and therefore may justify the potentially increased risks of desiccation and predation associated with leaving the water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pleistocene desiccation in East Africa bottlenecked but did not extirpate the adaptive radiation of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Kathryn R; Reggio, Chiara; Wirth, Thierry; Verheyen, Erik; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2009-08-11

    The Great Lakes region of East Africa, including Lake Victoria, is the center of diversity of the mega-diverse cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Teleostei). Paleolimnological evidence indicates dramatic desiccation of this lake ca. 18,000-15,000 years ago. Consequently, the hundreds of extant endemic haplochromine species in the lake must have either evolved since then or refugia must have existed, within that lake basin or elsewhere, from which Lake Victoria was recolonized. We studied the population history of the Lake Victoria region superflock (LVRS) of haplochromine cichlids based on nuclear genetic analysis (12 microsatellite loci from 400 haplochomines) of populations from Lake Kivu, Lake Victoria, and the connected and surrounding rivers and lakes. Population genetic analyses confirmed that Lake Kivu haplochromines colonized Lake Victoria. Coalescent analyses show a 30- to 50-fold decline in the haplochromine populations of Lake Victoria, Lake Kivu, and the region ca. 18,000-15,000 years ago. We suggest that this coincides with drastic climatic and geological changes in the late Pleistocene. The most recent common ancestor of the Lake Victoria region haplochromines was estimated to have existed about 4.5 million years ago, which corresponds to the first radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and the origin of the tribe Haplochrominii. This relatively old evolutionary origin may explain the high levels of polymorphism still found in modern haplochromines. This degree of polymorphism might have acted as a "genetic reservoir" that permitted the explosive radiation of hundreds of haplochromines and their array of contemporary adaptive morphologies.

  1. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal

  2. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity–depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity–depth pattern over time

  3. Spatial distribution of pelagic fish off Adélie and George V Land, East Antarctica in the austral summer 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moteki, Masato; Koubbi, Philippe; Pruvost, Patrice; Tavernier, Eric; Hulley, Percy-Alexander

    2011-08-01

    Pelagic fish assemblages and community structure were examined along longitudinal and meridian transects off Adélie and George V Land, East Antarctica, in the austral summer 2008. Fish were sampled with an RMT 8 net principally from six discrete depth layers (0-50-100-200-500-1000-2000 m) in the oceanic zone and from three depth layers (0-50-100-200 m) over the continental shelf zone. A total of 20,281 individuals from 27 species were collected. Pleuragramma antarcticum was the most dominant species by number (18,710 inds), followed by Chionodraco hamatus (768), Trematomus newnesi (375), Cyclothone microdon (101), Electrona antarctica (92), Bathylagus antarcticus (51) and Notolepis coatsi (54). Cluster analysis revealed that the fish community was clearly divided at the Antarctic Slope Front into separate oceanic and shelf assemblages, being dominated by mesopelagic fish and notothenioids, respectively. The Southern Boundary of Antarctic Circumpolar Current likely restricted a more northern distribution of notothenioids in the upper 200 m. Mesopelagic fish dominated the large biomass below 500 m and notothenioids dominated that in the upper 100 m. It is considered that mesopelagic fish in the oceanic zone would unlikely be eaten by seabirds because no distinctive diel vertical migration to the surface layer was observed. In the neritic zone, notothenioids ( C. hamatus, T. newnesi and P. antarcticum) possibly play an important role as prey items for flying seabirds, penguins and other notothenioids fish especially in the shallow depth stratum (0-100 m).

  4. Zebra Fish Lacking Adaptive Immunity Acquire an Antiviral Alert State Characterized by Upregulated Gene Expression of Apoptosis, Multigene Families, and Interferon-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    García-Valtanen, Pablo; Martínez-López, Alicia; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Bello-Perez, Melissa; Medina-Gali, Regla M.; Ortega-Villaizán, María del Mar; Varela, Monica; Figueras, Antonio; Mulero, Víctoriano; Novoa, Beatriz; Estepa, Amparo; Coll, Julio

    2017-01-01

    To investigate fish innate immunity, we have conducted organ and cell immune-related transcriptomic as well as immunohistologic analysis in mutant zebra fish (Danio rerio) lacking adaptive immunity (rag1−/−) at different developmental stages (egg, larvae, and adult), before and after infection with spring viremia carp virus (SVCV). The results revealed that, compared to immunocompetent zebra fish (rag1+/+), rag1−/− acquired increased resistance to SVCV with age, correlating with elevated transcript levels of immune genes in skin/fins and lymphoid organs (head kidney and spleen). Gene sets corresponding to apoptotic functions, immune-related multigene families, and interferon-related genes were constitutively upregulated in uninfected adult rag1−/− zebra fish. Overexpression of activated CASPASE-3 in different tissues before and after infection with SVCV further confirmed increased apoptotic function in rag1−/− zebra fish. Concurrently, staining of different tissue samples with a pan-leukocyte antibody marker showed abundant leukocyte infiltrations in SVCV-infected rag1−/− fish, coinciding with increased transcript expression of genes related to NK-cells and macrophages, suggesting that these genes played a key role in the enhanced immune response of rag1−/− zebra fish to SVCV lethal infection. Overall, we present evidence that indicates that rag1−/− zebra fish acquire an antiviral alert state while they reach adulthood in the absence of adaptive immunity. This antiviral state was characterized by (i) a more rapid response to viral infection, which resulted in increased survival, (ii) the involvement of NK-cell- and macrophage-mediated transcript responses rather than B- and/or T-cell dependent cells, and (iii) enhanced apoptosis, described here for the first time, as well as the similar modulation of multigene family/interferon-related genes previously associated to fish that survived lethal viral infections. From this and other studies

  5. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  6. Native Prairie Adaptive Management: a multi region adaptive approach to invasive plant management on Fish and Wildlife Service owned native prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jill J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the northern Great Plains is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses, smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Management to suppress these invasive plants has had poor to inconsistent success. The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. In partnership with the FWS, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. This joint partnership is known as the Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) initiative. The NPAM decision framework is built around practical constraints faced by FWS refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen FWS field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, have participated in the initiative. These FWS cooperators share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. Though the scope is broad, the initiative interfaces with individual land managers who provide site-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators. We describe the technical components of this approach, how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. During an initial scoping workshop, FWS cooperators developed a consensus management objective

  7. Pleistocene desiccation in East Africa bottlenecked but did not extirpate the adaptive radiation of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Elmer, Kathryn R.; Reggio, Chiara; Wirth, Thierry; Verheyen, Erik; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2009-01-01

    The Great Lakes region of East Africa, including Lake Victoria, is the center of diversity of the mega-diverse cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Teleostei). Paleolimnological evidence indicates dramatic desiccation of this lake ca. 18,000–15,000 years ago. Consequently, the hundreds of extant endemic haplochromine species in the lake must have either evolved since then or refugia must have existed, within that lake basin or elsewhere, from which Lake Victoria was recolonized. We studied the population history of the Lake Victoria region superflock (LVRS) of haplochromine cichlids based on nuclear genetic analysis (12 microsatellite loci from 400 haplochomines) of populations from Lake Kivu, Lake Victoria, and the connected and surrounding rivers and lakes. Population genetic analyses confirmed that Lake Kivu haplochromines colonized Lake Victoria. Coalescent analyses show a 30- to 50-fold decline in the haplochromine populations of Lake Victoria, Lake Kivu, and the region ca. 18,000–15,000 years ago. We suggest that this coincides with drastic climatic and geological changes in the late Pleistocene. The most recent common ancestor of the Lake Victoria region haplochromines was estimated to have existed about 4.5 million years ago, which corresponds to the first radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and the origin of the tribe Haplochrominii. This relatively old evolutionary origin may explain the high levels of polymorphism still found in modern haplochromines. This degree of polymorphism might have acted as a “genetic reservoir” that permitted the explosive radiation of hundreds of haplochromines and their array of contemporary adaptive morphologies. PMID:19651614

  8. Vulnerability to climate change and adaptation strategies of local communities in Malawi: experiences of women fish-processing groups in the Lake Chilwa Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørstad, Hanne; Webersik, Christian

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, research on climate change and human security has received much attention among policy makers and academia alike. Communities in the Global South that rely on an intact resource base and struggle with poverty, existing inequalities and historical injustices will especially be affected by predicted changes in temperature and precipitation. The objective of this article is to better understand under what conditions local communities can adapt to anticipated impacts of climate change. The empirical part of the paper answers the question as to what extent local women engaged in fish processing in the Chilwa Basin in Malawi have experienced climate change and how they are affected by it. The article assesses an adaptation project designed to make those women more resilient to a warmer and more variable climate. The research results show that marketing and improving fish processing as strategies to adapt to climate change have their limitations. The study concludes that livelihood diversification can be a more effective strategy for Malawian women to adapt to a more variable and unpredictable climate rather than exclusively relying on a resource base that is threatened by climate change.

  9. EFFECTS OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUND CONTAMINATION ON AN ESTUARINE FISH SPECIES: ADAPTIVE CHANGES AT SPECIFIC GENETIC LOCI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish from a highly PCB-contaminated Superfund site (New Bedford, Massachusetts, USA) that show genetically-based tolerance to DLCs (Nacci, D. et al. 1999. Mar.Biol.134: 9-17) also have altered MHC Class II antigen-binding receptor profiles compared to a population of fish from a ...

  10. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  11. Molecular adaptation to high pressure in cytochrome P450 1A and aryl hydrocarbon receptor systems of the deep-sea fish Coryphaenoides armatus.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Karchner, Sibel I; Goldstone, Jared V; Lamb, David C; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Rees, Jean François; Hahn, Mark E; Stegeman, John J

    2017-07-08

    Limited knowledge of the molecular evolution of deep-sea fish proteomes so far suggests that a few widespread residue substitutions in cytosolic proteins binding hydrophilic ligands contribute to resistance to the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HP). Structure-function studies with additional protein systems, including membrane bound proteins, are essential to provide a more general picture of adaptation in these extremophiles. We explored molecular features of HP adaptation in proteins binding hydrophobic ligands, either in lipid bilayers (cytochrome P450 1A - CYP1A) or in the cytosol (the aryl hydrocarbon receptor - AHR), and their partners P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), respectively. Cloning studies identified the full-length coding sequence of AHR, CYP1A and POR, and a partial sequence of ARNT from Coryphaenoides armatus, an abyssal gadiform fish thriving down to 5000m depth. Inferred protein sequences were aligned with many non-deep-sea homologs to identify unique amino acid substitutions of possible relevance in HP adaptation. Positionally unique substitutions of various physicochemical properties were found in all four proteins, usually at sites of strong-to-absolute residue conservation. Some were in domains deemed important for protein-protein interaction or ligand binding. In addition, some involved removal or addition of beta-branched residues; local modifications of beta-branched residue patterns could be important to HP adaptation. In silico predictions further suggested that some unique substitutions might substantially modulate the flexibility of the polypeptide segment in which they are found. Repetitive motifs unique to the abyssal fish AHR were predicted to be rich in glycosylation sites, suggesting that post-translational changes could be involved in adaptation as well. Recombinant CYP1A and AHR showed functional properties (spectral characteristics, catalytic activity and ligand binding) that demonstrate

  12. Population genetic analyses of Hypoplectrus coral reef fishes provide evidence that local processes are operating during the early stages of marine adaptive radiations.

    PubMed

    Puebla, Oscar; Bermingham, Eldredge; Guichard, Frédéric

    2008-03-01

    Large-scale, spatially explicit models of adaptive radiation suggest that the spatial genetic structure within a species sampled early in the evolutionary history of an adaptive radiation might be higher than the genetic differentiation between different species formed during the same radiation over all locations. Here we test this hypothesis with a spatial population genetic analysis of Hypoplectrus coral reef fishes (Serranidae), one of the few potential cases of a recent adaptive radiation documented in the marine realm. Microsatellite analyses of Hypoplectrus puella (barred hamlet) and Hypoplectrus nigricans (black hamlet) from Belize, Panama and Barbados validate the population genetic predictions at the regional scale for H. nigricans despite the potential for high levels of gene flow between populations resulting from the 3-week planktonic larval phase of Hypoplectrus. The results are different for H. puella, which is characterized by significantly lower levels of spatial genetic structure than H. nigricans. An extensive field survey of Hypoplectrus population densities complemented by individual-based simulations shows that the higher abundance and more continuous distribution of H. puella could account for the reduced spatial genetic structure within this species. The genetic and demographic data are also consistent with the hypothesis that H. puella might represent the ancestral form of the Hypoplectrus radiation, and that H. nigricans might have evolved repeatedly from H. puella through ecological speciation. Altogether, spatial genetic analysis within and between Hypoplectrus species indicate that local processes can operate at a regional scale within recent marine adaptive radiations.

  13. Genome Sequence of the Versatile Fish Pathogen Edwardsiella tarda Provides Insights into its Adaptation to Broad Host Ranges and Intracellular Niches

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jingfan; Wu, Haizhen; Wang, Xin; Lv, Yuanzhi; Xu, Lili; Zheng, Huajun; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Guoping; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2009-01-01

    Background Edwardsiella tarda is the etiologic agent of edwardsiellosis, a devastating fish disease prevailing in worldwide aquaculture industries. Here we describe the complete genome of E. tarda, EIB202, a highly virulent and multi-drug resistant isolate in China. Methodology/Principal Findings E. tarda EIB202 possesses a single chromosome of 3,760,463 base pairs containing 3,486 predicted protein coding sequences, 8 ribosomal rRNA operons, and 95 tRNA genes, and a 43,703 bp conjugative plasmid harboring multi-drug resistant determinants and encoding type IV A secretion system components. We identified a full spectrum of genetic properties related to its genome plasticity such as repeated sequences, insertion sequences, phage-like proteins, integrases, recombinases and genomic islands. In addition, analysis also indicated that a substantial proportion of the E. tarda genome might be devoted to the growth and survival under diverse conditions including intracellular niches, with a large number of aerobic or anaerobic respiration-associated proteins, signal transduction proteins as well as proteins involved in various stress adaptations. A pool of genes for secretion systems, pili formation, nonfimbrial adhesions, invasions and hemagglutinins, chondroitinases, hemolysins, iron scavenging systems as well as the incomplete flagellar biogenesis might feature its surface structures and pathogenesis in a fish body. Conclusion/Significance Genomic analysis of the bacterium offered insights into the phylogeny, metabolism, drug-resistance, stress adaptation, and virulence characteristics of this versatile pathogen, which constitutes an important first step in understanding the pathogenesis of E. tarda to facilitate construction of a practical effective vaccine used for combating fish edwardsiellosis. PMID:19865481

  14. Adaptive sequence evolution in a color gene involved in the formation of the characteristic egg-dummies of male haplochromine cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Salzburger, Walter; Braasch, Ingo; Meyer, Axel

    2007-11-15

    The exceptionally diverse species flocks of cichlid fishes in East Africa are prime examples of parallel adaptive radiations. About 80% of East Africa's more than 1 800 endemic cichlid species, and all species of the flocks of Lakes Victoria and Malawi, belong to a particularly rapidly evolving lineage, the haplochromines. One characteristic feature of the haplochromines is their possession of egg-dummies on the males' anal fins. These egg-spots mimic real eggs and play an important role in the mating system of these maternal mouthbrooding fish. Here, we show that the egg-spots of haplochromines are made up of yellow pigment cells, xanthophores, and that a gene coding for a type III receptor tyrosine kinase, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor a (csf1ra), is expressed in egg-spot tissue. Molecular evolutionary analyses reveal that the extracellular ligand-binding and receptor-interacting domain of csf1ra underwent adaptive sequence evolution in the ancestral lineage of the haplochromines, coinciding with the emergence of egg-dummies. We also find that csf1ra is expressed in the egg-dummies of a distantly related cichlid species, the ectodine cichlid Ophthalmotilapia ventralis, in which markings with similar functions evolved on the pelvic fin in convergence to those of the haplochromines. We conclude that modifications of existing signal transduction mechanisms might have evolved in the haplochromine lineage in association with the origination of anal fin egg-dummies. That positive selection has acted during the evolution of a color gene that seems to be involved in the morphogenesis of a sexually selected trait, the egg-dummies, highlights the importance of further investigations of the comparative genomic basis of the phenotypic diversification of cichlid fishes.

  15. Adaptive sequence evolution in a color gene involved in the formation of the characteristic egg-dummies of male haplochromine cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Salzburger, Walter; Braasch, Ingo; Meyer, Axel

    2007-01-01

    Background The exceptionally diverse species flocks of cichlid fishes in East Africa are prime examples of parallel adaptive radiations. About 80% of East Africa's more than 1 800 endemic cichlid species, and all species of the flocks of Lakes Victoria and Malawi, belong to a particularly rapidly evolving lineage, the haplochromines. One characteristic feature of the haplochromines is their possession of egg-dummies on the males' anal fins. These egg-spots mimic real eggs and play an important role in the mating system of these maternal mouthbrooding fish. Results Here, we show that the egg-spots of haplochromines are made up of yellow pigment cells, xanthophores, and that a gene coding for a type III receptor tyrosine kinase, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor a (csf1ra), is expressed in egg-spot tissue. Molecular evolutionary analyses reveal that the extracellular ligand-binding and receptor-interacting domain of csf1ra underwent adaptive sequence evolution in the ancestral lineage of the haplochromines, coinciding with the emergence of egg-dummies. We also find that csf1ra is expressed in the egg-dummies of a distantly related cichlid species, the ectodine cichlid Ophthalmotilapia ventralis, in which markings with similar functions evolved on the pelvic fin in convergence to those of the haplochromines. Conclusion We conclude that modifications of existing signal transduction mechanisms might have evolved in the haplochromine lineage in association with the origination of anal fin egg-dummies. That positive selection has acted during the evolution of a color gene that seems to be involved in the morphogenesis of a sexually selected trait, the egg-dummies, highlights the importance of further investigations of the comparative genomic basis of the phenotypic diversification of cichlid fishes. PMID:18005399

  16. Independent evolution of complex life history adaptations in two families of fishes, live-bearing halfbeaks (zenarchopteridae, beloniformes) and poeciliidae (cyprinodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Reznick, David; Meredith, Robert; Collette, Bruce B

    2007-11-01

    We have previously documented multiple, independent origins of placentas in the fish family Poeciliidae. Here we summarize similar analyses of fishes in the family Zenarchopteridae. This family includes three live-bearing genera. Earlier studies documented the presence of superfetation, or the ability to carry multiple litters of young in different stages of development in the same ovary, in some species in all three genera. There is also one earlier report of matrotrophy, or extensive postfertilization maternal provisioning, in two of these genera. We present detailed life-history data for approximately half of the species in all three genera and combine them with the best available phylogeny to make inferences about the pattern of life-history evolution within this family. Three species of Hemirhamphodon have superfetation but lack matrotrophy. Most species in Nomorhamphus and Dermogenys either lack superfetation and matrotrophy or have both superfetation and matrotrophy. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that matrotrophy may have evolved independently in each genus. In Dermogenys, matrotrophic species produce fewer, larger offspring than nonmatrotrophic species. In Nomorhamphus; matrotrophic species instead produce more and smaller offspring than lecithotrophic species. However, the matrotrophic species in both genera have significantly smaller masses of reproductive tissue relative to their body sizes. All aspects of these results are duplicated in the fish family Poeciliidae. We discuss the possible adaptive significance of matrotrophy in the light of these new results. The two families together present a remarkable opportunity to study the evolution of a complex trait because they contain multiple, independent origins of the trait that often include close relatives that vary in either the presence or absence of the matrotrophy or in the degree to which matrotrophy is developed. These are the raw materials that are required for either an analysis of the adaptive

  17. Adaptive phenotypic response to climate enabled by epigenetics in a K-strategy species, the fish Leucoraja ocellata (Rajidae)

    PubMed Central

    Incarnato, Danny; Ward, Ben J.; van Oosterhout, Cock; Bradbury, Ian; Hanson, Mark; Bentzen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic versus epigenetic changes in adaptive evolution is a hotly debated topic, with studies showing that some species appear to be able to adapt rapidly without significant genetic change. Epigenetic mechanisms may be particularly important for the evolutionary potential of species with long maturation times and low reproductive potential (‘K-strategists’), particularly when faced with rapidly changing environmental conditions. Here we study the transcriptome of two populations of the winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata), a typical ‘K-strategist’, in Atlantic Canada; an endemic population in the southern Gulf of St Lawrence and a large population on the Scotian Shelf. The endemic population has been able to adapt to a 10°C higher water temperature over short evolutionary time (7000 years), dramatically reducing its body size (by 45%) significantly below the minimum maturation size of Scotian Shelf and other populations of winter skate, as well as exhibiting other adaptations in life history and physiology. We demonstrate that the adaptive response to selection has an epigenetic basis, cataloguing 3653 changes in gene expression that may have enabled this species to rapidly respond to the novel environment. We argue that the epigenetic augmentation of species evolutionary potential (its regulation though gene expression) can enable K-strategists to survive and adapt to different environments, and this mechanism may be particularly important for the persistence of sharks, skates and rays in the light of future climate change. PMID:27853546

  18. Neurophysiological study on visuo-vestibular control of posture and movement in fish during adaptation to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, Shigeo

    1993-01-01

    We can stand upright and walk smoothly without paying any particular attention to it. This is because we have established in ourselves an integration center that controls our body subconsciously in response to input from eyes, muscles, joints, foot soles, and also from the gravity sensor in the inner ear (the otolith organ). It has been shown that the cerebellum plays an important role for the establishment of the integration center and that the control pattern is comparable to that of a highly sophisticated computer system. The programming for the control, however, may well be acquired for the 1-g ground condition and does not cover the 0-g in space. Although each of the above organs function as it does on the ground, the signal pattern sent to the center must be different under 0-g and, in addition, complementary signals from the otolith organ are missing, leading to confusion in the integration center and causing a variety of symptoms similar to those of car-sickness or sea-sickness. After exposure to microgravity an immediate process of re-programming will begin and be completed in 2-4 days. There is strong supporting evidence for this sensory conflict theory as an explanation for space motion sickness (SMS) episodes. Fish were selected as test organisms for this investigation because they swim around freely in three dimensions and have well-developed organs for vision and gravity detection. They also have an innate nature to orient their back toward a light source. Actually, on the ground, the fish tilts its vertical axis toward the light when illuminated laterally, and the tilt angle is a function of the intensity of light and the magnitude of gravity, while its posture is completely light-dependent in the low-gravity environment produced by aircraft parabolic flight or when the otolith organs are removed. This implies that fish posture is entirely under visual and otolithic control. In this case, the cerebellum will also contribute to the control. In the

  19. Molecular basis of evolutionary adaptation at the lactate dehydrogenase-B locus in the fish Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, D L; Powers, D A

    1989-01-01

    At the extremes of its natural distribution, populations of the common killifish Fundulus heteroclitus experience a difference of more than 15 degrees C in mean annual temperature. These populations are virtually fixed for two different codominant alleles at the heart-type lactate dehydrogenase locus (Ldh-B) which code for allozymes with different and adaptive kinetic responses to temperature. Two populations near the extremes of the species range (i.e., Maine and Georgia) were further studied for thermal adaptation at this locus. In the absence of any kinetic differences one would predict that to maintain a constant reaction velocity, 2 to 3 times as much enzyme would be required for each 10 degrees C decrease in environmental temperature. Consistent with this adaptive strategy and in addition to the adaptive kinetic characteristics, the LDH-B4 enzyme (EC 1.1.1.27) concentration and its mRNA concentration were approximately twice as great in the northern population as in the southern population. Acclimation experiments allow us to conclude that these differences are due to a combination of fixed genetic traits (evolutionary adaptation) and plastic responses to temperature (physiological acclimation). Furthermore, our calculations show that the LDH-B4 reaction velocities are essentially equivalent for these two populations, even though they live in significantly different thermal environments. PMID:2594773

  20. Parasitic infection by larval helminths in Antarctic fishes: pathological changes and impact on the host body condition index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Work, Thierry; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nardi, Valentina; Cipriani, Paolo; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We examined pathological changes and relationship between body condition index (BCI) and parasitic infection in 5 species of fish, including 42 icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Channichtyidae), 2 dragonfish Cygnodraco mawsoni (Bathydraconidae), 30 emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii, 46 striped rock cod T. hansoni and 9 dusty rock cod T. newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. All parasites were identified by a combination of morphology and mtDNA cytochrome-oxidase-2 sequence (mtDNA cox2) analysis, except Contracaecum osculatum s.l., for which only the latter was used. Five larval taxa were associated with pathological changes including 2 sibling species (D and E) of the C. osculatum species complex and 3 cestodes including plerocercoids of a diphyllobothridean, and 2 tetraphyllidean forms including cercoids with monolocular and bilocular bothridia. The most heavily infected hosts were C. hamatus and C. mawsoni, with C. hamatus most often infected by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and diphyllobothrideans, while C. mawsoni was most often infected with tetraphyllidean forms. Histologically, all fish showed varying severity of chronic inflammation associated with larval forms of helminths. Diphyllobothrideans and C. osculatum spp. were located in gastric muscularis or liver and were associated with necrosis and mild to marked fibrosis. Moderate multifocal rectal mucosal chronic inflammation was associated with attached tetraphyllidean scolices. C. hamatus showed a strong negative correlation between BCI and parasite burden.

  1. Hot spots in cold adaptation: Localized increases in conformational flexibility in lactate dehydrogenase A4 orthologs of Antarctic notothenioid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Peter A.; Somero, George N.

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate mechanisms of enzymatic adaptation to extreme cold, we determined kinetic properties, thermal stabilities, and deduced amino acid sequences of lactate dehydrogenase A4 (A4-LDH) from nine Antarctic (−1.86 to 1°C) and three South American (4 to 10°C) notothenioid teleosts. Higher Michaelis–Menten constants (Km) and catalytic rate constants (kcat) distinguish orthologs of Antarctic from those of South American species, but no relationship exists between adaptation temperature and the rate at which activity is lost because of heat denaturation. In all species, active site residues are conserved fully, and differences in kcat and Km are caused by substitutions elsewhere in the molecule. Within geographic groups, identical kinetic properties are generated by different substitutions. By combining our data with A4-LDH sequences for other vertebrates and information on roles played by localized conformational changes in setting kcat, we conclude that notothenioid A4-LDHs have adapted to cold temperatures by increases in flexibility in small areas of the molecule that affect the mobility of adjacent active-site structures. Using these findings, we propose a model that explains linked temperature-adaptive variation in Km and kcat. Changes in sequence that increase flexibility of regions of the enzyme involved in catalytic conformational changes may reduce energy (enthalpy) barriers to these rate-governing shifts in conformation and, thereby, increase kcat. However, at a common temperature of measurement, the higher configurational entropy of a cold-adapted enzyme may foster conformations that bind ligands poorly, leading to high Km values relative to warm-adapted orthologs. PMID:9736762

  2. Less can be more: loss of MHC functional diversity can reflect adaptation to novel conditions during fish invasions

    PubMed Central

    Monzón-Argüello, Catalina; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Consuegra, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    The ability of invasive species to adapt to novel conditions depends on population size and environmental mismatch, but also on genetic variation. Away from their native range, invasive species confronted with novel selective pressures may display different levels of neutral versus functional genetic variation. However, the majority of invasion studies have only examined genetic variation at neutral markers, which may reveal little about how invaders adapt to novel environments. Salmonids are good model systems to examine adaptation to novel pressures because they have been translocated all over the world and represent major threats to freshwater biodiversity in the Southern Hemisphere, where they have become invasive. We examined patterns of genetic differentiation at seven putatively neutral (microsatellites) loci and one immune-related major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II-β) locus among introduced rainbow trout living in captivity (farmed) or under natural conditions (naturalized) in Chilean Patagonia. A significant positive association was found between differentiation at neutral and functional markers, highlighting the role of neutral evolutionary forces in shaping genetic variation at immune-related genes in salmonids. However, functional (MHC) genetic diversity (but not microsatellite diversity) decreased with time spent in the wild since introduction, suggesting that there was selection against alleles associated with captive rearing of donor populations that do not provide an advantage in the wild. Thus, although high genetic diversity may initially enhance fitness in translocated populations, it does not necessarily reflect invasion success, as adaptation to novel conditions may result in rapid loss of functional MHC diversity. PMID:24223274

  3. Individual Behavioral Adaptability to Diminished G-Forces and Calcium Uptake of Inner ear Otoliths in Fish. A Sounding Rocket Experiment (TX 48)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knie, Miriam; Shcherbakov, Denis; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2013-02-01

    In the course of the TEXUS 45 experiment we were able to show that the time-course of a habituation to diminished gravity depends on the respective G-level HQM (high quality microgravity, 10-4g) vs. LQM (low quality microgravity, 10-2g) and on the symmetric morphology of the gravity sensing components of the inner ear. An individually different regulation of inner ear otolith calcification plays a role in this process. With this study, the results of the TEXUS 45 flight were validated for another g-level (9x10-4g). In the course of the behavioural investigations we were able to show that most fish could adapt to these μg condition. Fish experiencing permanently 9x10-4g during the whole flight exhibit less kinetotic movements and from this we conclude, that they might use this minimal g-force for orientation. Furthermore these behavioural data were correlated with the morphology of otoliths (Lapilli and Sagittae).

  4. Adaptative features of ectothermic enzymes. III--Studies on phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) from five species of tropical fishes of the superorder Ostariophysi.

