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Sample records for adapted fungal consortium

  1. Evaluation of thermophilic fungal consortium for organic municipal solid waste composting.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Pandey, Akhilesh Kumar; Khan, Jamaluddin; Bundela, Pushpendra Singh; Wong, Jonathan W C; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2014-09-01

    Influence of fungal consortium and different turning frequency on composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated to produce compost with higher agronomic value. Four piles of OFMSW were prepared: three piles were inoculated with fungal consortium containing 5l each spore suspensions of Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus and with a turning frequency of weekly (Pile 1), twice a week (Pile 2) and daily (Pile 3), while Pile 4 with weekly turning and without fungal inoculation served as control. The fungal consortium with weekly (Pile 1) turning frequency significantly affected temperature, pH, TOC, TKN, C/N ratio and germination index. High degradation of organic matter and early maturity was observed in Pile 1. Results indicate that fungal consortium with weekly turning frequency of open windrows were more cost-effective in comparison with other technologies for efficient composting and yield safe end products. PMID:24507579

  2. Novel Root Fungal Consortium Associated with a Dominant Desert Grass▿

    PubMed Central

    Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Herrera, Jose; Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Odenbach, Kylea J.; Lowrey, Timothy; Natvig, Donald O.

    2008-01-01

    The broad distribution and high colonization rates of plant roots by a variety of endophytic fungi suggest that these symbionts have an important role in the function of ecosystems. Semiarid and arid lands cover more than one-third of the terrestrial ecosystems on Earth. However, a limited number of studies have been conducted to characterize root-associated fungal communities in semiarid grasslands. We conducted a study of the fungal community associated with the roots of a dominant grass, Bouteloua gracilis, at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico. Internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequences from roots collected in May 2005, October 2005, and January 2006 were amplified using fungal-specific primers, and a total of 630 sequences were obtained, 69% of which were novel (less than 97% similarity with respect to sequences in the NCBI database). B. gracilis roots were colonized by at least 10 different orders, including endophytic, coprophilous, mycorrhizal, saprophytic, and plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 51 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found, and diversity estimators did not show saturation. Despite the high diversity found within B. gracilis roots, the root-associated fungal community is dominated by a novel group of dark septate fungi (DSF) within the order Pleosporales. Microscopic analysis confirmed that B. gracilis roots are highly colonized by DSF. Other common orders colonizing the roots included Sordariales, Xylariales, and Agaricales. By contributing to drought tolerance and nutrient acquisition, DSF may be integral to the function of arid ecosystems. PMID:18344349

  3. A Fungal-Prokaryotic Consortium at the Basalt-Zeolite Interface in Subseafloor Igneous Crust

    PubMed Central

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Bengtson, Stefan; Skogby, Henrik; Lazor, Peter; Broman, Curt; Belivanova, Veneta; Marone, Federica

    2015-01-01

    We have after half a century of coordinated scientific drilling gained insight into Earth´s largest microbial habitat, the subseafloor igneous crust, but still lack substantial understanding regarding its abundance, diversity and ecology. Here we describe a fossilized microbial consortium of prokaryotes and fungi at the basalt-zeolite interface of fractured subseafloor basalts from a depth of 240 m below seafloor (mbsf). The microbial consortium and its relationship with the surrounding physical environment are revealed by synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The base of the consortium is represented by microstromatolites—remains of bacterial communities that oxidized reduced iron directly from the basalt. The microstromatolites and the surrounding basalt were overlaid by fungal cells and hyphae. The consortium was overgrown by hydrothermally formed zeolites but remained alive and active during this event. After its formation, fungal hyphae bored in the zeolite, producing millimetre-long tunnels through the mineral substrate. The dissolution could either serve to extract metals like Ca, Na and K essential for fungal growth and metabolism, or be a response to environmental stress owing to the mineral overgrowth. Our results show how microbial life may be maintained in a nutrient-poor and extreme environment by close ecological interplay and reveal an effective strategy for nutrient extraction from minerals. The prokaryotic portion of the consortium served as a carbon source for the eukaryotic portion. Such an approach may be a prerequisite for prokaryotic-eukaryotic colonisation of, and persistence in, subseafloor igneous crust. PMID:26488482

  4. A Fungal-Prokaryotic Consortium at the Basalt-Zeolite Interface in Subseafloor Igneous Crust.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Bengtson, Stefan; Skogby, Henrik; Lazor, Peter; Broman, Curt; Belivanova, Veneta; Marone, Federica

    2015-01-01

    We have after half a century of coordinated scientific drilling gained insight into Earth´s largest microbial habitat, the subseafloor igneous crust, but still lack substantial understanding regarding its abundance, diversity and ecology. Here we describe a fossilized microbial consortium of prokaryotes and fungi at the basalt-zeolite interface of fractured subseafloor basalts from a depth of 240 m below seafloor (mbsf). The microbial consortium and its relationship with the surrounding physical environment are revealed by synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The base of the consortium is represented by microstromatolites-remains of bacterial communities that oxidized reduced iron directly from the basalt. The microstromatolites and the surrounding basalt were overlaid by fungal cells and hyphae. The consortium was overgrown by hydrothermally formed zeolites but remained alive and active during this event. After its formation, fungal hyphae bored in the zeolite, producing millimetre-long tunnels through the mineral substrate. The dissolution could either serve to extract metals like Ca, Na and K essential for fungal growth and metabolism, or be a response to environmental stress owing to the mineral overgrowth. Our results show how microbial life may be maintained in a nutrient-poor and extreme environment by close ecological interplay and reveal an effective strategy for nutrient extraction from minerals. The prokaryotic portion of the consortium served as a carbon source for the eukaryotic portion. Such an approach may be a prerequisite for prokaryotic-eukaryotic colonisation of, and persistence in, subseafloor igneous crust. PMID:26488482

  5. Saccharification of sunflower stalks using lignocellulases from a fungal consortium comprising Pholiota adiposa and Armillaria gemina.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Priyadharshini; Kim, Tae-Su; Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Li, Jinglin; Park, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Joon-Ho; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Dongwook; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2015-09-01

    Lignocellulases from Armillaria gemina and Pholiota adiposa are efficient in hydrolyzing aspen and poplar biomass, respectively. In the present study, lignocellulosic enzymes obtained from a fungal consortium comprising P. adiposa and A. gemina were used for the saccharification of sunflower stalks. Sunflower stalks were thermochemically pretreated using 2 % NaOH at 50 °C for 24 h. The saccharification process parameters including substrate concentration, enzyme loading, pH, and temperature were optimized using response surface methodology to improve the saccharification yield. The highest enzymatic hydrolysis (84.3 %) was obtained using the following conditions: enzyme loading 10 FPU/g-substrate, substrate 5.5 %, temperature 50 °C, and pH 4.5. The hydrolysis yield obtained using the enzymes from the fungal consortium was equivalent to that obtained using a mixture of commercial enzymes Celluclast and Novozyme β-glucosidase. Addition of up to 500 ppm of heavy metal ions (As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) during saccharification did not significantly affect the saccharification yield. Thus, the biomass grown for phytoremediation of heavy metals can be used for the production of reducing sugars followed by ethanol fermentation. PMID:25924967

  6. Adaptation of a methanogenic consortium to arsenite inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Freire, Lucia; Moore, Sarah E.; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous metalloid known for its adverse effects to human health. Microorganisms are also impacted by As toxicity, including methanogenic archaea, which can affect the performance of process in which biological activity is required (i.e. stabilization of activated sludge in wastewater treatment plants). The novel ability of a mixed methanogenic granular sludge consortium to adapt to the inhibitory effect of arsenic (As) was investigated by exposing the culture to approximately 0.92 mM of AsIII for 160 d in an arsenate (AsV) reducing bioreactor using ethanol as the electron donor. The results of shaken batch bioassays indicated that the original, unexposed sludge was severely inhibited by arsenite (AsIII) as evidenced by the low 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) determined, i.e., 19 and 90 μM for acetoclastic- and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, respectively. The tolerance of the acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the sludge to AsIII increased 47-fold (IC50 = 910 μM) and 12-fold (IC50= 1100 μM), respectively, upon long-term exposure to As. In conclusion, the methanogenic community in the granular sludge demonstrated a considerable ability to adapt to the severe inhibitory effects of As after a prolonged exposure period. PMID:26823637

  7. Simultaneous pretreatment and saccharification: green technology for enhanced sugar yields from biomass using a fungal consortium.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Haw, Jung-Rim; Kalyani, Dayanand; Kalia, Vipin C; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2015-03-01

    Two different biomasses were subjected to simultaneous pretreatment and saccharification (SPS) using a cocktail of hydrolytic and oxidizing enzymes. Application of a novel laccase as a detoxifying agent caused the removal of 49.8% and 32.6% of phenolic contents from the soaked rice straw and willow, respectively. Hydrolysis of soaked substrates using a newly developed fungal consortium resulted in saccharification yield of up to 74.2% and 63.6% for rice straw and willow, respectively. A high saccharification yield was obtained with soaked rice straw and willow without using any hazardous chemicals. The efficiency of each step related to SPS was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The suitability of the developed SPS process was further confirmed by converting the hydrolysate from the process into bioethanol with 72.4% sugar conversion efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the development of a less tedious, single-pot, and eco-friendly SPS methodology. PMID:25514402

  8. The National Astronomy Consortium - An Adaptable Model for OAD?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Kartik

    2015-08-01

    The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) is a program led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and Associated Universities Inc., (AUI) in partnership with the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP), and a number of minority and majority universities to increase the numbers of students from underrepresented groups and those otherwise overlooked by the traditional academic pipeline into STEM or STEM-related careers. The seed for the NAC was a partnership between NRAO and Howard University which began with an exchange of a few summer students five years ago. Since then the NAC has grown tremendously. Today the NAC aims to host between 4 to 5 cohorts nationally in an innovative model in which the students are mentored throughout the year with multiple mentors and peer mentoring, continued engagement in research and professional development / career training throughout the academic year and throughout their careers.The NAC model has already shown success and is a very promising and innovative model for increasing participation of young people in STEM and STEM-related careers. I will discuss how this model could be adapted in various countries at all levels of education.

  9. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Djelal, Hayet; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2013-09-01

    A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yields increased from 55% to 75% for model medium, diluted milk. While after inoculation of an industrial biological tank from a dairy factory with the fungal consortium accelerated by pre-cultivation in a 1000 L pilot plant, the outlet COD values decreased from values above the standard one (100 mg/L) to values in the range of 50-70 mg/L. In addition, there was a clear impact of fungal addition on the 'hard' or non-biodegradable COD owing to the significant reduction of the increase of the COD on BOD5 ratio between the inlet and the outlet of the biological tank of WWTP. It was in the range of 451%-1111% before adding fungal consortium, and in the range of 257%-153% after bio-augmentation with fungi. An inoculated bioreactor with fungal consortium was developed at lab-scale and demonstrated successfully at pilot scale in PMID:24520735

  10. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Fungal Products and Allergens.

    PubMed

    Williams, P Brock; Barnes, Charles S; Portnoy, Jay M

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fungi and their products is practically ubiquitous, yet most of this is of little consequence to most healthy individuals. This is because there are a number of elaborate mechanisms to deal with these exposures. Most of these mechanisms are designed to recognize and neutralize such exposures. However, in understanding these mechanisms it has become clear that many of them overlap with our ability to respond to disruptions in tissue function caused by trauma or deterioration. These responses involve the innate and adaptive immune systems usually through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B and the production of cytokines that are considered inflammatory accompanied by other factors that can moderate these reactivities. Depending on different genetic backgrounds and the extent of activation of these mechanisms, various pathologies with resulting symptoms can ensue. Complicating this is the fact that these mechanisms can bias toward type 2 innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, to understand what we refer to as allergens from fungal sources, we must first understand how they influence these innate mechanisms. In doing so it has become clear that many of the proteins that are described as fungal allergens are essentially homologues of our own proteins that signal or cause tissue disruptions. PMID:26755096

  11. Novel and highly diverse fungal endophytes in soybean revealed by the consortium of two different techniques.

    PubMed

    de Souza Leite, Tiago; Cnossen-Fassoni, Andréia; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; Mizubuti, Eduardo Seiti Gomide; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2013-02-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from the leaves of soybean cultivars in Brazil using two different isolation techniques - fragment plating and the innovative dilution-to-extinction culturing - to increase the species richness, frequency of isolates and diversity. A total of 241 morphospecies were obtained corresponding to 62 taxa that were identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The Phylum Ascomycota predominated, representing 99% and 95.2% of isolates in the Monsoy and Conquista cultivars, respectively, whereas the Phylum Basidiomycota represented 1% and 4.8% of isolates, respectively. The genera Ampelomyces, Annulohypoxylon, Guignardia, Leptospora, Magnaporthe, Ophiognomonia, Paraconiothyrium, Phaeosphaeriopsis, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, and Xylaria for the first time were isolated from soybean; this suggests that soybean harbours novel and highly diverse fungi. The yeasts genera Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces (subphylum Pucciniomycotina) represent the Phylum Basidiomycota. The species richness was greater when both isolation techniques were used. The diversity of fungal endophytes was similar in both cultivars when the same isolation technique was used except for Hill's index, N1. The use of ITS region sequences allowed the isolates to be grouped according to Order, Class and Phylum. Ampelomyces, Chaetomium, and Phoma glomerata are endophytic species that may play potential roles in the biological control of soybean pathogens. This study is one of the first to apply extinction-culturing to isolate fungal endophytes in plant leaves, thus contributing to the development and improvement of this technique for future studies. PMID:23456713

  12. Diversity and bioprospecting of fungal communities associated with endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Valéria M; Furbino, Laura E; Santiago, Iara F; Pellizzari, Franciane M; Yokoya, Nair S; Pupo, Diclá; Alves, Tânia MA; S Junior, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro J; Zani, Carlos L; Cantrell, Charles L; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed the distribution and diversity of fungi associated with eight macroalgae from Antarctica and their capability to produce bioactive compounds. The collections yielded 148 fungal isolates, which were identified using molecular methods as belonging to 21 genera and 50 taxa. The most frequent taxa were Geomyces species (sp.), Penicillium sp. and Metschnikowia australis. Seven fungal isolates associated with the endemic Antarctic macroalgae Monostroma hariotii (Chlorophyte) displayed high internal transcribed spacer sequences similarities with the psychrophilic pathogenic fungus Geomyces destructans. Thirty-three fungal singletons (66%) were identified, representing rare components of the fungal communities. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, rarefaction curves indicated that not all of the fungal diversity present was recovered. Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6034 and Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6120, recovered from the endemic species Palmaria decipiens (Rhodophyte) and M. hariotii, respectively, yielded extracts with high and selective antifungal and/or trypanocidal activities, in which a preliminary spectral analysis using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated the presence of highly functionalised aromatic compounds. These results suggest that the endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae of Antarctica shelter a rich, diversity and complex fungal communities consisting of a few dominant indigenous or mesophilic cold-adapted species, and a large number of rare and/or endemic taxa, which may provide an interesting model of algal–fungal interactions under extreme conditions as well as a potential source of bioactive compounds. PMID:23702515

  13. Proteogenomic Analysis of a Thermophilic Bacterial Consortium Adapted to Deconstruct Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    D'haeseleer, Patrik; Gladden, John M.; Allgaier, Martin; Chain, Patrik S. G.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Robinson, Errol W.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Hugenholtz, Philip; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are a potential source of enzymes for the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, the complement of proteins used to deconstruct biomass and the specific roles of different microbial groups in thermophilic biomass deconstruction are not well-explored. Here we report on the metagenomic and proteogenomic analyses of a compost-derived bacterial consortium adapted to switchgrass at elevated temperature with high levels of glycoside hydrolase activities. Near-complete genomes were reconstructed for the most abundant populations, which included composite genomes for populations closely related to sequenced strains of Thermus thermophilus and Rhodothermus marinus, and for novel populations that are related to thermophilic Paenibacilli and an uncultivated subdivision of the little-studied Gemmatimonadetes phylum. Partial genomes were also reconstructed for a number of lower abundance thermophilic Chloroflexi populations. Identification of genes for lignocellulose processing and metabolic reconstructions suggested Rhodothermus, Paenibacillus and Gemmatimonadetes as key groups for deconstructing biomass, and Thermus as a group that may primarily metabolize low molecular weight compounds. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of the consortium was used to identify >3000 proteins in fractionated samples from the cultures, and confirmed the importance of Paenibacillus and Gemmatimonadetes to biomass deconstruction. These studies also indicate that there are unexplored proteins with important roles in bacterial lignocellulose deconstruction. PMID:23894306

  14. Proteogenomic Analysis of a Thermophilic Bacterial Consortium Adapted to Deconstruct Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    D'haeseleer, Patrik; Gladden, John M.; Allgaier, Martin; Chain, Patrick; Tringe, Susannah G.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Hugenholtz, Philip; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.

    2013-07-19

    Thermophilic bacteria are a potential source of enzymes for the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, the complement of proteins used to deconstruct biomass and the specific roles of different microbial groups in thermophilic biomass deconstruction are not well-explored. Here we report on the metagenomic and proteogenomic analyses of a compost-derived bacterial consortium adapted to switchgrass at elevated temperature with high levels of glycoside hydrolase activities. Near-complete genomes were reconstructed for the most abundant populations, which included composite genomes for populations closely related to sequenced strains of Thermus thermophilus and Rhodothermus marinus, and for novel populations that are related to thermophilic Paenibacilli and an uncultivated subdivision of the littlestudied Gemmatimonadetes phylum. Partial genomes were also reconstructed for a number of lower abundance thermophilic Chloroflexi populations. Identification of genes for lignocellulose processing and metabolic reconstructions suggested Rhodothermus, Paenibacillus and Gemmatimonadetes as key groups for deconstructing biomass, and Thermus as a group that may primarily metabolize low molecular weight compounds. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of the consortium was used to identify .3000 proteins in fractionated samples from the cultures, and confirmed the importance of Paenibacillus and Gemmatimonadetes to biomass deconstruction. These studies also indicate that there are unexplored proteins with important roles in bacterial lignocellulose deconstruction.

