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Sample records for adapted fungal consortium

  1. Evaluation of thermophilic fungal consortium for organic municipal solid waste composting.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Khan, Jamaluddin; Bundela, Pushpendra Singh; Wong, Jonathan W C; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2014-09-01

    Influence of fungal consortium and different turning frequency on composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated to produce compost with higher agronomic value. Four piles of OFMSW were prepared: three piles were inoculated with fungal consortium containing 5l each spore suspensions of Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus and with a turning frequency of weekly (Pile 1), twice a week (Pile 2) and daily (Pile 3), while Pile 4 with weekly turning and without fungal inoculation served as control. The fungal consortium with weekly (Pile 1) turning frequency significantly affected temperature, pH, TOC, TKN, C/N ratio and germination index. High degradation of organic matter and early maturity was observed in Pile 1. Results indicate that fungal consortium with weekly turning frequency of open windrows were more cost-effective in comparison with other technologies for efficient composting and yield safe end products.

  2. Novel Root Fungal Consortium Associated with a Dominant Desert Grass▿

    PubMed Central

    Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Herrera, Jose; Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Odenbach, Kylea J.; Lowrey, Timothy; Natvig, Donald O.

    2008-01-01

    The broad distribution and high colonization rates of plant roots by a variety of endophytic fungi suggest that these symbionts have an important role in the function of ecosystems. Semiarid and arid lands cover more than one-third of the terrestrial ecosystems on Earth. However, a limited number of studies have been conducted to characterize root-associated fungal communities in semiarid grasslands. We conducted a study of the fungal community associated with the roots of a dominant grass, Bouteloua gracilis, at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico. Internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequences from roots collected in May 2005, October 2005, and January 2006 were amplified using fungal-specific primers, and a total of 630 sequences were obtained, 69% of which were novel (less than 97% similarity with respect to sequences in the NCBI database). B. gracilis roots were colonized by at least 10 different orders, including endophytic, coprophilous, mycorrhizal, saprophytic, and plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 51 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found, and diversity estimators did not show saturation. Despite the high diversity found within B. gracilis roots, the root-associated fungal community is dominated by a novel group of dark septate fungi (DSF) within the order Pleosporales. Microscopic analysis confirmed that B. gracilis roots are highly colonized by DSF. Other common orders colonizing the roots included Sordariales, Xylariales, and Agaricales. By contributing to drought tolerance and nutrient acquisition, DSF may be integral to the function of arid ecosystems. PMID:18344349

  3. A Fungal-Prokaryotic Consortium at the Basalt-Zeolite Interface in Subseafloor Igneous Crust.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Bengtson, Stefan; Skogby, Henrik; Lazor, Peter; Broman, Curt; Belivanova, Veneta; Marone, Federica

    2015-01-01

    We have after half a century of coordinated scientific drilling gained insight into Earth´s largest microbial habitat, the subseafloor igneous crust, but still lack substantial understanding regarding its abundance, diversity and ecology. Here we describe a fossilized microbial consortium of prokaryotes and fungi at the basalt-zeolite interface of fractured subseafloor basalts from a depth of 240 m below seafloor (mbsf). The microbial consortium and its relationship with the surrounding physical environment are revealed by synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The base of the consortium is represented by microstromatolites-remains of bacterial communities that oxidized reduced iron directly from the basalt. The microstromatolites and the surrounding basalt were overlaid by fungal cells and hyphae. The consortium was overgrown by hydrothermally formed zeolites but remained alive and active during this event. After its formation, fungal hyphae bored in the zeolite, producing millimetre-long tunnels through the mineral substrate. The dissolution could either serve to extract metals like Ca, Na and K essential for fungal growth and metabolism, or be a response to environmental stress owing to the mineral overgrowth. Our results show how microbial life may be maintained in a nutrient-poor and extreme environment by close ecological interplay and reveal an effective strategy for nutrient extraction from minerals. The prokaryotic portion of the consortium served as a carbon source for the eukaryotic portion. Such an approach may be a prerequisite for prokaryotic-eukaryotic colonisation of, and persistence in, subseafloor igneous crust.

  4. A Fungal-Prokaryotic Consortium at the Basalt-Zeolite Interface in Subseafloor Igneous Crust

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Bengtson, Stefan; Skogby, Henrik; Lazor, Peter; Broman, Curt; Belivanova, Veneta; Marone, Federica

    2015-01-01

    We have after half a century of coordinated scientific drilling gained insight into Earth´s largest microbial habitat, the subseafloor igneous crust, but still lack substantial understanding regarding its abundance, diversity and ecology. Here we describe a fossilized microbial consortium of prokaryotes and fungi at the basalt-zeolite interface of fractured subseafloor basalts from a depth of 240 m below seafloor (mbsf). The microbial consortium and its relationship with the surrounding physical environment are revealed by synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The base of the consortium is represented by microstromatolites—remains of bacterial communities that oxidized reduced iron directly from the basalt. The microstromatolites and the surrounding basalt were overlaid by fungal cells and hyphae. The consortium was overgrown by hydrothermally formed zeolites but remained alive and active during this event. After its formation, fungal hyphae bored in the zeolite, producing millimetre-long tunnels through the mineral substrate. The dissolution could either serve to extract metals like Ca, Na and K essential for fungal growth and metabolism, or be a response to environmental stress owing to the mineral overgrowth. Our results show how microbial life may be maintained in a nutrient-poor and extreme environment by close ecological interplay and reveal an effective strategy for nutrient extraction from minerals. The prokaryotic portion of the consortium served as a carbon source for the eukaryotic portion. Such an approach may be a prerequisite for prokaryotic-eukaryotic colonisation of, and persistence in, subseafloor igneous crust. PMID:26488482

  5. Bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent by a novel fungal consortium isolated from polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Piyush; Rathore, V S

    2007-12-01

    Two basidiomycetous fungi (Merulius aureus syn. Phlebia sp. and an unidentified genus) and a deuteromycetous fungus (Fusarium sambucinum Fuckel MTCC 3788) were isolated from soils affected with effluents of a pulp and paper mill over several years. These isolates were immobilized on nylon mesh and the consortium was used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent in a continuously aerated bench-top bioreactor. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0% and 89.4% in 4 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within first 24h of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. During this period, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity and salinity of the effluent also registered marked decline. It is pertinent to note that this is the first report of bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent by an immobilized fungal consortium.

  6. Adaptation of a methanogenic consortium to arsenite inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Freire, Lucia; Moore, Sarah E.; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous metalloid known for its adverse effects to human health. Microorganisms are also impacted by As toxicity, including methanogenic archaea, which can affect the performance of process in which biological activity is required (i.e. stabilization of activated sludge in wastewater treatment plants). The novel ability of a mixed methanogenic granular sludge consortium to adapt to the inhibitory effect of arsenic (As) was investigated by exposing the culture to approximately 0.92 mM of AsIII for 160 d in an arsenate (AsV) reducing bioreactor using ethanol as the electron donor. The results of shaken batch bioassays indicated that the original, unexposed sludge was severely inhibited by arsenite (AsIII) as evidenced by the low 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) determined, i.e., 19 and 90 μM for acetoclastic- and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, respectively. The tolerance of the acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the sludge to AsIII increased 47-fold (IC50 = 910 μM) and 12-fold (IC50= 1100 μM), respectively, upon long-term exposure to As. In conclusion, the methanogenic community in the granular sludge demonstrated a considerable ability to adapt to the severe inhibitory effects of As after a prolonged exposure period. PMID:26823637

  7. Simultaneous pretreatment and saccharification: green technology for enhanced sugar yields from biomass using a fungal consortium.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Haw, Jung-Rim; Kalyani, Dayanand; Kalia, Vipin C; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2015-03-01

    Two different biomasses were subjected to simultaneous pretreatment and saccharification (SPS) using a cocktail of hydrolytic and oxidizing enzymes. Application of a novel laccase as a detoxifying agent caused the removal of 49.8% and 32.6% of phenolic contents from the soaked rice straw and willow, respectively. Hydrolysis of soaked substrates using a newly developed fungal consortium resulted in saccharification yield of up to 74.2% and 63.6% for rice straw and willow, respectively. A high saccharification yield was obtained with soaked rice straw and willow without using any hazardous chemicals. The efficiency of each step related to SPS was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The suitability of the developed SPS process was further confirmed by converting the hydrolysate from the process into bioethanol with 72.4% sugar conversion efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the development of a less tedious, single-pot, and eco-friendly SPS methodology.

  8. The National Astronomy Consortium - An Adaptable Model for OAD?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Kartik

    2015-08-01

    The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) is a program led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and Associated Universities Inc., (AUI) in partnership with the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP), and a number of minority and majority universities to increase the numbers of students from underrepresented groups and those otherwise overlooked by the traditional academic pipeline into STEM or STEM-related careers. The seed for the NAC was a partnership between NRAO and Howard University which began with an exchange of a few summer students five years ago. Since then the NAC has grown tremendously. Today the NAC aims to host between 4 to 5 cohorts nationally in an innovative model in which the students are mentored throughout the year with multiple mentors and peer mentoring, continued engagement in research and professional development / career training throughout the academic year and throughout their careers.The NAC model has already shown success and is a very promising and innovative model for increasing participation of young people in STEM and STEM-related careers. I will discuss how this model could be adapted in various countries at all levels of education.

  9. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Djelal, Hayet; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2013-09-01

    A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yields increased from 55% to 75% for model medium, diluted milk. While after inoculation of an industrial biological tank from a dairy factory with the fungal consortium accelerated by pre-cultivation in a 1000 L pilot plant, the outlet COD values decreased from values above the standard one (100 mg/L) to values in the range of 50-70 mg/L. In addition, there was a clear impact of fungal addition on the 'hard' or non-biodegradable COD owing to the significant reduction of the increase of the COD on BOD5 ratio between the inlet and the outlet of the biological tank of WWTP. It was in the range of 451%-1111% before adding fungal consortium, and in the range of 257%-153% after bio-augmentation with fungi. An inoculated bioreactor with fungal consortium was developed at lab-scale and demonstrated successfully at pilot scale in

  10. Consortium for Adaptive Optics and Image Post-Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-12

    optics bench laboratory is located in Kula , Maui, and is called “The Space Surveillance Simulator” (S-Cube). S-Cube is designed to simulate both the...Wheeler, Trex Maui Personnel from the Center for Adaptive Optics Contributed DURIP Maui Adaptive Optics Laboratory (S-Cube), Kula Setup Meeting (26...for Astronomy’s buildings in Kula , Maui. The move also caused a change in the scientists directly involved in the simulator as well as a change in

  11. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Fungal Products and Allergens.

    PubMed

    Williams, P Brock; Barnes, Charles S; Portnoy, Jay M

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fungi and their products is practically ubiquitous, yet most of this is of little consequence to most healthy individuals. This is because there are a number of elaborate mechanisms to deal with these exposures. Most of these mechanisms are designed to recognize and neutralize such exposures. However, in understanding these mechanisms it has become clear that many of them overlap with our ability to respond to disruptions in tissue function caused by trauma or deterioration. These responses involve the innate and adaptive immune systems usually through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B and the production of cytokines that are considered inflammatory accompanied by other factors that can moderate these reactivities. Depending on different genetic backgrounds and the extent of activation of these mechanisms, various pathologies with resulting symptoms can ensue. Complicating this is the fact that these mechanisms can bias toward type 2 innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, to understand what we refer to as allergens from fungal sources, we must first understand how they influence these innate mechanisms. In doing so it has become clear that many of the proteins that are described as fungal allergens are essentially homologues of our own proteins that signal or cause tissue disruptions.

  12. Novel and highly diverse fungal endophytes in soybean revealed by the consortium of two different techniques.

    PubMed

    de Souza Leite, Tiago; Cnossen-Fassoni, Andréia; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; Mizubuti, Eduardo Seiti Gomide; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2013-02-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from the leaves of soybean cultivars in Brazil using two different isolation techniques - fragment plating and the innovative dilution-to-extinction culturing - to increase the species richness, frequency of isolates and diversity. A total of 241 morphospecies were obtained corresponding to 62 taxa that were identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The Phylum Ascomycota predominated, representing 99% and 95.2% of isolates in the Monsoy and Conquista cultivars, respectively, whereas the Phylum Basidiomycota represented 1% and 4.8% of isolates, respectively. The genera Ampelomyces, Annulohypoxylon, Guignardia, Leptospora, Magnaporthe, Ophiognomonia, Paraconiothyrium, Phaeosphaeriopsis, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, and Xylaria for the first time were isolated from soybean; this suggests that soybean harbours novel and highly diverse fungi. The yeasts genera Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces (subphylum Pucciniomycotina) represent the Phylum Basidiomycota. The species richness was greater when both isolation techniques were used. The diversity of fungal endophytes was similar in both cultivars when the same isolation technique was used except for Hill's index, N1. The use of ITS region sequences allowed the isolates to be grouped according to Order, Class and Phylum. Ampelomyces, Chaetomium, and Phoma glomerata are endophytic species that may play potential roles in the biological control of soybean pathogens. This study is one of the first to apply extinction-culturing to isolate fungal endophytes in plant leaves, thus contributing to the development and improvement of this technique for future studies.

  13. Experimental evidence of bark beetle adaptation to a fungal symbiont.

    PubMed

    Bracewell, Ryan R; Six, Diana L

    2015-11-01

    The importance of symbiotic microbes to insects cannot be overstated; however, we have a poor understanding of the evolutionary processes that shape most insect-microbe interactions. Many bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) species are involved in what have been described as obligate mutualisms with symbiotic fungi. Beetles benefit through supplementing their nutrient-poor diet with fungi and the fungi benefit through gaining transportation to resources. However, only a few beetle-fungal symbioses have been experimentally manipulated to test whether the relationship is obligate. Furthermore, none have tested for adaptation of beetles to their specific symbionts, one of the requirements for coevolution. We experimentally manipulated the western pine beetle-fungus symbiosis to determine whether the beetle is obligately dependent upon fungi and to test for fine-scale adaptation of the beetle to one of its symbiotic fungi, Entomocorticium sp. B. We reared beetles from a single population with either a natal isolate of E. sp. B (isolated from the same population from which the beetles originated), a non-natal isolate (a genetically divergent isolate from a geographically distant beetle population), or with no fungi. We found that fungi were crucial for the successful development of western pine beetles. We also found no significant difference in the effects of the natal and non-natal isolate on beetle fitness parameters. However, brood adult beetles failed to incorporate the non-natal fungus into their fungal transport structure (mycangium) indicating adaption by the beetle to particular genotypes of symbiotic fungi. Our results suggest that beetle-fungus mutualisms and symbiont fidelity may be maintained via an undescribed recognition mechanism of the beetles for particular symbionts that may promote particular associations through time.

  14. Diversity and bioprospecting of fungal communities associated with endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Valéria M; Furbino, Laura E; Santiago, Iara F; Pellizzari, Franciane M; Yokoya, Nair S; Pupo, Diclá; Alves, Tânia M A; Junior, Policarpo A S; Romanha, Alvaro J; Zani, Carlos L; Cantrell, Charles L; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2013-07-01

    We surveyed the distribution and diversity of fungi associated with eight macroalgae from Antarctica and their capability to produce bioactive compounds. The collections yielded 148 fungal isolates, which were identified using molecular methods as belonging to 21 genera and 50 taxa. The most frequent taxa were Geomyces species (sp.), Penicillium sp. and Metschnikowia australis. Seven fungal isolates associated with the endemic Antarctic macroalgae Monostroma hariotii (Chlorophyte) displayed high internal transcribed spacer sequences similarities with the psychrophilic pathogenic fungus Geomyces destructans. Thirty-three fungal singletons (66%) were identified, representing rare components of the fungal communities. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, rarefaction curves indicated that not all of the fungal diversity present was recovered. Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6034 and Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6120, recovered from the endemic species Palmaria decipiens (Rhodophyte) and M. hariotii, respectively, yielded extracts with high and selective antifungal and/or trypanocidal activities, in which a preliminary spectral analysis using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated the presence of highly functionalised aromatic compounds. These results suggest that the endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae of Antarctica shelter a rich, diversity and complex fungal communities consisting of a few dominant indigenous or mesophilic cold-adapted species, and a large number of rare and/or endemic taxa, which may provide an interesting model of algal-fungal interactions under extreme conditions as well as a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  15. Diversity and bioprospecting of fungal communities associated with endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Valéria M; Furbino, Laura E; Santiago, Iara F; Pellizzari, Franciane M; Yokoya, Nair S; Pupo, Diclá; Alves, Tânia MA; S Junior, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro J; Zani, Carlos L; Cantrell, Charles L; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed the distribution and diversity of fungi associated with eight macroalgae from Antarctica and their capability to produce bioactive compounds. The collections yielded 148 fungal isolates, which were identified using molecular methods as belonging to 21 genera and 50 taxa. The most frequent taxa were Geomyces species (sp.), Penicillium sp. and Metschnikowia australis. Seven fungal isolates associated with the endemic Antarctic macroalgae Monostroma hariotii (Chlorophyte) displayed high internal transcribed spacer sequences similarities with the psychrophilic pathogenic fungus Geomyces destructans. Thirty-three fungal singletons (66%) were identified, representing rare components of the fungal communities. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, rarefaction curves indicated that not all of the fungal diversity present was recovered. Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6034 and Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6120, recovered from the endemic species Palmaria decipiens (Rhodophyte) and M. hariotii, respectively, yielded extracts with high and selective antifungal and/or trypanocidal activities, in which a preliminary spectral analysis using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated the presence of highly functionalised aromatic compounds. These results suggest that the endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae of Antarctica shelter a rich, diversity and complex fungal communities consisting of a few dominant indigenous or mesophilic cold-adapted species, and a large number of rare and/or endemic taxa, which may provide an interesting model of algal–fungal interactions under extreme conditions as well as a potential source of bioactive compounds. PMID:23702515

  16. Proteogenomic Analysis of a Thermophilic Bacterial Consortium Adapted to Deconstruct Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    D'haeseleer, Patrik; Gladden, John M.; Allgaier, Martin; Chain, Patrik S. G.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Robinson, Errol W.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Hugenholtz, Philip; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are a potential source of enzymes for the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, the complement of proteins used to deconstruct biomass and the specific roles of different microbial groups in thermophilic biomass deconstruction are not well-explored. Here we report on the metagenomic and proteogenomic analyses of a compost-derived bacterial consortium adapted to switchgrass at elevated temperature with high levels of glycoside hydrolase activities. Near-complete genomes were reconstructed for the most abundant populations, which included composite genomes for populations closely related to sequenced strains of Thermus thermophilus and Rhodothermus marinus, and for novel populations that are related to thermophilic Paenibacilli and an uncultivated subdivision of the little-studied Gemmatimonadetes phylum. Partial genomes were also reconstructed for a number of lower abundance thermophilic Chloroflexi populations. Identification of genes for lignocellulose processing and metabolic reconstructions suggested Rhodothermus, Paenibacillus and Gemmatimonadetes as key groups for deconstructing biomass, and Thermus as a group that may primarily metabolize low molecular weight compounds. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of the consortium was used to identify >3000 proteins in fractionated samples from the cultures, and confirmed the importance of Paenibacillus and Gemmatimonadetes to biomass deconstruction. These studies also indicate that there are unexplored proteins with important roles in bacterial lignocellulose deconstruction. PMID:23894306

  17. Proteogenomic Analysis of a Thermophilic Bacterial Consortium Adapted to Deconstruct Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    D'haeseleer, Patrik; Gladden, John M.; Allgaier, Martin; Chain, Patrick; Tringe, Susannah G.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Hugenholtz, Philip; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.

    2013-07-19

    Thermophilic bacteria are a potential source of enzymes for the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, the complement of proteins used to deconstruct biomass and the specific roles of different microbial groups in thermophilic biomass deconstruction are not well-explored. Here we report on the metagenomic and proteogenomic analyses of a compost-derived bacterial consortium adapted to switchgrass at elevated temperature with high levels of glycoside hydrolase activities. Near-complete genomes were reconstructed for the most abundant populations, which included composite genomes for populations closely related to sequenced strains of Thermus thermophilus and Rhodothermus marinus, and for novel populations that are related to thermophilic Paenibacilli and an uncultivated subdivision of the littlestudied Gemmatimonadetes phylum. Partial genomes were also reconstructed for a number of lower abundance thermophilic Chloroflexi populations. Identification of genes for lignocellulose processing and metabolic reconstructions suggested Rhodothermus, Paenibacillus and Gemmatimonadetes as key groups for deconstructing biomass, and Thermus as a group that may primarily metabolize low molecular weight compounds. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of the consortium was used to identify .3000 proteins in fractionated samples from the cultures, and confirmed the importance of Paenibacillus and Gemmatimonadetes to biomass deconstruction. These studies also indicate that there are unexplored proteins with important roles in bacterial lignocellulose deconstruction.

  18. A proteomics approach to study synergistic and antagonistic interactions of the fungal-bacterial consortium Fusarium oxysporum wild-type MSA 35.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marino; Grunau, Alexander; Minerdi, Daniela; Gehrig, Peter; Roschitzki, Bernd; Eberl, Leo; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Riedel, Kathrin

    2010-09-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen that causes severe damage of many economically important crop species. Various microorganisms have been shown to inhibit this soil-borne plant pathogen, including non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strains. In this study, F. oxysporum wild-type (WT) MSA 35, a biocontrol multispecies consortium that consists of a fungus and numerous rhizobacteria mainly belonging to gamma-proteobacteria, was analyzed by two complementary metaproteomic approaches (2-DE combined with MALDI-Tof/Tof MS and 1-D PAGE combined with LC-ESI-MS/MS) to identify fungal or bacterial factors potentially involved in antagonistic or synergistic interactions between the consortium members. Moreover, the proteome profiles of F. oxysporum WT MSA 35 and its cured counter-part CU MSA 35 (WT treated with antibiotics) were compared with unravel the bacterial impact on consortium functioning. Our study presents the first proteome mapping of an antagonistic F. oxysporum strain and proposes candidate proteins that might play an important role for the biocontrol activity and the close interrelationship between the fungus and its bacterial partners.

  19. Evolution of the chitin synthase gene family correlates with fungal morphogenesis and adaption to ecological niches

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ran; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Wang, Shiyi; Fang, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    The fungal kingdom potentially has the most complex chitin synthase (CHS) gene family, but evolution of the fungal CHS gene family and its diversification to fulfill multiple functions remain to be elucidated. Here, we identified the full complement of CHSs from 231 fungal species. Using the largest dataset to date, we characterized the evolution of the fungal CHS gene family using phylogenetic and domain structure analysis. Gene duplication, domain recombination and accretion are major mechanisms underlying the diversification of the fungal CHS gene family, producing at least 7 CHS classes. Contraction of the CHS gene family is morphology-specific, with significant loss in unicellular fungi, whereas family expansion is lineage-specific with obvious expansion in early-diverging fungi. ClassV and ClassVII CHSs with the same domain structure were produced by the recruitment of domains PF00063 and PF08766 and subsequent duplications. Comparative analysis of their functions in multiple fungal species shows that the emergence of ClassV and ClassVII CHSs is important for the morphogenesis of filamentous fungi, development of pathogenicity in pathogenic fungi, and heat stress tolerance in Pezizomycotina fungi. This work reveals the evolution of the fungal CHS gene family, and its correlation with fungal morphogenesis and adaptation to ecological niches. PMID:28300148

  20. Regional-scale simulations of fungal spore aerosols using an emission parameterization adapted to local measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, M.; Hoose, C.; Gallagher, M.; Healy, D. A.; Huffman, J. A.; O'Connor, D.; Pöschl, U.; Pöhlker, C.; Robinson, N. H.; Schnaiter, M.; Sodeau, J. R.; Stengel, M.; Toprak, E.; Vogel, H.

    2015-06-01

    Fungal spores as a prominent type of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) have been incorporated into the COSMO-ART (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling-Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) regional atmospheric model. Two literature-based emission rates for fungal spores derived from fungal spore colony counts and chemical tracer measurements were used as a parameterization baseline for this study. A third, new emission parameterization for fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) was adapted to field measurements from four locations across Europe. FBAP concentrations can be regarded as a lower estimate of total PBAP concentrations. Size distributions of FBAP often show a distinct mode at approx. 3 μm, corresponding to a diameter range characteristic for many fungal spores. Previous studies for several locations have suggested that FBAP are in many cases dominated by fungal spores. Thus, we suggest that simulated FBAP and fungal spore concentrations obtained from the three different emission parameterizations can be compared to FBAP measurements. The comparison reveals that simulated fungal spore concentrations based on literature emission parameterizations are lower than measured FBAP concentrations. In agreement with the measurements, the model results show a diurnal cycle in simulated fungal spore concentrations, which may develop partially as a consequence of a varying boundary layer height between day and night. Temperature and specific humidity, together with leaf area index (LAI), were chosen to drive the new emission parameterization which is fitted to the FBAP observations. The new parameterization results in similar root mean square errors (RMSEs) and correlation coefficients compared to the FBAP observations as the previously existing fungal spore emission parameterizations, with some improvements in the bias. Using the new emission parameterization on a model domain covering western Europe, FBAP in the lowest model layer comprise a

  1. 5-Lipoxygenase deficiency impairs innate and adaptive immune responses during fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Secatto, Adriana; Rodrigues, Lilian Cataldi; Serezani, Carlos Henrique; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Medeiros, Alexandra I

    2012-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase-derived products have been implicated in both the inhibition and promotion of chronic infection. Here, we sought to investigate the roles of endogenous 5-lipoxygenase products and exogenous leukotrienes during Histoplasma capsulatum infection in vivo and in vitro. 5-LO deficiency led to increased lung CFU, decreased nitric oxide production and a deficient primary immune response during active fungal infection. Moreover, H. capsulatum-infected 5-LO(-/-) mice showed an intense influx of neutrophils and an impaired ability to generate and recruit effector T cells to the lung. The fungal susceptibility of 5-LO(-/-) mice correlated with a lower rate of macrophage ingestion of IgG-H. capsulatum relative to WT macrophages. Conversely, exogenous LTB4 and LTC4 restored macrophage phagocytosis in 5-LO deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that leukotrienes are required to control chronic fungal infection by amplifying both the innate and adaptive immune response during histoplasmosis.

  2. Effect of inoculation with white-rot fungi and fungal consortium on the composting efficiency of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Voběrková, Stanislava; Vaverková, Magdalena D; Burešová, Alena; Adamcová, Dana; Vršanská, Martina; Kynický, Jindřich; Brtnický, Martin; Adam, Vojtěch

    2017-01-05

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of inoculation methods on the compost of an organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Three types of white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor and Fomes fomentarius), and a consortium of these fungi, were used. The study assessed their influence on microbial enzymatic activities and the quality of the finished compost. It was found that the addition of white-rot fungi to municipal solid waste (after 37days of composting) could be a useful strategy for enhancing the properties of the final compost product. In comparison with the control sample (compost without inoculation), it accelerates degradation of solid waste as indicated by changes in C/N, electrical conductivity and pH. However, the effectiveness of waste degradation and compost maturation depends on the type of microorganism used for inoculation. The presence of inoculants, such as Trametes versicolor and Fomes fomentarius, led to a higher degrading ratio and a better degree of maturity. This resulted in an increase of enzymatic activities (especially dehydrogenase and protease) and a germination index in comparison with inoculation using Phanerochaete chrysosporium or a consortium of fungi.

  3. Biodegradation of phenanthrene using adapted microbial consortium isolated from petrochemical contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Janbandhu, Anjali; Fulekar, M H

    2011-03-15

    In developing countries like India, there are many industrial areas discharging effluent containing large amount of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) which causes hazardous effect on the soil-water environment. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize high-efficiency PAH-degrading microbial consortium from 3 decade old petrochemical refinery field located in Nagpur, Maharashtra with history of PAH disposal. Based on biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis the consortium was identified as Sphingobacterium sp., Bacillus cereus and a novel bacterium Achromobacter insolitus MHF ENV IV with effective phenanthrene-degrading ability. The biodegradation data of phenanthrene indicates about 100%, 56.9% and 25.8% degradation at the concentration of 100mg/l, 250 mg/l and 500 mg/l respectively within 14 days. The consortium and its monoculture isolates also utilized variety of other hydrocarbons for growth. To best of our knowledge this is the first time that Achromobacter insolitus has been reported to mineralize phenanthrene effectively. GC-MS analysis of phenanthrene degradation confirmed biodegradation by detection of intermediates like salicylaldehyde, salicylic acid and catechol. All the results indicated that the microbial consortium have a promising application in bioremediation of petrochemical contaminated environments and could be potentially useful for the study of PAH degradation and for bioremediation purposes.

  4. Catalases play differentiated roles in the adaptation of a fungal entomopathogen to environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Liang; Zhang, Long-Bin; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2013-02-01

    The catalase family of Beauveria bassiana (fungal entomopathogen) consists of catA (spore-specific), catB (secreted), catP (peroxisomal), catC (cytoplasmic) and catD (secreted peroxidase/catalase), which were distinguished in phylogeny and structure and functionally characterized by constructing single-gene disrupted and rescued mutants for enzymatic and multi-phenotypic analyses. Total catalase activity decreased 89% and 56% in ΔcatB and ΔcatP, corresponding to the losses of upper and lower active bands gel-profiled for all catalases respectively, but only 9-12% in other knockout mutants. Compared with wild type and complement mutants sharing similar enzymatic and phenotypic parameters, all knockout mutants showed significant (9-56%) decreases in the antioxidant capability of their conidia (active ingredients of mycoinsecticides), followed by remarkable phenotypic defects associated with the fungal biocontrol potential. These defects included mainly the losses of 40% thermotolerance (45°C) in ΔcatA, 46-48% UV-B resistance in ΔcatA and ΔcatD, and 33-47% virulence to Spodoptera litura larvae in ΔcatA, ΔcatP and ΔcatD respectively. Moreover, the drastic transcript upregulation of some other catalase genes observed in the normal culture of each knockout mutant revealed functionally complimentary effects among some of the catalase genes, particularly between catB and catC whose knockout mutants displayed little or minor phenotypic changes. However, the five catalase genes functioned redundantly in mediating the fungal tolerance to either hyperosmotic or fungicidal stress. The differentiated roles of five catalases in regulating the B. bassiana virulence and tolerances to oxidative stress, high temperature and UV-B irradiation provide new insights into fungal adaptation to stressful environment and host invasion.

  5. Genetic and genomic evidence of niche partitioning and adaptive radiation in mountain pine beetle fungal symbionts.

    PubMed

    Ojeda Alayon, Dario I; Tsui, Clement K M; Feau, Nicolas; Capron, Arnaud; Dhillon, Braham; Zhang, Yiyuan; Massoumi Alamouti, Sepideh; Boone, Celia K; Carroll, Allan L; Cooke, Janice E K; Roe, Amanda D; Sperling, Felix A H; Hamelin, Richard C

    2017-02-23

    Bark beetles form multipartite symbiotic associations with blue stain fungi (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota). These fungal symbionts play an important role during the beetle's life cycle by providing nutritional supplementation, overcoming tree defences and modifying host tissues to favour brood development. The maintenance of stable multipartite symbioses with seemingly less competitive symbionts in similar habitats is of fundamental interest to ecology and evolution. We tested the hypothesis that the coexistence of three fungal species associated with the mountain pine beetle is the result of niche partitioning and adaptive radiation using SNP genotyping coupled with genotype-environment association analysis and phenotypic characterization of growth rate under different temperatures. We found that genetic variation and population structure within each species is best explained by distinct spatial and environmental variables. We observed both common (temperature seasonality and the host species) and distinct (drought, cold stress, precipitation) environmental and spatial factors that shaped the genomes of these fungi resulting in contrasting outcomes. Phenotypic intraspecific variations in Grosmannia clavigera and Leptographium longiclavatum, together with high heritability, suggest potential for adaptive selection in these species. By contrast, Ophiostoma montium displayed narrower intraspecific variation but greater tolerance to extreme high temperatures. Our study highlights unique phenotypic and genotypic characteristics in these symbionts that are consistent with our hypothesis. By maintaining this multipartite relationship, the bark beetles have a greater likelihood of obtaining the benefits afforded by the fungi and reduce the risk of being left aposymbiotic. Complementarity among species could facilitate colonization of new habitats and survival under adverse conditions.

  6. Fungal adaptation to contemporary fungicide applications: the case of Botrytis cinerea populations from Champagne vineyards (France).

    PubMed

    Walker, A-S; Ravigne, V; Rieux, A; Ali, S; Carpentier, F; Fournier, E

    2017-04-01

    In addition to being one of the most acute problems impeding chemical control of fungal diseases, the evolution of fungicide resistance is an emblematic case of local adaptation to spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable selection pressures. Here we dissected the adaptation of Botrytis cinerea (the causal agent of grey mould) populations on grapes to several fungicides. We carried out a 2-year survey (four collection dates) on three treated/untreated pairs of plots from vineyards in Champagne (France) and monitored the frequency of four resistant phenotypes that are unambiguously associated with four distinct genotypes. For two loci under selection by currently used fungicides (MDR1 and MDR2), the frequencies of resistant mutations at vintage were greater in treated plots compared to untreated plots, showing that the effect of selection is detectable even at the plot scale. This effect was not detectable for two other loci under selection by previously used fungicides (BenR1 and ImiR1). We also found that treatment with currently used fungicides reduced B. cinerea effective population size, leading to a significant decrease in genic diversity and allelic richness in treated vs. untreated plots. We further highlight that even under ample drift and migration, fungal populations can present an efficient response to selection. Finally, for the four studied loci, the costs of fungicide resistance were estimated by modelling the decrease in the frequency of resistant mutations in the absence of treatment. We discuss the importance of these estimates for defining strategies for limiting or counteracting the local adaptation of pests to fungicides.

  7. Fungal Inositol Pyrophosphate IP7 Is Crucial for Metabolic Adaptation to the Host Environment and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Sophie; Li, Cecilia; Desmarini, Desmarini; Saiardi, Adolfo; Fewings, Nicole L.; Schibeci, Stephen D.; Sharma, Raghwa; Sorrell, Tania C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs) comprising inositol, phosphate, and pyrophosphate (PP) are essential for multiple functions in eukaryotes. Their role in fungal pathogens has never been addressed. Cryptococcus neoformans is a model pathogenic fungus causing life-threatening meningoencephalitis. We investigate the cryptococcal kinases responsible for the production of PP-IPs (IP7/IP8) and the hierarchy of PP-IP importance in pathogenicity. Using gene deletion and inositol polyphosphate profiling, we identified Kcs1 as the major IP6 kinase (producing IP7) and Asp1 as an IP7 kinase (producing IP8). We show that Kcs1-derived IP7 is the most crucial PP-IP for cryptococcal drug susceptibility and the production of virulence determinants. In particular, Kcs1 kinase activity is essential for cryptococcal infection of mouse lungs, as reduced fungal burdens were observed in the absence of Kcs1 or when Kcs1 was catalytically inactive. Transcriptome and carbon source utilization analysis suggested that compromised growth of the KCS1 deletion strain (Δkcs1 mutant) in the low-glucose environment of the host lung is due to its inability to utilize alternative carbon sources. Despite this metabolic defect, the Δkcs1 mutant established persistent, low-level asymptomatic pulmonary infection but failed to elicit a strong immune response in vivo and in vitro and was not readily phagocytosed by primary or immortalized monocytes. Reduced recognition of the Δkcs1 cells by monocytes correlated with reduced exposure of mannoproteins on the Δkcs1 mutant cell surface. We conclude that IP7 is essential for fungal metabolic adaptation to the host environment, immune recognition, and pathogenicity. PMID:26037119

  8. Changes in the microbial community of an anammox consortium during adaptation to marine conditions revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Silva, Blanca M; Rønning, Are J; Andreassen, Ingrid K; Bakke, Ingrid; Cervantes, Francisco J; Østgaard, Kjetill; Vadstein, Olav

    2017-03-09

    The anammox activity of a freshwater anammox consortium was strongly inhibited at low-salinity level. Stepwise adaptation from 0 to 3 g NaCl L(-1) took 153 days. Further adaptation to high-salinity concentration (from 3 to 30 g L(-1)) took only 40 days, and no inhibition was observed. A comprehensive insight into the salinity-induced successions of the total and the anammox communities was obtained by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and statistical analysis. A major succession in the anammox community was observed at 3 g L(-1) where the dominating population shifted from Candidatus Brocadia fulgida to Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. The latter dominated at high salinity and seemed to be essential for the high (˃96%) ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies achieved. SIMPER analysis indicated that these two dominating anammox species explained most to the differences in community structure among samples and helped in identifying other important members at different salinities.

  9. Trajectory and genomic determinants of fungal-pathogen speciation and host adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Shang, Yanfang; Su, Yao; Zhang, Xinyu; Liu, Xingzhong; Zhan, Shuai; St. Leger, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Much remains unknown regarding speciation. Host–pathogen interactions are a major driving force for diversification, but the genomic basis for speciation and host shifting remains unclear. The fungal genus Metarhizium contains species ranging from specialists with very narrow host ranges to generalists that attack a wide range of insects. By genomic analyses of seven species, we demonstrated that generalists evolved from specialists via transitional species with intermediate host ranges and that this shift paralleled insect evolution. We found that specialization was associated with retention of sexuality and rapid evolution of existing protein sequences whereas generalization was associated with protein-family expansion, loss of genome-defense mechanisms, genome restructuring, horizontal gene transfer, and positive selection that accelerated after reinforcement of reproductive isolation. These results advance understanding of speciation and genomic signatures that underlie pathogen adaptation to hosts. PMID:25368161

  10. Adaptation and survival of plants in high stress habitats via fungal endophyte conferred stress tolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Rusty J.; Woodward, Claire; Redman, Regina S.

    2010-01-01

    From the Arctic to the Antarctic, plants thrive in diverse habitats that impose different levels of adaptive pressures depending on the type and degree of biotic and abiotic stresses inherent to each habitat (Stevens, 1989). At any particular location, the abundance and distribution of individual plant species vary tremendously and is theorized to be based on the ability to tolerate a wide range of edaphic conditions and habitat-specific stresses (Pianka, 1966). The ability of individual plant species to thrive in diverse habitats is commonly referred to as phenotypic plasticity and is thought to involve adaptations based on changes in the plant genome (Givnish, 2002; Pan et al., 2006; Robe and Griffiths, 2000; Schurr et al., 2006). Habitats that impose high levels of abiotic stress are typically colonized with fewer plant species compared to habitats imposing low levels of stress. Moreover, high stress habitats have decreased levels of plant abundance compared to low stress habitats even though these habitats may occur in close proximity to one another (Perelman et al., 2007). This is particularly interesting because all plants are known to perceive, transmit signals, and respond to abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, and salinity (Bartels and Sunkar, 2005; Bohnert et al., 1995). Although there has been extensive research performed to determine the genetic, molecular, and physiological bases of how plants respond to and tolerate stress, the nature of plant adaptation to high stress habitats remains unresolved (Leone et al., 2003; Maggio et al., 2003; Tuberosa et al., 2003). However, recent evidence indicates that a ubiquitous aspect of plant biology (fungal symbiosis) is involved in the adaptation and survival of at least some plants in high stress habitats (Rodriguez et al., 2008).

  11. Symbiotic lifestyle expression by fungal endophytes and the adaptation of plants to stress: unraveling the complexities of intimacy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, Regina S.; Henson, Joan M.; Rodriguez, Russell J.