    PubMed

    Coppes de Achaval, Z; Schwantes, M L; Schwantes, A R; De Luca, P H; Val, A L

    1982-01-01

    1. The electrokinetic and thermostability properties of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) in five species of tropical fish (Ostariophysi)-Leporinus friderici, L. silverstrii, Schizodon nasuttus, Hypostomus sp and Pimelodus maculatus--have been studied in order to study the adaptative nature of protein heterogeneity found in ectotherms. 2. Unlike most diploid fishes, the PGI of these species seemed to be encoded by three, four or five loci. 3. The subunits encoded by these loci occurred at different levels in the different tissues and organs analyzed. 4. Genetic variants at the three PGI loci were detected in two species of the family Anostomidae (L. friderici and S. nasuttus). In the family Pimelodidae, P. Maculatus showed a genetic variant as the Pgi-1 locus. 5. The product of these loci could be separated in three PGI regions based on their electrophoretic mobility, tissue distribution and thermostability properties. 6. The more anodal region (including isozymes and allozymes) was more thermolabile then the less anodal one, which is predominant in a single tissue-skeletal muscle.

  5. Science to support adaptive habitat management: Overton Bottoms North Unit, Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Missouri [Volumes 1-6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive efforts are underway along the Lower Missouri River to rehabilitate ecosystem functions in the channel and flood plain. Considerable uncertainty inevitably accompanies ecosystem restoration efforts, indicating the benefits of an adaptive management approach in which management actions are treated as experiments, and results provide information to feed back into the management process. The Overton Bottoms North Unit of the Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge is a part of the Missouri River Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Project. The dominant management action at the Overton Bottoms North Unit has been excavation of a side-channel chute to increase hydrologic connectivity and to enhance shallow, slow current-velocity habitat. The side-channel chute also promises to increase hydrologic gradients, and may serve to alter patterns of wetland inundation and vegetation community growth in undesired ways. The U.S. Geological Survey's Central Region Integrated Studies Program (CRISP) undertook interdisciplinary research at the Overton Bottoms North Unit in 2003 to address key areas of scientific uncertainty that were highly relevant to ongoing adaptive management of the site, and to the design of similar rehabilitation projects on the Lower Missouri River. This volume presents chapters documenting the surficial geologic, topographic, surface-water, and ground-water framework of the Overton Bottoms North Unit. Retrospective analysis of vegetation community trends over the last 10 years is used to evaluate vegetation responses to reconnection of the Overton Bottoms North Unit to the river channel. Quasi-experimental analysis of cottonwood growth rate variation along hydrologic gradients is used to evaluate sensitivity of terrestrial vegetation to development of aquatic habitats. The integrated, landscape-specific understanding derived from these studies illustrates the value of scientific information in design and management of rehabilitation projects.

  6. Evolution, organization, and expression of alpha-tubulin genes in the antarctic fish Notothenia coriiceps. Adaptive expansion of a gene family by recent gene duplication, inversion, and divergence.

    PubMed

    Parker, S K; Detrich, H W

    1998-12-18

    To assess the organization and expression of tubulin genes in ectothermic vertebrates, we have chosen the Antarctic yellowbelly rockcod, Notothenia coriiceps, as a model system. The genome of N. coriiceps contains approximately 15 distinct DNA fragments complementary to alpha-tubulin cDNA probes, which suggests that the alpha-tubulins of this cold-adapted fish are encoded by a substantial multigene family. From an N. coriiceps testicular DNA library, we isolated a 13.8-kilobase pair genomic clone that contains a tightly linked cluster of three alpha-tubulin genes, designated NcGTbalphaa, NcGTbalphab, and NcGTbalphac. Two of these genes, NcGTbalphaa and NcGTbalphab, are linked in head-to-head (5' to 5') orientation with approximately 500 bp separating their start codons, whereas NcGTbalphaa and NcGTbalphac are linked tail-to-tail (3' to 3') with approximately 2.5 kilobase pairs between their stop codons. The exons, introns, and untranslated regions of the three alpha-tubulin genes are strikingly similar in sequence, and the intergenic region between the alphaa and alphab genes is significantly palindromic. Thus, this cluster probably evolved by duplication, inversion, and divergence of a common ancestral alpha-tubulin gene. Expression of the NcGTbalphac gene is cosmopolitan, with its mRNA most abundant in hematopoietic, neural, and testicular tissues, whereas NcGTbalphaa and NcGTbalphab transcripts accumulate primarily in brain. The differential expression of the three genes is consistent with distinct suites of putative promoter and enhancer elements. We propose that cold adaptation of the microtubule system of Antarctic fishes is based in part on expansion of the alpha- and beta-tubulin gene families to ensure efficient synthesis of tubulin polypeptides.

  7. Embryonic and larval development in the Midas cichlid fish species flock (Amphilophus spp.): a new evo-devo model for the investigation of adaptive novelties and species differences.

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, Claudius F; Sefton, Maggie M; Meyer, Axel

    2015-02-26

    Central American crater lake cichlid fish of the Midas species complex (Amphilophus spp.) are a model system for sympatric speciation and fast ecological diversification and specialization. Midas cichlids have been intensively analyzed from an ecological and morphological perspective. Genomic resources such as transcriptomic and genomic data sets, and a high-quality draft genome are available now. Many ecologically relevant species-specific traits and differences such as pigmentation and cranial morphology arise during development. Detailed descriptions of the early development of the Midas cichlid in particular, will help to investigate the ontogeny of species differences and adaptations. We describe the embryonic and larval development of the crater lake cichlid, Amphilophus xiloaensis, until seven days after fertilization. Similar to previous studies on teleost development, we describe six periods of embryogenesis - the zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, and post-hatching period. Furthermore, we define homologous stages to well-described teleost models such as medaka and zebrafish, as well as other cichlid species such as the Nile tilapia and the South American cichlid Cichlasoma dimerus. Key morphological differences between the embryos of Midas cichlids and other teleosts are highlighted and discussed, including the presence of adhesive glands and different early chromatophore patterns, as well as variation in developmental timing. The developmental staging of the Midas cichlid will aid researchers in the comparative investigation of teleost ontogenies. It will facilitate comparative developmental biological studies of Neotropical and African cichlid fish in particular. In the past, the species flocks of the African Great Lakes have received the most attention from researchers, but some lineages of the 300-400 species of Central American lakes are fascinating model systems for adaptive radiation and rapid phenotypic evolution. The availability

  8. Population genomic signatures of divergent adaptation, gene flow and hybrid speciation in the rapid radiation of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Keller, I; Wagner, C E; Greuter, L; Mwaiko, S; Selz, O M; Sivasundar, A; Wittwer, S; Seehausen, O

    2013-06-01

    Adaptive radiations are an important source of biodiversity and are often characterized by many speciation events in very short succession. It has been proposed that the high speciation rates in these radiations may be fuelled by novel genetic combinations produced in episodes of hybridization among the young species. The role of such hybridization events in the evolutionary history of a group can be investigated by comparing the genealogical relationships inferred from different subsets of loci, but such studies have thus far often been hampered by shallow genetic divergences, especially in young adaptive radiations, and the lack of genome-scale molecular data. Here, we use a genome-wide sampling of SNPs identified within restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) tags to investigate the genomic consistency of patterns of shared ancestry and adaptive divergence among five sympatric cichlid species of two genera, Pundamilia and Mbipia, which form part of the massive adaptive radiation of cichlids in the East African Lake Victoria. Species pairs differ along several axes: male nuptial colouration, feeding ecology, depth distribution, as well as the morphological traits that distinguish the two genera and more subtle morphological differences. Using outlier scan approaches, we identify signals of divergent selection between all species pairs with a number of loci showing parallel patterns in replicated contrasts either between genera or between male colour types. We then create SNP subsets that we expect to be characterized to different extents by selection history and neutral processes and describe phylogenetic and population genetic patterns across these subsets. These analyses reveal very different evolutionary histories for different regions of the genome. To explain these results, we propose at least two intergeneric hybridization events (between Mbipia spp. and Pundamilia spp.) in the evolutionary history of these five species that would have lead to the evolution

  9. Genomic signatures of local adaptation reveal source-sink dynamics in a high gene flow fish species.

    PubMed

    Cure, Katherine; Thomas, Luke; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Fairclough, David V; Kennington, W Jason

    2017-08-17

    Understanding source-sink dynamics is important for conservation management, particularly when climatic events alter species' distributions. Following a 2011 'marine heatwave' in Western Australia, we observed high recruitment of the endemic fisheries target species Choerodon rubescens, towards the cooler (southern) end of its distribution. Here, we use a genome wide set of 14 559 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify the likely source population for this recruitment event. Most loci (76%) showed low genetic divergence across the species' range, indicating high levels of gene flow and confirming previous findings using neutral microsatellite markers. However, a small proportion of loci showed strong patterns of differentiation and exhibited patterns of population structure consistent with local adaptation. Clustering analyses based on these outlier loci indicated that recruits at the southern end of C. rubescens' range originated 400 km to the north, at the centre of the species' range, where average temperatures are up to 3 °C warmer. Survival of these recruits may be low because they carry alleles adapted to an environment different to the one they now reside in, but their survival is key to establishing locally adapted populations at and beyond the range edge as water temperatures increase with climate change.

  10. An adaptive approach to invasive plant management on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service-owned native prairies in the Prairie Pothole Region: decision support under uncertainity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jill J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Flanders-Wanner, Bridgette

    2011-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. We describe the technical components of a USGS management project, and explain how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. In partnership with the Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. The framework is built around practical constraints faced by refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen Service field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, are participating in the project. They share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. While the scope is broad, the project interfaces with individual land managers who provide refuge-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators.

  11. A phylogeny of Cichlidogyrus spp. (Monogenea, Dactylogyridea) clarifies a host-switch between fish families and reveals an adaptive component to attachment organ morphology of this parasite genus.

    PubMed

    Messu Mandeng, Françoise D; Bilong Bilong, Charles F; Pariselle, Antoine; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Bitja Nyom, Arnold R; Agnèse, Jean-François

    2015-11-10

    Parasite switches to new host species are of fundamental scientific interest and may be considered an important speciation mechanism. For numerous monogenean fish parasites, infecting different hosts is associated with morphological adaptations, in particular of the attachment organ (haptor). However, haptoral morphology in Cichlidogyrus spp. (Monogenea, Dactylogyridea), parasites of African cichlids, has been mainly linked to phylogenetic rather than to host constraints. Here we determined the position of Cichlidogyrus amieti, a parasite of species of Aphyosemion (Cyprinodontiformes, Nothobranchiidae) in the phylogeny of its congeners in order to infer its origin and assess the morphological changes associated with host-switching events. The DNA of specimens of C. amieti isolated from Aphyosemion cameronense in Cameroon was sequenced and analyzed together with that of Cichlidogyrus spp. from cichlid hosts. In order to highlight the influence of the lateral transfer of C. amieti on the haptoral sclerotised parts we performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to compare the attachment organ structure of C. amieti to that of congeners infecting cichlids. Cichlidogyrus amieti was found to be nested within a strongly supported clade of species described from Hemichromis spp. (i.e. C. longicirrus and C. dracolemma). This clade is located at a derived position of the tree, suggesting that C. amieti transferred from cichlids to Cyprinodontiformes and not inversely. The morphological similarity between features of their copulatory organs suggested that C. amieti shares a recent ancestor with C. dracolemma. It also indicates that in this case, these organs do not seem subjected to strong divergent selection pressure. On the other hand, there are substantial differences in haptoral morphology between C. amieti and all of its closely related congeners described from Hemichromis spp.. Our study provides new evidence supporting the hypothesis of the adaptive nature of haptor

  12. Locally adapted fish populations maintain small-scale genetic differentiation despite perturbation by a catastrophic flood event

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Local adaptation to divergent environmental conditions can promote population genetic differentiation even in the absence of geographic barriers and hence, lead to speciation. Perturbations by catastrophic events, however, can distort such parapatric ecological speciation processes. Here, we asked whether an exceptionally strong flood led to homogenization of gene pools among locally adapted populations of the Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae) in the Cueva del Azufre system in southern Mexico, where two strong environmental selection factors (darkness within caves and/or presence of toxic H2S in sulfidic springs) drive the diversification of P. mexicana. Nine nuclear microsatellites as well as heritable female life history traits (both as a proxy for quantitative genetics and for trait divergence) were used as markers to compare genetic differentiation, genetic diversity, and especially population mixing (immigration and emigration) before and after the flood. Results Habitat type (i.e., non-sulfidic surface, sulfidic surface, or sulfidic cave), but not geographic distance was the major predictor of genetic differentiation. Before and after the flood, each habitat type harbored a genetically distinct population. Only a weak signal of individual dislocation among ecologically divergent habitat types was uncovered (with the exception of slightly increased dislocation from the Cueva del Azufre into the sulfidic creek, El Azufre). By contrast, several lines of evidence are indicative of increased flood-induced dislocation within the same habitat type, e.g., between different cave chambers of the Cueva del Azufre. Conclusions The virtual absence of individual dislocation among ecologically different habitat types indicates strong natural selection against migrants. Thus, our current study exemplifies that ecological speciation in this and other systems, in which extreme environmental factors drive speciation, may be little affected by temporary

  13. Heritability and adaptive significance of the number of egg-dummies in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Meyer, Axel

    2011-08-07

    Cichlid fishes are a textbook example of rapid speciation and exuberant diversity--this applies especially to haplochromines, a lineage with approximately 1800 species. Haplochromine males uniquely possess oval, bright spots on their anal fin, called 'egg-spots' or 'egg-dummies'. These are presumed to be an evolutionary key innovation that contributed to the tribe's evolutionary success. Egg-spots have been proposed to mimic the ova of the mouthbrooding females of the corresponding species, contribute to fertilization success and even facilitate species recognition. Interestingly, egg-spot number varies extensively not only between species, but also within some populations. This high degree of intraspecific variation may appear to be counterintuitive since selection might be expected to act to stabilize traits that are correlated with fitness measures. We addressed this 'paradox' experimentally, and found that in the haplochromine cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni, the number of egg-spots was related to male age, body condition and dominance status. Intriguingly, the egg-spot number also had a high heritable component (narrow sense heritability of 0.5). These results suggest that the function of egg-spots might have less to do with fertilization success or species recognition, but rather relate to mate choice and/or male-male competition, helping to explain the high variability in this important trait.

  14. Heritability and adaptive significance of the number of egg-dummies in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Topi K.; Meyer, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Cichlid fishes are a textbook example of rapid speciation and exuberant diversity—this applies especially to haplochromines, a lineage with approximately 1800 species. Haplochromine males uniquely possess oval, bright spots on their anal fin, called ‘egg-spots’ or ‘egg-dummies’. These are presumed to be an evolutionary key innovation that contributed to the tribe's evolutionary success. Egg-spots have been proposed to mimic the ova of the mouthbrooding females of the corresponding species, contribute to fertilization success and even facilitate species recognition. Interestingly, egg-spot number varies extensively not only between species, but also within some populations. This high degree of intraspecific variation may appear to be counterintuitive since selection might be expected to act to stabilize traits that are correlated with fitness measures. We addressed this ‘paradox’ experimentally, and found that in the haplochromine cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni, the number of egg-spots was related to male age, body condition and dominance status. Intriguingly, the egg-spot number also had a high heritable component (narrow sense heritability of 0.5). These results suggest that the function of egg-spots might have less to do with fertilization success or species recognition, but rather relate to mate choice and/or male–male competition, helping to explain the high variability in this important trait. PMID:21208958

  15. Eye development in the four-eyed fish Anableps anableps: cranial and retinal adaptations to simultaneous aerial and aquatic vision.

    PubMed

    Perez, Louise N; Lorena, Jamily; Costa, Carinne M; Araujo, Maysa S; Frota-Lima, Gabriela N; Matos-Rodrigues, Gabriel E; Martins, Rodrigo A P; Mattox, George M T; Schneider, Patricia N

    2017-04-12

    The unique eyes of the four-eyed fish Anableps anableps have long intrigued biologists. Key features associated with the bulging eye of Anableps include the expanded frontal bone and the duplicated pupils and cornea. Furthermore, the Anableps retina expresses different photoreceptor genes in dorsal and ventral regions, potentially associated with distinct aerial and aquatic stimuli. To gain insight into the developmental basis of the Anableps unique eye, we examined neurocranium and eye ontogeny, as well as photoreceptor gene expression during larval stages. First, we described six larval stages during which duplication of eye structures occurs. Our osteological analysis of neurocranium ontogeny revealed another distinctive Anablepid feature: an ossified interorbital septum partially separating the orbital cavities. Furthermore, we identified the onset of differences in cell proliferation and cell layer density between dorsal and ventral regions of the retina. Finally, we show that differential photoreceptor gene expression in the retina initiates during development, suggesting that it is inherited and not environmentally determined. In sum, our results shed light on the ontogenetic steps leading to the highly derived Anableps eye.

  16. Development of an adaptive monitoring framework for long-term programs: An example using indicators of fish health.

    PubMed

    Arciszewski, Tim J; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2015-10-01

    Detecting unwanted changes associated with localized human activities in aquatic ecosystems requires defining the value of an indicator expected at a site in the absence of development. Ideally, adequate and comparable baseline data will be collected at an exposure location before that development, but this is rarely done. Instead, comparisons are made using various designs to overcome the inadequate or missing baseline data. Commonly these comparisons are done over short periods, using information from local reference sites to estimate variability expected at the exposed site. Results of these truncated designs are often evaluated using p values that may have little bearing on ecologically relevant changes. To remedy the reliance of studies on small datasets collected at reference sites, other designs emphasize regional analyses, but these may be insensitive to site-specific changes. Some designs also may forego discussing the consequences of detecting any differences. A new monitoring framework has been proposed to use existing solutions, simplify analysis, and focus on the detection of meaningful changes. It is illustrated here by using data on fish health from a large-scale, long-term program in the Moose River basin in northern Ontario. This framework advocates interpretation of data at multiple scales: within-site, locally, and regionally. The primary focus is on estimating a range from a probability distribution of historical data collected at a specific location where 95% of future observations are predicted to occur. Changes at the exposed site are also compared with historical and contemporary expectations from proximate and regional reference sites. Critical effect sizes also can be derived from regional reference data to evaluate the magnitude of differences observed between any 2 sites. Any unexpected changes inform future monitoring decisions provided by a priori guidance. Adoption of this framework extends the utility of monitoring programs in which

  17. Fish Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mashoof, Sara; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglobulin isotype or taxonomic group and what exemplifies an exception. PMID:27879632

  18. Notothenioid fish, krill and phytoplankton from Antarctica contain a vitamin E constituent (alpha-tocomonoenol) functionally associated with cold-water adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Walter C; Fujisawa, Akio; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Moylan, Thomas J; Sidell, Bruce D

    2002-11-01

    The vitamin E (VE) content of tissues from the Antarctic notothenioid fish, Chaenocephalus aceratus, Champsocephalus gunnari and Gobionotothen gibberifrons, and extracts of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba and phytoplankton collected from the Antarctic Peninsula was examined. Included in the VE composition was a newly described 'marine-derived' tocopherol (MDT), an unsaturated-isoprenoid derivative of alpha-tocopherol, that is attributed to enhancing antioxidant protection of cellular lipids at low temperature. MDT was found to co-exist with alpha-tocopherol in all Antarctic samples, ranging from 2.8 to 22.3% of the total VE composition. The highest level of VE was found in the liver of G. gibberifrons (VE=416.7 pmol/mg wet tissue) although this tissue had a low MDT composition (7.7%), whereas the greatest MDT composition was measured in the liver of C. gunnari (MDT=22.3%). In notothenioids, the pectoral adductor muscle, which has a high density of mitochondria, contained higher levels of VE than white myotomal muscle, but differences in MDT composition were small. Phytoplankton and krill also contained MDT, which supports the contention that MDT is obtained directly from the primary food chain. Our finding of MDT in Antarctic organisms is consistent with its putatively adaptive function to enhance antioxidant protection in coldwater metabolism. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  19. Retroposition of the AFC family of SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements) before and during the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi and related inferences about phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Nishida, M; Yuma, M; Okada, N

    2001-01-01

    Lake Malawi is home to more than 450 species of endemic cichlids, which provide a spectacular example of adaptive radiation. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships among these fish, we examined the presence and absence of SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements) at orthologous loci. We identified six loci at which a SINE sequence had apparently been specifically inserted by retroposition in the common ancestor of all the investigated species of endemic cichlids in Lake Malawi. At another locus, unique sharing of a SINE sequence was evident among all the investigated species of endemic non-Mbuna cichlids with the exception of Rhamphochromis sp. The relationships were in good agreement with those deduced in previous studies with various different markers, demonstrating that the SINE method is useful for the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships among cichlids in Lake Malawi. We also characterized a locus that exhibited transspecies polymorphism with respect to the presence or absence of the SINE sequence among non-Mbuna species. This result suggests that incomplete lineage sorting and/or interspecific hybridization might have occurred or be occurring among the species in this group, which might potentially cause misinterpretation of phylogenetic data, in particular when a single-locus marker, such as a sequence in the mitochondrial DNA, is used for analysis.

  20. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  1. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  2. B cells in teleost fish act as pivotal initiating APCs in priming adaptive immunity: an evolutionary perspective on the origin of the B-1 cell subset and B7 molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lv-yun; Lin, Ai-fu; Shao, Tong; Nie, Li; Dong, Wei-ren; Xiang, Li-xin; Shao, Jian-zhong

    2014-03-15

    The long-held paradigm that B cells cannot uptake nonspecific particulate Ags for the initiation of primary adaptive immunity has been challenged by the recent discovery that teleost B cells have potent phagocytic and microbicidal abilities. This discovery provides preliminary clues that primitive B cells might act as initiating APCs in priming adaptive immunity. In this study, zebrafish B cells clearly showed a potent Ag-presenting ability to both soluble Ags and bacterial particles to prime naive CD4(+) T cell activation. This finding demonstrates the innate-like nature of teleost B cells in the interface of innate and adaptive immunity, indicating that they might consist of a major population of initiating APCs whose performance is similar to that of dendritic cells. Given the functional similarities between teleost B cells and the mammalian B-1 subset, we hypothesize that B-1 lineage and teleost B cells might originate from a common ancestor with potent phagocytic and initiating APC capacities. In addition, CD80/86 and CD83 costimulatory signals were identified as being essential for B cell-initiated adaptive immunity. This result suggests that the costimulatory mechanism originated as early as the origin of adaptive immunity and is conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. In fish, only a single CD80/86 copy exists, which is similar to mammalian CD86 rather than to CD80. Thus, CD86 might be a more primordial B7 family member that originated from fish. This study provides valuable insights into the evolutionary history of professional APCs, B cell lineages, and the costimulatory mechanism underlying adaptive immunity as a whole.

  3. No adaptive response is induced by chronic low-dose radiation from Ra-226 in the CHSE/F fish embryonic cell line and the HaCaT human epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaopei; Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether chronic low-dose α-particle radiation from Ra-226 over multiple cell generations can lead to an adaptive response in CHSE/F fish embryonic cells or HaCaT human epithelial cells receiving subsequent acute high-dose γ-ray radiation. CHSE/F and HaCaT cells were exposed to very low doses of Ra-226 in medium for multiple generations prior to being challenged by a higher dose γ-ray radiation. The clonogenic assay was used to test the clonogenic survival of cells with or without being pretreated by radiation from Ra-226. In general, pretreatment with chronic radiation has no significant influence on the reaction of cells to the subsequent challenge radiation. Compared to unprimed cells, the change in clonogenic survival of primed cells after receiving challenge radiation is mainly due to the influence of the chronic exposure, and there's little adaptive response induced. However at several dose points, pretreatment of CHSE/F fish cells with chronic radiation resulted in a radiosensitive response to a challenge dose of γ-ray radiation, and pretreatment of HaCaT cells resulted in no effect except for a slightly radioresistant response to the challenge radiation which was not significant. The results suggest that chronic low-dose radiation is not effective enough to induce adaptive response. There was a difference between human and fish cells and it may be important to consider results from multiple species before making conclusions about effects of chronic or low doses of radiation in the environment. The term "radiosensitive" or "adaptive" make no judgment about whether such responses are ultimately beneficial or harmful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can react to touching fish or breathing in vapors from cooking fish. A fish allergy can cause ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure , causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...

  5. City Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

  6. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  7. Sex differences in the effect of fish-oil supplementation on the adaptive response to resistance exercise training in older people: a randomized controlled trial12

    PubMed Central

    Da Boit, Mariasole; Sibson, Rachael; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Meakin, Judith R; Greig, Carolyn A; Aspden, Richard M; Thies, Frank; Jeromson, Stewart; Hamilton, D Lee; Speakman, John R; Hambly, Catherine; Mangoni, Arduino A; Preston, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Resistance exercise increases muscle mass and function in older adults, but responses are attenuated compared with younger people. Data suggest that long-chain n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may enhance adaptations to resistance exercise in older women. To our knowledge, this possibility has not been investigated in men. Objective: We sought to determine the effects of long-chain n–3 PUFA supplementation on resistance exercise training–induced increases in muscle mass and function and whether these effects differ between older men and women. Design: Fifty men and women [men: n = 27, mean ± SD age: 70.6 ± 4.5 y, mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 25.6 ± 4.2; women: n = 23, mean ± SD age: 70.7 ± 3.3 y, mean ± SD BMI: 25.3 ± 4.7] were randomly assigned to either long-chain n–3 PUFA (n = 23; 3 g fish oil/d) or placebo (n = 27; 3 g safflower oil/d) and participated in lower-limb resistance exercise training twice weekly for 18 wk. Muscle size, strength, and quality (strength per unit muscle area), functional abilities, and circulating metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Maximal isometric torque increased after exercise training to a greater (P < 0.05) extent in the long-chain n–3 PUFA group than in the placebo group in women, with no differences (P > 0.05) between groups in men. In both sexes, the effect of exercise training on maximal isokinetic torque at 30, 90, and 240° s−1, 4-m walk time, chair-rise time, muscle anatomic cross-sectional area, and muscle fat did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. There was a greater (P < 0.05) increase in muscle quality in women after exercise training in the long-chain n–3 PUFA group than in the placebo group, with no such differences in men (P > 0.05). Long-chain n–3 PUFAs resulted in a greater decrease (P < 0.05) than the placebo in plasma triglyceride concentrations in both sexes, with no differences (P > 0.05) in

  8. Significant effects of fishing gear selectivity on fish life history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhenlin; Sun, Peng; Yan, Wei; Huang, Liuyi; Tang, Yanli

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, extreme changes have occurred in the characters of exploited fish populations. The majority of these changes have affected the growth traits of fish life history, which include a smaller size-at-age, an earlier age-at-maturation and among others. Currently, the causes of these life history traits changes still require systematic analyses and empirical studies. The explanations that have been cited are merely expressed in terms of fish phenotypic adaptation. It has been claimed that the original traits of fish can be recovered once the intensity of exploitation of the fish is controlled. Sustained environmental and fishing pressure will change the life history traits of most fish species, so the fish individual's traits are still in small size-at-age and at earlier age-at-maturation in exploited fish populations. In this paper, we expressed our view of points that fishing gear has imposed selectivity on fish populations and individuals as various other environmental factors have done and such changes are unrecoverable. According to the existing tend of exploited fish individual's life history traits, we suggested further researches in this field and provided better methods of fishery management and thereby fishery resources protection than those available early.

  9. Fermentation of non-sterilized fish biomass with a mixed culture of film-forming yeasts and lactobacilli and its effect on innate and adaptive immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shigeaki; Suzuki-Utsunomiya, Kyoko; Komori, Yukako; Kamijo, Akemi; Yumura, Isao; Tanabe, Koudai; Miyawaki, Ayumi; Koga, Kunimasa

    2013-12-01

    Non-sterilized fish waste containing fish bones was fermented using combined starter cultures of film-forming yeast (Candida ethanolica) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB; Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus) in order to obtain a liquefied fermented broth without spoiling. During the entire fermentation, the number of LAB cells was maintained at a high level (6 × 10(8)-5 × 10(7) cells/ml). Although the number of general bacteria was 10(6)cell/ml after adding non-sterilized fish biomass, its growth was suppressed to be 1-3 × 10(4) cells/ml. The entire biomass had completely liquefied and the fermented broth contained all 20 α-amino acids composed of protein and also various kinds of minerals in abundance. The weight of mice group fed the fermented broth content feed (sample feed) for 31 days significantly increased compared with that fed no broth feed (control feed) (21.37 g vs 20.76 g (p < 0.05). No abnormal behavior and appearance were observed. All internal organs (the heart, the liver, the lung, the intestines, and the spleen) of both groups were confirmed to be normal by visual observation. In peripheral blood, the percentages of NK cells and CD8+ T cells of the mice in the sample feed group increased significantly relative to those in the control feed group (NK cells: 19% vs 11%, CD8+ T cells: 9% vs 5%, p < 0.05). In the spleen, the percentage of NK cells in the sample feed group also increased significantly compared to that in the control feed group (p < 0.05). The fermented fish biomass is expected to be effective for innate and adaptive immunity and thus fit for animal feed. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Temporal stability of parasite distribution and genetic variability values of Contracaecum osculatum sp. D and C. osculatum sp. E (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from fish of the Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    PubMed Central

    Mattiucci, Simonetta; Cipriani, Paolo; Paoletti, Michela; Nardi, Valentina; Santoro, Mario; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The Ross Sea, Eastern Antarctica, is considered a “pristine ecosystem” and a biodiversity “hotspot” scarcely impacted by humans. The sibling species Contracaecum osculatum sp. D and C. osculatum sp. E are anisakid parasites embedded in the natural Antarctic marine ecosystem. Aims of this study were to: identify the larvae of C. osculatum (s.l.) recovered in fish hosts during the XXVII Italian Expedition to Antarctica (2011–2012); perform a comparative analysis of the contemporary parasitic load and genetic variability estimates of C. osculatum sp. D and C. osculatum sp. E with respect to samples collected during the expedition of 1993–1994; to provide ecological data on these parasites. 200 fish specimens (Chionodraco hamatus, Trematomus bernacchii, Trematomus hansoni, Trematomus newnesi) were analysed for Contracaecum sp. larvae, identified at species level by allozyme diagnostic markers and sequences analysis of the mtDNA cox2 gene. Statistically significant differences were found between the occurrence of C. osculatum sp. D and C. osculatum sp. E in different fish species. C. osculatum sp. E was more prevalent in T. bernacchii; while, a higher percentage of C. osculatum sp. D occurred in Ch. hamatus and T. hansoni. The two species also showed differences in the host infection site: C. osculatum sp. D showed higher percentage of infection in the fish liver. High genetic variability values at both nuclear and mitochondrial level were found in the two species in both sampling periods. The parasitic infection levels by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and their estimates of genetic variability showed no statistically significant variation over a temporal scale (2012 versus 1994). This suggests that the low habitat disturbance of the Antarctic region permits the maintenance of stable ecosystem trophic webs, which contributes to the maintenance of a large populations of anisakid nematodes with high genetic variability. PMID:26767164

  11. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ...