  15. Fungal Adaptation to the Mammalian Host: It’s a New World, After All

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Nicole M.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Adaptation to environmental conditions is key to fungal survival during infection of human hosts. Although the host immune system is often considered the primary obstacle to fungal colonization, invading fungi must also contend with extreme abiotic stresses. Recent work with human pathogenic fungi has uncovered systems for detecting and responding to changes in temperature, carbon source, metal ion availability, pH, and gas tension. These systems play a major role in adaptation to the host niche and are essential factors for persistence in a mammalian host. Future investigations into fungal responses to these and other abiotic components of the host environment have the potential to uncover novel targets for anti-fungal therapy. PMID:18955154

  16. Regional-scale simulations of fungal spore aerosols using an emission parameterization adapted to local measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, M.; Hoose, C.; Gallagher, M.; Healy, D. A.; Huffman, J. A.; O'Connor, D.; Pöschl, U.; Pöhlker, C.; Robinson, N. H.; Schnaiter, M.; Sodeau, J. R.; Stengel, M.; Toprak, E.; Vogel, H.

    2015-06-01

    Fungal spores as a prominent type of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) have been incorporated into the COSMO-ART (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling-Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) regional atmospheric model. Two literature-based emission rates for fungal spores derived from fungal spore colony counts and chemical tracer measurements were used as a parameterization baseline for this study. A third, new emission parameterization for fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) was adapted to field measurements from four locations across Europe. FBAP concentrations can be regarded as a lower estimate of total PBAP concentrations. Size distributions of FBAP often show a distinct mode at approx. 3 μm, corresponding to a diameter range characteristic for many fungal spores. Previous studies for several locations have suggested that FBAP are in many cases dominated by fungal spores. Thus, we suggest that simulated FBAP and fungal spore concentrations obtained from the three different emission parameterizations can be compared to FBAP measurements. The comparison reveals that simulated fungal spore concentrations based on literature emission parameterizations are lower than measured FBAP concentrations. In agreement with the measurements, the model results show a diurnal cycle in simulated fungal spore concentrations, which may develop partially as a consequence of a varying boundary layer height between day and night. Temperature and specific humidity, together with leaf area index (LAI), were chosen to drive the new emission parameterization which is fitted to the FBAP observations. The new parameterization results in similar root mean square errors (RMSEs) and correlation coefficients compared to the FBAP observations as the previously existing fungal spore emission parameterizations, with some improvements in the bias. Using the new emission parameterization on a model domain covering western Europe, FBAP in the lowest model layer comprise a

  17. Dsc orthologs are required for hypoxia adaptation, triazole drug responses, and fungal virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Willger, Sven D; Cornish, E Jean; Chung, Dawoon; Fleming, Brittany A; Lehmann, Margaret M; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat; Cramer, Robert A

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxia is an environmental stress encountered by Aspergillus fumigatus during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The ability of this mold to adapt to hypoxia is important for fungal virulence and genetically regulated in part by the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) SrbA. SrbA is required for fungal growth in the murine lung and to ultimately cause lethal disease in murine models of IPA. Here we identified and partially characterized four genes (dscA, dscB, dscC, and dscD, here referred to as dscA-D) with previously unknown functions in A. fumigatus that are orthologs of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes dsc1, dsc2, dsc3, and dsc4 (dsc1-4), which encode a Golgi E3 ligase complex critical for SREBP activation by proteolytic cleavage. A. fumigatus null dscA-D mutants displayed remarkable defects in hypoxic growth and increased susceptibility to triazole antifungal drugs. Consistent with the confirmed role of these genes in S. pombe, both ΔdscA and ΔdscC resulted in reduced cleavage of the SrbA precursor protein in A. fumigatus. Inoculation of corticosteroid immunosuppressed mice with ΔdscA and ΔdscC strains revealed that these genes are critical for A. fumigatus virulence. Reintroduction of SrbA amino acids 1 to 425, encompassing the N terminus DNA binding domain, into the ΔdscA strain was able to partially restore virulence, further supporting a mechanistic link between DscA and SrbA function. Thus, we have shown for the first time the importance of a previously uncharacterized group of genes in A. fumigatus that mediate hypoxia adaptation, fungal virulence, and triazole drug susceptibility and that are likely linked to regulation of SrbA function. PMID:23104569

  18. Fungal evolutionary genomics provides insight into the mechanisms of adaptive divergence in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, Pierre; Ropars, Jeanne; Badouin, Hélène; Branca, Antoine; Aguileta, Gabriela; de Vienne, Damien M; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; Branco, Sara; Giraud, Tatiana

    2014-02-01

    Fungi are ideal model organisms for dissecting the genomic bases of adaptive divergence in eukaryotes. They have simple morphologies and small genomes, occupy contrasting, well-identified ecological niches and tend to have short generation times, and many are amenable to experimental approaches. Fungi also display diverse lifestyles, from saprotrophs to pathogens or mutualists, and they play extremely important roles in both ecosystems and human activities, as wood decayers, mycorrhizal fungi, lichens, endophytes, plant and animal pathogens, and in fermentation or drug production. We review here recent insights into the patterns and mechanisms of adaptive divergence in fungi, including sources of divergence, genomic variation and, ultimately, speciation. We outline the various ecological sources of divergent selection and genomic changes, showing that gene loss and changes in gene expression and in genomic architecture are important adaptation processes, in addition to the more widely recognized processes of amino acid substitution and gene duplication. We also review recent findings regarding the interspecific acquisition of genomic variation and suggesting an important role for introgression, hybridization and horizontal gene transfers (HGTs). We show that transposable elements can mediate several of these genomic changes, thus constituting important factors for adaptation. Finally, we review the consequences of divergent selection in terms of speciation, arguing that genetic incompatibilities may not be as widespread as generally thought and that pleiotropy between adaptation and reproductive isolation is an important route of speciation in fungal pathogens. PMID:24341913

  19. Increased susceptibility to fungal disease accompanies adaptation to drought in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Niamh B; Rest, Joshua S; Franks, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated adaptive evolutionary responses to climate change, but little is known about how these responses may influence ecological interactions with other organisms, including natural enemies. We used a resurrection experiment in the greenhouse to examine the effect of evolutionary responses to drought on the susceptibility of Brassica rapa plants to a fungal pathogen, Alternaria brassicae. In agreement with previous studies in this population, we found an evolutionary shift to earlier flowering postdrought, which was previously shown to be adaptive. Here, we report the novel finding that postdrought descendant plants were also more susceptible to disease, indicating a rapid evolutionary shift to increased susceptibility. This was accompanied by an evolutionary shift to increased specific leaf area (thinner leaves) following drought. We found that flowering time and disease susceptibility displayed plastic responses to experimental drought treatments, but that this plasticity did not match the direction of evolution, indicating that plastic and evolutionary responses to changes in climate can be opposed. The observed evolutionary shift to increased disease susceptibility accompanying adaptation to drought provides evidence that even if populations can rapidly adapt in response to climate change, evolution in other traits may have ecological effects that could make species more vulnerable. PMID:26648585

  20. Fungal Inositol Pyrophosphate IP7 Is Crucial for Metabolic Adaptation to the Host Environment and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Sophie; Li, Cecilia; Desmarini, Desmarini; Saiardi, Adolfo; Fewings, Nicole L.; Schibeci, Stephen D.; Sharma, Raghwa; Sorrell, Tania C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs) comprising inositol, phosphate, and pyrophosphate (PP) are essential for multiple functions in eukaryotes. Their role in fungal pathogens has never been addressed. Cryptococcus neoformans is a model pathogenic fungus causing life-threatening meningoencephalitis. We investigate the cryptococcal kinases responsible for the production of PP-IPs (IP7/IP8) and the hierarchy of PP-IP importance in pathogenicity. Using gene deletion and inositol polyphosphate profiling, we identified Kcs1 as the major IP6 kinase (producing IP7) and Asp1 as an IP7 kinase (producing IP8). We show that Kcs1-derived IP7 is the most crucial PP-IP for cryptococcal drug susceptibility and the production of virulence determinants. In particular, Kcs1 kinase activity is essential for cryptococcal infection of mouse lungs, as reduced fungal burdens were observed in the absence of Kcs1 or when Kcs1 was catalytically inactive. Transcriptome and carbon source utilization analysis suggested that compromised growth of the KCS1 deletion strain (Δkcs1 mutant) in the low-glucose environment of the host lung is due to its inability to utilize alternative carbon sources. Despite this metabolic defect, the Δkcs1 mutant established persistent, low-level asymptomatic pulmonary infection but failed to elicit a strong immune response in vivo and in vitro and was not readily phagocytosed by primary or immortalized monocytes. Reduced recognition of the Δkcs1 cells by monocytes correlated with reduced exposure of mannoproteins on the Δkcs1 mutant cell surface. We conclude that IP7 is essential for fungal metabolic adaptation to the host environment, immune recognition, and pathogenicity. PMID:26037119

  1. Local adaptation and evolutionary potential along a temperature gradient in the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune

    PubMed Central

    Stefansson, Tryggvi S; McDonald, Bruce A; Willi, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    To predict the response of plant pathogens to climate warming, data are needed on current thermal adaptation, the pathogen's evolutionary potential, and the link between them. We conducted a common garden experiment using isolates of the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune from nine barley populations representing climatically diverse locations. Clonal replicates of 126 genetically distinct isolates were assessed for their growth rate at 12°C, 18°C, and 22°C. Populations originating from climates with higher monthly temperature variation had higher growth rate at all three temperatures compared with populations from climates with less temperature fluctuation. Population differentiation in growth rate (QST) was significantly higher at 22°C than population differentiation for neutral microsatellite loci (GST), consistent with local adaptation for growth at higher temperatures. At 18°C, we found evidence for stabilizing selection for growth rate as QST was significantly lower than GST. Heritability of growth rate under the three temperatures was substantial in all populations (0.58–0.76). Genetic variation was lower in populations with higher growth rate at the three temperatures and evolvability increased under heat stress in seven of nine populations. Our findings imply that the distribution of this pathogen is unlikely to be genetically limited under climate warming, due to its high genetic variation and plasticity for thermal tolerance. PMID:23745143

  2. Integrative Model of Oxidative Stress Adaptation in the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Komalapriya, Chandrasekaran; Yin, Zhikang; Herrero-de-Dios, Carmen; Jacobsen, Mette D.; Belmonte, Rodrigo C.; Cameron, Gary; Haynes, Ken; Grebogi, Celso; de Moura, Alessandro P. S.; Gow, Neil A. R.; Thiel, Marco; Quinn, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The major fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans, mounts robust responses to oxidative stress that are critical for its virulence. These responses counteract the reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated by host immune cells in an attempt to kill the invading fungus. Knowledge of the dynamical processes that instigate C. albicans oxidative stress responses is required for a proper understanding of fungus-host interactions. Therefore, we have adopted an interdisciplinary approach to explore the dynamical responses of C. albicans to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Our deterministic mathematical model integrates two major oxidative stress signalling pathways (Cap1 and Hog1 pathways) with the three major antioxidant systems (catalase, glutathione and thioredoxin systems) and the pentose phosphate pathway, which provides reducing equivalents required for oxidative stress adaptation. The model encapsulates existing knowledge of these systems with new genomic, proteomic, transcriptomic, molecular and cellular datasets. Our integrative approach predicts the existence of alternative states for the key regulators Cap1 and Hog1, thereby suggesting novel regulatory behaviours during oxidative stress. The model reproduces both existing and new experimental observations under a variety of scenarios. Time- and dose-dependent predictions of the oxidative stress responses for both wild type and mutant cells have highlighted the different temporal contributions of the various antioxidant systems during oxidative stress adaptation, indicating that catalase plays a critical role immediately following stress imposition. This is the first model to encapsulate the dynamics of the transcriptional response alongside the redox kinetics of the major antioxidant systems during H2O2 stress in C. albicans. PMID:26368573

  3. Integrative Model of Oxidative Stress Adaptation in the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Komalapriya, Chandrasekaran; Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna T; Yin, Zhikang; Herrero-de-Dios, Carmen; Jacobsen, Mette D; Belmonte, Rodrigo C; Cameron, Gary; Haynes, Ken; Grebogi, Celso; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Gow, Neil A R; Thiel, Marco; Quinn, Janet; Brown, Alistair J P; Romano, M Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The major fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans, mounts robust responses to oxidative stress that are critical for its virulence. These responses counteract the reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated by host immune cells in an attempt to kill the invading fungus. Knowledge of the dynamical processes that instigate C. albicans oxidative stress responses is required for a proper understanding of fungus-host interactions. Therefore, we have adopted an interdisciplinary approach to explore the dynamical responses of C. albicans to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Our deterministic mathematical model integrates two major oxidative stress signalling pathways (Cap1 and Hog1 pathways) with the three major antioxidant systems (catalase, glutathione and thioredoxin systems) and the pentose phosphate pathway, which provides reducing equivalents required for oxidative stress adaptation. The model encapsulates existing knowledge of these systems with new genomic, proteomic, transcriptomic, molecular and cellular datasets. Our integrative approach predicts the existence of alternative states for the key regulators Cap1 and Hog1, thereby suggesting novel regulatory behaviours during oxidative stress. The model reproduces both existing and new experimental observations under a variety of scenarios. Time- and dose-dependent predictions of the oxidative stress responses for both wild type and mutant cells have highlighted the different temporal contributions of the various antioxidant systems during oxidative stress adaptation, indicating that catalase plays a critical role immediately following stress imposition. This is the first model to encapsulate the dynamics of the transcriptional response alongside the redox kinetics of the major antioxidant systems during H2O2 stress in C. albicans. PMID:26368573

  4. Richness and diversity of mammalian fungal communities shape innate and adaptive immunity in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Rizzetto, Lisa; De Filippo, Carlotta; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2014-11-01

    Human holobiomes are networks of mutualistic interactions between human cells and complex communities of bacteria and fungi that colonize the human body. The immune system must tolerate colonization with commensal bacteria and fungi but defend against invasion by either organism. Molecular ecological surveys of the human prokaryotic microbiota performed to date have revealed a remarkable degree of bacterial diversity and functionality. However, there is a dearth of information regarding the eukaryotic composition of the microbiota. In this review, we describe the ecology and the human niches of our fungal "fellow travelers" in both health and disease, discriminating between passengers, colonizers, and pathogens based on the interaction of these fungi with the human immune system. We conclude by highlighting the need to reconsider the etiology of many fungal and immune-related diseases in the context of the crosstalk between the human system and its resident microbial communities. PMID:25257052

  5. Oncofertility Consortium

    MedlinePlus

    ... September 15, 2016 National Physicians Cooperative Brigid Martz Smith July 21, 2016 Postdoctoral Position in Pediatric Fertility ... 2016 Oncofertility Consortium Clinic/Center Map Brigid Martz Smith June 30, 2016 Zika Virus Concerns Grow as ...

  6. Fungal arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and irritation (inflammation) of a joint by a fungal infection. It is also called mycotic arthritis. Causes Fungal ... symptoms of fungal arthritis. Prevention Thorough treatment of fungal infections elsewhere in the body may help prevent fungal ...

  7. The role of fungal symbiosis in the adaptation of plants to high stress environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Russell J.; Redman, Regina S.; Henson, Joan M.

    2004-01-01

    All plants studied in natural ecosystemsare symbiotic with fungi that either resideentirely (endophytes) or partially(mycorrhizae) within plants. Thesesymbioses appear to adapt to biotic andabiotic stresses and may be responsible forthe survival of both plant hosts and fungalsymbionts in high stress habitats. Here wedescribe the role of symbiotic fungi inplant stress tolerance and present astrategy based on adaptive symbiosis topotentially mitigate the impacts of globalchange on plant communities.

  8. The Janus transcription factor HapX controls fungal adaptation to both iron starvation and iron excess

    PubMed Central

    Gsaller, Fabio; Hortschansky, Peter; Beattie, Sarah R; Klammer, Veronika; Tuppatsch, Katja; Lechner, Beatrix E; Rietzschel, Nicole; Werner, Ernst R; Vogan, Aaron A; Chung, Dawoon; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich; Kato, Masashi; Cramer, Robert A; Brakhage, Axel A; Haas, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    Balance of physiological levels of iron is essential for every organism. In Aspergillus fumigatus and other fungal pathogens, the transcription factor HapX mediates adaptation to iron limitation and consequently virulence by repressing iron consumption and activating iron uptake. Here, we demonstrate that HapX is also essential for iron resistance via activating vacuolar iron storage. We identified HapX protein domains that are essential for HapX functions during either iron starvation or high-iron conditions. The evolutionary conservation of these domains indicates their wide-spread role in iron sensing. We further demonstrate that a HapX homodimer and the CCAAT-binding complex (CBC) cooperatively bind an evolutionary conserved DNA motif in a target promoter. The latter reveals the mode of discrimination between general CBC and specific HapX/CBC target genes. Collectively, our study uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism mediating both iron resistance and adaptation to iron starvation by the same transcription factor complex with activating and repressing functions depending on ambient iron availability. PMID:25092765

  9. Mycobiome of the Bat White Nose Syndrome Affected Caves and Mines Reveals Diversity of Fungi and Local Adaptation by the Fungal Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Sunanda S.; Li, Xiaojiang; Okoniewski, Joseph C.; Hicks, Alan C.; Davis, April D.; Broussard, Kelly; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS) and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans (Pd) are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010–2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD) and culture-independent (CI) methods to catalogue all fungi (‘mycobiome’). CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS). The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture) even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR) suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS. PMID:25264864

  10. Mycobiome of the bat white nose syndrome affected caves and mines reveals diversity of fungi and local adaptation by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Victor, Tanya R; Rajkumar, Sunanda S; Li, Xiaojiang; Okoniewski, Joseph C; Hicks, Alan C; Davis, April D; Broussard, Kelly; LaDeau, Shannon L; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Current investigations of bat White Nose Syndrome (WNS) and the causative fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans (Pd) are intensely focused on the reasons for the appearance of the disease in the Northeast and its rapid spread in the US and Canada. Urgent steps are still needed for the mitigation or control of Pd to save bats. We hypothesized that a focus on fungal community would advance the understanding of ecology and ecosystem processes that are crucial in the disease transmission cycle. This study was conducted in 2010-2011 in New York and Vermont using 90 samples from four mines and two caves situated within the epicenter of WNS. We used culture-dependent (CD) and culture-independent (CI) methods to catalogue all fungi ('mycobiome'). CD methods included fungal isolations followed by phenotypic and molecular identifications. CI methods included amplification of DNA extracted from environmental samples with universal fungal primers followed by cloning and sequencing. CD methods yielded 675 fungal isolates and CI method yielded 594 fungal environmental nucleic acid sequences (FENAS). The core mycobiome of WNS comprised of 136 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recovered in culture and 248 OTUs recovered in clone libraries. The fungal community was diverse across the sites, although a subgroup of dominant cosmopolitan fungi was present. The frequent recovery of Pd (18% of samples positive by culture) even in the presence of dominant, cosmopolitan fungal genera suggests some level of local adaptation in WNS-afflicted habitats, while the extensive distribution of Pd (48% of samples positive by real-time PCR) suggests an active reservoir of the pathogen at these sites. These findings underscore the need for integrated disease control measures that target both bats and Pd in the hibernacula for the control of WNS. PMID:25264864