    2005-01-01

    The fossil record indicates that fungal symbionts have been associated with plants since the Ordovician period (approximately 400 million years ago), when plants first became established on land (Pirozynski and Malloch, 1975; Redecker et al., 2000; Remy et al., 1994; Simon et al., 1993). Transitioning from aquatic to terrestrial habitats likely presented plants with new stresses, including periods of desiccation. Since symbiotic fungi are known to confer drought tolerance to plants (Bacon, 1993; Read and Camp, 1986), it has been suggested that fungal symbiosis was involved with or responsible for the establishment of land plants (Pirozynski and Malloch, 1975). Symbiosis was first defined by De Bary in 1879, and since that time, all plants in natural ecosystems have been found to be colonized with fungal and bacterial symbionts. It is clear that individual plants represent symbiotic communities with microorganisms associated in or on tissues below- and aboveground.There are two major classes of fungal symbionts associated with internal plant tissues: fungal endophytes that reside entirely within plants and may be associated with roots, stems leaves, or flowers; and mycorrhizal fungi that reside only in roots but extend out into the rhizosphere. In addition, fungal endophytes may be divided into two classes: (1) a relatively small number of fastidious species that are limited to a few monocot hosts (Clay and Schardl, 2002), and (2) a large number of tractable species with broad host ranges, including both monocots and eudicots (Stone et al., 2000). While significant resources and research have been invested in mycorrhizae and class 1 endophytes, comparatively little is known about class 2 endophytes, which may represent the largest group of fungal symbionts. This is partially because the symbiotic functionalities of class 2 endophytes have only recently been elucidated and shown to be responsible for the adaptation of some plants to high-stress environments (Redman

  12. Fungal farmers or algal escorts: lichen adaptation from the algal perspective.

    PubMed

    Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Deduke, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Domestication of algae by lichen-forming fungi describes the symbiotic relationship between the photosynthetic (green alga or cyanobacterium; photobiont) and fungal (mycobiont) partnership in lichen associations (Goward 1992). The algal domestication implies that the mycobiont cultivates the alga as a monoculture within its thallus, analogous to a farmer cultivating a food crop. However, the initial photobiont 'selection' by the mycobiont may be predetermined by the habitat rather than by the farmer. When the mycobiont selects a photobiont from the available photobionts within a habitat, the mycobiont may influence photobiont growth and reproduction (Ahmadjian & Jacobs 1981) only after the interaction has been initiated. The theory of ecological guilds (Rikkinen et al. 2002) proposes that habitat limits the variety of photobionts available to the fungal partner. While some studies provide evidence to support the theory of ecological guilds in cyanobacterial lichens (Rikkinen et al. 2002), other studies propose models to explain variation in symbiont combinations in green algal lichens (Ohmura et al. 2006; Piercey-Normore 2006; Yahr et al. 2006) hypothesizing the existence of such guilds. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Peksa & Škaloud (2011) test the theory of ecological guilds and suggest a relationship between algal habitat requirements and lichen adaptation in green algal lichens of the genus Lepraria. The environmental parameters examined in this study, exposure to rainfall, altitude and substratum type, are integral to lichen biology. Lichens have a poikilohydric nature, relying on the availability of atmospheric moisture for metabolic processes. Having no known active mechanism to preserve metabolic thallus moisture in times of drought, one would expect a strong influence of the environment on symbiont adaptation to specific habitats. Adaptation to changes in substrata and its properties would be expected with the intimate contact between crustose

  13. Local adaptation and evolutionary potential along a temperature gradient in the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune

    PubMed Central

    Stefansson, Tryggvi S; McDonald, Bruce A; Willi, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    To predict the response of plant pathogens to climate warming, data are needed on current thermal adaptation, the pathogen's evolutionary potential, and the link between them. We conducted a common garden experiment using isolates of the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune from nine barley populations representing climatically diverse locations. Clonal replicates of 126 genetically distinct isolates were assessed for their growth rate at 12°C, 18°C, and 22°C. Populations originating from climates with higher monthly temperature variation had higher growth rate at all three temperatures compared with populations from climates with less temperature fluctuation. Population differentiation in growth rate (QST) was significantly higher at 22°C than population differentiation for neutral microsatellite loci (GST), consistent with local adaptation for growth at higher temperatures. At 18°C, we found evidence for stabilizing selection for growth rate as QST was significantly lower than GST. Heritability of growth rate under the three temperatures was substantial in all populations (0.58–0.76). Genetic variation was lower in populations with higher growth rate at the three temperatures and evolvability increased under heat stress in seven of nine populations. Our findings imply that the distribution of this pathogen is unlikely to be genetically limited under climate warming, due to its high genetic variation and plasticity for thermal tolerance. PMID:23745143

  14. Regional-scale simulations of fungal spore aerosols using an emission parameterization adapted to local measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, M.; Hoose, C.; Gallagher, M.; Healy, D. A.; Huffman, J. A.; O'Connor, D.; Pöschl, U.; Pöhlker, C.; Robinson, N. H.; Schnaiter, M.; Sodeau, J. R.; Toprak, E.; Vogel, H.

    2014-04-01

    Fungal spores as a prominent type of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) have been incorporated into the COSMO-ART regional atmospheric model, using and comparing three different emission parameterizations. Two literature-based emission rates derived from fungal spore colony counts and chemical tracer measurements were used as a parameterization baseline for this study. A third, new emission parameterization was adapted to field measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) from four locations across Northern Europe. FBAP concentrations can be regarded as a lower estimate of total PBAP concentrations. Size distributions of FBAP often show a distinct mode at approx. 3 μm, corresponding to a diameter range characteristic for many fungal spores. Previous studies have suggested the majority of FBAP in several locations are dominated by fungal spores. Thus, we suggest that simulated fungal spore concentrations obtained from the emission parameterizations can be compared to the sum of total FBAP concentrations. A comparison reveals that parameterized estimates of fungal spore concentrations based on literature numbers underestimate measured FBAP concentrations. In agreement with measurement data, the model results show a diurnal cycle in simulated fungal spore concentrations, which may develop partially as a consequence of a varying boundary layer height between day and night. Measured FBAP and simulated fungal spore concentrations also correlate similarly with simulated temperature and humidity. These meteorological variables, together with leaf area index, were chosen to drive the new emission parameterization discussed here. Using the new emission parameterization on a model domain covering Western Europe, fungal spores in the lowest model layer comprise a fraction of 15% of the total aerosol mass over land and reach average number concentrations of 26 L-1. The results confirm that fungal spores and biological particles may account for a

  15. The Fungal Quorum-Sensing Molecule Farnesol Activates Innate Immune Cells but Suppresses Cellular Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Ines; Spielberg, Steffi; Weber, Michael; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Bläss, Markus; Claus, Ralf; Barz, Dagmar; Scherlach, Kirstin; Hertweck, Christian; Löffler, Jürgen; Hünniger, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Farnesol, produced by the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans, is the first quorum-sensing molecule discovered in eukaryotes. Its main function is control of C. albicans filamentation, a process closely linked to pathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the effects of farnesol on innate immune cells known to be important for fungal clearance and protective immunity. Farnesol enhanced the expression of activation markers on monocytes (CD86 and HLA-DR) and neutrophils (CD66b and CD11b) and promoted oxidative burst and the release of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP-1α]). However, this activation did not result in enhanced fungal uptake or killing. Furthermore, the differentiation of monocytes to immature dendritic cells (iDC) was significantly affected by farnesol. Several markers important for maturation and antigen presentation like CD1a, CD83, CD86, and CD80 were significantly reduced in the presence of farnesol. Furthermore, farnesol modulated migrational behavior and cytokine release and impaired the ability of DC to induce T cell proliferation. Of major importance was the absence of interleukin 12 (IL-12) induction in iDC generated in the presence of farnesol. Transcriptome analyses revealed a farnesol-induced shift in effector molecule expression and a down-regulation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor during monocytes to iDC differentiation. Taken together, our data unveil the ability of farnesol to act as a virulence factor of C. albicans by influencing innate immune cells to promote inflammation and mitigating the Th1 response, which is essential for fungal clearance. PMID:25784697

  16. The role of fungal symbiosis in the adaptation of plants to high stress environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Russell J.; Redman, Regina S.; Henson, Joan M.

    2004-01-01

    All plants studied in natural ecosystemsare symbiotic with fungi that either resideentirely (endophytes) or partially(mycorrhizae) within plants. Thesesymbioses appear to adapt to biotic andabiotic stresses and may be responsible forthe survival of both plant hosts and fungalsymbionts in high stress habitats. Here wedescribe the role of symbiotic fungi inplant stress tolerance and present astrategy based on adaptive symbiosis topotentially mitigate the impacts of globalchange on plant communities.

  17. Mycobiome of the Bat White Nose Syndrome Affected Caves and Mines Reveals Diversity of Fungi and Local Adaptation by the Fungal Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Sunanda S.; Li, Xiaojiang; Okoniewski, Joseph C.; Hicks, Alan C.; Davis, April D.; Broussard, Kelly; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS) and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans (Pd) are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010–2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD) and culture-independent (CI) methods to catalogue all fungi (‘mycobiome’). CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS). The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture) even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR) suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS. PMID:25264864

  18. Horizontal gene transfer drives adaptive colonization of apple trees by the fungal pathogen Valsa mali

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Baitao; Feng, Hao; Huang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) often has strong benefits for fungi. In a study of samples from apple canker in Shaanxi Province, China, diverse microbes, along with the necrotrophic pathogen Valsa mali, were found to colonize the apple bark, thus providing ample opportunity for HGT to occur. In the present study, we identified 32 HGT events in V. mali by combining phyletic distribution-based methods with phylogenetic analyses. Most of these HGTs were from bacteria, whereas several others were from eukaryotes. Three HGTs putatively functioned in competition with actinomycetes, some of which showed a significant inhibitory effect on V. mali. Three HGTs that were probably involved in nitrogen uptake were also identified. Ten HGTs were thought to be involved in pathogenicity because they were related to known virulence factors, including cell wall-degrading enzymes and candidate effector proteins. HGT14, together with HGT32, was shown to contribute to bleomycin resistance of V. mali.These results suggest that HGT drives the adaptive evolution of V. mali. The HGTs identified here provide new clues for unveiling the adaptation mechanisms and virulence determinants of V. mali. PMID:27634406

  19. What was old is new again: thermal adaptation within clonal lineages during range expansion in a fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Robin, Cécile; Andanson, Audrey; Saint-Jean, Gilles; Fabreguettes, Olivier; Dutech, Cyril

    2017-01-31

    Range-expanding species are expected to gain an increasing importance in the context of global change. They provide a great opportunity to study contemporary evolutionary changes and to unravel the mechanisms of evolution. Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight, originating from Asia, has been spread since the beginning of the 20th century into different continents. We took advantage of the C. parasitica recent emergence in northern France to study the changes in population genetic structure and in phenotypic traits along this colonization and climatic gradient. Four hundred twenty-seven C. parasitica isolates were sampled in 47 chestnut sites in northern France. The C. parasitica outbreak in the north was found to be due to the expansion of five dominant clonal groups from southern France and to the emergence of a few rare recombined genotypes. The evolutionary changes during C. parasitica range expansion were studied by analyzing phenotypic changes in isolates from the same clonal lineage, with or without a geographic shift. Growth rates were assessed in vitro, at four temperatures. The northern isolates grew faster at 12 and 15°C and more slowly at 28 and 32°C than the southern isolates. These results strongly suggest local adaptation to low temperatures in C. parasitica, with a trade-off of slower growth at high temperatures. They also reflect the high evolutionary potential of C. parasitica along a colonization gradient and show that clonal evolution is not a limitation for the rapid thermal adaptation of this invasive fungal species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Local adaptation to soil hypoxia determines the structure of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community in roots from natural CO₂ springs.

    PubMed

    Maček, Irena; Dumbrell, Alex J; Nelson, Michaela; Fitter, Alastair H; Vodnik, Dominik; Helgason, Thorunn

    2011-07-01

    The processes responsible for producing and maintaining the diversity of natural arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities remain largely unknown. We used natural CO(2) springs (mofettes), which create hypoxic soil environments, to determine whether a long-term, directional, abiotic selection pressure could change AM fungal community structure and drive the selection of particular AM fungal phylotypes. We explored whether those phylotypes that appear exclusively in hypoxic soils are local specialists or widespread generalists able to tolerate a range of soil conditions. AM fungal community composition was characterized by cloning, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing, and the sequencing of small subunit rRNA genes from roots of four plant species growing at high (hypoxic) and low (control) geological CO(2) exposure. We found significant levels of AM fungal community turnover (β diversity) between soil types and the numerical dominance of two AM fungal phylotypes in hypoxic soils. Our results strongly suggest that direct environmental selection acting on AM fungi is a major factor regulating AM fungal communities and their phylogeographic patterns. Consequently, some AM fungi are more strongly associated with local variations in the soil environment than with their host plant's distribution.

  1. Biodecolorization and Bioremediation of Denim Industrial Wastewater by Adapted Bacterial Consortium Immobilized on Inert Polyurethane Foam (PUF) Matrix: A First Approach with Biobarrier Model.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, R; Prabhavathi, P; Karthiksundaram, S; Pattab, S; Kumar, S Dinesh; Santhanam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present experiments were studied on bioremediation of denim industry wastewater by using polyurethane foam (PU foam) immobilized bacterial cells. About 30 indigenous adapted bacterial strains were isolated from denim textile effluent out of which only four isolates were found to be efficient against crude indigo carmine degradation using broth decolorization method. The selected bacterial strains were identified as Actinomyces sp., (PK07), Pseudomonas sp., (PK18), Stenotrophomonas sp., (PK23) and Staphylococcus sp., (PK28) based on microscopic and biochemical characteristics. The bacterial immobilized cells have the highest number of viable cells (PK07, PK18, PK23 and PK28 appeared to be 1 x 10(8), 1 x 10(9), 1 x 10(6) and 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml respectively) and maximum attachment efficiency of 92% on PU foam. The complete degradation using a consortium of PU foam immobilized cells was achieved at pH 6, 27 degrees C, 100% of substrate concentration and allowed to develop biofilm for one day (1.5% W/V). In SEM analysis, it was found that immobilization of bacterial cells using PUF stably maintained the production of various extracellular enzymes at levels higher than achieved with suspended forms. Finally, isatin and anthranilic acid were found to be degradation products by NMR and TLC. The decolorized dye was not toxic to monkey kidney cell (HBL 100) at a concentration of 50 μl and 95% of cell viability was retained. A mathematical model that describes bacterial transport with biodegradation involves a set of coupled reaction equations with non-standard numerical approach based on the time step scheme.

  2. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  3. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  4. Global Analysis of the Fungal Microbiome in Cystic Fibrosis Patients Reveals Loss of Function of the Transcriptional Repressor Nrg1 as a Mechanism of Pathogen Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hu; Clark, Shawn T.; Surendra, Anuradha; Copeland, Julia K.; Wang, Pauline W.; Ammar, Ron; Collins, Cathy; Tullis, D. Elizabeth; Nislow, Corey; Hwang, David M.; Guttman, David S.; Cowen, Leah E.

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome shapes diverse facets of human biology and disease, with the importance of fungi only beginning to be appreciated. Microbial communities infiltrate diverse anatomical sites as with the respiratory tract of healthy humans and those with diseases such as cystic fibrosis, where chronic colonization and infection lead to clinical decline. Although fungi are frequently recovered from cystic fibrosis patient sputum samples and have been associated with deterioration of lung function, understanding of species and population dynamics remains in its infancy. Here, we coupled high-throughput sequencing of the ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) with phenotypic and genotypic analyses of fungi from 89 sputum samples from 28 cystic fibrosis patients. Fungal communities defined by sequencing were concordant with those defined by culture-based analyses of 1,603 isolates from the same samples. Different patients harbored distinct fungal communities. There were detectable trends, however, including colonization with Candida and Aspergillus species, which was not perturbed by clinical exacerbation or treatment. We identified considerable inter- and intra-species phenotypic variation in traits important for host adaptation, including antifungal drug resistance and morphogenesis. While variation in drug resistance was largely between species, striking variation in morphogenesis emerged within Candida species. Filamentation was uncoupled from inducing cues in 28 Candida isolates recovered from six patients. The filamentous isolates were resistant to the filamentation-repressive effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, implicating inter-kingdom interactions as the selective force. Genome sequencing revealed that all but one of the filamentous isolates harbored mutations in the transcriptional repressor NRG1; such mutations were necessary and sufficient for the filamentous phenotype. Six independent nrg1 mutations arose in Candida isolates from different patients

  5. Metabolism in Fungal Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ene, Iuliana V.; Brunke, Sascha; Brown, Alistair J.P.; Hube, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Fungal pathogens must assimilate local nutrients to establish an infection in their mammalian host. We focus on carbon, nitrogen, and micronutrient assimilation mechanisms, discussing how these influence host–fungus interactions during infection. We highlight several emerging trends based on the available data. First, the perturbation of carbon, nitrogen, or micronutrient assimilation attenuates fungal pathogenicity. Second, the contrasting evolutionary pressures exerted on facultative versus obligatory pathogens have led to contemporary pathogenic fungal species that display differing degrees of metabolic flexibility. The evolutionarily ancient metabolic pathways are conserved in most fungal pathogen, but interesting gaps exist in some species (e.g., Candida glabrata). Third, metabolic flexibility is generally essential for fungal pathogenicity, and in particular, for the adaptation to contrasting host microenvironments such as the gastrointestinal tract, mucosal surfaces, bloodstream, and internal organs. Fourth, this metabolic flexibility relies on complex regulatory networks, some of which are conserved across lineages, whereas others have undergone significant evolutionary rewiring. Fifth, metabolic adaptation affects fungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs and also presents exciting opportunities for the development of novel therapies. PMID:25190251

  6. Radiogenomics Consortium (RGC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiogenomics Consortium's hypothesis is that a cancer patient's likelihood of developing toxicity to radiation therapy is influenced by common genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).

  7. Consortium Proves Adage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Kim

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Minnesota Preparatory Schools, a secondary-level consortium formed by Cotter High School, Saint Mary's University, the Minnesota Academy of Mathematics and Science, De La Salle Language Institute, and the Minnesota Conservatory for the Arts. Indicates that the consortium provides students with flexible schedules geared toward their…

  8. Consortium Directory, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baus, Frederick, Comp.; LaRocco, Teresa, Comp.

    Information on 133 higher education consortia is presented in this directory. Each consortium meets the following criteria: voluntary, formal organization; includes at least two member institutions; undertakes more than a single program; is administered by a professional director; and receives continuing membership support. For each consortium,…

  9. Fungal melanonychia.

    PubMed

    Finch, Justin; Arenas, Roberto; Baran, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Fungal melanonychia is a relatively rare nail disorder caused by nail infection that produces brown-to-black pigmentation of the nail unit. The number of organisms implicated as etiologic agents of fungal melanonychia is increasing, and the list currently tops 21 species of dematiaceous fungi and at least 8 species of nondematiaceous fungi. These superficial infections may clinically mimic subungual melanoma and are often not responsive to traditional antifungal therapy. This article reviews the literature on fungal melanonychia and the role of fungal melanin in infection.

  10. Comparative Genomics of Sibling Fungal Pathogenic Taxa Identifies Adaptive Evolution without Divergence in Pathogenicity Genes or Genomic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Sillo, Fabiano; Garbelotto, Matteo; Friedman, Maria; Gonthier, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    It has been estimated that the sister plant pathogenic fungal species Heterobasidion irregulare and Heterobasidion annosum may have been allopatrically isolated for 34–41 Myr. They are now sympatric due to the introduction of the first species from North America into Italy, where they freely hybridize. We used a comparative genomic approach to 1) confirm that the two species are distinct at the genomic level; 2) determine which gene groups have diverged the most and the least between species; 3) show that their overall genomic structures are similar, as predicted by the viability of hybrids, and identify genomic regions that instead are incongruent; and 4) test the previously formulated hypothesis that genes involved in pathogenicity may be less divergent between the two species than genes involved in saprobic decay and sporulation. Results based on the sequencing of three genomes per species identified a high level of interspecific similarity, but clearly confirmed the status of the two as distinct taxa. Genes involved in pathogenicity were more conserved between species than genes involved in saprobic growth and sporulation, corroborating at the genomic level that invasiveness may be determined by the two latter traits, as documented by field and inoculation studies. Additionally, the majority of genes under positive selection and the majority of genes bearing interspecific structural variations were involved either in transcriptional or in mitochondrial functions. This study provides genomic-level evidence that invasiveness of pathogenic microbes can be attained without the high levels of pathogenicity presumed to exist for pathogens challenging naïve hosts. PMID:26527650

  11. NCI Cohort Consortium Membership

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium membership is international and includes investigators responsible for more than 40 high-quality cohorts who are studying large and diverse populations in more than 15 different countries.

  12. Assessing a Consortium's Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lorna M.

    2002-01-01

    Using the example of the Five Colleges consortium, explores the measuring of benefits and costs involved in intercollegiate cooperation. Discusses how the benefits are often other than cost-savings, which is ostensibly why many institutions join such consortia. (EV)

  13. Fungal hemolysins

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajay P.; Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2015-01-01

    Hemolysins are a class of proteins defined by their ability to lyse red cells but have been described to exhibit pleiotropic functions. These proteins have been extensively studied in bacteria and more recently in fungi. Within the last decade, a number of studies have characterized fungal hemolysins and revealed a fascinating yet diverse group of proteins. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the known fungal hemolysins with an emphasis on those belonging to the aegerolysin protein family. New insight and perspective into fungal hemolysins in biotechnology and health are additionally presented. PMID:22769586

  14. Adaptive expression of host cell wall degrading enzymes in fungal disease: an example from Fusarium root rot of medicinal Coleus.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, A

    2013-12-15

    Quantity of extracellular proteins and activities two cell wall degrading enzymes pectinase and cellulase were determined in the culture filtrate of Fusarium solani, the causal organism of root rot of Coleus forskohlii. Substitution of carbon source in the medium with either pectin or carboxymethyl cellulose led to the increased production of extracellular proteins by the fungus. Pectinase and cellulase activity in the culture filtrate was detected only when the growth medium contained substituted carbon source in the form of pectin and CMC, respectively. Pectinase activity was highest after 5 days incubation and then decreased gradually with time but cellulase activity showed a steady time dependent increase. In vitro virulence study showed the requirement of both the enzymes for complete expression of rot symptoms on Coleus plants. Thus the present study established the adaptive, substrate dependent expression of the two enzymes by the fungus and also their involvement in the root rot disease of Coleus forskohlii.

  15. The Genomes of the Fungal Plant Pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum Reveal Adaptation to Different Hosts and Lifestyles But Also Signatures of Common Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; van der Burgt, Ate; Ökmen, Bilal; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Beenen, Henriek G.; Chettri, Pranav; Cox, Murray P.; Datema, Erwin; de Vries, Ronald P.; Dhillon, Braham; Ganley, Austen R.; Griffiths, Scott A.; Guo, Yanan; Hamelin, Richard C.; Henrissat, Bernard; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Jashni, Mansoor Karimi; Kema, Gert; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lapidus, Alla; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika; Mehrabi, Rahim; Ohm, Robin A.; Owen, Timothy J.; Salamov, Asaf; Schwelm, Arne; Schijlen, Elio; Sun, Hui; van den Burg, Harrold A.; van Ham, Roeland C. H. J.; Zhang, Shuguang; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Collemare, Jérôme; Bradshaw, Rosie E.

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu) (syn. Passalora fulva) and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse) that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close contact with host mesophyll cells, Cfu is a biotroph infecting tomato, while Dse is a hemibiotroph infecting pine. The genomes of these fungi have a similar set of genes (70% of gene content in both genomes are homologs), but differ significantly in size (Cfu >61.1-Mb; Dse 31.2-Mb), which is mainly due to the difference in repeat content (47.2% in Cfu versus 3.2% in Dse). Recent adaptation to different lifestyles and hosts is suggested by diverged sets of genes. Cfu contains an α-tomatinase gene that we predict might be required for detoxification of tomatine, while this gene is absent in Dse. Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these species-specific genes. In contrast, conserved genes suggest common host ancestry. Homologs of Cfu effector genes, including Ecp2 and Avr4, are present in Dse and induce a Cf-Ecp2- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response, respectively. Strikingly, genes involved in production of the toxin dothistromin, a likely virulence factor for Dse, are conserved in Cfu, but their expression differs markedly with essentially no expression by Cfu in planta. Likewise, Cfu has a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme catalog that is more similar to that of necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs and a larger pectinolytic gene arsenal than Dse, but many of these genes are not expressed in planta or are pseudogenized. Overall, comparison of their genomes suggests that these closely related plant pathogens had a common ancestral host but since adapted to different hosts and lifestyles by a combination of differentiated gene content, pseudogenization, and gene regulation. PMID:23209441

  16. The genomes of the fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum reveal adaptation to different hosts and lifestyles but also signatures of common ancestry.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Pierre J G M; van der Burgt, Ate; Ökmen, Bilal; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A; Aerts, Andrea L; Bahkali, Ali H; Beenen, Henriek G; Chettri, Pranav; Cox, Murray P; Datema, Erwin; de Vries, Ronald P; Dhillon, Braham; Ganley, Austen R; Griffiths, Scott A; Guo, Yanan; Hamelin, Richard C; Henrissat, Bernard; Kabir, M Shahjahan; Jashni, Mansoor Karimi; Kema, Gert; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lapidus, Alla; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika; Mehrabi, Rahim; Ohm, Robin A; Owen, Timothy J; Salamov, Asaf; Schwelm, Arne; Schijlen, Elio; Sun, Hui; van den Burg, Harrold A; van Ham, Roeland C H J; Zhang, Shuguang; Goodwin, Stephen B; Grigoriev, Igor V; Collemare, Jérôme; Bradshaw, Rosie E

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu) (syn. Passalora fulva) and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse) that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close contact with host mesophyll cells, Cfu is a biotroph infecting tomato, while Dse is a hemibiotroph infecting pine. The genomes of these fungi have a similar set of genes (70% of gene content in both genomes are homologs), but differ significantly in size (Cfu >61.1-Mb; Dse 31.2-Mb), which is mainly due to the difference in repeat content (47.2% in Cfu versus 3.2% in Dse). Recent adaptation to different lifestyles and hosts is suggested by diverged sets of genes. Cfu contains an α-tomatinase gene that we predict might be required for detoxification of tomatine, while this gene is absent in Dse. Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these species-specific genes. In contrast, conserved genes suggest common host ancestry. Homologs of Cfu effector genes, including Ecp2 and Avr4, are present in Dse and induce a Cf-Ecp2- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response, respectively. Strikingly, genes involved in production of the toxin dothistromin, a likely virulence factor for Dse, are conserved in Cfu, but their expression differs markedly with essentially no expression by Cfu in planta. Likewise, Cfu has a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme catalog that is more similar to that of necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs and a larger pectinolytic gene arsenal than Dse, but many of these genes are not expressed in planta or are pseudogenized. Overall, comparison of their genomes suggests that these closely related plant pathogens had a common ancestral host but since adapted to different hosts and lifestyles by a combination of differentiated gene content, pseudogenization, and gene regulation.

  17. The Genomes of the Fungal Plant Pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum Reveal Adaptation to Different Hosts and Lifestyles But Also Signatures of Common Ancestry

    SciTech Connect

    de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; van der Burgt, Ate; Okmen, Bilal; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Beenen, Henriek G.; Chettri, Oranav; Cos, Murray P.; Datema, Erwin; de Vries, Ronald P.; DHillon, Braham; Ganley, Austen R.; Griffiths, Scott A.; Guo, Yanan; Gamelin, Richard C.; Henrissat, Bernard; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Jashni, Mansoor Karimi; Kema, Gert; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lapidus, Alla; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika; Mehrabi, Rahim; Ohm, Robin A.; Owen, Timothy J.; Salamov, Asaf; Schwelm, Arne; Schijlen, Elio; Sun, Hui; van den Burg, Harrold A.; van Burg, Roeland C. H. J.; Zhang, Shuguang; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Collemare, Jerome; Bradshaw, Rosie E.

    2012-05-04

    We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu) (syn. Passalora fulva) and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse) that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close contact with host mesophyll cells, Cfu is a biotroph infecting tomato, while Dse is a hemibiotroph infecting pine. The genomes of these fungi have a similar set of genes (70percent of gene content in both genomes are homologs), but differ significantly in size (Cfu >61.1-Mb; Dse 31.2-Mb), which is mainly due to the difference in repeat content (47.2percent in Cfu versus 3.2percent in Dse). Recent adaptation to different lifestyles and hosts is suggested by diverged sets of genes. Cfu contains an tomatinase gene that we predict might be required for detoxification of tomatine, while this gene is absent in Dse. Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these species-specific genes. In contrast, conserved genes suggest common host ancestry. Homologs of Cfu effector genes, including Ecp2 and Avr4, are present in Dse and induce a Cf-Ecp2- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response, respectively. Strikingly, genes involved in production of the toxin dothistromin, a likely virulence factor for Dse, are conserved in Cfu, but their expression differs markedly with essentially no expression by Cfu in planta. Likewise, Cfu has a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme catalog that is more similar to that of necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs and a larger pectinolytic gene arsenal than Dse, but many of these genes are not expressed in planta or are pseudogenized. Overall, comparison of their genomes suggests that these closely related plant pathogens had a common ancestral host but since adapted to different hosts and lifestyles by a combination of differentiated gene content, pseudogenization, and gene regulation.

  18. Fungal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis is needed, as in cases of persistent, deep, or systemic infections, more extensive testing may be ... mouth (thrush) Vaginal itching and discharge (yeast infection) Deep and systemic fungal infections may cause a variety ...

  19. Fungal allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398

  20. Local Adaptation to Soil Hypoxia Determines the Structure of an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community in Roots from Natural CO2 Springs ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Maček, Irena; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Nelson, Michaela; Fitter, Alastair H.; Vodnik, Dominik; Helgason, Thorunn

    2011-01-01

    The processes responsible for producing and maintaining the diversity of natural arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities remain largely unknown. We used natural CO2 springs (mofettes), which create hypoxic soil environments, to determine whether a long-term, directional, abiotic selection pressure could change AM fungal community structure and drive the selection of particular AM fungal phylotypes. We explored whether those phylotypes that appear exclusively in hypoxic soils are local specialists or widespread generalists able to tolerate a range of soil conditions. AM fungal community composition was characterized by cloning, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing, and the sequencing of small subunit rRNA genes from roots of four plant species growing at high (hypoxic) and low (control) geological CO2 exposure. We found significant levels of AM fungal community turnover (β diversity) between soil types and the numerical dominance of two AM fungal phylotypes in hypoxic soils. Our results strongly suggest that direct environmental selection acting on AM fungi is a major factor regulating AM fungal communities and their phylogeographic patterns. Consequently, some AM fungi are more strongly associated with local variations in the soil environment than with their host plant's distribution. PMID:21622777

  1. NCI Cohort Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium is an extramural-intramural partnership formed by the National Cancer Institute to address the need for large-scale collaborations to pool the large quantity of data and biospecimens necessary to conduct a wide range of cancer studies.

  2. Fungal polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    San-Blas, G; Suzuki, S; Hearn, V; Pinel, C; Kobayashi, H; Mendez, C; Niño, G; Nishikawa, A; San-Blas, F; Shibata, N

    1994-01-01

    Fungal polysaccharides are cell wall components which may act as antigens or as structural substrates. As antigens, the role of mannans in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, and of glycoproteins in Aspergillus fumigatus are discussed. Analyses on beta-glucan synthetase in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and the inhibitory effect of Hansenula mrakii killer toxin on beta-glucan biosynthesis are also considered.

  3. Fungal arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Fungal Infections Infectious Arthritis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare ... for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D. ...

  4. Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, you'll be saying bye-bye to fungi (say: FUN-guy). What Is a Fungal Infection? Fungi , the word for more than one fungus, can ... but of course, they're not!). Because the fungi that cause tinea (ringworm) live on different parts ...

  5. Fungal Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... presence of large granules that attract the reddish-orange eosin stain) to attack fungi, and the eosinophils irritate the membranes in the nose. As long as fungi remain, so will the irritation. Chronic Indolent Sinusitis is an invasive form of fungal sinusitis in ...

  6. Fungal Entomopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal entomopathogens are important biological control agents worldwide and have been the subject of intense research for more than100 years. They exhibit both sexual and asexual reproduction and produce different types of infective propagules. Their mode of action against insects involves attachme...

  7. Unusual fungal niches.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, S A; Dianese, J C; Fell, J; Gunde-Cimerman, N; Zalar, P

    2011-01-01

    Fungi are found in all aerobic ecosystems, colonizing a diversity of substrates and performing a wide diversity of functions, some of which are not well understood. Many spices of fungi are cosmopolitan and generalists or habitats. Unusual fungal niches are habitats where extreme conditions would be expected to prevent the development of a mycobiota. In this review we describe five unusual fungal habitats in which fungi occupy poorly understood niches: Antarctic dry valleys, high Arctic glaciers, salt flats and salterns, hypersaline microbial mats and plant trichomes. Yeasts, black yeast-like fungi, melanized filamentous species as well as representatives of Aspergillus and Penicillium seem to be dominant among the mycobiota adapted to cold and saline niches. Plant trichomes appear to be a taxa. The advent of new sequencing technologies is helping to elucidate the microbial diversity in many ecosystems, but more studies are needed to document the functional role of fungi in the microbial communities thriving in these unusual environments.

  8. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenbacher, Don

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  9. Advanced Separation Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was formed in 2001 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy to conduct fundamental research in advanced separation and to develop technologies that can be used to produce coal and minerals in an efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The CAST consortium consists of seven universities - Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, Montana Tech, University of Utah, University of Nevada-Reno, and New Mexico Tech. The consortium brings together a broad range of expertise to solve problems facing the US coal industry and the mining sector in general. At present, a total of 60 research projects are under way. The article outlines some of these, on topics including innovative dewatering technologies, removal of mercury and other impurities, and modelling of the flotation process. 1 photo.

  10. Military Suicide Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    21 ( DASS - 21 ): Further examination of dimensions, scale reliability, and correlates. Journal of Clinical Psychology. York, J., Lamis, D. A...Consortium will warehouse knowledge about suicidal behavior in general (e.g., from civilian and international sources as well as from military sources), so...reports (months 15, 18, 21 , 24) • The 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarter reports were prepared and distributed on time. Task 10. Continue to refine

  11. The genomes of the fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum reveal adaptation to different hosts and lifestyles but also signatures of common ancestry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sequenced and compared the genomes of Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum that are related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and infect different hosts. C. fulvum is a biotroph that infects tomato, while D. septosporum is a hemibiotr...

  12. Distribution, diversity and bioprospecting of bioactive compounds from cryptic fungal communities associated with endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae in Antarctica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We surveyed the distribution and diversity of fungi associated with eight macroalgae from Antarctica and their capability to produce bioactive compounds. The collections yielded 148 fungal isolates identified using molecular methods into 21 genera and 43 species. The most frequent taxa were Geomyces...

  13. Portrait of a Consortium: ANKOS (Anatolian University Libraries Consortium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Phyllis; Karasozen, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    The Anatolian University Libraries Consortium (ANKOS) was created in 2001 with only a few members subscribed to nine e-journal collections and bibliographic databases. This Turkish library consortium had developed from one state and three private universities joining together for the purchase of two databases in 1999. Over time, the numbers of…

  14. Fungal nail infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the skin of the body or head ... fungal infection. Alternative Names Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Tinea unguium Images Nail infection, candidal Yeast and mold ...

  15. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  16. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B; Maunsell, John HR

    2009-01-01

    As the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC) ends its first year, it is worth looking back to see how the experiment has worked. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium. PMID:19284614

  17. Hawaii Space Grant Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Luke P.

    2005-01-01

    The Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium is composed of ten institutions of higher learning including the University of Hawai'i at Manoa, the University of Hawai'i at Hilo, the University of Guam, and seven Community Colleges spread over the 4 main Hawaiian islands. Geographic separation is not the only obstacle that we face as a Consortium. Hawai'i has been mired in an economic downturn due to a lack of tourism for almost all of the period (2001 - 2004) covered by this report, although hotel occupancy rates and real estate sales have sky-rocketed in the last year. Our challenges have been many including providing quality educational opportunities in the face of shrinking State and Federal budgets, encouraging science and technology course instruction at the K-12 level in a public school system that is becoming less focused on high technology and more focused on developing basic reading and math skills, and assembling community college programs with instructors who are expected to teach more classes for the same salary. Motivated people can overcome these problems. Fortunately, the Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium (HSGC) consists of a group of highly motivated and talented individuals who have not only overcome these obstacles, but have excelled with the Program. We fill a critical need within the State of Hawai'i to provide our children with opportunities to pursue their dreams of becoming the next generation of NASA astronauts, engineers, and explorers. Our strength lies not only in our diligent and creative HSGC advisory board, but also with Hawai'i's teachers, students, parents, and industry executives who are willing to invest their time, effort, and resources into Hawai'i's future. Our operational philosophy is to FACE the Future, meaning that we will facilitate, administer, catalyze, and educate in order to achieve our objective of creating a highly technically capable workforce both here in Hawai'i and for NASA. In addition to administering to programs and

  18. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the ongoing

  19. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-07-15

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with

  20. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  1. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Stephen

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  2. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison

    2005-09-14

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

  3. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  4. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

  5. Bioconversion of cyanide and acetonitrile by a municipal-sewage-derived anaerobic consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, N.J.; Rivard, C.J.; Mohagheghi, A.; Philippidis, G.

    1995-12-31

    In this study, an anaerobic consortium was examined for its ability to adapt to and degrade the representative organonitriles, cyanide and acetonitrile. Adaptation to cyanide and acetonitrile was achieved by adding increasing levels of cyanide and acetonitrile to the anaerobic consortium, followed by extensive incubation over a 90-day period. The anaerobic consortium adapted most rapidly to the lower concentrations of each substrate and resulted in reductions of 85% and 83% of the cyanide and acetonitrile, respectively, at the 50 mg/L addition level. Increasing the concentration of both cyanide and acetonitrile resulted in reduced bioconversion. Two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were set up to examine the potential for continuous bioconversion of organonitriles. The anaerobic consortium was adapted to continuous infusion of acetonitrile at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L{center_dot}day in phosphate buffer.

  6. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to jointly host

  7. COnsortium of METabolomics Studies (COMETS)

    Cancer.gov

    The COnsortium of METabolomics Studies (COMETS) is an extramural-intramural partnership that promotes collaboration among prospective cohort studies that follow participants for a range of outcomes and perform metabolomic profiling of individuals.

  8. Optoelectronic technology consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbs-Brenner, Mary

    1992-12-01

    The Optoelectronics Technology Consortium has been established to position U.S. industry as the world leader in optical interconnect technology by developing, fabricating, intergrating and demonstrating the producibility of optoelectronic components for high-density/high-data-rate processors and accelerating the insertion of this technology into military and commercial applications. This objective will be accomplished by a program focused in three areas. (1) Demonstrated performance: OETC will demonstrate an aggregate data transfer rate of 16 Gbit/s between single transmitter and receiver packages, as well as the expandability of this technology by combing four links in parallel to achieve a 64 Gbit/s link. (2) Accelerated development: By collaborating during precompetitive technology development stage, OTEC will advance the development of optical components and produce links for a multiboard processor testbed demonstration; and (3) Producibility: OETC's technology will achieve this performance by using components that are affordable, and reliable, with a line BER less than 10(exp -15) and MTTF greater than 10(exp 6) hours.

  9. Hickory Consortium 2001 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-02-01

    As with all Building America Program consortia, systems thinking is the key to understanding the processes that Hickory Consortium hopes to improve. The Hickory Consortium applies this thinking to more than the whole-building concept. Their systems thinking embraces the meta process of how housing construction takes place in America. By understanding the larger picture, they are able to identify areas where improvements can be made and how to implement them.

  10. Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium (SIBC).

    PubMed

    Wirz, Beat; Kittelmann, Matthias; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Wohlgemuth, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Taking up the common challenges in biocatalysis, a group of industrialists decided to react with a bottom-up solution, and created the Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium (SIBC). The Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium is a pre-competitive working group to better implement and utilize existing know-how and resources in biocatalysis, and to influence and shape the economic and educational political environment. Recent examples of activities are outlined.

  11. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  12. California Space Grant Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmatka, John; Berger, Wolfgang; Wiskerchen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The organizational and administrative structure of the CaSGC has the Consortium Headquarters Office (Principal Investigator - Dr. John Kosmatka, California Statewide Director - Dr. Michael Wiskerchen) at UC San Diego. Each affiliate member institution has a campus director and an scholarship/fellowship selection committee. Each affiliate campus director also serves on the CaSGC Advisory Council and coordinates CMIS data collection and submission. The CaSGC strives to maintain a balance between expanded affiliate membership and continued high quality in targeted program areas of aerospace research, education, workforce development, and public outreach. Associate members are encouraged to participate on a project-by-project basis that meets the needs of California and the goals and objectives of the CaSGC. Associate members have responsibilities relating only to the CaSGC projects they are directly engaged in. Each year, as part of the CaSGC Improvement Plan, the CaSGC Advisory Council evaluates the performance of the affiliate and associate membership in terms of contributions to the CaSGC Strategic Plan, These CaSGC membership evaluations provide a constructive means for elevating productive members and removing non-performing members. This Program Improvement and Results (PIR) report will document CaSGC program improvement results and impacts that directly respond to the specific needs of California in the area of aerospace-related education and human capital development and the Congressional mandate to "increase the understanding, assessment, development and utilization of space resources by promoting a strong education base, responsive research and training activities, and broad and prompt dissemination of knowledge and technology".

  13. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  14. CFD Parametric Study of Consortium Impeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Garcia, Roberto; Williams, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design impact in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A Finite Difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes the extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. A second-order central difference scheme plus adaptive dissipation terms was employed in the FDNS code, along with a predictor plus multi-corrector pressure-based solution procedure. The multi-zone, multi-block capability allows the FDNS code to efficiently solve flow fields with complicated geometry. The FDNS code has been benchmarked by analyzing the pump consortium inducer, and it provided satisfactory results. In the present study, a CFD parametric study of the pump consortium impeller was conducted using the FDNS code. The pump consortium impeller, with partial blades, is a new design concept of the advanced rocket engines. The parametric study was to analyze the baseline design of the consortium impeller and its modification which utilizes TANDEM blades. In the present study, the TANDEM blade configuration of the consortium impeller considers cut full blades for about one quarter chord length from the leading edge and clocks the leading edge portion with an angle of 7.5 or 22.5 degrees. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect and trend of the TANDEM blade modification and provide the result as a design guideline. A 3-D flow analysis, with a 103 x 23 x 30 mesh grid system and with the inlet flow conditions measured by Rocketdyne, was performed for the baseline consortium impeller. The numerical result shows that the mass flow rate splits through various blade passages are relatively uniform

  15. CFD parametric study of consortium impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Garcia, Roberto; Williams, Robert W.