  12. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  13. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  14. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-07

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms.

  15. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  16. Fish detection and classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidd, Richard A.; Wilder, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Marine biologists traditionally determine the presence and quantities of different types of fish by dragging nets across the bottom, and examining their contents. This method, although accurate, kills the collected fish, damages their habitat, and consumes large quantities of resources. This paper presents an alternative, a machine vision system capable of determining the presence of fish species. Illumination presents a unique problem in this environment, and the design of an effective illumination system is discussed. The related issues of object orientation and measurement are also discussed and resolved. Capturing images of fish in murky water also presents challenges. An adaptive thresholding technique is required to appropriately segment the fish from the background in these images. Mode detection, and histogram analysis are useful tools in determining these localized thresholds. It is anticipated that this system, created in conjunction with the Rutgers Institute for Marine and Coastal Science, will effectively classify fish in the estuarine environment.

  17. Randomized controlled trial of early enteral fat supplement and fish oil to promote intestinal adaptation in premature infants with an enterostomy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Ayers, Kathleen; Welch, Cherrie D; O'Shea, T Michael

    2014-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that early enteral supplementing fat and fish oil decreases the duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) and increases enteral nutrition (EN) before bowel reanastomosis in premature infants with an enterostomy. Premature infants (<2 months old) who had an enterostomy and tolerated enteral feeding at 20 mL/kg/day were randomized to usual care (control=18) or early supplementing enteral fat supplement and fish oil (treatment=18). Intravenous lipid was decreased as enteral fat intake was increased. Daily weight, clinical and nutrition data, and weekly length and head circumference were recorded. The primary outcomes were the duration of PN and volume of EN intake, and the secondary outcomes were weight gain (g/day), ostomy output (mL/kg/d), and serum conjugated bilirubin level (mg/dL) from initiating feeding to reanastomosis. Data were analyzed by Student t test or Wilcoxon rank sum test. There were no differences in the duration of PN, ostomy output, and weight gain between the 2 groups before reanastomosis. However, supplemented infants received less intravenous lipid, had greater EN intake, and lower conjugated bilirubin before reanastomosis, and they also received greater total calorie, had fewer sepsis evaluations and less exposure to antibiotics and central venous catheters before reanastomosis, and had greater weight and length gain after reanastomosis (all P<.05). Early enteral feeding of a fat supplement and fish oil was associated with decreased exposure to intravenous lipid, increased EN intake, and reduced conjugated bilirubin before reanastomosis and improved weight and length gain after reanastomosis in premature infants with an enterostomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use and usability of experimental monitoring data and temperature modeling to inform adaptive management of the Colorado River's thermal regime for native fish conservation below Glen Canyon Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal thermal variability of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon was severely decreased by closure of Glen Canyon Dam and filling of Lake Powell reservoir that was achieved in 1980. From 1973 to 2002, downstream summer river temperatures at Lees Ferry were about 18°C below pre-dam conditions, and limited juvenile native fish growth and survival. A large-scale flow experiment to improve the river's thermal regime for spawning and rearing habitat of endangered native humpback chub and other native fish in eastern Grand Canyon was conducted in Water Year 2000. Monitoring revealed warming, but well below the 16-18°C optimum for chub 124 km below the dam near the Little Colorado River confluence, and no measurable chub population increase in Grand Canyon. Fall-timed stable flow experiments to improve shoreline chub nursery habitat (2008-12) were also inconclusive relative to juvenile chub growth and recruitment. Field studies also showed that daytime warming of shoreline habitats used by fish under steady flows is limited by high daily exchange rates with main channel water. Monthly averaged and higher resolution temperature models have also been developed and used to support more recent experimental management planning. Temperature simulations have been useful for screening dam release scenarios under varied reservoir storage conditions with and without use of previously proposed but never constructed multilevel intake structures on the dam's hydroelectric units. Most importantly, modeling revealed the geophysical limits on downstream warming under existing water management and dam operating policies. Hourly unsteady flow simulations in 2006 predicted equivalent levels of average downstream river warming under either fluctuating or steady flows for a given monthly release volume. River warming observed since 2002, has resulted from reduced Lake Powell storage resulting from drier upper basin hydrology. In support of new environmental compliance on dam operations

  19. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  20. Developing predictive approaches to characterize adaptive responses of the reproductive endocrine axis to aromatase inhibition: I. Data generation in a small fish model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive or compensatory responses to chemical exposure can significantly influence in vivo concentration-duration-response relationships. The aim of this study was to provide data to support development of a computational dynamic model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis ...

  1. Developing predictive approaches to characterize adaptive responses of the reproductive endocrine axis to aromatase inhibition: I. Data generation in a small fish model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive or compensatory responses to chemical exposure can significantly influence in vivo concentration-duration-response relationships. The aim of this study was to provide data to support development of a computational dynamic model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis ...

  2. Rapid adaptation to a novel light environment: The importance of ontogeny and phenotypic plasticity in shaping the visual system of Nicaraguan Midas cichlid fish (Amphilophus citrinellus spp.).

    PubMed

    Härer, Andreas; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Meyer, Axel

    2017-08-09

    Colonization of novel habitats is typically challenging to organisms. In the initial stage after colonization, approximation to fitness optima in the new environment can occur by selection acting on standing genetic variation, modification of developmental patterns or phenotypic plasticity. Midas cichlids have recently colonized crater Lake Apoyo from great Lake Nicaragua. The photic environment of crater Lake Apoyo is shifted towards shorter wavelengths compared to great Lake Nicaragua and Midas cichlids from both lakes differ in visual sensitivity. We investigated the contribution of ontogeny and phenotypic plasticity in shaping the visual system of Midas cichlids after colonizing this novel photic environment. To this end, we measured cone opsin expression both during development and after experimental exposure to different light treatments. Midas cichlids from both lakes undergo ontogenetic changes in cone opsin expression, but visual sensitivity is consistently shifted towards shorter wavelengths in crater lake fish, which leads to a paedomorphic retention of their visual phenotype. This shift might be mediated by lower levels of thyroid hormone in crater lake Midas cichlids (measured indirectly as dio2 and dio3 gene expression). Exposing fish to different light treatments revealed that cone opsin expression is phenotypically plastic in both species during early development, with short and long wavelength light slowing or accelerating ontogenetic changes, respectively. Notably, this plastic response was maintained into adulthood only in the derived crater lake Midas cichlids. We conclude that the rapid evolution of Midas cichlids' visual system after colonizing crater Lake Apoyo was mediated by a shift in visual sensitivity during ontogeny and was further aided by phenotypic plasticity during development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Maureen K; Laing, Kerry J; Winton, James R

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  4. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals. PMID:22355456

  5. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  6. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  7. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  8. Visual adaptation in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes: depth-related variation of color and scotopic opsins in species from sand/mud bottoms.

    PubMed

    Terai, Yohey; Miyagi, Ryutaro; Aibara, Mitsuto; Mizoiri, Shinji; Imai, Hiroo; Okitsu, Takashi; Wada, Akimori; Takahashi-Kariyazono, Shiho; Sato, Akie; Tichy, Herbert; Mrosso, Hillary D J; Mzighani, Semvua I; Okada, Norihiro

    2017-08-22

    For Lake Victoria cichlid species inhabiting rocky substrates with differing light regimes, it has been proposed that adaptation of the long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin gene triggered speciation by sensory drive through color signal divergence. The extensive and continuous sand/mud substrates are also species-rich, and a correlation between male nuptial coloration and the absorption of LWS pigments has been reported. However, the factors driving genetic and functional diversity of LWS pigments in sand/mud habitats are still unresolved. To address this issue, nucleotide sequences of eight opsin genes were compared in ten Lake Victoria cichlid species collected from sand/mud bottoms. Among eight opsins, the LWS and rod-opsin (RH1) alleles were diversified and one particular allele was dominant or fixed in each species. Natural selection has acted on and fixed LWS alleles in each species. The functions of LWS and RH1 alleles were measured by absorption of reconstituted A1- and A2-derived visual pigments. The absorption of pigments from RH1 alleles most common in deep water were largely shifted toward red, whereas those of LWS alleles were largely shifted toward blue in both A1 and A2 pigments. In both RH1 and LWS pigments, A2-derived pigments were closer to the dominant light in deep water, suggesting the possibility of the adaptation of A2-derived pigments to depth-dependent light regimes. The RH1 and LWS sequences may be diversified for adaptation of A2-derived pigments to different light environments in sand/mud substrates. Diversification of the LWS alleles may have originally taken place in riverine environments, with a new mutation occurring subsequently in Lake Victoria.

  9. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  10. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  11. Fishing Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

  12. Competing risks and the development of adaptive management plans for water resources: Field reconnaissance investigation of risks to fishes and other aquatic biota exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) in lake mead, Nevada USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linder, G.; Little, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis and characterization of competing risks for water resources rely on a wide spectrum of tools to evaluate hazards and risks associated with their management. For example, waters of the lower Colorado River stored in reservoirs such as Lake Mead present a wide range of competing risks related to water quantity and water quality. These risks are often interdependent and complicated by competing uses of source waters for sustaining biological resources and for supporting a range of agricultural, municipal, recreational, and industrial uses. USGS is currently conducting a series of interdisciplinary case-studies on water quality of Lake Mead and its source waters. In this case-study we examine selected constituents potentially entering the Lake Mead system, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Worldwide, a number of environmental EDCs have been identified that affect reproduction, development, and adaptive behaviors in a wide range of organisms. Many EDCs are minimally affected by current treatment technologies and occur in treated sewage effluents. Several EDCs have been detected in Lake Mead, and several substances have been identified that are of concern because of potential impacts to the aquatic biota, including the sport fishery of Lake Mead and endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) that occur in the Colorado River system. For example, altered biomarkers relevant to reproduction and thyroid function in fishes have been observed and may be predictive of impaired metabolism and development. Few studies, however, have addressed whether such EDC-induced responses observed in the field have an ecologically significant effect on the reproductive success of fishes. To identify potential linkages between EDCs and species of management concern, the risk analysis and characterization in this reconnaissance study focused on effects (and attendant uncertainties) that might be expressed by exposed populations. In addition, risk reduction

  13. Comparative phylogenetic analyses of the adaptive radiation of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish: nuclear sequences are less homoplasious but also less informative than mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Clabaut, Céline; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2005-11-01

    Over 200 described endemic species make up the adaptive radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika. This species assemblage has been viewed as both an evolutionary reservoir of old cichlid lineages and an evolutionary hotspot from which the modern cichlid lineages arose, seeding the adaptive radiations in Lakes Victoria and Malawi. Here we report on a phylogenetic analysis of Lake Tanganyika cichlids combining the previously determined sequences of the mitochondrial ND2 gene (1047 bp) with newly derived sequences of the nuclear RAG1 gene (approximately 700 bp of intron 2 and approximately 1100 bp of exon 3). The nuclear data-in agreement with mitochondrial DNA-suggest that Lake Tanganyika harbors several ancient lineages that did not undergo rampant speciation (e.g., Bathybatini, Trematocarini). We find strong support for the monophyly of the most species-rich Tanganyikan group, the Lamprologini, and we propose a new taxonomic group that we term the C-lineage. The Haplochromini and Tropheini both have an 11-bp deletion in the intron of RAG1, strongly supporting the monophyly of this clade and its derived position. Mapping the phylogenetically informative positions revealed that, for certain branches, there are six times fewer apomorphies in RAG1. However, the consistency index of these positions is higher compared to the mitochondrial ND2 gene. Nuclear data therefore provide, on a per-base pair basis, less but more reliable phylogenetic information. Even if in our case RAG1 has not provided as much phylogenetic information as we expected, we suggest that this marker might be useful in the resolution of the phylogeny of older groups.

  14. Developing predictive approaches to characterize adaptive responses of the reproductive endocrine axis to aromatase inhibition: I. Data generation in a small fish model.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Daniel L; Breen, Miyuki; Bencic, David C; Cavallin, Jenna E; Jensen, Kathleen M; Makynen, Elizabeth A; Thomas, Linnea M; Wehmas, Leah C; Conolly, Rory B; Ankley, Gerald T

    2013-06-01

    Adaptive or compensatory responses to chemical exposure can significantly influence in vivo concentration-duration-response relationships. This study provided data to support development of a computational dynamic model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of a model vertebrate and its response to aromatase inhibitors as a class of endocrine active chemicals. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were either exposed to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (0.5 or 30 μg/l) continuously for 1, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, or 28 days or exposed for 8 days and then held in control water (no fadrozole) for an additional 4, 8, 12, 16, or 20 days. The time course of effects on ovarian steroid production, circulating 17β-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations, and expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in the ovary was measured. Exposure to 30 μg fadrozole/l significantly reduced plasma E2 and VTG concentrations after just 1 day and those effects persisted throughout 28 days of exposure. In contrast, ex vivo E2 production was similar to that of controls on day 8-28 of exposure, whereas transcripts coding for aromatase and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor were elevated, suggesting a compensatory response. Following cessation of fadrozole exposure, ex vivo E2 and plasma E2 concentrations exceeded and then recovered to control levels, but plasma VTG concentrations did not, even after 20 days of depuration. Collectively these data provide several new insights into the nature and time course of adaptive responses to an aromatase inhibitor that support development of a computational model (see companion article).

  15. Adaptive functional divergence of the warm temperature acclimation-related protein (WAP65) in fishes and the ortholog hemopexin (HPX) in mammals.

    PubMed

    Machado, João Paulo; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism that leads to genetic novelty. Different, nonexclusive processes are likely involved, and many adaptive and nonadaptive events may contribute to the maintenance of duplicated genes. In some teleosts, a duplicate copy of the mammalian ortholog Hemopexin (HPX) is present, known as the warm temperature acclimation-related protein (WAP65). Both WAP65 and HPX have been associated with iron homeostasis due to the affinity to bind the toxic-free heme circulating in the blood stream. We have assessed the evolutionary dynamics of WAP65 and HPX genes to understand the adaptive role of positive selection at both nucleotide and amino acid level. Our results showed an asymmetrical evolution between the paralogs WAP65-1 and WAP65-2 after duplication with a slight acceleration of the evolutionary rate in WAP65-1, but not in WAP65-2, and few sites contributing to the functional distinction between the paralogs, whereas the majority of the protein remained under negative selection or relaxed negative selection. WAP65-1 is functionally more distinct from the ancestral protein function than WAP65-2. HPX is phylogenetically closer to WAP65-2 but even so functional divergence was detected between both proteins. In addition, HPX showed a fast rate of evolution when compared with both WAP65-1 and WAP65-2 genes. The assessed 3-dimensional (3-D) structure of WAP65-1 and WAP65-2 suggests that the functional differences detected are not causing noticeable structural changes in these proteins. However, such subtle changes between WAP65 paralogs may be important to understand the differential gene retention of both copies in 20 out of 30 teleosts species studied.

  16. Parsing parallel evolution: ecological divergence and differential gene expression in the adaptive radiations of thick-lipped Midas cichlid fishes from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Manousaki, Tereza; Hull, Pincelli M; Kusche, Henrik; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Franchini, Paolo; Harrod, Chris; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2013-02-01

    The study of parallel evolution facilitates the discovery of common rules of diversification. Here, we examine the repeated evolution of thick lips in Midas cichlid fishes (the Amphilophus citrinellus species complex)-from two Great Lakes and two crater lakes in Nicaragua-to assess whether similar changes in ecology, phenotypic trophic traits and gene expression accompany parallel trait evolution. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we characterize transcriptome-wide differential gene expression in the lips of wild-caught sympatric thick- and thin-lipped cichlids from all four instances of repeated thick-lip evolution. Six genes (apolipoprotein D, myelin-associated glycoprotein precursor, four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 2, calpain-9, GTPase IMAP family member 8-like and one hypothetical protein) are significantly underexpressed in the thick-lipped morph across all four lakes. However, other aspects of lips' gene expression in sympatric morphs differ in a lake-specific pattern, including the magnitude of differentially expressed genes (97-510). Generally, fewer genes are differentially expressed among morphs in the younger crater lakes than in those from the older Great Lakes. Body shape, lower pharyngeal jaw size and shape, and stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) differ between all sympatric morphs, with the greatest differentiation in the Great Lake Nicaragua. Some ecological traits evolve in parallel (those related to foraging ecology; e.g. lip size, body and head shape) but others, somewhat surprisingly, do not (those related to diet and food processing; e.g. jaw size and shape, stable isotopes). Taken together, this case of parallelism among thick- and thin-lipped cichlids shows a mosaic pattern of parallel and nonparallel evolution.

  17. Freshwater to seawater transitions in migratory fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Michael P. Wilkie,

    2012-01-01

    The transition from freshwater to seawater is integral to the life history of many fishes. Diverse migratory fishes express anadromous, catadromous, and amphidromous life histories, while others make incomplete transits between freshwater and seawater. The physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are widely conserved among phylogenetically diverse species. Diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater develop osmoregulatory mechanisms for different environmental salinities. Freshwater to seawater transition involves hormonally mediated changes in gill ionocytes and the transport proteins associated with hypoosmoregulation, increased seawater ingestion and water absorption in the intestine, and reduced urinary water losses. Fishes attain salinity tolerance through early development, gradual acclimation, or environmentally or developmentally cued adaptations. This chapter describes adaptations in diverse taxa and the effects of salinity on growth. Identifying common strategies in diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater will reveal the ecological and physiological basis for maintaining homeostasis in different salinities, and inform efforts to conserve and manage migratory euryhaline fishes.

  18. Impact of Sea Level Rise on Mangrove Ecosystem and its Dependent Fishing Communities in the Coastal Regions of Cauvery Delta: A Message for Policy Planners to Frame Suitable Antcipatory Adaptation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsad Ibrahim Khan, S. K.; Ramachandran, A.; Kandasamy, P.; Selvam, V.; Shanmugam, P.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal adaptation to sea-level rise (SLR) in the deltaic region is a multidimensional and complex process requiring informed decisions based on predicted impact and vulnerability assessment of SLR. Elevation plays a key role in determining the impact and vulnerability of coastal land areas to inundation from SLR. Highly accurate mapping of the elevation of the landscape is essential to identify low-lying coastal deltaic regions with valuable ecosystem like mangroves and its dependent human communities that are potentially at risk of inundation. It is difficult for policy planners and decision makers to identify suitable adaptation strategies without having information on the predicted impact and degree of vulnerability of coastal systems to SLR. Importantly, modeling and mapping will provide valuable input to climate change adaptation planning (NOAA 2010). Unfortunately, the comprehensive range of information that is typically required is seldom available and rarely in the possession of decision makers responsible for management of the deltaic and coastal zone (O'Regan, 1996). The present study seeks to provide insights on predicted impact of climate change induced SLR on mangrove ecosystem and its dependent human communities of Pichavaram mangroves, located at the Vellar-Coleroon estuarine region on the banks of Cauvery delta, Tamil Nadu, India. Based on real-time on-ground elevation measurement by DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) survey and by using GIS portals, the study has identified about 597 ha of mangroves (one third of total mangrove regions) and about 9 fishing hamlets with 12,000 and more of human population that directly depends on this mangrove ecosystem for their livelihood are under threat of inundation to the predicted impact of 0.5m SLR. The present study is intended to showcase a method by providing reliable scientific information on predicted impact of SLR on mangroves and its dependent human communities to policy planner for

  19. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  20. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  1. Fish Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... not eat any fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can ... many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  2. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... been diagnosed with a fish allergy, keep injectable epinephrine on hand in case of a severe reaction. ... mouth or throat or difficulty breathing, give the epinephrine auto-injector right away. Every second counts in ...

  3. Fighting fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchi, E.; Guerrini, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Schaeffer, G.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial structures, called fighting fish, that generalize directed convex polyominoes by allowing them to branch out of the plane into independent substructures. On the one hand the combinatorial structure of fighting fish appears to be particularly rich: we show that their generating function with respect to the perimeter and number of tails is algebraic, and we conjecture a mysterious multivariate equidistribution property with the left ternary trees introduced by Del Lungo et al On the other hand, fighting fish provide a simple and natural model of random branching surfaces which displays original features: in particular, we show that the average area of a uniform random fighting fish with perimeter 2n is of order n 5/4: to the best of our knowledge this behaviour is non-standard and suggests that we have identified a new universality class of random structures. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  4. Age estimates for an adaptive lake fish radiation, its mitochondrial introgression, and an unexpected sister group: Sailfin silversides of the Malili Lakes system in Sulawesi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Malili Lakes system in central Sulawesi (Indonesia) is a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity in the Wallacea, characterized by endemic species flocks like the sailfin silversides (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha: Telmatherinidae) radiation. Phylogenetic reconstructions of these freshwater fishes have previously revealed two Lake Matano Telmatherina lineages (sharpfins and roundfins) forming an ancient monophyletic group, which is however masked by introgressive hybridization of sharpfins with riverine populations. The present study uses mitochondrial data, newly included taxa, and different external calibration points, to estimate the age of speciation and hybridization processes, and to test for phylogeographic relationships between Kalyptatherina from ancient islands off New Guinea, Marosatherina from SW Sulawesi, and the Malili Lakes flock. Results Contrary to previous expectations, Kalyptatherina is the closest relative to the Malili Lakes Telmatherinidae, and Marosatherina is the sister to this clade. Palaeogeographic reconstructions of Sulawesi suggest that the closer relationship of the Malili Lakes radiation to Kalyptatherina might be explained by a 'terrane-rafting’ scenario, while proto-Marosatherina might have colonized Sulawesi by marine dispersal. The most plausible analysis conducted here implies an age of c. 1.9 My for the onset of divergence between the two major clades endemic to Lake Matano. Diversification within both lineages is apparently considerably more recent (c. 1.0 My); stream haplotypes present in the sharpfins are of even more recent origin (c. 0.4 My). Conclusions Sulawesi’s Telmatherinidae have most likely originated in the Sahul Shelf area, have possibly reached the island by both, marine dispersal and island/terrane-rafting, and have colonized the Malili Lakes system from rivers. Estimates for the split between the epibenthic sharpfins and the predominantly pelagic to benthopelagic roundfins in Lake Matano widely

  5. Age estimates for an adaptive lake fish radiation, its mitochondrial introgression, and an unexpected sister group: Sailfin silversides of the Malili Lakes system in Sulawesi.

    PubMed

    Stelbrink, Björn; Stöger, Isabella; Hadiaty, Renny K; Schliewen, Ulrich K; Herder, Fabian

    2014-05-03

    The Malili Lakes system in central Sulawesi (Indonesia) is a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity in the Wallacea, characterized by endemic species flocks like the sailfin silversides (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha: Telmatherinidae) radiation. Phylogenetic reconstructions of these freshwater fishes have previously revealed two Lake Matano Telmatherina lineages (sharpfins and roundfins) forming an ancient monophyletic group, which is however masked by introgressive hybridization of sharpfins with riverine populations. The present study uses mitochondrial data, newly included taxa, and different external calibration points, to estimate the age of speciation and hybridization processes, and to test for phylogeographic relationships between Kalyptatherina from ancient islands off New Guinea, Marosatherina from SW Sulawesi, and the Malili Lakes flock. Contrary to previous expectations, Kalyptatherina is the closest relative to the Malili Lakes Telmatherinidae, and Marosatherina is the sister to this clade. Palaeogeographic reconstructions of Sulawesi suggest that the closer relationship of the Malili Lakes radiation to Kalyptatherina might be explained by a 'terrane-rafting' scenario, while proto-Marosatherina might have colonized Sulawesi by marine dispersal. The most plausible analysis conducted here implies an age of c. 1.9 My for the onset of divergence between the two major clades endemic to Lake Matano. Diversification within both lineages is apparently considerably more recent (c. 1.0 My); stream haplotypes present in the sharpfins are of even more recent origin (c. 0.4 My). Sulawesi's Telmatherinidae have most likely originated in the Sahul Shelf area, have possibly reached the island by both, marine dispersal and island/terrane-rafting, and have colonized the Malili Lakes system from rivers. Estimates for the split between the epibenthic sharpfins and the predominantly pelagic to benthopelagic roundfins in Lake Matano widely coincide with geological age estimates of

  6. The Genome of the Self-Fertilizing Mangrove Rivulus Fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus: A Model for Studying Phenotypic Plasticity and Adaptations to Extreme Environments.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Joanna L; Yee, Muh-Ching; Brown, Anthony P; Richardson, Rhea R; Tatarenkov, Andrey; Lee, Clarence C; Harkins, Timothy T; Bustamante, Carlos D; Earley, Ryan L

    2016-08-16

    The mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) is one of two preferentially self-fertilizing hermaphroditic vertebrates. This mode of reproduction makes mangrove rivulus an important model for evolutionary and biomedical studies because long periods of self-fertilization result in naturally homozygous genotypes that can produce isogenic lineages without significant limitations associated with inbreeding depression. Over 400 isogenic lineages currently held in laboratories across the globe show considerable among-lineage variation in physiology, behavior, and life history traits that is maintained under common garden conditions. Temperature mediates the development of primary males and also sex change between hermaphrodites and secondary males, which makes the system ideal for the study of sex determination and sexual plasticity. Mangrove rivulus also exhibit remarkable adaptations to living in extreme environments, and the system has great promise to shed light on the evolution of terrestrial locomotion, aerial respiration, and broad tolerances to hypoxia, salinity, temperature, and environmental pollutants. Genome assembly of the mangrove rivulus allows the study of genes and gene families associated with the traits described above. Here we present a de novo assembled reference genome for the mangrove rivulus, with an approximately 900 Mb genome, including 27,328 annotated, predicted, protein-coding genes. Moreover, we are able to place more than 50% of the assembled genome onto a recently published linkage map. The genome provides an important addition to the linkage map and transcriptomic tools recently developed for this species that together provide critical resources for epigenetic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses. Moreover, the genome will serve as the foundation for addressing key questions in behavior, physiology, toxicology, and evolutionary biology.

  7. The Genome of the Self-Fertilizing Mangrove Rivulus Fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus: A Model for Studying Phenotypic Plasticity and Adaptations to Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Joanna L.; Yee, Muh-Ching; Brown, Anthony P.; Richardson, Rhea R.; Tatarenkov, Andrey; Lee, Clarence C.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Earley, Ryan L.

    2016-01-01

    The mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) is one of two preferentially self-fertilizing hermaphroditic vertebrates. This mode of reproduction makes mangrove rivulus an important model for evolutionary and biomedical studies because long periods of self-fertilization result in naturally homozygous genotypes that can produce isogenic lineages without significant limitations associated with inbreeding depression. Over 400 isogenic lineages currently held in laboratories across the globe show considerable among-lineage variation in physiology, behavior, and life history traits that is maintained under common garden conditions. Temperature mediates the development of primary males and also sex change between hermaphrodites and secondary males, which makes the system ideal for the study of sex determination and sexual plasticity. Mangrove rivulus also exhibit remarkable adaptations to living in extreme environments, and the system has great promise to shed light on the evolution of terrestrial locomotion, aerial respiration, and broad tolerances to hypoxia, salinity, temperature, and environmental pollutants. Genome assembly of the mangrove rivulus allows the study of genes and gene families associated with the traits described above. Here we present a de novo assembled reference genome for the mangrove rivulus, with an approximately 900 Mb genome, including 27,328 annotated, predicted, protein-coding genes. Moreover, we are able to place more than 50% of the assembled genome onto a recently published linkage map. The genome provides an important addition to the linkage map and transcriptomic tools recently developed for this species that together provide critical resources for epigenetic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses. Moreover, the genome will serve as the foundation for addressing key questions in behavior, physiology, toxicology, and evolutionary biology. PMID:27324916

  8. Karuk Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Goodwin, Norman

    A booklet on traditional fishing practices of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California is presented in the formal, literary English speech of Norman Goodwin, a Karuk medicine man involved in preserving ancient tribal traditions. Empirical information and personal narratives are combined in descriptions of different kinds of nets, social rules…

  9. Gone Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

  10. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  11. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  12. Karuk Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Goodwin, Norman

    A booklet on traditional fishing practices of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California is presented in the formal, literary English speech of Norman Goodwin, a Karuk medicine man involved in preserving ancient tribal traditions. Empirical information and personal narratives are combined in descriptions of different kinds of nets, social rules…

  13. Gone Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

  14. 76 FR 27998 - Public Meeting of the Steering Committee for the National Fish, Wildlife and Plants Climate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... the National Fish, Wildlife and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...: The Steering Committee for the National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy will be... information on the National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy can be found at http://www...