  11. Local adaptation of an introduced transgenic insect fungal pathogen due to new beneficial mutations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sibao; O'Brien, Tammatha R; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; St Leger, Raymond J

    2011-12-20

    Genetically modified Metarhizium spp represent a major new arsenal for combating insect pests and insect-borne diseases. However, for these tools to be used safely and effectively, we need a much better understanding of their evolutionary potential and invasion ecology. In order to model natural as well as anthropogenic dispersal scenarios, we investigated evolutionary processes in a green fluorescent protein tagged strain of Metarhizium robertsii following transfer from a semitropical to a temperate soil community. Adaptive changes occurred over four years despite recurrent genetic bottlenecks and lack of recombination with locally well adapted strains. By coupling microarray-based functional analysis with DNA hybridizations we determined that expression of cell wall and stress response genes evolved at an accelerated rate in multiple replicates, whereas virulence determinants, transposons, and chromosome structure were unaltered. The mutable genes were enriched for TATA boxes possibly because they are larger mutational targets. In further field trials, we showed that the new mutations increased the fitness of M. robertsii in the new range by enhancing saprophytic associations, and these benefits were maintained in subsequent years. Consistent with selection being habitat rather than host specific, populations of an avirulent mutant cycled with seasons similarly to the wild type, whereas a mutant unable to adhere to plant roots showed a linear decrease in population. Our results provide a mechanistic basis for understanding postrelease adaptations, show that agents can be selected that lack gene flow and virulence evolution, and describe a means of genetically containing transgenic strains by disrupting the Mad2 gene. PMID:22143757

  12. Biodecolorization and Bioremediation of Denim Industrial Wastewater by Adapted Bacterial Consortium Immobilized on Inert Polyurethane Foam (PUF) Matrix: A First Approach with Biobarrier Model.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, R; Prabhavathi, P; Karthiksundaram, S; Pattab, S; Kumar, S Dinesh; Santhanam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present experiments were studied on bioremediation of denim industry wastewater by using polyurethane foam (PU foam) immobilized bacterial cells. About 30 indigenous adapted bacterial strains were isolated from denim textile effluent out of which only four isolates were found to be efficient against crude indigo carmine degradation using broth decolorization method. The selected bacterial strains were identified as Actinomyces sp., (PK07), Pseudomonas sp., (PK18), Stenotrophomonas sp., (PK23) and Staphylococcus sp., (PK28) based on microscopic and biochemical characteristics. The bacterial immobilized cells have the highest number of viable cells (PK07, PK18, PK23 and PK28 appeared to be 1 x 10(8), 1 x 10(9), 1 x 10(6) and 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml respectively) and maximum attachment efficiency of 92% on PU foam. The complete degradation using a consortium of PU foam immobilized cells was achieved at pH 6, 27 degrees C, 100% of substrate concentration and allowed to develop biofilm for one day (1.5% W/V). In SEM analysis, it was found that immobilization of bacterial cells using PUF stably maintained the production of various extracellular enzymes at levels higher than achieved with suspended forms. Finally, isatin and anthranilic acid were found to be degradation products by NMR and TLC. The decolorized dye was not toxic to monkey kidney cell (HBL 100) at a concentration of 50 μl and 95% of cell viability was retained. A mathematical model that describes bacterial transport with biodegradation involves a set of coupled reaction equations with non-standard numerical approach based on the time step scheme. PMID:26999953

  13. Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 promote control of the fungal pathogen Trichophyton rubrum independently of IL-17 and adaptive immunity in experimental deep dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Fabio Sy; Yabe, Rikio; Iwakura, Yoichiro; de Almeida, Sandro R; Saijo, Shinobu

    2016-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are chronic fungal infections, the main causative agent of which is Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum). Despite their high occurrence worldwide, the immunological mechanisms underlying these diseases remain largely unknown. Here, we uncovered the C-type lectin receptors, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, as key elements in the immune response to T. rubrum infection in a model of deep dermatophytosis. In vitro, we observed that deficiency in Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 severely compromised cytokine production by dendritic cells. In vivo, mice lacking Dectin-1 and/or Dectin-2 showed an inadequate pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to T. rubrum infection, impairing its resolution. Strikingly, neither adaptive immunity nor IL-17 response were required for fungal clearance, highlighting innate immunity as the main checkpoint in the pathogenesis of T. rubrum infection. PMID:27189427

  14. Global Analysis of the Fungal Microbiome in Cystic Fibrosis Patients Reveals Loss of Function of the Transcriptional Repressor Nrg1 as a Mechanism of Pathogen Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hu; Clark, Shawn T; Surendra, Anuradha; Copeland, Julia K; Wang, Pauline W; Ammar, Ron; Collins, Cathy; Tullis, D Elizabeth; Nislow, Corey; Hwang, David M; Guttman, David S; Cowen, Leah E

    2015-11-01

    The microbiome shapes diverse facets of human biology and disease, with the importance of fungi only beginning to be appreciated. Microbial communities infiltrate diverse anatomical sites as with the respiratory tract of healthy humans and those with diseases such as cystic fibrosis, where chronic colonization and infection lead to clinical decline. Although fungi are frequently recovered from cystic fibrosis patient sputum samples and have been associated with deterioration of lung function, understanding of species and population dynamics remains in its infancy. Here, we coupled high-throughput sequencing of the ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) with phenotypic and genotypic analyses of fungi from 89 sputum samples from 28 cystic fibrosis patients. Fungal communities defined by sequencing were concordant with those defined by culture-based analyses of 1,603 isolates from the same samples. Different patients harbored distinct fungal communities. There were detectable trends, however, including colonization with Candida and Aspergillus species, which was not perturbed by clinical exacerbation or treatment. We identified considerable inter- and intra-species phenotypic variation in traits important for host adaptation, including antifungal drug resistance and morphogenesis. While variation in drug resistance was largely between species, striking variation in morphogenesis emerged within Candida species. Filamentation was uncoupled from inducing cues in 28 Candida isolates recovered from six patients. The filamentous isolates were resistant to the filamentation-repressive effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, implicating inter-kingdom interactions as the selective force. Genome sequencing revealed that all but one of the filamentous isolates harbored mutations in the transcriptional repressor NRG1; such mutations were necessary and sufficient for the filamentous phenotype. Six independent nrg1 mutations arose in Candida isolates from different patients

  15. Global Analysis of the Fungal Microbiome in Cystic Fibrosis Patients Reveals Loss of Function of the Transcriptional Repressor Nrg1 as a Mechanism of Pathogen Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hu; Clark, Shawn T.; Surendra, Anuradha; Copeland, Julia K.; Wang, Pauline W.; Ammar, Ron; Collins, Cathy; Tullis, D. Elizabeth; Nislow, Corey; Hwang, David M.; Guttman, David S.; Cowen, Leah E.

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome shapes diverse facets of human biology and disease, with the importance of fungi only beginning to be appreciated. Microbial communities infiltrate diverse anatomical sites as with the respiratory tract of healthy humans and those with diseases such as cystic fibrosis, where chronic colonization and infection lead to clinical decline. Although fungi are frequently recovered from cystic fibrosis patient sputum samples and have been associated with deterioration of lung function, understanding of species and population dynamics remains in its infancy. Here, we coupled high-throughput sequencing of the ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) with phenotypic and genotypic analyses of fungi from 89 sputum samples from 28 cystic fibrosis patients. Fungal communities defined by sequencing were concordant with those defined by culture-based analyses of 1,603 isolates from the same samples. Different patients harbored distinct fungal communities. There were detectable trends, however, including colonization with Candida and Aspergillus species, which was not perturbed by clinical exacerbation or treatment. We identified considerable inter- and intra-species phenotypic variation in traits important for host adaptation, including antifungal drug resistance and morphogenesis. While variation in drug resistance was largely between species, striking variation in morphogenesis emerged within Candida species. Filamentation was uncoupled from inducing cues in 28 Candida isolates recovered from six patients. The filamentous isolates were resistant to the filamentation-repressive effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, implicating inter-kingdom interactions as the selective force. Genome sequencing revealed that all but one of the filamentous isolates harbored mutations in the transcriptional repressor NRG1; such mutations were necessary and sufficient for the filamentous phenotype. Six independent nrg1 mutations arose in Candida isolates from different patients

  16. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  17. Adaptable Network Cooperate Catalog for Complex Information Objects. From Single Library to a Consortium: Sharing the Management and Distribution of Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morag, Azriel

    Libraries faced with the challenge of cooperative cataloging must maintain a high degree of unification within the library network (consortium) without compromising local libraries' independence. This paper compares a traditional model for cooperative catalogs achieved by means of a Union Catalog that depends entirely on replication of data…

  18. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  19. Fungal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... effectiveness of treatment. For many superficial skin and yeast infections, a clinical examination of the affected person ... the chemical solution dissolves non-fungal elements; reveals yeast cells and fungal hyphae (branching filaments) on a ...

  20. Radiogenomics Consortium (RGC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiogenomics Consortium's hypothesis is that a cancer patient's likelihood of developing toxicity to radiation therapy is influenced by common genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).

  1. Comparative Genomics of Sibling Fungal Pathogenic Taxa Identifies Adaptive Evolution without Divergence in Pathogenicity Genes or Genomic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Sillo, Fabiano; Garbelotto, Matteo; Friedman, Maria; Gonthier, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    It has been estimated that the sister plant pathogenic fungal species Heterobasidion irregulare and Heterobasidion annosum may have been allopatrically isolated for 34–41 Myr. They are now sympatric due to the introduction of the first species from North America into Italy, where they freely hybridize. We used a comparative genomic approach to 1) confirm that the two species are distinct at the genomic level; 2) determine which gene groups have diverged the most and the least between species; 3) show that their overall genomic structures are similar, as predicted by the viability of hybrids, and identify genomic regions that instead are incongruent; and 4) test the previously formulated hypothesis that genes involved in pathogenicity may be less divergent between the two species than genes involved in saprobic decay and sporulation. Results based on the sequencing of three genomes per species identified a high level of interspecific similarity, but clearly confirmed the status of the two as distinct taxa. Genes involved in pathogenicity were more conserved between species than genes involved in saprobic growth and sporulation, corroborating at the genomic level that invasiveness may be determined by the two latter traits, as documented by field and inoculation studies. Additionally, the majority of genes under positive selection and the majority of genes bearing interspecific structural variations were involved either in transcriptional or in mitochondrial functions. This study provides genomic-level evidence that invasiveness of pathogenic microbes can be attained without the high levels of pathogenicity presumed to exist for pathogens challenging naïve hosts. PMID:26527650

  2. Fungal hemolysins

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajay P.; Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2015-01-01

    Hemolysins are a class of proteins defined by their ability to lyse red cells but have been described to exhibit pleiotropic functions. These proteins have been extensively studied in bacteria and more recently in fungi. Within the last decade, a number of studies have characterized fungal hemolysins and revealed a fascinating yet diverse group of proteins. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the known fungal hemolysins with an emphasis on those belonging to the aegerolysin protein family. New insight and perspective into fungal hemolysins in biotechnology and health are additionally presented. PMID:22769586

  3. Mas5, a homologue of bacterial DnaJ, is indispensable for the host infection and environmental adaptation of a filamentous fungal insect pathogen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Hu, Yue; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-03-01

    Mas5, a yeast heat shock protein classified to the Hsp40 group, is homologous to bacterial archetype DnaJ but functionally unexplored in filamentous fungi. Here we identify a Mas5 homologue (46.86 kDa) in Beauveria bassiana and show its indispensability for host infection and environmental adaptation of the fungal insect pathogen. The deletion of mas5 caused severe defects in aerial conidiation, conidial germination and submerged blastospore production (mimic to host haemocoel). The deletion mutant lost 100% virulence to Galleria mellonella larvae through normal cuticular penetration (topical inoculation) and 50% through cuticle-bypassing infection (intrahaemocoel injection). It formed no blastospore in vivo after inoculation or only a very few after injection. Its extracellular (cuticle degrading) enzymes and virulence-relating Pr1 proteases were 62% and 32% less active respectively. It became more sensitive to high osmolarity, oxidation, cell-wall perturbation, heat shock and UV-B irradiation. These concurred with reduced contents of intracellular mannitol and trehalose, decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes, impaired cell walls and suppressed transcripts of stress-responsive and virulence-relating genes. All the changes were restored by targeted mas5 complementation. All together, Mas5 is indispensable for the in vitro and in vivo life cycle of B. bassiana by targeting many sets of enzymes/proteins at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:26714790

  4. The Genomes of the Fungal Plant Pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum Reveal Adaptation to Different Hosts and Lifestyles But Also Signatures of Common Ancestry

    SciTech Connect

    de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; van der Burgt, Ate; Okmen, Bilal; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Beenen, Henriek G.; Chettri, Oranav; Cos, Murray P.; Datema, Erwin; de Vries, Ronald P.; DHillon, Braham; Ganley, Austen R.; Griffiths, Scott A.; Guo, Yanan; Gamelin, Richard C.; Henrissat, Bernard; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Jashni, Mansoor Karimi; Kema, Gert; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lapidus, Alla; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika; Mehrabi, Rahim; Ohm, Robin A.; Owen, Timothy J.; Salamov, Asaf; Schwelm, Arne; Schijlen, Elio; Sun, Hui; van den Burg, Harrold A.; van Burg, Roeland C. H. J.; Zhang, Shuguang; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Collemare, Jerome; Bradshaw, Rosie E.

    2012-05-04

    We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu) (syn. Passalora fulva) and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse) that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close contact with host mesophyll cells, Cfu is a biotroph infecting tomato, while Dse is a hemibiotroph infecting pine. The genomes of these fungi have a similar set of genes (70percent of gene content in both genomes are homologs), but differ significantly in size (Cfu >61.1-Mb; Dse 31.2-Mb), which is mainly due to the difference in repeat content (47.2percent in Cfu versus 3.2percent in Dse). Recent adaptation to different lifestyles and hosts is suggested by diverged sets of genes. Cfu contains an tomatinase gene that we predict might be required for detoxification of tomatine, while this gene is absent in Dse. Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these species-specific genes. In contrast, conserved genes suggest common host ancestry. Homologs of Cfu effector genes, including Ecp2 and Avr4, are present in Dse and induce a Cf-Ecp2- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response, respectively. Strikingly, genes involved in production of the toxin dothistromin, a likely virulence factor for Dse, are conserved in Cfu, but their expression differs markedly with essentially no expression by Cfu in planta. Likewise, Cfu has a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme catalog that is more similar to that of necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs and a larger pectinolytic gene arsenal than Dse, but many of these genes are not expressed in planta or are pseudogenized. Overall, comparison of their genomes suggests that these closely related plant pathogens had a common ancestral host but since adapted to different hosts and lifestyles by a combination of differentiated gene content, pseudogenization, and gene regulation.

  5. The Genomes of the Fungal Plant Pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum Reveal Adaptation to Different Hosts and Lifestyles But Also Signatures of Common Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; van der Burgt, Ate; Ökmen, Bilal; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Beenen, Henriek G.; Chettri, Pranav; Cox, Murray P.; Datema, Erwin; de Vries, Ronald P.; Dhillon, Braham; Ganley, Austen R.; Griffiths, Scott A.; Guo, Yanan; Hamelin, Richard C.; Henrissat, Bernard; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Jashni, Mansoor Karimi; Kema, Gert; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lapidus, Alla; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika; Mehrabi, Rahim; Ohm, Robin A.; Owen, Timothy J.; Salamov, Asaf; Schwelm, Arne; Schijlen, Elio; Sun, Hui; van den Burg, Harrold A.; van Ham, Roeland C. H. J.; Zhang, Shuguang; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Collemare, Jérôme; Bradshaw, Rosie E.

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu) (syn. Passalora fulva) and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse) that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close contact with host mesophyll cells, Cfu is a biotroph infecting tomato, while Dse is a hemibiotroph infecting pine. The genomes of these fungi have a similar set of genes (70% of gene content in both genomes are homologs), but differ significantly in size (Cfu >61.1-Mb; Dse 31.2-Mb), which is mainly due to the difference in repeat content (47.2% in Cfu versus 3.2% in Dse). Recent adaptation to different lifestyles and hosts is suggested by diverged sets of genes. Cfu contains an α-tomatinase gene that we predict might be required for detoxification of tomatine, while this gene is absent in Dse. Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these species-specific genes. In contrast, conserved genes suggest common host ancestry. Homologs of Cfu effector genes, including Ecp2 and Avr4, are present in Dse and induce a Cf-Ecp2- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response, respectively. Strikingly, genes involved in production of the toxin dothistromin, a likely virulence factor for Dse, are conserved in Cfu, but their expression differs markedly with essentially no expression by Cfu in planta. Likewise, Cfu has a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme catalog that is more similar to that of necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs and a larger pectinolytic gene arsenal than Dse, but many of these genes are not expressed in planta or are pseudogenized. Overall, comparison of their genomes suggests that these closely related plant pathogens had a common ancestral host but since adapted to different hosts and lifestyles by a combination of differentiated gene content, pseudogenization, and gene regulation. PMID:23209441

  6. The genomes of the fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum reveal adaptation to different hosts and lifestyles but also signatures of common ancestry.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Pierre J G M; van der Burgt, Ate; Ökmen, Bilal; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A; Aerts, Andrea L; Bahkali, Ali H; Beenen, Henriek G; Chettri, Pranav; Cox, Murray P; Datema, Erwin; de Vries, Ronald P; Dhillon, Braham; Ganley, Austen R; Griffiths, Scott A; Guo, Yanan; Hamelin, Richard C; Henrissat, Bernard; Kabir, M Shahjahan; Jashni, Mansoor Karimi; Kema, Gert; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lapidus, Alla; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika; Mehrabi, Rahim; Ohm, Robin A; Owen, Timothy J; Salamov, Asaf; Schwelm, Arne; Schijlen, Elio; Sun, Hui; van den Burg, Harrold A; van Ham, Roeland C H J; Zhang, Shuguang; Goodwin, Stephen B; Grigoriev, Igor V; Collemare, Jérôme; Bradshaw, Rosie E

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu) (syn. Passalora fulva) and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse) that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close contact with host mesophyll cells, Cfu is a biotroph infecting tomato, while Dse is a hemibiotroph infecting pine. The genomes of these fungi have a similar set of genes (70% of gene content in both genomes are homologs), but differ significantly in size (Cfu >61.1-Mb; Dse 31.2-Mb), which is mainly due to the difference in repeat content (47.2% in Cfu versus 3.2% in Dse). Recent adaptation to different lifestyles and hosts is suggested by diverged sets of genes. Cfu contains an α-tomatinase gene that we predict might be required for detoxification of tomatine, while this gene is absent in Dse. Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these species-specific genes. In contrast, conserved genes suggest common host ancestry. Homologs of Cfu effector genes, including Ecp2 and Avr4, are present in Dse and induce a Cf-Ecp2- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response, respectively. Strikingly, genes involved in production of the toxin dothistromin, a likely virulence factor for Dse, are conserved in Cfu, but their expression differs markedly with essentially no expression by Cfu in planta. Likewise, Cfu has a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme catalog that is more similar to that of necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs and a larger pectinolytic gene arsenal than Dse, but many of these genes are not expressed in planta or are pseudogenized. Overall, comparison of their genomes suggests that these closely related plant pathogens had a common ancestral host but since adapted to different hosts and lifestyles by a combination of differentiated gene content, pseudogenization, and gene regulation. PMID:23209441

  7. NCI Cohort Consortium Membership

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium membership is international and includes investigators responsible for more than 40 high-quality cohorts who are studying large and diverse populations in more than 15 different countries.