    1993-07-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design impact in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A Finite Difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes the extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. A second-order central difference scheme plus adaptive dissipation terms was employed in the FDNS code, along with a predictor plus multi-corrector pressure-based solution procedure. The multi-zone, multi-block capability allows the FDNS code to efficiently solve flow fields with complicated geometry. The FDNS code has been benchmarked by analyzing the pump consortium inducer, and it provided satisfactory results. In the present study, a CFD parametric study of the pump consortium impeller was conducted using the FDNS code. The pump consortium impeller, with partial blades, is a new design concept of the advanced rocket engines. The parametric study was to analyze the baseline design of the consortium impeller and its modification which utilizes TANDEM blades. In the present study, the TANDEM blade configuration of the consortium impeller considers cut full blades for about one quarter chord length from the leading edge and clocks the leading edge portion with an angle of 7.5 or 22.5 degrees. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect and trend of the TANDEM blade modification and provide the result as a design guideline. A 3-D flow analysis, with a 103 x 23 x 30 mesh grid system and with the inlet flow conditions measured by Rocketdyne, was performed for the baseline consortium impeller. The numerical result shows that the mass flow rate splits through various blade passages are relatively uniform

  16. The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Schill, Lyndele; Ivory, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) program is designed to increase the number of underrepresented minority students into STEM and STEM careers by providing unique summer research experiences followed by long-term mentoring and cohort support. Hallmarks of the NAC program include: research or internship opportunities at one of the NAC partner sites, a framework to continue research over the academic year, peer and faculty mentoring, monthly virtual hangouts, and much more. NAC students also participate in two professional travel opportunities each year: the annual NAC conference at Howard University and poster presentation at the annual AAS winter meeting following their summer internship.The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) is a program led by the National Radio Astronomy Consortium (NRAO) and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), in partnership with the National Society of Black Physicist (NSBP), along with a number of minority and majority universities.

  17. The population biology of fungal invasions.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, P; Feurtey, A; Hood, M E; Snirc, A; Clavel, J; Dutech, C; Roy, M; Giraud, T

    2015-05-01

    Fungal invasions are increasingly recognized as a significant component of global changes, threatening ecosystem health and damaging food production. Invasive fungi also provide excellent models to evaluate the generality of results based on other eukaryotes. We first consider here the reasons why fungal invasions have long been overlooked: they tend to be inconspicuous, and inappropriate methods have been used for species recognition. We then review the information available on the patterns and mechanisms of fungal invasions. We examine the biological features underlying invasion success of certain fungal species. We review population structure analyses, revealing native source populations and strengths of bottlenecks. We highlight the documented ecological and evolutionary changes in invaded regions, including adaptation to temperature, increased virulence, hybridization, shifts to clonality and association with novel hosts. We discuss how the huge census size of most fungi allows adaptation even in bottlenecked, clonal invaders. We also present new analyses of the invasion of the anther-smut pathogen on white campion in North America, as a case study illustrating how an accurate knowledge of species limits and phylogeography of fungal populations can be used to decipher the origin of invasions. This case study shows that successful invasions can occur even when life history traits are particularly unfavourable to long-distance dispersal and even with a strong bottleneck. We conclude that fungal invasions are valuable models to contribute to our view of biological invasions, in particular by providing insights into the traits as well as ecological and evolutionary processes allowing successful introductions.

  18. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z.; Sonnenschein, Eva C.; Cariou, Thierry; O’Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R.; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E.; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P.; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M.; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion M. F.; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C.; Kandil, Mahrous M.; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L’Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M.; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A. Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J.; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N.; Gasol, Josep M.; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S.; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M.; Collins, R. Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.

  19. The ocean sampling day consortium.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z; Sonnenschein, Eva C; Cariou, Thierry; O'Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion Mf; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C; Kandil, Mahrous M; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L'Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; Dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N; Gasol, Josep M; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M; Collins, R Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Gilbert, Jack A; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world's oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.

  20. The Twin Cities biomedical consortium.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A S

    1975-07-01

    Twenty-eight health science libraries in the St. Paul-Minneapolis area formed the Twin Cities Biomedical Consortium with the intention of developing a strong network of biomedical libraries in the Twin Cities area. Toward this end, programs were designed to strengthen lines of communication and increase cooperation among local health science libraries; improve access to biomedical information at the local level; and enable the Consortium, as a group, to meet an increasing proportion of its members' needs for biomedical information. Presently, the TCBC comprises libraries in twenty-two hospitals, two county medical societies, one school of nursing, one junior college, and two private corporations.

  1. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  2. The Statewide Energy Consortium: A California Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, G. Cleve; Giacosie, Robert V.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the formation and organization of a statewide energy consortium consisting of faculty from 19 campuses of the California State University and Colleges system. Also describes three major consortium activities and reasons for its success. (SK)

  3. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  4. The Virginia Home Visiting Consortium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodkin, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Home Visiting Consortium (HVC) is a collaboration of public and private organizations which work to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of home visiting services throughout the state. The HVC identified service needs and gaps and has focused on increasing the interagency state and local partnerships so that resources are…

  5. Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yanfang; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Cen, Kai; Zhan, Shuai; Wang, Chengshu

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens of plants and animals have multifarious effects; they cause devastating damages to agricultures, lead to life-threatening diseases in humans, or induce beneficial effects by reducing insect pest populations. Many virulence factors have been determined in different fungal pathogens; however, the molecular determinants contributing to fungal host selection and adaptation are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of seven ascomycete insect pathogens and performed the genome-wide analyses of 33 species of filamentous ascomycete pathogenic fungi that infect insects (12 species), plants (12), and humans (9). Our results revealed that the genomes of plant pathogens encode more proteins and protein families than the insect and human pathogens. Unexpectedly, more common orthologous protein groups are shared between the insect and plant pathogens than between the two animal group pathogens. We also found that the pathogenicity of host-adapted fungi evolved multiple times, and that both divergent and convergent evolutions occurred during pathogen–host cospeciation thus resulting in protein families with similar features in each fungal group. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness on the evolution of protein families and therefore pathotype formation could not be ruled out due to the effect of common ancestry. The evolutionary correlation analyses led to the identification of different protein families that correlated with alternate pathotypes. Particularly, the effector-like proteins identified in plant and animal pathogens were strongly linked to fungal host adaptation, suggesting the existence of similar gene-for-gene relationships in fungus–animal interactions that has not been established before. These results well advance our understanding of the evolution of fungal pathogenicity and the factors that contribute to fungal pathotype formation. PMID:27071652

  6. Application of a Non-amplification based Technology to Detect Invasive Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Joe L.; Binkley, Jon; Clemons, Karl V.; Stevens, David A.; Nicolls, Mark R.; Holodniy, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Current diagnostic techniques for fungal diseases could be improved with respect to sensitivity, specificity and timeliness. To address this clinical need, we adapted a non-amplification based nucleic acid detection technology to identify fungal pathogens. We demonstrate a high-specificity, detection sensitivity, reproducibility and multiplex capacity for detecting fungal strains. PMID:24359934

  7. Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the course of evolution, fungi have adapted to occupy specific niches, from symbiotically inhabiting the flora of the intestinal tract of mammals to saprophytic growth on leaf litter resting on the forest floor. In plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field ...

  8. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    DOE PAGES

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; ...

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and theirmore » embedded functional traits.« less

  9. The AGTSR consortium: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Fant, D.B.; Golan, L.P.

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program is a collaborative University-Industry R&D Consortium that is managed and administered by the South Carolina Energy R&D Center. AGTSR is a nationwide consortium dedicated to advancing land-based gas turbine systems for improving future power generation capability. It directly supports the technology-research arm of the ATS program and targets industry-defined research needs in the areas of combustion, heat transfer, materials, aerodynamics, controls, alternative fuels, and advanced cycles. The consortium is organized to enhance U.S. competitiveness through close collaboration with universities, government, and industry at the R&D level. AGTSR is just finishing its third year of operation and is sponsored by the U.S. DOE - Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The program is scheduled to continue past the year 2000. At present, there are 78 performing member universities representing 36 states, and six cost-sharing U.S. gas turbine corporations. Three RFP`s have been announced and the fourth RFP is expected to be released in December, 1995. There are 31 research subcontracts underway at performing member universities. AGTSR has also organized three workshops, two in combustion and one in heat transfer. A materials workshop is in planning and is scheduled for February, 1996. An industrial internship program was initiated this past summer, with one intern positioned at each of the sponsoring companies. The AGTSR consortium nurtures close industry-university-government collaboration to enhance synergism and the transition of research results, accelerate and promote evolutionary-revolutionary R&D, and strives to keep a prominent U.S. industry strong and on top well into the 21st century. This paper will present the objectives and benefits of the AGTSR program, progress achieved to date, and future planned activity in fiscal year 1996.

  10. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  11. Military Suicide Research Consortium (MSRC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Lozano, G. (2012). The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales— 21 ( DASS - 21 ): Further examination of dimensions, scale reliability, and correlates. Journal of...aspect of the Consortium warehouses knowledge about suicidal behavior in general (e.g., from civilian and international sources as well as from...reports (months 15, 18, 21 , 24) • The 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarter reports were prepared and distributed on time. Task 10. Continue to refine

  12. The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Michael

    2003-01-01

    I want to discuss both the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium and the Human Genome Project. I am afraid most of my presentation will be thin on law and possibly too high on rhetoric. Having been engaged in a personal and direct way with these issues as a trained scientist, I find it quite difficult to be always as objective as I ought to be.

  13. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  14. Universal fungal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Mawieh

    2012-01-01

    The complex nature of fungal pathogens, the intricate host-pathogen relationship and the health status of subjects in need of antifungal vaccination continue to hamper efforts to develop fungal vaccines for clinical use. That said, the rise of the universal vaccine concept is hoped to revive fungal vaccine research by expanding the pool of vaccine candidates worthy of clinical evaluation. It can do so through antigenic commonality-based screening for vaccine candidates from a wide range of pathogens and by reassessing the sizable collection of already available experimental and approved vaccines. Development of experimental vaccines protective against multiple fungal pathogens is evidence of the utility of this concept in fungal vaccine research. However, universal fungal vaccines are not without difficulties; for instance, development of vaccines with differential effectiveness is an issue that should be addressed. Additionally, rationalizing the development of universal fungal vaccines on health or economic basis could be contentious. Herein, universal fungal vaccines are discussed in terms of their potential usefulness and possible drawbacks. PMID:22922769

  15. Fungal diagnostics in pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lease, Erika D; Alexander, Barbara D

    2011-12-01

    Fungal pneumonia is increasingly common, particularly in highly immunosuppressed patients, such as solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and the diagnosis is evolving. Although standard techniques such as microscopy and culture remain the mainstays of diagnosis, relatively recent advances in serological and molecular testing are important additions to the field. This article reviews the laboratory tools used to diagnose fungal respiratory disease.

  16. Genetic Susceptibility to Fungal Infections in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lionakis, Michail S

    2012-03-01

    Most fungal infections in humans occur in the setting of iatrogenic immunosuppression or HIV infection. In the absence of these factors, fungi cause mild, self-limited infections that typically involve mucocutaneous surfaces. Hence, when persistent or recurrent mucocutaneous infections (chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis [CMC]) or invasive fungal infections (IFIs) develop in a "normal" host, they are indicative of genetic defects causing innate or adaptive immune dysfunction. In this review, recent developments concerning genetic and immunologic factors that affect the risk for IFIs and CMC are critically discussed.

  17. Genetic Susceptibility to Fungal Infections in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lionakis, Michail S.

    2012-01-01

    Most fungal infections in humans occur in the setting of iatrogenic immunosuppression or HIV infection. In the absence of these factors, fungi cause mild, self-limited infections that typically involve mucocutaneous surfaces. Hence, when persistent or recurrent mucocutaneous infections (chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis [CMC]) or invasive fungal infections (IFIs) develop in a “normal” host, they are indicative of genetic defects causing innate or adaptive immune dysfunction. In this review, recent developments concerning genetic and immunologic factors that affect the risk for IFIs and CMC are critically discussed. PMID:23087779

  18. PanScan, the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium, and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium consists of more than a dozen prospective epidemiologic cohort studies within the NCI Cohort Consortium, whose leaders work together to investigate the etiology and natural history of pancreatic cancer.

  19. Fungal Genomics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  20. Fungal Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Evelyn; Levitz, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant with the increased prevalence of immunocompromised persons, invasive fungal infections have become considerably more frequent in the last 50 years. High mortality rates caused by invasive mycoses and high morbidity because of intractable mucosal infections have created an unmet need for innovative prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against fungal pathogens. Several immunotherapeutics and vaccines are in development to address this need, although one has yet to reach the clinic. This review focuses on past and current immunotherapeutic and vaccine strategies being tested to either prevent or treat fungal infections, as well as the challenges associated with their development. PMID:25368016

  1. Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Rakhi; Hadley, Susan

    2005-12-01

    Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis are uncommon diseases and generally present in an indolent fashion. The incidence of fungal bone and joint dis-ease is increasing with an increase in the prevalence of factors predisposing to invasive fungal disease, such as the use of central venous catheters, broad spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppression, and abdominal surgery. Definitive diagnosis relies on bone or synovial culture or biopsy. Successful management has traditionally consisted of amphotericin B in combination with surgical debridement. Given the rarity of this disease, treatment is not well defined, but reports of success with the use of azole antifungal agents, including itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, are promising.

  2. Fungal endophytes for sustainable crop production.

    PubMed

    Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Caradus, John R; Johnson, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    This minireview highlights the importance of endophytic fungi for sustainable agriculture and horticulture production. Fungal endophytes play a key role in habitat adaptation of plants resulting in improved plant performance and plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. They encode a vast variety of novel secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds. In addition to protecting plants against pathogens and pests, selected fungal endophytes have been used to remove animal toxicities associated with fungal endophytes in temperate grasses, to create corn and rice plants that are tolerant to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses, and for improved management of post-harvest control. We argue that practices used in plant breeding, seed treatments and agriculture, often caused by poor knowledge of the importance of fungal endophytes, are among the reasons for the loss of fungal endophyte diversity in domesticated plants and also accounts for the reduced effectiveness of some endophyte strains to confer plant benefits. We provide recommendations on how to mitigate against these negative impacts in modern agriculture.

  3. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B; Maunsell, John HR; Sagvolden, Terje

    2009-01-01

    The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC) was conceived in the summer of 2007 at a meeting of editors and publishers of neuroscience journals. One of the working groups addressed whether it was possible to construct a system for permitting authors whose manuscript received supportive reviews at one journal but was not accepted to send a revised manuscript together with its first round of reviews to a new journal for the second round. This would speed up the review process and reduce the work for reviewers and editors. The working group not only designed a framework for transferring reviews among journals, but also implemented it as the NPRC. By the fall of 2007, more than a dozen major journals had signed onto the NPRC, sufficient to launch the experiment in January, 2008. We invite authors who have not yet used the NPRC to try this method for appropriate manuscripts. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium. PMID:19149887

  4. Granuloma, fungal (Majocchi's) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a picture of a fungal granuloma, a large, red (erythematous) patch (plaque) with a prominent border. Within the borders of the lesion are scattered blisters (pustules) that indicate deeper ...

  5. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  6. Detroit MEDLINE Consortium; An Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSchryver, Victor; And Others

    The Detroit MEDLINE Consortium is an experimental pilot project which is intended to extend use of the on line retrieval system to the hospital environment. The consortium was initiated to increase the capacity for bibliographic information retrieval supportive of the delivery of patient care in the hospital environment. Secondarily, it addresses…

  7. Increasing Sales by Developing Production Consortiums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.; Russo, Robert

    Intended to help rehabilitation facility administrators increase organizational income from manufacturing and/or contracted service sources, this document provides a decision-making model for the development of a production consortium. The document consists of five chapters and two appendices. Chapter 1 defines the consortium concept, explains…

  8. 32 CFR 37.1255 - Consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Consortium. 37.1255 Section 37.1255 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1255 Consortium. A group...

  9. 10 CFR 603.1235 - Consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consortium. 603.1235 Section 603.1235 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1235 Consortium. A group of RD&D-performing organizations that either is...

  10. 32 CFR 37.1255 - Consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consortium. 37.1255 Section 37.1255 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1255 Consortium. A group...

  11. 10 CFR 603.1235 - Consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consortium. 603.1235 Section 603.1235 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1235 Consortium. A group of RD&D-performing organizations that either is...

  12. 10 CFR 603.1235 - Consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consortium. 603.1235 Section 603.1235 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1235 Consortium. A group of RD&D-performing organizations that either is...

  13. 10 CFR 603.1235 - Consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consortium. 603.1235 Section 603.1235 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1235 Consortium. A group of RD&D-performing organizations that either is...

  14. 10 CFR 603.1235 - Consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consortium. 603.1235 Section 603.1235 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1235 Consortium. A group of RD&D-performing organizations that either is...

  15. The Salix Consortium in New York

    SciTech Connect

    Wulf, T.; Jones, J.

    1998-09-28

    Energy crops for electrical production are being given a boost by the Salix Consortium, an association of 20 corporations and industrial, government, farming, and research organizations. The consortium supports commercial development of willows for generating electricity, which are being grown for utilities across the Northeast region of the U.S. for use in cofiring with coal in existing power plants.

  16. Immunotherapy of Fungal Infections.

    PubMed

    Datta, Kausik; Hamad, Mawieh

    2015-01-01

    Fungal organisms are ubiquitous in the environment. Pathogenic fungi, although relatively few in the whole gamut of microbial pathogens, are able to cause disease with varying degrees of severity in individuals with normal or impaired immunity. The disease state is an outcome of the fungal pathogen's interactions with the host immunity, and therefore, it stands to reason that deep/invasive fungal diseases be amenable to immunotherapy. Therefore, antifungal immunotherapy continues to be attractive as an adjunct to the currently available antifungal chemotherapy options for a number of reasons, including the fact that existing antifungal drugs, albeit largely effective, are not without limitations, and that morbidity and mortality associated with invasive mycoses are still unacceptably high. For several decades, intense basic research efforts have been directed at development of fungal immunotherapies. Nevertheless, this approach suffers from a severe bench-bedside disconnect owing to several reasons: the chemical and biological peculiarities of the fungal antigens, the complexities of host-pathogen interactions, an under-appreciation of the fungal disease landscape, the requirement of considerable financial investment to bring these therapies to clinical use, as well as practical problems associated with immunizations. In this general, non-exhaustive review, we summarize the features of ongoing research efforts directed towards devising safe and effective immunotherapeutic options for mycotic diseases, encompassing work on antifungal vaccines, adoptive cell transfers, cytokines, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and other agents.

  17. Consortium for military LCD display procurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echols, Gregg

    2002-08-01

    International Display Consortium (IDC) is the joining together of display companies to combined their buying power and obtained favorable terms with a major LCD manufacturer. Consolidating the buying power and grouping the demand enables the rugged display industry of avionics, ground vehicles, and ship based display manufacturers to have unencumbered access to high performance AMLCDs while greatly reducing risk and lowering cost. With an unrestricted supply of AMLCD displays, the consortium members have total control of their risk, cost, deliveries and added value partners. Every display manufacturer desires a very close relationship with a display vender. With IDC each consortium member achieves a close relationship. Consortium members enjoy cost effective access to high performance, industry standard sized LCD panels, and modified commercial displays with 100 degree C clearing points and portrait configurations. Consortium members also enjoy proposal support, technical support and long-term support.

  18. The AGTSR consortium: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Fant, D.B.; Golan, L.P.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research program is a nationwide consortium dedicated to advancing land-based gas turbine systems for improving future power generation capability. It directly supports the technology-research arm of the ATS program and targets industry- defined research needs in the areas of combustion, heat transfer, materials, aerodynamics, controls, alternative fuels, and advanced cycles. It is organized to enhance U.S. competitiveness through close collaboration with universities, government, and industry at the R&D level. AGTSR is just finishing its third year of operation; it is scheduled to continue past the year 2000. This update reviews the AGTSR triad, which consists of university/industry R&D activities, technology transfer programs, and trial student programs.

  19. Engineering the ligninolytic enzyme consortium.

    PubMed

    Alcalde, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    The ligninolytic enzyme consortium is one of the most-efficient oxidative systems found in nature, playing a pivotal role during wood decay and coal formation. Typically formed by high redox-potential oxidoreductases, this array of enzymes can be used within the emerging lignocellulose biorefineries in processes that range from the production of bioenergy to that of biomaterials. To ensure that these versatile enzymes meet industry standards and needs, they have been subjected to directed evolution and hybrid approaches that surpass the limits imposed by nature. This Opinion article analyzes recent achievements in this field, including the incipient groundbreaking research into the evolution of resurrected enzymes, and the engineering of ligninolytic secretomes to create consolidated bioprocessing microbes with synthetic biology applications.

  20. Novel Approaches for Fungal Transcriptomics from Host Samples

    PubMed Central

    Amorim-Vaz, Sara; Sanglard, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans adaptation to the host requires a profound reprogramming of the fungal transcriptome as compared to in vitro laboratory conditions. A detailed knowledge of the C. albicans transcriptome during the infection process is necessary in order to understand which of the fungal genes are important for host adaptation. Such genes could be thought of as potential targets for antifungal therapy. The acquisition of the C. albicans transcriptome is, however, technically challenging due to the low proportion of fungal RNA in host tissues. Two emerging technologies were used recently to circumvent this problem. One consists of the detection of low abundance fungal RNA using capture and reporter gene probes which is followed by emission and quantification of resulting fluorescent signals (nanoString). The other is based first on the capture of fungal RNA by short biotinylated oligonucleotide baits covering the C. albicans ORFome permitting fungal RNA purification. Next, the enriched fungal RNA is amplified and subjected to RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Here we detail these two transcriptome approaches and discuss their advantages and limitations and future perspectives in microbial transcriptomics from host material. PMID:26834721

  1. Novel Approaches for Fungal Transcriptomics from Host Samples.

    PubMed

    Amorim-Vaz, Sara; Sanglard, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans adaptation to the host requires a profound reprogramming of the fungal transcriptome as compared to in vitro laboratory conditions. A detailed knowledge of the C. albicans transcriptome during the infection process is necessary in order to understand which of the fungal genes are important for host adaptation. Such genes could be thought of as potential targets for antifungal therapy. The acquisition of the C. albicans transcriptome is, however, technically challenging due to the low proportion of fungal RNA in host tissues. Two emerging technologies were used recently to circumvent this problem. One consists of the detection of low abundance fungal RNA using capture and reporter gene probes which is followed by emission and quantification of resulting fluorescent signals (nanoString). The other is based first on the capture of fungal RNA by short biotinylated oligonucleotide baits covering the C. albicans ORFome permitting fungal RNA purification. Next, the enriched fungal RNA is amplified and subjected to RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Here we detail these two transcriptome approaches and discuss their advantages and limitations and future perspectives in microbial transcriptomics from host material.

  2. Fungal endocarditis: current challenges.

    PubMed

    Tattevin, Pierre; Revest, Matthieu; Lefort, Agnès; Michelet, Christian; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Whilst it used to affect mostly intravenous drug users and patients who underwent valvular surgery with suboptimal infection control procedures, fungal endocarditis is now mostly observed in patients with severe immunodeficiency (onco-haematology), in association with chronic central venous access and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. The incidence of fungal endocarditis has probably decreased in most developed countries with access to harm-reduction policies (i.e. needle exchange programmes) and with improved infection control procedures during cardiac surgery. Use of specific blood culture bottles for diagnosis of fungal endocarditis has decreased due to optimisation of media and automated culture systems. Meanwhile, the advent of rapid techniques, including fungal antigen detection (galactomannan, mannan/anti-mannan antibodies and β-1,3-d-glucans) and PCR (e.g. universal fungal PCR targeting 18S rRNA genes), shall improve sensitivity and reduce diagnostics delays, although limited data are available on their use for the diagnosis of fungal endocarditis. New antifungal agents available since the early 2000s may represent dramatic improvement for fungal endocarditis: (i) a new class, the echinocandins, has the potential to improve the management of Candida endocarditis owing to its fungicidal effect on yeasts as well as tolerability of increased dosages; and (ii) improved survival in patients with invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole compared with amphotericin B, and this may apply to Aspergillus sp. endocarditis as well, although its prognosis remains dismal. These achievements may allow selected patients to be cured with prolonged medical treatment alone when surgery is considered too risky.

  3. Establishing an International Soil Modelling Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Soil is one of the most critical life-supporting compartments of the Biosphere. Soil provides numerous ecosystem services such as a habitat for biodiversity, water and nutrients, as well as producing food, feed, fiber and energy. To feed the rapidly growing world population in 2050, agricultural food production must be doubled using the same land resources footprint. At the same time, soil resources are threatened due to improper management and climate change. Soil is not only essential for establishing a sustainable bio-economy, but also plays a key role also in a broad range of societal challenges including 1) climate change mitigation and adaptation, 2) land use change 3) water resource protection, 4) biotechnology for human health, 5) biodiversity and ecological sustainability, and 6) combating desertification. Soils regulate and support water, mass and energy fluxes between the land surface, the vegetation, the atmosphere and the deep subsurface and control storage and release of organic matter affecting climate regulation and biogeochemical cycles. Despite the many important functions of soil, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain, regarding the role of soil biota and biodiversity on ecosystem services, the structure and dynamics of soil communities, the interplay between hydrologic and biotic processes, the quantification of soil biogeochemical processes and soil structural processes, the resilience and recovery of soils from stress, as well as the prediction of soil development and the evolution of soils in the landscape, to name a few. Soil models have long played an important role in quantifying and predicting soil processes and related ecosystem services. However, a new generation of soil models based on a whole systems approach comprising all physical, mechanical, chemical and biological processes is now required to address these critical knowledge gaps and thus contribute to the preservation of ecosystem services, improve our understanding of climate

  4. 40 CFR 35.504 - Eligibility of an Intertribal Consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Consortium. 35.504 Section 35.504 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... § 35.504 Eligibility of an Intertribal Consortium. (a) An Intertribal Consortium is eligible to receive grants under the authorities listed in § 35.501 only if the Consortium demonstrates that all members...

  5. 40 CFR 35.504 - Eligibility of an Intertribal Consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Consortium. 35.504 Section 35.504 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... § 35.504 Eligibility of an Intertribal Consortium. (a) An Intertribal Consortium is eligible to receive grants under the authorities listed in § 35.501 only if the Consortium demonstrates that all members...

  6. 24 CFR 943.122 - How is a consortium organized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How is a consortium organized? 943... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES Consortia § 943.122 How is a consortium organized? (a) PHAs that elect to form a consortium enter into a consortium agreement among...

  7. 24 CFR 943.122 - How is a consortium organized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How is a consortium organized? 943... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES Consortia § 943.122 How is a consortium organized? (a) PHAs that elect to form a consortium enter into a consortium agreement among...

  8. 24 CFR 943.122 - How is a consortium organized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How is a consortium organized? 943... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES Consortia § 943.122 How is a consortium organized? (a) PHAs that elect to form a consortium enter into a consortium agreement among...

  9. 40 CFR 35.504 - Eligibility of an Intertribal Consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Consortium. 35.504 Section 35.504 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... § 35.504 Eligibility of an Intertribal Consortium. (a) An Intertribal Consortium is eligible to receive grants under the authorities listed in § 35.501 only if the Consortium demonstrates that all members...

  10. 24 CFR 943.122 - How is a consortium organized?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How is a consortium organized? 943... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES Consortia § 943.122 How is a consortium organized? (a) PHAs that elect to form a consortium enter into a consortium agreement among...

  11. Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Levitz, Stuart M.; Huang, Haibin; Ostroff, Gary R.; Specht, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Innate recognition of fungi leads to strong adaptive immunity. Investigators are trying to exploit this observation in vaccine development by combining antigens with evolutionarily conserved fungal cell wall carbohydrates to induce protective responses. Best studied is β-1,3-glucan, a glycan that activates complement and is recognized by Dectin-1. Administration of antigens in association with β-1,3-glucan, either by direct conjugation or complexed in glucan particles, results in robust humoral and cellular immune responses. While the host has a host of mannose receptors, responses to fungal mannoproteins generally are amplified if cells are cooperatively stimulated with an additional danger signal such as a toll-like receptor agonist. Chitosan, a polycationic homopolymer of glucosamine manufactured by the deacetylation of chitin, is being studied as an adjuvant in DNA and protein-based vaccines. It appears particularly promising in mucosal vaccines. Finally, universal and organism-specific fungal vaccines have been formulated by conjugating fungal cell wall glycans to carrier proteins. A major challenge will be to advance these experimental findings so that at risk patients can be protected. PMID:25404118

  12. The bioleaching potential of a bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Mauricio; Cortés, María Paz; Travisany, Dante; Di Genova, Alex; Budinich, Marko; Reyes-Jara, Angélica; Hödar, Christian; González, Mauricio; Parada, Pilar; Bobadilla-Fazzini, Roberto A; Cambiazo, Verónica; Maass, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    This work presents the molecular foundation of a consortium of five efficient bacteria strains isolated from copper mines currently used in state of the art industrial-scale biotechnology. The strains Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Licanantay, Acidiphilium multivorum Yenapatur, Leptospirillum ferriphilum Pañiwe, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Wenelen and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans Cutipay were selected for genome sequencing based on metal tolerance, oxidation activity and bioleaching of copper efficiency. An integrated model of metabolic pathways representing the bioleaching capability of this consortium was generated. Results revealed that greater efficiency in copper recovery may be explained by the higher functional potential of L. ferriphilum Pañiwe and At. thiooxidans Licanantay to oxidize iron and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds. The consortium had a greater capacity to resist copper, arsenic and chloride ion compared to previously described biomining strains. Specialization and particular components in these bacteria provided the consortium a greater ability to bioleach copper sulfide ores.

  13. The LBNL/JSU/AGMUS Science Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report discusses the 11 year of accomplishments of the science consortium of minority graduates from Jackson State University and Ana G. Mendez University at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  14. CORAL DISEASE & HEALTH CONSORTIUM: FINDING SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Department of Interior (DOI) developed the framework for a Coral Disease and Health Consortium (CDHC) for the United States Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) through an interag...

  15. The international serious adverse events consortium.

    PubMed

    Holden, Arthur L; Contreras, Jorge L; John, Sally; Nelson, Matthew R

    2014-11-01

    The International Serious Adverse Events Consortium is generating novel insights into the genetics and biology of drug-induced serious adverse events, and thereby improving pharmaceutical product development and decision-making.

  16. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph)

    Cancer.gov

    A consortium designed to enhance collaboration among epidemiologists studying lymphoma, to provide a forum for the exchange of research ideas, and to create a framework for collaborating on analyses that pool data from multiple studies

  17. NASA Space Radiation Transport Code Development Consortium.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Lawrence W

    2005-01-01

    Recently, NASA established a consortium involving the University of Tennessee (lead institution), the University of Houston, Roanoke College and various government and national laboratories, to accelerate the development of a standard set of radiation transport computer codes for NASA human exploration applications. This effort involves further improvements of the Monte Carlo codes HETC and FLUKA and the deterministic code HZETRN, including developing nuclear reaction databases necessary to extend the Monte Carlo codes to carry out heavy ion transport, and extending HZETRN to three dimensions. The improved codes will be validated by comparing predictions with measured laboratory transport data, provided by an experimental measurements consortium, and measurements in the upper atmosphere on the balloon-borne Deep Space Test Bed (DSTB). In this paper, we present an overview of the consortium members and the current status and future plans of consortium efforts to meet the research goals and objectives of this extensive undertaking.

  18. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO; http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that supplies information about gene product function using ontologies to represent biological knowledge. Here we describe improvements and expansions to several branches of the ontology, as well as updates that have allowed us to more efficiently disseminate the GO and capture feedback from the research community. The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) has expanded areas of the ontology such as cilia-related terms, cell-cycle terms and multicellular organism processes. We have also implemented new tools for generating ontology terms based on a set of logical rules making use of templates, and we have made efforts to increase our use of logical definitions. The GOC has a new and improved web site summarizing new developments and documentation, serving as a portal to GO data. Users can perform GO enrichment analysis, and search the GO for terms, annotations to gene products, and associated metadata across multiple species using the all-new AmiGO 2 browser. We encourage and welcome the input of the research community in all biological areas in our continued effort to improve the Gene Ontology. PMID:25428369

  19. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO; http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that supplies information about gene product function using ontologies to represent biological knowledge. Here we describe improvements and expansions to several branches of the ontology, as well as updates that have allowed us to more efficiently disseminate the GO and capture feedback from the research community. The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) has expanded areas of the ontology such as cilia-related terms, cell-cycle terms and multicellular organism processes. We have also implemented new tools for generating ontology terms based on a set of logical rules making use of templates, and we have made efforts to increase our use of logical definitions. The GOC has a new and improved web site summarizing new developments and documentation, serving as a portal to GO data. Users can perform GO enrichment analysis, and search the GO for terms, annotations to gene products, and associated metadata across multiple species using the all-new AmiGO 2 browser. We encourage and welcome the input of the research community in all biological areas in our continued effort to improve the Gene Ontology.

  20. Fungal propagules and DNA in feces of two detritus-feeding amphipods.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Kandikere Ramaiah; Beaton, Margaret; Bärlocher, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic shredders (leaf-eating invertebrates) preferentially ingest and digest leaves colonized by aquatic hyphomycetes (fungi). This activity destroys leaf-associated fungal biomass and detritial resources in streams. Fungal counter-adaptations may include the ability to survive passage through the invertebrate's digestive tract. When fecal pellets of Gammarus tigrinus and Hyalella azteca were incubated with sterile leaves, spores of nine (G. tigrinus) and seven (H. azteca) aquatic hyphomycete species were subsequently released from the leaves, indicating the presence of viable fungal structures in the feces. Extraction, amplification, and sequencing of DNA from feces revealed numerous fungal phylotypes, two of which could be assigned unequivocally to an aquatic hyphomycete. The estimated contributions of major fungal groups varied depending on whether 18S or ITS sequences were amplified and cloned. We conclude that a variable proportion of fungal DNA in the feces of detritivores may originate from aquatic hyphomycetes. Amplified DNA may be associated with metabolically active, dormant, or dead fungal cells.

  1. Fungal rhinitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ostrzeszewicz, M; Sapierzyński, R

    2015-01-01

    Fungal rhinitis and sinusitis in dogs are quite common reasons of chronic nasal discharge and rhinoscopy in such cases is commonly suggested. Forty three dogs were examined using rhinoscopy because of the presence of chronic airway symptoms. Clinical examination, routine hematology and serum biochemistry profiles, nasal and frontal sinus radiographs were made in all animals. Additionally, computed tomography in one dog was performed. Samples for histopathology were taken from 9 patients during rhinoscopy, additionally, from 8 of these patients samples for cytopathology were collected by blind nasal swab technique. In 9 of 43 dogs (20,5%), all males aged 1 to 13 years, examinations led to a diagnosis of fungal rhinitis. In 2 cases a diagnosis of fungal rhinitis was obtained based solely on cytopathology, while in 7 cases - mycosis of nasal mucosa was confirmed by histopathology. The present study revealed that cytopathological examination of nasal swabs has a low diagnostic value in the case of nasal infections in dogs. Although, in some dogs cytopathology, together with other widely available diagnostic techniques was sufficient to reliably diagnose fungal rhinitis, histopathology of samples collected during rhinoscopy is still the gold standard in such cases.

  2. Immunoregulation in Fungal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Roussey, Jonathan A.; Olszewski, Michal A.; Osterholzer, John J.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses specific regulatory mechanisms involved in the host immune response to fungal organisms. We focus on key cells and regulatory pathways involved in these responses, including a brief overview of their broader function preceding a discussion of their specific relevance to fungal disease. Important cell types discussed include dendritic cells and regulatory T cells, with a focus on specific studies relating to their effects on immune responses to fungi. We highlight the interleukin-10, programmed cell death 1, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 signaling pathways and emphasize interrelationships between these pathways and the regulatory functions of dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. Throughout our discussion, we identify selected studies best illustrating the role of these cells and pathways in response to specific fungal pathogens to provide a contextual understanding of the tightly-controlled network of regulatory mechanisms critical to determining the outcome of exposure to fungal pathogens. Lastly, we discuss two unique phenomena relating to immunoregulation, protective tolerance and immune reactivation inflammatory syndrome. These two clinically-relevant conditions provide perspective as to the range of immunoregulatory mechanisms active in response to fungi. PMID:27973396

  3. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    severely limits the may prove to be useful in burn patients. Clotrimazole , applied clinical utility of such a culture. Biopsy and frozen-section and as...useful in wound and permit prompt institution of appropriate the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Clotrimazole is treatment. poorly absorbed

  4. Sputum fungal smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Fungal Infections Lung Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare ... for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D. ...

  5. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections can also happen in people without weak immune systems Fungal infections that are not life-threatening, such ... likely to cause an infection. People with weak immune systems Infections that happen because a person’s immune system ...

  6. Nail Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are treatments usually effective?Are there any side effects of the treatment?If my treatment works, will my nail grow back normally?If I've had one fungal nail infection, am I likely to get another?What kinds of shoes should I wear?Should I wear gloves when ...

  7. Overview of fungal rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Das, Ashim; Panda, Naresh K

    2004-10-01

    The incidence of fungal rhinosinusitis has increased to such extent in recent years that fungal infection should be considered in all patients with chronic rhino sinusitis. In India though the disease was reported earlier only from northern regions of this country, nowadays the disease is increasingly diagnosed from other parts as well. The disease has been categorized with possible five types: acute necrothing (fulminant), chronic invasive, chronic granulomatous invasive, fungal hall (sinus mycetoma), allergic. The first three types are tissue-invasive and the last two are non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. However, the categorization is still controversial and open to discussion. Chronic fungal rhinosinusitis can occur in otherwise healthy host and Aspergillus flavus is the common etiological agent in Indian scenario. The pathophys iologic mechanism of the disease remains unclear. It may represent an allergic IgE response, a cell-mediated reaction, or a combination of two. Early diagnosis may prevent multiple surgical procedures and lead to effective treatment. Histopathology and radio-imaging techniques help to distinguish different types and delineate extension of disease process. Culture helps to identify the responsible etiological agent. The presence or absence oj precipitating antibody correlates well with disease progression or recovery. The most immediate need regarding management is to establish the respective roles of surgery and antifungal therapy. Non-invasive disease requires surgical debridement and sinus ventilation only, though, additional oral or local corticosterold therapy may be beneficial in allergie type. For invasive disease, the adjuvant medical therapy is recommended to prevent recurrence and further extension. Itraconazole has been found as an effective drug in such situation. Patients with acute neerotizing type require radical surgery and amphotericin B therapy.

  8. [Emerging invasive fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Alvez, F; Figueras, C; Roselló, E

    2010-07-01

    The frequency and diversity of invasive fungal infections has changed over the last 25 years. The emergence of less common, but medically important fungi has increased, and the children at risk has expanded, with the inclusion of medical conditions such as cancer, mainly haematological malignancy or stem cell transplant, immunosuppressive therapy, prolonged neutropenia, and T-cell immunodeficiency. Among mould infections, fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis (Dematiaceous fungi) have been increasingly reported in this group of patients. To successfully manage these challenging infections, it is imperative that paediatricians and sub-specialists remain aware of the optimal and timely diagnosis and therapeutic options. Unlike other common mycoses that cause human disease, there no simple antigen or serological tests available to detect these pathogens in tissue or blood. The outcome for these disseminate, and often refractory fungal infections in neutropenic patients and transplant recipients remains extremely poor, requiring early and aggressive therapy. Unfortunately there are no guidelines outlining the choices for optimal therapy in the treatment of paediatric invasive fungal infections do not exist, and on the other hand are limited paediatric data available comparing antifungal agents in children with proven, probable or suspected invasive fungal infection. The options for treatment rest mainly on some adult guidelines that comment on the treatment of these emerging and uncommon important fungi in children. Despite the sparse clinical trials available on treatment and its poor outcome, options for treatment of invasive fungal infections have increased with the advance of new antifungal agents, with improved tolerability and increased range of activity. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of fusariosis and phaeohyphomycosis are discussed in this article.

  9. The Childhood Leukemia International Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Clavel, Jacqueline; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Petridou, Eleni; Taylor, Malcolm; Schüz, Joachim; Spector, Logan G.; Dockerty, John D.; Magnani, Corrado; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Sinnett, Daniel; Murphy, Michael; Roman, Eve; Monge, Patricia; Ezzat, Sameera; Mueller, Beth A.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Birch, Jill; Kaatsch, Peter; Koifman, Sergio; Lightfoot, Tracy; Bhatti, Parveen; Bondy, Melissa L.; Rudant, Jérémie; O’Neill, Kate; Miligi, Lucia; Dessypris, Nick; Kang, Alice Y.; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute leukemia is the most common cancer in children under 15 years of age; 80% are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 17% are acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Childhood leukemia shows further diversity based on cytogenetic and molecular characteristics, which may relate to distinct etiologies. Case–control studies conducted worldwide, particularly of ALL, have collected a wealth of data on potential risk factors and in some studies, biospecimens. There is growing evidence for the role of infectious/immunologic factors, fetal growth, and several environmental factors in the etiology of childhood ALL. The risk of childhood leukemia, like other complex diseases, is likely to be influenced both by independent and interactive effects of genes and environmental exposures. While some studies have analyzed the role of genetic variants, few have been sufficiently powered to investigate gene–environment interactions. Objectives The Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC) was established in 2007 to promote investigations of rarer exposures, gene–environment interactions and subtype-specific associations through the pooling of data from independent studies. Methods By September 2012, CLIC included 22 studies (recruitment period: 1962–present) from 12 countries, totaling approximately 31 000 cases and 50 000 controls. Of these, 19 case–control studies have collected detailed epidemiologic data, and DNA samples have been collected from children and child–parent trios in 15 and 13 of these studies, respectively. Two registry-based studies and one study comprising hospital records routinely obtained at birth and/or diagnosis have limited interview data or biospecimens. Conclusions CLIC provides a unique opportunity to fill gaps in knowledge about the role of environmental and genetic risk factors, critical windows of exposure, the effects of gene–environment interactions and associations among specific leukemia subtypes in different ethnic

  10. Thermophilic and cellulolytic consortium isolated from composting plants improves anaerobic digestion of cellulosic biomass: Toward a microbial resource management approach.