  15. Genomic Approaches with Natural Fish Populations

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiak, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Natural populations versus inbred stocks provide a much richer resource for identifying the effects of nucleotide substitutions because natural populations have greater polymorphism. Additionally, natural populations offer an advantage over most common research organisms because they are subject to natural selection, and analyses of these adaptations can be used to identify biologically important changes. Among fishes, these analyses are enhanced by having a wide diversity of species (> 28,000 species, more than any other group of vertebrates) living in a huge range of environments (from below freezing to > 46° C, in fresh water to salinities > 40 ppt.). Moreover, fishes exhibit many different life history and reproductive strategies and have many different phenotypes and social structures. While fishes provide numerous advantages over other vertebrate models, there is still a dearth of available genomic tools for fishes. Fish make up approximately half of all known vertebrate species, yet less than 0.2% of fish species have significant genomic resources. Nonetheless, genomic approaches with fishes have provided some of the first measures of individual variation in gene expression and insights in to environmental and ecological adaptations. Thus, genomic approaches with natural fish populations have the potential to revolutionize fundamental studies of diverse fish species that offer myriad ecological and evolutionary questions. PMID:20409163

  16. The humoral immune system of anadromous fish.

    PubMed

    Zwollo, Patty

    2017-01-03

    The immune system of anadromous fish is extremely complex, a direct consequence of their diadromous nature. Hormone levels fluctuate widely throughout their life cycle, as fish move between fresh and salt water. This poses major challenges to the physiology of anadromous fish, including adaptation to very different saline environments, distinct pathogen fingerprints, and different environmental stressors. Elevated cortisol and sex hormone levels inhibit B lymphopoiesis and IgM(+) antibody responses, while catecholamines, growth hormones and thyroid hormones are generally stimulatory and enhance the humoral immune response. Immunological memory in the form of long-lived plasma cells likely plays important roles in health and survival during the life cycle of anadromous fishes. This review discusses some of the complex immune-endocrine pathways in anadromous fish, focusing on essential roles for B lineage cells in the successful completion of their life cycle. A discussion is included on potential differences in immuno-competence between wild and hatchery-raised fish.

  17. Fish gelatin.

    PubMed

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cloning of fish enzymes and other fish protein genes.

    PubMed

    Macouzet, M; Simpson, B K; Lee, B H

    1999-01-01

    Fish metabolism needs special enzymes that have maximum activity at very different conditions than their mammalian counterparts. Due to the differences in activity, these enzymes, especially cold-adapted proteases, could be used advantageously for the production of some foods. In addition to the enzymes, this review describes some other unique fish polypeptides such as antifreeze proteins, fluorescent proteins, antitumor peptides, antibiotics, and hormones, that have already been cloned and used in food processing, genetic engineering, medicine, and aquaculture. Recombinant DNA technology, which allows these biological molecules to be cloned and overexpressed in microorganisms is also described, highlighting innovative applications. The expected impact of cloning fish proteins in different fields of technology is discussed.

  19. Climate adaptation strategy for natural resources released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy, released on 26 March by the Obama administration, calls for a series of measures to help public and private decision makers better address the effects of climate change on living natural resources. The measures include conserving habitat to support healthy fish, wildlife, and plant populations and ecosystem functions; managing species and habitats to protect ecosystem functions and provide sustainable commercial, subsistence, recreational, and cultural use; increasing knowledge and information about effects on and responses of fish, wildlife, and plants; and reducing nonclimate stressors to help fish, wildlife, plants, and ecosystems adapt.

  20. Fish Tales

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  1. Advances in studies of the effects of starvation on growth and development of fish larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Xiujuan; Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Wu, Yunfei

    2008-08-01

    Starvation has important effects on early development of fish. It determines the survival and growth of fish larvae, and plays an important role in the dynamics of fish population and fisheries recruitment. In this review, we discuss the current studies about the effects of starvation on growth and development of fish larval stage. The goals of this review are to understand some adaptive mechanisms and ecological countermeasures of starved fish larvae and to provide the scientific guideline for exploring early life history processes, evaluating the nutrition condition and growth of larval fish, protecting fish resource and breeding fish larvae.

  2. Fishing activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  3. Deep Fish.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  4. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    PubMed

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.

  5. 75 FR 27814 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...-W4] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  6. Indicators: Fish Assemblage

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fish assemblage refers to the variety and abundance of fish species in a given waterbody. Fish are sensitive indicators of physical and chemical habitat degradation, environmental contamination, migration barriers, and overall ecosystem productivity.

  7. Fish tapeworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw or undercooked ...

  8. Microencapsulation of Fish Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beindorff, Christiaan M.; Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan

    For those fortunate to live near rivers, lakes and the sea, fish has been part of their diet for many centuries, and trade in dried fish has a long history. The important fishing industry developed when fishermen started to fish over wider areas of the seas and when improvements in freezing facilities allowed storage at sea, and subsequent distribution to urban consumers. For many, fresh fish and fried fish are now a part of their standard diet.

  9. Does Masking Matter? Shipping Noise and Fish Vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Neenan, Sarah T V; Piper, Rayner; White, Paul R; Kemp, Paul; Leighton, Timothy G; Shaw, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Shipping creates large near-field background noises at levels similar to or higher than fish vocalizations and in the same critical bandwidths. This noise has the potential to "mask" biologically important signals and prevent fish from hearing them; any interference with the detection and recognition of sounds may impact fish survival. The Lombard effect, whereby vocalizations are altered to reduce or exclude masking effects, is an adaptation that has been observed in mammals and birds. Research is needed to establish whether the Lombard effect occurs in fish to gain a better understanding of the implications of noise pollution on fish populations.

  10. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  11. Consumer beliefs regarding farmed versus wild fish.

    PubMed

    Claret, Anna; Guerrero, Luis; Ginés, Rafael; Grau, Amàlia; Hernández, M Dolores; Aguirre, Enaitz; Peleteiro, José Benito; Fernández-Pato, Carlos; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fish mycobacteriosis (Tuberculosis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parisot, T.J.; Wood, J.W.

    1959-01-01

    The etiologic agent for the bacterial disease, "fish tuberculosis" (more correctly "mycobacteriosis"), was first observed in carp in 189& from a pond in France. Subsequently similar agents have been isolated from or observed in fish in fresh water, salt water, and brackish water, in fish in aquaria, hatcheries, and natural habitat~ (wild populations of fish). The disease has been recognized as an important infection among hatchery reared salmonid fishes on the West Coast of the United States, and in aquarium fishes such as the neon tetra, the Siamese fighting fish, and in salt water fish held in zoological displays.

  13. Social recognition in wild fish populations

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Ashley J.W; Webster, Michael M; Hart, Paul J.B

    2007-01-01

    The ability of animals to gather information about their social and physical environment is essential for their ecological function. Odour cues are an important component of this information gathering across taxa. Recent laboratory studies have revealed the importance of flexible chemical cues in facilitating social recognition of fishes. These cues are known to be mediated by recent habitat experience and fishes are attracted to individuals that smell like themselves. However, to be relevant to wild populations, where animals may move and forage freely, these cues would have to be temporally flexible and allow spatial resolution. Here, we present data from a study of social recognition in wild populations of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Focal fish preferentially associated with conspecifics from the same habitat as themselves. These preferences were changed and updated following translocation of the focal fish to a different site. Further investigation revealed that association preferences changed after 3 h of exposure to different habitat cues. In addition to temporal flexibility, the cues also allowed a high degree of spatial resolution: fish taken from sites 200 m apart produced cues that were sufficiently different to enable the focal fish to discriminate and associate with fish captured near their own home site. The adaptive benefits of this social recognition mechanism remain unclear, though they may allow fish to orient within their social environment and gain current local information. PMID:17284411

  14. Rare Trophy Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Denice

    2000-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which third-grade students create mounted trophy fish. Explains how the students created the three-dimensional fish, the board on which to mount the fish, and the small paper plaque with information about the trophy fish. (CMK)

  15. 76 FR 70751 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  16. 76 FR 34248 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  17. 75 FR 10501 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  18. 77 FR 50155 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  19. 75 FR 70947 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  20. 77 FR 30314 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  1. 76 FR 23621 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  2. 75 FR 17158 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  3. 77 FR 74203 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  4. 76 FR 52345 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  5. 75 FR 51284 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  6. 77 FR 10766 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  7. 76 FR 14044 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  8. Recolonization of experimentally defaunated tidepools by northeast Pacific intertidal fishes.

    Treesearch

    K.M. Polivka; M.A. Chotkowski

    1998-01-01

    Site fidelity and maintenance of home ranges are common in fishes (e.g., Stephens et al., 1970; Robertson and Sheldon, 1979; Hixon, 1981), especially for intertidal species for which the ability to navigate to a safe region of an environment that periodically drains of water may be adaptive (e.g., Gibson 1967, 1969, 1982). For intertidal fishes in the northeast Pacific...

  9. Overview of fish immune system and infectious diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A brief overview of the fish immune system and the emerging or re-emerging bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal diseases considered to currently have a negative impact on aquaculture is presented. The fish immune system has evolved with both innate (natural resistance) and adaptive (acquired) immu...

  10. Cardiovascular control in Antarctic fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egginton, Stuart; Campbell, Hamish; Davison, William

    2006-04-01

    The capacity for synthesis and plasma levels of stress hormones in species with a range of activity patterns suggest that depressed catecholamine synthesis is typical of notothenioid fishes regardless of life style, although they are able to release extensive stores under conditions of extreme trauma. Cortisol does not appear to be an important primary stress hormone in these species. In general, vascular reactivity shows a modest α and β adrenergic tonus, but with greater potency for cholinergic and serotonergic vasoconstrictor agonists, although a dominance of vasodilatation over vasoconstriction is observed in one species. Vasomotor control mechanisms appear to be primarily a consequence of evolutionary lineage rather than low environmental temperature, but the pattern may be modified according to functional demand. These and other data confirm the cardiovascular system is dominated by cholinergic control: the heart apparently lacks adrenergic innervation, but receives inhibitory parasympathetic input that regulates heart rate (HR) by setting a resting vagal tonus. Oxygen consumption (MO 2) determined at rest and varied via specific dynamic action, in intact fish and fish that had undergone bilateral sectioning of the vagus nerve, show that HR is a good predictor of MO 2, and that the major influence on HR is the degree of vagal tone—these fish work by removing the brake rather than applying the accelerator. However, whether these traits actually represent adaptation to the Antarctic environment or merely represent ancestral characteristics and their relative phylogenetic position is at present unclear.

  11. Otolith Length-Fish Length Relationships of Eleven US Arctic Fish Species and Their Application to Ice Seal Diet Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, K. L.; Norcross, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Arctic ecosystem has moved into the spotlight of scientific research in recent years due to increased climate change and oil and gas exploration. Arctic fishes and Arctic marine mammals represent key parts of this ecosystem, with fish being a common part of ice seal diets in the Arctic. Determining sizes of fish consumed by ice seals is difficult because otoliths are often the only part left of the fish after digestion. Otolith length is known to be positively related to fish length. By developing species-specific otolith-body morphometric relationships for Arctic marine fishes, fish length can be determined for fish prey found in seal stomachs. Fish were collected during ice free months in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas 2009 - 2014, and the most prevalent species captured were chosen for analysis. Otoliths from eleven fish species from seven families were measured. All species had strong linear relationships between otolith length and fish total length. Nine species had coefficient of determination values over 0.75, indicating that most of the variability in the otolith to fish length relationship was explained by the linear regression. These relationships will be applied to otoliths found in stomachs of three species of ice seals (spotted Phoca largha, ringed Pusa hispida, and bearded Erignathus barbatus) and used to estimate fish total length at time of consumption. Fish lengths can in turn be used to calculate fish weight, enabling further investigation into ice seal energetic demands. This application will aid in understanding how ice seals interact with fish communities in the US Arctic and directly contribute to diet comparisons among and within ice seal species. A better understanding of predator-prey interactions in the US Arctic will aid in predicting how ice seal and fish species will adapt to a changing Arctic.

  12. [Process, mechanism, and research method of fish invasion].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong; Cao, Wen-Xuan; Xu, Li-Pu; Yin, Shou-Ren; Bai, Lu

    2007-03-01

    Fish invasion has become a serious environmental and economic damage, and obtained a priority concern by the conservation ichthyologists and land managers. A better understanding of the invasive mechanisms is of significance in developing ecological theories and in controlling exotic pests. In this paper, the progress in studying the mechanisms of fish invasion was reviewed, involving the biological characteristics of exotic fish, their adaptive evolution, interactions among exotic and indigenous fish, and relationships between species diversity and community resistance to invasion, etc. The study of invasive process and the progress of research methods were discussed.

  13. The Western Fisheries Research Center studies: threatened and endangered fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.; Scoppettone, G.G.; Shively, R.; Gadomski, D.; Becker, D.

    2005-01-01

    Within historical time, western native fish communities have faced increasing threats from habitat loss, invasive species, and pollution. It should come as no surprise that human development has greatly altered fish habitat in the west because of the importance of water for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses, power generation, waste disposal, flood protection, and transportation. Fish that were adapted to natural cycles of river flow, lake levels, and water temperatures have been unable to adapt to the changes to these cycles caused by development, leading to the listing as threatened or endangered of 68 species of western native fishes. Rapid expansion of non-native fishes, aquatic plants, and invertebrates has increased competition for food and space while pollutants from past and present degrade our lakes, streams, and rivers.

  14. Scorpion fish sting

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, ... are also found in aquariums worldwide. Symptoms A scorpion fish sting causes intense pain and swelling at the site ...

  15. Effects of fire on fish populations: Landscape perspectives on persistance of native fishes and nonnative fish invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunham, J.B.; Young, M.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Rieman, B.

    2003-01-01

    Our limited understanding of the short and long-term effects of fire on fish contributes to considerable uncertainty in assessments of the risks and benefits of fire management alternatives. A primary concern among the many potential effects of fire is the effects of fire and fire management on persistence of native fish populations. Limited evidence suggests vulnerability of fish to fire is contingent upon the quality of affected habitats, the amount and distribution of habitat (habitat fragmentation), and habitat specificity of the species in question. Species with narrow habitat requirements in highly degraded and fragmented systems are likely to be most vulnerable to fire and fire-related disturbance. In addition to effects of fire on native fish, there are growing concerns about the effects of fire on nonnative fish invasions. The role of fire in facilitating invasions by nonnative fishes is unknown, but experience with other species suggests some forms of disturbance associated with fire may facilitate invasion. Management efforts to promote persistence of fishes in fire-prone landscapes can take the form of four basic alternatives: (1) pre-fire management; (2) post-fire management; (3) managing fire itself (e.g. fire fighting); and (4) monitoring and adaptive management. Among these alternatives, pre-fire management is likely to be most effective. Effective pre-fire management activities will address factors that may render fish populations more vulnerable to the effects of fire (e.g. habitat degradation, fragmentation, and nonnative species). Post-fire management is also potentially important, but suffers from being a reactive approach that may not address threats in time to avert them. Managing fire itself can be important in some contexts, but negative consequences for fish populations are possible (e.g. toxicity of fire fighting chemicals to fish). Monitoring and adaptive management can provide important new information for evaluating alternatives, but

  16. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  17. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... antioxidant at the time of shipment. (f) At the time of loading, the temperature of the fish meal or fish... must be taken of fish meal or fish scrap three times a day and recorded. If the temperature of the... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265...

  18. Visual Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems continuously mold themselves to the widely varying contexts in which they must operate. Studies of these adaptations have played a long and central role in vision science. In part this is because the specific adaptations remain a powerful tool for dissecting vision, by exposing the mechanisms that are adapting. That is, “if it adapts, it's there.” Many insights about vision have come from using adaptation in this way, as a method. A second important trend has been the realization that the processes of adaptation are themselves essential to how vision works, and thus are likely to operate at all levels. That is, “if it's there, it adapts.” This has focused interest on the mechanisms of adaptation as the target rather than the probe. Together both approaches have led to an emerging insight of adaptation as a fundamental and ubiquitous coding strategy impacting all aspects of how we see. PMID:26858985

  19. Fish eye optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  20. Fishing for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Teaching students to fish not only develops a lifetime leisure skill but also leads to an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and encourages student connection with the natural environment. Addresses educational benefits of incorporating fishing into environmental education and describes how two fishing programs successfully met objectives of…

  1. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... contaminated waters. Scombroid poisoning usually occurs from large, dark meat fish such as tuna, mackerel, mahi mahi, and albacore. Because this poison develops after a fish is caught and dies, it does not matter where the fish is caught. The main factor ...

  2. Cortisol coregulation in fish

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners’ physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner’s cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  3. Fish under exercise.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish.

  4. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  5. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  6. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  7. Fast-moving soft electronic fish

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tiefeng; Li, Guorui; Liang, Yiming; Cheng, Tingyu; Dai, Jing; Yang, Xuxu; Liu, Bangyuan; Zeng, Zedong; Huang, Zhilong; Luo, Yingwu; Xie, Tao; Yang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Soft robots driven by stimuli-responsive materials have unique advantages over conventional rigid robots, especially in their high adaptability for field exploration and seamless interaction with humans. The grand challenge lies in achieving self-powered soft robots with high mobility, environmental tolerance, and long endurance. We are able to advance a soft electronic fish with a fully integrated onboard system for power and remote control. Without any motor, the fish is driven solely by a soft electroactive structure made of dielectric elastomer and ionically conductive hydrogel. The electronic fish can swim at a speed of 6.4 cm/s (0.69 body length per second), which is much faster than previously reported untethered soft robotic fish driven by soft responsive materials. The fish shows consistent performance in a wide temperature range and permits stealth sailing due to its nearly transparent nature. Furthermore, the fish is robust, as it uses the surrounding water as the electric ground and can operate for 3 hours with one single charge. The design principle can be potentially extended to a variety of flexible devices and soft robots. PMID:28435879

  8. Investigation of gliding flight by flying fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyungmin; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2006-11-01

    The most successful flight capability of fish is observed in the flying fish. Furthermore, despite the difference between two medium (air and water), the flying fish is well evolved to have an excellent gliding performance as well as fast swimming capability. In this study, flying fish's morphological adaptation to gliding flight is experimentally investigated using dry-mounted darkedged-wing flying fish, Cypselurus Hiraii. Specifically, we examine the effects of the pectoral and pelvic fins on the aerodynamic performance considering (i) both pectoral and pelvic fins, (ii) pectoral fins only, and (iii) body only with both fins folded. Varying the attack angle, we measure the lift, drag and pitching moment at the free-stream velocity of 12m/s for each case. Case (i) has higher lift-to-drag ratio (i.e. longer gliding distance) and more enhanced longitudinal static stability than case (ii). However, the lift coefficient is smaller for case (i) than for case (ii), indicating that the pelvic fins are not so beneficial for wing loading. The gliding performance of flying fish is compared with those of other fliers and is found to be similar to those of insects such as the butterfly and fruitfly.

  9. Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish and Fish Products.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Natalie Marinho; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Ferreira, Fernanda Silva; Labre, Tatiana da Silva; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva; Saldanha, Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Fish and fish products are important from a nutritional point of view due to the presence of high biological value proteins and the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series, and above all eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. However, these important food products also contain significant amounts of cholesterol. Although cholesterol participates in essential functions in the human body, it is unstable, especially in the presence of light, oxygen, radiation, and high temperatures that can cause the formation of cholesterol oxidation products or cholesterol oxides, which are prejudicial to human health. Fish processing involves high and low temperatures, as well as other methods for microbiological control, which increases shelf life and consequently added value; however, such processes favor the formation of cholesterol oxidation products. This review brings together data on the formation of cholesterol oxides during the preparation and processing of fish into food products which are recognized and recommended for their nutritional properties.

  10. Cultured fish: integrative biology and management of domestication and interactions with wild fish.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Kai; Beveridge, Malcolm C M; Mangel, Marc

    2012-08-01

    Fish aquaculture for commodity production, fisheries enhancement and conservation is expanding rapidly, with many cultured species undergoing inadvertent or controlled domestication. Cultured fish are frequently released, accidentally and deliberately, into natural environments where they may survive well and impact on wild fish populations through ecological, genetic, and technical interactions. Impacts of fish released accidentally or for fisheries enhancement tend to be negative for the wild populations involved, particularly where wild populations are small, and/or highly adapted to local conditions, and/or declining. Captive breeding and supplementation can play a positive role in restoring threatened populations, but the biology of threatened populations and the potential of culture approaches for conserving them remain poorly understood. Approaches to the management of domestication and cultured-wild fish interactions are often ad hoc, fragmented and poorly informed by current science. We develop an integrative biological framework for understanding and managing domestication and cultured-wild fish interactions. The framework sets out how management practices in culture and for cultured fish in natural environments affect domestication processes, interactions between cultured and wild fish, and outcomes in terms of commodity production, fisheries yield, and conservation. We also develop a typology of management systems (specific combinations of management practices in culture and in natural environments) that are likely to provide positive outcomes for particular management objectives and situations. We close by setting out avenues for further research that will simultaneously improve fish domestication and management of cultured-wild fish interactions and provide key insights into fundamental biology. © 2012 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  11. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    DOEpatents

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  12. Why fishes have a fish shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloy, Christophe; Schouveiler, Lionel

    2010-11-01

    The relation between form and function for elongated swimmers is revisited by solving a multi-objective optimization problem. We consider elongated fishes of varying elliptic cross-section whose motion is prescribed by a time-periodic curvature. The two semi-axes of the cross-section, the curvature amplitude and phase are assumed to vary continuously along the fish length. Hydrodynamic forces acting on such fishes are modeled in the elongated-body limit by considering both reactive and resistive forces. Applying Newton's second law, the heave and pitch amplitude and phase, as well as the swimming velocity can be found. The total power needed can also be calculated yielding the swimming efficiency. The multi-objective optimization consists in finding the fish shape and associated motion which corresponds to maximum efficiency, maximum velocity or any trade-off between the two. This optimization problem is solved using a genetic algorithm whose principle is to start with an initial random population and to evolve it by mutation and selection. We find that the most efficient shape resembles existing fishes and arguments are given to explain the relation between this particular fish form and performance.

  13. Comparative Pathogenomics of Bacteria Causing Infectious Diseases in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Sudheesh, Ponnerassery S.; Al-Ghabshi, Aliya; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud

    2012-01-01

    Fish living in the wild as well as reared in the aquaculture facilities are susceptible to infectious diseases caused by a phylogenetically diverse collection of bacterial pathogens. Control and treatment options using vaccines and drugs are either inadequate, inefficient, or impracticable. The classical approach in studying fish bacterial pathogens has been looking at individual or few virulence factors. Recently, genome sequencing of a number of bacterial fish pathogens has tremendously increased our understanding of the biology, host adaptation, and virulence factors of these important pathogens. This paper attempts to compile the scattered literature on genome sequence information of fish pathogenic bacteria published and available to date. The genome sequencing has uncovered several complex adaptive evolutionary strategies mediated by horizontal gene transfer, insertion sequence elements, mutations and prophage sequences operating in fish pathogens, and how their genomes evolved from generalist environmental strains to highly virulent obligatory pathogens. In addition, the comparative genomics has allowed the identification of unique pathogen-specific gene clusters. The paper focuses on the comparative analysis of the virulogenomes of important fish bacterial pathogens, and the genes involved in their evolutionary adaptation to different ecological niches. The paper also proposes some new directions on finding novel vaccine and chemotherapeutic targets in the genomes of bacterial pathogens of fish. PMID:22675651

  14. Research and development of fish passage technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, P.A.

    1986-12-01

    Any fish passage provided at TVA's John Sevier Fossil Plant (JSF) would involve only warmwater species. Although some anadromous (marine) warmwater species (e.g., American shad, blueback herring) are currently passed upstream and downstream through structures deliberately built for that purpose, effectiveness of this technology for passage of adults and young of potential target species (e.g., paddlefish and sauger/walleye) in Cherokee Reservoir is unproven. Downstream passage is by far the larger and more poorly understood subject of fish migration and should be investigated first. Currently, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is conducting research on downstream fish passage (Project RP 2694). It will ultimately be necessary to adapt this information to the target species and site specificity at JSF.

  15. Sensor Fish Communicator

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-09

    The Sensor Fish collects information that can be used to evaluate conditions encountered by juvenile salmonids and other fish as they pass through hydroelectric dams on their way to the ocean. Sensor Fish are deployed in turbines, spillways, and sluiceways and measure changes in pressure, angular rate of change, and linear acceleration during passage. The software is need to make Sensor Fish fully functional and easy to use. Sensor Fish Communicator (SFC) links to Sensor Fish, allowing users to control data collection settings and download data. It may also be used to convert native raw data (.raw2) files into Comma Separated Variable (.csv) files and plot the results. The multiple capabilities of the SFC allow hardware communication, data conversion, and data plotting with one application.

  16. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  17. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  18. Hematologic disorders of fish.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Tonya M; Dove, Alistair D M; Arnold, Jill E

    2008-09-01

    Hematology can be a useful tool for monitoring health status, detecting illness, and following the progress of disease and response to therapy. Despite advances in fish medicine in recent years, interpretation of fish hematology often is hampered by a lack of meaningful reference values and the bewildering diversity of fish species. A multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors cause normal and abnormal variation in hematologic data. This article provides an overview of some of the hematologic abnormalities in fish induced by infectious agents and environmental, husbandry, and nutritional issues.

  19. [Helminths of Antarctic fishes].

    PubMed

    Rocka, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Antarctic fishes are represented by sharks, skates (Chondrichthyes) and bony fishes (Teleostei). Teleosts play an important role in the completion of life cycles of many helminth species. They serve as either definitive or intermediate and paratenic hosts. Chondrichthyes are definitive hosts only. Seventy three helminth species occur as the adult stage in fishes: Digenea (45), Cestoda (14), Nematoda (6), Acanthocephala (8), Also, 11 larval stages of Cestoda (7) and Nematoda (4) are known, together with 7 species of Acanthocephala in the cystacanth stage. One digenean species, Otodistomum cestoides, matures in skates. Among cestodes maturing in fishes only one, Parabothriocephalus johnstoni, occurs in a bony fish, Macrourus whitsoni. Antarctic Chondrichthyes are not infected with nematodes and acanthocephalans. Cestode larvae from teleosts belong to Tetraphyllidea (parasites of skates), and Tetrabothriidae and Diphyllobothriidae (parasites of birds and mammals). Larval nematodes represent Anisakidae, parasites of fishes, birds and mammals. Acanthocephalan cystacanths mature in pinnipeds and birds. The majority of parasites maturing in Antarctic fishes are endemics. Only 4 digenean and one nematode species, Hysterothylacium aduncum, are cosmopolitan. All acanthocephalans, almost all digeneans, the majority of cestodes and some nematodes occur mainly or exclusively in benthic fishes. Specificity of the majority of helminths utilizing teleosts as intermediate and/or paratenic hosts is low. Among parasites using fishes as definitive hosts, all Cestoda, most Digenea and Nematoda, and almost all Acanthocephala have a range of hosts restricted to one order or even to 1-2 host species.

  20. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  1. Amphibious fishes: evolution and phenotypic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Wright, Patricia A; Turko, Andy J

    2016-08-01

    Amphibious fishes spend part of their life in terrestrial habitats. The ability to tolerate life on land has evolved independently many times, with more than 200 extant species of amphibious fishes spanning 17 orders now reported. Many adaptations for life out of water have been described in the literature, and adaptive phenotypic plasticity may play an equally important role in promoting favourable matches between the terrestrial habitat and behavioural, physiological, biochemical and morphological characteristics. Amphibious fishes living at the interface of two very different environments must respond to issues relating to buoyancy/gravity, hydration/desiccation, low/high O2 availability, low/high CO2 accumulation and high/low NH3 solubility each time they traverse the air-water interface. Here, we review the literature for examples of plastic traits associated with the response to each of these challenges. Because there is evidence that phenotypic plasticity can facilitate the evolution of fixed traits in general, we summarize the types of investigations needed to more fully determine whether plasticity in extant amphibious fishes can provide indications of the strategies used during the evolution of terrestriality in tetrapods.

  2. Fish-allergic patients may be able to eat fish.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Ahmad A; Bahna, Sami L

    2015-03-01

    Reported fish allergy prevalence varies widely, with an estimated prevalence of 0.2% in the general population. Sensitization to fish can occur by ingestion, skin contact or inhalation. The manifestations can be IgE or non-IgE mediated. Several fish allergens have been identified, with parvalbumins being the major allergen in various species. Allergenicity varies among fish species and is affected by processing or preparation methods. Adverse reactions after eating fish are often claimed to be 'allergy' but could be a reaction to hidden food allergen, fish parasite, fish toxins or histamine in spoiled fish. Identifying such causes would allow free consumption of fish. Correct diagnosis of fish allergy, including the specific species, might provide the patient with safe alternatives. Patients have been generally advised for strict universal avoidance of fish. However, testing with various fish species or preparations might identify one or more forms that can be tolerated.

  3. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...

  4. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, Vernon E.