  8. Fungal allergens.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, W E; Helbling, A; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy to fungi require well-characterized or standardized extracts that contain the relevant allergen(s) of the appropriate fungus. Production of standardized extracts is difficult since fungal extracts are complex mixtures and a variety of fungi are allergenic. Thus, the currently available extracts are largely nonstandardized, even uncharacterized, crude extracts. Recent significant progress in isolating and characterizing relevant fungal allergens is summarized in the present review. Particularly, some allergens from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium are now thoroughly characterized, and allergens from several other genera, including some basidiomycetes, have also been purified. The availability of these extracts will facilitate definitive studies of fungal allergy prevalence and immunotherapy efficacy as well as enhance both the diagnosis and therapy of fungal allergy. PMID:7621398

  9. Fungal Entomopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal entomopathogens are important biological control agents worldwide and have been the subject of intense research for more than100 years. They exhibit both sexual and asexual reproduction and produce different types of infective propagules. Their mode of action against insects involves attachme...

  10. Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, you'll be saying bye-bye to fungi (say: FUN-guy). What Is a Fungal Infection? Fungi , the word for more than one fungus, can ... but of course, they're not!). Because the fungi that cause tinea (ringworm) live on different parts ...

  11. NCI Cohort Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium is an extramural-intramural partnership formed by the National Cancer Institute to address the need for large-scale collaborations to pool the large quantity of data and biospecimens necessary to conduct a wide range of cancer studies.

  12. The Idaho Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaird, James H.

    The Idaho Consortium was established by the state board of education to remedy perceived needs involving insufficient certificated teachers, excessive teacher mobility, shortage of teacher candidates, inadequate inservice training, a low level of administrative leadership, and a lack of programs in special education, early childhood education,…

  13. Fungal Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Thomas R.; Wickes, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments. PMID:24692193

  14. Advanced Separation Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was formed in 2001 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy to conduct fundamental research in advanced separation and to develop technologies that can be used to produce coal and minerals in an efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The CAST consortium consists of seven universities - Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, Montana Tech, University of Utah, University of Nevada-Reno, and New Mexico Tech. The consortium brings together a broad range of expertise to solve problems facing the US coal industry and the mining sector in general. At present, a total of 60 research projects are under way. The article outlines some of these, on topics including innovative dewatering technologies, removal of mercury and other impurities, and modelling of the flotation process. 1 photo.

  15. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenbacher, Don

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  16. Distribution, diversity and bioprospecting of bioactive compounds from cryptic fungal communities associated with endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae in Antarctica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We surveyed the distribution and diversity of fungi associated with eight macroalgae from Antarctica and their capability to produce bioactive compounds. The collections yielded 148 fungal isolates identified using molecular methods into 21 genera and 43 species. The most frequent taxa were Geomyces...

  17. The genomes of the fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum reveal adaptation to different hosts and lifestyles but also signatures of common ancestry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sequenced and compared the genomes of Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum that are related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and infect different hosts. C. fulvum is a biotroph that infects tomato, while D. septosporum is a hemibiotr...

  18. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLGOY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-23

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for

  19. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-17

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for

  20. Fungal sensing of host environment.

    PubMed

    Braunsdorf, C; Mailänder-Sánchez, D; Schaller, M

    2016-09-01

    To survive inside a host, fungi have to adapt to a changing and often hostile environment and therefore need the ability to recognize what is going on around them. To adapt to different host niches, they need to sense external conditions such as temperature, pH and to recognize specific host factors. The ability to respond to physiological changes inside the host, independent of being in a commensal, pathogenic or even symbiotic context, implicates mechanisms for sensing of specific host factors. Because the cell wall is constantly in contact with the surrounding, fungi express receptors on the surface of their cell wall, such as pheromone receptors, which have important roles, besides mediating chemotropism for mating. We are not restricting the discussion to the human host because the receptors and mechanisms used by different fungal species to sense their environment are often similar even for plant pathogens. Furthermore, the natural habitat of opportunistic pathogenic fungi with the potential to cause infection in a human host is in soil and on plants. While the hosts' mechanisms of sensing fungal pathogens have been addressed in the literature, the focus of this review is to fill the gap, giving an overview on fungal sensing of a host-(ile) environment. Expanding our knowledge on host-fungal interactions is extremely important to prevent and treat diseases of pathogenic fungi, which are important issues in human health and agriculture but also to understand the delicate balance of fungal symbionts in our ecosystem. PMID:27155351

  1. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  2. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Liedl, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Midwest Superconductivity Consortium's, MISCON, mission is to advance the science and understanding of high {Tc} superconductivity. Programmatic research focuses upon key materials-related problems: synthesis and processing; and limiting features in transport phenomena. During the past twenty-one projects produced over eighty-seven talks and seventy-two publications. Key achievements this past year expand our understanding of processing phenomena relating to crystallization and texture, metal superconductor composites, and modulated microstructures. Further noteworthy accomplishments include calculations on 2-D superconductor insulator transition, prediction of flux line lattice melting, and an expansion of our understanding and use of microwave phenomena as related to superconductors.

  3. Genomic standards consortium projects.

    PubMed

    Field, Dawn; Sterk, Peter; Kottmann, Renzo; De Smet, J Wim; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cochrane, Guy; Cole, James R; Davies, Neil; Dawyndt, Peter; Garrity, George M; Gilbert, Jack A; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Hirschman, Lynette; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Knight, Rob; Kyrpides, Nikos; Meyer, Folker; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Morrison, Norman; Robbins, Robert; San Gil, Inigo; Sansone, Susanna; Schriml, Lynn; Tatusova, Tatiana; Ussery, Dave; Yilmaz, Pelin; White, Owen; Wooley, John; Caporaso, Gregory

    2014-06-15

    The Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) is an open-membership community that was founded in 2005 to work towards the development, implementation and harmonization of standards in the field of genomics. Starting with the defined task of establishing a minimal set of descriptions the GSC has evolved into an active standards-setting body that currently has 18 ongoing projects, with additional projects regularly proposed from within and outside the GSC. Here we describe our recently enacted policy for proposing new activities that are intended to be taken on by the GSC, along with the template for proposing such new activities. PMID:25197446

  4. Portrait of a Consortium: ANKOS (Anatolian University Libraries Consortium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Phyllis; Karasozen, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    The Anatolian University Libraries Consortium (ANKOS) was created in 2001 with only a few members subscribed to nine e-journal collections and bibliographic databases. This Turkish library consortium had developed from one state and three private universities joining together for the purchase of two databases in 1999. Over time, the numbers of…

  5. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the ongoing

  6. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-07-15

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with

  7. Hawaii Space Grant Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Luke P.

    2005-01-01

    The Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium is composed of ten institutions of higher learning including the University of Hawai'i at Manoa, the University of Hawai'i at Hilo, the University of Guam, and seven Community Colleges spread over the 4 main Hawaiian islands. Geographic separation is not the only obstacle that we face as a Consortium. Hawai'i has been mired in an economic downturn due to a lack of tourism for almost all of the period (2001 - 2004) covered by this report, although hotel occupancy rates and real estate sales have sky-rocketed in the last year. Our challenges have been many including providing quality educational opportunities in the face of shrinking State and Federal budgets, encouraging science and technology course instruction at the K-12 level in a public school system that is becoming less focused on high technology and more focused on developing basic reading and math skills, and assembling community college programs with instructors who are expected to teach more classes for the same salary. Motivated people can overcome these problems. Fortunately, the Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium (HSGC) consists of a group of highly motivated and talented individuals who have not only overcome these obstacles, but have excelled with the Program. We fill a critical need within the State of Hawai'i to provide our children with opportunities to pursue their dreams of becoming the next generation of NASA astronauts, engineers, and explorers. Our strength lies not only in our diligent and creative HSGC advisory board, but also with Hawai'i's teachers, students, parents, and industry executives who are willing to invest their time, effort, and resources into Hawai'i's future. Our operational philosophy is to FACE the Future, meaning that we will facilitate, administer, catalyze, and educate in order to achieve our objective of creating a highly technically capable workforce both here in Hawai'i and for NASA. In addition to administering to programs and

  8. The Genomic Standards Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cochrane, Guy; Cole, James R.; Dawyndt, Peter; Garrity, George M.; Gilbert, Jack; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Hirschman, Lynette; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Knight, Rob; Kottmann, Renzo; Kyrpides, Nikos; Meyer, Folker; San Gil, Inigo; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Schriml, Lynn M.; Sterk, Peter; Tatusova, Tatiana; Ussery, David W.; White, Owen; Wooley, John

    2011-01-01

    A vast and rich body of information has grown up as a result of the world's enthusiasm for 'omics technologies. Finding ways to describe and make available this information that maximise its usefulness has become a major effort across the 'omics world. At the heart of this effort is the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC), an open-membership organization that drives community-based standardization activities, Here we provide a short history of the GSC, provide an overview of its range of current activities, and make a call for the scientific community to join forces to improve the quality and quantity of contextual information about our public collections of genomes, metagenomes, and marker gene sequences. PMID:21713030

  9. Advanced Lab Consortium ``Conspiracy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Jonathan F.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced Laboratory instruction is a time-honored and essential element of an undergraduate physics education. But, from my vantage point, it has been neglected by the two major professional societies, APS and AAPT. At some schools, it has been replaced by ``research experiences,'' but I contend that very few of these experiences in the research lab, particularly in the junior year, deliver what they promise. It is time to focus the attention of APS, AAPT, and the NSF on the advanced lab. We need to create an Advanced Lab Consortium (ALC) of faculty and staff to share experiments, suppliers, materials, pedagogy, ideas, in short to build a professional network for those committed to advanced lab instruction. The AAPT is currently in serious discussions on this topic and my company stands ready with both financial and personnel resources to support the effort. This talk is a plea for co-conspirators.

  10. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  11. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison

    2005-09-14

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

  12. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-07-06

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission & distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1 to June 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: (1) Develop and process subcontract agreements for the eight projects selected for cofunding at the February 2006 GSTC Meeting; (2) Compiling and distributing the three 2004 project final reports to the GSTC Full members; (3) Develop template, compile listserv, and draft first GSTC Insider online newsletter; (4) Continue membership recruitment; (5) Identify projects and finalize agenda for the fall GSTC/AGA Underground Storage Committee Technology Transfer

  13. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  14. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

  15. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Stephen

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  16. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to jointly host

  17. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-09-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created-the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2006 to September 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: {lg_bullet} Subaward contracts for all 2006 GSTC projects completed; {lg_bullet} Implement a formal project mentoring process by a mentor team; {lg_bullet} Upcoming Technology Transfer meetings: {sm_bullet} Finalize agenda for the American Gas Association Fall Underground Storage Committee/GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting in San Francisco, CA. on October 4, 2006; {sm_bullet} Identify projects and finalize agenda for the Fall GSTC Technology

  18. Bioconversion of cyanide and acetonitrile by a municipal-sewage-derived anaerobic consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, N.J.; Rivard, C.J.; Mohagheghi, A.; Philippidis, G.

    1995-12-31

    In this study, an anaerobic consortium was examined for its ability to adapt to and degrade the representative organonitriles, cyanide and acetonitrile. Adaptation to cyanide and acetonitrile was achieved by adding increasing levels of cyanide and acetonitrile to the anaerobic consortium, followed by extensive incubation over a 90-day period. The anaerobic consortium adapted most rapidly to the lower concentrations of each substrate and resulted in reductions of 85% and 83% of the cyanide and acetonitrile, respectively, at the 50 mg/L addition level. Increasing the concentration of both cyanide and acetonitrile resulted in reduced bioconversion. Two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were set up to examine the potential for continuous bioconversion of organonitriles. The anaerobic consortium was adapted to continuous infusion of acetonitrile at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L{center_dot}day in phosphate buffer.

  19. COnsortium of METabolomics Studies (COMETS)

    Cancer.gov

    The COnsortium of METabolomics Studies (COMETS) is an extramural-intramural partnership that promotes collaboration among prospective cohort studies that follow participants for a range of outcomes and perform metabolomic profiling of individuals.

  20. INTEGRATED PETROLEUM ENVIRONMENTAL CONSORTIUM (IPEC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: R827015
    Title: Integrated Petroleum Environmental Consortium (IPEC)
    Investigator: Kerry L. Sublette
    Institution: University of Tulsa
    EPA Project Officer: S. Bala Krishnan
    Project Period: October 1, 19...

  1. Hickory Consortium 2001 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-02-01

    As with all Building America Program consortia, systems thinking is the key to understanding the processes that Hickory Consortium hopes to improve. The Hickory Consortium applies this thinking to more than the whole-building concept. Their systems thinking embraces the meta process of how housing construction takes place in America. By understanding the larger picture, they are able to identify areas where improvements can be made and how to implement them.

  2. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fungal Skin Infections Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock ... are caused by yeasts (such as Candida —see Candidiasis ) or dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton ( ...

  3. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  4. California Space Grant Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmatka, John; Berger, Wolfgang; Wiskerchen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The organizational and administrative structure of the CaSGC has the Consortium Headquarters Office (Principal Investigator - Dr. John Kosmatka, California Statewide Director - Dr. Michael Wiskerchen) at UC San Diego. Each affiliate member institution has a campus director and an scholarship/fellowship selection committee. Each affiliate campus director also serves on the CaSGC Advisory Council and coordinates CMIS data collection and submission. The CaSGC strives to maintain a balance between expanded affiliate membership and continued high quality in targeted program areas of aerospace research, education, workforce development, and public outreach. Associate members are encouraged to participate on a project-by-project basis that meets the needs of California and the goals and objectives of the CaSGC. Associate members have responsibilities relating only to the CaSGC projects they are directly engaged in. Each year, as part of the CaSGC Improvement Plan, the CaSGC Advisory Council evaluates the performance of the affiliate and associate membership in terms of contributions to the CaSGC Strategic Plan, These CaSGC membership evaluations provide a constructive means for elevating productive members and removing non-performing members. This Program Improvement and Results (PIR) report will document CaSGC program improvement results and impacts that directly respond to the specific needs of California in the area of aerospace-related education and human capital development and the Congressional mandate to "increase the understanding, assessment, development and utilization of space resources by promoting a strong education base, responsive research and training activities, and broad and prompt dissemination of knowledge and technology".

  5. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  6. Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens. An introduction to fungal endophytes will be presented, followed by a discussion of research aimed at introducing Beauveria bassiana as a fungal endo...

  7. CFD Parametric Study of Consortium Impeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Garcia, Roberto; Williams, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design impact in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A Finite Difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes the extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. A second-order central difference scheme plus adaptive dissipation terms was employed in the FDNS code, along with a predictor plus multi-corrector pressure-based solution procedure. The multi-zone, multi-block capability allows the FDNS code to efficiently solve flow fields with complicated geometry. The FDNS code has been benchmarked by analyzing the pump consortium inducer, and it provided satisfactory results. In the present study, a CFD parametric study of the pump consortium impeller was conducted using the FDNS code. The pump consortium impeller, with partial blades, is a new design concept of the advanced rocket engines. The parametric study was to analyze the baseline design of the consortium impeller and its modification which utilizes TANDEM blades. In the present study, the TANDEM blade configuration of the consortium impeller considers cut full blades for about one quarter chord length from the leading edge and clocks the leading edge portion with an angle of 7.5 or 22.5 degrees. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect and trend of the TANDEM blade modification and provide the result as a design guideline. A 3-D flow analysis, with a 103 x 23 x 30 mesh grid system and with the inlet flow conditions measured by Rocketdyne, was performed for the baseline consortium impeller. The numerical result shows that the mass flow rate splits through various blade passages are relatively uniform

  8. CFD parametric study of consortium impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Garcia, Roberto; Williams, Robert W.