    PubMed

    Kinet, R; Destain, J; Hiligsmann, S; Thonart, P; Delhalle, L; Taminiau, B; Daube, G; Delvigne, F

    2015-01-01

    A cellulolytic consortium was isolated from a composting plant in order to boost the initial hydrolysis step encountered in anaerobic digestion. Improvement of the cellulose degradation, as well as biogas production, was observed for the cultures inoculated with the exogenous consortium. Metagenomics analyses pointed out a weak richness (related to the number of OTUs) of the exogenous consortium induced by the selective pressure (cellulose as sole carbon source) met during the initial isolation steps. Main microbial strains determined were strictly anaerobic and belong to the Clostridia class. During cellulose anaerobic degradation, pH drop induced a strong modification of the microbial population. Despite the fact that richness and evenness were very weak, the exogenous consortium was able to adapt and to maintain the cellulolytic degradation potential. This important result point out the fact that simplified microbial communities could be used in order to increase the robustness of mixed cultures involved in environmental biotechnology.

  11. Appalachian Developing Institutions Consortium. Progress Report No. 1: First Six Months of Consortium Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Elmo V., Ed.

    This paper reports the progress to date and plans of the Appalachian Consortium Special Development Project, funded under Title III of the Higher Education Act. The participating institutions joined the consortium because it was felt that only through a cooperative arrangement could they overcome the limitations of inadequate resources arising…

  12. Occult Fungal Scleritis

    PubMed Central

    Jeang, Lauren J.; Davis, Aaron; Madow, Brian; Espana, Edgar M.; Margo, Curtis E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To heighten awareness of occult fungal scleritis. Method Case report and review of the literature. Results A 73-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus was diagnosed for 3 months with immune-mediated scleritis and subsequently treated with corticosteroids. On referral, the patient had a scleral nodule with contiguous corneal infiltrate and hypopyon. Culture grew Fusarium species not further classified. The infection could not be controlled with antifungal therapy, and the eye was removed. No exogenous or endogenous source for the infection could be identified by clinical history or examination. Conclusion Fungal scleritis can develop in persons without a history of foreign body injury, minor trauma, or evidence of endogenous fungemia. A high index of suspicion for infectious scleritis must be maintained in persons with presumed immune-mediated scleritis who fail to respond to conventional therapy, particularly if they present with decreased visual acuity. PMID:28275602

  13. Fungal diseases of horses.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-11-29

    Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies.

  14. Fungal CSL transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Převorovský, Martin; Půta, František; Folk, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Background The CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jκ/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) transcription factor family members are well-known components of the transmembrane receptor Notch signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in metazoan development. They function as context-dependent activators or repressors of transcription of their responsive genes, the promoters of which harbor the GTG(G/A)GAA consensus elements. Recently, several studies described Notch-independent activities of the CSL proteins. Results We have identified putative CSL genes in several fungal species, showing that this family is not confined to metazoans. We have analyzed their sequence conservation and identified the presence of well-defined domains typical of genuine CSL proteins. Furthermore, we have shown that the candidate fungal protein sequences contain highly conserved regions known to be required for sequence-specific DNA binding in their metazoan counterparts. The phylogenetic analysis of the newly identified fungal CSL proteins revealed the existence of two distinct classes, both of which are present in all the species studied. Conclusion Our findings support the evolutionary origin of the CSL transcription factor family in the last common ancestor of fungi and metazoans. We hypothesize that the ancestral CSL function involved DNA binding and Notch-independent regulation of transcription and that this function may still be shared, to a certain degree, by the present CSL family members from both fungi and metazoans. PMID:17629904

  15. Developments in Fungal Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa; Stchigel, Alberto M.

    1999-01-01

    Fungal infections, especially those caused by opportunistic species, have become substantially more common in recent decades. Numerous species cause human infections, and several new human pathogens are discovered yearly. This situation has created an increasing interest in fungal taxonomy and has led to the development of new methods and approaches to fungal biosystematics which have promoted important practical advances in identification procedures. However, the significance of some data provided by the new approaches is still unclear, and results drawn from such studies may even increase nomenclatural confusion. Analyses of rRNA and rDNA sequences constitute an important complement of the morphological criteria needed to allow clinical fungi to be more easily identified and placed on a single phylogenetic tree. Most of the pathogenic fungi so far described belong to the kingdom Fungi; two belong to the kingdom Chromista. Within the Fungi, they are distributed in three phyla and in 15 orders (Pneumocystidales, Saccharomycetales, Dothideales, Sordariales, Onygenales, Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Ophiostomatales, Microascales, Tremellales, Poriales, Stereales, Agaricales, Schizophyllales, and Ustilaginales). PMID:10398676

  16. Deep-biosphere consortium of fungi and prokaryotes in Eocene subseafloor basalts.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, S; Ivarsson, M; Astolfo, A; Belivanova, V; Broman, C; Marone, F; Stampanoni, M

    2014-11-01

    The deep biosphere of the subseafloor crust is believed to contain a significant part of Earth's biomass, but because of the difficulties of directly observing the living organisms, its composition and ecology are poorly known. We report here a consortium of fossilized prokaryotic and eukaryotic micro-organisms, occupying cavities in deep-drilled vesicular basalt from the Emperor Seamounts, Pacific Ocean, 67.5 m below seafloor (mbsf). Fungal hyphae provide the framework on which prokaryote-like organisms are suspended like cobwebs and iron-oxidizing bacteria form microstromatolites (Frutexites). The spatial inter-relationships show that the organisms were living at the same time in an integrated fashion, suggesting symbiotic interdependence. The community is contemporaneous with secondary mineralizations of calcite partly filling the cavities. The fungal hyphae frequently extend into the calcite, indicating that they were able to bore into the substrate through mineral dissolution. A symbiotic relationship with chemoautotrophs, as inferred for the observed consortium, may be a pre-requisite for the eukaryotic colonization of crustal rocks. Fossils thus open a window to the extant as well as the ancient deep biosphere.

  17. Fungal quorum sensing molecules: Role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wongsuk, Thanwa; Pumeesat, Potjaman; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2016-05-01

    When microorganisms live together in high numbers, they need to communicate with each other. To achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete molecules called quorum-sensing molecules (QSMs) that control their biological activities and behaviors. Fungi secrete QSMs such as farnesol, tyrosol, phenylethanol, and tryptophol. The role of QSMs in fungi has been widely studied in both yeasts and filamentous fungi, for example in Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, Aspergillus niger, A. nidulans, and Fusarium graminearum. QSMs impact fungal morphogenesis (yeast-to-hypha formation) and also play a role in the germination of macroconidia. QSMs cause fungal cells to initiate programmed cell death, or apoptosis, and play a role in fungal pathogenicity. Several types of QSMs are produced during stages of biofilm development to control cell population or morphology in biofilm communities. This review article emphasizes the role of fungal QSMs, especially in fungal morphogenesis, biofilm formation, and pathogenicity. Information about QSMs may lead to improved measures for controlling fungal infection.

  18. The Consortium of E-Learning in Geriatrics Instruction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jorge G; Teasdale, Thomas A; Hajjar, Ihab; Shaughnessy, Marianne; Mintzer, Michael J

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes the activities of the Consortium of E-Learning in Geriatrics Instruction (CELGI), a group dedicated to creating, using, and evaluating e-learning to enhance geriatrics education. E-learning provides a relatively new approach to addressing geriatrics educators' concerns, such as the shortage of professionals trained to care for older people, overcrowded medical curricula, the move to transfer teaching venues to community settings, and the switch to competency-based education models. However, this innovative education technology is facing a number of challenges as its use and influence grow, including proof of effectiveness and efficiency. CELGI was created in response to these challenges, with the goal of facilitating the development and portability of e-learning materials for geriatrics educators. Members represent medical and nursing schools, the Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare system, long-term care facilities, and other institutions that rely on continuing streams of quality health education. CELGI concentrates on providing a coordinated approach to formulating and adapting specifications, standards, and guidelines; developing education and training in e-learning competencies; developing e-learning products; evaluating the effect of e-learning materials; and disseminating these materials. The vision of consortium members is that e-learning for geriatric education will become the benchmark for valid and successful e-learning throughout medical education.

  19. CFD analysis of pump consortium impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Williams, R. W.

    1992-07-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design impact in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, embedded with the extended k-epsilon turbulence model and with appropriate moving interface boundary conditions, is developed to analyze turbulent flows in the turbomachinery devices. The FDNS code was benchmarked with its numerical predictions of the pump consortium inducer, and provides satisfactory results. In the present study, a CFD analysis of the pump consortium impeller will be conducted with the application of the FDNS code. The pump consortium impeller, with partial blades, is the new design concept of the advanced rocket engine.

  20. CFD analysis of pump consortium impeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Williams, R. W.

    1992-01-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design impact in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, embedded with the extended k-epsilon turbulence model and with appropriate moving interface boundary conditions, is developed to analyze turbulent flows in the turbomachinery devices. The FDNS code was benchmarked with its numerical predictions of the pump consortium inducer, and provides satisfactory results. In the present study, a CFD analysis of the pump consortium impeller will be conducted with the application of the FDNS code. The pump consortium impeller, with partial blades, is the new design concept of the advanced rocket engine.

  1. Comparative metagenomic analysis of PAH degradation in soil by a mixed microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Zafra, German; Taylor, Todd D; Absalón, Angel E; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we used a taxonomic and functional metagenomic approach to analyze some of the effects (e.g. displacement, permanence, disappearance) produced between native microbiota and a previously constructed Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading microbial consortium during the bioremediation process of a soil polluted with PAHs. Bioaugmentation with a fungal-bacterial consortium and biostimulation of native microbiota using corn stover as texturizer produced appreciable changes in the microbial diversity of polluted soils, shifting native microbial communities in favor of degrading specific populations. Functional metagenomics showed changes in gene abundance suggesting a bias towards aromatic hydrocarbon and intermediary degradation pathways, which greatly favored PAH mineralization. In contrast, pathways favoring the formation of toxic intermediates such as cytochrome P450-mediated reactions were found to be significantly reduced in bioaugmented soils. PAH biodegradation in soil using the microbial consortium was faster and reached higher degradation values (84% after 30 d) as a result of an increased co-metabolic degradation when compared with other mixed microbial consortia. The main differences between inoculated and non-inoculated soils were observed in aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases, laccase, protocatechuate, salicylate and benzoate-degrading enzyme genes. Based on our results, we propose that several concurrent metabolic pathways are taking place in soils during PAH degradation.

  2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Consortium Agreement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    In this, our second progress report of the Phase Two Home Automation and Healthcare Consortium at the Brit and Alex d’Arbeloff Laboratory for...Covered here are the diverse fields of home automation and healthcare research, ranging from human modeling, patient monitoring, and diagnosis to new...sensors and actuators, physical aids, human-machine interface and home automation infrastructure. These results will be presented at the upcoming General Assembly of the Consortium held on October 27-October 30, 1998 at MIT.

  3. The Teleprasenz Consortium: Structure and intentions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blauert, Jens

    1991-01-01

    The Teleprasenz-Consortium is an open group of currently 37 scientists of different disciplines who devote a major part of their research activities to the foundations of telepresence technology. Telepresence technology is basically understood as a means to bridge spatial and temporal gaps as well as certain kinds of concealment, inaccessibility and danger of exposure. The activities of the consortium are organized into three main branches: virtual environment, surveillance and control systems, and speech and language technology. A brief summary of the main activities in these areas is given.

  4. Consortium of institutes for decentralized wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.W.

    1998-07-01

    The Consortium of Institutes for Decentralized Wastewater Treatment is a group of thirteen (and expanding) North American colleges and universities that formed with the goal of helping to protect public health and maintain a sustainable environment. To accomplish this goal, academicians work closely with private sector partners from industry, manufacturing, consulting, regulatory agencies, and citizen/community groups to transfer research-based information into education and training programs for decentralized wastewater treatment. This document will focus on the mission, organizational structure, and recent grant activities of the Consortium.

  5. Fungal osteomyelitis and septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bariteau, Jason T; Waryasz, Gregory R; McDonnell, Matthew; Fischer, Staci A; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Christopher T

    2014-06-01

    Management of fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis is challenging, especially in the setting of immunodeficiency and conditions that require immunosuppression. Because fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis are rare conditions, study of their pathophysiology and treatment has been limited. In the literature, evidence-based treatment is lacking and, historically, outcomes have been poor. The most common offending organisms are Candida and Aspergillus, which are widely distributed in humans and soil. However, some fungal pathogens, such as Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Sporothrix, have more focal areas of endemicity. Fungal bone and joint infections result from direct inoculation, contiguous infection spread, or hematogenous seeding of organisms. These infections may be difficult to diagnose and eradicate, especially in the setting of total joint arthroplasty. Although there is no clear consensus on treatment, guidelines are available for management of many of these pathogens.

  6. Fungal Genome Sequencing and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Thykaer, Jette; Adney, William S.; Brettin, T.; Brockman, Fred J.; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Martinez, Antonio D.; Miller, R. M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Torok, Tamas; Tuskan, Gerald; Bennett, Joan W.; Berka, Randy; Briggs, Steve; Heitman, Joseph; Taylor, John; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Werner-Washburne, Maggie; Himmel, Michael E.

    2008-09-30

    To date, the number of ongoing filamentous fungal genome sequencing projects is almost tenfold fewer than those of bacterial and archaeal genome projects. The fungi chosen for sequencing represent narrow kingdom diversity; most are pathogens or models. We advocate an ambitious, forward-looking phylogenetic-based genome sequencing program, designed to capture metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into alternative bioenergy sources, bioremediation, and fungal-environment interactions.

  7. Design and characterization of synthetic fungal-bacterial consortia for direct production of isobutanol from cellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Minty, Jeremy J; Singer, Marc E; Scholz, Scott A; Bae, Chang-Hoon; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Foster, Clifton E; Liao, James C; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina

    2013-09-03

    Synergistic microbial communities are ubiquitous in nature and exhibit appealing features, such as sophisticated metabolic capabilities and robustness. This has inspired fast-growing interest in engineering synthetic microbial consortia for biotechnology development. However, there are relatively few reports of their use in real-world applications, and achieving population stability and regulation has proven to be challenging. In this work, we bridge ecology theory with engineering principles to develop robust synthetic fungal-bacterial consortia for efficient biosynthesis of valuable products from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The required biological functions are divided between two specialists: the fungus Trichoderma reesei, which secretes cellulase enzymes to hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass into soluble saccharides, and the bacterium Escherichia coli, which metabolizes soluble saccharides into desired products. We developed and experimentally validated a comprehensive mathematical model for T. reesei/E. coli consortia, providing insights on key determinants of the system's performance. To illustrate the bioprocessing potential of this consortium, we demonstrate direct conversion of microcrystalline cellulose and pretreated corn stover to isobutanol. Without costly nutrient supplementation, we achieved titers up to 1.88 g/L and yields up to 62% of theoretical maximum. In addition, we show that cooperator-cheater dynamics within T. reesei/E. coli consortia lead to stable population equilibria and provide a mechanism for tuning composition. Although we offer isobutanol production as a proof-of-concept application, our modular system could be readily adapted for production of many other valuable biochemicals.

  8. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products.

  9. Fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-01-01

    Pretreatment is a crucial step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars and biofuels. Compared to thermal/chemical pretreatment, fungal pretreatment reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass by lignin-degrading microorganisms and thus potentially provides an environmentally-friendly and energy-efficient pretreatment technology for biofuel production. This paper provides an overview of the current state of fungal pretreatment by white rot fungi for biofuel production. The specific topics discussed are: 1) enzymes involved in biodegradation during the fungal pretreatment; 2) operating parameters governing performance of the fungal pretreatment; 3) the effect of fungal pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production; 4) efforts for improving enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production through combinations of fungal pretreatment and physical/chemical pretreatment; 5) the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass with lignin-degrading enzymes isolated from fungal pretreatment, with a comparison to fungal pretreatment; 6) modeling, reactor design, and scale-up of solid state fungal pretreatment; and 7) the limitations and future perspective of this technology.

  10. THE FEDERAL INTEGRATED BIOTREATMENT RESEARCH CONSORTIUM (FLASK TO FIELD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Federal Integrated Biotreatment Research Consortium (Flask to Field) represented a 7-year concerted effort by several research laboratories to develop bioremediation technologies for contaminated DoD sites. The consortium structure consisted of a director and four thrust are...

  11. Serpentine Soils Do Not Limit Mycorrhizal Fungal Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Sara; Ree, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Physiologically stressful environments tend to host depauperate and specialized biological communities. Serpentine soils exemplify this phenomenon by imposing well-known constraints on plants; however, their effect on other organisms is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a combination of field and molecular approaches to test the hypothesis that serpentine fungal communities are species-poor and specialized. We conducted surveys of ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity from adjacent serpentine and non-serpentine sites, described fungal communities using nrDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) fragment and sequence analyses, and compared their phylogenetic community structure. Although we detected low fungal overlap across the two habitats, we found serpentine soils to support rich fungal communities that include representatives from all major fungal lineages. We failed to detect the phylogenetic signature of endemic clades that would result from specialization and adaptive radiation within this habitat. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that serpentine soils do not constitute an extreme environment for ectomycorrhizal fungi, and raise important questions about the role of symbioses in edaphic tolerance and the maintenance of biodiversity. PMID:20668696

  12. Diversity and distribution of fungal communities in lakes of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Vívian N; Vaz, Aline B M; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of filamentous fungi obtained from water sampled from six lakes in the Antarctic Peninsula. One hundred and twenty-eight fungal isolates were purified and identified by analysis of nuclear rDNA ITS region sequences as belonging to 31 fungal different operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The most frequently isolated fungi were Geomyces pannorum and Mortierella sp.; these species occurred in six and three of the lakes sampled, respectively, and displayed the highest total colony-forming unit per L. Different species that have not been found to these lakes and/or had adapted to cold conditions were found. In general, the fungal community displayed low richness and high dominance indices. The species Cadophora cf. luteo-olivacea, Cadophora malorum, Davidiella tassiana, G. pannorum, Mortierella cf. alpina and Thelebolus cf. microsporus that were found in the lakes in question were also previously found in other cold ecosystems, such as Arctic, temperate and Alpine regions. The results of this study suggest the presence of an interesting aquatic fungal web, including symbionts, weak and strong saprophytes and parasite/pathogen fungal species. This aquatic web fungal may be a useful community model for further ecological and evolutionary studies of extreme habitats.

  13. Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Correll, Daniel P; Luzi, Scott A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2015-12-01

    A 42 year old male presents with worsening pain and an increase in thick chronic drainage of the left sinus. Image studies show complete opacification of the left frontal sinus, left sphenoid sinus, and the left maxillary sinus. The patient was taken to the operating room and tissue for microscopic evaluation was obtained. The microscopic findings were classic for allergic fungal sinusitis: areas of alternating mucinous material and inflammatory cell debris and abundant Charcot-Leyden crystals. Cultures were performed and the patient began steroid therapy and desensitization therapy.

  14. CORAL DISEASE & HEALTH CONSORTIUM; PARTNERS FOR PRESERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented at EMAP Symposium 2001: Coastal Monitoring Through Partnerships, 24-27 April 2001, Pensacola Beach, FL.

    The Coral Disease and Health Consortium (CDHC) was one recommendation to the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (CRTF), to conserve the coral reef ecosystems of the U...

  15. The Digital Preservation Consortium: Mission and Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Donald J.; Kenney, Anne

    The development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the growing use of the Internet are creating a rapidly-changing environment for collaborative preservation and access. Within this environment, the Digital Preservation Consortium (DPC) seeks to advance the use and utility of digital technology for the preservation of and access…

  16. National STEM Consortium Evaluation. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Acting as the lead agency for the "National STEM Consortium" (NSC), Anne Arundel Community College (AACC) engaged Hezel Associates to provide an independent program and impact evaluation of the U.S. Department of Labor (USDOL)-funded STEM certificate initiative. This report is comprehensive and covers the findings from all 4 years of the…

  17. 32 CFR 37.1255 - Consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1255 Consortium. A group of research-performing organizations that either is formally incorporated or that otherwise agrees to jointly carry out a research project (see definition of “articles of collaboration,” in § 37.1225)....

  18. 32 CFR 37.1255 - Consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1255 Consortium. A group of research-performing organizations that either is formally incorporated or that otherwise agrees to jointly carry out a research project (see definition of “articles of collaboration,” in § 37.1225)....

  19. 32 CFR 37.1255 - Consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1255 Consortium. A group of research-performing organizations that either is formally incorporated or that otherwise agrees to jointly carry out a research project (see definition of “articles of collaboration,” in § 37.1225)....

  20. Formation of a Human Services Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehallis, George; And Others

    Background information is provided concerning the efforts of Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC), under the sponsorship of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, to form a national consortium of two-year colleges for the development of Human Resources programs aimed at training chemical substance abuse workers. The report first presents…

  1. Northeast Technology Education Consortium: Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, W. Tad, Ed.

    This guide is designed to provide additional resources for technology educators who are attempting to shift their programs from industrial arts to technology education. An introduction describes the original demonstration site project, a consortium of Northeastern U.S. schools, the primary goal of which was the advancement of technological…

  2. Consortium wins major Brazilian gas contract

    SciTech Connect

    O`Driscoll

    1994-08-16

    An international consortium of BHP of Australia, Tenneco Gas of the U.S. and British Gas was selected Monday by Petroleo Braileiro SA (Petrobras) to Monday by Petroleo Brasileiro SA (Petrobras) to develop a $2 billion natural gas pipeline linking reserves in Bolivia with markets in southern and southeastern Brazil.

  3. The Consortium Method of Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, Bill; McIntosh, Gordon

    1979-01-01

    In offering an alternative approach to organizing major curriculum changes, this paper presents a case study and analysis of a consortium project in which the need for change, the change process, and the curriculum writing all took place at the local level. (Author/IRT)

  4. Retirement Plan Consortium Structures for K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevin, John

    2012-01-01

    As school districts continue to seek administrative efficiencies and cost reductions in the wake of severe budget pressures, the resources they devote to creating or expanding retirement plan consortia is increasing. Understanding how to structure a retirement plan consortium is paramount to successfully achieving the many objectives of…

  5. 24 CFR 943.118 - What is a consortium?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is a consortium? 943.118... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES Consortia § 943.118 What is a consortium? A consortium consists of two or more PHAs that join together to perform planning, reporting, and...

  6. 24 CFR 943.118 - What is a consortium?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a consortium? 943.118... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES Consortia § 943.118 What is a consortium? A consortium consists of two or more PHAs that join together to perform planning, reporting, and...

  7. 24 CFR 943.118 - What is a consortium?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a consortium? 943.118... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES Consortia § 943.118 What is a consortium? A consortium consists of two or more PHAs that join together to perform planning, reporting, and...

  8. 24 CFR 943.118 - What is a consortium?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a consortium? 943.118... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES Consortia § 943.118 What is a consortium? A consortium consists of two or more PHAs that join together to perform planning, reporting, and...

  9. 10 CFR 603.515 - Qualification of a consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification of a consortium. 603.515 Section 603.515 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Recipient Qualification § 603.515 Qualification of a consortium. (a) A consortium...

  10. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  11. Serious fungal infections in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, K; Farooqi, J; Mirza, S; Denning, D; Zafar, A

    2017-02-04

    The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable. Estimates were made for the whole population or specific populations at risk, as previously described in the LIFE methodology. Of the 184,500,000 people in Pakistan, an estimated 3,280,549 (1.78%) are affected by a serious fungal infection, omitting all cutaneous infection, oral candidiasis and allergic fungal sinusitis, which we could not estimate. Compared with other countries, the rates of candidaemia (21/100,000) and mucormycosis (14/100,000) are estimated to be very high, and are based on data from India. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis rates are estimated to be high (39/100,000) because of the high TB burden. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated to be around 5.9/100,000. Fungal keratitis is also problematic in Pakistan, with an estimated rate of 44/100,000. Pakistan probably has a high rate of certain life- or sight-threatening fungal infections.

  12. Fungal infections in immunocompromised travelers.

    PubMed

    Lortholary, Olivier; Charlier, Caroline; Lebeaux, David; Lecuit, Marc; Consigny, Paul Henri

    2013-03-01

    Immunocompromised patients represent an increasing group of travelers, for business, tourism, and visiting friends and relatives. Those with severe cellular immunodeficiency (advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection and transplant recipients) display the highest risk of fungal infections. International travel is less risky in most other types of immunodeficiency (except those with neutropenia). A systematic visit in a travel clinic for immunocompromised patients traveling to the tropics ensures that the specific risks of acquiring fungal infections (and others) are understood. When immunocompromised hosts return to their area of residence, a nonbacteriologically documented, potentially severe, febrile pneumonia, with or without dissemination signs (skin lesions, cytopenia) should alert for travel-acquired fungal infection, even years after return. Localized subcutaneous nodule may be also ascribed to fungal infection. Finally, infectious diseases physicians should be aware of major clinical patterns of travel-acquired fungal infection, as well as the fungi involved, and risk factors according to the geographical area visited.

  13. Invertebrate models of fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Marios; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2013-09-01

    The morbidity, mortality and economic burden associated with fungal infections, together with the emergence of fungal strains resistant to current antimicrobial agents, necessitate broadening our understanding of fungal pathogenesis and discovering new agents to treat these infections. Using invertebrate hosts, especially the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the model insects Drosophila melanogaster and Galleria mellonella, could help achieve these goals. The evolutionary conservation of several aspects of the innate immune response between invertebrates and mammals makes the use of these simple hosts an effective and fast screening method for identifying fungal virulence factors and testing potential antifungal compounds. The purpose of this review is to compare several model hosts that have been used in experimental mycology to-date and to describe their different characteristics and contribution to the study of fungal virulence and the detection of compounds with antifungal properties. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Animal Models of Disease.

  14. [Genetic diagnosis against fungal cerebromeningitis].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2013-01-01

    Fungal cerebromeningitis is one of deep seated mycoses and also a fatal fungal infectious disease. Regarding to causative pathogen of fungal cerebromeningitis in Japan, Cryptococcus spp., Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., are popular fungi. In general, the diagnosis of deep seated mycosis is sometime difficult. The genetic diagnosis method such as PCR against deep seated mycosis has been developing and it has been also reported as one of useful diagnostic tests. However, PCR for fungal detection is still a research test that has not been cleared or approved officially, therefore it should not be used for diagnosis, or patient management routinely. The PCR which detect broad range of fungi or specific fungus is applied for clinical situation, a careful attention should be paid for avoiding contamination because many fungal species are available in living environment.

  15. Improving hexane removal by enhancing fungal development in a microbial consortium biofilter.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Sonia; Revah, Sergio

    2005-04-05

    The removal of hydrophobic pollutants in biofilters is often limited by gas liquid mass transfer to the biotic aqueous phase where biodegradation occurs. It has been proposed that the use of fungi may improve their removal efficiency. To confirm this, the uptake of hexane vapors was investigated in 2.6-L perlite-packed biofilters, inoculated with a mixed culture containing bacteria and fungi, which were operated under neutral or acid conditions. For a hexane inlet load of around 140 g.m-3.h-1, elimination capacities (EC) of 60 and 100 g.m-3.h-1 were respectively reached with the neutral and acid systems. Increasing the inlet hexane load showed that the maximum EC obtained in the acid biofilter (150 g.m-3.h-1) was twice greater than in the neutral filter. The addition of bacterial inhibitors had no significant effect on EC in the acid system. The biomass in the acid biofilter was 187 mg.g-1 (dry perlite) without an important pressure drop (26.5 mm of water.m-1reactor). The greater efficiency obtained with the acid biofilter can be related to the hydrophobic aerial hyphae which are in direct contact with the gas and can absorb the hydrophobic compounds faster than the flat bacterial biofilms. Two fungi were isolated from the acid biofilter and were identified as Cladosporium and Fusarium spp. Hexane EC of 40 g.m-3.h-1 for Cladosporium sp. and 50 g.m-3.h-1 for Fusarium sp. were obtained in short time experiments in small biofilters (0.230 L). A biomass content around 30 mg.g-1 (dry perlite) showed the potential for hexane biofiltration of the strains.

  16. LBL/JSU/AGMUS science consortium annual report, FY 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In 1983, a formal Memorandum of Understanding joined the Ana G. Mendez University System (AGMUS), Jackson State University (JSU), and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in a consortium designed to advance the science and technology programs of JSU and AGMUS. This is the first such collaboration between a Hispanic university system, a historically Black university, and a national laboratory. The goals of this alliance are basic and direct: to develop and effect a long-term, comprehensive program that will enable the campuses of AGMUS and JSU to provide a broad, high-quality offering in the natural and computer sciences, to increase the number of minority students entering these fields, and to contribute to scientific knowledge and the federal government`s science mission through research. This report documents the progress toward these goals and includes individual success stories. The LBL/JSU/AGMUS Science Consortium has developed plans for utilizing its program successes to help other institutions to adopt or adapt those elements of the model that have produced the greatest results. Within the five-year plan formulated in 1990 are eight major components, each with defining elements and goals. These elements have become the components of the Science Consortium`s current plan for expansion and propagation.

  17. Superficial fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Robert A

    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

  18. Fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Haas, Hubertus

    2014-10-01

    Siderophores are chelators synthesized by microbes to sequester iron. This article summarizes the knowledge on the fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus. In recent years, A. fumigatus became a role model for fungal biosynthesis, uptake and degradation of siderophores as well as regulation of siderophore-mediated iron handling and the elucidation of siderophore functions. Siderophore functions comprise uptake, intracellular transport and storage of iron. This proved to be crucial not only for adaptation to iron starvation conditions but also for germination, asexual and sexual propagation, antioxidative defense, mutual interaction, microbial competition as well as virulence in plant and animal hosts. Recent studies also indicate the high potential of siderophores and its biosynthetic pathway to improve diagnosis and therapy of fungal infections.

  19. Serious fungal infections in Korea.

    PubMed

    Huh, K; Ha, Y E; Denning, D W; Peck, K R

    2017-02-04

    Information on the incidence and prevalence of fungal infections is of critical value in public health policy. However, nationwide epidemiological data on fungal infections are scarce, due to a lack of surveillance and funding. The objective of this study was to estimate the disease burden of fungal infections in the Republic of Korea. An actuarial approach using a deterministic model was used for the estimation. Data on the number of populations at risk and the frequencies of fungal infections in those populations were obtained from national statistics reports and epidemiology papers. Approximately 1 million people were estimated to be affected by fungal infections every year. The burdens of candidemia (4.12 per 100,000), cryptococcal meningitis (0.09 per 100,000), and Pneumocystis pneumonia (0.51 per 100,000) in South Korea were estimated to be comparable to those in other countries. The prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (22.4 per 100,000) was markedly high, probably due to the high burden of tuberculosis in Korea. The low burdens of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (56.9 per 100,000) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (75.1 per 100,000) warrant further study. Oral candidiasis (539 per 100,000) was estimated to affect a much larger population than noted in previous studies. Our work provides valuable insight on the epidemiology of fungal infections; however, additional studies are needed.

  20. Developing a statewide nursing consortium, island style.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Lois; Niederhauser, Victoria; Ono, Charlene K; Johnson, Nancy Katherine; Vogler, Joyce; Ceria-Ulep, Clementina D

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the transformational changes in the scope and pedagogy of nursing education within a state university system through the development of the Hawaii Statewide Nursing Consortium (HSNC) curriculum. Modeled after the Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education, the HSNC used a community-based participatory approach to develop the curriculum to support all students within the state who are eligible to earn a baccalaureate degree. The curriculum was designed as a long-term solution to the anticipated shortage of nurses to care for Hawaii's diverse population. It is also an effort to increase capacity in schools of nursing by making the best use of resources in the delivery of a baccalaureate curriculum that offers exit opportunities after the completion of an associate degree. Finally, it provides new ways of educating students who will be better prepared to meet Hawaii's health needs.

  1. The NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium.

    PubMed

    Ainsztein, Alexandra M; Brooks, Philip J; Dugan, Vivien G; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Guo, Max; Howcroft, T Kevin; Kelley, Christine A; Kuo, Lillian S; Labosky, Patricia A; Lenzi, Rebecca; McKie, George A; Mohla, Suresh; Procaccini, Dena; Reilly, Matthew; Satterlee, John S; Srinivas, Pothur R; Church, Elizabeth Stansell; Sutherland, Margaret; Tagle, Danilo A; Tucker, Jessica M; Venkatachalam, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    The Extracellular RNA (exRNA) Communication Consortium, funded as an initiative of the NIH Common Fund, represents a consortium of investigators assembled to address the critical issues in the exRNA research arena. The overarching goal is to generate a multi-component community resource for sharing fundamental scientific discoveries, protocols, and innovative tools and technologies. The key initiatives include (a) generating a reference catalogue of exRNAs present in body fluids of normal healthy individuals that would facilitate disease diagnosis and therapies, (b) defining the fundamental principles of exRNA biogenesis, distribution, uptake, and function, as well as development of molecular tools, technologies, and imaging modalities to enable these studies,

  2. Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Wynn Volkert; Dr. Arvind Kumar; Dr. Bryan Becker; Dr. Victor Schwinke; Dr. Angel Gonzalez; Dr. DOuglas McGregor

    2010-12-08

    The objective of the Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium (MNSEC) is to enhance the scope, quality and integration of educational and research capabilities of nuclear sciences and engineering (NS/E) programs at partner schools in support of the U.S. nuclear industry (including DOE laboratories). With INIE support, MNSEC had a productive seven years and made impressive progress in achieving these goals. Since the past three years have been no-cost-extension periods, limited -- but notable -- progress has been made in FY10. Existing programs continue to be strengthened and broadened at Consortium partner institutions. The enthusiasm generated by the academic, state, federal, and industrial communities for the MNSEC activities is reflected in the significant leveraging that has occurred for our programs.

  3. Serious fungal infections in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Sabino, R; Verissímo, C; Brandão, J; Martins, C; Alves, D; Pais, C; Denning, D W

    2017-02-10

    There is a lack of knowledge on the epidemiology of fungal infections worldwide because there are no reporting obligations. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of fungal disease in Portugal as part of a global fungal burden project. Most published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Portugal were identified. Where no data existed, specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations were used in order to estimate national incidence or prevalence, depending on the condition. An estimated 1,510,391 persons develop a skin or nail fungal infection each year. The second most common fungal infection in Portugal is recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, with an estimated 150,700 women (15-50 years of age) suffering from it every year. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people, oral or oesophageal candidiasis rates were estimated to be 19.5 and 16.8/100,000, respectively. Candidaemia affects 2.19/100,000 patients, in a total of 231 cases nationally. Invasive aspergillosis is less common than in other countries as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is uncommon in Portugal, a total of 240 cases annually. The estimated prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis after tuberculosis (TB) is 194 cases, whereas its prevalence for all underlying pulmonary conditions was 776 patients. Asthma is common (10% in adults) and we estimate 16,614 and 12,600 people with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, respectively. Sixty-five patients develop Pneumocystis pneumonia in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 13 develop cryptococcosis. Overall, we estimate a total number of 1,695,514 fungal infections starting each year in Portugal.

  4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Consortium Agreement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    This is the third progress report of the M.I.T. Home Automation and Healthcare Consortium-Phase Two. It covers majority of the new findings, concepts...research projects of home automation and healthcare, ranging from human modeling, patient monitoring, and diagnosis to new sensors and actuators, physical...aids, human-machine interface and home automation infrastructure. This report contains several patentable concepts, algorithms, and designs.

  5. Establishing the National Polar Radio Science Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-30

    objective of the NPRCS is to represent the radio science community’s interest in the HAARP (High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program) and to provide...scientific advice and support to the HAARP management. The goal of this consortium is to promote participation and ensure usability of the HAARP ...the Prime Contractor to represent the NPRSC. Since the HAARP facility will be built in Alaska, the GI-UAF can provide various logistic support

  6. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) Report

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda M.; Cowan, Morton J.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Kohn, Donald B.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Pai, Sung-Yun; Ballard, Barbara; Bauer, Sarah C.; Bleesing, Jack J. H.; Boyle, Marcia; Brower, Amy; Buckley, Rebecca H.; van der Burg, Mirjam; Burroughs, Lauri M.; Candotti, Fabio; Cant, Andrew J.; Chatila, Talal; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dinauer, Mary C.; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Filipovich, Alexandra H.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Gaspar, Hubert Bobby; Gungor, Tayfun; Haddad, Elie; Hovermale, Emily; Huang, Faith; Hurley, Alan; Hurley, Mary; Iyengar, Sumathi; Kang, Elizabeth M.; Logan, Brent R.; Long-Boyle, Janel R.; Malech, Harry L.; McGhee, Sean A.; Modell, Fred; Modell, Vicki; Ochs, Hans D.; O'Reilly, Richard J.; Parkman, Robertson; Rawlings, David J.; Routes, John M.; Shearer, William T.; Small, Trudy N.; Smith, Heather; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Szabolcs, Paul; Thrasher, Adrian; Torgerson, Troy R.; Veys, Paul; Weinberg, Kenneth; Zuniga-Pflucker, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome and Chronic Granulomatous Disease through retrospective, prospective and cross-sectional studies. The PIDTC additionally seeks to: encourage training of junior investigators; establish partnerships with European and other International colleagues; work with patient advocacy groups to promote community awareness; and conduct pilot demonstration projects. Future goals include the conduct of prospective treatment studies to determine optimal therapies for PID. To date, the PIDTC has funded two pilot projects: newborn screening for SCID in Navajo Native Americans; and B cell reconstitution in SCID patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ten junior investigators have received grant awards. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshop has brought together consortium members, outside speakers, patient advocacy groups, and young investigators and trainees to report progress of the protocols and discuss common interests and goals, including new scientific developments and future directions of clinical research. Here we report the progress of the PIDTC to date, highlights of the first two PIDTC workshops, and consideration of future consortium objectives. PMID:24139498

  7. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) report.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Linda M; Cowan, Morton J; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Kohn, Donald B; Puck, Jennifer M; Pai, Sung-Yun; Ballard, Barbara; Bauer, Sarah C; Bleesing, Jack J H; Boyle, Marcia; Brower, Amy; Buckley, Rebecca H; van der Burg, Mirjam; Burroughs, Lauri M; Candotti, Fabio; Cant, Andrew J; Chatila, Talal; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dinauer, Mary C; Dvorak, Christopher C; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Fleisher, Thomas A; Bobby Gaspar, Hubert; Gungor, Tayfun; Haddad, Elie; Hovermale, Emily; Huang, Faith; Hurley, Alan; Hurley, Mary; Iyengar, Sumathi; Kang, Elizabeth M; Logan, Brent R; Long-Boyle, Janel R; Malech, Harry L; McGhee, Sean A; Modell, Fred; Modell, Vicki; Ochs, Hans D; O'Reilly, Richard J; Parkman, Robertson; Rawlings, David J; Routes, John M; Shearer, William T; Small, Trudy N; Smith, Heather; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Szabolcs, Paul; Thrasher, Adrian; Torgerson, Troy R; Veys, Paul; Weinberg, Kenneth; Zuniga-Pflucker, Juan Carlos

    2014-02-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases. Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and chronic granulomatous disease through retrospective, prospective, and cross-sectional studies. The PIDTC additionally seeks to encourage training of junior investigators, establish partnerships with European and other International colleagues, work with patient advocacy groups to promote community awareness, and conduct pilot demonstration projects. Future goals include the conduct of prospective treatment studies to determine optimal therapies for primary immunodeficiency diseases. To date, the PIDTC has funded 2 pilot projects: newborn screening for SCID in Navajo Native Americans and B-cell reconstitution in patients with SCID after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ten junior investigators have received grant awards. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshop has brought together consortium members, outside speakers, patient advocacy groups, and young investigators and trainees to report progress of the protocols and discuss common interests and goals, including new scientific developments and future directions of clinical research. Here we report the progress of the PIDTC to date, highlights of the first 2 PIDTC workshops, and consideration of future consortium objectives.

  8. Reuse at the Software Productivity Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, David M.

    1989-01-01

    The Software Productivity Consortium is sponsored by 14 aerospace companies as a developer of software engineering methods and tools. Software reuse and prototyping are currently the major emphasis areas. The Methodology and Measurement Project in the Software Technology Exploration Division has developed some concepts for reuse which they intend to develop into a synthesis process. They have identified two approaches to software reuse: opportunistic and systematic. The assumptions underlying the systematic approach, phrased as hypotheses, are the following: the redevelopment hypothesis, i.e., software developers solve the same problems repeatedly; the oracle hypothesis, i.e., developers are able to predict variations from one redevelopment to others; and the organizational hypothesis, i.e., software must be organized according to behavior and structure to take advantage of the predictions that the developers make. The conceptual basis for reuse includes: program families, information hiding, abstract interfaces, uses and information hiding hierarchies, and process structure. The primary reusable software characteristics are black-box descriptions, structural descriptions, and composition and decomposition based on program families. Automated support can be provided for systematic reuse, and the Consortium is developing a prototype reuse library and guidebook. The software synthesis process that the Consortium is aiming toward includes modeling, refinement, prototyping, reuse, assessment, and new construction.

  9. Midwest superconductivity consortium. 1993 Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, in the fourth year of operations further strengthened its mission to advance the science and understanding of high T{sub c} superconductivity. The goals of the organization and the individual projects continue to reflect the current needs for new knowledge in the field and the unique capabilities of the institutions involved. Group efforts and cooperative laboratory interactions to achieve the greatest possible synergy under the Consortium continue to be emphasized. Industrial affiliations coupled with technology transfer initiatives were expanded. Activities of the participants during the past year achieved an interactive and high level of performance. The number of notable achievements in the field contributed by Consortium investigators increased. The programmatic research continues to focus upon key materials-related problems in two areas. The first area has a focus upon {open_quotes}Synthesis and Processing{close_quotes} while the second is centered around {open_quotes}Limiting Features in Transport Properties of High T{sub c} Materials{close_quotes}.