    1998-06-01

    The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

  5. Numerical abilities in fish: A methodological review.

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo

    2017-02-03

    The ability to utilize numerical information can be adaptive in a number of ecological contexts including foraging, mating, parental care, and anti-predator strategies. Numerical abilities of mammals and birds have been studied both in natural conditions and in controlled laboratory conditions using a variety of approaches. During the last decade this ability was also investigated in some fish species. Here we reviewed the main methods used to study this group, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods used. Fish have only been studied under laboratory conditions and among the methods used with other species, only two have been systematically used in fish-spontaneous choice tests and discrimination learning procedures. In the former case, the choice between two options is observed in a biologically relevant situation and the degree of preference for the larger/smaller group is taken as a measure of the capacity to discriminate the two quantities (e.g., two shoals differing in number). In discrimination learning tasks, fish are trained to select the larger or the smaller of two sets of abstract objects, typically two-dimensional geometric figures, using food or social companions as reward. Beyond methodological differences, what emerges from the literature is a substantial similarity of the numerical abilities of fish with those of other vertebrates studied.

  6. Immunity in Fish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fish immune system has evolved with both non-specific (innate immunity) and acquired immune functions (humoral and cell mediated immunity) to eliminate invading foreign living and non-living agents. Fish possess a unique physical barrier (mucus and skin) that acts as the first line of defense a...

  7. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  8. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  9. Fishing for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Fishing helps campers develop problem-solving skills, apply biological and ecological concepts, become aware of environmental problems, realize environmental consequences of actions, discuss environmental ethics, consider spiritual values, and connect with the natural world. Describes two camps that successfully integrate fishing with…

  10. Ammonia toxicity in fish.

    PubMed

    Randall, D J; Tsui, T K N

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia is present in the aquatic environment due to agricultural run-off and decomposition of biological waste. Ammonia is toxic to all vertebrates causing convulsions, coma and death, probably because elevated NH4+ displaces K+ and depolarizes neurons, causing activation of NMDA type glutamate receptor, which leads to an influx of excessive Ca2+ and subsequent cell death in the central nervous system. Present ammonia criteria for aquatic systems are based on toxicity tests carried out on, starved, resting, non-stressed fish. This is doubly inappropriate. During exhaustive exercise and stress, fish increase ammonia production and are more sensitive to external ammonia. Present criteria do not protect swimming fish. Fish have strategies to protect them from the ammonia pulse following feeding, and this also protects them from increases in external ammonia, as a result starved fish are more sensitive to external ammonia than fed fish. There are a number of fish species that can tolerate high environmental ammonia. Glutamine formation is an important ammonia detoxification strategy in the brain of fish, especially after feeding. Detoxification of ammonia to urea has also been observed in elasmobranches and some teleosts. Reduction in the rate of proteolysis and the rate of amino acid catabolism, which results in a decrease in ammonia production, may be another strategy to reduce ammonia toxicity. The weather loach volatilizes NH3, and the mudskipper, P. schlosseri, utilizes yet another unique strategy, it actively pumps NH4+ out of the body.

  11. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  12. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    PubMed

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PARASITES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  14. PARASITES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  15. An Amazing Fish Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elisabeth Higgins

    2001-01-01

    Caught up in the entrepreneurial thrill of launching a new industry, high-school students in an economically distressed fishing village in Maine are playing a vital research-and-development role in partnership with their community. The result is a sophisticated aquaculture center for raising several species of fish in a laboratory setting. (MLH)

  16. An Amazing Fish Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elisabeth Higgins

    2001-01-01

    Caught up in the entrepreneurial thrill of launching a new industry, high-school students in an economically distressed fishing village in Maine are playing a vital research-and-development role in partnership with their community. The result is a sophisticated aquaculture center for raising several species of fish in a laboratory setting. (MLH)

  17. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  18. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  19. Functional nasal morphology of chimaerid fishes.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lauren E; Holmes, William M; Ferrando, Sara; Maclaine, James S; Kelsh, Robert N; Ramsey, Andrew; Abel, Richard L; Cox, Jonathan P L

    2013-09-01

    Holocephalans (chimaeras) are a group of marine fishes comprising three families: the Callorhinchidae (callorhinchid fishes), the Rhinochimaeridae (rhinochimaerid fishes) and the Chimaeridae (chimaerid fishes). We have used X-ray microcomputed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to characterise in detail the nasal anatomy of three species of chimaerid fishes: Chimaera monstrosa, C. phantasma and Hydrolagus colliei. We have shown that the nasal chamber of these three species is linked to the external environment by an incurrent channel and to the oral cavity by an excurrent channel via an oral groove. A protrusion of variable morphology is present on the medial wall of the incurrent channel in all three species, but is absent in members of the two other holocephalan families that we inspected. A third nasal channel, the lateral channel, functionally connects the incurrent nostril to the oral cavity, by-passing the nasal chamber. From anatomical reconstructions, we have proposed a model for the circulation of water, and therefore the transport of odorant, in the chimaerid nasal region. In this model, water could flow through the nasal region via the nasal chamber or the lateral channel. In either case, the direction of flow could be reversed. Circulation through the entire nasal region is likely to be driven primarily by the respiratory pump. We have identified several anatomical features that may segregate, distribute, facilitate and regulate flow in the nasal region and have considered the consequences of flow reversal. The non-sensory cilia lining the olfactory sensory channels appear to be mucus-propelling, suggesting that these cilia have a common protective role in cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays and chimaeras). The nasal region of chimaerid fishes shows at least two adaptations to a benthic lifestyle, and suggests good olfactory sensitivity, with secondary folding enhancing the hypothetical flat sensory surface area by up to 70%.

  20. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  1. Antimicrobial Peptides from Fish

    PubMed Central

    Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Diamond, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture. PMID:24594555

  2. Fish odour triggers conspecific attraction behaviour in an aquatic invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Harald; Thünken, Timo; Baldauf, Sebastian A; Bakker, Theo C M; Frommen, Joachim G

    2008-10-23

    Group living has evolved as an adaptation to predation in many animal species. In a multitude of vertebrates, the tendency to aggregate varies with the risk of predation, but experimental evidence for this is less well known in invertebrates. Here, we examine the tendency to aggregate in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex in the absence and presence of predator fish odour. Without fish odour, the gammarids showed no significant tendency to aggregate. In contrast to this, in fish-conditioned water, they significantly preferred to stay close to conspecifics. Predation risk can, thus, influence gammarids social behaviour.

  3. Small-Boat Noise Impacts Natural Settlement Behavior of Coral Reef Fish Larvae.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N; Holles, Sophie; Ferarri, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    After a pelagic larval phase, settlement-stage coral reef fish must locate a suitable reef habitat for juvenile life. Reef noise, produced by resident fish and invertebrates, provides an important cue for orientation and habitat selection during this process, which must often occur in environments impacted by anthropogenic noise. We adapted an established field-based protocol to test whether recorded boat noise influenced the settlement behavior of reef fish. Fewer fish settled to patch reefs broadcasting boat + reef noise compared with reef noise alone. This study suggests that boat noise, now a common feature of many reefs, can compromise critical settlement behavior of reef fishes.

  4. Hybrid Breakdown in Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Stelkens, Rike Bahati; Schmid, Corinne; Seehausen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Studies from a wide diversity of taxa have shown a negative relationship between genetic compatibility and the divergence time of hybridizing genomes. Theory predicts the main breakdown of fitness to happen after the F1 hybrid generation, when heterosis subsides and recessive allelic (Dobzhansky-Muller) incompatibilities are increasingly unmasked. We measured the fitness of F2 hybrids of African haplochromine cichlid fish bred from species pairs spanning several thousand to several million years divergence time. F2 hybrids consistently showed the lowest viability compared to F1 hybrids and non-hybrid crosses (crosses within the grandparental species), in agreement with hybrid breakdown. Especially the short- and long-term survival (2 weeks to 6 months) of F2 hybrids was significantly reduced. Overall, F2 hybrids showed a fitness reduction of 21% compared to F1 hybrids, and a reduction of 43% compared to the grandparental, non-hybrid crosses. We further observed a decrease of F2 hybrid viability with the genetic distance between grandparental lineages, suggesting an important role for negative epistatic interactions in cichlid fish postzygotic isolation. The estimated time window for successful production of F2 hybrids resulting from our data is consistent with the estimated divergence time between the multiple ancestral lineages that presumably hybridized in three major adaptive radiations of African cichlids. PMID:25996870

  5. Beyond the zebrafish: diverse fish species for modeling human disease

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In recent years, zebrafish, and to a lesser extent medaka, have become widely used small animal models for human diseases. These organisms have convincingly demonstrated the usefulness of fish for improving our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to pathological conditions, and for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Despite the usefulness of zebrafish and medaka in the investigation of a wide spectrum of traits, there is evidence to suggest that other fish species could be better suited for more targeted questions. With the emergence of new, improved sequencing technologies that enable genomic resources to be generated with increasing efficiency and speed, the potential of non-mainstream fish species as disease models can now be explored. A key feature of these fish species is that the pathological condition that they model is often related to specific evolutionary adaptations. By exploring these adaptations, new disease-causing and disease-modifier genes might be identified; thus, diverse fish species could be exploited to better understand the complexity of disease processes. In addition, non-mainstream fish models could allow us to study the impact of environmental factors, as well as genetic variation, on complex disease phenotypes. This Review will discuss the opportunities that such fish models offer for current and future biomedical research. PMID:24271780

  6. Physiological mechanisms used by fish to cope with salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Kültz, Dietmar

    2015-06-01

    Salinity represents a critical environmental factor for all aquatic organisms, including fishes. Environments of stable salinity are inhabited by stenohaline fishes having narrow salinity tolerance ranges. Environments of variable salinity are inhabited by euryhaline fishes having wide salinity tolerance ranges. Euryhaline fishes harbor mechanisms that control dynamic changes in osmoregulatory strategy from active salt absorption to salt secretion and from water excretion to water retention. These mechanisms of dynamic control of osmoregulatory strategy include the ability to perceive changes in environmental salinity that perturb body water and salt homeostasis (osmosensing), signaling networks that encode information about the direction and magnitude of salinity change, and epithelial transport and permeability effectors. These mechanisms of euryhalinity likely arose by mosaic evolution involving ancestral and derived protein functions. Most proteins necessary for euryhalinity are also critical for other biological functions and are preserved even in stenohaline fish. Only a few proteins have evolved functions specific to euryhaline fish and they may vary in different fish taxa because of multiple independent phylogenetic origins of euryhalinity in fish. Moreover, proteins involved in combinatorial osmosensing are likely interchangeable. Most euryhaline fishes have an upper salinity tolerance limit of approximately 2× seawater (60 g kg(-1)). However, some species tolerate up to 130 g kg(-1) salinity and they may be able to do so by switching their adaptive strategy when the salinity exceeds 60 g kg(-1). The superior salinity stress tolerance of euryhaline fishes represents an evolutionary advantage favoring their expansion and adaptive radiation in a climate of rapidly changing and pulsatory fluctuating salinity. Because such a climate scenario has been predicted, it is intriguing to mechanistically understand euryhalinity and how this complex

  7. Cooperative search and rescue with artificial fishes based on fish-swarm algorithm for underwater wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Tang, Zhenmin; Yang, Yuwang; Wang, Lei; Lan, Shaohua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a searching control approach for cooperating mobile sensor networks. We use a density function to represent the frequency of distress signals issued by victims. The mobile nodes' moving in mission space is similar to the behaviors of fish-swarm in water. So, we take the mobile node as artificial fish node and define its operations by a probabilistic model over a limited range. A fish-swarm based algorithm is designed requiring local information at each fish node and maximizing the joint detection probabilities of distress signals. Optimization of formation is also considered for the searching control approach and is optimized by fish-swarm algorithm. Simulation results include two schemes: preset route and random walks, and it is showed that the control scheme has adaptive and effective properties.

  8. Cooperative Search and Rescue with Artificial Fishes Based on Fish-Swarm Algorithm for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Tang, Zhenmin; Yang, Yuwang; Wang, Lei; Lan, Shaohua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a searching control approach for cooperating mobile sensor networks. We use a density function to represent the frequency of distress signals issued by victims. The mobile nodes' moving in mission space is similar to the behaviors of fish-swarm in water. So, we take the mobile node as artificial fish node and define its operations by a probabilistic model over a limited range. A fish-swarm based algorithm is designed requiring local information at each fish node and maximizing the joint detection probabilities of distress signals. Optimization of formation is also considered for the searching control approach and is optimized by fish-swarm algorithm. Simulation results include two schemes: preset route and random walks, and it is showed that the control scheme has adaptive and effective properties. PMID:24741341

  9. Guidelines for use of fishes in research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Use of Fishes in Research Committee (joint committee of the American Fisheries Society, the American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists

    2014-01-01

    The 2004 and 2014 Guidelines were developed to provide a structure that advances appropriate attention toward valid experimental designs and procedures with aquatic animals while ensuring humane treatment of the experimental subjects. At a practical level, the Guidelines are intended to provide general recommendations on field and laboratory endeavors, such as sampling, holding, and handling fishes; to offer information on administrative matters, including regulations and permits; and to address typical ethical concerns, such as perceptions of pain or discomfort experienced by experimental subjects. These Guidelines must be recognized as guidelines. They are not intended to provide detailed instructions but rather to alert investigators to a broad array of topics and concerns to consider prior to initiating study. At a comprehensive level, the principles upon which these Guidelines are based are broadly applicable, and many of the described practices and approaches can be adapted to situations involving other aquatic animal species and conditions. Understanding the differences between fishes and other vertebrates, especially mammals, is critically important to conducting scientifically sound research with fishes. Disparities in life histories and mortality rates in fishes versus other vertebrates are critical in designing sustainable sampling levels in fish populations. The UFR Committee points out that (1) compared to mammalian populations, adult populations of many fish species persist despite very high natural mortality rates in juvenile stages by virtue of the fact that most species lay thousands or tens of thousands of eggs; (2) because of these mortality patterns, research on fishes, especially field research or research on early life stages, can involve, and often requires, much larger numbers of research subjects than does research on mammals; and (3) the animal handling and husbandry requirements for fishes are fundamentally different from those for

  10. The fight between the teleost fish immune response and aquatic viruses.

    PubMed

    Workenhe, Samuel T; Rise, Matthew L; Kibenge, Molly J T; Kibenge, Frederick S B

    2010-10-01

    Teleost fish represent a transition point on the phylogenetic spectrum between invertebrates that depend only on innate immunity and mammals that heavily depend on adaptive immunity. The major mechanisms of the teleost fish innate immune response are suggested to be similar to mammals, although fine details of the process require further studies. Within the innate immune response the type I interferon (IFN) system is an essential innate antiviral component that protects fish from some virus infections. The current progress of cloning and functional characterization of fish antiviral genes is promising in further elucidation of the fish antiviral response. The adaptive immune system of fish utilizes cellular components more or less similar to mammals. Teleost fish produce IgM as a primary antibody response and lack isotype switching to mount virus-specific antibodies during the infection process. Despite this, the development of successful fish rhabdoviral vaccines suggest that vaccination may prove to be an effective way of promoting fish adaptive immune responses to viruses. This paper reviews the bony fish antiviral response with specific discussion on the evolutionary mechanisms that allow aquatic viruses to co-exist with their host. Detailed aspects of the teleost type I IFN system are also addressed.

  11. Cold adaptations.

    PubMed

    Launay, Jean-Claude; Savourey, Gustave

    2009-07-01

    Nowdays, occupational and recreational activities in cold environments are common. Exposure to cold induces thermoregulatory responses like changes of behaviour and physiological adjustments to maintain thermal balance either by increasing metabolic heat production by shivering and/or by decreasing heat losses consecutive to peripheral cutaneous vasoconstriction. Those physiological responses present a great variability among individuals and depend mainly on biometrical characteristics, age, and general cold adaptation. During severe cold exposure, medical disorders may occur such as accidental hypothermia and/or freezing or non-freezing cold injuries. General cold adaptations have been qualitatively classified by Hammel and quantitatively by Savourey. This last classification takes into account the quantitative changes of the main cold reactions: higher or lower metabolic heat production, higher or lesser heat losses and finally the level of the core temperature observed at the end of a standardized exposure to cold. General cold adaptations observed previously in natives could also be developed in laboratory conditions by continuous or intermittent cold exposures. Beside general cold adaptation, local cold adaptation exists and is characterized by a lesser decrease of skin temperature, a more pronounced cold induced vasodilation, less pain and a higher manual dexterity. Adaptations to cold may reduce the occurrence of accidents and improve human performance as surviving in the cold. The present review describes both general and local cold adaptations in humans and how they are of interest for cold workers.

  12. Epigenomics in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Metzger, David C H; Schulte, Patricia M

    2016-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are an underappreciated and often ignored component of an organism's response to environmental change and may underlie many types of phenotypic plasticity. Recent technological advances in methods for detecting epigenetic marks at a whole-genome scale have launched new opportunities for studying epigenomics in ecologically relevant non-model systems. The study of ecological epigenomics holds great promise to better understand the linkages between genotype, phenotype, and the environment and to explore mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. The many attributes of marine fish species, including their high diversity, variable life histories, high fecundity, impressive plasticity, and economic value provide unique opportunities for studying epigenetic mechanisms in an environmental context. To provide a primer on epigenomic research for fish biologists, we start by describing fundamental aspects of epigenetics, focusing on the most widely studied and most well understood of the epigenetic marks: DNA methylation. We then describe the techniques that have been used to investigate DNA methylation in marine fishes to date and highlight some new techniques that hold great promise for future studies. Epigenomic research in marine fishes is in its early stages, so we first briefly discuss what has been learned about the establishment, maintenance, and function of DNA methylation in fishes from studies in zebrafish and then summarize the studies demonstrating the pervasive effects of the environment on the epigenomes of marine fishes. We conclude by highlighting the potential for ongoing research on the epigenomics of marine fishes to reveal critical aspects of the interaction between organisms and their environments.

  13. Folkbiology of freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Medin, Douglas L; Ross, Norbert O; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B; Blok, Sergey

    2006-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural differences were consistently observed. Majority-culture fish experts tended to sort fish into taxonomic and goal-related categories. They also showed an influence of goals on probes of ecological relations, tending to answer in terms of relations involving adult fish. Native American fish experts, in contrast, were more likely to sort ecologically. They were also more likely to see positive and reciprocal ecological relations, tending to answer in terms of relations involving the full life cycle of fish. Further experiments support the view that the cultural differences do not reflect different knowledge bases but rather differences in the organization and accessibility of knowledge. At a minimum the results suggest that similar activities within a well-structured domain do not necessarily lead to common conceptualizations.

  14. The Mucosal Immune System of Teleost Fish

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Teleost fish possess an adaptive immune system associated with each of their mucosal body surfaces. Evidence obtained from mucosal vaccination and mucosal infection studies reveal that adaptive immune responses take place at the different mucosal surfaces of teleost. The main mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) of teleosts are the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), the gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT) and the recently discovered nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). Teleost MALT includes diffuse B cells and T cells with specific phenotypes different from their systemic counterparts that have co-evolved to defend the microbe-rich mucosal environment. Both B and T cells respond to mucosal infection or vaccination. Specific antibody responses can be measured in the gills, gut and skin mucosal secretions of teleost fish following mucosal infection or vaccination. Rainbow trout studies have shown that IgT antibodies and IgT+ B cells are the predominant B cell subset in all MALT and respond in a compartmentalized manner to mucosal infection. Our current knowledge on adaptive immunity in teleosts is limited compared to the mammalian literature. New research tools and in vivo models are currently being developed in order to help reveal the great intricacy of teleost mucosal adaptive immunity and help improve mucosal vaccination protocols for use in aquaculture. PMID:26274978

  15. Olfactory toxicity in fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B; Baldwin, David H; Hara, Toshiaki J; Ross, Peter S; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Olfaction conveys critical environmental information to fishes, enabling activities such as mating, locating food, discriminating kin, avoiding predators and homing. All of these behaviors can be impaired or lost as a result of exposure to toxic contaminants in surface waters. Historically, teleost olfaction studies have focused on behavioral responses to anthropogenic contaminants (e.g., avoidance). More recently, there has been a shift towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and functional significance of contaminant-mediated changes in fish olfaction. This includes a consideration of how contaminants affect the olfactory nervous system and, by extension, the downstream physiological and behavioral processes that together comprise a normal response to naturally occurring stimuli (e.g., reproductive priming or releasing pheromones). Numerous studies spanning several species have shown that ecologically relevant exposures to common pollutants such as metals and pesticides can interfere with fish olfaction and disrupt life history processes that determine individual survival and reproductive success. This represents one of the pathways by which toxic chemicals in aquatic habitats may increasingly contribute to the decline and at-risk status of many commercially and ecologically important fish stocks. Despite our emerging understanding of the threats that pollution poses for chemical communication in aquatic communities, many research challenges remain. These include: (1) the determination of specific mechanisms of toxicity in the fish olfactory sensory epithelium; (2) an understanding of the impacts of complex chemical mixtures; (3) the capacity to assess olfactory toxicity in fish in situ; (4) the impacts of toxins on olfactory-mediated behaviors that are still poorly understood for many fish species; and (5) the connections between sublethal effects on individual fish and the long-term viability of wild populations. This review summarizes and integrates

  16. Fish: Section 4.8 in Climate change and the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Interpreting potential futures.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Steve P.; Miller, Ian M.; Shishido, Caitlin; Antrim, Liam; Bowlby, C. Edward

    2013-01-01

    Response of benthic fish in the OCNMS to future increases in hypoxia will likely be similar to those for fish off the central Oregon coast where hypoxia developed each summer starting in 2002. Abundance and condition of fish will decline in hypoxic areas. Fish will move inshore seeking higher oxygen concentrations. Species adapted to low oxygen environments, for example Dover sole, will be less affected.

  17. Vibriosis in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullock, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Fish vibriosis is a systemic disease of marine, estuarine, and some freshwater fishes, caused by bacteria of the genus Vibrio (Ross et al. 1968, Ghittino et al. 1972). The disease has been known for centuries; outbreaks along the Italian coast were recorded as early as the 1500's. Terms such as "red pest," "red boil," "red plague," or "saltwater furunculosis" have been applied to vibrio infections, but vibriosis is a more specific term and is now used by most fishery workers. With the rapid development of mariculture, vibriosis has become a major cause of fish loss--sometimes to the extent of being a limiting factor.

  18. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  19. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  20. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  1. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  2. Evidence for Adaptation to the Tibetan Plateau Inferred from Tibetan Loach Transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Liandong; Zhou, Kun; Zhang, Yanping; Song, Zhaobin; He, Shunping

    2015-10-09

    Triplophysa fishes are the primary component of the fish fauna on the Tibetan Plateau and are well adapted to the high-altitude environment. Despite the importance of Triplophysa fishes on the plateau, the genetic mechanisms of the adaptations of these fishes to this high-altitude environment remain poorly understood. In this study, we generated the transcriptome sequences for three Triplophysa fishes, that is, Triplophysa siluroides, Triplophysa scleroptera, and Triplophysa dalaica, and used these and the previously available transcriptome and genome sequences from fishes living at low altitudes to identify potential genetic mechanisms for the high-altitude adaptations in Triplophysa fishes. An analysis of 2,269 orthologous genes among cave fish (Astyanax mexicanus), zebrafish (Danio rerio), large-scale loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanus), and Triplophysa fishes revealed that each of the terminal branches of the Triplophysa fishes had a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions than that of the branches of the fishes from low altitudes, which provided consistent evidence for genome-wide rapid evolution in the Triplophysa genus. Many of the GO (Gene Ontology) categories associated with energy metabolism and hypoxia response exhibited accelerated evolution in the Triplophysa fishes compared with the large-scale loach. The genes that exhibited signs of positive selection and rapid evolution in the Triplophysa fishes were also significantly enriched in energy metabolism and hypoxia response categories. Our analysis identified widespread Triplophysa-specific nonsynonymous mutations in the fast evolving genes and positively selected genes. Moreover, we detected significant evidence of positive selection in the HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-1A and HIF-2B genes in Triplophysa fishes and found that the Triplophysa-specific nonsynonymous mutations in the HIF-1A and HIF-2B genes were associated with functional changes. Overall, our study provides

  3. Endangered fish threatened by Asian fish tapeworm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Rebecca A.

    2004-01-01

    The Asian fish tapeworm, an exotic parasite, has invaded the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) population from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers in Grand Canyon, Arizona. This parasite causes disease and death in carp in aquaculture settings and may retard growth in hatchery-reared roundtail chub (Gila robusta). Other consequences include destruction and dysfunction of the intestinal lining and adverse changes to certain blood parameters. Introduced into the U.S. in the 1970s with imported grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) was discovered in the Little Colorado River (LCR) by 1990. The LCR is the main tributary to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and is an important spawning area for humpback chub.

  4. Forestry practices and aquatic biodiversity: Fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gresswell, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    example, the salmonids in the coastal rivers and streams, and the larger interconnected streams, rivers, and lakes of the interior exhibit a variety of ecotypes and migratory life histories (Healey 1986; Trotter 1989; Larson and McIntire 1993; Northcote 1997). This life-history variation appears to be associated with adaptation to spatial and temporal variation in environment (e.g., Schaffer and Elson 1975; Carl and Healey 1984; Beacham and Murray 1987), and there is some evidence of the genetic heritability of life-history traits (Carl and Healey 1984; Gharrett and Smoker 1993; Hankin, Nicholas, and Downey 1993). Persistence of any level of biological organization (e.g., life-history type, population, metapopulation, subspecies, species, community) is related to the interaction of environmental and biological components, and intraspecific diversity is a means of spreading risk (sensu den Boer 1968) of extirpation in dynamic environments (Gresswell 1999). Unfortunately, despite the broad distribution and extensive intraspecific diversity, persistence of native fishes is uncertain in the Pacific Northwest. Many populations of anadromous salmonids, once synonymous with vigorous biological communities throughout the region, are threatened with extinction (Nehlsen, Williams, and Lichatowich 1991; Frissell 1993; Thurow, Lee, and Rieman 1997). Furthermore, over half of the native taxa in the Columbia River Basin are either listed under the Endangered Species Act, are being considered for listing, or are deemed sensitive by the management agencies (Lee et al. 1997; Thurow, Lee, and Rieman 1997). Potamodromous species like bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are estimated to occur as strong populations in less than 5% of their potential range (Rieman, Lee, and Thurow 1997). Although not currently listed under the endangered species list, the coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki is managed as a sensitive species in Oregon and California (Hall, Bisson, and Gresswell 1997

  5. Dehydrofreezing of Fish I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozima, Tsuneo

    Recently, new method of removing water from perishable food were developed using dehydration sheet with material having high osmotic pressure and absorbent polymer. Dehydration sheet consist of mixture of sugar dehydrolysate and absorbent polymer covered with sem-permeable membrane, and can remove water in liquid state by contact with perishable food. Dehydration rate of fish using with dehydration sheet varied depending on species, their shape, and ambient temperature etc. Fish were dehydrated with dehydration sheet at low temperature as 0 - 5 C and frozen in cold storage room. Dehydrofrozen fish were kept it's high quality and freshness after thawing, ATPase activity of fish muscle was kept at high level after dehydrofreezing in the case of cod and alaska pollack, and flesh color of farming salmon was kept after thawing.

  6. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  7. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  8. Got a Sick Fish?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Resources | Pet Care Print Share This! Your Veterinarian Pet Care Currently selected Emergency Care Animal Welfare ... fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian for further advice. These are some of the ...

  9. All fish for China?

    PubMed

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; de Santiago, José A; Macho, Gonzalo

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on the level of fish intake in China in comparison with the rest of the world. We also analyse the origin and destination of China's seafood products in order to understand the main patterns during the last decades. The results show that in the 1961-2011 period the rate of growth of the GDP in China doubled that of other developing regions, while the daily fish intake of China increased fourfold, making China the largest fish consumer in the world. Given the size and scale of China's role in production, consumption, and global transformation of seafood markets, China is shaping a new era of industrialization in the history of the fishing industry.

  10. Freshwater Fish Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater fish are ecologically important in stream ecosystems, and they provide people with significant food, recreation, and conservation value as biological indicator of freshwater streams. Historically, the streams and rivers of southern New England supported moderately dive...

  11. CONTAMINANTS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine inorganic and organic contaminant concentrations in edible tissue of fish collected from eight coastal areas receiving wastewater discharges and from two reference locations. Trace metal residues were statistically similar regardless ...

  12. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Fish Poisoning Causative organisms: Gambierdiscus ...

  13. The role of fish in a globally changing food system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Abigail J.; MacMillan, J. Randy

    2017-01-01

    Though humans have been fishing for food since they first created tools to hunt, modern food systems are predominately terrestrial focused and fish are frequently overlooked. Yet, within the global food system, fish play an important role in meeting current and future food needs. Capture fisheries are the last large-scale “wild” food, and aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector in the world. Currently, capture fisheries and aquaculture provide 4.3 billion people with at least 15% of their animal protein. In addition to providing protein and calories, fish are important sources of critical vitamins and vital nutrients that are difficult to acquire through other food sources. As the climate changes, human populations will continue to grow, cultural tastes will evolve, and fish populations will respond. Sustainable fisheries and aquaculture are poised to fill demand for food not met by terrestrial food systems. Climate change and other global changes will increase, decrease, or modify many wild fish populations and aquaculture systems. Understanding the knowledge gaps around these implications for global change on fish production is critical. Applied research and adaptive management techniques can assist with the necessary evolution of sustainable food systems to include a stronger emphasis on fish and other aquatic organisms.