    1993-07-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design impact in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A Finite Difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes the extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. A second-order central difference scheme plus adaptive dissipation terms was employed in the FDNS code, along with a predictor plus multi-corrector pressure-based solution procedure. The multi-zone, multi-block capability allows the FDNS code to efficiently solve flow fields with complicated geometry. The FDNS code has been benchmarked by analyzing the pump consortium inducer, and it provided satisfactory results. In the present study, a CFD parametric study of the pump consortium impeller was conducted using the FDNS code. The pump consortium impeller, with partial blades, is a new design concept of the advanced rocket engines. The parametric study was to analyze the baseline design of the consortium impeller and its modification which utilizes TANDEM blades. In the present study, the TANDEM blade configuration of the consortium impeller considers cut full blades for about one quarter chord length from the leading edge and clocks the leading edge portion with an angle of 7.5 or 22.5 degrees. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect and trend of the TANDEM blade modification and provide the result as a design guideline. A 3-D flow analysis, with a 103 x 23 x 30 mesh grid system and with the inlet flow conditions measured by Rocketdyne, was performed for the baseline consortium impeller. The numerical result shows that the mass flow rate splits through various blade passages are relatively uniform

  9. The population biology of fungal invasions.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, P; Feurtey, A; Hood, M E; Snirc, A; Clavel, J; Dutech, C; Roy, M; Giraud, T

    2015-05-01

    Fungal invasions are increasingly recognized as a significant component of global changes, threatening ecosystem health and damaging food production. Invasive fungi also provide excellent models to evaluate the generality of results based on other eukaryotes. We first consider here the reasons why fungal invasions have long been overlooked: they tend to be inconspicuous, and inappropriate methods have been used for species recognition. We then review the information available on the patterns and mechanisms of fungal invasions. We examine the biological features underlying invasion success of certain fungal species. We review population structure analyses, revealing native source populations and strengths of bottlenecks. We highlight the documented ecological and evolutionary changes in invaded regions, including adaptation to temperature, increased virulence, hybridization, shifts to clonality and association with novel hosts. We discuss how the huge census size of most fungi allows adaptation even in bottlenecked, clonal invaders. We also present new analyses of the invasion of the anther-smut pathogen on white campion in North America, as a case study illustrating how an accurate knowledge of species limits and phylogeography of fungal populations can be used to decipher the origin of invasions. This case study shows that successful invasions can occur even when life history traits are particularly unfavourable to long-distance dispersal and even with a strong bottleneck. We conclude that fungal invasions are valuable models to contribute to our view of biological invasions, in particular by providing insights into the traits as well as ecological and evolutionary processes allowing successful introductions. PMID:25469955

  10. DAMP signaling in fungal infections and diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Cristina; Carvalho, Agostinho; Esposito, Antonella; Bistoni, Francesco; Romani, Luigina

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections and diseases predominantly affect patients with deregulated immunity. Compelling experimental and clinical evidence indicate that severe fungal diseases belong to the spectrum of fungus-related inflammatory diseases. Some degree of inflammation is required for protection during the transitional response occurring temporally between the rapid innate and slower adaptive response. However, progressive inflammation worsens disease and ultimately prevents pathogen eradication. The challenge now is to elucidate cellular and molecular pathways distinguishing protective vs. pathogenic inflammation to fungi. In addition to fungal ligands of pattern recognition receptors (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs), several host-encoded proteins, the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are released during tissue injury and activate innate recognition receptors. DAMPs have been shown to regulate inflammation in fungal diseases. The DAMP/receptor for advanced glycation end-products axis integrated with the PAMP/Toll-like receptors axis in the generation of the inflammatory response in experimental and clinical fungal pneumonia. These emerging themes better accommodate fungal pathogenesis in the face of high-level inflammation seen in several clinical settings and point to DAMP targeting as a novel immunomodulatory strategy in fungal diseases. PMID:22973279

  11. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  12. Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yanfang; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Cen, Kai; Zhan, Shuai; Wang, Chengshu

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens of plants and animals have multifarious effects; they cause devastating damages to agricultures, lead to life-threatening diseases in humans, or induce beneficial effects by reducing insect pest populations. Many virulence factors have been determined in different fungal pathogens; however, the molecular determinants contributing to fungal host selection and adaptation are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of seven ascomycete insect pathogens and performed the genome-wide analyses of 33 species of filamentous ascomycete pathogenic fungi that infect insects (12 species), plants (12), and humans (9). Our results revealed that the genomes of plant pathogens encode more proteins and protein families than the insect and human pathogens. Unexpectedly, more common orthologous protein groups are shared between the insect and plant pathogens than between the two animal group pathogens. We also found that the pathogenicity of host-adapted fungi evolved multiple times, and that both divergent and convergent evolutions occurred during pathogen–host cospeciation thus resulting in protein families with similar features in each fungal group. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness on the evolution of protein families and therefore pathotype formation could not be ruled out due to the effect of common ancestry. The evolutionary correlation analyses led to the identification of different protein families that correlated with alternate pathotypes. Particularly, the effector-like proteins identified in plant and animal pathogens were strongly linked to fungal host adaptation, suggesting the existence of similar gene-for-gene relationships in fungus–animal interactions that has not been established before. These results well advance our understanding of the evolution of fungal pathogenicity and the factors that contribute to fungal pathotype formation. PMID:27071652

  13. Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yanfang; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Cen, Kai; Zhan, Shuai; Wang, Chengshu

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens of plants and animals have multifarious effects; they cause devastating damages to agricultures, lead to life-threatening diseases in humans, or induce beneficial effects by reducing insect pest populations. Many virulence factors have been determined in different fungal pathogens; however, the molecular determinants contributing to fungal host selection and adaptation are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of seven ascomycete insect pathogens and performed the genome-wide analyses of 33 species of filamentous ascomycete pathogenic fungi that infect insects (12 species), plants (12), and humans (9). Our results revealed that the genomes of plant pathogens encode more proteins and protein families than the insect and human pathogens. Unexpectedly, more common orthologous protein groups are shared between the insect and plant pathogens than between the two animal group pathogens. We also found that the pathogenicity of host-adapted fungi evolved multiple times, and that both divergent and convergent evolutions occurred during pathogen-host cospeciation thus resulting in protein families with similar features in each fungal group. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness on the evolution of protein families and therefore pathotype formation could not be ruled out due to the effect of common ancestry. The evolutionary correlation analyses led to the identification of different protein families that correlated with alternate pathotypes. Particularly, the effector-like proteins identified in plant and animal pathogens were strongly linked to fungal host adaptation, suggesting the existence of similar gene-for-gene relationships in fungus-animal interactions that has not been established before. These results well advance our understanding of the evolution of fungal pathogenicity and the factors that contribute to fungal pathotype formation. PMID:27071652

  14. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z.; Sonnenschein, Eva C.; Cariou, Thierry; O’Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R.; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E.; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P.; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M.; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion M. F.; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C.; Kandil, Mahrous M.; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L’Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M.; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A. Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J.; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N.; Gasol, Josep M.; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S.; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M.; Collins, R. Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.

  15. The ocean sampling day consortium.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z; Sonnenschein, Eva C; Cariou, Thierry; O'Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion Mf; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C; Kandil, Mahrous M; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L'Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; Dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N; Gasol, Josep M; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M; Collins, R Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Gilbert, Jack A; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world's oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits. PMID:26097697

  16. Reproductive strategies and adaptations for survival among obligatory microsporidian and fungal parasites of mosquitoes: a comparative analysis of Amblyospora and Coelomomyces.

    PubMed

    Lucarotti, C J; Andreadis, T G

    1995-03-01

    Amblyospora (Microsporida: Amblyosporidae) and Coelomomyces (Chytridiomycetes: Blastocladiales) have independently evolved a diverse array of unique and highly specialized mechanisms that have allowed them to more fully exploit their mosquito hosts and the aquatic environment that their hosts inhabit. Amblyospora and Coelomomyces both have complex life cycles that include obligatory development in an intermediate microcrustacean host and 2 mosquito generations for completion. Amblyospora is polymorphic with 3 separate and distinct developmental sequences, asexual and sexual reproduction, and aspects of both vertical (transovarial) and horizontal transmission. Infective stages of Coelomomyces are motile, a temporal gating mechanism coordinates gamete release, and, even though there is no transovarial transmission, infection of primary host ovaries is important in dissemination of the fungus to new habitats. The intent of this review is to examine how these and other strategies and adaptations facilitate parasite reproduction within the host(s) and enhance transmission and survival between hosts. PMID:7616177

  17. Federal Laboratory Consortium Resource Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Laboratory Consortium, Washington, DC.

    Intended to assist both the private and public sectors to locate and utilize technological expertise within the federal laboratories, this directory lists the federal laboratories and centers that are affiliated with the Federal Laboratory Consortium and describes the area of technological expertise they can make available to solve problems. This…

  18. Federal Laboratory Consortium Resource Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Laboratory Consortium, Washington, DC.

    Designed to bridge the communication gap between the Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC) and public and private sectors of the country, this directory has been prepared as a compilation of scientific and technical research and development activities at federal laboratories, which are directing technology transfer efforts toward increasing the use…

  19. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  20. Fungal and Bacterial Diseases.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal and bacterial diseases are important constraints to production. Recognition of diseases and information on their biology is important in disease management. This chapter is aimed at providing diagnostic information on fungal and bacterial diseases of sugar beet and their biology, epidemiolo...

  1. Regulation of the fungal secretome.

    PubMed

    McCotter, Sean W; Horianopoulos, Linda C; Kronstad, James W

    2016-08-01

    The ability of countless representatives of the Kingdom Fungi to adapt to and proliferate in diverse environments is facilitated by regulation of their secretomes to respond to changes in environmental conditions and to mediate interactions with other organisms. Secretome changes often fulfill common functions of nutrient acquisition, facilitation of host/symbiont interactions, cell wall modification, and optimization of the enzyme suite to adapt to new environmental resources. In this review, we expand on our recent work on signaling and the secretome in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to consider a range of selected examples of regulation of fungal secretomes. These examples include the impact of carbon source and aspects of the response to plant and animal hosts. Additionally, the influence of key protein kinases (e.g., Pka1, Snf1) and transcription factors (e.g., Rim101/PacC) is highlighted to illustrate some underlying regulatory factors influencing the secretome. Although there is a wealth of information about fungal secretomes from both experimentation and genome sequence mining, there are also major gaps in our knowledge about the complete composition of fungal secretomes and mechanisms of dynamic change. For example, a more comprehensive understanding of the composition and regulation of the secretome will require consideration of the emerging roles of unconventional secretion and extracellular vesicles in delivering proteins outside the cell. Overall, changes in the secretome are well documented in diverse fungi and the underlying mechanisms are currently under investigation; however, there remain unknown steps in the regulation of secretory pathways and gaps in understanding the regulation of unconventional secretion, which warrant further research. PMID:26879194

  2. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; et al

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and theirmore » embedded functional traits.« less

  3. The AGTSR consortium: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Fant, D.B.; Golan, L.P.

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program is a collaborative University-Industry R&D Consortium that is managed and administered by the South Carolina Energy R&D Center. AGTSR is a nationwide consortium dedicated to advancing land-based gas turbine systems for improving future power generation capability. It directly supports the technology-research arm of the ATS program and targets industry-defined research needs in the areas of combustion, heat transfer, materials, aerodynamics, controls, alternative fuels, and advanced cycles. The consortium is organized to enhance U.S. competitiveness through close collaboration with universities, government, and industry at the R&D level. AGTSR is just finishing its third year of operation and is sponsored by the U.S. DOE - Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The program is scheduled to continue past the year 2000. At present, there are 78 performing member universities representing 36 states, and six cost-sharing U.S. gas turbine corporations. Three RFP`s have been announced and the fourth RFP is expected to be released in December, 1995. There are 31 research subcontracts underway at performing member universities. AGTSR has also organized three workshops, two in combustion and one in heat transfer. A materials workshop is in planning and is scheduled for February, 1996. An industrial internship program was initiated this past summer, with one intern positioned at each of the sponsoring companies. The AGTSR consortium nurtures close industry-university-government collaboration to enhance synergism and the transition of research results, accelerate and promote evolutionary-revolutionary R&D, and strives to keep a prominent U.S. industry strong and on top well into the 21st century. This paper will present the objectives and benefits of the AGTSR program, progress achieved to date, and future planned activity in fiscal year 1996.

  4. The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Michael

    2003-01-01

    I want to discuss both the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium and the Human Genome Project. I am afraid most of my presentation will be thin on law and possibly too high on rhetoric. Having been engaged in a personal and direct way with these issues as a trained scientist, I find it quite difficult to be always as objective as I ought to be.

  5. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  6. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  7. Fungal Genomics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  8. Insect pathology and fungal entomopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi that occur inside asymptomatic plant tissues are known as fungal endophytes. Different genera of fungal entomopathogens have been reported as naturally occurring fungal endophytes, and it has been shown that it is possible to inoculate plants with fungal entomopathogens, making them endophytic...

  9. Nail Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicines can treat a fungal nail infection. Oral antifungal medicines help a new nail grow to replace ... infected nail. You might need to take the antifungal medicine for 6 to 12 weeks. It depends ...

  10. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  11. Fungal Nail Infection (Onychomycosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... vinegar, vitamin E oil, Vicks® VapoRub®, or tea tree oil. When to Seek Medical Care Fungal nail ... Trusted Links Related diseases: Psoriasis View all diseases Community: Discussion Forum Skinmatters Blog About Us | Terms of ...

  12. Fungal Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  13. VAMDC Consortium: A Service to Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L Dubernet, M.; Moreau, N.; Zwoelf, C. M.; Ba, Y. A.

    2015-12-01

    The VAMDC Consortium is a worldwide consortium which federates Atomic and Molecular databases through an e-science infrastructure and a political organisation. About 90% of the inter-connected databases handle data that are used for the interpretation of spectra and for the modelisation of media of many fields of astrophysics. This paper presents how the VAMDC Consortium is organised in order to provide a ``service'' to the astrophysics community.

  14. Fungal diagnostics in pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lease, Erika D; Alexander, Barbara D

    2011-12-01

    Fungal pneumonia is increasingly common, particularly in highly immunosuppressed patients, such as solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and the diagnosis is evolving. Although standard techniques such as microscopy and culture remain the mainstays of diagnosis, relatively recent advances in serological and molecular testing are important additions to the field. This article reviews the laboratory tools used to diagnose fungal respiratory disease. PMID:22167394

  15. Fungal Diagnostics in Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Lease, Erika D.; Alexander, Barbara D.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal pneumonia is increasingly common, particularly in highly immunosuppressed patients, such as solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and the diagnosis is evolving. While standard techniques such as microscopy and culture remain the mainstay of diagnosis, relatively recent advances in serologic and molecular testing are important additions to the field. This chapter will review the laboratory tools used to diagnose fungal respiratory disease. PMID:22167394

  16. PanScan, the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium, and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium consists of more than a dozen prospective epidemiologic cohort studies within the NCI Cohort Consortium, whose leaders work together to investigate the etiology and natural history of pancreatic cancer.

  17. Indoor fungal exposure.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christine A

    2003-08-01

    Fungi affect humans in complex ways and are capable of eliciting a number of disease responses, such as infectious, allergic, and irritant and toxic effects. Fungal exposure is unequivocally associated with exacerbations of asthma, although the role of fungi in causing the disease is yet to be determined. The association between home dampness and respiratory health effects is strong, and fungal exposure is suspected to be associated with this linkage. Fear of toxin exposures has generated debate over the possible toxic health effects of airborne fungi; however, several recent reviews discount the health impacts of mycotoxin through indoor exposures. Nevertheless, fungal contamination of indoor environments is undesirable. Knowledge of sources and characteristics of fungal spore release and dispersal are important for understanding the processes of exposure. Environmental monitoring for fungi and their disease agents are important aspects of exposure assessment, but few guidelines exist for interpreting their health impacts. Much work is needed in isolating, characterizing and standardizing fungal disease agents to properly assess the prevalence of fungal health effects. PMID:14524388

  18. Immunotherapy of Fungal Infections.

    PubMed

    Datta, Kausik; Hamad, Mawieh

    2015-11-01

    Fungal organisms are ubiquitous in the environment. Pathogenic fungi, although relatively few in the whole gamut of microbial pathogens, are able to cause disease with varying degrees of severity in individuals with normal or impaired immunity. The disease state is an outcome of the fungal pathogen's interactions with the host immunity, and therefore, it stands to reason that deep/invasive fungal diseases be amenable to immunotherapy. Therefore, antifungal immunotherapy continues to be attractive as an adjunct to the currently available antifungal chemotherapy options for a number of reasons, including the fact that existing antifungal drugs, albeit largely effective, are not without limitations, and that morbidity and mortality associated with invasive mycoses are still unacceptably high. For several decades, intense basic research efforts have been directed at development of fungal immunotherapies. Nevertheless, this approach suffers from a severe bench-bedside disconnect owing to several reasons: the chemical and biological peculiarities of the fungal antigens, the complexities of host-pathogen interactions, an under-appreciation of the fungal disease landscape, the requirement of considerable financial investment to bring these therapies to clinical use, as well as practical problems associated with immunizations. In this general, non-exhaustive review, we summarize the features of ongoing research efforts directed towards devising safe and effective immunotherapeutic options for mycotic diseases, encompassing work on antifungal vaccines, adoptive cell transfers, cytokines, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and other agents. PMID:26575463

  19. Novel Approaches for Fungal Transcriptomics from Host Samples

    PubMed Central

    Amorim-Vaz, Sara; Sanglard, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans adaptation to the host requires a profound reprogramming of the fungal transcriptome as compared to in vitro laboratory conditions. A detailed knowledge of the C. albicans transcriptome during the infection process is necessary in order to understand which of the fungal genes are important for host adaptation. Such genes could be thought of as potential targets for antifungal therapy. The acquisition of the C. albicans transcriptome is, however, technically challenging due to the low proportion of fungal RNA in host tissues. Two emerging technologies were used recently to circumvent this problem. One consists of the detection of low abundance fungal RNA using capture and reporter gene probes which is followed by emission and quantification of resulting fluorescent signals (nanoString). The other is based first on the capture of fungal RNA by short biotinylated oligonucleotide baits covering the C. albicans ORFome permitting fungal RNA purification. Next, the enriched fungal RNA is amplified and subjected to RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Here we detail these two transcriptome approaches and discuss their advantages and limitations and future perspectives in microbial transcriptomics from host material. PMID:26834721

  20. Tri-District Arts Consortium Summer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Charlotte O.

    1990-01-01

    The Tri-District Arts Consortium in South Carolina was formed to serve artistically gifted students in grades six-nine. The consortium developed a summer program offering music, dance, theatre, and visual arts instruction through a curriculum of intense training, performing, and hands-on experiences with faculty members and guest artists. (JDD)

  1. The Salix Consortium in New York

    SciTech Connect

    Wulf, T.; Jones, J.

    1998-09-28

    Energy crops for electrical production are being given a boost by the Salix Consortium, an association of 20 corporations and industrial, government, farming, and research organizations. The consortium supports commercial development of willows for generating electricity, which are being grown for utilities across the Northeast region of the U.S. for use in cofiring with coal in existing power plants.