  10. Removal of triphenylmethane dyes by bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Cheriaa, Jihane; Khaireddine, Monia; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2012-01-01

    A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila)-(CM-4) was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50 mg/L) and malachite green (50 mg/L) dyes within 24 h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2 h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increases after 24 h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes.

  11. Removal of Triphenylmethane Dyes by Bacterial Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Cheriaa, Jihane; Khaireddine, Monia; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2012-01-01

    A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila)-(CM-4) was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50 mg/L) and malachite green (50 mg/L) dyes within 24 h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2 h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increases after 24 h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes. PMID:22623907

  12. Age and Gender Affect the Composition of Fungal Population of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Strati, Francesco; Di Paola, Monica; Stefanini, Irene; Albanese, Davide; Rizzetto, Lisa; Lionetti, Paolo; Calabrò, Antonio; Jousson, Olivier; Donati, Claudio; Cavalieri, Duccio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here, we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal (GI) tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C), to acidic and oxidative stress, and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals' life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics-based approaches to

  13. Standardized Postnatal Management of Infants with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in Europe: The CDH EURO Consortium Consensus - 2015 Update.

    PubMed

    Snoek, Kitty G; Reiss, Irwin K M; Greenough, Anne; Capolupo, Irma; Urlesberger, Berndt; Wessel, Lucas; Storme, Laurent; Deprest, Jan; Schaible, Thomas; van Heijst, Arno; Tibboel, Dick

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) EURO Consortium published a standardized neonatal treatment protocol. Five years later, the number of participating centers has been raised from 13 to 22. In this article the relevant literature is updated, and consensus has been reached between the members of the CDH EURO Consortium. Key updated recommendations are: (1) planned delivery after a gestational age of 39 weeks in a high-volume tertiary center; (2) neuromuscular blocking agents to be avoided during initial treatment in the delivery room; (3) adapt treatment to reach a preductal saturation of between 80 and 95% and postductal saturation >70%; (4) target PaCO2 to be between 50 and 70 mm Hg; (5) conventional mechanical ventilation to be the optimal initial ventilation strategy, and (6) intravenous sildenafil to be considered in CDH patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. This article represents the current opinion of all consortium members in Europe for the optimal neonatal treatment of CDH.

  14. Traversing the fungal terpenome

    PubMed Central

    Quin, Maureen B.; Flynn, Christopher M.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) are prolific producers of structurally diverse terpenoid compounds. Classes of terpenoids identified in fungi include the sesqui-, di- and triterpenoids. Biosynthetic pathways and enzymes to terpenoids from each of these classes have been described. These typically involve the scaffold generating terpene synthases and cyclases, and scaffold tailoring enzymes such as e.g. cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, NAD(P)+ and flavin dependent oxidoreductases, and various group transferases that generate the final bioactive structures. The biosynthesis of several sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins and bioactive diterpenoids has been well-studied in Ascomycota (e.g. filamentous fungi). Little is known about the terpenoid biosynthetic pathways in Basidiomycota (e.g. mushroom forming fungi), although they produce a huge diversity of terpenoid natural products. Specifically, many trans-humulyl cation derived sesquiterpenoid natural products with potent bioactivities have been isolated. Biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for the production of trans-humulyl cation derived protoilludanes, and other sesquiterpenoids, can be rapidly identified by genome sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Genome mining combined with heterologous biosynthetic pathway refactoring has the potential to facilitate discovery and production of pharmaceutically relevant fungal terpenoids. PMID:25171145

  15. Azo dye decolorization by a new fungal isolate, Penicillium sp. QQ and fungal-bacterial cocultures.

    PubMed

    Gou, Min; Qu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jiti; Ma, Fang; Tan, Liang

    2009-10-15

    A new azo dyes-decolorizing fungi strain QQ was isolated from activated sludge. It was identified as Penicillium sp. based on 26S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The study indicated that strain QQ could aerobically decolorize Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B by the way of bioadsorption, and nutrient-poor medium was more beneficial for adsorption. Decolorization rate was inversely proportional to the size of mycelial pellets. The optimum pH was observed at 4 or 5 for X-3B decolorization. There was still 70% color removal when salinity increased to 6%. By contrast with aerobic decolorization, the degradation of azo dyes occurred under anaerobic conditions, and some azo dyes could be absolutely decolorized. Furthermore, the decolorization of azo dyes by fungal-bacterial cocultures was investigated. The results demonstrated that strain QQ and Sphingomonas xenophaga QYY cocultures performed better than any single strain did. Weak acidity conditions and the presence of small amount of surfactant could enhance the ability of consortium to decolorize azo dyes.

  16. Fungal infections: a growing threat.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, D M; McNeil, M M; Cohen, M L; Gellin, B G; La Montagne, J R

    1996-01-01

    THE EMERGENCE OF newly identified fungal pathogens and the reemergence of previously uncommon fungal diseases is primarily related to increases in the numbers of susceptible persons: people with HIV infection, bone marrow and organ transplant recipients, cancer patients being treated with chemotherapy, critically ill persons, and very low birth weight ( < or = 1500 g) infants. These immunocompromised populations are at risk for infection not only with opportunistic pathogens (for example, Pneumocystis, Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, Malassezia, Aspergillus, Penicillium marneffei, and numerous other moulds or yeasts) but also with fungal pathogens that usually infect otherwise healthy persons not previously exposed to endemic fungi (for example, Coccidioides immitis, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Blastomyces dermatitidis) and Sporothrix schenckii. Morbidity, mortality, and health care costs associated with fungal infections are high. Addressing the emergence of fungal diseases will require increased surveillance coupled with the availability of rapid, noninvasive diagnostic tests; monitoring the development of resistance to antifungal agents; and research focused on the understanding, prevention, and control of fungal infections. Images p[227]-a p226-a p232-a PMID:8643813

  17. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; de Souza, Lauro M.

    2011-01-01

    Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs), gluco- and galactosyl-ceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as high-performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH) analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by secondary ion mass spectrometry and imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. PMID:22164155

  18. Fungal biodegradation of phthalate plasticizer in situ.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, S; Faseela, P; Josh, M K Sarath; Balachandran, S; Devi, R Sudha; Benjamin, Sailas

    2013-04-01

    This unique study describes how Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium brocae and Purpureocillium lilacinum, three novel isolates of our laboratory from heavily plastics-contaminated soil completely utilized the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) bound to PVC blood storage bags (BB) in simple basal salt medium (BSM) by static submerged growth (28 °C). Initial quantification as well as percentage utilization of DEHP blended to BB were estimated periodically by extracting it into n-hexane. A two-stage cultivation strategy was employed for the complete mycoremediation of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, about two-third parts of total (33.5% w/w) DEHP bound to BB were utilized in two weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.32 g per g BB) and sharp declining (to ~3) of initial pH (7.2). At this stagnant growth state (low pH), spent medium was replaced by fresh BSM (pH, 7.2), and thus in the second stage the remaining DEHP (one-third) in BB was utilized completely. The ditches and furrows seen from the topology of the BB as seen by the 3D AFM image further confirmed the bioremediation of DEHP physically bound to BB in situ. Of the three mycelial fungi employed, P. lilacinum independently showed highest efficiency for the complete utilization of DEHP bound to BB, whose activity was comparable to that of the consortium comprising all the three fungi described herein. To sum up, the two-stage cultivation strategy demonstrated in this study shows that a batch process would efficiently remediate the phthalic acid esters blended in plastics on a large scale, and thus it offers potentials for the management of plastics wastes.

  19. Alarmin(g) the innate immune system to invasive fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, Alayna K; Obar, Joshua J

    2016-08-01

    Fungi encounter numerous stresses in a mammalian host, including the immune system, which they must adapt to in order to grow and cause disease. The host immune system tunes its response to the threat level posed by the invading pathogen. We discuss recent findings on how interleukin (IL)-1 signaling is central to tuning the immune response to the virulence potential of invasive fungi, as well as other pathogens. Moreover, we discuss fungal factors that may drive tissue invasion and destruction that regulate IL-1 cytokine release. Moving forward understanding the mechanisms of fungal adaption to the host, together with understanding how the host innate immune system recognizes invading fungal pathogens will increase our therapeutic options for treatment of invasive fungal infections.

  20. 10 CFR 603.515 - Qualification of a consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contributions; and (5) Provisions for ownership and rights in intellectual property developed previously or... the consortium's collaboration agreement to ensure that the management plan is sound and that...

  1. 10 CFR 603.515 - Qualification of a consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contributions; and (5) Provisions for ownership and rights in intellectual property developed previously or... the consortium's collaboration agreement to ensure that the management plan is sound and that...

  2. 10 CFR 603.515 - Qualification of a consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contributions; and (5) Provisions for ownership and rights in intellectual property developed previously or... the consortium's collaboration agreement to ensure that the management plan is sound and that...

  3. 10 CFR 603.515 - Qualification of a consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contributions; and (5) Provisions for ownership and rights in intellectual property developed previously or... the consortium's collaboration agreement to ensure that the management plan is sound and that...

  4. International Robotic Radical Cystectomy Consortium: A way forward.

    PubMed

    Raza, Syed Johar; Field, Erinn; Kibel, Adam S; Mottrie, Alex; Weizer, Alon Z; Wagner, Andrew; Hemal, Ashok K; Scherr, Douglas S; Schanne, Francis; Gaboardi, Franco; Wu, Guan; Peabody, James O; Koauk, Jihad; Redorta, Joan Palou; Pattaras, John G; Rha, Koon-Ho; Richstone, Lee; Balbay, M Derya; Menon, Mani; Hayn, Mathew; Stoeckle, Micheal; Wiklund, Peter; Dasgupta, Prokar; Pruthi, Raj; Ghavamian, Reza; Khan, Shamim; Siemer, Stephan; Maatman, Thomas; Wilson, Timothy; Poulakis, Vassilis; Wilding, Greg; Guru, Khurshid A

    2014-07-01

    Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) is an emerging operative alternative to open surgery for the management of invasive bladder cancer. Studies from single institutions provide limited data due to the small number of patients. In order to better understand the related outcomes, a world-wide consortium was established in 2006 of patients undergoing RARC, called the International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium (IRCC). Thus far, the IRCC has reported its findings on various areas of operative interest and continues to expand its capacity to include other operative modalities and transform it into the International Radical Cystectomy Consortium. This article summarizes the findings of the IRCC and highlights the future direction of the consortium.

  5. Latest Developments of the Isprs Student Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detchev, I.; Kanjir, U.; Reyes, S. R.; Miyazaki, H.; Aktas, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    The International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) Student Consortium (SC) is a network for young professionals studying or working within the fields of photogrammetry, remote sensing, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and other related geo-spatial sciences. The main goal of the network is to provide means for information exchange for its young members and thus help promote and integrate youth into the ISPRS. Over the past four years the Student Consortium has successfully continued to fulfil its mission in both formal and informal ways. The formal means of communication of the SC are its website, newsletter, e-mail announcements and summer schools, while its informal ones are multiple social media outlets and various social activities during student related events. The newsletter is published every three to four months and provides both technical and experiential content relevant for the young people in the ISPRS. The SC has been in charge or at least has helped with organizing one or more summer schools every year. The organization's e-mail list has over 1,100 subscribers, its website hosts over 1,300 members from 100 countries across the entire globe, and its public Facebook group currently has over 4,500 joined visitors, who connect among one another and share information relevant for their professional careers. These numbers show that the Student Consortium has grown into a significant online-united community. The paper will present the organization's on-going and past activities for the last four years, its current priorities and a strategic plan and aspirations for the future four-year period.

  6. Fungal degradation of fiber-reinforced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, J. D.; Lu, C.; Mitchell, R.; Thorp, K.; Crasto, A.

    1997-01-01

    As described in a previous report, a fungal consortium isolated from degraded polymeric materials was capable of growth on presterilized coupons of five composites, resulting in deep penetration into the interior of all materials within five weeks. Data describing the utilization of composite constituents as nutrients for the microflora are described in this article. Increased microbial growth was observed when composite extract was incubated with the fungal inoculum at ambient temperatures. Scanning electron microscopic observation of carbon fibers incubated with a naturally developed population of microorganisms showed the formation of bacterial biofilms on the fiber surfaces, suggesting possible utilization of the fiber chemical sizing as carbon and energy sources. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to monitor the phenomena occurring at the fiber-matrix interfaces. Significant differences were observed between inoculated and sterile panels of the composite materials. A progressive decline in impedance was detected in the inoculated panels. Several reaction steps may be involved in the degradation process. Initial ingress of water into the resin matrix appeared to be followed by degradation of fiber surfaces, and separation of fibers from the resin matrix. This investigation suggested that composite materials are susceptible to microbial attack by providing nutrients for growth.

  7. Consortium for materials development in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    During fiscal 1993, the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS) maintained the organizational structure and project orientation established in prior years. The commercial objectives are improved materials, biomedical applications, and infrastructure and support hardware. Projects include nonlinear optical materials; space materials (specifically polymer foam/films, atomic oxygen and high temperature superconductors); alloyed and blended materials: sintered and alloyed materials; polymer and carbonate blends; electrodeposition; organic separation; materials dispersion and biodynamics; space carriers: Consort, COMET support, Spacehab utilization; and flight services: accelerometers, CMIX, USEC, ORSEP, and Space Experiment Facility (SEF).

  8. Consortium for materials development in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The status of the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS) is reviewed. Individual CMDS materials projects and flight opportunities on suborbital and orbital carriers are outlined. Projects include: surface coatings and catalyst production; non-linear optical organic materials; physical properties of immiscible polymers; nuclear track detectors; powdered metal sintering; iron-carbon solidification; high-temperature superconductors; physical vapor transport crystal growth; materials preparation and longevity in hyperthermal oxygen; foam formation; measurement of the microgravity environment; and commercial management of space fluids.

  9. External RNA Controls Consortium Beta Version Update.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hangnoh; Pine, P Scott; McDaniel, Jennifer; Salit, Marc; Oliver, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Spike-in RNAs are valuable controls for a variety of gene expression measurements. The External RNA Controls Consortium developed test sets that were used in a number of published reports. Here we provide an authoritative table that summarizes, updates, and corrects errors in the test version that ultimately resulted in the certified Standard Reference Material 2374. We have noted existence of anti-sense RNA controls in the material, corrected sub-pool memberships, and commented on control RNAs that displayed inconsistent behavior.

  10. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1994 Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high {Tc} superconductivity. During the past year, 27 projects produced over 123 talks and 139 publications. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in August and January); with the second MISCON Workshop held in August; 13 external speakers; 79 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 48 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors.

  11. Document delivery by the Jupiter Library Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessels, Robert H. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Jupiter library consortium consists of 4 of the leading libraries in the Netherlands. During 1993 Jupiter received 600,000 requests for copies of journal articles, or 70 percent of all external article requests in the Netherlands. Over 90 percent of the requested documents were delivered from a collection of 40,000 current international journal subscriptions. Jupiter and its affiliate libraries are non-profit organizations belonging to, and serving, the scientific and technical research community. The usage of the current journal collection of the libraries was analyzed to improve the cost/benefit ratio.

  12. University Research Consortium annual review meeting program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This brochure presents the program for the first annual review meeting of the University Research Consortium (URC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). INEL is a multiprogram laboratory with a distinctive role in applied engineering. It also conducts basic science research and development, and complex facility operations. The URC program consists of a portfolio of research projects funded by INEL and conducted at universities in the United States. In this program, summaries and participant lists for each project are presented as received from the principal investigators.

  13. Serious fungal infections in Chile.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Duarte, E; Denning, D W

    2017-02-10

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000. Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 878 candidaemia cases and 132 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Due to the low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Chile, limited numbers of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are likely: a total of 1212, 25% following TB. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 296 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.7/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated to be around 97.9/100,000 and 127/100,000 respectively, in 675,772 adult asthmatics and 1700 CF patients. Given a 38,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, with around 2189 new cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) annually, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated at 0.12/100,000 and 4.3/100,000, respectively. In total, 325,000 (1.9%) people in Chile develop serious fungal infections annually. Respiratory fungal disease predominates in Chile; a national action plan for fungal disease is urgently needed, including epidemiological studies to validate the estimates.

  14. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-02-04

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (<200 CD4 cell counts) is ∼10,000, with a rate of 11.1% (1100) of histoplasma, 7% (700) of cryptococcal meningitis, and 11% (1070) of Pneumocystis pneumonia. The burden of candidemia is 1037. Recurrent Candida vaginitis (≥4 episodes per year) affects 307,593 women aged 15-50 years. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis probably affects ∼476 patients following tuberculosis (TB). Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 748 patients (∼5.5/100,000). In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthma and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) were estimated to affect 26,642 and 45,013 people, respectively. Our estimates indicate that 433,856 (3%) of the population in Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  15. Biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a wood-degrading consortium at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Simarro, Raquel; González, Natalia; Bautista, Luis Fernando; Molina, Maria Carmen

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluates the ability of two bacterial consortia (C2PL05 and BOS08), extracted from very different environments, to degrade low- (naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene) and high- (pyrene, perylene) molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high (15-25 °C) and low (5-15 °C) temperature ranges. C2PL05 was isolated from a soil in an area chronically and heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and BOS08 from decomposing wood in an unpolluted forest, free of PAHs. Bacterial consortia were described by cultivable and noncultivable techniques (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). Fungal DNA was not observed within the wood-decomposing consortium and fungal activity was therefore negligible during most of the PAH degradation process. PAH-degrading bacterial populations, measured by most probable number enumeration, increased during the exponential phase. Toxicity estimated by the Microtox method was reduced to low levels and final PAH depletion, determined by HPLC, confirmed the high degree (54% and 99%, respectively) of low- and high-molecular-weight PAH degradation capacity of the two consortia. PAH-degrading capacity was also confirmed at low temperatures, and especially by consortium BOS08 not previously exposed to those toxic compounds, where strains of Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Ralstonia sp. and Microbacterium sp. were identified.

  16. A preliminary report of indigenous fungal isolates from contaminated municipal solid waste site in India.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Khan, Jamaluddin

    2017-02-15

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) containing harmful substances is a major concern in waste management and can cause adverse effects on diversity of fungi in soil. The main objective was to evaluate the fungal diversity inhabiting in the soil nearby MSW disposal site. The fungal strains were isolated in potato dextrose agar (PDA), media at temperatures 28 ± 1 °C by using standard serial dilution pour plate method, and appeared fungal colonies identified based on morphological characteristics. The overall most fungal diversity was found in soil sample collected from S5, followed by S4, S3, S1, and least in S2 site. A total of 24 fungal isolates recovered from the different MSW sites and Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., and Curvularia sp. genus has isolated from all the samples. In addition, the metal tolerance index performed because it needs to classify the fungus for their best use as potential agent for environmental protection. The metal tolerance outcomes revealed that both metals (cadmium and chromium) has appeared as the highest growth inhibitor for most strains and even fungal colonies did not propagate very well on the surface of media. Therefore, these findings suggest that the pre-adapted indigenous fungal isolates have proven remarkable tolerance ability to both metals. Furthermore, these highly metal-tolerant fungal strains are recommended for detail research or can use in pilot-scale bioremediation application to treat contaminated site.

  17. Regulatory Circuitry Governing Fungal Development, Drug Resistance, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Rebecca S.; Robbins, Nicole; Cowen, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Pathogenic fungi have become a leading cause of human mortality due to the increasing frequency of fungal infections in immunocompromised populations and the limited armamentarium of clinically useful antifungal drugs. Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus are the leading causes of opportunistic fungal infections. In these diverse pathogenic fungi, complex signal transduction cascades are critical for sensing environmental changes and mediating appropriate cellular responses. For C. albicans, several environmental cues regulate a morphogenetic switch from yeast to filamentous growth, a reversible transition important for virulence. Many of the signaling cascades regulating morphogenesis are also required for cells to adapt and survive the cellular stresses imposed by antifungal drugs. Many of these signaling networks are conserved in C. neoformans and A. fumigatus, which undergo distinct morphogenetic programs during specific phases of their life cycles. Furthermore, the key mechanisms of fungal drug resistance, including alterations of the drug target, overexpression of drug efflux transporters, and alteration of cellular stress responses, are conserved between these species. This review focuses on the circuitry regulating fungal morphogenesis and drug resistance and the impact of these pathways on virulence. Although the three human-pathogenic fungi highlighted in this review are those most frequently encountered in the clinic, they represent a minute fraction of fungal diversity. Exploration of the conservation and divergence of core signal transduction pathways across C. albicans, C. neoformans, and A. fumigatus provides a foundation for the study of a broader diversity of pathogenic fungi and a platform for the development of new therapeutic strategies for fungal disease. PMID:21646428

  18. Fungal diversity in major oil-shale mines in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaoyan; Wang, Wenxing; Xue, Xiangxin; Cao, Chengyou; Zhang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    As an insufficiently utilized energy resource, oil shale is conducive to the formation of characteristic microbial communities due to its special geological origins. However, little is known about fungal diversity in oil shale. Polymerase chain reaction cloning was used to construct the fungal ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) clone libraries of Huadian Mine in Jilin Province, Maoming Mine in Guangdong Province, and Fushun Mine in Liaoning Province. Pure culture and molecular identification were applied for the isolation of cultivable fungi in fresh oil shale of each mine. Results of clone libraries indicated that each mine had over 50% Ascomycota (58.4%-98.9%) and 1.1%-13.5% unidentified fungi. Fushun Mine and Huadian Mine had 5.9% and 28.1% Basidiomycota, respectively. Huadian Mine showed the highest fungal diversity, followed by Fushun Mine and Maoming Mine. Jaccard indexes showed that the similarities between any two of three fungal communities at the genus level were very low, indicating that fungi in each mine developed independently during the long geological adaptation and formed a community composition fitting the environment. In the fresh oil-shale samples of the three mines, cultivable fungal phyla were consistent with the results of clone libraries. Fifteen genera and several unidentified fungi were identified as Ascomycota and Basidiomycota using pure culture. Penicillium was the only genus found in all three mines. These findings contributed to gaining a clear understanding of current fungal resources in major oil-shale mines in China and provided useful information for relevant studies on isolation of indigenous fungi carrying functional genes from oil shale.

  19. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review We review the primary immunodeficiencies underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. Recent findings An increasing number of primary immunodeficiencies are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of IL-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of CARD9 immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. Summary Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by primary immunodeficiencies. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of primary immunodeficiency. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases. PMID:24240293

  20. Serious fungal infections in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, S F; Cole, D C; Denning, D W; Sheppard, D C

    2017-02-04

    There are currently no nationwide epidemiological data on fungal infections in Canada. We estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases using literature review and modeling, as per a methodology previously described by the LIFE program ( http://www.LIFE-worldwide.org ). Among the population of Canada (35.5 million in 2014), it was estimated that approximately 1.8% are affected by a serious fungal infection. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, severe asthma with fungal sensitization, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis are the most frequent infections, with population prevalences of 498,688 (1403/100,000), 73,344 (206/100,000), and 61,854 (174/100,000) cases, respectively. Over 3000 invasive fungal infections are estimated to occur annually, with incidences of 2068 cases (5.8/100,000) of invasive candidiasis, 566 cases (1.6/100,000) of invasive aspergillosis, 252 cases (0.71/100,000) of Pneumocystis pneumonia, 99 cases (0.28/100,000) of endemic mycoses, and 63 cases (0.18/100,000) of cryptococcosis. These estimates warrant validation through more formal epidemiological studies in Canada.

  1. Serious fungal infections in Peru.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, B; Denning, D W; Campos, P E

    2017-02-10

    Epidemiological data about mycotic diseases are limited in Peru and estimation of the fungal burden has not been previously attempted. Data were obtained from the Peruvian National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, UNAIDS and from the Ministry of Health's publications. We also searched the bibliography for Peruvian data on mycotic diseases, asthma, COPD, cancer and transplants. Incidence or prevalence for each fungal disease were estimated in specific populations at risk. The Peruvian population for 2015 was 31,151,543. In 2014, the estimated number of HIV/AIDS and pulmonary tuberculosis cases was 88,625, 38,581 of them not on ART, and 22,027, respectively. A total of 581,174 cases of fungal diseases were estimated, representing approximately 1.9% of the Peruvian population. This figure includes 498,606, 17,361 and 4,431 vulvovaginal, oral and esophageal candidiasis, respectively, 1,557 candidemia cases, 3,593 CPA, 1,621 invasive aspergillosis, 22,453 allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilllosis, 29,638 severe asthma with fungal sensitization, and 1,447 Pneumocystis pneumonia. This first attempt to assess the fungal burden in Peru needs to be refined. We believe the figure obtained is an underestimation, because of under diagnosis, non-mandatory reporting and lack of a surveillance system and of good data about the size of populations at risk.

  2. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) update.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Linda M; Cowan, Morton J; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Kohn, Donald B; Puck, Jennifer M; Shearer, William T; Burroughs, Lauri M; Torgerson, Troy R; Decaluwe, Hélène; Haddad, Elie

    2016-08-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a collaboration of 41 North American centers studying therapy for rare primary immune deficiency diseases (PIDs), including severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). An additional 3 European centers have partnered with the PIDTC to study CGD. Natural history protocols of the PIDTC analyze outcomes of treatment for rare PIDs in multicenter longitudinal retrospective, prospective, and cross-sectional studies. Since 2009, participating centers have enrolled more than 800 subjects on PIDTC protocols for SCID, and enrollment in the studies on WAS and CGD is underway. Four pilot projects have been funded, and 12 junior investigators have received fellowship awards. Important publications of the consortium describe the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation for SCID during 2000-2009, diagnostic criteria for SCID, and the pilot project of newborn screening for SCID in the Navajo Nation. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshops provide an opportunity to strengthen collaborations with junior investigators, patient advocacy groups, and international colleagues. Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Office of Rare Diseases Research, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, the PIDTC has recently received renewal for another 5 years. Here we review accomplishments of the group, projects underway, highlights of recent workshops, and challenges for the future.

  3. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-12-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the Fall SWC Technology Transfer Workshop for the northeastern U.S., in Pittsburgh, PA, on November 9, 2006, and organizing and identifying projects to exhibit during the SWC/Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) joint reception on November 8, 2006; (2) Distributing a paper copy of the Texas Tech 2004 Final Report and a revised, complete compact disc of all 2004 final reports; (3) Invoicing current and potential members for FY2007; (4) Soliciting nominations for the 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; and (5) Communications and outreach.

  4. The NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Ainsztein, Alexandra M.; Brooks, Philip J.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Guo, Max; Howcroft, T. Kevin; Kelley, Christine A.; Kuo, Lillian S.; Labosky, Patricia A.; Lenzi, Rebecca; McKie, George A.; Mohla, Suresh; Procaccini, Dena; Reilly, Matthew; Satterlee, John S.; Srinivas, Pothur R.; Church, Elizabeth Stansell; Sutherland, Margaret; Tagle, Danilo A.; Tucker, Jessica M.; Venkatachalam, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    The Extracellular RNA (exRNA) Communication Consortium, funded as an initiative of the NIH Common Fund, represents a consortium of investigators assembled to address the critical issues in the exRNA research arena. The overarching goal is to generate a multi-component community resource for sharing fundamental scientific discoveries, protocols, and innovative tools and technologies. The key initiatives include (a) generating a reference catalogue of exRNAs present in body fluids of normal healthy individuals that would facilitate disease diagnosis and therapies, (b) defining the fundamental principles of exRNA biogenesis, distribution, uptake, and function, as well as development of molecular tools, technologies, and imaging modalities to enable these studies, (c) identifying exRNA biomarkers of disease, (d) demonstrating clinical utility of exRNAs as therapeutic agents and developing scalable technologies required for these studies, and (e) developing a community resource, the exRNA Atlas, to provide the scientific community access to exRNA data, standardized exRNA protocols, and other useful tools and technologies generated by funded investigators. PMID:26320938

  5. Overview of the carbon products consortium (CPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, C.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Carbon Products Consortium (CPC) is an industry, university, government cooperative research team which has evolved over the past seven years to produce and evaluate coal-derived feedstocks for carbon products. The members of the Carbon Products Consortium are UCAR Carbon Company, Koppers Industries, CONOCO, Aluminum Company of America, AMOCO Polymers, and West Virginia University. The Carbon and Insulation Materials Technology Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Fiber Materials Inc., and BASF Corporation are affiliates of the CPC. The initial work on coal-derived nuclear graphites was supported by a grant to WVU, UCAR Carbon, and ORNL from the U.S. DOE New Production Reactor program. More recently, the CPC program has been supported through the Fossil Energy Materials program and through PETC`s Liquefaction program. The coal processing technologies involve hydrogenation, extraction by solvents such as N-methyl pyrolidone and toluene, material blending, and calcination. The breadth of carbon science expertise and manufacturing capability available in the CPC enables it to address virtually all research and development issues of importance to the carbon products industry.

  6. The COPD Biomarker Qualification Consortium (CBQC).

    PubMed

    Casaburi, Richard; Celli, Bartolome; Crapo, James; Criner, Gerard; Croxton, Thomas; Gaw, Alasdair; Jones, Paul; Kline-Leidy, Nancy; Lomas, David A; Merrill, Debora; Polkey, Michael; Rennard, Stephen; Sciurba, Frank; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Stockley, Robert; Turino, Gerry; Vestbo, Jorgen; Walsh, John

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge about the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has advanced dramatically over the last 30 years. Unfortunately, this has had little impact in terms of new treatments. Over the same time frame, only one new class of medication for COPD has been introduced. Even worse, the rate at which new treatments are being developed is slowing. The development of new tools for the assessment of new treatments has not kept pace with understanding of the disease. In part, this is because drug development tools require a regulatory review, and no interested party has been in a position to undertake such a process. In order to facilitate the development of novel tools to assess new treatments, the Food and Drug Administration, in collaboration with the COPD Foundation, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and scientists from the pharmaceutical industry and academia conducted a workshop to survey the available information that could contribute to new tools. Based on this, a collaborative project, the COPD Biomarkers Qualification Consortium, was initiated. The Consortium in now actively preparing integrated data sets from existing resources that can address the problem of drug development tools for COPD.

  7. 25 CFR 1000.283 - If the Tribe/Consortium or Tribe's/Consortium's employee receives a summons and/or a complaint...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false If the Tribe/Consortium or Tribe's/Consortium's employee receives a summons and/or a complaint alleging a tort covered by FTCA, what should the Tribe/Consortium do...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Federal Tort Claims § 1000.283 If the Tribe/Consortium or...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.283 - If the Tribe/Consortium or Tribe's/Consortium's employee receives a summons and/or a complaint...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false If the Tribe/Consortium or Tribe's/Consortium's employee receives a summons and/or a complaint alleging a tort covered by FTCA, what should the Tribe/Consortium do...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Federal Tort Claims § 1000.283 If the Tribe/Consortium or...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.283 - If the Tribe/Consortium or Tribe's/Consortium's employee receives a summons and/or a complaint...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false If the Tribe/Consortium or Tribe's/Consortium's employee receives a summons and/or a complaint alleging a tort covered by FTCA, what should the Tribe/Consortium do...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Federal Tort Claims § 1000.283 If the Tribe/Consortium or...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.283 - If the Tribe/Consortium or Tribe's/Consortium's employee receives a summons and/or a complaint...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false If the Tribe/Consortium or Tribe's/Consortium's employee receives a summons and/or a complaint alleging a tort covered by FTCA, what should the Tribe/Consortium do...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Federal Tort Claims § 1000.283 If the Tribe/Consortium or...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.283 - If the Tribe/Consortium or Tribe's/Consortium's employee receives a summons and/or a complaint...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If the Tribe/Consortium or Tribe's/Consortium's employee receives a summons and/or a complaint alleging a tort covered by FTCA, what should the Tribe/Consortium do...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Federal Tort Claims § 1000.283 If the Tribe/Consortium or...

  12. Design and composition of synthetic fungal-bacterial microbial consortia that improve lignocellulolytic enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiajun; Xue, Yiyun; Guo, Hongcheng; Gao, Min-Tian; Li, Jixiang; Zhang, Shiping; Tsang, Yiu Fai

    2017-03-01

    Microbial interactions are important for metabolism as they can improve or reduce metabolic efficiency. To improve lignocellulolytic enzyme activity, a series of synergistic microbial consortia of increasing diversity and complexity were devised using fungal strains, including Trichoderma reesei, Penicillium decumbens, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus niger. However, when a screened microbial community with cellulolytic capacity was added to the consortia to increase the number of strains, it engendered more microbial interactions with the above strains and universally improved the β-glucosidase activity of the consortia. Analysis of the microbial community structure revealed that the bacteria in the consortia are more important for lignocellulolytic enzyme activity than the fungi. One fungal and 16 bacterial genera in the consortia may interact with T. reesei and are potential members of a devised synergistic microbial consortium. Such devised microbial consortia may potentially be applied to effectively and economically degrade lignocellulose.

  13. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by a Microbial Consortium Developed from Compost Soils

    PubMed Central

    Nwuche, Charles O.; Ogbonna, James C.

    2014-01-01

    A method for the aerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in shake-flask experiments using a consortium developed from POME compost. POME was initially centrifuged at 4,000 g for 15 min and the supernatant was enriched with (NH4)2SO4 (0.5%) and yeast extract (0.25%) to boost its nitrogen content. At optimum pH (pH 4) and temperature (40°C) conditions, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent decreased from 10,350 to 1,000 mg/L (90.3%) after 7 days. The total bacterial population determined by plate count enumeration was 2.4 × 106 CFU/mL, while the fungal count was 1.8 × 103 colonies/mL. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Bacillus were isolated, while the fungal genera included Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Mucor. When the isolated species were each inoculated into separate batches of the raw effluent, both pH and COD were unchanged. However, at 75 and 50% POME dilutions, the COD dropped by 52 and 44%, respectively, while the pH increased from 4 to 7.53. POME treatment by aerobic method is sustainable and holds promising prospects for cushioning the environment from the problems associated with the use of anaerobic systems. PMID:27433536

  14. A novel sponge disease caused by a consortium of micro-organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Michael; Bulling, Mark; Cerrano, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    In healthy sponges, microbes have been shown to account for up to 40 % of tissues. The majority of these are thought to originate from survivors evading digestion and immune responses of the sponge and growing and residing in the microenvironments of the mesophyll. Although a large percentage of these microbes are likely commensals, they may also include potentially pathogenic agents, which under specific conditions, such as temperature stress, may cause disease. Here we report a novel disease (sponge necrosis syndrome) that is severely affecting populations of the sponge Callyspongia ( Euplacella) aff biru. Both ITS fungal and 16S rDNA bacterial diversities were assessed in healthy and diseased individuals, highlighting six potential primary causal agents for this new disease: two bacteria, a Rhodobacteraceae sp. and a cyanobacterium, Hormoscilla spongeliae (formally identified as Oscillatoria spongeliae), and four fungi, a Ascomycota sp., a Pleosporales sp., a Rhabdocline sp., and a Clasosporium sp. Furthermore, histological analysis showed the dominance of fungal hyphae rather than bacteria throughout the disease lesion, which was absent or rare in healthy tissues. Inoculation trails showed that only a combination of one bacterium and one fungus could replicate the disease, fulfilling Henle-Koch's postulates and showing that this sponge disease is caused by a poly-microbial consortium.

  15. Ecology of Fungal Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Termorshuizen, Aad J

    2016-12-01

    Fungal plant pathogens are ubiquitous and highly diverse. Key to their success is high host density, which notably is the case in agroecosystems. Several hypotheses related to the effects of plant pathogens on plant diversity (the Janzen-Connell hypothesis, the dilution effect hypothesis) and the phenomenon of higher biomass in plant mixtures (i.e., overyielding) can all be explained by the quantitative interplay between host and pathogen density. In many agroecosystems, fungal plant pathogens cause great losses, since in monocultures diseased plants cannot be replaced by healthy plants. On the other hand, in natural ecosystems fungal plant pathogens shape the succession of vegetation and enhance the biodiversity of forests and grasslands. When pathogens are introduced into areas outside their natural range, they may behave differently, causing severe damage. Once introduced, changes may occur such as hybridization with other closely related pathogens or host shifts, host jumps, or horizontal gene transfer. Such changes can be hazardous for both agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  16. Four cats with fungal rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Beth L; Broussard, John; Stefanacci, Joseph D

    2005-02-01

    Fungal rhinitis is uncommon in the cat and cases of nasal aspergillosis-penicilliosis have been rarely reported. Signs of fungal rhinitis include epistaxis, sneezing, mucopurulent nasal discharge and exophthalmos. Brachycephalic feline breeds seem to be at increased risk for development of nasal aspergillosis-penicilliosis. Computed tomography (CT) imaging and rhinoscopy are useful in assessing the extent of the disease and in obtaining diagnostic samples. Fungal culture may lead to false negative or positive results and must be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests. Serological testing was not useful in two cats tested. The cats in this study were treated with oral itraconazole therapy. When itraconazole therapy was discontinued prematurely, clinical signs recurred. Hepatotoxicosis is a possible sequel to itraconazole therapy.

  17. Fungal infection following renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gallis, H A; Berman, R A; Cate, T R; Hamilton, J D; Gunnells, J C; Stickel, D L

    1975-09-01

    Twenty-seven deep fungal infections developed in 22 of 171 patients following renal transplantation. These infections included cryptococcosis (ten), nocardiosis (seven), candidiasis (four), aspergillosis (two), phycomycosis (two), chromomycosis (one), and subcutaneous infection with Phialophora gougeroti (one). Twelve infections occurred in living-related and ten in cadaveric recipients. Nineteen of the 22 patients were male. Infections occurred from 0 to 61 months after transplantation. Complicating non-fungal infections were present concomitantly in 15 patients. Thirteen patients died, eight probably as a result of fungal infection. Appropriate diagnostic procedures yielded a diagnosis in 20 of 27 infections, and therapy was begun in 18 patients. Serologic, culture, and biopsy procedures useful in making rapid diagnoses are advocated in the hope of increasing survival.

  18. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiajia; Gao, Bin; Zhu, Shunyi

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs) will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8) according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential. PMID:25230677

  19. United States Participation in the Pacific Circle Consortium. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The goal of the Pacific Circle Project is to improve international and intercultural understanding among the people and nations of the Pacific. Consortium member countries are Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. Within the countries are chosen member institutions. Two major types of activities of the consortium are the exchange…

  20. The Consortium for Higher Education Tax Reform Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Postsecondary and Economic Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper presents the work of the Consortium for Higher Education Tax Reform, a partnership funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation as part of the second phase of its Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery (RADD) initiative. Consortium partners are the Center for Postsecondary and Economic Success at CLASP, the Education Trust, New…

  1. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2003-04-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

  2. A Consortium-based Research Education Program for Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Anne Victoria; Pieper, David; Hammel, Ernest

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a consortium-based research education seminar program developed by the OHEP Center for Medical Education that presents a yearly research forum in which the best research projects from consortium members are presented by the resident-researchers, who compete for recognition and prize money. Of the 128 presentations to date 25 percent…

  3. 24 CFR 943.118 - What is a consortium?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES Consortia § 943.118 What is a consortium? A... consortium also submits a joint PHA Plan. The lead agency collects the assistance funds from HUD that would... same fiscal year so that the applicable periods for submission and review of the joint PHA Plan are...

  4. Policy Report of the Physician Consortium on Substance Abuse Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David C.; Faggett, Walter L.

    This report contains the recommendations of the Physician Consortium for significantly improving medical education and training to enhance the physician's role in early identification, treatment, and prevention of substance abuse. In addition, the consortium subcommittees report on their examination of substance abuse treatment needs of ethnic and…

  5. Region 10 Tech Prep Consortium. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilke, Jayne; Dacey, Vickie

    The Tech Prep Region 10 Consortium in Indiana was formed to develop and expand the use of the Tech Prep model adopted by the state to all educational institutions in the region. Involving collaboration among postsecondary institutions, secondary schools, and business and industry within state regions, the consortium design involved three phases:…

  6. Degradation of furfural (2-furaldehyde) to methane and carbon dioxide by an anaerobic consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Grohmann, K.

    1991-12-31

    Furfural, a byproduct formed during the thermal/chemical pretreatment of hemicellulosic biomass, was degraded to methane and carbon dioxide under anaerobic conditions. The consortium of anaerobic microbes responsible for the degradation was enriched using small continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) systems with daily batch feeding of biomass pretreatment liquor and continuous addition of furfural. Although the continuous infusion of furfural was initially inhibitory to the anaerobic CSTR system, adaptation of the consortium occurred rapidly with high rates of furfural addition. Addition rates of 7.35 mg furfural/700-mL reactor/d resulted in biogas productions of 375%, of that produced in control CSTR systems, fed the biomass pretreatment liquor only. The anaerobic CSTR system fed high levels of furfural was stable, with a sludge pH of 7.1 and methane gas composition of 69%, compared to the control CSTR, which had a pH of 7.2 and 77% methane. CSTR systems in which furfural was continuously added resulted in 80% of the theoretically expected biogas. Intermediates in the anaerobic biodegradation of furfural were determined by spike additions in serum-bottle assays using the enriched consortium from the CSTR systems. Furfural was converted to several intermediates, including furfuryl alcohol, furoic acid, and acetic acid, before final conversion to methane and carbon dioxide.

  7. Ability of sea-water bacterial consortium to produce electricity and denitrify water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruvada, Nagasamrat V. V.; Tommasi, Tonia; Kaza, Kesava Rao; Ruggeri, Bernardo

    Sea is a store house for varied types of microbes with an ability to reduce and oxidize substances like iron, sulphur, carbon dioxide, etc. Most of these processes happen in the sea water environment, but can be applied for purification of wastewater. In the present paper, we discuss the use of a consortium of seawater bacteria in a fuel cell to produce electricity by oxidizing organic matter and reducing nitrates. We also discuss how the growth of the bacterial consortium can lead to an increased electricity production and decreased diffusional resistance in the cell. The analysis was done using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Here, we use bicarbonate buffered solution, which is the natural buffering agent found in sea. We show that the seawater bacterial consortium can be used in both the anode and cathode parts of the cell. The results confirm the adaptability of the seawater bacteria to different environments and can be used for various applications. Heritage, Erasmus Mundus Programme, European Commission.