  14. Evolution and consequences of endothermy in fishes.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Kathryn A; Graham, Jeffrey B

    2004-01-01

    Regional endothermy, the conservation of metabolic heat by vascular countercurrent heat exchangers to elevate the temperature of the slow-twitch locomotor muscle, eyes and brain, or viscera, has evolved independently among several fish lineages, including lamnid sharks, billfishes, and tunas. All are large, active, pelagic species with high energy demands that undertake long-distance migrations and move vertically within the water column, thereby encountering a range of water temperatures. After summarizing the occurrence of endothermy among fishes, the evidence for two hypothesized advantages of endothermy in fishes, thermal niche expansion and enhancement of aerobic swimming performance, is analyzed using phylogenetic comparisons between endothermic fishes and their ectothermic relatives. Thermal niche expansion is supported by mapping endothermic characters onto phylogenies and by combining information about the thermal niche of extant species, the fossil record, and paleoceanographic conditions during the time that endothermic fishes radiated. However, it is difficult to show that endothermy was required for niche expansion, and adaptations other than endothermy are necessary for repeated diving below the thermocline. Although the convergent evolution of the ability to elevate slow-twitch, oxidative locomotor muscle temperatures suggests a selective advantage for that trait, comparisons of tunas and their ectothermic sister species (mackerels and bonitos) provide no direct support of the hypothesis that endothermy results in increased aerobic swimming speeds, slow-oxidative muscle power, or energetic efficiency. Endothermy is associated with higher standard metabolic rates, which may result from high aerobic capacities required by these high-performance fishes to conduct many aerobic activities simultaneously. A high standard metabolic rate indicates that the benefits of endothermy may be offset by significant energetic costs.

  15. Phylogenetic perspectives on reef fish functional traits.

    PubMed

    Floeter, Sergio R; Bender, Mariana G; Siqueira, Alexandre C; Cowman, Peter F

    2017-05-02

    Functional traits have been fundamental to the evolution and diversification of entire fish lineages on coral reefs. Yet their relationship with the processes promoting speciation, extinction and the filtering of local species pools remains unclear. We review the current literature exploring the evolution of diet, body size, water column use and geographic range size in reef-associated fishes. Using published and new data, we mapped functional traits on to published phylogenetic trees to uncover evolutionary patterns that have led to the current functional diversity of fishes on coral reefs. When examining reconstructed patterns for diet and feeding mode, we found examples of independent transitions to planktivory across different reef fish families. Such transitions and associated morphological alterations may represent cases in which ecological opportunity for the exploitation of different resources drives speciation and adaptation. In terms of body size, reconstructions showed that both large and small sizes appear multiple times within clades of mid-sized fishes and that extreme body sizes have arisen mostly in the last 10 million years (Myr). The reconstruction of range size revealed many cases of disparate range sizes among sister species. Such range size disparity highlights potential vicariant processes through isolation in peripheral locations. When accounting for peripheral speciation processes in sister pairs, we found a significant relationship between labrid range size and lineage age. The diversity and evolution of traits within lineages is influenced by trait-environment interactions as well as by species and trait-trait interactions, where the presence of a given trait may trigger the development of related traits or behaviours. Our effort to assess the evolution of functional diversity across reef fish clades adds to the burgeoning research focusing on the evolutionary and ecological roles of functional traits. We argue that the combination of a

  16. CHARACTERIZING POPULATIONS OF THE ESTUARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS INDIGENOUS TO SITES WITH DIFFERING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of the non-migratory estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus were collected from New Bedford Harbor and distant clean sites to investigate whether indigenous populations have adapted genetically to the harbor's contamination. New Bedford Harbor, a major port in southe...

  17. T Cells in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4+ and CD8α+ T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Conservation of CD4+ helper T cell functions among teleost fishes has been suggested in a number studies employing mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) and hapten/carrier effect. Alloantigen- and virus-specific cytotoxicity has also been demonstrated in ginbuna and rainbow trout. Furthermore, the important role of cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity has been reported in the protection against intracellular bacterial infection. Recently, the direct antibacterial activity of CD8α+, CD4+ T-cells and sIgM+ cells in fish has been reported. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in T cell research focusing on the tissue distribution and function of fish T cells. PMID:26426066

  18. Cleaner fish drives local fish diversity on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Grutter, Alexandra S; Murphy, Jan Maree; Choat, J Howard

    2003-01-08

    Coral reefs are one of the most diverse habitats in the world, yet our understanding of the processes affecting their biodiversity is limited. At the local scale, cleaner fish are thought to have a disproportionate effect, in relation to their abundance and size, on the activity of many other fish species, but confirmation of this species' effect on local fish diversity has proved elusive. The cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus has major effects on fish activity patterns and may indirectly affect fish demography through the removal of large numbers of parasites. Here we show that small reefs where L. dimidiatus had been experimentally excluded for 18 months had half the species diversity of fish and one-fourth the abundance of individuals. Only fish that move among reefs, however, were affected. These fish include large species that themselves can affect other reef organisms. In contrast, the distribution of resident fish was not affected by cleaner fish. Thus, many fish appear to choose reefs based on the presence of cleaner fish. Our findings indicate that a single small and not very abundant fish has a strong influence on the movement patterns, habitat choice, activity, and local diversity and abundance of a wide variety of reef fish species.

  19. Where is the rudder of a fish?: the mechanism of swimming and control of self-propelled fish school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chuijie; Wang, Liang

    2010-03-01

    Numerical simulation and control of self-propelled swimming of two- and three-dimensional biomimetic fish school in a viscous flow are investigated. With a parallel computational fluid dynamics package for the two- and three-dimensional moving boundary problem, which combines the adaptive multi-grid finite volume method and the methods of immersed boundary and volume of fluid, it is found that due to the interactions of vortices in the wakes, without proper control, a fish school swim with a given flapping rule can not keep the fixed shape of a queue. In order to understand the secret of fish swimming, a new feedback control strategy of fish motion is proposed for the first time, i.e., the locomotion speed is adjusted by the flapping frequency of the caudal, and the direction of swimming is controlled by the swinging of the head of a fish. Results show that with this feedback control strategy, a fish school can keep the good order of a queue in cruising, turning or swimming around circles. This new control strategy, which separates the speed control and direction control, is important in the construction of biomimetic robot fish, with which it greatly simplifies the control devices of a biomimetic robot fish.

  20. Fish is Fish: the use of experimental model species to reveal causes of skeletal diversity in evolution and disease

    PubMed Central

    Harris, M. P.; Henke, K.; Hawkins, M. B.; Witten, P. E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Fishes are wonderfully diverse. This variety is a result of the ability of ray-finned fishes to adapt to a wide range of environments, and has made them more specious than the rest of vertebrates combined. With such diversity it is easy to dismiss comparisons between distantly related fishes in efforts to understand the biology of a particular fish species. However, shared ancestry and the conservation of developmental mechanisms, morphological features and physiology provide the ability to use comparative analyses between different organisms to understand mechanisms of development and physiology. The use of species that are amenable to experimental investigation provides tools to approach questions that would not be feasible in other ‘non-model’ organisms. For example, the use of small teleost fishes such as zebrafish and medaka has been powerful for analysis of gene function and mechanisms of disease in humans, including skeletal diseases. However, use of these fish to aid in understanding variation and disease in other fishes has been largely unexplored. This is especially evident in aquaculture research. Here we highlight the utility of these small laboratory fishes to study genetic and developmental factors that underlie skeletal malformations that occur under farming conditions. We highlight several areas in which model species can serve as a resource for identifying the causes of variation in economically important fish species as well as to assess strategies to alleviate the expression of the variant phenotypes in farmed fish. We focus on genetic causes of skeletal deformities in the zebrafish and medaka that closely resemble phenotypes observed both in farmed as well as natural populations of fishes. PMID:25221374

  1. Molecular evolution of cryptochromes in fishes.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qiming; Sadovy, Yvonne; Dvornyk, Volodymyr

    2015-12-10

    Circadian rhythmicity is an endogenous biological cycle of about 24h, which exists in cyanobacteria and fungi, plants and animals. Circadian rhythms improve the adaptability of organisms in both constant and changing environments. The cryptochrome (CRY) is a key element of the circadian system in various animal groups including fishes. We studied evolution of cryptochromes in the phylogenetically and ecologically diverse fish taxa. The phylogenetic tree of fish Cry features two major clades: Cry1 and Cry2. Teleosts possess extra copies of Cry1 due to the genome duplication, which resulted in 3 main paralogous subfamilies (1A, 1B and 1C). Cry1 experienced further diversification through additional duplications in some taxa. 1A of Cry1 is more conserved than the other paralogs (dN=0.010 ± 0.003, π=0.119 ± 0.058). The analysis of selection indicated that, while the Cry homologs in fish evolved under the different levels of selection pressure, strong purifying selection (average ω=0.017) dominated in their evolution.

  2. Responses of Ambystoma gracile to the removal of introduced nonnative fish from a mountain lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Larson, Gary L.; Samora, B.

    2004-01-01

    Introduced, nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were removed from a mountain lake in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, to examine the capacity of native Ambystoma gracile (Northwestern Salamander) in the lake to respond to the intentional removal of fish. Temporal trends (N) were calculated for A. gracile larvae/neotene and egg mass relative abundances in the Fish Removal and an adjacent Fishless Lake. The diel and spatial patterns of A. gracile in the lakes were also enumerated during time-intervals of fish presence in and after fish removal from the Fish Removal Lake. Sixty-six fish were removed from the Fish Removal Lake. The Ns for relative abundances in the Fish Removal Lake were positive for the study period and indicated that the number of larvae/neotenes and egg masses observed in the lake increased concurrent with the removal and extirpation of fish from the lake. Numbers of larvae/neotenes and egg masses observed in the Fishless Lake varied annually, but no overall positive or negative trends were evident during the study. Ambystoma gracile in the Fish Removal Lake, during fish presence, were predominantly nocturnal and located in the shallow, structurally complex nearshore area of the lake. After fish were removed, the number of A. gracile observed in the lake increased, especially during the day and in the deeper, less structurally complex offshore area of the lake. Fishless Lake A. gracile were readily observed day and night in all areas of the lake throughout the study. The A. gracile in the Fish Removal Lake behaviorally adapted to the presence of introduced fish and were able to recover from the affects of the fish following fish removal. This study underscores the important relationship between species life history and the variability of responses of montane aquatic-breeding amphibians to fish introductions in mountain lakes.

  3. Parallel speciation in Astyanax cave fish (Teleostei) in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Strecker, Ulrike; Hausdorf, Bernhard; Wilkens, Horst

    2012-01-01

    We investigated differentiation processes in the Neotropical fish Astyanax that represents a model system for examining adaptation to caves, including regressive evolution. In particular, we analyzed microsatellite and mitochondrial data of seven cave and seven surface populations from Mexico to test whether the evolution of the cave fish represents a case of parallel evolution. Our data revealed that Astyanax invaded northern Mexico across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt at least three times and that populations of all three invasions adapted to subterranean habitats. Significant differentiation was found between the cave and surface populations. We did not observe gene flow between the strongly eye and pigment reduced old cave populations (Sabinos, Tinaja, Pachon) and the surface fish, even when syntopically occurring like in Yerbaniz cave. Little gene flow, if any, was found between cave populations, which are variable in eye and pigmentation (Micos, Chica, Caballo Moro caves), and surface fish. This suggests that the variability is due to their more recent origin rather than to hybridization. Finally, admixture of the young Chica cave fish population with nuclear markers from older cave fish demonstrates that gene flow between populations that independently colonized caves occurs. Thus, all criteria of parallel speciation are fulfilled. Moreover, the microsatellite data provide evidence that two co-occurring groups with small sunken eyes and externally visible eyes, respectively, differentiated within the partly lightened Caballo Moro karst window cave and might represent an example for incipient sympatric speciation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolutionary responses of innate Immunity to adaptive immunity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Innate immunity is present in all metazoans, whereas the evolutionarily more novel adaptive immunity is limited to jawed fishes and their descendants (gnathostomes). We observe that the organisms that possess adaptive immunity lack diversity in their innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), rais...

  5. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism.

  6. Adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  7. Spatial extent and dynamics of dam impacts on tropical island freshwater fish assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooney, Patrick B.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat connectivity is vital to the persistence of migratory fishes. Native tropical island stream fish assemblages composed of diadromous species require intact corridors between ocean and riverine habitats. High dams block fish migration, but low-head artificial barriers are more widespread and are rarely assessed for impacts. Among all 46 drainages in Puerto Rico, we identified and surveyed 335 artificial barriers that hinder fish migration to 74.5% of the upstream habitat. We also surveyed occupancy of native diadromous fishes (Anguillidae, Eleotridae, Gobiidae, and Mugilidae) in 118 river reaches. Occupancy models demonstrated that barriers 2 meters (m) high restricted nongoby fish migration and extirpated those fish upstream of 4-m barriers. Gobies are adapted to climbing and are restricted by 12-m barriers and extirpated upstream of 32-m barriers. Our findings quantitatively illustrate the extensive impact of low-head structures on island stream fauna and provide guidance for natural resource management, habitat restoration, and water development strategies.

  8. Vorticity Dynamics of Self-Propelled Swimming of 3D Bionic Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Z. Q.; Wu, C. J.

    2011-09-01

    Numerical simulations and control of tail-swaying swim of three-dimensional biomimetic fish in a viscous flow and the vorticity dynamics of fish swimming have been investigated in this paper, with a computational fluid dynamics package, which combines the adaptive multi-grid finite volume method and the methods of immersed boundary and volume of fluid, and the control strategy of fish motion. Using boundary vorticity-flux (BVF) theory, we have studied the mechanism of fish swimming and trace the physical root to the moving body surface. With the change of swimming speed, the effects of fish body and caudalfin on thrust, is analysed quantitatively. Finally the relationship between the forces exerted on fish body and vortex structures of fish swimming has been presented in this paper.

  9. Linking hydroclimate to fish phenology and habitat use with ichthyographs

    Treesearch

    Rebecca L. Flitcroft; Sarah L. Lewis; Ivan Arismendi; Rachel LovellFord; Mary V. Santelmann; Mohammad Safeeq; Gordon Grant; Kyle A. Young

    2016-01-01

    Streamflow and water temperature (hydroclimate) influence the life histories of aquatic biota. The relationship between streamflow and temperature varies with climate, hydrogeomorphic setting, and season. Life histories of native fishes reflect, in part, their adaptation to regional hydroclimate (flow and water temperature), local habitats, and natural disturbance...

  10. Disease and development: ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lewis, N D

    1986-01-01

    Ciguatera, a form of fish poisoning with a pantropical distribution, has been a recognized health problem in the Caribbean and the Pacific for centuries (in the decade from 1973 to 1983 for the island Pacific region as a whole, reported incidence, conservatively 20% of actual incidence, was 97/100,000). Island peoples in subsistence communities have developed strategies to minimize its impact. These strategies are less effective when people move to towns, cities and wage labor. The existence of ciguatoxic fish, which are indistinguishable from those that are not, has serious implications for development in island states. Furthermore, development activities which result in disruption of the marine environment increase the potential for ciguatoxic biotopes. The distribution of this health risk in the Pacific region is presented, adaptive strategies discussed, and implications for health, nutrition, resource development and tourism explored.

  11. Marine fish communities in shallow volcanic habitats.

    PubMed

    Pinault, M; Loiseau, N; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Magalon, H; Quod, J P; Galzin, R

    2013-06-01

    This survey of the marine ichthyofauna of the Piton de La Fournaise volcano at Reunion Island is the first explanatory study of fish community structures in this area. It describes and analyses the main qualitative descriptors of the fish communities (i.e. species richness, diet, life history and geographical distribution) and their spatio-temporal organization. This investigation in 2011 examined lava flows of different ages, including the most recent flows that entered the ocean between 1977 and 2007. In all, 263 species belonging to 45 families were observed. Overall, the fish community was notable for an absence of top predators and a predominance of opportunistic small-bodied species, with dietary flexibility and high reproductive rates, characteristic of the early stages of ecological succession. Between-site analysis indicated that the fish assemblages differed essentially according to the intensity of the last volcanic disturbances. Fish communities in the most disturbed sites showed the highest numbers of Serranidae and the highest proportions of omnivores and small-bodied opportunistic carnivores, including a high proportion of endemic south-western Indian Ocean species. The spatial pattern of this last category of species could be the result of convergent biological traits, and their adaptation to unstable environments at the expense of their competitiveness in more biodiverse, mature communities. Conversely, fish communities in the less disturbed sites showed the highest number of Holocentridae and the highest proportion of browsers of sessile invertebrates. This last characteristic could be a consequence of higher ecological maturity, illustrated by a more specialized trophic network, for assemblages in areas with less intense disturbances. Otherwise, high structural complexity, either in unconsolidated lava boulders, rocks and rubble or high coral-covered sites, could favour the increase of the total number of species independent of disturbance

  12. Fish and Fisheries Ecology.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, John J

    1991-02-01

    My paper on fish and fisheries ecology is offered to demonstrate a rich blending of applied and fundamental ecology, achieved by the intersections among fishery science, ichthyology, and ecology. The example, while specific, parallels practices and opportunities available in other areas of applied ecology. The emergence of fish and fisheries ecology as a discipline is evidence by such recent textbooks as Fisheries ecology by Pitcher and Hart (1982) and Ecology of teleost fishes by Wootton (1990). The ecology relevant to fish and fisheries includes not only marine and freshwater ecology, oceanography, and limnology, but also terrestrial study. Early work in fish and fisheries ecology came from Stephen A. Forbes > 100 yr ago in his books On some interactions of organisms (Forbes 1880) and The lake as a microcosm (Forbes 1887). These constitute one of the earliest conceptualizations of an ecosystem. By 1932 E. S. Russell concluded that fishery research was a study in marine ecology. I give examples of applications from six different categories of ecology. (1) Physiological ecology: The F. E. J. Fry school of fish physiology developed the concepts of temperature as a lethal, controlling and directive factor. More than 40 yr later, this knowledge is being combined with G. E. Hutchinson's concept of an n-dimensional niche to analyze potential influences of global climate warming on fishes. (2) Behavioral ecology: A. D. Hasler and students formulated and tested the hypothesis of olfactory imprinting as the mechanism by which Pacific salmon "home" to their natal spawning streams. Applications to reestablish salmon runs are as important to Hasler as the original scientific discovery; this is evident in his proposed "Salmon for Peace" for the river bounding USSR and China. (3) Population ecology: The realization that reproductive success of fishes depends more on larval mortality than on egg production emerged from the ideas of J. Hjort (1914). To this day inconsistencies

  13. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  14. Fish robotics and hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauder, George

    2010-11-01

    Studying the fluid dynamics of locomotion in freely-swimming fishes is challenging due to difficulties in controlling fish behavior. To provide better control over fish-like propulsive systems we have constructed a variety of fish-like robotic test platforms that range from highly biomimetic models of fins, to simple physical models of body movements during aquatic locomotion. First, we have constructed a series of biorobotic models of fish pectoral fins with 5 fin rays that allow detailed study of fin motion, forces, and fluid dynamics associated with fin-based locomotion. We find that by tuning fin ray stiffness and the imposed motion program we can produce thrust both on the fin outstroke and instroke. Second, we are using a robotic flapping foil system to study the self-propulsion of flexible plastic foils of varying stiffness, length, and trailing edge shape as a means of investigating the fluid dynamic effect of simple changes in the properties of undulating bodies moving through water. We find unexpected non-linear stiffness-dependent effects of changing foil length on self-propelled speed, and as well as significant effects of trailing edge shape on foil swimming speed.

  15. Can Fish Catch On in Your Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip N.

    1983-01-01

    Presented are several classroom activities using fish. These include gyotaku (Japanese fish printing), use of a dichotomous key to classify fish, "invent-a-fish" activities, and others. Includes discussion of fish facts and copies of fish key and invent-a-fish cards. (JN)

  16. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  17. "Esteeme a little of fish": fish, fishponds, and farming in eighteenth-century New England and the Mid-Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Strother E

    2008-01-01

    Prior to the advent of scientific aquaculture in the mid-nineteenth century, English farming manuals of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries instructed American colonists in the "art of husbandry," imparting advice and passing on the best-known strategies for keeping and rearing fish in enclosed ponds. The development of such ponds in the New England and Mid-Atlantic colonies during the eighteenth century marked the culmination of a long process by which British-American colonists adapted to declines in natural fish populations brought on by over-fishing and disruption of habitat by water-powered mills. The development of private fishponds as an increasingly important component of American mixed husbandry practices in long-settled areas by the end of the eighteenth century illustrates early American farmers' ability to successfully adapt to self-wrought changes in their physical environment.

  18. Vestibular and Visual Contribution to Fish Behavior Under Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijiri, K.

    Vestibular and visual information are two major factors fish use for controlling their posture under 1 G conditions. Parabolic flight experiments were carried out to observe the fish behavior under microgravity for several different strains of Medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). There existed a clear strain-difference in the behavioral response of the fish under microgravity: Some strains looped, while other strains did not loop at all. However, even the latter strains looped under microgravity conditions when kept in complete darkness, suggesting the contribution of visual information to the posture control under microgravity. In the laboratory, eyesight (visual acuity) was checked for each strain, using a rotating striped-drum apparatus. The results also showed a strain-difference, which gave a clue to the different degree of adaptability to microgravity among different strains. Beside loopings, some fish exhibited rolling movement around their body axis. Tracing each fish during and between parabolas, it was shown that to which side each fish rolls was determined specifically to each individual fish, and not to each strain. Thus, rolling direction is not genetically determined. This may support the otolith asymmetry hypothesis. Fish of a mutant strain (ha strain, having homozygous recessive of one gene ha) have some malfunction in otolith-vestibular system, and their behavior showed they are not dependent on gravity. Morphological abnormalities of their ear vesicles during the embryonic and baby stages were noted. Their eyesight and dorsal light responses were also studied. Progress in the project of establishing a new strain which has good eyesight and, at the same time, being deficient in otolith-vestibular system was reported. Crosses between the strain of good eyesight and ha strain were made, and to some extent, F2 fish have already shown such characteristics suited for living under microgravity conditions

  19. CO-FISH, COD-FISH, ReD-FISH, SKY-FISH.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eli S; Cornforth, Michael N; Goodwin, Edwin H; Bailey, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a powerful tool for exploring genomes at the level of chromosomes. The procedure can be used to identify individual chromosomes, rearrangements between chromosomes, and the location within a chromosome of specific DNA sequences such as centromeres, telomeres, and even individual genes. Chromosome orientation FISH (CO-FISH) extends the information obtainable from standard FISH to include the relative orientation of two or more DNA sequences within a chromosome (Goodwin and Meyne, Cytogenet Cell Genet 63:126-127, 1993). In combination with a suitable reference probe, CO-FISH can also determine the absolute 5'-3' direction of a DNA sequence relative to the short arm (pter) to long arm (qter) axis of the chromosome. This variation of CO-FISH was originally termed "COD-FISH" (Chromosome orientation and direction FISH) to reflect this fact (Meyne and Goodwin, Chromosome Research 3:375-378, 1995). Telomeric DNA serves as a convenient and absolute reference probe for this purpose, since all G-rich 5'-(TTAGGG)( n )-3' telomeric sequences are terminally located and oriented away from the centromere.In the beginning, CO-FISH was used to detect obligate chromosomal inversions associated with isochromosome formation (Bailey et al., Mutagenesis 11:139-144, 1996), various pericentric inversions (Bailey et al., Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 75:248-253, 1996), and to confirm the origin of centromeric lateral asymmetry (Goodwin et al., Chromosoma 104:345-347, 1996). More recent and sophisticated applications of CO-FISH include distinction between telomeres produced via leading- vs. lagging-strand DNA synthesis (Bailey et al., Science 293:2462-2465, 2001), identification of interstitial blocks of telomere sequence that result from inappropriate fusion to double-strand breaks (telomere-DSB fusion) (Bailey et al., DNA Repair (Amst) 3:349-357, 2004), discovery of elevated rates of mitotic recombination at chromosomal termini

  20. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection.

  1. Claudins in teleost fishes

    PubMed Central

    Kolosov, Dennis; Bui, Phuong; Chasiotis, Helen; Kelly, Scott P

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fishes are a large and diverse animal group that represent close to 50% of all described vertebrate species. This review consolidates what is known about the claudin (Cldn) family of tight junction (TJ) proteins in teleosts. Cldns are transmembrane proteins of the vertebrate epithelial/endothelial TJ complex that largely determine TJ permeability. Cldns achieve this by expressing barrier or pore forming properties and by exhibiting distinct tissue distribution patterns. So far, ~63 genes encoding for Cldn TJ proteins have been reported in 16 teleost species. Collectively, cldns (or Cldns) are found in a broad array of teleost fish tissues, but select genes exhibit restricted expression patterns. Evidence to date strongly supports the view that Cldns play a vital role in the embryonic development of teleost fishes and in the physiology of tissues and organ systems studied thus far. PMID:24665402

  2. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  3. Adaptation of adaptive optics systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yu; Zhao, Dazun; Li, Chen

    1997-10-01

    In the paper, a concept of an adaptation of adaptive optical system (AAOS) is proposed. The AAOS has certain real time optimization ability against the variation of the brightness of detected objects m, atmospheric coherence length rO and atmospheric time constant τ by means of changing subaperture number and diameter, dynamic range, and system's temporal response. The necessity of AAOS using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and some technical approaches are discussed. Scheme and simulation of an AAOS with variable subaperture ability by use of both hardware and software are presented as an example of the system.

  4. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer. PMID:21547056

  5. Swimming behavior of larval Medaka fish under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, R.; Ijiri, K.

    Fish exhibit looping and rolling behaviors when subjected to short periods of microgravity during parabolic flight. Strain-differences in the behavioral response of adult Medaka fish ( Oryzias latipes) were reported previously, however, there have been few studies of larval fish behavior under microgravity. In the present study, we investigated whether microgravity affects the swimming behavior of larvae at various ages (0 to 20 days after hatching), using different strains: HNI-II, HO5, ha strain, and variety of different strains (variety). The preliminary experiments were done in the ground laboratory: the development of eyesight was examined using optokinetic response for the different strains. The visual acuity of larvae improved drastically during 20 days after hatching. Strain differences of response were noted for the development of their visual acuity. In microgravity, the results were significantly different from those of adult Medaka. The larval fish appeared to maintain their orientation, except that a few of them exhibited looping and rolling behavior. Further, most larvae swam normally with their backs turning toward the light source (dorsal light response, DLR), and the rest of them stayed with their abdomen touching the surface of the container (ventral substrate response, VSR). For larval stages, strain-differences and age-differences in behavior were observed, but less pronounced than with adult fish under microgravity. Our observations suggest that adaptability of larval fish to the gravitational change and the mechanism of their postural control in microgravity are more variable than in adult fish.

  6. Fish mucous cocoons: the 'mosquito nets' of the sea.

    PubMed

    Grutter, Alexandra S; Rumney, Jennifer G; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Waldie, Peter; Franklin, Craig E

    2011-04-23

    Mucus performs numerous protective functions in vertebrates, and in fishes may defend them against harmful organisms, although often the evidence is contradictory. The function of the mucous cocoons that many parrotfishes and wrasses sleep in, while long used as a classical example of antipredator behaviour, remains unresolved. Ectoparasitic gnathiid isopods (Gnathiidae), which feed on the blood of fish, are removed by cleaner fish during the day; however, it is unclear how parrotfish and wrasse avoid gnathiid attacks at night. To test the novel hypothesis that mucous cocoons protect against gnathiids, we exposed the coral reef parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus (Scaridae) with and without cocoons to gnathiids overnight and measured the energetic content of cocoons. Fish without mucous cocoons were attacked more by gnathiids than fish with cocoons. The energetic content of mucous cocoons was estimated as 2.5 per cent of the fish's daily energy budget fish. Therefore, mucous cocoons protected against attacks by gnathiids, acting like mosquito nets in humans, a function of cocoons and an efficient physiological adaptation for preventing parasite infestation that is not used by any other animal.

  7. Linking Hydroclimate to Fish Phenology and Habitat Use with Ichthyographs.

    PubMed

    Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Lewis, Sarah L; Arismendi, Ivan; LovellFord, Rachel; Santelmann, Mary V; Safeeq, Mohammad; Grant, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Streamflow and water temperature (hydroclimate) influence the life histories of aquatic biota. The relationship between streamflow and temperature varies with climate, hydrogeomorphic setting, and season. Life histories of native fishes reflect, in part, their adaptation to regional hydroclimate (flow and water temperature), local habitats, and natural disturbance regimes, all of which may be affected by water management. Alterations to natural hydroclimates, such as those caused by river regulation or climate change, can modify the suitability and variety of in-stream habitat for fishes throughout the year. Here, we present the ichthyograph, a new empirically-based graphical tool to help visualize relationships between hydroclimate and fish phenology. Generally, this graphical tool can be used to display a variety of phenotypic traits. We used long-term data sets of daily fish passage to examine linkages between hydroclimate and the expression of life-history phenology by native fishes. The ichthyograph may be used to characterize the environmental phenology for fishes across multiple spatio-temporal domains. We illustrate the ichthyograph in two applications to visualize: 1) river use for the community of fishes at a specific location; and 2) stream conditions at multiple locations within the river network for one species at different life-history stages. The novel, yet simple, ichthyograph offers a flexible framework to enable transformations in thinking regarding relationships between hydroclimate and aquatic species across space and time. The potential broad application of this innovative tool promotes synergism between assessments of physical characteristics and the biological needs of aquatic species.

  8. Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    8. McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.