  2. Increasing Sales by Developing Production Consortiums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.; Russo, Robert

    Intended to help rehabilitation facility administrators increase organizational income from manufacturing and/or contracted service sources, this document provides a decision-making model for the development of a production consortium. The document consists of five chapters and two appendices. Chapter 1 defines the consortium concept, explains…

  3. Fractal dimension based corneal fungal infection diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Perkins, A. Louise; Beuerman, Roger W.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

    2006-08-01

    We present a fractal measure based pattern classification algorithm for automatic feature extraction and identification of fungus associated with an infection of the cornea of the eye. A white-light confocal microscope image of suspected fungus exhibited locally linear and branching structures. The pixel intensity variation across the width of a fungal element was gaussian. Linear features were extracted using a set of 2D directional matched gaussian-filters. Portions of fungus profiles that were not in the same focal plane appeared relatively blurred. We use gaussian filters of standard deviation slightly larger than the width of a fungus to reduce discontinuities. Cell nuclei of cornea and nerves also exhibited locally linear structure. Cell nuclei were excluded by their relatively shorter lengths. Nerves in the cornea exhibited less branching compared with the fungus. Fractal dimensions of the locally linear features were computed using a box-counting method. A set of corneal images with fungal infection was used to generate class-conditional fractal measure distributions of fungus and nerves. The a priori class-conditional densities were built using an adaptive-mixtures method to reflect the true nature of the feature distributions and improve the classification accuracy. A maximum-likelihood classifier was used to classify the linear features extracted from test corneal images as 'normal' or 'with fungal infiltrates', using the a priori fractal measure distributions. We demonstrate the algorithm on the corneal images with culture-positive fungal infiltrates. The algorithm is fully automatic and will help diagnose fungal keratitis by generating a diagnostic mask of locations of the fungal infiltrates.

  4. The AGTSR consortium: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Fant, D.B.; Golan, L.P.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research program is a nationwide consortium dedicated to advancing land-based gas turbine systems for improving future power generation capability. It directly supports the technology-research arm of the ATS program and targets industry- defined research needs in the areas of combustion, heat transfer, materials, aerodynamics, controls, alternative fuels, and advanced cycles. It is organized to enhance U.S. competitiveness through close collaboration with universities, government, and industry at the R&D level. AGTSR is just finishing its third year of operation; it is scheduled to continue past the year 2000. This update reviews the AGTSR triad, which consists of university/industry R&D activities, technology transfer programs, and trial student programs.

  5. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research. PMID:27393774

  6. Fungal synthesis of exopolysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Several fungal polysaccharides are currently used as thickening agents for materials ranging from enhanced oil recovery brines and drilling muds to foods. These polymers are generally produced during exponential fungal growth and appear to be normal cell wall constituents. As thickeners, they tend to be comparable to xanthan, and exhibit a similar non-Newtonian response to shear. Polymers which do not have carboxyl or amine group substituents tend to be less sensitive to high concentrations of multivalent ions, a problem in many brine and food systems. The fungal polymers have related fermentations and separations. They compete for a similar product market. Where families of polymers have a common backdone, they are susceptible to hydrolysis by the same enzymes.

  7. Establishing an International Soil Modelling Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Soil is one of the most critical life-supporting compartments of the Biosphere. Soil provides numerous ecosystem services such as a habitat for biodiversity, water and nutrients, as well as producing food, feed, fiber and energy. To feed the rapidly growing world population in 2050, agricultural food production must be doubled using the same land resources footprint. At the same time, soil resources are threatened due to improper management and climate change. Soil is not only essential for establishing a sustainable bio-economy, but also plays a key role also in a broad range of societal challenges including 1) climate change mitigation and adaptation, 2) land use change 3) water resource protection, 4) biotechnology for human health, 5) biodiversity and ecological sustainability, and 6) combating desertification. Soils regulate and support water, mass and energy fluxes between the land surface, the vegetation, the atmosphere and the deep subsurface and control storage and release of organic matter affecting climate regulation and biogeochemical cycles. Despite the many important functions of soil, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain, regarding the role of soil biota and biodiversity on ecosystem services, the structure and dynamics of soil communities, the interplay between hydrologic and biotic processes, the quantification of soil biogeochemical processes and soil structural processes, the resilience and recovery of soils from stress, as well as the prediction of soil development and the evolution of soils in the landscape, to name a few. Soil models have long played an important role in quantifying and predicting soil processes and related ecosystem services. However, a new generation of soil models based on a whole systems approach comprising all physical, mechanical, chemical and biological processes is now required to address these critical knowledge gaps and thus contribute to the preservation of ecosystem services, improve our understanding of climate

  8. Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Levitz, Stuart M.; Huang, Haibin; Ostroff, Gary R.; Specht, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Innate recognition of fungi leads to strong adaptive immunity. Investigators are trying to exploit this observation in vaccine development by combining antigens with evolutionarily conserved fungal cell wall carbohydrates to induce protective responses. Best studied is β-1,3-glucan, a glycan that activates complement and is recognized by Dectin-1. Administration of antigens in association with β-1,3-glucan, either by direct conjugation or complexed in glucan particles, results in robust humoral and cellular immune responses. While the host has a host of mannose receptors, responses to fungal mannoproteins generally are amplified if cells are cooperatively stimulated with an additional danger signal such as a toll-like receptor agonist. Chitosan, a polycationic homopolymer of glucosamine manufactured by the deacetylation of chitin, is being studied as an adjuvant in DNA and protein-based vaccines. It appears particularly promising in mucosal vaccines. Finally, universal and organism-specific fungal vaccines have been formulated by conjugating fungal cell wall glycans to carrier proteins. A major challenge will be to advance these experimental findings so that at risk patients can be protected. PMID:25404118

  9. Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines.

    PubMed

    Levitz, Stuart M; Huang, Haibin; Ostroff, Gary R; Specht, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Innate recognition of fungi leads to strong adaptive immunity. Investigators are trying to exploit this observation in vaccine development by combining antigens with evolutionarily conserved fungal cell wall carbohydrates to induce protective responses. Best studied is β-1,3-glucan, a glycan that activates complement and is recognized by dectin-1. Administration of antigens in association with β-1,3-glucan, either by direct conjugation or complexed in glucan particles, results in robust humoral and cellular immune responses. While the host has a host of mannose receptors, responses to fungal mannoproteins generally are amplified if cells are cooperatively stimulated with an additional danger signal such as a toll-like receptor agonist. Chitosan, a polycationic homopolymer of glucosamine manufactured by the deacetylation of chitin, is being studied as an adjuvant in DNA and protein-based vaccines. It appears particularly promising in mucosal vaccines. Finally, universal and organism-specific fungal vaccines have been formulated by conjugating fungal cell wall glycans to carrier proteins. A major challenge will be to advance these experimental findings so that at risk patients can be protected. PMID:25404118

  10. Pulmonary fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeannina A; Kauffman, Carol A

    2012-08-01

    This review details some of the advances that have been made in the recent decade in the diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of pulmonary fungal infections. These advances have occurred because of increasing knowledge regarding the fungal genome, better understanding of the structures of the fungal cell wall and cell membrane and the use of molecular epidemiological techniques. The clinical implications of these advances are more rapid diagnosis and more effective and less toxic antifungal agents. For example, the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, as well as histoplasmosis and blastomycosis, has improved with the use of easily performed antigen detection systems in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment of angioinvasive moulds has improved with the introduction of the new azoles, voriconazole and posaconazole that have broad antifungal activity. Amphotericin B is less frequently used, and when used is often given as lipid formulation to decrease toxicity. The newest agents, the echinocandins, are especially safe as they interfere with the metabolism of the fungal cell wall, a structure not shared with humans cells. Epidemiological advances include the description of the emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in North America and the increase in pulmonary mucormycosis and pneumonia due to Fusarium and Scedosporium species in transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. The emergence of azole resistance among Aspergillus species is especially worrisome and is likely related to increased azole use for treatment of patients, but also to agricultural use of azoles as fungicides in certain countries. PMID:22335254

  11. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections can also happen in people without weak immune systems Fungal infections that are not life-threatening, such ... likely to cause an infection. People with weak immune systems Infections that happen because a person’s immune system ...

  12. Building a local research consortium.

    PubMed

    Martin, P A

    1994-05-01

    Although state, regional, and national networking often are critical to the nurse researchers, local support that is broader than what is found in any single agency may be the foundation needed by clinicians who want "more" research than that prescribed by their current role. More formal consortiums have successfully implemented a variety of research projects and are another possibility to explore (Beaman & Strader, 1990; Bolton, 1991; Chenitz et al., 1990; Keefe et al., 1988; Thiele, 1989). Another option is some state nurses' associations that have formal research assemblies (eg., Ohio Nurses Association, Assembly of Nurse Researchers). However, forming a local, less formal group with a few expert advisors may supply the energy and momentum necessary for both using and conducting research at a grassroots level. The expert advisors should be research-trained nurses (almost always with a PhD or DNS) who are active group members. Although Fitzpatrick encouraged collaborative research and writing early in the history of Applied Nursing Research (Fitzpatrick, 1989), in 1993 approximately two thirds of the articles in Applied Nursing Research still were single authored. Nurses are not using collaboration to its fullest extent. An informal group in one community has been one way to release the scholarship that was latent in many nurses. PMID:8031105

  13. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO; http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that supplies information about gene product function using ontologies to represent biological knowledge. Here we describe improvements and expansions to several branches of the ontology, as well as updates that have allowed us to more efficiently disseminate the GO and capture feedback from the research community. The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) has expanded areas of the ontology such as cilia-related terms, cell-cycle terms and multicellular organism processes. We have also implemented new tools for generating ontology terms based on a set of logical rules making use of templates, and we have made efforts to increase our use of logical definitions. The GOC has a new and improved web site summarizing new developments and documentation, serving as a portal to GO data. Users can perform GO enrichment analysis, and search the GO for terms, annotations to gene products, and associated metadata across multiple species using the all-new AmiGO 2 browser. We encourage and welcome the input of the research community in all biological areas in our continued effort to improve the Gene Ontology. PMID:25428369

  14. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO; http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that supplies information about gene product function using ontologies to represent biological knowledge. Here we describe improvements and expansions to several branches of the ontology, as well as updates that have allowed us to more efficiently disseminate the GO and capture feedback from the research community. The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) has expanded areas of the ontology such as cilia-related terms, cell-cycle terms and multicellular organism processes. We have also implemented new tools for generating ontology terms based on a set of logical rules making use of templates, and we have made efforts to increase our use of logical definitions. The GOC has a new and improved web site summarizing new developments and documentation, serving as a portal to GO data. Users can perform GO enrichment analysis, and search the GO for terms, annotations to gene products, and associated metadata across multiple species using the all-new AmiGO 2 browser. We encourage and welcome the input of the research community in all biological areas in our continued effort to improve the Gene Ontology. PMID:25428369

  15. WILLIAMSBURG BROOKLYN ASTHMA AND ENVIRONMENT CONSORTIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Consortium expects to develop a family health promotion model in which organized residents have access to easily understood, scientifically accurate, community-specific information about their health, their environment, and the relationship between the two,...

  16. International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) —

    Cancer.gov

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) comprises a group of major mouse genetics research institutions along with national funding organisations formed to address the challenge of developing an encyclopedia of mammalian gene function.

  17. International Radical Cystectomy Consortium: A way forward

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Syed Johar; Field, Erinn; Kibel, Adam S.; Mottrie, Alex; Weizer, Alon Z.; Wagner, Andrew; Hemal, Ashok K.; Scherr, Douglas S.; Schanne, Francis; Gaboardi, Franco; Wu, Guan; Peabody, James O.; Koauk, Jihad; Redorta, Joan Palou; Pattaras, John G.; Rha, Koon-Ho; Richstone, Lee; Balbay, M. Derya; Menon, Mani; Hayn, Mathew; Stoeckle, Micheal; Wiklund, Peter; Dasgupta, Prokar; Pruthi, Raj; Ghavamian, Reza; Khan, Shamim; Siemer, Stephan; Maatman, Thomas; Wilson, Timothy; Poulakis, Vassilis; Wilding, Greg; Guru, Khurshid A.

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) is an emerging operative alternative to open surgery for the management of invasive bladder cancer. Studies from single institutions provide limited data due to the small number of patients. In order to better understand the related outcomes, a world-wide consortium was established in 2006 of patients undergoing RARC, called the International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium (IRCC). Thus far, the IRCC has reported its findings on various areas of operative interest and continues to expand its capacity to include other operative modalities and transform it into the International Radical Cystectomy Consortium. This article summarizes the findings of the IRCC and highlights the future direction of the consortium. PMID:25097319

  18. The bioleaching potential of a bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Mauricio; Cortés, María Paz; Travisany, Dante; Di Genova, Alex; Budinich, Marko; Reyes-Jara, Angélica; Hödar, Christian; González, Mauricio; Parada, Pilar; Bobadilla-Fazzini, Roberto A; Cambiazo, Verónica; Maass, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    This work presents the molecular foundation of a consortium of five efficient bacteria strains isolated from copper mines currently used in state of the art industrial-scale biotechnology. The strains Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Licanantay, Acidiphilium multivorum Yenapatur, Leptospirillum ferriphilum Pañiwe, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Wenelen and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans Cutipay were selected for genome sequencing based on metal tolerance, oxidation activity and bioleaching of copper efficiency. An integrated model of metabolic pathways representing the bioleaching capability of this consortium was generated. Results revealed that greater efficiency in copper recovery may be explained by the higher functional potential of L. ferriphilum Pañiwe and At. thiooxidans Licanantay to oxidize iron and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds. The consortium had a greater capacity to resist copper, arsenic and chloride ion compared to previously described biomining strains. Specialization and particular components in these bacteria provided the consortium a greater ability to bioleach copper sulfide ores. PMID:27416516

  19. CORAL DISEASE & HEALTH CONSORTIUM: FINDING SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Department of Interior (DOI) developed the framework for a Coral Disease and Health Consortium (CDHC) for the United States Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) through an interag...

  20. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph)

    Cancer.gov

    A consortium designed to enhance collaboration among epidemiologists studying lymphoma, to provide a forum for the exchange of research ideas, and to create a framework for collaborating on analyses that pool data from multiple studies

  1. The LBNL/JSU/AGMUS Science Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report discusses the 11 year of accomplishments of the science consortium of minority graduates from Jackson State University and Ana G. Mendez University at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  2. Fungal diseases of horses.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-11-29

    Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:23428378

  3. The Childhood Leukemia International Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Clavel, Jacqueline; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Petridou, Eleni; Taylor, Malcolm; Schüz, Joachim; Spector, Logan G.; Dockerty, John D.; Magnani, Corrado; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Sinnett, Daniel; Murphy, Michael; Roman, Eve; Monge, Patricia; Ezzat, Sameera; Mueller, Beth A.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Birch, Jill; Kaatsch, Peter; Koifman, Sergio; Lightfoot, Tracy; Bhatti, Parveen; Bondy, Melissa L.; Rudant, Jérémie; O’Neill, Kate; Miligi, Lucia; Dessypris, Nick; Kang, Alice Y.; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute leukemia is the most common cancer in children under 15 years of age; 80% are acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 17% are acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Childhood leukemia shows further diversity based on cytogenetic and molecular characteristics, which may relate to distinct etiologies. Case–control studies conducted worldwide, particularly of ALL, have collected a wealth of data on potential risk factors and in some studies, biospecimens. There is growing evidence for the role of infectious/immunologic factors, fetal growth, and several environmental factors in the etiology of childhood ALL. The risk of childhood leukemia, like other complex diseases, is likely to be influenced both by independent and interactive effects of genes and environmental exposures. While some studies have analyzed the role of genetic variants, few have been sufficiently powered to investigate gene–environment interactions. Objectives The Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC) was established in 2007 to promote investigations of rarer exposures, gene–environment interactions and subtype-specific associations through the pooling of data from independent studies. Methods By September 2012, CLIC included 22 studies (recruitment period: 1962–present) from 12 countries, totaling approximately 31 000 cases and 50 000 controls. Of these, 19 case–control studies have collected detailed epidemiologic data, and DNA samples have been collected from children and child–parent trios in 15 and 13 of these studies, respectively. Two registry-based studies and one study comprising hospital records routinely obtained at birth and/or diagnosis have limited interview data or biospecimens. Conclusions CLIC provides a unique opportunity to fill gaps in knowledge about the role of environmental and genetic risk factors, critical windows of exposure, the effects of gene–environment interactions and associations among specific leukemia subtypes in different ethnic

  4. Developments in Fungal Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa; Stchigel, Alberto M.

    1999-01-01

    Fungal infections, especially those caused by opportunistic species, have become substantially more common in recent decades. Numerous species cause human infections, and several new human pathogens are discovered yearly. This situation has created an increasing interest in fungal taxonomy and has led to the development of new methods and approaches to fungal biosystematics which have promoted important practical advances in identification procedures. However, the significance of some data provided by the new approaches is still unclear, and results drawn from such studies may even increase nomenclatural confusion. Analyses of rRNA and rDNA sequences constitute an important complement of the morphological criteria needed to allow clinical fungi to be more easily identified and placed on a single phylogenetic tree. Most of the pathogenic fungi so far described belong to the kingdom Fungi; two belong to the kingdom Chromista. Within the Fungi, they are distributed in three phyla and in 15 orders (Pneumocystidales, Saccharomycetales, Dothideales, Sordariales, Onygenales, Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Ophiostomatales, Microascales, Tremellales, Poriales, Stereales, Agaricales, Schizophyllales, and Ustilaginales). PMID:10398676

  5. Fungal toenail infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral treatments for fungal toenail infections in adults? What are the effects of topical treatments for fungal toenail infections in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 13 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amorolfine, butenafine, ciclopirox, fluconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine, tioconazole, and topical ketoconazole. PMID:24625577

  6. Fungal toenail infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 5% of people. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral treatments for fungal toenail infections? What are the effects of topical treatments for fungal toenail infections? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amorolfine, butenafine, ciclopirox, fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, mechanical debridement, terbinafine, and tioconazole. PMID:21846413

  7. Fungal toenail infections

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3-5% of people. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral treatments for fungal toenail infections? What are the effects of topical treatments for fungal toenail infections? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 11 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amorolfine, butenafine, ciclopirox, fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, mechanical debridement, terbinafine, and tioconazole. PMID:19445781

  8. Linking emergence of fungal plant diseases and ecological speciation

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, Tatiana; Gladieux, Pierre; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Emerging diseases represent a growing worldwide problem accompanying global environmental changes, and there is tremendous interest in identifying the factors controlling the appearance and spread of these diseases. Here, we discuss emerging fungal plant diseases, and argue that they often result from host shift speciation, a particular case of ecological speciation. We consider the factors controlling local adaptation and ecological speciation and show that certain life-history traits of many fungal plant pathogens are conducive for rapid ecological speciation, thus favoring the emergence of novel pathogen species adapted to new hosts. We argue that placing the problem of emerging fungal diseases of plants within the context of ecological speciation can significantly improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms governing emergence of such diseases. PMID:20434790

  9. The Mycosphaerella Genomics Consortium: Understanding Pathogenicity and Adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi. Due to their high economic importance, the genomes of two Mycosphaerella species have been sequenced and four others are in progress. Analysis of these genomes has potential practical benefits through identification of effectors ...