  8. Inner-City Energy and Environmental Education Consortium: Inventory of existing programs. Appendix 13.5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-21

    This is the ``first effort`` to prepare an inventory of existing educational programs, focused primarily on inner-city youth, in operation in Washington, DC, Baltimore, and Philadelphia. The purpose of the inventory is to identify existing programs which could be augmented, adapted, or otherwise strengthened to help fulfil the mission of the Department of Energy-sponsored Inner-City Energy and Environmental Education Consortium, the mission of which is to recruit and retain inner-city youth to pursue careers in energy-related scientific and technical areas and in environmental restoration and waste management. The Consortium does not want to ``reinvent the wheel`` and all of its members need to learn what others are doing. Each of the 30 participating academic institutions was invited to submit as many program descriptions as they wished. Due to the summer holidays, or because they did not believe than they were carrying out programs relevant to the mission of the Consortium, some institutions did not submit any program descriptions. In addition, several industries, governmental agencies, and not-for-profit institutions were invited to submit program descriptions.

  9. The virtual atomic and molecular data centre (VAMDC) consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubernet, M. L.; Antony, B. K.; Ba, Y. A.; Babikov, Yu L.; Bartschat, K.; Boudon, V.; Braams, B. J.; Chung, H.-K.; Daniel, F.; Delahaye, F.; Del Zanna, G.; de Urquijo, J.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Domaracka, A.; Doronin, M.; Drouin, B. J.; Endres, C. P.; Fazliev, A. Z.; Gagarin, S. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Gratier, P.; Heiter, U.; Hill, C.; Jevremović, D.; Joblin, C.; Kasprzak, A.; Krishnakumar, E.; Leto, G.; Loboda, P. A.; Louge, T.; Maclot, S.; Marinković, B. P.; Markwick, A.; Marquart, T.; Mason, H. E.; Mason, N. J.; Mendoza, C.; Mihajlov, A. A.; Millar, T. J.; Moreau, N.; Mulas, G.; Pakhomov, Yu; Palmeri, P.; Pancheshnyi, S.; Perevalov, V. I.; Piskunov, N.; Postler, J.; Quinet, P.; Quintas-Sánchez, E.; Ralchenko, Yu; Rhee, Y.-J.; Rixon, G.; Rothman, L. S.; Roueff, E.; Ryabchikova, T.; Sahal-Bréchot, S.; Scheier, P.; Schlemmer, S.; Schmitt, B.; Stempels, E.; Tashkun, S.; Tennyson, J.; Tyuterev, Vl G.; Vujčić, V.; Wakelam, V.; Walton, N. A.; Zatsarinny, O.; Zeippen, C. J.; Zwölf, C. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) Consortium is a worldwide consortium which federates atomic and molecular databases through an e-science infrastructure and an organisation to support this activity. About 90% of the inter-connected databases handle data that are used for the interpretation of astronomical spectra and for modelling in many fields of astrophysics. Recently the VAMDC Consortium has connected databases from the radiation damage and the plasma communities, as well as promoting the publication of data from Indian institutes. This paper describes how the VAMDC Consortium is organised for the optimal distribution of atomic and molecular data for scientific research. It is noted that the VAMDC Consortium strongly advocates that authors of research papers using data cite the original experimental and theoretical papers as well as the relevant databases. .

  10. Fungal secretomes--nature's toolbox for white biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Bouws, Henning; Wattenberg, Andreas; Zorn, Holger

    2008-09-01

    Adapting their metabolism to varying carbon and nitrogen sources, saprophytic fungi produce an arsenal of extracellular enzymes, the secretome, which allows for an efficient degradation of lignocelluloses and further biopolymers. Based on fundamental advances in electrophoretic, chromatographic, and mass spectrometric techniques on the one hand and the availability of annotated fungal genomes and sophisticated bioinformatic software tools on the other hand, a detailed analysis of fungal secretomes has become feasible. While a number of reports on ascomycetous secretomes of, e.g., Aspergillus, Trichoderma, and Fusarium species are already available, studies on basidiomycetes have been mainly focused on the two model organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coprinopsis cinerea so far. Though an impressive number and diversity of fungal biocatalysts has been revealed by secretome analyses, the identity and function of many extracellular proteins still remains to be elucidated. A comprehensive understanding of the qualitative and quantitative composition of fungal secretomes, together with their synergistic actions and kinetic expression profiles, will allow for the development of optimized enzyme cocktails for white biotechnology.

  11. The Black Rock Forest Consortium: A narrative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzetto-More, Nicole Antoinette

    The Black Rock Forest is a 3,785-acre wilderness area whose richly forested landscape represents the splendor of the Hudson Valley Region of New York State. Although originally intended to become the home of wealthy banker James Stillman, it was his son Ernest whose love of conservation caused him to embrace the then new and revolutionary practice of sustainable forestry and establish Black Rock in 1928. Due to Ernest Stillman's foresight, the property was protected from development and bequeathed to Harvard University following his death for the establishment of an experimental forest. The modern environmental movement in America began when the Black Rock Forest was threatened with development by Consolidated Edison, and the people of the surrounding community banded together, battling tirelessly for over 17 years to stop the degradation of this historic forest. The outcome of this crusade marked a hallmark win for the environment leaving an illustrious and inveterate legacy. The campaign resulted in the watershed legislation the National Environmental Policy Act, the formation of several environmental advocacy groups, the creation of the Council on Environmental Quality of the Executive Office of the President, as well as set a precedent for communities to initiate and win cases against major corporations in order to safeguard natural resources. In the midst of the controversy it became apparent that alternative futures for the Forest needed to be explored. As a result of a committee report and one man's vision, the idea emerged to create a consortium that would purchase and steward the Forest. With a formation that took nearly fifteen years, the Black Rock Forest Consortium was formed, a unique amalgamation of K--12 public and private schools, colleges and universities, and science and cultural centers that successfully collaborate to enhance scientific research, environmental conservation, and education. The Consortium works to bridge the gaps between learners

  12. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook ... Mold . Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because ...

  13. Diversity patterns, ecology and biological activities of fungal communities associated with the endemic macroalgae across the Antarctic peninsula.

    PubMed

    Furbino, Laura E; Godinho, Valéria M; Santiago, Iara F; Pellizari, Franciane M; Alves, Tânia M A; Zani, Carlos L; Junior, Policarpo A S; Romanha, Alvaro J; Carvalho, Amanda G O; Gil, Laura H V G; Rosa, Carlos A; Minnis, Andrew M; Rosa, Luiz H

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed diversity patterns and engaged in bioprospecting for bioactive compounds of fungi associated with the endemic macroalgae, Monostroma hariotii and Pyropia endiviifolia, in Antarctica. A total of 239 fungal isolates were obtained, which were identified to represent 48 taxa and 18 genera using molecular methods. The fungal communities consisted of endemic, indigenous and cold-adapted cosmopolitan taxa, which displayed high diversity and richness, but low dominance indices. The extracts of endemic and cold-adapted fungi displayed biological activities and may represent sources of promising prototype molecules to develop drugs. Our results suggest that macroalgae along the marine Antarctic Peninsula provide additional niches where fungal taxa can survive and coexist with their host in the extreme conditions. We hypothesise that the dynamics of richness and dominance among endemic, indigenous and cold-adapted cosmopolitan fungal taxa might be used to understand and model the influence of climate change on the maritime Antarctic mycota.

  14. Protective immune responses to fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Rivera, A

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of fungal infections has been on the rise over several decades. Fungal infections threaten animals, plants and humans alike and are thus of significant concern to scientists across disciplines. Over the last decade, significant advances on fungal immunology have lead to a better understanding of important mechanisms of host protection against fungi. In this article, I review recent advances of relevant mechanisms of immune-mediated protection to fungal infections.

  15. Spatiotemporal dynamics and correlation networks of bacterial and fungal communities in a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Jeong, So-Yeon; Yi, Taewoo; Lee, Chung-Hak; Kim, Tae Gwan

    2016-11-15

    To systematically study biofilm communities responsible for biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs), we characterized the spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterial and fungal biofilm communities, and their networks, in a pilot-scale flat-sheet MBR treating actual municipal wastewater. Activated sludge (AS) and membrane samples were collected on days 4 and 8. The membranes were cut into 18 tiles, and bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed using next generation sequencing. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) plots revealed significant temporal variations in bacterial and fungal biofilm communities due to changes in the abundances of a few dominant members. Although the experimental conditions and inoculum species pools remained constant, variogram plots of bacterial and fungal communities revealed decay in local community similarity with geographic distance at each sampling time. Variogram modeling (exponential rise to maximum, R(2) ≥ 0.79) revealed that decay patterns of both communities were different between days 4 and 8. In addition, networks of bacteria or fungi alone were distinct in network composition between days 4 and 8. The day-8 networks were more compact and clustered than those of the earlier time point. Bacteria-fungi networks show that the number of inter-domain associations decreased from 113 to 40 with time, confirming that membrane biofilm is a complex consortium of bacteria and fungi. Spatiotemporal succession in biofilm communities may be common on MBR membranes, resulting from different geographic distributions of initial microbial populations and their priority effects.

  16. Revealing the unexplored fungal communities in deep groundwater of crystalline bedrock fracture zones in Olkiluoto, Finland.

    PubMed

    Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin; Miettinen, Hanna; Nyyssönen, Mari; Salavirta, Heikki; Vikman, Minna; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and functional role of fungi, one of the ecologically most important groups of eukaryotic microorganisms, remains largely unknown in deep biosphere environments. In this study we investigated fungal communities in packer-isolated bedrock fractures in Olkiluoto, Finland at depths ranging from 296 to 798 m below surface level. DNA- and cDNA-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing analysis of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene markers was used to examine the total fungal diversity and to identify the active members in deep fracture zones at different depths. Results showed that fungi were present in fracture zones at all depths and fungal diversity was higher than expected. Most of the observed fungal sequences belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Phyla Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were only represented as a minor part of the fungal community. Dominating fungal classes in the deep bedrock aquifers were Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Dothideomycetes from the Ascomycota phylum and classes Microbotryomycetes and Tremellomycetes from the Basidiomycota phylum, which are the most frequently detected fungal taxa reported also from deep sea environments. In addition some fungal sequences represented potentially novel fungal species. Active fungi were detected in most of the fracture zones, which proves that fungi are able to maintain cellular activity in these oligotrophic conditions. Possible roles of fungi and their origin in deep bedrock groundwater can only be speculated in the light of current knowledge but some species may be specifically adapted to deep subsurface environment and may play important roles in the utilization and recycling of nutrients and thus sustaining the deep subsurface microbial community.

  17. Fungal Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases: Their Distribution, Structure, Functions, Family Expansion, and Evolutionary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanping; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jefcoate, Colin; Kim, Sun-Chang; Chen, Fusheng; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase superfamily contributes a broad array of biological functions in living organisms. In fungi, CYPs play diverse and pivotal roles in versatile metabolism and fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches. In this report, CYPomes in the 47 genomes of fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota have been studied. The comparison of fungal CYPomes suggests that generally fungi possess abundant CYPs belonging to a variety of families with the two global families CYP51 and CYP61, indicating individuation of CYPomes during the evolution of fungi. Fungal CYPs show highly conserved characteristic motifs, but very low overall sequence similarities. The characteristic motifs of fungal CYPs are distinguishable from those of CYPs in animals, plants, and especially archaea and bacteria. The four representative motifs contribute to the general function of CYPs. Fungal CYP51s and CYP61s can be used as the models for the substrate recognition sites analysis. The CYP proteins are clustered into 15 clades and the phylogenetic analyses suggest that the wide variety of fungal CYPs has mainly arisen from gene duplication. Two large duplication events might have been associated with the booming of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In addition, horizontal gene transfer also contributes to the diversification of fungal CYPs. Finally, a possible evolutionary scenario for fungal CYPs along with fungal divergences is proposed. Our results provide the fundamental information for a better understanding of CYP distribution, structure and function, and new insights into the evolutionary events of fungal CYPs along with the evolution of fungi. PMID:24966179

  18. Revealing the unexplored fungal communities in deep groundwater of crystalline bedrock fracture zones in Olkiluoto, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin; Miettinen, Hanna; Nyyssönen, Mari; Salavirta, Heikki; Vikman, Minna; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and functional role of fungi, one of the ecologically most important groups of eukaryotic microorganisms, remains largely unknown in deep biosphere environments. In this study we investigated fungal communities in packer-isolated bedrock fractures in Olkiluoto, Finland at depths ranging from 296 to 798 m below surface level. DNA- and cDNA-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing analysis of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene markers was used to examine the total fungal diversity and to identify the active members in deep fracture zones at different depths. Results showed that fungi were present in fracture zones at all depths and fungal diversity was higher than expected. Most of the observed fungal sequences belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Phyla Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were only represented as a minor part of the fungal community. Dominating fungal classes in the deep bedrock aquifers were Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Dothideomycetes from the Ascomycota phylum and classes Microbotryomycetes and Tremellomycetes from the Basidiomycota phylum, which are the most frequently detected fungal taxa reported also from deep sea environments. In addition some fungal sequences represented potentially novel fungal species. Active fungi were detected in most of the fracture zones, which proves that fungi are able to maintain cellular activity in these oligotrophic conditions. Possible roles of fungi and their origin in deep bedrock groundwater can only be speculated in the light of current knowledge but some species may be specifically adapted to deep subsurface environment and may play important roles in the utilization and recycling of nutrients and thus sustaining the deep subsurface microbial community. PMID:26106376

  19. The International Human Epigenome Consortium Data Portal.

    PubMed

    Bujold, David; Morais, David Anderson de Lima; Gauthier, Carol; Côté, Catherine; Caron, Maxime; Kwan, Tony; Chen, Kuang Chung; Laperle, Jonathan; Markovits, Alexei Nordell; Pastinen, Tomi; Caron, Bryan; Veilleux, Alain; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Bourque, Guillaume

    2016-11-23

    The International Human Epigenome Consortium (IHEC) coordinates the production of reference epigenome maps through the characterization of the regulome, methylome, and transcriptome from a wide range of tissues and cell types. To define conventions ensuring the compatibility of datasets and establish an infrastructure enabling data integration, analysis, and sharing, we developed the IHEC Data Portal (http://epigenomesportal.ca/ihec). The portal provides access to >7,000 reference epigenomic datasets, generated from >600 tissues, which have been contributed by seven international consortia: ENCODE, NIH Roadmap, CEEHRC, Blueprint, DEEP, AMED-CREST, and KNIH. The portal enhances the utility of these reference maps by facilitating the discovery, visualization, analysis, download, and sharing of epigenomics data. The IHEC Data Portal is the official source to navigate through IHEC datasets and represents a strategy for unifying the distributed data produced by international research consortia.

  20. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Drafting and releasing the 2007 Request for Proposals; (2) Securing a meeting facility, scheduling and drafting plans for the 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; (3) Conducting elections and announcing representatives for the four 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; (4) 2005 Final Project Reports; (5) Personal Digital Assistant Workshops scheduled; and (6) Communications and outreach.

  1. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1995 Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high Tc superconductivity. During the past year, 26 projects produced over 133 talks and 127 publications. Three Master`s Degrees and 9 Doctor`s of Philosophy Degrees were granted to students working on MISCON projects. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in January and July); the third MISCON Summer School held in July; 12 external speakers; 81 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 54 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temp superconductors.

  2. The Bholghati (howardite) consortium - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J.-C.

    1990-01-01

    The Bholghati (howardite) has had a complex history. The consortium studies indicate that eucrite clasts show evidence of rapid crystallization followed by prolonged subsolidus annealing. Dark clasts are carbonaceous CM2 type. Bholghati bulk composition can be modeled by 55 percent eucritic, 45 percent diogenitic, and 3 percent dark clast components. The eucritic clasts show a LREE depleted pattern relative to HREEs, which is not typical of a normal eucrite. The LREE depletion requires two-stage melting from a chondritic source. The Bholghati evolution scenario is (1) early multiple magmatic events (4.53 Ga ago), producing eucrites and diogenites; (2) a metamorphic event (2-3 Ga ago) and prolonged subsolidus annealing; (3) fragmentation and low-temperature mixing of eucrites and diogenites; (4) low-velocity impact and admixing of carbonaceous material; (5) disruption of regolith and ejection of Bholghati 10-17 Ma ago; and (6) Bholghati fell on the earth in 1905.

  3. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium. Progress report, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bement, A.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high Tc superconductivity. Programmatic research focuses upon key materials-related problems; principally, synthesis and processing and properties limiting transport phenomena. During the past year, 26 projects produced over 133 talks and 113 publications. publications. Two Master`s Degrees and one Ph.D. were granted to students working on MISCON projects. Group activities and interactions involved two MISCON group meetings (held in July and January), twenty external speakers, 36 collaborations, 10 exchanges of samples and/or measurements, and one (1) gift of equipment from industry. Research achievements this past year expanded our understanding of processing phenomena on structure property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors.

  4. The Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Sylwester, A.; Baker, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    The United States and Russia discovered a mutual interest in fuel cell development during a series of workshops designed to teach entrepreneurial skills to Russian nuclear weapon scientists and engineers to aid them in converting their skill to peaceful applications. The proposal for a Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium was initiated at the third workshop held in Livermore, CA, in May 1994. Representatives from U.S. fuel cell industries, U.S. research institutes, Russian institutes and ministries, and U.S. national laboratories attended, including those from GAZPROM, the Russian natural gas company. GASPROM needs to provide power for telemetry, cathodic corrosion protection of gas lines, and gas line pumping power in remote areas, and estimates that it needs approximately seventy thousand 1.5 to 15 KW plants to do so. Since the workshop, several direct working relationships have developed between the Russian Nuclear Weapon Institutes and the U.S. fuel cell industry.

  5. ZATPAC: a model consortium evaluates teen programs.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kathryn; Murphy, Dana; Parsons, Chris

    2009-09-01

    How do we advance the environmental literacy of young people, support the next generation of environmental stewards and increase the diversity of the leadership of zoos and aquariums? We believe it is through ongoing evaluation of zoo and aquarium teen programming and have founded a consortium to pursue those goals. The Zoo and Aquarium Teen Program Assessment Consortium (ZATPAC) is an initiative by six of the nation's leading zoos and aquariums to strengthen institutional evaluation capacity, model a collaborative approach toward assessing the impact of youth programs, and bring additional rigor to evaluation efforts within the field of informal science education. Since its beginning in 2004, ZATPAC has researched, developed, pilot-tested and implemented a pre-post program survey instrument designed to assess teens' knowledge of environmental issues, skills and abilities to take conservation actions, self-efficacy in environmental actions, and engagement in environmentally responsible behaviors. Findings from this survey indicate that teens who join zoo/aquarium programs are already actively engaged in many conservation behaviors. After participating in the programs, teens showed a statistically significant increase in their reported knowledge of conservation and environmental issues and their abilities to research, explain, and find resources to take action on conservation issues of personal concern. Teens also showed statistically significant increases pre-program to post-program for various conservation behaviors, including "I talk with my family and/or friends about things they can do to help the animals or the environment," "I save water...," "I save energy...," "When I am shopping I look for recycled products," and "I help with projects that restore wildlife habitat."

  6. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  7. Fungal farming in a snail

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Brian R.; Newell, Steven Y.

    2003-01-01

    Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria irrorata grazes fungus-infected wounds on live marsh grass throughout its range. Field experiments demonstrate a facultative, farming mutualism between Littoraria and intertidal fungi. Snails graze live grass primarily not to feed but to prepare substrate for fungal growth and consume invasive fungi. Fungal removal experiments show that snails and fungi act synergistically to suppress marsh grass production. These results provide a case of fungus farming in the marine environment and outside the class Insecta and reveal a previously undemonstrated ecological mechanism (i.e., facilitation of fungal invasion) by which grazers can exert top-down control of marine plant production. PMID:14657360

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FUNGAL TREATMENT BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fungal treatment technology uses white rot fungi (lignin degrading fungi) to treat organic contaminated soils in situ. Organic materials inoculated with the fungi are mechanically mixed into the contaminated soil. Using enzymes normally produced for wood degradation as well as ot...

  9. Consortium of Schools for the Future: An Interim Report of a Pilot Project Sponsored by Region 18 of the California School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivero, James

    This document reports on a pilot project called "The Consortium of Schools for the Future," designed to anticipate and make necessary adaptations for the future of public education. A section describing the project precedes a discussion of the disparity between advantaged and disadvantaged students--particularly along racial and ethnic…

  10. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, M.

    2012-09-01

    The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50-200 µm in diameter) body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter) are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  11. Serious fungal infections in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chayakulkeeree, M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-04

    The burden of serious fungal infection in Thailand is increasing but data regarding its incidence and prevalence are lacking. In this study we aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal diseases in Thailand based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases. Data derived from The Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Thai Ministry of Public Health, World Health Organisation, international and local reports, and some unreported data were used. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes per year) is estimated to occur in 3,310 per 100,000 population. Using a previously described rate that 14/10,000 admissions are with fungaemia and 94% of those are Candida, we estimated 8,650 patients with candidaemia. The prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is relatively high with a total of 19,044, approximately half subsequent to pulmonary tuberculosis. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 941 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantations, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, approximately 1.4/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation were estimated at approximately 58.4/100,000 and 77/100,000, respectively. Given approximately 8,134 new cases of AIDS annually, cryptococcal meningitis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, and Talaromyces marneffei infection are estimated at 1.9/100,000, 2.6/100,000, and 0.3/100,000, respectively. The present study indicates that about 1.93% (1,254,562) of the population is affected by serious fungal infections. Owing to the lack of data, reports, and statistics, the number of patients with mycoses in Thailand can only be estimated.

  12. [Activity of NTDs Drug-discovery Research Consortium].

    PubMed

    Namatame, Ichiji

    2016-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are an extremely important issue facing global health care. To improve "access to health" where people are unable to access adequate medical care due to poverty and weak healthcare systems, we have established two consortiums: the NTD drug discovery research consortium, and the pediatric praziquantel consortium. The NTD drug discovery research consortium, which involves six institutions from industry, government, and academia, as well as an international non-profit organization, is committed to developing anti-protozoan active compounds for three NTDs (Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and African sleeping sickness). Each participating institute will contribute their efforts to accomplish the following: selection of drug targets based on information technology, and drug discovery by three different approaches (in silico drug discovery, "fragment evolution" which is a unique drug designing method of Astellas Pharma, and phenotypic screening with Astellas' compound library). The consortium has established a brand new database (Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease Database; iNTRODB), and has selected target proteins for the in silico and fragment evolution drug discovery approaches. Thus far, we have identified a number of promising compounds that inhibit the target protein, and we are currently trying to improve the anti-protozoan activity of these compounds. The pediatric praziquantel consortium was founded in July 2012 to develop and register a new praziquantel pediatric formulation for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Astellas Pharma has been a core member in this consortium since its establishment, and has provided expertise and technology in the area of pediatric formulation development and clinical development.

  13. Fluorometric detection and estimation of fungal biomass on cultural heritage materials.

    PubMed

    Konkol, Nick; McNamara, Christopher J; Mitchell, Ralph

    2010-02-01

    A wide variety of cultural heritage materials are susceptible to fungal deterioration. The paper, canvas, and stone constituents of our cultural heritage are subjected to harmful physical and chemical processes as they are slowly consumed by fungi. Remediation of fungal contamination can be costly and risk further damage to cultural artifacts. Early detection of fungal growth would permit the use of relatively noninvasive treatments to remediate fungal contamination before visible or lasting damage to the object has occurred. Current methods used for the detection and measurement of microbial biomass, such as colony counts, microscopic biovolume estimation, and ergosterol analysis are expensive and time consuming, or are inappropriate for use with fungi. Beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (3.2.1.52) activity provides a reliable estimation of fungal biomass in soil and on building materials. Adapted for use on cultural heritage materials' fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferyl (MUF) labeled substrate N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminide (NAG) was used to detect beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity in the fungus Aspergillus niger. Fluorescence increased linearly with fungal biomass and the sensitivity of the assay was comparable to other biochemical techniques. The fluorometric assay was used to monitor fungal biomass on a variety of cultural heritage materials non-destructively, and without the introduction of chemicals or solvents to the surfaces.

  14. Host genotype shapes the foliar fungal microbiome of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera).

    PubMed

    Bálint, Miklós; Tiffin, Peter; Hallström, Björn; O'Hara, Robert B; Olson, Matthew S; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Piepenbring, Meike; Schmitt, Imke

    2013-01-01

    Foliar fungal communities of plants are diverse and ubiquitous. In grasses endophytes may increase host fitness; in trees, their ecological roles are poorly understood. We investigated whether the genotype of the host tree influences community structure of foliar fungi. We sampled leaves from genotyped balsam poplars from across the species' range, and applied 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize foliar fungal communities. At the time of the sampling the poplars had been growing in a common garden for two years. We found diverse fungal communities associated with the poplar leaves. Linear discriminant analysis and generalized linear models showed that host genotypes had a structuring effect on the composition of foliar fungal communities. The observed patterns may be explained by a filtering mechanism which allows the trees to selectively recruit fungal strains from the environment. Alternatively, host genotype-specific fungal communities may be present in the tree systemically, and persist in the host even after two clonal reproductions. Both scenarios are consistent with host tree adaptation to specific foliar fungal communities and suggest that there is a functional basis for the strong biotic interaction.

  15. The Chemical Basis of Fungal Bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Purtov, Konstantin V; Petushkov, Valentin N; Baranov, Mikhail S; Mineev, Konstantin S; Rodionova, Natalja S; Kaskova, Zinaida M; Tsarkova, Aleksandra S; Petunin, Alexei I; Bondar, Vladimir S; Rodicheva, Emma K; Medvedeva, Svetlana E; Oba, Yuichi; Oba, Yumiko; Arseniev, Alexander S; Lukyanov, Sergey; Gitelson, Josef I; Yampolsky, Ilia V

    2015-07-06

    Many species of fungi naturally produce light, a phenomenon known as bioluminescence, however, the fungal substrates used in the chemical reactions that produce light have not been reported. We identified the fungal compound luciferin 3-hydroxyhispidin, which is biosynthesized by oxidation of the precursor hispidin, a known fungal and plant secondary metabolite. The fungal luciferin does not share structural similarity with the other eight known luciferins. Furthermore, it was shown that 3-hydroxyhispidin leads to bioluminescence in extracts from four diverse genera of luminous fungi, thus suggesting a common biochemical mechanism for fungal bioluminescence.

  16. The Contribution of Fungal Necromass to Soil Organic Matter Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, K. M.; Blair, N. E.; Buiser, A.; Egerton-Warburton, L.

    2013-12-01

    Saprotrophic fungi have the ability to degrade the three most important biopolymers: cellulose, lignin, and chitin, and therefore are key moderators of a globally important flow of carbon. However, little is known about how that carbon is transformed and/or stored in soil organic matter (SOM). Fungi are also known to produce a variety of biopolymers, such as chitin, melanin, glucan, and mucus-like exudates, and it is likely that these compounds contribute to long-term storage of SOM. In fact, recent work with ectomycorrhizal fungi has shown that a portion of the fungal necromass survives after degradation times of a few weeks to one month (e.g. Drigo et al. 2012, Clemmenson et al. 2013). Until now, the potential contribution of other abundant fungi to recalcitrant SOM has been unknown. Soil incubations have been performed with the common saprotrophic fungus, Fusarium avencum. Approximately 80% of the fungal material was found to turnover over on a time period of days, but 15% of the original biomass was left over at the end of the two-month degradation experiment in both laboratory experiments and in situ in the Dixon Prairie of the Chicago Botanic Garden. In both experiments, degradation was performed by a natural soil microbial consortium. Residual fungal material at each point in the decomposition sequence was analyzed using FTIR and thermochemolysis-GCMS with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide. The recalcitrant fraction contained carbohydrate and amide-linked functional groups, which is consistent with the chitin or chitosan biopolymer. The breakdown of more labile organic carbon (including proteins and ester-linked groups) appears to occur on a more rapid time scale. Additionally, lipid biomarker analyses revealed a succession of microbial degraders in the degradation process. This is the first time a study of this kind has been performed using a widely distributed saprotrophic fungus, and indicates that these fungi are potentially important in long-term C

  17. Fungal diversity in oxygen-depleted regions of the Arabian Sea revealed by targeted environmental sequencing combined with cultivation.

    PubMed

    Jebaraj, Cathrine S; Raghukumar, Chandralata; Behnke, Anke; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2010-03-01

    In order to study fungal diversity in oxygen minimum zones of the Arabian Sea, we analyzed 1440 cloned small subunit rRNA gene (18S rRNA gene) sequences obtained from environmental samples using three different PCR primer sets. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses yielded 549 distinct RFLP patterns, 268 of which could be assigned to fungi (Dikarya and zygomycetes) after sequence analyses. The remaining 281 RFLP patterns represented a variety of nonfungal taxa, even when using putatively fungal-specific primers. A substantial number of fungal sequences were closely related to environmental sequences from a range of other anoxic marine habitats, but distantly related to known sequences of described fungi. Community similarity analyses suggested distinctively different structures of fungal communities from normoxic sites, seasonally anoxic sites and permanently anoxic sites, suggesting different adaptation strategies of fungal communities to prevailing oxygen conditions. Additionally, we obtained 26 fungal cultures from the study sites, most of which were closely related (>97% sequence similarity) to well-described Dikarya. This indicates that standard cultivation mainly produces more of what is already known. However, two of these cultures were highly divergent to known sequences and seem to represent novel fungal groups on high taxonomic levels. Interestingly, none of the cultured isolates is identical to any of the environmental sequences obtained. Our study demonstrates the importance of a multiple-primer approach combined with cultivation to obtain deeper insights into the true fungal diversity in environmental samples and to enable adequate intersample comparisons of fungal communities.

  18. Seamless Resource-Adaptive Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Tim; Stahl, Christoph; Baus, Jörg; Wahlster, Wolfgang

    Research in the project RENA (REsource-Adapative NAvigation) together with DFKI GmbH, BMW Research and Technology AG, and Eyeled GmbH has been concerned with the conceptual and methodological foundations and the design of a resource-adaptive platform for seamless outdoor and indoor navigation that can serve as a basis for product development by the companies in the RENA consortium. Future in-car assistance systems will have a user interface, which adapts to the driveŕs current exposure caused by the actual traffic situation.

  19. Myco-fluidics: The fluid dynamics of fungal chimerism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, Marcus; Hickey, Patrick; Dressaire, Emilie; Roch, Sebastien

    2012-11-01

    Chimeras-fantastical creatures formed as amalgams of many animals-have captured the human imagination since Ancient times. But they are also surprisingly common in Nature. The syncytial cells of filamentous fungi harbor large numbers of nuclei bathed in a single cytoplasm. As a fungus grows these nuclei become genetically diverse, either from mutation or from exchange of nuclei between different fungal individuals, a process that is known to increase the virulence of the fungus and its adaptability. By directly measuring nuclear movement in the model ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa, we show that the fungus' tolerance for internal genetic diversity is enabled by hydrodynamic mixing of nuclei acting at all length scales within the fungal mycelium. Mathematical modeling and experiments in a mutant with altered mycelial morphology reveal some of the exquisite hydraulic engineering necessary to create these mixing flows from spatially coarse pressure gradients.

  20. Minireview: Invasive fungal infection complicating acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Däbritz, Jan; Schneider, Markward; Just-Nuebling, Gudrun; Groll, Andreas H

    2011-07-01

    Malaria is the most important parasitic infection in people, affecting 5-10% of the world's population with more than two million deaths a year. Whereas invasive bacterial infections are not uncommon during severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, only a few cases of opportunistic fungal infections have been reported. Here, we present a fatal case of disseminated hyalohyphomycosis associated with acute P. falciparum malaria in a non-immune traveller, review the cases reported in the literature and discuss the theoretical foundations for the increased susceptibility of non-immune individuals with severe P. falciparum malaria to opportunistic fungal infections. Apart from the availability of free iron as sequelae of massive haemolysis, tissue damage, acidosis and measures of advanced life support, patients with complicated P. falciparum malaria also are profoundly immunosuppressed by the organism's interaction with innate and adaptive host immune mechanisms.

  1. Fungal exopolysaccharide: production, composition and applications.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Subhadip; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2013-01-01

    Fungal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have been recognized as high value biomacromolecules for the last two decades. These products, including pullulan, scleroglucan, and botryosphaeran, have several applications in industries, pharmaceuticals, medicine, foods etc. Although fungal EPSs are highly relevant, to date information concerning fungal biosynthesis is scarce and an extensive search for new fugal species that can produce novel EPSs is still needed. In most cases, the molecular weight variations and sugar compositions of fungal EPSs are dependent to culture medium composition and different physical conditions provided during fermentation. An inclusive and illustrative review on fungal EPS is presented here. The general outline of the present work includes fungal EPS production, their compositions and applications. An emphasis is also given to listing out different fungal strains that can produce EPSs.

  2. Fungal Exopolysaccharide: Production, Composition and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Subhadip; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2013-01-01

    Fungal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have been recognized as high value biomacromolecules for the last two decades. These products, including pullulan, scleroglucan, and botryosphaeran, have several applications in industries, pharmaceuticals, medicine, foods etc. Although fungal EPSs are highly relevant, to date information concerning fungal biosynthesis is scarce and an extensive search for new fugal species that can produce novel EPSs is still needed. In most cases, the molecular weight variations and sugar compositions of fungal EPSs are dependent to culture medium composition and different physical conditions provided during fermentation. An inclusive and illustrative review on fungal EPS is presented here. The general outline of the present work includes fungal EPS production, their compositions and applications. An emphasis is also given to listing out different fungal strains that can produce EPSs. PMID:24826070

  3. SEEA SOUTHEAST CONSORTIUM FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Block, Timothy; Ball, Kia; Fournier, Ashley

    2014-01-21

    In 2010 the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA) received a $20 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Building Neighborhood Program (BBNP). This grant, funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, also included sub-grantees in 13 communities across the Southeast, known as the Southeast Consortium. The objective of this project was to establish a framework for energy efficiency retrofit programs to create models for replication across the Southeast and beyond. To achieve this goal, SEEA and its project partners focused on establishing infrastructure to develop and sustain the energy efficiency market in specific localities across the southeast. Activities included implementing minimum training standards and credentials for marketplace suppliers, educating and engaging homeowners on the benefits of energy efficiency through strategic marketing and outreach and addressing real or perceived financial barriers to investments in whole-home energy efficiency through a variety of financing mechanisms. The anticipated outcome of these activities would be best practice models for program design, marketing, financing, data collection and evaluation as well as increased market demand for energy efficiency retrofits and products. The Southeast Consortium’s programmatic impacts along with the impacts of the other BBNP grantees would further the progress towards the overall goal of energy efficiency market transformation. As the primary grantee SEEA served as the overall program administrator and provided common resources to the 13 Southeast Consortium sub-grantees including contracted services for contractor training, quality assurance testing, data collection, reporting and compliance. Sub-grantee programs were located in cities across eight states including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Each sub

  4. Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ayman Hawari; Nolan Hertel; Mohamed Al-Sheikhly; Laurence Miller; Abdel-Moeze Bayoumi; Ali Haghighat; Kenneth Lewis

    2010-12-29

    2 Project Summary: The Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium (MUSIC) was established in response to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program. MUSIC was established as a consortium composed of academic members and national laboratory partners. The members of MUSIC are the nuclear engineering programs and research reactors of Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), North Carolina State University (NCSU), University of Maryland (UMD), University of South Carolina (USC), and University of Tennessee (UTK). The University of Florida (UF), and South Carolina State University (SCSU) were added to the MUSIC membership in the second year. In addition, to ensure proper coordination between the academic community and the nation’s premier research and development centers in the fields of nuclear science and engineering, MUSIC created strategic partnerships with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project and the Joint Institute for Neutron Scattering (JINS), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A partnership was also created with the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) with the aim of utilizing their reactor in research if funding becomes available. Consequently, there are three university research reactors (URRs) within MUSIC, which are located at NCSU (1-MW PULSTAR), UMD (0.25-MW TRIGA) and UF (0.10-MW Argonaut), and the AFRRI reactor (1-MW TRIGA MARK F). The overall objectives of MUSIC are: a) Demonstrate that University Research Reactors (URR) can be used as modern and innovative instruments of research in the basic and applied sciences, which include applications in fundamental physics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive examination, elemental analysis, and contributions to research in the health and medical sciences, b) Establish a strong technical collaboration between the nuclear engineering

  5. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  6. Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

  7. Structural aspects of fungal allergens.

    PubMed

    Crameri, Reto

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increasing number of solved crystal structures of allergens, the key question why some proteins are allergenic and the vast majority is not remains unanswered. The situation is not different for fungal allergens which cover a wide variety of proteins with different chemical properties and biological functions. They cover enzymes, cell wall, secreted, and intracellular proteins which, except cross-reactive allergens, does not show any evidence for structural similarities at least at the three-dimensional level. However, from a diagnostic point of view, pure allergens biotechnologically produced by recombinant technology can provide us, in contrast to fungal extracts which are hardly producible as standardized reagents, with highly pure perfectly standardized diagnostic reagents.

  8. Insights Regarding Fungal Phosphoproteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Liliane F C; Chelius, Cynthia L; Harris, Steven D; Marten, Mark R

    2017-03-10

    Protein phosphorylation is a major means of regulation for cellular processes, and is important in cell signaling, growth, and cell proliferation. To study phosphorylated proteins, high throughput phosphoproteomic technologies, such as reverse phase protein array, phospho-specific flow cytometry, and mass spectrometry (MS) based technologies, have been developed. Among them, mass spectrometry has become the primary tool employed for the identification of phosphoproteins and phosphosites in fungi, leading to an improved understanding of a number of signaling pathways. Using mass spectrometry techniques, researchers have discovered new kinase substrates, established connections between kinases and fungal pathogenicity, and studied the evolutionary lineage of kinases between different fungal species. Further, many specific phosphorylation sites recognized by individual kinases have been described. In this review, we will focus on recent discoveries made in yeast and filamentous fungi using phosphoproteomic analysis.

  9. Fungal metabolites with anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Evidente, Antonio; Kornienko, Alexander; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Lefranc, Florence; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Covering: 1964 to 2013. Natural products from bacteria and plants have played a leading role in cancer drug discovery resulting in a large number of clinically useful agents. In contrast, the investigations of fungal metabolites and their derivatives have not led to a clinical cancer drug in spite of significant research efforts revealing a large number of fungi-derived natural products with promising anticancer activity. Many of these natural products have displayed notable in vitro growth-inhibitory properties in human cancer cell lines and select compounds have been demonstrated to provide therapeutic benefits in mouse models of human cancer. Many of these compounds are expected to enter human clinical trials in the near future. The present review discusses the reported sources, structures and biochemical studies aimed at the elucidation of the anticancer potential of these promising fungal metabolites.

  10. 25 CFR 1000.310 - What information must the Tribe's/Consortium's response contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What information must the Tribe's/Consortium's response.../Consortium's response contain? (a) The Tribe's/Consortium's response must indicate the specific measures that the Tribe/Consortium will take to eliminate the finding of imminent jeopardy. (b) If the...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.310 - What information must the Tribe's/Consortium's response contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must the Tribe's/Consortium's response.../Consortium's response contain? (a) The Tribe's/Consortium's response must indicate the specific measures that the Tribe/Consortium will take to eliminate the finding of imminent jeopardy. (b) If the...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.310 - What information must the Tribe's/Consortium's response contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What information must the Tribe's/Consortium's response.../Consortium's response contain? (a) The Tribe's/Consortium's response must indicate the specific measures that the Tribe/Consortium will take to eliminate the finding of imminent jeopardy. (b) If the...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.310 - What information must the Tribe's/Consortium's response contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What information must the Tribe's/Consortium's response.../Consortium's response contain? (a) The Tribe's/Consortium's response must indicate the specific measures that the Tribe/Consortium will take to eliminate the finding of imminent jeopardy. (b) If the...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.310 - What information must the Tribe's/Consortium's response contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What information must the Tribe's/Consortium's response.../Consortium's response contain? (a) The Tribe's/Consortium's response must indicate the specific measures that the Tribe/Consortium will take to eliminate the finding of imminent jeopardy. (b) If the...

  15. A Consortium Project to Improve Retention and the First Year of College: Results and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutright, Marc

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the operation and perceived effectiveness of a short-term, nine-community-college consortium, a consortium dedicated to the improvement of student retention and first-year education at each of the colleges in the consortium. The consortium was composed of Alabama community colleges, essentially during calendar year 2002. Its…

  16. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  17. Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2)

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium studies the etiology of this common cancer and build on resources from existing studies by combining data across studies in order to advance the understanding of the etiology of this disease.

  18. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  19. Consortium--A New Direction for Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Adrienne B.

    1976-01-01

    The shared services and joint planning of the area-wide continuing education program of the Northwest Allegheny Hospitals Corporation (a Consortium of seven acute care and two rehabilitation centers in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania) are described. (LH)

  20. National Consortium Supports Cities in Evaluating LED Streetlights

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-30

    Fact sheet that introduces Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium, a group of municipalities, utilities, and energy efficiency organizations who are interested in making investments in LED street and area lighting.