  9. Hybridization, transgressive segregation, genetic covariation, and adaptive radiation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michael A; Travis, Matthew P

    2005-07-01

    Analysis of adaptive radiation has had a central role in the development of evolutionary theory, but it is not clear why some groups radiate and others do not. Two recent papers by Albertson and colleagues on the genetic architecture of East African cichlid fishes implicate hybridization, transgressive segregation and genetic covariation in the early stages of adaptive radiation. Transgressive segregation and genetic covariation might be key innovations in genetic architecture that favor adaptive radiation.

  10. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for transportation by vessel only when packaged as follows: (1) Burlap (jute) bag; (2) Multi-wall paper bag;...

  11. Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch opening is at upper left, ceiling planks and knees at center and right. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  12. Fish consumption and track to a fish feed formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Strategically located in the equator, Malaysia is blessed with plenty of fish supply. The high demand in fish consumption has helped the development in the fishery industry and provided numerous jobs in the secondary sector, contributing significantly to the nation's income. A survey was conducted to understand the trend of current demands for fish for the purpose of designing a feed formulation, which is still limited in this area of study. Results showed that grouper fish in restaurants commanded a very high price compared to other species of fish. Tiger grouper gained the highest demand in most restaurants, while giant grouper had the highest price in restaurants. Due to the demand and challenges to culture this type of fish, a framework for fish feed formulation is proposed. The formulation framework when materialized could be an alternative to the use of trash fish as the feed for grouper.

  13. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...) Polyethylene-lined burlap or paper bag; (4) Cargo tank; (5) Portable tank; (6) Rail car; or (7)...

  14. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...) Polyethylene-lined burlap or paper bag; (4) Cargo tank; (5) Portable tank; (6) Rail car; or (7)...

  15. Fish oils and human diet.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J R

    1997-07-01

    Trends in global fish catches are described together with fish landings and fish consumption in the UK. The importance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as essential constituents of human diets is considered and the role of oily fish as a dietary source of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, is emphasized. The origin of n-3 polyunsaturates in, the marine phytoplankton and their transmission via zooplankton to fish is described as a means of understanding the composition of different fish body oils. The ease with which the fatty acid composition of fish body oils can be manipulated by altering the fatty acid composition of their feeds is emphasized and the dietary requirements of marine and freshwater fish for n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturates considered. Farming fish on diets containing principally fish meal and fish oil, as used in salmon production in Scotland, generates a high quality product with levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates equalling or exceeding those of wild fish. Farming fish on high quality marine oils rich in docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids is an efficient means of delivering these essential nutrients in human diets and also efficiently exploiting a strictly limited marine bioresource.

  16. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National fish...

  17. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National fish...

  18. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National fish...

  19. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  20. Fish and fish oil in health and disease prevention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fish is an important dietary component due to its contribution of valuable nutrients. In addition to the high quality protein and micronutrients provided, fish is the primary source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids which are found in oils of ‘fatty’ cold water fish. Biomedical evidence supports th...

  1. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  2. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  3. Adaptive equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, S. U. H.

    1985-09-01

    Theoretical work which has been effective in improving data transmission by telephone and radio links using adaptive equalization (AE) techniques is reviewed. AE has been applied to reducing the temporal dispersion effects, such as intersymbol interference, caused by the channel accessed. Attention is given to the Nyquist telegraph transmission theory, least mean square error adaptive filtering and the theory and structure of linear receive and transmit filters for reducing error. Optimum nonlinear receiver structures are discussed in terms of optimality criteria as a function of error probability. A suboptimum receiver structure is explored in the form of a decision-feedback equalizer. Consideration is also given to quadrature amplitude modulation and transversal equalization for receivers.

  4. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  5. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Bobby L.; Aeby, Ian

    1982-01-01

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data having variable frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  6. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  7. Fish Facts. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Mike

    This lesson plan is designed for a 50-minute class to teach extension home economists and homemakers about buying, storing, and using fish. The lesson plan contains references, a list of equipment needed, objectives, and the presentation. The presentation consists of an outline of instruction coordinated with methods of instruction and aids and…

  8. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  9. Colwater fish in rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standard sampling protocol to assess the fish assemblages and abundances in large, coldwater rivers is most accurate and precise if consistent gears and levels of effort are used at each site. This requires thorough crew training, quality control audits, and replicate sampling...

  10. The Last Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the collapse of Newfoundland's once immense northern-cod fishery in 1992 from the perspective of a family fisherman who has become an environmental activist. Discusses failures in environmental management including the overfishing of shared resources encouraged by the Canadian government and hastened by international fishing fleets and…

  11. Fishing for Features

    ScienceCinema

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cort, John; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-08-24

    The Fishing for Features Signature Discovery project developed a framework for discovering signature features in challenging environments involving large and complex data sets or where phenomena may be poorly characterized or understood. Researchers at PNNL have applied the framework to the optimization of biofuels blending and to discover signatures of climate change on microbial soil communities.

  12. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  13. Ooey, Gooey, Fish Guts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Maryellen

    2004-01-01

    Fish dissections are a great way to introduce the concepts of food webs, predator-prey relationships, and ecosystems, but these labs are expensive, messy, smelly, and require a lot of supervision because of the tools involved. The author has developed an inexpensive, safe, and clean alternative where students "dissect" simulated fish…

  14. Ooey, Gooey, Fish Guts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Maryellen

    2004-01-01

    Fish dissections are a great way to introduce the concepts of food webs, predator-prey relationships, and ecosystems, but these labs are expensive, messy, smelly, and require a lot of supervision because of the tools involved. The author has developed an inexpensive, safe, and clean alternative where students "dissect" simulated fish…

  15. Fish out of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the life of Leonard Koscianski, an artist who focuses on revealing the inner life of the human heart and mind in his artwork. Includes four lesson plans for grades ranging from 2 through 12: philosophy, psychology, language arts, and visual arts. Provides a copy and background about Koscianski's painting "Red Fish." (CMK)

  16. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  17. Fishing for Features

    SciTech Connect

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cort, John; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-07-21

    The Fishing for Features Signature Discovery project developed a framework for discovering signature features in challenging environments involving large and complex data sets or where phenomena may be poorly characterized or understood. Researchers at PNNL have applied the framework to the optimization of biofuels blending and to discover signatures of climate change on microbial soil communities.

  18. Colwater fish in rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standard sampling protocol to assess the fish assemblages and abundances in large, coldwater rivers is most accurate and precise if consistent gears and levels of effort are used at each site. This requires thorough crew training, quality control audits, and replicate sampling...

  19. The Last Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the collapse of Newfoundland's once immense northern-cod fishery in 1992 from the perspective of a family fisherman who has become an environmental activist. Discusses failures in environmental management including the overfishing of shared resources encouraged by the Canadian government and hastened by international fishing fleets and…

  20. Fish-induced keriorrhea.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ka Ho; Nichols, Peter D; But, Paul Pui-Hay

    2009-01-01

    Many deep-sea fishes store large amounts of wax esters in their body for buoyancy control. Some of them are frequently caught as by-catch of tuna and other fishes. The most noteworthy ones include escolar and oilfish. The accumulation of the indigestible wax esters in the rectum through consumption of these fish engenders discharges or leakage per rectum as orange or brownish green oil, but without noticeable loss of water. This physiological response is called keriorrhea, which is variously described as "oily diarrhea," "oily orange diarrhea," or "orange oily leakage" by the mass media and bloggers on the internet. Outbreaks of keriorrhea have been repeatedly reported across continents. Additional symptoms including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea were complained by the victims. They are probably due to anxiety or panic when suffering from keriorrhea. Escolar and oilfish are banned from import and sale in Italy, Japan, and South Korea. Rapid detection of the two fishes is imperative to ensure proper labeling and safeguarding of the public before and after any keriorrhea outbreak.

  1. Miniature sonar fish tag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Self-powered sonar device may be implanted in body of fish. It transmits signal that can be detected with portable tracking gear or by automatic detection-and-tracking system. Operating life of over 4000 hours may be expected. Device itself may be used almost indefinitely.

  2. Fish Facts. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Mike

    This lesson plan is designed for a 50-minute class to teach extension home economists and homemakers about buying, storing, and using fish. The lesson plan contains references, a list of equipment needed, objectives, and the presentation. The presentation consists of an outline of instruction coordinated with methods of instruction and aids and…

  3. Truck-Drivin' Fish?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity that enables first-grade students to learn about color mixing by driving toys trucks through paint. Explains that the students created rainbow fish and drew the background with crayons. States that this activity demonstrates how to utilize nontraditional tools or objects when creating art. (CMK)

  4. Parasitology and necropsy of fish.

    PubMed

    Weber, E P Scott; Govett, Pam

    2009-02-01

    Parasitic diseases are common in fish. Diagnosis can be made through gill biopsy, skin cytology, fecal examination, or necropsy. Common parasites include protozoa, helminths, and crustaceans. Determining the cause of death in a fish is important for maintaining the health of other fish in the same environment. Due to rapid autolysis, fish necropsies should be performed promptly after death. Samples should be preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Squash preparations, tissue imprints, microbiology, and virology are also useful in obtaining a diagnosis.

  5. Guidelines for Eating Fish that Contain Mercury

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how to minimize exposure to methylmercury while eating fish. Read about fish advisories, how to use them to consume fish safely, and use the national fish advisories locator to find them in an area near you.

  6. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    ScienceCinema

    Colotelo, Alison

    2016-08-18

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  7. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison

    2015-03-13

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  8. The offshore benthic fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The offshore benthic fish community will be composed of self-sustaining native fishes characterized by lake trout as the top predator, a population expansion of lake whitefish from northeastern waters to other areas of the lake, and rehabilitated native prey fishes.

  9. Changing tides: ecological and historical perspectives on fish cognition.

    PubMed

    Patton, B Wren; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for specialization and radiation make fish an excellent group in which to investigate the depth and variety of animal cognition. Even though early observations of fish using tools predates the discovery of tool use in chimpanzees, fish cognition has historically been somewhat overlooked. However, a recent surge of interest is now providing a wealth of material on which to draw examples, and this has required a selective approach to choosing the research described below. Our goal is to illustrate the necessity for basing cognitive investigations on the ecological and evolutionary context of the species at hand. We also seek to illustrate the importance of ecology and the environment in honing a range of sensory systems that allow fish to glean information and support informed decision-making. The various environments and challenges with which fish interact require equally varied cognitive skills, and the solutions that fish have developed are truly impressive. Similarly, we illustrate how common ecological problems will frequently produce common cognitive solutions. Below, we focus on four topics: spatial learning and memory, avoiding predators and catching prey, communication, and innovation. These are used to illustrate how both simple and sophisticated cognitive processes underpin much of the adaptive behavioral flexibility exhibited throughout fish phylogeny. Never before has the field had such a wide array of interdisciplinary techniques available to access both cognitive and mechanistic processes underpinning fish behavior. This capacity comes at a critical time to predict and manage fish populations in an era of unprecedented global change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Turbo FISH: A Method for Rapid Single Molecule RNA FISH

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Sydney M.; Wu, Min-Tzu; Levesque, Marshall J.; Raj, Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Advances in RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (RNA FISH) have allowed practitioners to detect individual RNA molecules in single cells via fluorescence microscopy, enabling highly accurate and sensitive quantification of gene expression. However, current methods typically employ hybridization times on the order of 2–16 hours, limiting its potential in applications like rapid diagnostics. We present here a set of conditions for RNA FISH (dubbed Turbo RNA FISH) that allow us to make accurate measurements with no more than 5 minutes of hybridization time and 3 minutes of washing, and show that hybridization times can go as low as 30 seconds while still producing quantifiable images. We further show that rapid hybridization is compatible with our recently developed iceFISH and SNP FISH variants of RNA FISH that enable chromosome and single base discrimination, respectively. Our method is simple and cost effective, and has the potential to dramatically increase the throughput and realm of applicability of RNA FISH. PMID:24066168

  11. Fishing out collective memory of migratory schools

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Giancarlo; Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Marsili, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Animals form groups for many reasons, but there are costs and benefits associated with group formation. One of the benefits is collective memory. In groups on the move, social interactions play a crucial role in the cohesion and the ability to make consensus decisions. When migrating from spawning to feeding areas, fish schools need to retain a collective memory of the destination site over thousands of kilometres, and changes in group formation or individual preference can produce sudden changes in migration pathways. We propose a modelling framework, based on stochastic adaptive networks, that can reproduce this collective behaviour. We assume that three factors control group formation and school migration behaviour: the intensity of social interaction, the relative number of informed individuals and the strength of preference that informed individuals have for a particular migration area. We treat these factors independently and relate the individuals’ preferences to the experience and memory for certain migration sites. We demonstrate that removal of knowledgeable individuals or alteration of individual preference can produce rapid changes in group formation and collective behaviour. For example, intensive fishing targeting the migratory species and also their preferred prey can reduce both terms to a point at which migration to the destination sites is suddenly stopped. The conceptual approaches represented by our modelling framework may therefore be able to explain large-scale changes in fish migration and spatial distribution. PMID:24647905

  12. Fishing out collective memory of migratory schools.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giancarlo; Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian R; Marsili, Matteo

    2014-06-06

    Animals form groups for many reasons, but there are costs and benefits associated with group formation. One of the benefits is collective memory. In groups on the move, social interactions play a crucial role in the cohesion and the ability to make consensus decisions. When migrating from spawning to feeding areas, fish schools need to retain a collective memory of the destination site over thousands of kilometres, and changes in group formation or individual preference can produce sudden changes in migration pathways. We propose a modelling framework, based on stochastic adaptive networks, that can reproduce this collective behaviour. We assume that three factors control group formation and school migration behaviour: the intensity of social interaction, the relative number of informed individuals and the strength of preference that informed individuals have for a particular migration area. We treat these factors independently and relate the individuals' preferences to the experience and memory for certain migration sites. We demonstrate that removal of knowledgeable individuals or alteration of individual preference can produce rapid changes in group formation and collective behaviour. For example, intensive fishing targeting the migratory species and also their preferred prey can reduce both terms to a point at which migration to the destination sites is suddenly stopped. The conceptual approaches represented by our modelling framework may therefore be able to explain large-scale changes in fish migration and spatial distribution.

  13. Metazoan Parasites of Antarctic Fishes.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Tepe, Yahya; Belk, Mark C; Heckmann, Richard A; Aslan, Burçak; Gürgen, Meryem; Bray, Rodney A; Akgül, Ülker

    2015-06-01

    To date, there have been nearly 100 papers published on metazoan parasites of Antarctic fishes, but there has not yet been any compilation of a species list of fish parasites for this large geographic area. Herein, we provide a list of all documented occurrences of monogenean, cestode, digenean, acanthocephalan, nematode, and hirudinean parasites of Antarctic fishes. The list includes nearly 250 parasite species found in 142 species of host fishes. It is likely that there are more species of fish parasites, which are yet to be documented from Antarctic waters.

  14. Endocrine control of osmoregulation in teleost fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. As the primary link between environmental change and physiological response, the neuroendocrinesystem is a critical part of osmoregulatory adaptations. Cortisol has been viewpd as 'the' seawater-adapting hormone in fish and prolactin as 'the' fresh water adapting hormone. Recent evidence indicates that the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis is also important in seawater adaptation in several teleosts of widely differing evolutionary lineages. In salmonids, growth hormone acts in synergy with cortisol to increase seawater tolerance, at least partly through the upregulation of gill cortisol receptors. Cortisol under some conditions may promote ion uptake and interacts with prolactin during acclimation to fresh water. The osmoregulatory actions of growth hormone and prolactin are antagonistic. In some species, thyroid hormones support the action of growth hormone and cortisol in promoting seawater acclimation. Although a broad generalization that holds for all teleosts is unlikely, our current understanding indicates that growth hormone promotes acclimation to seawater, prolactin promotes acclimation to fresh water, and cortisol interacts with both of these hormones thus having a dual osmoregulatory function.

  15. Rugged adaptive landscapes shape a complex, sympatric radiation

    PubMed Central

    Pfaender, Jobst; Hadiaty, Renny K.; Schliewen, Ulrich K.; Herder, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Strong disruptive ecological selection can initiate speciation, even in the absence of physical isolation of diverging populations. Species evolving under disruptive ecological selection are expected to be ecologically distinct but, at least initially, genetically weakly differentiated. Strong selection and the associated fitness advantages of narrowly adapted individuals, coupled with assortative mating, are predicted to overcome the homogenizing effects of gene flow. Theoretical plausibility is, however, contrasted by limited evidence for the existence of rugged adaptive landscapes in nature. We found evidence for multiple, disruptive ecological selection regimes that have promoted divergence in the sympatric, incipient radiation of ‘sharpfin’ sailfin silverside fishes in ancient Lake Matano (Sulawesi, Indonesia). Various modes of ecological specialization have led to adaptive morphological differences between the species, and differently adapted morphs display significant but incomplete reproductive isolation. Individual fitness and variation in morphological key characters show that disruptive selection shapes a rugged adaptive landscape in this small but complex incipient lake fish radiation. PMID:26763702

  16. Rugged adaptive landscapes shape a complex, sympatric radiation.

    PubMed

    Pfaender, Jobst; Hadiaty, Renny K; Schliewen, Ulrich K; Herder, Fabian

    2016-01-13

    Strong disruptive ecological selection can initiate speciation, even in the absence of physical isolation of diverging populations. Species evolving under disruptive ecological selection are expected to be ecologically distinct but, at least initially, genetically weakly differentiated. Strong selection and the associated fitness advantages of narrowly adapted individuals, coupled with assortative mating, are predicted to overcome the homogenizing effects of gene flow. Theoretical plausibility is, however, contrasted by limited evidence for the existence of rugged adaptive landscapes in nature. We found evidence for multiple, disruptive ecological selection regimes that have promoted divergence in the sympatric, incipient radiation of 'sharpfin' sailfin silverside fishes in ancient Lake Matano (Sulawesi, Indonesia). Various modes of ecological specialization have led to adaptive morphological differences between the species, and differently adapted morphs display significant but incomplete reproductive isolation. Individual fitness and variation in morphological key characters show that disruptive selection shapes a rugged adaptive landscape in this small but complex incipient lake fish radiation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Adapting inland fisheries management to a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, Craig; Glazer, Bob A.; Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Irwin, Brian J.; Jacobson, Peter C.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Shuter, Brian J.; Whitney, James E.; Lynch, Abigail J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource decision makers are challenged to adapt management to a changing climate while balancing short-term management goals with long-term changes in aquatic systems. Adaptation will require developing resilient ecosystems and resilient management systems. Decision makers already have tools to develop or ensure resilient aquatic systems and fisheries such as managing harvest and riparian zones. Because fisheries management often interacts with multiple stakeholders, adaptation strategies involving fisheries managers and other partners focused on land use, policy, and human systems, coupled with long-term monitoring, are necessary for resilient systems. We show how agencies and organizations are adapting to a changing climate in Minnesota and Ontario lakes and Montana streams. We also present how the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission created a management structure to develop adaptation strategies. These examples demonstrate how organizations and agencies can cope with climate change effects on fishes and fisheries through creating resilient management and ecological systems.

  18. Weapons testing and endangered fish coexist in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jelks, Howard; Tate, Bill; Jordan, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Okaloosa darters (Etheostoma okaloosae) are small fish found only in a few streams in the Florida panhandle. This species has been listed since 1973 as endangered due to habitat alteration resulting from erosion, the potential competition from brown darters (E. edwini), and a limited geographic distribution. In recent years, however, Okaloosa darters have benefited from improved resource management and adaptive population monitoring techniques developed collaboratively by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Loyola University New Orleans, and Eglin Air Force Base. As a result, the FWS reclassified the Okaloosa darter to the less critical category of threatened in March 2011.

  19. Fishing for mammalian paradigms in the teleost immune system.

    PubMed

    Sunyer, J Oriol

    2013-04-01

    Recent years have witnessed a renaissance in the study of fish immune systems. Such studies have greatly expanded the knowledge of the evolution and diversification of vertebrate immune systems. Several findings in those studies have overturned old paradigms about the immune system and led to the discovery of novel aspects of mammalian immunity. Here I focus on how findings pertaining to immunity in teleost (bony) fish have led to major new insights about mammalian B cell function in innate and adaptive immunity. Additionally, I illustrate how the discovery of the most ancient mucosal immunoglobulin described thus far will help resolve unsettled paradigms of mammalian mucosal immunity.

  20. Fishing for mammalian paradigms in the teleost immune system

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, J Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a renaissance in the study of fish immune systems. Such studies have greatly expanded the knowledge of the evolution and diversification of vertebrate immune systems. Several findings in those studies have overturned old paradigms about the immune system and led to the discovery of novel aspects of mammalian immunity. Here I focus on how findings pertaining to immunity in teleost (bony) fish have led to major new insights about mammalian B cell function in innate and adaptive immunity. Additionally, I illustrate how the discovery of the most ancient mucosal immunoglobulin described thus far will help resolve unsettled paradigms of mammalian mucosal immunity. PMID:23507645

  1. Prolactin and growth hormone in fish osmoregulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sakamoto, T.; McCormick, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    Prolactin is an important regulator of multiple biological functions in vertebrates, and has been viewed as essential to ion uptake as well as reduction in ion and water permeability of osmoregulatory surfaces in freshwater and euryhaline fish. Prolactin-releasing peptide seems to stimulate prolactin expression in the pituitary and peripheral organs during freshwater adaptation. Growth hormone, a member of the same family of hormones as prolactin, promotes acclimation to seawater in several teleost fish, at least in part through the action of insulin-like growth factor I. In branchial epithelia, development and differentiation of the seawater-type chloride cell (and their underlying biochemistry) is regulated by GH, IGF-I, and cortisol, whereas the freshwater-type chloride cell is regulated by prolactin and cortisol. In the epithelia of gastrointestinal tract, prolactin induces cell proliferation during freshwater adaptation, whereas cortisol stimulates both cell proliferation and apoptosis. We propose that control of salinity acclimation in teleosts by prolactin and growth hormone primarily involves regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation (the latter including upregulation of specific ion transporters), and that there is an important interaction of these hormones with corticosteroids. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving fish survival through turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.W. )

    1993-04-01

    Much of what is known about fish passage through hydroturbines has been developed by studying migratory species of fish passing through large Kaplan turbine units. A review of the literature on previous fish passage research presented in the accompanying story illustrates that studies have focused on determining mortality levels, rather than identifying the causal mechanism involved. There is a need for understanding how turbine designs could be altered to improve fish passage conditions, how to retrofit existing units, and how proposed hydro plant operational changes may affect fish survival. The US Army Corps of Engineers has developed a research program to define biologically based engineering criteria for improving fish passage conditions. Turbine designs incorporating these criteria can be evaluated for their effects on fish survival, engineering issues, costs, and power production. The research program has the following objectives: To gain a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of fish mortality; To define the biological sensitivities of key fish species to these mechanisms of mortality; To develop new turbine design criteria to reduce fish mortality; To construct prototype turbine designs, and to test these designs for fish passage, hydro-mechanical operation, and power production; and To identify construction and power costs associated with new turbine designs.

  3. Ecosystem consequences of fish parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    In most aquatic ecosystems, fishes are hosts to parasites and, sometimes, these parasites can affect fish biology. Some of the most dramatic cases occur when fishes are intermediate hosts for larval parasites. For example, fishes in southern California estuaries are host to many parasites. The most common of these parasites, Euhaplorchis californiensis, infects the brain of the killifish Fundulus parvipinnis and alters its behaviour, making the fish 10–30 times more susceptible to predation by the birds that serve as its definitive host. Parasites like E. californiensis are embedded in food webs because they require trophic transmission. In the Carpinteria Salt Marsh estuarine food web, parasites dominate the links and comprise substantial amount of biomass. Adding parasites to food webs alters important network statistics such as connectance and nestedness. Furthermore, some free-living stages of parasites are food items for free-living species. For instance, fishes feed on trematode cercariae. Being embedded in food webs makes parasites sensitive to changes in the environment. In particular, fishing and environmental disturbance, by reducing fish populations, may reduce parasite populations. Indirect evidence suggests a decrease in parasites in commercially fished species over the past three decades. In addition, environmental degradation can affect fish parasites. For these reasons, parasites in fishes may serve as indicators of environmental impacts.

  4. Consumers' Attitude Towards Fish Meat.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Passantino, Annamaria; Longo, Sabrina; Voslářová, Eva

    2014-08-28

    The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers' attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers' decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper's topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers' demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers' attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.

  5. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  6. Consumers’ Attitude Towards Fish Meat

    PubMed Central

    Passantino, Annamaria; Longo, Sabrina; Voslářová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems. PMID:27800359

  7. Fish oil: a panacea?

    PubMed

    Bilo, H J; Gans, R O

    1990-01-01

    Since the first report by Bang and Dyerberg regarding the apparent beneficial effects of a fish oil-enriched diet on the incidence of atherosclerotic heart disease in Greenland eskimos, a considerable number of studies have been performed regarding the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the prevention and treatment of a variety of disease states not necessarily related to atherosclerosis. Studies have been performed on healthy volunteers and in patients with hyperlipidaemia, atherosclerotic vascular disease, diabetes, asthma, psoriasis and chronic renal insufficiency, amongst others. Positive effects on platelet activity, lipid profile, blood rheology and blood pressure--all factors which are presumably of importance in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease have been noted in these studies, albeit with a wide range of variability. Some negative effects also appear to exist. However, some general conclusions can be made regarding the effects of a fish oil-enriched diet.

  8. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Larry; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae) and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae). Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus) and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus). PMID:22163339

  9. Speciation in fishes.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Giacomo

    2013-11-01

    The field of speciation has seen much renewed interest in the past few years, with theoretical and empirical advances that have moved it from a descriptive field to a predictive and testable one. The goal of this review is to provide a general background on research on speciation as it pertains to fishes. Three major components to the question are first discussed: the spatial, ecological and sexual factors that influence speciation mechanisms. We then move to the latest developments in the field of speciation genomics. Affordable and rapidly available, massively parallel sequencing data allow speciation studies to converge into a single comprehensive line of investigation, where the focus has shifted to the search for speciation genes and genomic islands of speciation. We argue that fish present a very diverse array of scenarios, making them an ideal model to study speciation processes.

  10. Fishing Farmers or Farming Fishers? Fishing Typology of Inland Small-Scale Fishing Households and Fisheries Management in Singkarak Lake, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood

  11. Fishing farmers or farming fishers? Fishing typology of inland small-scale fishing households and fisheries management in singkarak lake, west sumatra, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood

  12. Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific). Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community) we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level.

  13. Ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Patrick; Murray, Peter; Nesdale, Annette; Peckler, Brad

    2016-10-28

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common cause of seafood-toxin poisoning in the world and is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas. It causes gastroenteritis but also myriad neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. We present a cluster of CFP that occurred in Wellington Hospital, New Zealand. It resulted in three patients with life threatening cardiotoxicity and a fourth case with severe gastro-intestinal symptoms. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and public health issues are discussed.

  14. HRGFish: A database of hypoxia responsive genes in fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Iliyas; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Srivastava, Prachi; Kumar, Ravindra; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Singh, Mahender; Kushwaha, Basdeo

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have highlighted the changes in the gene expression due to the hypoxia response in fishes, but the systematic organization of the information and the analytical platform for such genes are lacking. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a database of hypoxia responsive genes in fishes (HRGFish), integrated with analytical tools, using LAMPP technology. Genes reported in hypoxia response for fishes were compiled through literature survey and the database presently covers 818 gene sequences and 35 gene types from 38 fishes. The upstream fragments (3,000 bp), covered in this database, enables to compute CG dinucleotides frequencies, motif finding of the hypoxia response element, identification of CpG island and mapping with the reference promoter of zebrafish. The database also includes functional annotation of genes and provides tools for analyzing sequences and designing primers for selected gene fragments. This may be the first database on the hypoxia response genes in fishes that provides a workbench to the scientific community involved in studying the evolution and ecological adaptation of the fish species in relation to hypoxia.

  15. Water resources planning under the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stutzman, Karl F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the more significant provisions of the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (1958). It covers pertinent aspects of legislative history, the development and current status (April 1980) of certain policies relevant to administering the Act, and other matters. It is directed primarily to practicing fish and wildlife agency field biologists, planners, and decisionmakers engaged in water resources development activities under the Act. It is not intended to be exhaustive in its treatment. The Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act provides a basic procedural framework for the orderly consideration of fish and wildlife conservation measures to be incorporated into Federal and Federally permitted or licensed water development projects. The principal provisions of the Act include: 1. a statement of Congressional purpose that fish and wildlife conservation shall receive equal consideration with other project features; 2. mandatory consultation with wildlife agencies with a view to achieving such conservation; 3. full consideration by action of the recommendations stemming from consultation; 4. authority for action agencies to implement such recommendations as they find acceptable. The FWCA in effect amends, conditions, or supplements other Federal laws and is thus closely linked in its application and interpretation. It is similarly linked to Federal planning standards and procedures. Because of this, interpretations tend to be flexible and evolve, adapting to changing situations. The following reference matrix outlines selected sections of the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act which are of particular relevance to planners.