  10. Deep-biosphere consortium of fungi and prokaryotes in Eocene subseafloor basalts.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, S; Ivarsson, M; Astolfo, A; Belivanova, V; Broman, C; Marone, F; Stampanoni, M

    2014-11-01

    The deep biosphere of the subseafloor crust is believed to contain a significant part of Earth's biomass, but because of the difficulties of directly observing the living organisms, its composition and ecology are poorly known. We report here a consortium of fossilized prokaryotic and eukaryotic micro-organisms, occupying cavities in deep-drilled vesicular basalt from the Emperor Seamounts, Pacific Ocean, 67.5 m below seafloor (mbsf). Fungal hyphae provide the framework on which prokaryote-like organisms are suspended like cobwebs and iron-oxidizing bacteria form microstromatolites (Frutexites). The spatial inter-relationships show that the organisms were living at the same time in an integrated fashion, suggesting symbiotic interdependence. The community is contemporaneous with secondary mineralizations of calcite partly filling the cavities. The fungal hyphae frequently extend into the calcite, indicating that they were able to bore into the substrate through mineral dissolution. A symbiotic relationship with chemoautotrophs, as inferred for the observed consortium, may be a pre-requisite for the eukaryotic colonization of crustal rocks. Fossils thus open a window to the extant as well as the ancient deep biosphere. PMID:25214186

  11. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products. PMID:25284291

  12. Serpentine Soils Do Not Limit Mycorrhizal Fungal Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Sara; Ree, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Physiologically stressful environments tend to host depauperate and specialized biological communities. Serpentine soils exemplify this phenomenon by imposing well-known constraints on plants; however, their effect on other organisms is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a combination of field and molecular approaches to test the hypothesis that serpentine fungal communities are species-poor and specialized. We conducted surveys of ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity from adjacent serpentine and non-serpentine sites, described fungal communities using nrDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) fragment and sequence analyses, and compared their phylogenetic community structure. Although we detected low fungal overlap across the two habitats, we found serpentine soils to support rich fungal communities that include representatives from all major fungal lineages. We failed to detect the phylogenetic signature of endemic clades that would result from specialization and adaptive radiation within this habitat. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that serpentine soils do not constitute an extreme environment for ectomycorrhizal fungi, and raise important questions about the role of symbioses in edaphic tolerance and the maintenance of biodiversity. PMID:20668696

  13. Hypoxia and Fungal Pathogenesis: To Air or Not To Air?

    PubMed Central

    Grahl, Nora; Shepardson, Kelly M.; Chung, Dawoon

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades, the frequency of life-threatening human fungal infections has increased as advances in medical therapies, solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, an increasing geriatric population, and HIV infections have resulted in significant rises in susceptible patient populations. Although significant advances have been made in understanding how fungi cause disease, the dynamic microenvironments encountered by fungi during infection and the mechanisms by which they adapt to these microenvironments are not fully understood. As inhibiting and preventing in vivo fungal growth are main goals of antifungal therapies, understanding in vivo fungal metabolism in these host microenvironments is critical for the improvement of existing therapies or the design of new approaches. In this minireview, we focus on the emerging appreciation that pathogenic fungi like Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus are exposed to oxygen-limited or hypoxic microenvironments during fungal pathogenesis. The implications of these in vivo hypoxic microenvironments for fungal metabolism and pathogenesis are discussed with an aim toward understanding the potential impact of hypoxia on invasive fungal infection outcomes. PMID:22447924

  14. Fungal Susceptibility of Polyurethanes

    PubMed Central

    Darby, Richard T.; Kaplan, Arthur M.

    1968-01-01

    One hundred laboratory-synthesized polyurethanes were tested by a mixed-culture petri dish method for susceptibility to fungus attack. Polyether polyurethanes were moderately to highly resistant to fungal attack, whereas all polyester polyurethanes tested were highly susceptible. The susceptibility of the polyethers was related to the number of adjacent methylene groups in the polymer chain. At least two such groups were required for appreciable attack to occur. The presence of side chains on the diol moiety of the polyurethane reduced susceptibility. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16349806

  15. CFD analysis of pump consortium impeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Y. S.; Williams, R. W.

    1992-01-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design impact in a productive manner. The main goal of this study is to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, embedded with the extended k-epsilon turbulence model and with appropriate moving interface boundary conditions, is developed to analyze turbulent flows in the turbomachinery devices. The FDNS code was benchmarked with its numerical predictions of the pump consortium inducer, and provides satisfactory results. In the present study, a CFD analysis of the pump consortium impeller will be conducted with the application of the FDNS code. The pump consortium impeller, with partial blades, is the new design concept of the advanced rocket engine.

  16. COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced �cars�) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993�1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High

  17. Comparative metagenomic analysis of PAH degradation in soil by a mixed microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Zafra, German; Taylor, Todd D; Absalón, Angel E; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we used a taxonomic and functional metagenomic approach to analyze some of the effects (e.g. displacement, permanence, disappearance) produced between native microbiota and a previously constructed Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading microbial consortium during the bioremediation process of a soil polluted with PAHs. Bioaugmentation with a fungal-bacterial consortium and biostimulation of native microbiota using corn stover as texturizer produced appreciable changes in the microbial diversity of polluted soils, shifting native microbial communities in favor of degrading specific populations. Functional metagenomics showed changes in gene abundance suggesting a bias towards aromatic hydrocarbon and intermediary degradation pathways, which greatly favored PAH mineralization. In contrast, pathways favoring the formation of toxic intermediates such as cytochrome P450-mediated reactions were found to be significantly reduced in bioaugmented soils. PAH biodegradation in soil using the microbial consortium was faster and reached higher degradation values (84% after 30 d) as a result of an increased co-metabolic degradation when compared with other mixed microbial consortia. The main differences between inoculated and non-inoculated soils were observed in aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases, laccase, protocatechuate, salicylate and benzoate-degrading enzyme genes. Based on our results, we propose that several concurrent metabolic pathways are taking place in soils during PAH degradation. PMID:27484946

  18. Exploring the evolutionary ecology of fungal endophytes in agricultural systems: using functional traits to reveal mechanisms in community processes.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Megan; Glenn, Anthony E; Kohn, Linda M

    2010-09-01

    All plants, including crop species, harbor a community of fungal endophyte species, yet we know little about the biotic factors that are important in endophyte community assembly. We suggest that the most direct route to understanding the mechanisms underlying community assembly is through the study of functional trait variation in the host and its fungal consortium. We review studies on crop endophytes that investigate plant and fungal traits likely to be important in endophyte community processes. We focus on approaches that could speed detection of general trends in endophyte community assembly: (i) use of the 'assembly rules' concept to identify specific mechanisms that influence endophyte community dynamics, (ii) measurement of functional trait variation in plants and fungi to better understand endophyte community processes and plant-fungal interactions, and (iii) investigation of microbe-microbe interactions, and fungal traits that mediate them. This approach is well suited for research in agricultural systems, where pair-wise host-fungus interactions and mechanisms of fungal-fungal competition have frequently been described. Areas for consideration include the possibility that human manipulation of crop phenotype and deployment of fungal biocontrol species can significantly influence endophyte community assembly. Evaluation of endophyte assembly rules may help to fine-tune crop management strategies. PMID:25567944

  19. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium. 1991 Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Liedl, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Midwest Superconductivity Consortium`s, MISCON, mission is to advance the science and understanding of high {Tc} superconductivity. Programmatic research focuses upon key materials-related problems: synthesis and processing; and limiting features in transport phenomena. During the past twenty-one projects produced over eighty-seven talks and seventy-two publications. Key achievements this past year expand our understanding of processing phenomena relating to crystallization and texture, metal superconductor composites, and modulated microstructures. Further noteworthy accomplishments include calculations on 2-D superconductor insulator transition, prediction of flux line lattice melting, and an expansion of our understanding and use of microwave phenomena as related to superconductors.

  20. News from the opacity consortium OPAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turck-Chièze, S.; Gilles, D.

    2013-03-01

    The international OPAC consortium (see list below) was formed three years ago. It is composed of astrophysicists, plasma physicists and experimentalists from different laboratories. This consortium examines specific opacity calculations used in stellar physics. They contribute to solve the problems suggested by the astrophysical community in performing new calculations and new experiments with laser installation. We show here the specific example of the iron opacity peak that plays an important role in the envelope of intermediate-mass and massive stars and we present our first conclusions on iron and nickel.

  1. The Teleprasenz Consortium: Structure and intentions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blauert, Jens

    1991-01-01

    The Teleprasenz-Consortium is an open group of currently 37 scientists of different disciplines who devote a major part of their research activities to the foundations of telepresence technology. Telepresence technology is basically understood as a means to bridge spatial and temporal gaps as well as certain kinds of concealment, inaccessibility and danger of exposure. The activities of the consortium are organized into three main branches: virtual environment, surveillance and control systems, and speech and language technology. A brief summary of the main activities in these areas is given.

  2. Design and characterization of synthetic fungal-bacterial consortia for direct production of isobutanol from cellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Minty, Jeremy J; Singer, Marc E; Scholz, Scott A; Bae, Chang-Hoon; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Foster, Clifton E; Liao, James C; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina

    2013-09-01

    Synergistic microbial communities are ubiquitous in nature and exhibit appealing features, such as sophisticated metabolic capabilities and robustness. This has inspired fast-growing interest in engineering synthetic microbial consortia for biotechnology development. However, there are relatively few reports of their use in real-world applications, and achieving population stability and regulation has proven to be challenging. In this work, we bridge ecology theory with engineering principles to develop robust synthetic fungal-bacterial consortia for efficient biosynthesis of valuable products from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The required biological functions are divided between two specialists: the fungus Trichoderma reesei, which secretes cellulase enzymes to hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass into soluble saccharides, and the bacterium Escherichia coli, which metabolizes soluble saccharides into desired products. We developed and experimentally validated a comprehensive mathematical model for T. reesei/E. coli consortia, providing insights on key determinants of the system's performance. To illustrate the bioprocessing potential of this consortium, we demonstrate direct conversion of microcrystalline cellulose and pretreated corn stover to isobutanol. Without costly nutrient supplementation, we achieved titers up to 1.88 g/L and yields up to 62% of theoretical maximum. In addition, we show that cooperator-cheater dynamics within T. reesei/E. coli consortia lead to stable population equilibria and provide a mechanism for tuning composition. Although we offer isobutanol production as a proof-of-concept application, our modular system could be readily adapted for production of many other valuable biochemicals. PMID:23959872

  3. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application. PMID:26810078

  4. Fungal Entomopathogens in the Rhizosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic fungi are found in a wide variety of fungal groups from water molds to basidiomycetes, yet there are a number of fungal groups with no entomopathogenic representative. The order Hypocreales contains the largest number of entomogenous fungi including two of the most widely studied, ...

  5. Fungal rhinosinusitis and imaging modalities

    PubMed Central

    Gorovoy, Ian R.; Kazanjian, Mia; Kersten, Robert C.; Kim, H. Jane; Vagefi, M. Reza

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an overview of fungal rhinosinusitis with a particular focus on acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis (AFIFS). Imaging modalities and findings that aid in diagnosis and surgical planning are reviewed with a pathophysiologic focus. In addition, the differential diagnosis based on imaging suggestive of AFIFS is considered. PMID:23961027

  6. THE FEDERAL INTEGRATED BIOTREATMENT RESEARCH CONSORTIUM (FLASK TO FIELD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Federal Integrated Biotreatment Research Consortium (Flask to Field) represented a 7-year concerted effort by several research laboratories to develop bioremediation technologies for contaminated DoD sites. The consortium structure consisted of a director and four thrust are...

  7. Formation of a Human Services Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehallis, George; And Others

    Background information is provided concerning the efforts of Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC), under the sponsorship of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, to form a national consortium of two-year colleges for the development of Human Resources programs aimed at training chemical substance abuse workers. The report first presents…

  8. CORAL DISEASE & HEALTH CONSORTIUM; PARTNERS FOR PRESERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented at EMAP Symposium 2001: Coastal Monitoring Through Partnerships, 24-27 April 2001, Pensacola Beach, FL.

    The Coral Disease and Health Consortium (CDHC) was one recommendation to the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (CRTF), to conserve the coral reef ecosystems of the U...

  9. Northeast Technology Education Consortium: Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, W. Tad, Ed.

    This guide is designed to provide additional resources for technology educators who are attempting to shift their programs from industrial arts to technology education. An introduction describes the original demonstration site project, a consortium of Northeastern U.S. schools, the primary goal of which was the advancement of technological…

  10. Enrollment and Retention: A Private College Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    A consortium program of eight private colleges in Southern California that focuses on student retention efforts is described. Each college has a retention task force consisting of faculty, administrators, student affairs staff, and students. A steering committee with one representative from each college, generally the dean of students, coordinates…

  11. THE PLANT ONTOLOGY CONSORTIUM AND PLANT ONTOLOGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the Plant OntologyTM Consortium is to produce structured controlled vocabularies, arranged in ontologies, that can be applied to plant-based database information even as knowledge of the biology of the relevant plant taxa (e.g., development, anatomy, morphology, genomics, proteomics) is ...

  12. Consortium approach for nurse practitioner education.

    PubMed

    van Soeren, M H; Andrusyszyn, M A; Laschinger, H K; Goldenberg, D; DiCenso, A

    2000-10-01

    In 1995, a 10-university consortium approach to deliver a post-baccalaureate primary care nurse practitioner programme funded by the Ontario Ministry of Health was launched throughout Ontario, Canada. A combination of traditional and distance teaching methods, in English and French, were used. A 5-year research project was initiated to evaluate the entire programme, the effect of nurse practitioners on patient and health-care system outcomes and examine practice patterns. Participants included deans and directors (n = 10), regional co-ordinators (n = 5) and course developers, some of whom were also course professors (n = 8). This article is a report of the evaluation of the consortium programme after the first year from the perspective of groups involved in implementation and delivery. Results of qualitative analyses of participant perceptions from researcher-led focus groups and asynchronous electronic interviews provided the framework for the evaluation, and revealed the rationale for the consortium method, strengths, limitations and recommendations. Sharing ideas, resources and delivery and increased student access in remote areas were perceived as positive outcomes. Limitations included the short time period to develop programme content, identify and plan for distance education resources, and too little communication between universities and students. Researchers concluded that the consortium approach was effective for nurse practitioner education. Key factors identified for programme planning were communication, resources, curriculum and workload. Included among the recommendations was to allow sufficient time for role and course development before beginning a similar programme. PMID:11095220

  13. Retirement Plan Consortium Structures for K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevin, John

    2012-01-01

    As school districts continue to seek administrative efficiencies and cost reductions in the wake of severe budget pressures, the resources they devote to creating or expanding retirement plan consortia is increasing. Understanding how to structure a retirement plan consortium is paramount to successfully achieving the many objectives of…

  14. Consortium wins major Brazilian gas contract

    SciTech Connect

    O`Driscoll

    1994-08-16

    An international consortium of BHP of Australia, Tenneco Gas of the U.S. and British Gas was selected Monday by Petroleo Braileiro SA (Petrobras) to Monday by Petroleo Brasileiro SA (Petrobras) to develop a $2 billion natural gas pipeline linking reserves in Bolivia with markets in southern and southeastern Brazil.

  15. Establishing a Consortium for the Study of Rare Diseases: The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Seminara, Jennifer; Tuchman, Mendel; Krivitzky, Lauren; Krischer, Jeffrey; Lee, Hye-Seung; LeMons, Cynthia; Baumgartner, Matthias; Cederbaum, Stephen; Diaz, George A.; Feigenbaum, Annette; Gallagher, Renata C.; Harding, Cary O.; Kerr, Douglas S.; Lanpher, Brendan; Lee, Brendan; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; McCandless, Shawn E.; Merritt, J. Lawrence; Oster-Granite, Mary Lou; Seashore, Margretta R.; Stricker, Tamar; Summar, Marshall; Waisbren, Susan; Yudkoff, Marc; Batshaw, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) was created as part of a larger network established by the National Institutes of Health to study rare diseases. This paper reviews the UCDC’s accomplishments over the first six years, including how the Consortium was developed and organized, clinical research studies initiated, and the importance of creating partnerships with patient advocacy groups, philanthropic foundations and biotech and pharmaceutical companies. PMID:20188616

  16. 10 CFR 603.515 - Qualification of a consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualification of a consortium. 603.515 Section 603.515 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Recipient Qualification § 603.515 Qualification of a consortium. (a) A consortium...

  17. 10 CFR 603.515 - Qualification of a consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualification of a consortium. 603.515 Section 603.515 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Recipient Qualification § 603.515 Qualification of a consortium. (a) A consortium...

  18. 10 CFR 603.515 - Qualification of a consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification of a consortium. 603.515 Section 603.515 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Recipient Qualification § 603.515 Qualification of a consortium. (a) A consortium that is not formally incorporated...

  19. 10 CFR 603.515 - Qualification of a consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualification of a consortium. 603.515 Section 603.515 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Recipient Qualification § 603.515 Qualification of a consortium. (a) A consortium...

  20. Consortium on Auditory Learning Materials for the Handicapped: Cumulative Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Instructional Media Center.

    Presented is information generated from a Consortium on Auditory Learning Materials for the Handicapped. A list of consortium members and a glossary of 35 terms related to auditory learning are provided in Sections 1 and 2. Section 3 is a chart of projected goals (such as participating in teacher conferences) of the 12 consortium member units…

  1. 10 CFR 603.515 - Qualification of a consortium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification of a consortium. 603.515 Section 603.515 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award Business Evaluation Recipient Qualification § 603.515 Qualification of a consortium. (a) A consortium...