  1. Genome Structure Gallery from the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Structual Genomics Consortium

    DOE Data Explorer

    The TB Structural Genomics Consortium works with the structures of proteins from M. tuberculosis, analyzing these structures in the context of functional information that currently exists and that the Consortium generates. The database of linked structural and functional information constructed from this project will form a lasting basis for understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and for structure-based drug design. The Consortium's structural and functional information is publicly available. The Structures Gallery makes more than 650 total structures available by PDB identifier. Some of these are not consortium targets, but all are viewable in 3D color and can be manipulated in various ways by Jmol, an open-source Java viewer for chemical structures in 3D from http://www.jmol.org/

  2. Regional Development and the European Consortium of Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Saskia Loer; Kokkeler, Ben; van der Sijde, P. C.

    2002-01-01

    The European Consortium of Innovative Universities is a network that shares information not just among universities but with affiliated incubators, research parks, and other regional entities. The learning network contributes to regional development.(JOW)

  3. Telecommunications Training Consortium: A Working Relationship between Business and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Donald J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a partnership between a number of corporations involved in telecommunications and Skyline College to develop an industry-specific technical training curriculum. Discusses other functions of the consortium such as fundraising and elements of a successful partnership. (SK)

  4. A Perspective from the National Consortium for Secondary STEM Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonds, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the role of National Consortium for Secondary STEM Schools in the process of data-informed decision-making for both improving and addressing achievement gaps in participatory specialized STEM high schools.

  5. Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Cancer.gov

    Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium collaborates with three genomic facilities, epidemiologists, population geneticists, and biostatisticians from multiple institutions to study hormone-related gene variants and environmental factors in breast and prostate cancers.

  6. Fungal genome resources at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Robbertse, B; Tatusova, T

    2011-09-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools.

  7. Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fridkin, S K; Jarvis, W R

    1996-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals care for patients at risk for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion in all nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to 5% in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are very common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and some act in combination. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. krusei and Torulopsis (C.) glabrata, have become more common pathogens. Newer molecular typing techniques can assist in the determination of a common source of infection caused by several fungal pathogens. Continued epidemiologic and laboratory research is needed to better characterize these pathogens and allow for improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:8894349

  8. Systems Biology of Fungal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Fabian; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Pollmächer, Johannes; Valiante, Vito; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human-pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections. A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviors in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions. We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modeling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy. PMID:22485108

  9. Pentachlorophenol degradation: a pure bacterial culture and an epilithic microbial consortium.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E J; Pignatello, J J; Martinson, M M; Crawford, R L

    1986-01-01

    The steady-state growth of a Flavobacterium strain known to utilize pentachlorophenol (PCP) was examined when cellobiose and PCP simultaneously limited its growth rate in continuous culture. A concentration of 600 mg of PCP per liter in influent medium could be continuously degraded without affecting steady-state growth. We measured specific rates of PCP carbon degradation as high as 0.15 +/- 0.01 g (dry weight) of C per h at a growth rate of 0.045 h-1. Comparable specific rates of PCP degradation were obtained and maintained by PCP-adapted, natural consortia of epilithic microorganisms. The consortium results suggest that a fixed-film bioreactor containing a PCP-adapted natural microbial population could be used to treat PCP-contaminated water. PMID:3729408

  10. Pentachlorophenol degradation: a pure bacterial culture and an epilithic microbial consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.J.; Pignatello, J.J.; Martinson, M.M.; Crawford, R.L.

    1986-07-01

    The steady-state growth of a Flavobacterium strain known to utilize pentachlorophenol (PCP) was examined when cellobiose and PCP simultaneously limited its growth rate in continuous culture. A concentration of 600 mg of PCP per liter in influent medium could be continuously degraded without affecting steady-state growth. We measured specific rates of PCP carbon degradation as high as 0.15 +/- 0.01 g (dry weight) of C per h at a growth rate of 0.045 h-1. Comparable specific rates of PCP degradation were obtained and maintained by PCP-adapted, natural consortia of epilithic microorganisms. The consortium results suggest that a fixed-film bioreactor containing a PCP-adapted natural microbial population could be used to treat PCP-contaminated water.

  11. Consortium-Based Genetic Studies of Kawasaki Disease in Korea: Korean Kawasaki Disease Genetics Consortium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Keuk; Hong, Young Mi; Jang, Gi Young; Yun, Sin Weon; Yu, Jeong Jin; Yoon, Kyung Lim; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kil, Hong-Rang

    2015-11-01

    In order to perform large-scale genetic studies of Kawasaki disease (KD) in Korea, the Korean Kawasaki Disease Genetics Consortium (KKDGC) was formed in 2008 with 10 hospitals. Since the establishment of KKDGC, there has been a collection of clinical data from a total of 1198 patients, and approximately 5 mL of blood samples per patient (for genomic deoxyribonucleic acid and plasma isolation), using a standard clinical data collection form and a nation-wide networking system for blood sample pick-up. In the clinical risk factor analysis using the collected clinical data of 478 KD patients, it was found that incomplete KD type, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) non-responsiveness, and long febrile days are major risk factors for coronary artery lesions development, whereas low serum albumin concentration is an independent risk factor for IVIG non-responsiveness. In addition, we identified a KD susceptibility locus at 1p31, a coronary artery aneurysm locus (KCNN2 gene), and the causal variant in the C-reactive protein (CRP) promoter region, as determining the increased CRP levels in KD patients, by means of genome-wide association studies. Currently, this consortium is continually collecting more clinical data and genomic samples to identify the clinical and genetic risk factors via a single nucleotide polymorphism chip and exome sequencing, as well as collaborating with several international KD genetics teams. The consortium-based approach for genetic studies of KD in Korea will be a very effective way to understand the unknown etiology and causal mechanism of KD, which may be affected by multiple genes and environmental factors.

  12. Hsp90-dependent regulatory circuitry controlling temperature-dependent fungal development and virulence.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Teresa R; Cowen, Leah E

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Cryptococcus neoformans are an increasing cause of human mortality, especially in immunocompromised populations. During colonization and adaptation to various host environments, these fungi undergo morphogenetic alterations that allow for survival within the host. One key environmental cue driving morphological changes is external temperature. The Hsp90 chaperone protein provides one mechanism to link temperature with the signalling cascades that regulate morphogenesis, fungal development and virulence. Candida albicans is a model system for understanding the connections between morphogenesis and Hsp90. Due to the high degree of conservation in Hsp90, many of the connections in C. albicans may be extrapolated to other fungal pathogens or parasites. Examining the role of Hsp90 during development and morphogenesis in these three major fungal pathogens may provide insight into key aspects of adaptation to the host, leading to additional avenues for therapy.

  13. [Japan Spastic Paraplegia Research Consortium (JASPAC)].

    PubMed

    Takiyama, Yoshihisa

    2014-10-01

    Japan Spastic Paraplegia Research Consortium (JASPAC), a nationwide clinical and genetic survey of patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), was started in 2006 as a project of the Research Committee for Ataxic Diseases of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, Japan. To date (April 4, 2014), 448 indexed patients with HSP have been registered from 46 prefectures in Japan. We are now performing molecular testing of the HSP patients using Sanger sequencing (SPG4, SPG11, SPG31, and ARSACS), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array (SPG1, 2, 3A, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 20, 21, 31, 33, 39, 42, ABCD1, alsin, and ARSACS), and resequencing microarray (SPG1, 2, 3A, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 17, 20, 21, 31, 33, and ABCD1). In 206 Japanese families with autosomal dominant HSP, SPG4 was the most common form, accounting for 38%, followed by SPG3A (5%), SPG31 (5%), SPG10 (2%), and SPG8 (1%). In 88 patients with autosomal recessive HSP, although SPG11 was the most common form, accounting for 6%, most showed significant genetic heterogeneity. The results of molecular testing will be applicable to patients in terms of improved positive diagnosis, follow-up, and genetic counseling. JASPAC will contribute to elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying HSP, and will facilitate the development of better treatments for HSP.

  14. Consortium for Materials Development in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During FY99 the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS) was reorganized around the following guidelines: industry driven, product focus, an industry led advisory council, focus on University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) core competencies, linkage to regional investment firms to assist commercialization and to take advantage of space flights. The organizational structure of the CMDS changed considerably during the year. The decision was made to reduce the organization to a Director and an Administrative Assistant. The various research projects, including the employees, were transferred to the appropriate UAH research center or college. In addition, an advisory council was established to provide direction and guidance to the CMDS to ensure a strong commercial focus. The council will (i) review CMDS commercial development plans and provide feedback, (ii) perform an annual evaluation of the Center's progress and present the results of this review to the UAH Vice President for Research, (iii) serve as an avenue of communication between the CMDS and its commercial partners, and (iv) serve as an ambassador and advocate for the CMDS.

  15. The Cardiac Safety Research Consortium ECG database.

    PubMed

    Kligfield, Paul; Green, Cynthia L

    2012-01-01

    The Cardiac Safety Research Consortium (CSRC) ECG database was initiated to foster research using anonymized, XML-formatted, digitized ECGs with corresponding descriptive variables from placebo- and positive-control arms of thorough QT studies submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) by pharmaceutical sponsors. The database can be expanded to other data that are submitted directly to CSRC from other sources, and currently includes digitized ECGs from patients with genotyped varieties of congenital long-QT syndrome; this congenital long-QT database is also linked to ambulatory electrocardiograms stored in the Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW). Thorough QT data sets are available from CSRC for unblinded development of algorithms for analysis of repolarization and for blinded comparative testing of algorithms developed for the identification of moxifloxacin, as used as a positive control in thorough QT studies. Policies and procedures for access to these data sets are available from CSRC, which has developed tools for statistical analysis of blinded new algorithm performance. A recently approved CSRC project will create a data set for blinded analysis of automated ECG interval measurements, whose initial focus will include comparison of four of the major manufacturers of automated electrocardiographs in the United States. CSRC welcomes application for use of the ECG database for clinical investigation.

  16. CEPH consortium map of chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Attwood, J.; Povey, S. ); Chiano, M.; Goudie, D.; Yates, J. ); Collins, A.; Shields, D. ); Donis-Keller, H. ); Dracopoli, N. ); Fountain, J. )

    1994-01-15

    This paper describes the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) consortium linkage map of chromosome 9. A total of 124 markers were typed in the CEPH family DNAs by 14 contributing laboratories; of these, 42 loci are ordered on the map with likelihood support of at least 1000:1. The uniquely placed markers include 31 that can be typed by PCR. A further 28 markers that can be typed by PCR are approximately positioned on the map. Multilocus linkage analysis with CRI-MAP has produced male, female, and sex-averaged maps extending for 176, 237, and 209 cM, respectively, while sex-averaged maps produced with MAPMAKER and the multiple two-point program MAP extended for 170 and 129 cM, respectively. The male map contains only two intervals greater than 10 cM, and the mean genetic distance between the 42 uniquely placed loci is 4.3 cM. However, no markers were available to anchor the map at either telomere or the centromere. The results confirm the high level of interference suggested by chiasma maps of chromosome 9. Detailed meiotic breakpoints for three of the families are shown. These can be used to provide rapid placement of any new marker without the need for statistical analysis. 36 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Establishment of a multi-state experiential pharmacy program consortium.

    PubMed

    Duke, Lori J; Unterwagner, Whitney L; Byrd, Debbie C

    2008-06-15

    In 2002, a regional consortium was created for schools and colleges of pharmacy in Georgia and Alabama to assist experiential education faculty and staff members in streamlining administrative processes, providing required preceptor development, establishing a professional network, and conducting scholarly endeavors. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy with many shared experiential practice sites formed a consortium to help experiential faculty and staff members identify, discuss, and solve common experience program issues and challenges. During its 5 years in existence, the Southeastern Pharmacy Experiential Education Consortium has coordinated experiential schedules, developed and implemented uniform evaluation tools, coordinated site and preceptor development activities, established a work group for educational research and scholarship, and provided opportunities for networking and professional development. Several consortium members have received national recognition for their individual experiential education accomplishments. Through the activities of a regional consortium, members have successfully developed programs and initiatives that have streamlined administrative processes and have the potential to improve overall quality of experiential education programs. Professionally, consortium activities have resulted in 5 national presentations.

  18. Serious fungal infections in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zaki, S M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-17

    We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age. Amongst about 21.8 million women aged 15-50 years, recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (≥4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 1.3 million (3,169/100,000 females). Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 4,127 cases of candidaemia, and 619 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Amongst the survivors of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Egypt in 2012, 319 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) are likely, a prevalence of 1,005 post-TB and a total prevalence estimate of 3,015 CPA patients in all. Asthma is common in Egypt, affecting 9.4% of adults, 5.35 million, and so ABPA and SAFS were estimated in around 162/100,000 and 214/100,000 respectively. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 495 patients following leukaemia therapy, there are an estimated 37 cases in renal and liver transplant recipients, and an estimated 132 patients develop IA in the context of lung cancer. Amongst 641,000 COPD admissions to hospital each year, 8,337 patients develop IA. The total HIV-infected population is small, with an estimated 6,500 patients, 2,500 not on antiretroviral therapy. Amongst HIV-infected patients, 38 (0.6%) cases of cryptococcal meningitis and 125 (1.9%) cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated each year. Fungal keratitis is common, with 28-55% (mean 40%) of corneal infections being fungal, an estimated total of 11,550 cases. The present study indicates

  19. Surgical management of fungal endophthalmitis resulting from fungal keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Nan; Dong, Xiao-Guang; Yuan, Gong-Qiang; Yu, Bin; Xie, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To report the fungal organisms, clinical features, surgical treatment strategies, and outcomes of patients with culture-proven exogenous fungal endophthalmitis (EFE) secondary to keratitis, and evaluate the role of surgery in the treatment. METHODS The clinical records of 27 patients (27 eyes) with culture-proven EFE resulting from fungal keratitis treated at Shandong Eye Institute from January 2007 to January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Information about fungal culture results, clinical features, surgical procedures, and final visual acuity was obtained. RESULTS There were 39 positive culture results from samples of cornea, hypopyon, vitreous and lens capsule, accounting for 56%, 26%, 15% and 2.5%, respectively. Fusarium was identified in 44% (12/27) of the eyes, followed by Aspergillus in 22% (6/27). Posterior segment infection was involved in 78% (21/27) of the patients. The corneal infection was larger than 3 mm ×3 mm in 89% (24/27) of the patients, and 22% (6/27) of them had the entire cornea, and even the sclera involved. Three eyes had silicone oil tamponade, and two eyes had retinal detachment. Twenty-two eyes (81.5%) underwent penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), and over half of them (54.5%) were operated within 3d from the onset of antifungal therapy. Fourteen eyes (52%) underwent intracameral antifungal drug injection, and three of them required repeated injections. Fifteen eyes (55.6%) underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). The rate of the eyes undergoing PPV as the initial surgical procedure was 60% (9/15), lower than 77% in PKP. Intravitreal injection was given in 59% of the eyes (16/27), and 75% of them required repeated injections. The final visual acuity was 20/100 or better in 37% of the eyes, and better than counting fingers in 55.6% of the eyes. Five eyes (18.5%) were eviscerated. In the two eyes with concurrent retinal detachment, one achieved retinal reattachment, and the other was eviscerated. In the three eyes with silicone oil

  20. Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Kaitlin

    2014-01-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

  1. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  2. 25 CFR 1000.73 - Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain information from a non-BIA bureau? 1000.73 Section 1000.73 Indians OFFICE OF THE... § 1000.73 Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.73 - Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain information from a non-BIA bureau? 1000.73 Section 1000.73 Indians OFFICE OF THE... § 1000.73 Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.73 - Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain information...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain information from a non-BIA bureau? 1000.73 Section 1000.73 Indians OFFICE OF THE... § 1000.73 Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain...

  5. The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) - Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Kartik; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Hooper, Eric; National Astronomy Consortium

    2015-01-01

    The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC; see https://sites.google.com/site/nraonac/) is a growing national partnership between majority and minority universities and institutions with the goal of increasing the numbers of under-represented minorities and students who might otherwise be overlooked by the traditional academic pipeline into STEM, or related, careers. The NAC model is based on the successful 'Posse Foundation' model for undergraduate success and incorporates all its major components: pre-training of cohorts to prepare them for the research experience, joint weekly cohort activities throughout the research summer, peer- and multiple mentoring, weekly discussion of various aspects of professional and career development, continued engagement of students in science after return to home institution and lifelong mentoring. The mentors also form a cohort, exchanging information and learning from each other. With its partner institutions, the NAC aims to build a complete pipeline from undergraduate through career for the next generation of scientists and engineers. Our annual goal is to create two to three cohorts of four to five students at each site (currently NRAO-Charlottesville, NRAO-Socorro and U. Wisconsin - Madison). Recruitment occurs in the fall semester with seminars and colloquia in partnership with faculty at the minority serving institutions and the GRAD-MAP program at the University of Maryland. In this talk we describe in detail all the components of the NAC and report on our progress. We are keen to interact and partner with new universities and institutions and encourage them to contact the NAC at nac4stem@googlegroups.com.

  6. 25 CFR 1000.18 - May a Consortium member Tribe withdraw from the Consortium and become a member of the applicant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a Consortium member Tribe withdraw from the Consortium and become a member of the applicant pool? 1000.18 Section 1000.18 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.18 May a Consortium member...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.18 - May a Consortium member Tribe withdraw from the Consortium and become a member of the applicant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May a Consortium member Tribe withdraw from the Consortium and become a member of the applicant pool? 1000.18 Section 1000.18 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.18 May a Consortium member...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.18 - May a Consortium member Tribe withdraw from the Consortium and become a member of the applicant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Consortium member Tribe withdraw from the Consortium and become a member of the applicant pool? 1000.18 Section 1000.18 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.18 May a Consortium member...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.18 - May a Consortium member Tribe withdraw from the Consortium and become a member of the applicant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a Consortium member Tribe withdraw from the Consortium and become a member of the applicant pool? 1000.18 Section 1000.18 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.18 May a Consortium member...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.18 - May a Consortium member Tribe withdraw from the Consortium and become a member of the applicant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a Consortium member Tribe withdraw from the Consortium and become a member of the applicant pool? 1000.18 Section 1000.18 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.18 May a Consortium member...

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal propagules in a salt marsh.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Luís M; Correia, Patrícia M; Martins-Loução, M Amélia

    2004-07-01

    The tolerance of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to stressful soil conditions and the relative contribution of spores of these fungi to plant colonization were examined in a Portuguese salt marsh. Glomus geosporum is dominant in this salt marsh. Using tetrazolium as a vital stain, a high proportion of field-collected spores were found to be metabolically active at all sampling dates. Spore germination tests showed that salt marsh spores were not affected by increasing levels of salinity, in contrast to two non-marsh spore isolates, and had a significantly higher ability to germinate under increased levels of salinity (20 per thousand) than in the absence of or at low salinity (10 per thousand). Germination of salt marsh spores was not affected by soil water levels above field capacity, in contrast to one of the two non-marsh spore isolates. For the evaluation of infectivity, a bioassay was established with undisturbed soil cores (containing all types of AM fungal propagules) and soil cores containing only spores as AM fungal propagules. Different types of propagules were able to initiate and to expand the root colonization of a native plant species, but spores were slower than mycelium and/or root fragments in colonizing host roots. The AM fungal adaptation shown by this study may explain the maintenance of AMF in salt marshes.

  12. Farming of a defensive fungal mutualist by an attelabid weevil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Feng, Yu; Tian, Jianqing; Xiang, Meichun; Sun, Jingzu; Ding, Jianqing; Yin, Wen-Bing; Stadler, Marc; Che, Yongsheng; Liu, Xingzhong

    2015-01-01

    The mutualism between fungus-growing animals and fungi is a classic example of a complex interspecies association. A handful of insects, notably the well-recognized fungus-farming ants, termites and beetles, have developed advanced agriculture, which includes seeding new gardens with crop propagules, improving growth conditions and protecting and harvesting the fungal crop. More examples, which could be called ‘proto-fungiculture', involve fewer adaptations, as exemplified by marine snails that farm intertidal fungi on marsh grass. Recent work has indicated that the solitary leaf-rolling weevil Euops chinensis (family Attelabidae) has a protofarming symbiosis with the mycangial fungus Penicillium herquei (family Trichocomaceae). In this study, we investigated how the weevils create cradles (leaf-rolls) for their offspring and protect the fungal garden. We describe new specialized structures and behaviors that E. chinensis females use for leaf-rolling and fungus inoculation. The fungus P. herquei produces the antibiotic (+)-scleroderolide in laboratory culture and in leaf-rolls, which can serve to inhibit microbial ‘weeds' and pests, thus protecting the fungal garden against potential infection. The fungiculture of E. chinensis differs from other advanced insect fungiculture systems because female weevils do not continuously tend the inoculated microbe and do not depend nutritionally on the fungus. The defensive role of the cultivated fungus makes the attelabid weevils exceptional in ‘proto-fungiculture' animals. PMID:25658054

  13. The Global Burden of Fungal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Mody, Rajal K; Walker, Tiffany; Chiller, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Fungal diseases require greater attention today than ever before, given the expanding population of immunosuppressed patients who are at higher risk for these diseases. This article reports on distribution, incidence, and prevalence of various fungal diseases and points out gaps in knowledge where such data are not available. Fungal diseases that contribute substantially to global morbidity and mortality are highlighted. Long-term, sustainable surveillance programs for fungal diseases and better noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tools are needed to estimate the burden of these diseases more accurately.

  14. Ecological succession reveals potential signatures of marine-terrestrial transition in salt marsh fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Pylro, Victor Satler; Baldrian, Petr; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2016-08-01

    Marine-to-terrestrial transition represents one of the most fundamental shifts in microbial life. Understanding the distribution and drivers of soil microbial communities across coastal ecosystems is critical given the roles of microbes in soil biogeochemistry and their multifaceted influence on landscape succession. Here, we studied the fungal community dynamics in a well-established salt marsh chronosequence that spans over a century of ecosystem development. We focussed on providing high-resolution assessments of community composition, diversity and ecophysiological shifts that yielded patterns of ecological succession through soil formation. Notably, despite containing 10- to 100-fold lower fungal internal transcribed spacer abundances, early-successional sites revealed fungal richnesses comparable to those of more mature soils. These newly formed sites also exhibited significant temporal variations in β-diversity that may be attributed to the highly dynamic nature of the system imposed by the tidal regime. The fungal community compositions and ecophysiological assignments changed substantially along the successional gradient, revealing a clear signature of ecological replacement and gradually transforming the environment from a marine into a terrestrial system. Moreover, distance-based linear modelling revealed soil physical structure and organic matter to be the best predictors of the shifts in fungal β-diversity along the chronosequence. Taken together, our study lays the basis for a better understanding of the spatiotemporally determined fungal community dynamics in salt marshes and highlights their ecophysiological traits and adaptation in an evolving ecosystem.

  15. Fungal diversity is not determined by mineral and chemical differences in serpentine substrates.

    PubMed

    Daghino, Stefania; Murat, Claude; Sizzano, Elisa; Girlanda, Mariangela; Perotto, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of serpentine soils lead to strong selection of plant species. Whereas many studies have described the serpentine flora, little information is available on the fungal communities dwelling in these sites. Asbestos minerals, often associated with serpentine rocks, can be weathered by serpentine-isolated fungi, suggesting an adaptation to this substrate. In this study, we have investigated whether serpentine substrates characterized by the presence of rocks with distinct mineral composition could select for different fungal communities. Both fungal isolation and 454 pyrosequencing of amplicons obtained from serpentine samples following direct DNA extraction revealed some fungal taxa shared by the four ophiolitic substrates, but also highlighted several substrate-specific taxa. Bootstrap analysis of 454 OTU abundances indicated weak clustering of fungal assemblages from the different substrates, which did not match substrate classification based on exchangeable macronutrients and metals. Intra-substrate variability, as assessed by DGGE profiles, was similar across the four serpentine substrates, and comparable to inter-substrate variability. These findings indicate the absence of a correlation between the substrate (mineral composition and available cations) and the diversity of the fungal community. Comparison of culture-based and culture-independent methods supports the higher taxonomic precision of the former, as complementation of the better performance of the latter.

  16. Clinical trials in pulmonary hypertension: Time for a consortium.

    PubMed

    Newman, John H; Elliott, Gregory C; Haworth, Glennis S; Zampaglione, Edio; Brar, Satjit; Gibbs, Simon J; Sandoval, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Current and past clinical trials in pulmonary hypertension, while valuable, are limited by the absence of mechanistic aims, by dissatisfaction with endpoints and the inability to share data. Clinical studies in pulmonary hypertension might be enhanced by a consortium approach that utilizes the expertise of academic medicine, the treatment initiatives of the pharmaceutical industry and study design from funding agencies interested in biological mechanisms. A meeting of interested parties, the Pulmonary Hypertension Academic Research Consortium (PHARC), was held from 30 April to 1 May 2012 in Bethesda, Maryland. Members at the conference were from the USA Federal Drug Administration (FDA); pharmaceutical industry (Pfizer, Novartis, Bayer and Gilead); USA National Institutes of Health (NHLBI); the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI), a non-governmental organization (NGO); and research and clinical members of pulmonary hypertension programs of international scope. A recommendation to develop a clinical trials consortium was the product of the working group on academic standards in clinical trials. The working group concluded that clinical trials hold immense promise to move the field of pulmonary hypertension forward if the trials are designed by a consortium with input from multiple groups. This would result in study design, conduct and analysis determined by consortium members with a high degree of independent function. The components of a well-balanced consortium that give it scientific effectiveness are: (1) the consortium can work with multiple companies simultaneously; (2) sponsors with special interests, such as testing biological mechanisms, can add investigations to a study at lower cost than with present granting strategies; (3) data handling including archiving, analysis and future sharing would be improved; (4) ancillary studies supported by the collection and dissemination of tissues and fluids would generate a broader approach to discovery than

  17. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children.

    PubMed

    Thorp, Brian D; McKinney, Kibwei A; Rose, Austin S; Ebert, Charles S

    2012-06-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a subtype of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) characterized by type I hypersensitivity, nasal polyposis, characteristic computed tomography scan findings, eosinophilic mucus, and the presence of fungus on surgical specimens without evidence of tissue invasion. This refractory subtype of CRS is of the great interest in the pediatric population, given the relatively early age of onset and the difficulty in managing AFS through commercially available medical regimens. Almost universally, a diagnosis of AFS requires operative intervention. Postoperative adjuvant medical therapy is a mainstay in the treatment paradigm of pediatric AFS.

  18. Topical therapy for fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Amber A; Dahl, Mark V

    2004-01-01

    Fungi often infect the skin surface and subsequently invade the stratum corneum to avoid being shed from the skin surface by desquamation. Pharmacologic agents applied to the surface of the skin in the form of creams, lotions, or sprays, readily penetrate into the stratum corneum to kill the fungi (fungicidal agents), or at least render them unable to grow or divide (fungistatic agents). Thus, topical therapies work well to rid the skin of topical fungi and yeasts. Azole drugs such as miconazole, clotrimazole, and ketoconazole are fungistatic, limiting fungal growth but depending on epidermal turnover to shed the still-living fungus from the skin surface. Allylamines and benzylamines such as terbinafine, naftifine, and butenafine are fungicidal, actually killing the fungal organisms. Fungicidal drugs are often preferred over fungistatic drugs for treatment of dermatophytic fungal infections, since treatment times as short as one application daily for 1 week are associated with high cure rates. Furthermore, patients often stop treatments when the skin appears healed, usually after about a week of treatment. If this short-term treatment is stopped, fungi recur more often when fungistatic, rather than fungicidal, drugs have been used. Yeast infections such as those caused by Candida albicans respond less well to allylamine drugs. The azole drugs are often preferred for these types of infections. Nail infections are difficult to cure with topical therapies because the infections usually occur under the nail instead of on top of it and products penetrate poorly, if at all, through the nail plate. Infections of hair follicles, nails, and widespread infections often require systemic treatments. Antifungal agents are compounded into many different types of vehicles. Patients often prefer to treat weeping infections with spray formulations. Most physicians prescribe branded products in cream or lotion bases. Cost is a factor dictating prescription choice, especially since

  19. Fungal spores: hazardous to health?

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, W G

    1999-01-01

    Fungi have long been known to affect human well being in various ways, including disease of essential crop plants, decay of stored foods with possible concomitant production of mycotoxins, superficial and systemic infection of human tissues, and disease associated with immune stimulation such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis and toxic pneumonitis. The spores of a large number of important fungi are less than 5 microm aerodynamic diameter, and therefore are able to enter the lungs. They also may contain significant amounts of mycotoxins. Diseases associated with inhalation of fungal spores include toxic pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, tremors, chronic fatigue syndrome, kidney failure, and cancer. PMID:10423389

  20. Improvement of activated sludge resistance to shock loading by fungal enzyme addition during textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Manai, Imène; Miladi, Baligh; El Mselmi, Abdellatif; Hamdi, Moktar; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2017-04-01

    The effects of the additions of the fungal enzymatic extract were investigated in relation to the treatment of real textile wastewater (RTW) by the activated sludge process (ASP). The used enzyme cocktail was produced by a new isolated fungal Chaetomium globosum IMA1. The system that was operated with enzyme addition showed a better chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency (95%) compared to the control system (75%). In addition, the improvement of color removal (OD620) efficiencies was around 15%, when the newly consortium fungal enzymes was added. As the organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.33 g to 0.66 g COD L(-1) d(-1), a decrease in the performance of the two reactors was observed by monitoring the quality of treated effluents. However, the ASP working with enzyme addition showed a strong resistance to shock loadings and restored after few days compared to the control system, which was strongly inhibited. In fact, the enzyme addition improved the sludge volume index (SVI) and the activity of microorganisms. A high activity of laccase (300 U.L(-1)) enzyme was observed throughout the decolorization process in the improved system.

  1. Adaptive Immunity to Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Akash; Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George; Klein, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Life-threatening fungal infections have risen sharply in recent years, owing to the advances and intensity of medical care that may blunt immunity in patients. This emerging crisis has created the growing need to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi with the ultimate goal of therapeutic intervention. We describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses that are deployed against pathogenic fungi. We focus on adaptive immunity to the major medically important fungi and emphasize three elements that coordinate the response: (1) dendritic cells and subsets that are mobilized against fungi in various anatomical compartments; (2) fungal molecular patterns and their corresponding receptors that signal responses and shape the differentiation of T-cell subsets and B cells; and, ultimately (3) the effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these invaders while constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. These insights create a foundation for the development of new, immune-based strategies for prevention or enhanced clearance of systemic fungal diseases. PMID:25377140

  2. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Phillips, D.I.; Luttrell, G.H.; Basim, B.; Sohn, S.; Jiang, X.; Tao, D.; Parekh, B.K.; Meloy, T.

    1996-10-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The consortium has three charter members, including Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky. The Consortium also includes industry affiliate members that form an Advisory Committee. In keeping with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee, first-year R&D activities were focused on two areas of research: fine coal dewatering and modeling of spirals. The industry representatives to the Consortium identified fine coal dewatering as the most needed area of technology development. Dewatering studies were conducted by Virginia Tech`s Center for Coal and Minerals Processing and a spiral model was developed by West Virginia University. For the University of Kentucky the advisory board approved a project entitled: ``A Study of Novel Approaches for Destabilization of Flotation Froth``. Project management and administration will be provided by Virginia Tech., for the first year. Progress reports for coal dewatering and destabilization of flotation froth studies are presented in this report.

  3. Building psychosocial programming in geriatrics fellowships: a consortium model.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Ronald D; Ansell, Pamela; Breckman, Risa; Snow, Caitlin E; Ehrlich, Amy R; Greene, Michele G; Greenberg, Debra F; Raik, Barrie L; Raymond, Joshua J; Clabby, John F; Fields, Suzanne D; Breznay, Jennifer B

    2011-01-01

    Geriatric psychosocial problems are prevalent and significantly affect the physical health and overall well-being of older adults. Geriatrics fellows require psychosocial education, and yet to date, geriatrics fellowship programs have not developed a comprehensive geriatric psychosocial curriculum. Fellowship programs in the New York tristate area collaboratively created the New York Metropolitan Area Consortium to Strengthen Psychosocial Programming in Geriatrics Fellowships in 2007 to address this shortfall. The goal of the Consortium is to develop model educational programs for geriatrics fellows that highlight psychosocial issues affecting elder care, share interinstitutional resources, and energize fellowship program directors and faculty. In 2008, 2009, and 2010, Consortium faculty collaboratively designed and implemented a psychosocial educational conference for geriatrics fellows. Cumulative participation at the conferences included 146 geriatrics fellows from 20 academic institutions taught by interdisciplinary Consortium faculty. Formal evaluations from the participants indicated that the conference: a) positively affected fellows' knowledge of, interest in, and comfort with psychosocial issues; b) would have a positive impact on the quality of care provided to older patients; and c) encouraged valuable interactions with fellows and faculty from other institutions. The Consortium, as an educational model for psychosocial learning, has a positive impact on geriatrics fellowship training and may be replicable in other localities.

  4. Genesis of an oak-fire science consortium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grabner, K.W.; Stambaugh, M. C.; Guyette, R.P.; Dey, D. C.; Willson, G.D.; Dey, D. C.; Stambaugh, M. C.; Clark, S.L.; Schweitzer, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    With respect to fire management and practices, one of the most overlooked regions lies in the middle of the country. In this region there is a critical need for both recognition of fire’s importance and sharing of fire information and expertise. Recently we proposed and were awarded funding by the Joint Fire Science Program to initiate the planning phase for a regional fire consortium. The purpose of the consortium will be to promote the dissemination of fire information across the interior United States and to identify fire information needs of oak-dominated communities such as woodlands, forests, savannas, and barrens. Geographically, the consortium region will cover: 1) the Interior Lowland Plateau Ecoregion in Illinois, Indiana, central Kentucky and Tennessee; 2) the Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma Ozarks; 3) the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma; and 4) the Cross Timbers Region in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. This region coincides with the southwestern half of the Central Hardwoods Forest Region. The tasks of this consortium will be to disseminate fire information, connect fire professionals, and efficiently address fire issues within our region. If supported, the success and the future direction of the consortium will be driven by end-users, their input, and involvement.

  5. ACTS Operations Extended Through a University-Based Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Robert A.; Krawczyk, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program was slated for decommissioning in October 2000. With plans in place to move the spacecraft to an orbital graveyard and then shut the system down, NASA was challenged to consider the feasibility of extending operations for education and research purposes provided that an academic organization would be willing to cover operations costs. This was determined to be viable, and in the fall of 2000, NASA announced that it would consider extending operations. On March 19, 2001, NASA, the Ohio Board of Regents, and the Ohio University signed a Space Act Agreement to continue ACTS operations for 2 more years with options to extend operations up to a total of 4 years. To accomplish this, the Ohio University has formed a university-based consortium, the Ohio Consortium for Advanced Communications Technology (OCACT), and acts as the managing member. The Ohio University is responsible for the full reimbursement of NASA's operations costs, and does this through consortium membership. NASA retains the operating license of the spacecraft and has two contractors supporting spacecraft and master control station operations. This flexible arrangement between NASA and academia allows the education community to access a large communications satellite for learning about spacecraft operations and to use the system's transponders for communications applications. It also allows other organizations, such as commercial companies, to become consortium members and use the ACTS wideband Ka-band (30/20 GHz) payload. From the consortium members, six areas of interest have been identified.

  6. Fungal infections of the orbit

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Bipasha; Raichura, Nirav Dilip; Alam, Md. Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the orbit can lead to grave complications. Although the primary site of inoculation of the infective organism is frequently the sinuses, the patients can initially present to the ophthalmologist with ocular signs and symptoms. Due to its varied and nonspecific clinical features, especially in the early stages, patients are frequently misdiagnosed and even treated with steroids which worsen the situation leading to dire consequences. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with the clinical spectrum of disease and the variable presentation of this infection, as early diagnosis and rapid institution of appropriate therapy are crucial elements in the management of this invasive sino-orbital infection. In this review, relevant clinical, microbiological, and imaging findings are discussed along with the current consensus on local and systemic management. We review the recent literature and provide a comprehensive analysis. In the immunocompromised, as well as in healthy patients, a high index of suspicion must be maintained as delay in diagnosis of fungal pathology may lead to disfiguring morbidity or even mortality. Obtaining adequate diagnostic material for pathological and microbiological examination is critical. Newer methods of therapy, particularly oral voriconazole and topical amphotericin B, may be beneficial in selected patients. PMID:27380972

  7. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis.

  8. POSSIBLE ROLE OF FUNGAL HEMOLYSINS IN SICK BUILDING SYNDROME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi produce proteinaceous hemolytic agents. Like bacterial hemolysins, fungal hemolysins create pores or holes in membranes. Depending on which membranes are damaged, fungal hemolysins can produce a variety of effects. Fungal hemolysins can cause histamine release from ...

  9. Sorting of fungal-damaged white sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high-speed, color image-based sorting machine was modified to separate white sorghum with symptoms of fungal damage. Most of the sorghum tested was typically white, but over 27% of the bulk contained grains with fungal damage of various degrees, from severe to very slight. Grains with slight fun...

  10. The burden of fungal disease in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Klaus L; Denning, David W; Arendrup, Maiken C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to calculate the burden of fungal disease in Denmark. We identified all published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates in Denmark. Where no data existed, we used numbers of specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence. Approximately, one in six Danes will suffer from a fungal infection each year, most of which are skin or mucosal diseases causing disability but no deaths. Good data exist on candidaemia where a national voluntary reporting system is in place and have shown a high rate (9.6 per 100,000 inhabitants) compared other European countries. We present estimates of invasive aspergillosis and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis with rates of 4.4 per 100,000 and 3.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Further studies are needed in order to better ascertain high-burden fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (~1350 cases in 100,000 women) as well as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (~131 cases in 100,000 inhabitants) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (cases in 100,000 inhabitants). In conclusion, more than 93,000 Danes or about 2% of Denmark's population will have a non-trivial fungal infection during 1 year, which underscores the magnitude of the fungal burden.

  11. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of healthcare-associated infections for more information. Fungal infections can happen any time after your surgery. Fungal infections can happen ... Neofytos D, Fishman JA, Horn D, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of invasive ... in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplant Infectious Disease ...

  12. Burden of serious fungal infections in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khwakhali, Ushana Shrestha; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    There are few reports of serious fungal infections in Nepal though the pathogenic and allergenic fungi including Aspergillus species are common in the atmosphere. Herein, we estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Nepal. All published papers reporting fungal infection rates from Nepal were identified. When few data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence. Of the 27.3 M population, about 1.87% was estimated to suffer from serious fungal infections annually. We estimated the incidence of fungal keratitis at 73 per 100,000 annually. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is common with 215,765 cases, contributing to 1119 cases of invasive aspergillosis annually. Of 381,822 adult asthma cases, we estimated 9546 patients (range 2673-13,364) develop allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and 12,600 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. Based on 26,219 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, the annual incidence of new chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) cases was estimated at 1678 with a 5 year period prevalence of 5289, 80% of CPA cases. Of 22,994 HIV patients with CD4 counts <350 not on antiretrovirals, Pneumocystis pneumonia was estimated at 990 cases annually. Cases of oral and oesophageal candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients were estimated at 10,347 and 2950, respectively. There is a significant burden of serious fungal infections in Nepal. Epidemiological studies are necessary to validate these estimates.

  13. Expanding fungal pathogenesis: Cryptococcus breaks out of the opportunistic box.

    PubMed

    Kronstad, James W; Attarian, Rodgoun; Cadieux, Brigitte; Choi, Jaehyuk; D'Souza, Cletus A; Griffiths, Emma J; Geddes, Jennifer M H; Hu, Guanggan; Jung, Won Hee; Kretschmer, Matthias; Saikia, Sanjay; Wang, Joyce

    2011-03-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is generally considered to be an opportunistic fungal pathogen because of its tendency to infect immunocompromised individuals, particularly those infected with HIV. However, this view has been challenged by the recent discovery of specialized interactions between the fungus and its mammalian hosts, and by the emergence of the related species Cryptococcus gattii as a primary pathogen of immunocompetent populations. In this Review, we highlight features of cryptococcal pathogens that reveal their adaptation to the mammalian environment. These features include not only remarkably sophisticated interactions with phagocytic cells to promote intracellular survival, dissemination to the central nervous system and escape, but also surprising morphological and genomic adaptations such as the formation of polyploid giant cells in the lung.

  14. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes. PMID:21747869

  15. Fungal infections in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Fernanda P; Husain, Shahid

    2007-06-01

    Fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. account for most invasive fungal infections. The incidence of fungal infection varies with type of solid organ transplant. Liver transplant recipients have highest reported incidence of candida infections while lung transplant recipients have highest rate of Aspergillus infections. Recent epidemiological studies suggest the emergence of resistant strains of candida as well as mycelial fungi other than Aspergillus in these patients. The current review incorporates the recent changes in the epidemiology of fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients and highlights the newer data on the diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of fungal infections in these patients.

  16. Advances in industrial microbiome based on microbial consortium for biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-Li; Zhou, Jin-Jie; Quan, Chun-Shan; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2017-01-01

    One of the important targets of industrial biotechnology is using cheap biomass resources. The traditional strategy is microbial fermentations with single strain. However, cheap biomass normally contains so complex compositions and impurities that it is very difficult for single microorganism to utilize availably. In order to completely utilize the substrates and produce multiple products in one process, industrial microbiome based on microbial consortium draws more and more attention. In this review, we first briefly described some examples of existing industrial bioprocesses involving microbial consortia. Comparison of 1,3-propanediol production by mixed and pure cultures were then introduced, and interaction relationships between cells in microbial consortium were summarized. Finally, the outlook on how to design and apply microbial consortium in the future was also proposed.