  16. HRGFish: A database of hypoxia responsive genes in fishes

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Iliyas; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Srivastava, Prachi; Kumar, Ravindra; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Singh, Mahender; Kushwaha, Basdeo

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted the changes in the gene expression due to the hypoxia response in fishes, but the systematic organization of the information and the analytical platform for such genes are lacking. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a database of hypoxia responsive genes in fishes (HRGFish), integrated with analytical tools, using LAMPP technology. Genes reported in hypoxia response for fishes were compiled through literature survey and the database presently covers 818 gene sequences and 35 gene types from 38 fishes. The upstream fragments (3,000 bp), covered in this database, enables to compute CG dinucleotides frequencies, motif finding of the hypoxia response element, identification of CpG island and mapping with the reference promoter of zebrafish. The database also includes functional annotation of genes and provides tools for analyzing sequences and designing primers for selected gene fragments. This may be the first database on the hypoxia response genes in fishes that provides a workbench to the scientific community involved in studying the evolution and ecological adaptation of the fish species in relation to hypoxia. PMID:28205556

  17. HRGFish: A database of hypoxia responsive genes in fishes.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Iliyas; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Srivastava, Prachi; Kumar, Ravindra; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Singh, Mahender; Kushwaha, Basdeo

    2017-02-13

    Several studies have highlighted the changes in the gene expression due to the hypoxia response in fishes, but the systematic organization of the information and the analytical platform for such genes are lacking. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a database of hypoxia responsive genes in fishes (HRGFish), integrated with analytical tools, using LAMPP technology. Genes reported in hypoxia response for fishes were compiled through literature survey and the database presently covers 818 gene sequences and 35 gene types from 38 fishes. The upstream fragments (3,000 bp), covered in this database, enables to compute CG dinucleotides frequencies, motif finding of the hypoxia response element, identification of CpG island and mapping with the reference promoter of zebrafish. The database also includes functional annotation of genes and provides tools for analyzing sequences and designing primers for selected gene fragments. This may be the first database on the hypoxia response genes in fishes that provides a workbench to the scientific community involved in studying the evolution and ecological adaptation of the fish species in relation to hypoxia.

  18. How Are Fishing Patterns and Fishing Communities Responding to Climate Change? A Test Case from the Northwest Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, T.; Fuller, E.; Coleman, K.; Provost, M.; Pinsky, M. L.; St Martin, K.

    2016-02-01

    We know climate is changing and fish are moving in response to those changes. But we understand less about how harvesters are responding to these changes in fish distribution and the ramifications of those changes for fishing communities. Ecological and evolutionary theory suggests that organisms must move, adapt, or die in response to environmental changes, and a related frame may be relevant for human harvesters in the face of climate change. Furthermore, research suggests that there may be a portfolio effect: a wider diversity of catch may buffer harvesters from some effects of climate change. To get at these questions, we explored changes in fishing patterns among commercial fishing communities in the northeast US from 1997-2014 using NOAA-collected logbook data. We found that communities using more mobile gear (large trawl vessels) demonstrated a greater range of latitudinal shift than communities using any other gear. Latitudinal shift was also inversely related to species diversity of catch and port latitude in those communities: southern communities that caught few species shifted dramatically northward, and northern communities that caught many species did not demonstrate marked latitudinal shifts. Those communities that demonstrated larger latitudinal shifts also demonstrated smaller changes in catch composition than their more stationary counterparts. We also found that vessels are indeed leaving many, but not all, fisheries in this region. These results suggest that harvesters are moving, adapting, and leaving fisheries, and that there does appear to be a portfolio effect, with catch diversity mediating some of these responses. While these changes in fishing patterns cannot all be directly attributed to climate change per se, marine fishes in this region are shifting north rapidly, as is expected under climate change. This study provides a valuable test case for exploring the potential ramifications of climate change on coastal socio-ecological systems.

  19. ONE FISH, TWO FISH, RED FISH, BLUE FISH: THE FISH QUALITY INDEX AS A RISK COMMUNICATION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many people are at high risk for methyl mercury toxicity because of their consumption of contaminated fish. Often health risks of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxicants (PT) such as methyl mercury, PCBs or Dioxins are underestimated because of their amplification in the food chain ...

  20. ONE FISH, TWO FISH, RED FISH, BLUE FISH: THE FISH QUALITY INDEX AS A RISK COMMUNICATION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many people are at high risk for methyl mercury toxicity because of their consumption of contaminated fish. Often health risks of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxicants (PT) such as methyl mercury, PCBs or Dioxins are underestimated because of their amplification in the food chain ...

  1. The interleukins of fish.

    PubMed

    Secombes, C J; Wang, T; Bird, S

    2011-12-01

    Interleukins are a subgroup of cytokines, molecules involved in the intercellular regulation of the immune system. The term interleukin was first coined in 1979 to refer to molecules that signal between different leucocyte types, although not exclusively restricted to leucocyte communication. Whilst it is now known that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of cell types, nevertheless many are synthesised by CD4(+) T helper cells, macrophages/monocytes and endothelial cells. The nomenclature is relatively straightforward, with interleukin 1 the first discovered and interleukin 2 the second, etc. However, whilst 35 interleukins are currently described in mammals, several are in fact terms referring to subfamilies of more molecules, as with the IL-1 family where 11 members (IL-1F1-IL-1F11) are present, and the IL-17 family where 6 members (IL-17A-IL-17F) are present. So the total is much higher and splice variants and allelic variation increase this diversity further. This review will focus on what is known about interleukins in fish, and will refer to the major subfamilies rather than try to work through 35 descriptions in a row. It is clear that many direct homologues of molecules known in mammals are present in fish, but that not all are present and some novel interleukins exist that may have arisen from fish specific gene duplication events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fish Synucleins: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Toni, Mattia; Cioni, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Synucleins (syns) are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2) isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of “non verified” sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins. PMID:26528989

  3. Fishing degrades size structure of coral reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James P W; Williams, Ivor D; Edwards, Andrew M; McPherson, Jana; Yeager, Lauren; Vigliola, Laurent; Brainard, Russell E; Baum, Julia K

    2017-03-01

    Fishing pressure on coral reef ecosystems has been frequently linked to reductions of large fishes and reef fish biomass. Associated impacts on overall community structure are, however, less clear. In size-structured aquatic ecosystems, fishing impacts are commonly quantified using size spectra, which describe the distribution of individual body sizes within a community. We examined the size spectra and biomass of coral reef fish communities at 38 US-affiliated Pacific islands that ranged in human presence from near pristine to human population centers. Size spectra 'steepened' steadily with increasing human population and proximity to market due to a reduction in the relative biomass of large fishes and an increase in the dominance of small fishes. Reef fish biomass was substantially lower on inhabited islands than uninhabited ones, even at inhabited islands with the lowest levels of human presence. We found that on populated islands size spectra exponents decreased (analogous to size spectra steepening) linearly with declining biomass, whereas on uninhabited islands there was no relationship. Size spectra were steeper in regions of low sea surface temperature but were insensitive to variation in other environmental and geomorphic covariates. In contrast, reef fish biomass was highly sensitive to oceanographic conditions, being influenced by both oceanic productivity and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that community size structure may be a more robust indicator than fish biomass to increasing human presence and that size spectra are reliable indicators of exploitation impacts across regions of different fish community compositions, environmental drivers, and fisheries types. Size-based approaches that link directly to functional properties of fish communities, and are relatively insensitive to abiotic variation across biogeographic regions, offer great potential for developing our understanding of fishing impacts in coral reef ecosystems.

  4. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  5. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  6. Energy Content of Arctic Forage Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollenweider, J.; Heintz, R.; Callahan, M.; Robertson, A.; Barton, M. B.; Sousa, L.; Mueter, F. J.; Mosher, S.; Moran, J.; Logerwell, E.; Boswell, K. M.; Sformo, T.; Farley, E.

    2016-02-01

    Global changes in climate conditions are most extreme in high latitudes and have the potential to restructure Arctic marine fish assemblages. Of concern is the ability for fish to adapt to changing habitats, the potential for range expansion from lower latitudes, and resultant introduction of competitors and/or predators. Bioenergetic models are useful tools to understand potential cascading trophic effects, and fish energy density is a key parameter in these models. We present energy density (kJ/g dry mass) values for 28 Arctic fish species collected in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas between 2005 and 2014. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) was the most energy-rich species (25.0 kJ/g), followed by two species of primary importance to subsistence people, Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) and Bering cisco (Coregonus laurettae) (24.9 kJ/g and 23.5 kJ/g, respectively). The abundant and ecologically important Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) was the most energy-rich gadid, averaging 22.7 kJ/g and having 6% more energy than walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) (21.5 kJ/g) and 11% more energy than saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis) (20.5 kJ/g). In general, pelagic species such as juvenile Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp) had the highest energy content, whereas benthic species such as sculpin (Cottidae), flatfish (Pleuronectidae), eelblennies (Stichaeidae) and eelpouts (Zoarcidae) were amongst the lowest. The high energy content of Arctic cod and their ubiquitous distribution in the water column makes them valuable prey for both demersal and pelagic predators.

  7. Fish larvae at fronts: Horizontal and vertical distributions of gadoid fish larvae across a frontal zone at the Norwegian Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munk, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The reproduction and early life history of many fish species are linked to the physical and biological characteristics of fronts. In order to ascertain linkages between frontal physics and fish larvae, we investigated distributional differences among gadoid fish larvae comparing these to both horizontal and vertical variability in hydrography and abundances of potential copepod prey The investigation was carried out at a frontal zone along the Norwegian Trench in the northern North Sea, and was based on a series of cross-bathymetric sampling transects. Tows with a large ring net and an opening-closing net were used for describing fish larval horizontal and vertical distributions, while a submersible pump was used for describing vertical distributions of copepods. Hydrographic profiles and current velocity measurements were used to outline variability in temperature, salinity and current structure. Measurements demonstrated a distinct bottom front at the southern slope of the Trench with deepening isopycnals and high chlorphyll a concentrations. Abundances of both gadoid fish larvae and copepods peaked in vicinity of the front around mid-depth, and findings points to an inter-connection between the vertical and horizontal distributions of each species. However, the three-dimensional pattern of distribution differed significantly among species of larvae and species of copepods. The study underlines the complexity of bio-physical interrelationships in the frontal zone, and indicates that the zone encompasses specific ecological niches to which each species of fish larvae is adapted.

  8. Theme and variations: amphibious air-breathing intertidal fishes.

    PubMed

    Martin, K L

    2014-03-01

    Over 70 species of intertidal fishes from 12 families breathe air while emerging from water. Amphibious intertidal fishes generally have no specialized air-breathing organ but rely on vascularized mucosae and cutaneous surfaces in air to exchange both oxygen and carbon dioxide. They differ from air-breathing freshwater fishes in morphology, physiology, ecology and behaviour. Air breathing and terrestrial activity are present to varying degrees in intertidal fish species, correlated with the tidal height of their habitat. The gradient of amphibious lifestyle includes passive remainers that stay in the intertidal zone as tides ebb, active emergers that deliberately leave water in response to poor aquatic conditions and highly mobile amphibious skipper fishes that may spend more time out of water than in it. Normal terrestrial activity is usually aerobic and metabolic rates in air and water are similar. Anaerobic metabolism may be employed during forced exercise or when exposed to aquatic hypoxia. Adaptations for amphibious life include reductions in gill surface area, increased reliance on the skin for respiration and ion exchange, high affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen and adjustments to ventilation and metabolism while in air. Intertidal fishes remain close to water and do not travel far terrestrially, and are unlikely to migrate or colonize new habitats at present, although in the past this may have happened. Many fish species spawn in the intertidal zone, including some that do not breathe air, as eggs and embryos that develop in the intertidal zone benefit from tidal air emergence. With air breathing, amphibious intertidal fishes survive in a variable habitat with minimal adjustments to existing structures. Closely related species in different microhabitats provide unique opportunities for comparative studies.

  9. Remote bioenergetics measurements in wild fish: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Steven J; Brownscombe, Jacob W; Raby, Graham D; Broell, Franziska; Hinch, Scott G; Clark, Timothy D; Semmens, Jayson M

    2016-12-01

    The generalized energy budget for fish (i.e., Energy Consumed=Metabolism+Waste+Growth) is as relevant today as when it was first proposed decades ago and serves as a foundational concept in fish biology. Yet, generating accurate measurements of components of the bioenergetics equation in wild fish is a major challenge. How often does a fish eat and what does it consume? How much energy is expended on locomotion? How do human-induced stressors influence energy acquisition and expenditure? Generating answers to these questions is important to fisheries management and to our understanding of adaptation and evolutionary processes. The advent of electronic tags (transmitters and data loggers) has provided biologists with improved opportunities to understand bioenergetics in wild fish. Here, we review the growing diversity of electronic tags with a focus on sensor-equipped devices that are commercially available (e.g., heart rate/electrocardiogram, electromyogram, acceleration, image capture). Next, we discuss each component of the bioenergetics model, recognizing that most research to date has focused on quantifying the activity component of metabolism, and identify ways in which the other, less studied components (e.g., consumption, specific dynamic action component of metabolism, somatic growth, reproductive investment, waste) could be estimated remotely. We conclude with a critical but forward-looking appraisal of the opportunities and challenges in using existing and emerging electronic sensor-tags for the study of fish energetics in the wild. Electronic tagging has become a central and widespread tool in fish ecology and fisheries management; the growing and increasingly affordable toolbox of sensor tags will ensure this trend continues, which will lead to major advances in our understanding of fish biology over the coming decades. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adsorption to fish sperm of vertically transmitted fish viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    More than 99 percent of a vertically transmitted fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, was removed from suspension in less than 1 minute by adsorption to the surface membrane of sperm from two genera of salmonid fishes. The vertically transmitted, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus adsorbed to a lesser degree, but no adsorption occurred with a second fish rhabdovirus that is not vertically transmitted. Such adsorption may be involved in vertical transmission of these viruses.

  11. The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J. ); Duncan, Joanne P. ); Gilbride, Theresa L. )

    2003-05-28

    This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent examples of Sensor Fish use: turbine passage at a McNary Kaplan turbine and spill passage in topspill at Rock Island Dam.

  12. Enhancing fish Underwater Visual Census to move forward assessment of fish assemblages: An application in three Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Prato, Giulia; Thiriet, Pierre; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring fish assemblages is needed to assess whether Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are meeting their conservation and fisheries management goals, as it allows one to track the progress of recovery of exploited species and associated communities. Underwater Visual Census techniques (UVC) are used to monitor fish assemblages in MPAs. UVCs should be adapted to fish abundance, body-size and behaviour, which can strongly affect fish detectability. In Mediterranean subtidal habitats, however, UVC strip transects of one surface area (25x5 m2) are commonly used to survey the whole fish assemblage, from large shy fish to small crypto-benthic fish. Most high trophic level predators (HTLPs) are large shy fish which rarely swim close to divers and, consequently, their abundance may be under-estimated with commonly used transects. Here, we propose an improvement to traditional transect surveys to better account for differences in behaviour among and within species. First, we compared the effectiveness of combining two transect surface areas (large: 35x20 m2; medium: 25x5 m2) in quantifying large, shy fish within and outside Mediterranean MPAs. We identified species-specific body-size thresholds defining a smaller and a larger size class better sampled by medium and large transects respectively. Combining large and medium transects provided more accurate biomass and species richness estimates for large, shy species than using medium transects alone. We thus combined the new approach with two other transect surface areas commonly used to survey crypto-benthic (10x1 m2) and necto-benthic (25x5 m2) species in order to assess how effectively MPAs protection the whole fish assemblage. We verified that MPAs offer significant protection for HTLPs, their response in terms of biomass and density increase in MPAs was always higher in magnitude than other functional groups. Inside MPAs, the contribution of HTLP reached >25% of total fish biomass, against < 2% outside MPAs. Surveys with

  13. Enhancing fish Underwater Visual Census to move forward assessment of fish assemblages: An application in three Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Thiriet, Pierre; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring fish assemblages is needed to assess whether Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are meeting their conservation and fisheries management goals, as it allows one to track the progress of recovery of exploited species and associated communities. Underwater Visual Census techniques (UVC) are used to monitor fish assemblages in MPAs. UVCs should be adapted to fish abundance, body-size and behaviour, which can strongly affect fish detectability. In Mediterranean subtidal habitats, however, UVC strip transects of one surface area (25x5 m2) are commonly used to survey the whole fish assemblage, from large shy fish to small crypto-benthic fish. Most high trophic level predators (HTLPs) are large shy fish which rarely swim close to divers and, consequently, their abundance may be under-estimated with commonly used transects. Here, we propose an improvement to traditional transect surveys to better account for differences in behaviour among and within species. First, we compared the effectiveness of combining two transect surface areas (large: 35x20 m2; medium: 25x5 m2) in quantifying large, shy fish within and outside Mediterranean MPAs. We identified species-specific body-size thresholds defining a smaller and a larger size class better sampled by medium and large transects respectively. Combining large and medium transects provided more accurate biomass and species richness estimates for large, shy species than using medium transects alone. We thus combined the new approach with two other transect surface areas commonly used to survey crypto-benthic (10x1 m2) and necto-benthic (25x5 m2) species in order to assess how effectively MPAs protection the whole fish assemblage. We verified that MPAs offer significant protection for HTLPs, their response in terms of biomass and density increase in MPAs was always higher in magnitude than other functional groups. Inside MPAs, the contribution of HTLP reached >25% of total fish biomass, against < 2% outside MPAs. Surveys with

  14. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Najib M.; Khan, Haris A.; Then, Amy Y-Hui; Ving Ching, Chong; Gaur, Manas

    2017-01-01

    Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO), an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users. PMID:28929028

  15. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition.

    PubMed

    Ali, Najib M; Khan, Haris A; Then, Amy Y-Hui; Ving Ching, Chong; Gaur, Manas; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO), an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users.

  16. Log-Linear Model Based Behavior Selection Method for Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhehuang; Chen, Yidong

    2015-01-01

    Artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) is a population based optimization technique inspired by social behavior of fishes. In past several years, AFSA has been successfully applied in many research and application areas. The behavior of fishes has a crucial impact on the performance of AFSA, such as global exploration ability and convergence speed. How to construct and select behaviors of fishes are an important task. To solve these problems, an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm based on log-linear model is proposed and implemented in this paper. There are three main works. Firstly, we proposed a new behavior selection algorithm based on log-linear model which can enhance decision making ability of behavior selection. Secondly, adaptive movement behavior based on adaptive weight is presented, which can dynamically adjust according to the diversity of fishes. Finally, some new behaviors are defined and introduced into artificial fish swarm algorithm at the first time to improve global optimization capability. The experiments on high dimensional function optimization showed that the improved algorithm has more powerful global exploration ability and reasonable convergence speed compared with the standard artificial fish swarm algorithm. PMID:25691895

  17. Log-linear model based behavior selection method for artificial fish swarm algorithm.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhehuang; Chen, Yidong

    2015-01-01

    Artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) is a population based optimization technique inspired by social behavior of fishes. In past several years, AFSA has been successfully applied in many research and application areas. The behavior of fishes has a crucial impact on the performance of AFSA, such as global exploration ability and convergence speed. How to construct and select behaviors of fishes are an important task. To solve these problems, an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm based on log-linear model is proposed and implemented in this paper. There are three main works. Firstly, we proposed a new behavior selection algorithm based on log-linear model which can enhance decision making ability of behavior selection. Secondly, adaptive movement behavior based on adaptive weight is presented, which can dynamically adjust according to the diversity of fishes. Finally, some new behaviors are defined and introduced into artificial fish swarm algorithm at the first time to improve global optimization capability. The experiments on high dimensional function optimization showed that the improved algorithm has more powerful global exploration ability and reasonable convergence speed compared with the standard artificial fish swarm algorithm.

  18. Physiological Challenges to Fishes in a Warmer and Acidified Future.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Göran E; Lefevre, Sjannie

    2016-11-01

    With the projected levels of global warming and ocean acidification, fishes have to face warmer waters with CO2 levels that are the highest in over 30 million years. The resultant rise in body temperature means that metabolic rates of fish will increase, and some may become energetically compromised. No less worrying, and maybe more surprising, is that rising CO2 concentrations appear to trigger pH regulatory mechanisms that disrupts neural ion gradients, leading to altered neurotransmitter function and maladaptive behavioral changes. We point out the many outstanding questions, including the ultimate one: Will fish be able to adapt to these challenges? ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  19. Future fish distributions constrained by depth in warming seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutterford, Louise A.; Simpson, Stephen D.; Jennings, Simon; Johnson, Mark P.; Blanchard, Julia L.; Schön, Pieter-Jan; Sims, David W.; Tinker, Jonathan; Genner, Martin J.

    2015-06-01

    European continental shelf seas have experienced intense warming over the past 30 years. In the North Sea, fish have been comprehensively monitored throughout this period and resulting data provide a unique record of changes in distribution and abundance in response to climate change. We use these data to demonstrate the remarkable power of generalized additive models (GAMs), trained on data earlier in the time series, to reliably predict trends in distribution and abundance in later years. Then, challenging process-based models that predict substantial and ongoing poleward shifts of cold-water species, we find that GAMs coupled with climate projections predict future distributions of demersal (bottom-dwelling) fish species over the next 50 years will be strongly constrained by availability of habitat of suitable depth. This will lead to pronounced changes in community structure, species interactions and commercial fisheries, unless individual acclimation or population-level evolutionary adaptations enable fish to tolerate warmer conditions or move to previously uninhabitable locations.

  20. Deciphering microbial landscapes of fish eggs to mitigate emerging diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiying; de Bruijn, Irene; Jack, Allison LH; Drynan, Keith; van den Berg, Albert H; Thoen, Even; Sandoval-Sierra, Vladimir; Skaar, Ida; van West, Pieter; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier; van der Voort, Menno; Mendes, Rodrigo; Mazzola, Mark; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2014-01-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Among oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs have an immature adaptive immune system and depend on nonspecific innate defences to ward off pathogens. Here, meta-taxonomic analyses revealed that Atlantic salmon eggs are home to diverse fungal, oomycete and bacterial communities. Although virulent Saprolegnia isolates were found in all salmon egg samples, a low incidence of Saprolegniosis was strongly correlated with a high richness and abundance of specific commensal Actinobacteria, with the genus Frondihabitans (Microbacteriaceae) effectively inhibiting attachment of Saprolegniato salmon eggs. These results highlight that fundamental insights into microbial landscapes of fish eggs may provide new sustainable means to mitigate emerging diseases. PMID:24671087

  1. Lipid peroxidation of fish oils.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Angela; Prabhu, H Ramachandra

    2006-03-01

    Fish and fish oils are the richest sources of ω-3 fatty acids. However, they are susceptible to lipid peroxidation due to their high degree of unsaturation. In the present study, the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive material in various fish oils available in the market with and without added Vitamin E was determined. The peroxide levels in fish oil heated to food frying temperature of 180°C and the effect of addition of vitamin E has also been studied. The results indicate that the peroxide levels in almost all the products available in the market were abnormally high irrespective of their Vitamin E content. This might be due to the inefficient methods used for processing and storage of fish oils. Addition of vitamin E was found to have a significant effect in lowering the rate of peroxidation of fish oil during thermal stress, showing that association of antioxidants with ω-3 fatty acids lowers the rate of lipid peroxidation.

  2. Gonadal development in fish.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Tanaka, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate reproduction depends on the function of 2 distinct gametes, sperm and eggs, which develop in 2 different organs, the testis and the ovary. Testes and ovaries are composed of germ cells, supporting cells and interstitial cells. In this review, we describe the origin and the fate of these cell lineages and how they interact with each other to form sexually dimorphic reproductive organs in medaka. We delineate how the temporally different association and establishment of these lineages contribute to a variety of seemingly different sex differentiation processes among teleost fish. Thus, teleosts represent an intriguing group in which to study the fundamental processes of gonadal development through comparing conserved and unique mechanisms.

  3. Virus diseases of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    The degenerative or non-neoplastic diseases of possible virus origin give the fish-culturist the most concern because of the severe mortalities resulting from infection. Epizootics of this nature have been reported in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Europe, in acara (Geophagus brasiliensis) in South America, in kokanee, (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka nerka) in the State of Washington. It has been demonstrated that each epizootic was caused by an infectious filterable agent, probably a virus.

  4. Fish intelligence, sentience and ethics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Culum

    2015-01-01

    Fish are one of the most highly utilised vertebrate taxa by humans; they are harvested from wild stocks as part of global fishing industries, grown under intensive aquaculture conditions, are the most common pet and are widely used for scientific research. But fish are seldom afforded the same level of compassion or welfare as warm-blooded vertebrates. Part of the problem is the large gap between people's perception of fish intelligence and the scientific reality. This is an important issue because public perception guides government policy. The perception of an animal's intelligence often drives our decision whether or not to include them in our moral circle. From a welfare perspective, most researchers would suggest that if an animal is sentient, then it can most likely suffer and should therefore be offered some form of formal protection. There has been a debate about fish welfare for decades which centres on the question of whether they are sentient or conscious. The implications for affording the same level of protection to fish as other vertebrates are great, not least because of fishing-related industries. Here, I review the current state of knowledge of fish cognition starting with their sensory perception and moving on to cognition. The review reveals that fish perception and cognitive abilities often match or exceed other vertebrates. A review of the evidence for pain perception strongly suggests that fish experience pain in a manner similar to the rest of the vertebrates. Although scientists cannot provide a definitive answer on the level of consciousness for any non-human vertebrate, the extensive evidence of fish behavioural and cognitive sophistication and pain perception suggests that best practice would be to lend fish the same level of protection as any other vertebrate.

  5. 78 FR 35312 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Web-Based Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public meeting, teleconference and web-based meeting of the Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG). DATES: Public meeting, Teleconference, and web-based...

  6. 78 FR 49281 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Web-Based Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public meeting, teleconference, and web-based meeting of the Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG). DATES: Public meeting, Teleconference, and web-based...

  7. 78 FR 17226 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Web-Based Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public meeting, teleconference and web-based meeting of the Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG). DATES: Public meeting, Teleconference, and web-based...

  8. The Function of Fish Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    What is known about the biological activity of fish cytokines is reviewed. Most of the functional studies performed to date have been in teleost fish, and have focused on the induced effects of cytokine recombinant proteins, or have used loss- and gain-of-function experiments in zebrafish. Such studies begin to tell us about the role of these molecules in the regulation of fish immune responses and whether they are similar or divergent to the well-characterised functions of mammalian cytokines. This knowledge will aid our ability to determine and modulate the pathways leading to protective immunity, to improve fish health in aquaculture. PMID:27231948

  9. Disease control in hatchery fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1947-01-01

    The method described herein has been extensively tested, both in the laboratory and at the producing hatchery, over a period of several years. Once familiarity with the details of application have been mastered, th8 reduction in effort required to treat fish is amazing. For example, two men have treated 20 large ponds containing several million fish, in one morning with no significant increase in mortality of the fish, whereas a crew of eight men required a full day to treat a single similar pond by hand dipping the fish with a subsequent loss approximating 50 percent of the stock.

  10. Fish can get diseases too

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, J.R.; Mesa, M.; Kurath, G.; Elliot, D.

    2005-01-01

    Infectious diseases are increasingly recognized as an important component of the ecology of fish in the wild. Many of the viral, bacterial, protozoan and fungal pathogens of fish that were initially discovered in captive fish have their origin among wild populations; however, the impact of disease among these free-ranging stocks has been difficult to study. At the WFRC, combinations of field and laboratory investigations, aided by the tools of molecular biology, have begun to provide information on the ecology of infectious diseases among natural populations of fish in both freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  11. Discriminant classification of different fish-species backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiao; Xu, Feng; Liu, Yin; Zhang, Chun

    2012-11-01

    The complex structure of fish and multispecies composition complicate the analysis of acoustic data. Consequently, it is difficult to obtain a highly accurate rate of classification by using current approaches. This paper introduces two discriminating methods: the adaptive segmentation temporal centroid method and the wavelet packet multi-scale information entropy method. To verify and compare these two methods, an ex situ experiment has been performed with three kinds of fish: Crucian carp (Carassius auratus), Yellow-headed catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and Bluntnose black bream (Megalobrama amblycephale). The backscattering signals of these fishes are obtained. Then the temporal centroid in the divided sub-segmentation of the backscattering envelope is calculated, and the multi-scale information entropy of the wavelet packet decomposition in different frequency bands is extracted. Finally, three kinds of fish are successfully classified by using a BP neural network. The result shows that the adaptive segmentation temporal centroid method is 4% more accurate than the wavelet packet multi-scale information entropy method.

  12. Fishing for feed or fishing for food: increasing global competition for small pelagic forage fish.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2009-09-01

    At present, small pelagic forage fish species (includes anchovies, herring, mackerel, sardines, etc.) represent the largest landed species group in capture fisheries (27.3 million t or 29.7% of total capture fisheries landings in 2006). They also currently constitute the major species group actively fished and targeted for nonfood uses, including reduction into fishmeal and fish oil for use within compound animal feeds, or for direct animal feeding; the aquaculture sector alone consumed the equivalent of about 23.8 million t of fish (live weight equivalent) or 87% in the form of feed inputs in 2006. This article attempts to make a global analysis of the competition for small pelagic forage fish for direct human consumption and nonfood uses, particularly concerning the important and growing role played by small pelagic forage fish in the diet and food security of the poor and needy, especially within the developing countries of Africa and the Sub-Saharan region.

  13. New research method looks at fish mucus

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a new way to analyze fish tissues to understand fish ecology. Instead of killing the fish to collect the sample for analysis, we collect body mucus from the fish and analyze that. The fish can then be returned alive to the stream or lake.

  14. New research method looks at fish mucus

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a new way to analyze fish tissues to understand fish ecology. Instead of killing the fish to collect the sample for analysis, we collect body mucus from the fish and analyze that. The fish can then be returned alive to the stream or lake.

  15. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  16. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  17. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  18. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing year...

  19. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  20. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing year...