  17. The TB Structural Genomics Consortium: A decade of progress

    PubMed Central

    Chim, Nicholas; Habel, Jeff E.; Johnston, Jodie M.; Krieger, Inna; Miallau, Linda; Sankaranarayanan, Ramasamy; Morse, Robert P.; Bruning, John; Swanson, Stephanie; Kim, Haelee; Kim, Chang-Yub; Li, Hongye; Bulloch, Esther M.; Payne, Richard J.; Manos-Turvey, Alexandra; Hung, Li-Wei; Baker, Edward N.; Lott, J. Shaun; James, Michael N.G.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Eisenberg, David S.; Sacchettini, James C.; Goulding, Celia W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The TB Structural Genomics Consortium is a worldwide organization of collaborators whose mission is the comprehensive structural determination and analyses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins to ultimately aid in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Congruent to the overall vision, Consortium members have additionally established an integrated facilities core to streamline M. tuberculosis structural biology and developed bioinformatics resources for data mining. This review aims to share the latest Consortium developments with the TB community, including recent structures of proteins that play significant roles within M. tuberculosis. Atomic resolution details may unravel mechanistic insights and reveal unique and novel protein features, as well as important protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, which ultimately leads to a better understanding of M. tuberculosis biology and may be exploited for rational, structure-based therapeutics design. PMID:21247804

  18. Molecular Basis of a Bacterial Consortium: Interspecies Catabolism of Atrazine

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Mervyn L.; Newcombe, David; Alvey, Sam; Crowley, David E.; Hay, Anthony; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    1998-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP contains the genes, atzA, -B, and -C, that encode three enzymes which metabolize atrazine to cyanuric acid. Atrazine-catabolizing pure cultures isolated from around the world contain genes homologous to atzA, -B, and -C. The present study was conducted to determine whether the same genes are present in an atrazine-catabolizing bacterial consortium and how the genes and metabolism are subdivided among member species. The consortium contained four or more bacterial species, but two members, Clavibacter michiganese ATZ1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain CN1, collectively mineralized atrazine. C. michiganese ATZ1 released chloride from atrazine, produced hydroxyatrazine, and contained a homolog to the atzA gene that encoded atrazine chlorohydrolase. C. michiganese ATZ1 stoichiometrically metabolized hydroxyatrazine to N-ethylammelide and contained genes homologous to atzB and atzC, suggesting that either a functional AtzB or -C catalyzed N-isopropylamine release from hydroxyatrazine. C. michiganese ATZ1 grew on isopropylamine as its sole carbon and nitrogen source, explaining the ability of the consortium to use atrazine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. A second consortium member, Pseudomonas sp. strain CN1, metabolized the N-ethylammelide produced by C. michiganese ATZ1 to transiently form cyanuric acid, a reaction catalyzed by AtzC. A gene homologous to the atzC gene of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP was present, as demonstrated by Southern hybridization and PCR. Pseudomonas sp. strain CN1, but not C. michiganese, metabolized cyanuric acid. The consortium metabolized atrazine faster than did C. michiganese individually. Additionally, the consortium metabolized a much broader set of triazine ring compounds than did previously described pure cultures in which the atzABC genes had been identified. These data begin to elucidate the genetic and metabolic bases of catabolism by multimember consortia. PMID:16349478

  19. Hydrodynamics, Fungal Physiology, and Morphology.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Carreón, L; Galindo, E; Rocha-Valadéz, J A; Holguín-Salas, A; Corkidi, G

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous cultures, such as fungi and actinomycetes, contribute substantially to the pharmaceutical industry and to enzyme production, with an annual market of about 6 billion dollars. In mechanically stirred reactors, most frequently used in fermentation industry, microbial growth and metabolite productivity depend on complex interactions between hydrodynamics, oxygen transfer, and mycelial morphology. The dissipation of energy through mechanically stirring devices, either flasks or tanks, impacts both microbial growth through shearing forces on the cells and the transfer of mass and energy, improving the contact between phases (i.e., air bubbles and microorganisms) but also causing damage to the cells at high energy dissipation rates. Mechanical-induced signaling in the cells triggers the molecular responses to shear stress; however, the complete mechanism is not known. Volumetric power input and, more importantly, the energy dissipation/circulation function are the main parameters determining mycelial size, a phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of mycelial aggregates and Kolmogorov eddies. The use of microparticles in fungal cultures is also a strategy to increase process productivity and reproducibility by controlling fungal morphology. In order to rigorously study the effects of hydrodynamics on the physiology of fungal microorganisms, it is necessary to rule out the possible associated effects of dissolved oxygen, something which has been reported scarcely. At the other hand, the processes of phase dispersion (including the suspended solid that is the filamentous biomass) are crucial in order to get an integral knowledge about biological and physicochemical interactions within the bioreactor. Digital image analysis is a powerful tool for getting relevant information in order to establish the mechanisms of mass transfer as well as to evaluate the viability of the mycelia. This review focuses on (a) the main characteristics of the two most

  20. Terragenome: International Soil Metagenome Sequencing Consortium (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Jansson, Janet [LBNL

    2016-07-12

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Janet Jansson of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory discusses the Terragenome Initiative at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009

  1. Augmentation of a Microbial Consortium for Enhanced Polylactide (PLA) Degradation.

    PubMed

    Nair, Nimisha R; Sekhar, Vini C; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2016-03-01

    Bioplastics are eco-friendly and derived from renewable biomass sources. Innovation in recycling methods will tackle some of the critical issues facing the acceptance of bioplastics. Polylactic acid (PLA) is the commonly used and well-studied bioplastic that is presumed to be biodegradable. Considering their demand and use in near future, exploration for microbes capable of bioplastic degradation has high potential. Four PLA degrading strains were isolated and identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Serratia marcescens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. A consortium of above strains degraded 44 % (w/w) PLA in 30 days time in laboratory conditions. Subsequently, the microbial consortium employed effectively for PLA composting.

  2. NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 1995-1999 Self Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Schaffart, Mary M.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium receives funds from NASA to allow Nebraska colleges and universities to implement balanced programs of research, education and public service related to aeronautics, space science and technology. Nebraska is a capability enhancement state which directs efforts and resources toward developing research infrastructure and enhancing the quality of aerospace research and education for all Nebraskans. Furthermore, the Nebraska Space Grant strives to provide national leadership in applied aspects of aeronautics. Nebraska has met, meets and will continue to meet all requirements set forth by NASA. Nebraska is a top-tier consortium and will continue to be a model program.

  3. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium - Final Progress Report October 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Bement, Arden L.

    2001-10-23

    The basic mission of the Consortium was to advance the science and understanding of high-T{sub c} superconductivity and to promote the development of new materials and improved processing technology. Focused group efforts were the key element of the research program. One program area is the understanding of the layered structures involved in candidate materials and the factors that control their formation, stability and relationship superconductor properties. The other program area had a focus upon factors that limit or control the transport properties such as weak links, flux lattice behavior, and interfaces. Interactions among Consortium d with industrial armiates were an integral part of the program.

  4. The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C.; Constable, C.; Tauxe, L.; Koppers, A.; Banerjee, S.; Jackson, M.; Solheid, P.

    2003-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is a multi-user facility to establish and maintain a state-of-the-art relational database and digital archive for rock and paleomagnetic data. The goal of MagIC is to make such data generally available and to provide an information technology infrastructure for these and other research-oriented databases run by the international community. As its name implies, MagIC will not be restricted to paleomagnetic or rock magnetic data only, although MagIC will focus on these kinds of information during its setup phase. MagIC will be hosted under EarthRef.org at http://earthref.org/MAGIC/ where two "integrated" web portals will be developed, one for paleomagnetism (currently functional as a prototype that can be explored via the http://earthref.org/databases/PMAG/ link) and one for rock magnetism. The MagIC database will store all measurements and their derived properties for studies of paleomagnetic directions (inclination, declination) and their intensities, and for rock magnetic experiments (hysteresis, remanence, susceptibility, anisotropy). Ultimately, this database will allow researchers to study "on the internet" and to download important data sets that display paleo-secular variations in the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field over geological time, or that display magnetic data in typical Zijderveld, hysteresis/FORC and various magnetization/remanence diagrams. The MagIC database is completely integrated in the EarthRef.org relational database structure and thus benefits significantly from already-existing common database components, such as the EarthRef Reference Database (ERR) and Address Book (ERAB). The ERR allows researchers to find complete sets of literature resources as used in GERM (Geochemical Earth Reference Model), REM (Reference Earth Model) and MagIC. The ERAB contains addresses for all contributors to the EarthRef.org databases, and also for those who participated in data collection, archiving and

  5. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  6. Scabies, lice, and fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Taplin, D; Meinking, T L

    1989-09-01

    Scabies and pediculosis capitis are frequent and often unrecognized causes of multiple streptococcal and staphylococcal pyodermas. Permethrin 1 per cent creme rinse (NIX) for head lice, and permethrin 5 per cent topical cream for scabies are new, highly effective, safe, and cosmetically elegant treatments which have shown superiority over older remedies. In populations in which pediculosis and scabies have resisted traditional lindane therapy, patients promptly responded to these permethrin products. Scabies in nursing homes is a persistent and expanding problem which demands a high level of diagnostic suspicion and an integrated approach to management. For fungal infections, several new broad-spectrum oral and topical agents have been introduced. Their successful use is enhanced by appropriate diagnostic tests which can be performed in the office setting. Recommendations and references are given to assist the physician in diagnosis and choice of therapy.

  7. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea).

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea) was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December) using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6%) and Basidiomycota (2.8%). A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii) was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions.

  8. Computational Astrophysics Consortium 3 - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, Stan

    2014-08-29

    Final project report for UCSC's participation in the Computational Astrophysics Consortium - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis. As an appendix, the report of the entire Consortium is also appended.

  9. 24 CFR 943.128 - How does a consortium carry out planning and reporting functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES... the consortium agreement, the consortium must submit joint five-year Plans and joint Annual Plans for... the joint PHA Plan....

  10. A chemical ecogenomics approach to understand the roles of secondary metabolites in fungal cereal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chooi, Yit-Heng; Solomon, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites (SMs) are known to play important roles in the virulence and lifestyle of fungal plant pathogens. The increasing availability of fungal pathogen genome sequences and next-generation genomic tools have allowed us to survey the SM gene cluster inventory in individual fungi. Thus, there is immense opportunity for SM discovery in these plant pathogens. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics have been employed to obtain insights on the genetic features that enable fungal pathogens to adapt in individual ecological niches and to adopt the different pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we will discuss how we can use these tools to search for ecologically important SM gene clusters in fungi, using cereal pathogens as models. This ecological genomics approach, combined with genome mining and chemical ecology tools, is likely to advance our understanding of the natural functions of SMs and accelerate bioactive molecule discovery.

  11. A chemical ecogenomics approach to understand the roles of secondary metabolites in fungal cereal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chooi, Yit-Heng; Solomon, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites (SMs) are known to play important roles in the virulence and lifestyle of fungal plant pathogens. The increasing availability of fungal pathogen genome sequences and next-generation genomic tools have allowed us to survey the SM gene cluster inventory in individual fungi. Thus, there is immense opportunity for SM discovery in these plant pathogens. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics have been employed to obtain insights on the genetic features that enable fungal pathogens to adapt in individual ecological niches and to adopt the different pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we will discuss how we can use these tools to search for ecologically important SM gene clusters in fungi, using cereal pathogens as models. This ecological genomics approach, combined with genome mining and chemical ecology tools, is likely to advance our understanding of the natural functions of SMs and accelerate bioactive molecule discovery. PMID:25477876

  12. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research.

  13. Circadian control sheds light on fungal bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Anderson G; Stevani, Cassius V; Waldenmaier, Hans E; Viviani, Vadim; Emerson, Jillian M; Loros, Jennifer J; Dunlap, Jay C

    2015-03-30

    Bioluminescence, the creation and emission of light by organisms, affords insight into the lives of organisms doing it. Luminous living things are widespread and access diverse mechanisms to generate and control luminescence [1-5]. Among the least studied bioluminescent organisms are phylogenetically rare fungi-only 71 species, all within the ∼ 9,000 fungi of the temperate and tropical Agaricales order-are reported from among ∼ 100,000 described fungal species [6, 7]. All require oxygen [8] and energy (NADH or NADPH) for bioluminescence and are reported to emit green light (λmax 530 nm) continuously, implying a metabolic function for bioluminescence, perhaps as a byproduct of oxidative metabolism in lignin degradation. Here, however, we report that bioluminescence from the mycelium of Neonothopanus gardneri is controlled by a temperature-compensated circadian clock, the result of cycles in content/activity of the luciferase, reductase, and luciferin that comprise the luminescent system. Because regulation implies an adaptive function for bioluminescence, a controversial question for more than two millennia [8-15], we examined interactions between luminescent fungi and insects [16]. Prosthetic acrylic resin "mushrooms," internally illuminated by a green LED emitting light similar to the bioluminescence, attract staphilinid rove beetles (coleopterans), as well as hemipterans (true bugs), dipterans (flies), and hymenopterans (wasps and ants), at numbers far greater than dark control traps. Thus, circadian control may optimize energy use for when bioluminescence is most visible, attracting insects that can in turn help in spore dispersal, thereby benefitting fungi growing under the forest canopy, where wind flow is greatly reduced.

  14. Circadian Control Sheds Light on Fungal Bioluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Anderson G.; Stevani, Cassius V.; Waldenmaier, Hans E.; Viviani, Vadim; Emerson, Jillian M.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bioluminescence, the creation and emission of light by organisms, affords insight into the lives of organisms doing it. Luminous living things are widespread and access diverse mechanisms to generate and control luminescence [1-5]. Among the least studied bioluminescent organisms are phylogenetically rare fungi – only 71 species, all within the ~9000 fungi of the temperate and tropical Agaricales Order - are reported from among ~100,000 described fungal species [6,7]. All require oxygen [8] and energy (NADH or NADPH) for bioluminescence, and are reported to emit green light (λmax 530 nm) continuously, implying a metabolic function for bioluminescence, perhaps as a by-product of oxidative metabolism in lignin degradation. Here, however, we report that bioluminescence from the mycelium of Neonothopanus gardneri is controlled by a temperature compensated circadian clock, the result of cycles in content/activity of the luciferase, reductase, and the luciferin that comprise the luminescent system. Because regulation implies an adaptive function for bioluminescence, a controversial question for more than two millenia [8-15], we examined interactions between luminescent fungi and insects [16]. Prosthetic acrylic resin “mushrooms”, internally illuminated by a green LED emitting light similar to the bioluminescence, attract staphilinid rove beetles (coleopterans) as well as hemipterans (true bugs), dipterans (flies), and hymenopterans (wasps and ants) at numbers far greater than dark control traps. Thus, circadian control may optimize energy use for when bioluminescence is most visible, attracting insects that can in turn help in spore dispersal, thereby benefitting fungi growing under the forest canopy where wind flow is greatly reduced. PMID:25802150

  15. The Detroit Approach to Adapted Physical Education and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Bruce; Czapski, Stephen

    The report describes Detroit's Adaptive Physical Education Consortium Project in Michigan. Among the main objectives of the project are to coordinate all physical education and recreation services to the handicapped in the Detroit area; to facilitate the mainstreaming of capable handicapped individuals into existing "regular" physical…

  16. Downscaling the in vitro test of fungal bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Drevinskas, Tomas; Mickienė, Rūta; Maruška, Audrius; Stankevičius, Mantas; Tiso, Nicola; Mikašauskaitė, Jurgita; Ragažinskienė, Ona; Levišauskas, Donatas; Bartkuvienė, Violeta; Snieškienė, Vilija; Stankevičienė, Antanina; Polcaro, Chiara; Galli, Emanuela; Donati, Enrica; Tekorius, Tomas; Kornyšova, Olga; Kaškonienė, Vilma

    2016-02-01

    The miniaturization and optimization of a white rot fungal bioremediation experiment is described in this paper. The optimized procedure allows determination of the degradation kinetics of anthracene. The miniaturized procedure requires only 2.5 ml of culture medium. The experiment is more precise, robust, and better controlled comparing it to classical tests in flasks. Using this technique, different parts, i.e., the culture medium, the fungi, and the cotton seal, can be analyzed. A simple sample preparation speeds up the analytical process. Experiments performed show degradation of anthracene up to approximately 60% by Irpex lacteus and up to approximately 40% by Pleurotus ostreatus in 25 days. Bioremediation of anthracene by the consortium of I. lacteus and P. ostreatus shows the biodegradation of anthracene up to approximately 56% in 23 days. At the end of the experiment, the surface tension of culture medium decreased comparing it to the blank, indicating generation of surfactant compounds.

  17. Microbial Pathogens in the Fungal Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The fungal kingdom is vast, spanning ~1.5 to as many as 5 million species diverse as unicellular yeasts, filamentous fungi, mushrooms, lichens, and both plant and animal pathogens. The fungi are closely aligned with animals in one of the six to eight supergroups of eukaryotes, the opisthokonts. The animal and fungal kingdoms last shared a common ancestor ~1 billion years ago, more recently than other groups of eukaryotes. As a consequence of their close evolutionary history and shared cellular machinery with metazoans, fungi are exceptional models for mammalian biology, but prove more difficult to treat in infected animals. The last common ancestor to the fungal/metazoan lineages is thought to have been unicellular, aquatic, and motile with a posterior flagellum, and certain extant species closely resemble this hypothesized ancestor. Species within the fungal kingdom were traditionally assigned to four phyla, including the basal fungi (Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota) and the more recently derived monophyletic lineage, the dikarya (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The fungal tree of life project has revealed that the basal lineages are polyphyletic, and thus there are as many as eight to ten fungal phyla. Fungi that infect vertebrates are found in all of the major lineages, and virulence arose multiple times independently. A sobering recent development involves the species Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from the basal fungal phylum, the Chytridiomycota, which has emerged to cause global amphibian declines and extinctions. Genomics is revolutionizing our view of the fungal kingdom, and genome sequences for zygomycete pathogens (Rhizopus, Mucor), skin-associated fungi (dermatophytes, Malassezia), and the Candida pathogenic species clade promise to provide insights into the origins of virulence. Here we survey the diversity of fungal pathogens and illustrate key principles revealed by genomics involving sexual reproduction and sex determination, loss of conserved pathways in

  18. Fundamentals of fungal molecular population genetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianping

    2006-07-01

    The last two decades have seen tremendous growth in the development and application of molecular methods in the analyses of fungal species and populations. In this paper, I provide an overview of the molecular techniques and the basic analytical tools used to address various fundamental population and evolutionary genetic questions in fungi. With increasing availability and decreasing cost, DNA sequencing is becoming a mainstream data acquisition method in fungal evolutionary genetic studies. However, other methods, especially those based on the polymerase chain reaction, remain powerful in addressing specific questions for certain groups of taxa. These developments are bringing fungal population and evolutionary genetics into mainstream ecology and evolutionary biology.

  19. The Research Consortium, 1977-2010: Contributions, Milestones, and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Claman, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    Research and innovation are a cornerstone of any progressive organization. The Research Consortium (RC) has served as the principal organization fulfilling this function on behalf of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) throughout much of its history. The RC is an organization of approximately 5,000…

  20. Virginia Space Grant Consortium Upper Atmospheric Payload Balloon System (Vps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marz, Bryan E.; Ash, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the launch and post-launch activities of Virginia Space Grant Consortium Upper Atmospheric Payload Balloon System, V(ps). It is a comprehensive overview covering launch activities, post-launch activities, experimental results, and future flight recommendations.

  1. Academic Library Consortium in Jordan: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mustafa H.; Suleiman, Raid Jameel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the current financial and managerial difficulties that are encountered by libraries in public universities in Jordan and the geographical diffusion of these academic institutions, the idea of establishing a consortium was proposed by the Council of Higher Education to combine these libraries. This article reviews the reality of…

  2. Training a New Generation of Biostatisticians: A Successful Consortium Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Judy M.; Ryan, Philip; Carlin, John B.; Gurrin, Lyle; Marschner, Ian

    2009-01-01

    In response to the worldwide shortage of biostatisticians, Australia has established a national consortium of eight universities to develop and deliver a Masters program in biostatistics. This article describes our successful innovative multi-institutional training model, which may be of value to other countries. We first present the issues…

  3. Appeal Resource and Training Consortium (ARTC) 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    APPEAL (Asia Pacific Programme of Education for All) Resource and Training Consortium (ARTC) was initiated in May 1997 at the Technical Working Group Meeting organized by APPEAL in cooperation with the Indian Institute of Education (IIE) to provide technical support and assistance to the work of APPEAL among the Member States. This booklet is a…

  4. The Consortium for Advancing Renewable Energy Technology (CARET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, E. M.; Henderson, D. O.; Buffinger, D. R.; Fuller, C. W.; Uribe, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Consortium for Advancing Renewable Energy (CARET) is a research and education program which uses the theme of renewable energy to build a minority scientist pipeline. CARET is also a consortium of four universities and NASA Lewis Research Center working together to promote science education and research to minority students using the theme of renewable energy. The consortium membership includes the HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities), Fisk, Wilberforce and Central State Universities as well as Kent State University and NASA Lewis Research Center. The various stages of this pipeline provide participating students experiences with a different emphasis. Some emphasize building enthusiasm for the classroom study of science and technology while others emphasize the nature of research in these disciplines. Still others focus on relating a practical application to science and technology. And, of great importance to the success of the program are the interfaces between the various stages. Successfully managing these transitions is a requirement for producing trained scientists, engineers and technologists. Presentations describing the CARET program have been given at this year's HBCU Research Conference at the Ohio Aerospace Institute and as a seminar in the Solar Circle Seminar series of the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. In this report, we will describe the many positive achievements toward the fulfillment of the goals and outcomes of our program. We will begin with a description of the interactions among the consortium members and end with a description of the activities of each of the member institutions .

  5. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Phillips, D.I.; Luttrell, G.H.; Basim, B.; Sohn, S.

    1996-07-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The consortium has three charter members, including Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky. The Consortium also includes industry affiliate members that form an Advisory Committee. In keeping with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee, first-year R&D activities are focused on two areas of research: fine coal dewatering and modeling of spirals. The industry representatives to the Consortium identified fine coal dewatering as the most needed area of technology development. Dewatering studies will be conducted by Virginia Tech`s Center for Coal and Minerals Processing. A spiral model is developed by West Virginia University. The research to be performed by the University of Kentucky has recently been determined to be: ``A Study of Novel Approaches for Destabilization of Flotation Froth``. Acoomplishments to date are reported.

  6. The Bellarmine Outreach Consortium: An Innovative Approach to Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algren, Chris L.; Hockenberger, Susan

    The Bellarmine Outreach Consortium, which provides access to baccalaureate and masters education in nursing for registered nurses in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Tennessee, is described. The components of a marketing process for colleges are also considered, with attention to product, place, price, and promotion. The nursing department of…

  7. The External RNA Controls Consortium: a progress report.

    PubMed

    Baker, Shawn C; Bauer, Steven R; Beyer, Richard P; Brenton, James D; Bromley, Bud; Burrill, John; Causton, Helen; Conley, Michael P; Elespuru, Rosalie; Fero, Michael; Foy, Carole; Fuscoe, James; Gao, Xiaolian; Gerhold, David Lee; Gilles, Patrick; Goodsaid, Federico; Guo, Xu; Hackett, Joe; Hockett, Richard D; Ikonomi, Pranvera; Irizarry, Rafael A; Kawasaki, Ernest S; Kaysser-Kranich, Tamma; Kerr, Kathleen; Kiser, Gretchen; Koch, Walter H; Lee, Kathy Y; Liu, Chunmei; Liu, Z Lewis; Lucas, Anne; Manohar, Chitra F; Miyada, Garry; Modrusan, Zora; Parkes, Helen; Puri, Raj K; Reid, Laura; Ryder, Thomas B; Salit, Marc; Samaha, Raymond R; Scherf, Uwe; Sendera, Timothy J; Setterquist, Robert A; Shi, Leming; Shippy, Richard; Soriano, Jesus V; Wagar, Elizabeth A; Warrington, Janet A; Williams, Mickey; Wilmer, Frederike; Wilson, Mike; Wolber, Paul K; Wu, Xiaoning; Zadro, Renata

    2005-10-01

    Standard controls and best practice guidelines advance acceptance of data from research, preclinical and clinical laboratories by providing a means for evaluating data quality. The External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC) is developing commonly agreed-upon and tested controls for use in expression assays, a true industry-wide standard control.

  8. The Worker Rights Consortium Makes Strides toward Legitimacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Werf, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of the Workers Rights Consortium, a student-originated group with 44 member institutions which opposes sweatshop labor conditions especially in the apparel industry. Notes disagreements about the number of administrators on the board of directors and about the role of industry representives. Compares this group with the…

  9. Called to Collaboration: The University Consortium for Catholic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Molly; Kennedy, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the University of Consortium for Catholic Education (UCCE) as an example of collaboration between Catholic colleges, universities, schools, and other stakeholders. The UCCE supports a collaborative cadre of primarily Catholic colleges and universities as they design and implement graduate-level teaching service programs for…

  10. Health Science Careers: Tech Prep Consortium for New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maillet, Julie O'Sullivan; D'Anna, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    A high school health sciences program consists of an interdisciplinary core curriculum, clinical job shadowing, and potential to earn college credit. Interactive television and CD-ROMs enhance teaching. A consortium of high schools offers the tech prep program in collaboration with the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. (SK)

  11. Teach Louisiana Consortium: A Fifth Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haj-Broussard, Michelle; Stringer, Angelle

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a fifth year program evaluation of a private provider program for teacher certification in Louisiana. The study sought to evaluate the success of the Teach Louisiana Consortium program in terms of teacher placement, teacher retention, administrative satisfaction, teacher attitudes, and teacher pedagogical knowledge. Initial…

  12. Sisters of St. Joseph College Consortium: Mission and Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    1995-01-01

    As part of a process of discerning the future direction and mission of the Sisters of Saint Joseph College Consortium (SSJCC), a year-long study of 11 institutions founded and run by the Sisters of Saint Joseph was undertaken. Sisters of Saint Joseph (SSJ) is a Roman Catholic women's religious congregation founded in 1836 which operates a…

  13. Mathematics Education for Hispanic Students in the Border College Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Laura I.

    The Border College Consortium (BCC), formed by six Texas, California, and Arizona community colleges along the United States and Mexico border, used a survey to derive a profile of its mathematics and science students. The profile revealed that both Hispanic and White students had difficulties with word problems and study habits, wanted…

  14. Drivers of variation in species impacts for a multi-host fungal disease of bats.

    PubMed

    Langwig, Kate E; Frick, Winifred F; Hoyt, Joseph R; Parise, Katy L; Drees, Kevin P; Kunz, Thomas H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2016-12-05

    Disease can play an important role in structuring species communities because the effects of disease vary among hosts; some species are driven towards extinction, while others suffer relatively little impact. Why disease impacts vary among host species remains poorly understood for most multi-host pathogens, and factors allowing less-susceptible species to persist could be useful in conserving highly affected species. White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging fungal disease of bats, has decimated some species while sympatric and closely related species have experienced little effect. We analysed data on infection prevalence, fungal loads and environmental factors to determine how variation in infection among sympatric host species influenced the severity of WNS population impacts. Intense transmission resulted in almost uniformly high prevalence in all species. By contrast, fungal loads varied over 3 orders of magnitude among species, and explained 98% of the variation among species in disease impacts. Fungal loads increased with hibernating roosting temperatures, with bats roosting at warmer temperatures having higher fungal loads and suffering greater WNS impacts. We also found evidence of a threshold fungal load, above which the probability of mortality may increase sharply, and this threshold was similar for multiple species. This study demonstrates how differences in behavioural traits among species-in this case microclimate preferences-that may have been previously adaptive can be deleterious after the introduction of a new pathogen. Management to reduce pathogen loads rather than exposure may be an effective way of reducing disease impact and preventing species extinctions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  15. 24 CFR 943.124 - What elements must a consortium agreement contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What elements must a consortium agreement contain? 943.124 Section 943.124 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND... elements must a consortium agreement contain? (a) The consortium agreement among the participating...

  16. 24 CFR 943.124 - What elements must a consortium agreement contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What elements must a consortium agreement contain? 943.124 Section 943.124 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND... elements must a consortium agreement contain? (a) The consortium agreement among the participating...

  17. 24 CFR 943.124 - What elements must a consortium agreement contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What elements must a consortium agreement contain? 943.124 Section 943.124 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND... elements must a consortium agreement contain? (a) The consortium agreement among the participating...

  18. 24 CFR 943.124 - What elements must a consortium agreement contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What elements must a consortium agreement contain? 943.124 Section 943.124 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND... elements must a consortium agreement contain? (a) The consortium agreement among the participating...

  19. The Hills Are Alive: The Appalachian Consortium Approach to Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael H.

    This paper describes the formation of the Appalachian Consortium, assesses its impact after one year of operation, and examines its future development. Consortium goals were to provide in-service, staff development opportunities for the instructional faculties of the consortium's member colleges (three community colleges and a state university)…

  20. 15 CFR 918.6 - Duration of Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Consortium designation. 918.6 Section 918.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS SEA GRANTS § 918.6 Duration of Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation. Designation will be made... consistent with the goals of the Act. Continuation of the Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation...

  1. 15 CFR 918.6 - Duration of Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Consortium designation. 918.6 Section 918.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS SEA GRANTS § 918.6 Duration of Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation. Designation will be made... consistent with the goals of the Act. Continuation of the Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation...

  2. 15 CFR 918.6 - Duration of Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Consortium designation. 918.6 Section 918.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS SEA GRANTS § 918.6 Duration of Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation. Designation will be made... consistent with the goals of the Act. Continuation of the Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation...

  3. 15 CFR 918.6 - Duration of Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Consortium designation. 918.6 Section 918.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS SEA GRANTS § 918.6 Duration of Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation. Designation will be made... consistent with the goals of the Act. Continuation of the Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation...

  4. 15 CFR 918.6 - Duration of Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Consortium designation. 918.6 Section 918.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS SEA GRANTS § 918.6 Duration of Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation. Designation will be made... consistent with the goals of the Act. Continuation of the Sea Grant Regional Consortium designation...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.315 - When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the Department?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.315 When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the Department? The Tribe/Consortium must repay funds to the Department as soon as...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.255 - May a Tribe/Consortium reallocate funds among construction programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium reallocate funds among... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Construction § 1000.255 May a Tribe/Consortium reallocate funds among construction programs? Yes, a Tribe/Consortium may reallocate funds among...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  9. 34 CFR 636.5 - What are the matching contribution and planning consortium requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consortium requirements? 636.5 Section 636.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... PROGRAM General § 636.5 What are the matching contribution and planning consortium requirements? (a) The... agreed to by the members of a planning consortium. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1136b, 1136e)...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.255 - May a Tribe/Consortium reallocate funds among construction programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium reallocate funds among... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Construction § 1000.255 May a Tribe/Consortium reallocate funds among construction programs? Yes, a Tribe/Consortium may reallocate funds among...

  11. 42 CFR 93.306 - Using a consortium or other person for research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Using a consortium or other person for research... and Assurances § 93.306 Using a consortium or other person for research misconduct proceedings. (a) An institution may use the services of a consortium or person that the institution reasonably determines to...

  12. 45 CFR 287.25 - May Tribes form a consortium to operate a NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true May Tribes form a consortium to operate a NEW... SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM Eligible Tribes § 287.25 May Tribes form a consortium to operate a NEW Program? (a) Yes, as long as each Tribe forming the consortium is an “eligible Indian...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.222 - How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver? 1000.222...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.222 How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver? To obtain a waiver, the Tribe/Consortium must: (a) Submit a written request from the designated...

  14. 45 CFR 287.25 - May Tribes form a consortium to operate a NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true May Tribes form a consortium to operate a NEW... SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM Eligible Tribes § 287.25 May Tribes form a consortium to operate a NEW Program? (a) Yes, as long as each Tribe forming the consortium is an “eligible Indian...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.169 - How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information phase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information... of Initial Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.169 How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information phase? A Tribe/Consortium initiates the information phase by submitting a letter of interest to...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.425 - How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal conference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.425 How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal conference? The Tribe/Consortium shall file its request for an informal conference with the...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.169 - How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information phase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information... of Initial Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.169 How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information phase? A Tribe/Consortium initiates the information phase by submitting a letter of interest to...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.333 - How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program? 1000.333...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.333 How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program? The Tribe/Consortium must submit: (a) A written notice to: (1) The Office of Self-Governance for...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.311 - How will the Secretary reply to the Tribe's/Consortium's response?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will the Secretary reply to the Tribe's/Consortium's... Tribe's/Consortium's response? The Secretary will make a written determination within 10 days of the Tribe's/Consortium's written response as to whether the proposed measures will eliminate the finding...

  1. 47 CFR 54.636 - Eligible participant-constructed and owned network facilities for consortium applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... network facilities for consortium applicants. 54.636 Section 54.636 Telecommunication FEDERAL... owned network facilities for consortium applicants. (a) Subject to the funding limitations under §§ 54.675 and 54.638 and the following restrictions, consortium applicants may receive support for...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.333 - How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program? 1000.333...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.333 How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program? The Tribe/Consortium must submit: (a) A written notice to: (1) The Office of Self-Governance for...

  3. 42 CFR 93.306 - Using a consortium or other person for research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Using a consortium or other person for research... and Assurances § 93.306 Using a consortium or other person for research misconduct proceedings. (a) An institution may use the services of a consortium or person that the institution reasonably determines to...

  4. 34 CFR 636.5 - What are the matching contribution and planning consortium requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consortium requirements? 636.5 Section 636.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... PROGRAM General § 636.5 What are the matching contribution and planning consortium requirements? (a) The... agreed to by the members of a planning consortium. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1136b, 1136e)...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.333 - How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program? 1000.333...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.333 How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program? The Tribe/Consortium must submit: (a) A written notice to: (1) The Office of Self-Governance for...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.222 - How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver? 1000.222...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.222 How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver? To obtain a waiver, the Tribe/Consortium must: (a) Submit a written request from the designated...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.169 - How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information phase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information... of Initial Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.169 How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information phase? A Tribe/Consortium initiates the information phase by submitting a letter of interest to...

  8. 45 CFR 287.25 - May Tribes form a consortium to operate a NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false May Tribes form a consortium to operate a NEW... SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM Eligible Tribes § 287.25 May Tribes form a consortium to operate a NEW Program? (a) Yes, as long as each Tribe forming the consortium is an “eligible Indian...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.425 - How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal conference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.425 How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal conference? The Tribe/Consortium shall file its request for an informal conference with the...

  10. 45 CFR 287.25 - May Tribes form a consortium to operate a NEW Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May Tribes form a consortium to operate a NEW... SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM Eligible Tribes § 287.25 May Tribes form a consortium to operate a NEW Program? (a) Yes, as long as each Tribe forming the consortium is an “eligible Indian...

  11. 42 CFR 93.306 - Using a consortium or other person for research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Using a consortium or other person for research... and Assurances § 93.306 Using a consortium or other person for research misconduct proceedings. (a) An institution may use the services of a consortium or person that the institution reasonably determines to...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.315 - When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the Department?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.315 When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the Department? The Tribe/Consortium must repay funds to the Department as soon as...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.315 - When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the Department?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.315 When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the Department? The Tribe/Consortium must repay funds to the Department as soon as...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.169 - How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information phase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information... of Initial Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.169 How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information phase? A Tribe/Consortium initiates the information phase by submitting a letter of interest to...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.425 - How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal conference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.425 How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal conference? The Tribe/Consortium shall file its request for an informal conference with the...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.315 - When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the Department?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.315 When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the Department? The Tribe/Consortium must repay funds to the Department as soon as...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.222 - How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver? 1000.222...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.222 How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver? To obtain a waiver, the Tribe/Consortium must: (a) Submit a written request from the designated...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.222 - How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver? 1000.222...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.222 How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver? To obtain a waiver, the Tribe/Consortium must: (a) Submit a written request from the designated...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.333 - How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program? 1000.333...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.333 How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program? The Tribe/Consortium must submit: (a) A written notice to: (1) The Office of Self-Governance for...

  20. 34 CFR 636.5 - What are the matching contribution and planning consortium requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consortium requirements? 636.5 Section 636.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... PROGRAM General § 636.5 What are the matching contribution and planning consortium requirements? (a) The... agreed to by the members of a planning consortium. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1136b, 1136e)...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.311 - How will the Secretary reply to the Tribe's/Consortium's response?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will the Secretary reply to the Tribe's/Consortium's... Tribe's/Consortium's response? The Secretary will make a written determination within 10 days of the Tribe's/Consortium's written response as to whether the proposed measures will eliminate the finding...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.311 - How will the Secretary reply to the Tribe's/Consortium's response?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will the Secretary reply to the Tribe's/Consortium's... Tribe's/Consortium's response? The Secretary will make a written determination within 10 days of the Tribe's/Consortium's written response as to whether the proposed measures will eliminate the finding...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.255 - May a Tribe/Consortium reallocate funds among construction programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium reallocate funds among... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Construction § 1000.255 May a Tribe/Consortium reallocate funds among construction programs? Yes, a Tribe/Consortium may reallocate funds among...

  4. 34 CFR 636.5 - What are the matching contribution and planning consortium requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consortium requirements? 636.5 Section 636.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... PROGRAM General § 636.5 What are the matching contribution and planning consortium requirements? (a) The... agreed to by the members of a planning consortium. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1136b, 1136e)...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.311 - How will the Secretary reply to the Tribe's/Consortium's response?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will the Secretary reply to the Tribe's/Consortium's... Tribe's/Consortium's response? The Secretary will make a written determination within 10 days of the Tribe's/Consortium's written response as to whether the proposed measures will eliminate the finding...

  6. 34 CFR 636.5 - What are the matching contribution and planning consortium requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consortium requirements? 636.5 Section 636.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... PROGRAM General § 636.5 What are the matching contribution and planning consortium requirements? (a) The... agreed to by the members of a planning consortium. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1136b, 1136e)...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.425 - How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal conference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.425 How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal conference? The Tribe/Consortium shall file its request for an informal conference with the...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.222 - How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver? 1000.222...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.222 How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver? To obtain a waiver, the Tribe/Consortium must: (a) Submit a written request from the designated...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.311 - How will the Secretary reply to the Tribe's/Consortium's response?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How will the Secretary reply to the Tribe's/Consortium's... Tribe's/Consortium's response? The Secretary will make a written determination within 10 days of the Tribe's/Consortium's written response as to whether the proposed measures will eliminate the finding...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.425 - How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal conference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.425 How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal conference? The Tribe/Consortium shall file its request for an informal conference with the...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.255 - May a Tribe/Consortium reallocate funds among construction programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium reallocate funds among... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Construction § 1000.255 May a Tribe/Consortium reallocate funds among construction programs? Yes, a Tribe/Consortium may reallocate funds among...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.315 - When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the Department?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.315 When must the Tribe/Consortium return funds to the Department? The Tribe/Consortium must repay funds to the Department as soon as...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.333 - How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program? 1000.333...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Retrocession § 1000.333 How does a Tribe/Consortium retrocede a program? The Tribe/Consortium must submit: (a) A written notice to: (1) The Office of Self-Governance for...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.169 - How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information phase?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information... of Initial Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.169 How does a Tribe/Consortium initiate the information phase? A Tribe/Consortium initiates the information phase by submitting a letter of interest to...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.23 - How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool... Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.23 How is a Tribe/Consortium admitted to the applicant pool? To be considered for admission in the applicant pool, a Tribe/Consortium must submit an application to the...

  17. 47 CFR 54.636 - Eligible participant-constructed and owned network facilities for consortium applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... network facilities for consortium applicants. 54.636 Section 54.636 Telecommunication FEDERAL... owned network facilities for consortium applicants. (a) Subject to the funding limitations under §§ 54.675 and 54.638 and the following restrictions, consortium applicants may receive support for...

  18. 42 CFR 93.306 - Using a consortium or other person for research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Using a consortium or other person for research... and Assurances § 93.306 Using a consortium or other person for research misconduct proceedings. (a) An institution may use the services of a consortium or person that the institution reasonably determines to...

  19. The University of Utah Clinical Genetics Research Program as an NF1 Consortium Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    chair of the Biology Committee, and he organized a symposium of investigators and clinicians who were part of a MPNST (malignant peripheral nerve sheath...tumor) Consortium and the MPNST Committee of the NF1 Consortium that convened as a satellite meeting of the full NF1 Consortium meeting in Atlanta

  20. Expanding Fungal Diets Through Synthetic Algal-Fungal Mutualism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Alaisha; Galazka, Jonathan (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    Fungi can synthesize numerous molecules with important properties, and could be valuable production platforms for space exploration and colonization. However, as heterotrophs, fungi require reduced carbon. This limits their efficiency in locations such as Mars, where reduced carbon is scarce. We propose a system to induce mutualistic symbiosis between the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa. This arrangement would mimic natural algal-fungal relationships found in lichens, but have added advantages including increased growth rate and genetic tractability. N. crassa would metabolize citrate (C6H5O7 (sup -3)) and release carbon dioxide (CO2) that C. reinhardtii would assimilate into organic sugars during photosynthesis. C. reinhardtii would metabolize nitrate (NO3-) and release ammonia (NH3) as a nitrogen source for N. crassa. A N. crassa mutant incapable of reducing nitrate will be used to force this interaction. This system eliminates the need to directly supply its participants with carbon dioxide and ammonia. Furthermore, the release of oxygen by C. reinhardtii via photosynthesis would enable N. crassa to respire. We hope to eventually create a system closer to lichen, in which the algae transfers not only nitrogen but reduced carbon, as organic sugars, to the fungus for growth and production of valuable compounds.