  2. Fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Covering: up to 2014 Siderophores are chelators synthesized by microbes to sequester iron. This article summarizes the knowledge on the fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus. In recent years, A. fumigatus became a role model for fungal biosynthesis, uptake and degradation of siderophores as well as regulation of siderophore-mediated iron handling and the elucidation of siderophore functions. Siderophore functions comprise uptake, intracellular transport and storage of iron. This proved to be crucial not only for adaptation to iron starvation conditions but also for germination, asexual and sexual propagation, antioxidative defense, mutual interaction, microbial competition as well as virulence in plant and animal hosts. Recent studies also indicate the high potential of siderophores and its biosynthetic pathway to improve diagnosis and therapy of fungal infections. PMID:25140791

  3. Contamination by uranium mine drainages affects fungal growth and interactions between fungal species and strains.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Verónica; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia; Pratas, João; Canhoto, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The presence of aquatic hyphomycetes has been reported for several heavy metal-contaminated waters. Tolerance probably is one adaptation to coping with heavy metals. To help clarify this issue strains of two species of aquatic hyphomycetes (Tricladium splendens Ingold and Varicosporium elodeae Kegel) were isolated from a reference stream and a stream contaminated with heavy metals and grown on malt extract agar prepared with reference and contaminated water to characterize colony morphology, growth rate, growth inhibition and interaction among species and strains. In V. elodeae the morphology of colonies differed between strains. Colony diameter increased linearly over time with growth rates being lower for strains isolated from contaminated than from reference streams (mostly for V. elodeae). Strains from the contaminated stream grew faster in medium prepared with contaminated water than in medium prepared with reference water, while for strains from the reference stream there was no significant difference in growth rates on the two media. In interacting isolates radial growth toward the opposing colony was generally lower than toward the dish edge. Percentage growth inhibition was higher for isolates in intraspecific interactions (13-37%) than in interspecific interactions (3-27%). However differences in growth inhibition experienced by interacting isolates were observed only in three cases out of 16. The difference between the percentage inhibition caused and experienced by a given isolate was highest in interactions involving isolates with distinct growth rates. Our results suggest that strains from the reference stream tolerate heavy metals while strains from the contaminated stream seem to be adapted to contaminated waters. We hypothesize that in natural environments fungal species-specific limits of tolerance to metal contamination might determine an abrupt or gradual response of the original fungal community to mine pollution giving origin to a poorer

  4. Age and Gender Affect the Composition of Fungal Population of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Strati, Francesco; Di Paola, Monica; Stefanini, Irene; Albanese, Davide; Rizzetto, Lisa; Lionetti, Paolo; Calabrò, Antonio; Jousson, Olivier; Donati, Claudio; Cavalieri, Duccio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here, we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal (GI) tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C), to acidic and oxidative stress, and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals' life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics-based approaches to

  5. Age and Gender Affect the Composition of Fungal Population of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Strati, Francesco; Di Paola, Monica; Stefanini, Irene; Albanese, Davide; Rizzetto, Lisa; Lionetti, Paolo; Calabrò, Antonio; Jousson, Olivier; Donati, Claudio; Cavalieri, Duccio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here, we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal (GI) tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C), to acidic and oxidative stress, and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals' life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics-based approaches to

  6. Fungal quorum sensing molecules: Role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wongsuk, Thanwa; Pumeesat, Potjaman; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2016-05-01

    When microorganisms live together in high numbers, they need to communicate with each other. To achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete molecules called quorum-sensing molecules (QSMs) that control their biological activities and behaviors. Fungi secrete QSMs such as farnesol, tyrosol, phenylethanol, and tryptophol. The role of QSMs in fungi has been widely studied in both yeasts and filamentous fungi, for example in Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, Aspergillus niger, A. nidulans, and Fusarium graminearum. QSMs impact fungal morphogenesis (yeast-to-hypha formation) and also play a role in the germination of macroconidia. QSMs cause fungal cells to initiate programmed cell death, or apoptosis, and play a role in fungal pathogenicity. Several types of QSMs are produced during stages of biofilm development to control cell population or morphology in biofilm communities. This review article emphasizes the role of fungal QSMs, especially in fungal morphogenesis, biofilm formation, and pathogenicity. Information about QSMs may lead to improved measures for controlling fungal infection. PMID:26972663

  7. Exploring the evolutionary ecology of fungal endophytes in agricultural systems: using functional traits to reveal mechanisms in community processes

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Megan; Glenn, Anthony E; Kohn, Linda M

    2010-01-01

    All plants, including crop species, harbor a community of fungal endophyte species, yet we know little about the biotic factors that are important in endophyte community assembly. We suggest that the most direct route to understanding the mechanisms underlying community assembly is through the study of functional trait variation in the host and its fungal consortium. We review studies on crop endophytes that investigate plant and fungal traits likely to be important in endophyte community processes. We focus on approaches that could speed detection of general trends in endophyte community assembly: (i) use of the ‘assembly rules’ concept to identify specific mechanisms that influence endophyte community dynamics, (ii) measurement of functional trait variation in plants and fungi to better understand endophyte community processes and plant–fungal interactions, and (iii) investigation of microbe–microbe interactions, and fungal traits that mediate them. This approach is well suited for research in agricultural systems, where pair-wise host–fungus interactions and mechanisms of fungal–fungal competition have frequently been described. Areas for consideration include the possibility that human manipulation of crop phenotype and deployment of fungal biocontrol species can significantly influence endophyte community assembly. Evaluation of endophyte assembly rules may help to fine-tune crop management strategies. PMID:25567944

  8. LBL/JSU/AGMUS science consortium annual report, FY 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In 1983, a formal Memorandum of Understanding joined the Ana G. Mendez University System (AGMUS), Jackson State University (JSU), and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in a consortium designed to advance the science and technology programs of JSU and AGMUS. This is the first such collaboration between a Hispanic university system, a historically Black university, and a national laboratory. The goals of this alliance are basic and direct: to develop and effect a long-term, comprehensive program that will enable the campuses of AGMUS and JSU to provide a broad, high-quality offering in the natural and computer sciences, to increase the number of minority students entering these fields, and to contribute to scientific knowledge and the federal government`s science mission through research. This report documents the progress toward these goals and includes individual success stories. The LBL/JSU/AGMUS Science Consortium has developed plans for utilizing its program successes to help other institutions to adopt or adapt those elements of the model that have produced the greatest results. Within the five-year plan formulated in 1990 are eight major components, each with defining elements and goals. These elements have become the components of the Science Consortium`s current plan for expansion and propagation.

  9. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... mould-related diseases in immunocompromised patients. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2011;66:i5-i14. Ribaud P. Fungal ... al. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Neutropenic Patients with Cancer: 2010 Update ...

  10. Fungal Biotransformation of Tetracycline Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Shang, Zhuo; Salim, Angela A; Khalil, Zeinab; Bernhardt, Paul V; Capon, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    The commercial antibiotics tetracycline (3), minocycline (4), chlortetracycline (5), oxytetracycline (6), and doxycycline (7) were biotransformed by a marine-derived fungus Paecilomyces sp. to yield seco-cyclines A-H (9-14, 18 and 19) and hemi-cyclines A-E (20-24). Structures were assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and in the case of 10 X-ray crystallography. Parallel mechanisms account for substrate-product specificity, where 3-5 yield seco-cyclines and 6 and 7 yield hemi-cyclines. The susceptibility of 3-7 to fungal biotransformation is indicative of an unexpected potential for tetracycline "degradation" (i.e., antibiotic resistance) in fungal genomes. Significantly, the fungal-derived tetracycline-like viridicatumtoxins are resistant to fungal biotransformation, providing chemical insights that could inform the development of new tetracycline antibiotics resistant to enzymatic degradation. PMID:27419475

  11. Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Wynn Volkert; Dr. Arvind Kumar; Dr. Bryan Becker; Dr. Victor Schwinke; Dr. Angel Gonzalez; Dr. DOuglas McGregor

    2010-12-08

    The objective of the Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium (MNSEC) is to enhance the scope, quality and integration of educational and research capabilities of nuclear sciences and engineering (NS/E) programs at partner schools in support of the U.S. nuclear industry (including DOE laboratories). With INIE support, MNSEC had a productive seven years and made impressive progress in achieving these goals. Since the past three years have been no-cost-extension periods, limited -- but notable -- progress has been made in FY10. Existing programs continue to be strengthened and broadened at Consortium partner institutions. The enthusiasm generated by the academic, state, federal, and industrial communities for the MNSEC activities is reflected in the significant leveraging that has occurred for our programs.

  12. Biosynthesis of Fungal Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Gavia, Diego J.; Tang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a summary of recent research advances in elucidating the biosynthesis of fungal indole alkaloids. Different strategies used to incorporate and derivatize the indole/indoline moieties in various families of fungal indole alkaloids will be discussed, including tryptophan-containing nonribosomal peptides and polyketide-nonribosomal peptide hybrids; and alkaloids derived from other indole building blocks. This review also includes discussion regarding the downstream modifications that generate chemical and structural diversity among indole alkaloids. PMID:25180619

  13. Traversing the fungal terpenome

    PubMed Central

    Quin, Maureen B.; Flynn, Christopher M.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) are prolific producers of structurally diverse terpenoid compounds. Classes of terpenoids identified in fungi include the sesqui-, di- and triterpenoids. Biosynthetic pathways and enzymes to terpenoids from each of these classes have been described. These typically involve the scaffold generating terpene synthases and cyclases, and scaffold tailoring enzymes such as e.g. cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, NAD(P)+ and flavin dependent oxidoreductases, and various group transferases that generate the final bioactive structures. The biosynthesis of several sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins and bioactive diterpenoids has been well-studied in Ascomycota (e.g. filamentous fungi). Little is known about the terpenoid biosynthetic pathways in Basidiomycota (e.g. mushroom forming fungi), although they produce a huge diversity of terpenoid natural products. Specifically, many trans-humulyl cation derived sesquiterpenoid natural products with potent bioactivities have been isolated. Biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for the production of trans-humulyl cation derived protoilludanes, and other sesquiterpenoids, can be rapidly identified by genome sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Genome mining combined with heterologous biosynthetic pathway refactoring has the potential to facilitate discovery and production of pharmaceutically relevant fungal terpenoids. PMID:25171145

  14. Neurospora illuminates fungal photoreception.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Hui; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J

    2010-11-01

    Light not only is indispensable as an energy source for life on earth but also serves as an essential environmental cue conveying the information of daily and seasonal time to organisms across different kingdoms. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying light responses are actively explored in various light-sensitive organisms, these studies are either hindered by the complexity of the systems or an incomplete familiarity with the light signaling components involved in the scheme. Therefore, study of a simple and well-characterized model system is desirable to expand our knowledge of basic properties underlying the regulation of biological light responses. This review will briefly introduce the basic light sensing machinery in Neurospora crassa, a filamentous fungus, and then focus on the most recent advances in employing Neurospora as a model to study light signaling cascades, photoadaptation, and circadian clock-modulated effects in eukaryotic cells. Also, we will summarize the functions of a number of putative photoreceptors in Neurospora, and discuss the implications of the study of Neurospora to the field of fungal photobiology and some challenges for future studies. PMID:20637887

  15. Evolutionary mechanisms involved in development of fungal secondary metabolite gene clusters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is extensive adaptability and diversity in fungi, even among closely related species, that enable them to occupy various ecological niches. Of particular importance for niche adaptation is the production of fungal secondary metabolites (SM) because they can offer a distinct selective advantage...

  16. Removal of Triphenylmethane Dyes by Bacterial Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Cheriaa, Jihane; Khaireddine, Monia; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2012-01-01

    A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila)-(CM-4) was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50 mg/L) and malachite green (50 mg/L) dyes within 24 h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2 h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increases after 24 h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes. PMID:22623907

  17. Reuse at the Software Productivity Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, David M.

    1989-01-01

    The Software Productivity Consortium is sponsored by 14 aerospace companies as a developer of software engineering methods and tools. Software reuse and prototyping are currently the major emphasis areas. The Methodology and Measurement Project in the Software Technology Exploration Division has developed some concepts for reuse which they intend to develop into a synthesis process. They have identified two approaches to software reuse: opportunistic and systematic. The assumptions underlying the systematic approach, phrased as hypotheses, are the following: the redevelopment hypothesis, i.e., software developers solve the same problems repeatedly; the oracle hypothesis, i.e., developers are able to predict variations from one redevelopment to others; and the organizational hypothesis, i.e., software must be organized according to behavior and structure to take advantage of the predictions that the developers make. The conceptual basis for reuse includes: program families, information hiding, abstract interfaces, uses and information hiding hierarchies, and process structure. The primary reusable software characteristics are black-box descriptions, structural descriptions, and composition and decomposition based on program families. Automated support can be provided for systematic reuse, and the Consortium is developing a prototype reuse library and guidebook. The software synthesis process that the Consortium is aiming toward includes modeling, refinement, prototyping, reuse, assessment, and new construction.

  18. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) Report

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda M.; Cowan, Morton J.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Kohn, Donald B.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Pai, Sung-Yun; Ballard, Barbara; Bauer, Sarah C.; Bleesing, Jack J. H.; Boyle, Marcia; Brower, Amy; Buckley, Rebecca H.; van der Burg, Mirjam; Burroughs, Lauri M.; Candotti, Fabio; Cant, Andrew J.; Chatila, Talal; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dinauer, Mary C.; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Filipovich, Alexandra H.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Gaspar, Hubert Bobby; Gungor, Tayfun; Haddad, Elie; Hovermale, Emily; Huang, Faith; Hurley, Alan; Hurley, Mary; Iyengar, Sumathi; Kang, Elizabeth M.; Logan, Brent R.; Long-Boyle, Janel R.; Malech, Harry L.; McGhee, Sean A.; Modell, Fred; Modell, Vicki; Ochs, Hans D.; O'Reilly, Richard J.; Parkman, Robertson; Rawlings, David J.; Routes, John M.; Shearer, William T.; Small, Trudy N.; Smith, Heather; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Szabolcs, Paul; Thrasher, Adrian; Torgerson, Troy R.; Veys, Paul; Weinberg, Kenneth; Zuniga-Pflucker, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome and Chronic Granulomatous Disease through retrospective, prospective and cross-sectional studies. The PIDTC additionally seeks to: encourage training of junior investigators; establish partnerships with European and other International colleagues; work with patient advocacy groups to promote community awareness; and conduct pilot demonstration projects. Future goals include the conduct of prospective treatment studies to determine optimal therapies for PID. To date, the PIDTC has funded two pilot projects: newborn screening for SCID in Navajo Native Americans; and B cell reconstitution in SCID patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ten junior investigators have received grant awards. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshop has brought together consortium members, outside speakers, patient advocacy groups, and young investigators and trainees to report progress of the protocols and discuss common interests and goals, including new scientific developments and future directions of clinical research. Here we report the progress of the PIDTC to date, highlights of the first two PIDTC workshops, and consideration of future consortium objectives. PMID:24139498

  19. Midwest superconductivity consortium. 1993 Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, in the fourth year of operations further strengthened its mission to advance the science and understanding of high T{sub c} superconductivity. The goals of the organization and the individual projects continue to reflect the current needs for new knowledge in the field and the unique capabilities of the institutions involved. Group efforts and cooperative laboratory interactions to achieve the greatest possible synergy under the Consortium continue to be emphasized. Industrial affiliations coupled with technology transfer initiatives were expanded. Activities of the participants during the past year achieved an interactive and high level of performance. The number of notable achievements in the field contributed by Consortium investigators increased. The programmatic research continues to focus upon key materials-related problems in two areas. The first area has a focus upon {open_quotes}Synthesis and Processing{close_quotes} while the second is centered around {open_quotes}Limiting Features in Transport Properties of High T{sub c} Materials{close_quotes}.

  20. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) report.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Linda M; Cowan, Morton J; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Kohn, Donald B; Puck, Jennifer M; Pai, Sung-Yun; Ballard, Barbara; Bauer, Sarah C; Bleesing, Jack J H; Boyle, Marcia; Brower, Amy; Buckley, Rebecca H; van der Burg, Mirjam; Burroughs, Lauri M; Candotti, Fabio; Cant, Andrew J; Chatila, Talal; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dinauer, Mary C; Dvorak, Christopher C; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Fleisher, Thomas A; Bobby Gaspar, Hubert; Gungor, Tayfun; Haddad, Elie; Hovermale, Emily; Huang, Faith; Hurley, Alan; Hurley, Mary; Iyengar, Sumathi; Kang, Elizabeth M; Logan, Brent R; Long-Boyle, Janel R; Malech, Harry L; McGhee, Sean A; Modell, Fred; Modell, Vicki; Ochs, Hans D; O'Reilly, Richard J; Parkman, Robertson; Rawlings, David J; Routes, John M; Shearer, William T; Small, Trudy N; Smith, Heather; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Szabolcs, Paul; Thrasher, Adrian; Torgerson, Troy R; Veys, Paul; Weinberg, Kenneth; Zuniga-Pflucker, Juan Carlos

    2014-02-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases. Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and chronic granulomatous disease through retrospective, prospective, and cross-sectional studies. The PIDTC additionally seeks to encourage training of junior investigators, establish partnerships with European and other International colleagues, work with patient advocacy groups to promote community awareness, and conduct pilot demonstration projects. Future goals include the conduct of prospective treatment studies to determine optimal therapies for primary immunodeficiency diseases. To date, the PIDTC has funded 2 pilot projects: newborn screening for SCID in Navajo Native Americans and B-cell reconstitution in patients with SCID after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ten junior investigators have received grant awards. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshop has brought together consortium members, outside speakers, patient advocacy groups, and young investigators and trainees to report progress of the protocols and discuss common interests and goals, including new scientific developments and future directions of clinical research. Here we report the progress of the PIDTC to date, highlights of the first 2 PIDTC workshops, and consideration of future consortium objectives. PMID:24139498

  1. The temperature response of fungal enzyme kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, M.; Lu, Y.; Taylor, J.; Allison, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    Extracellular enzymes produced and excreted by microbes mediate the decomposition of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) -containing compounds in their environment. Climate change has the potential to alter the rate of decomposition especially in high latitude regions where stocks of recalcitrant, or long-lived, C are abundant. This project compares extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) across ten fungi strains within the model family Neurospora in order to assess the range of variation in temperature sensitivities of fungal enzyme Vmax and Km. Vmax values of most enzymes tested increased exponentially,which was hypothesized and consistant with thermodynamic principles. We also hypothesized that Neurospora strains would exhibit different EEA temperature sensitivities based on their native climate. We observed strain-dependent variation in enzyme temperature responses consistent with strain-specific adaptation to local conditions. Since fungi are the major decomposers of organic carbon in high-latitude ecosystems, an increase in EEA in-situ would result in higher carbon dioxide emissions. These findings suggest a shift in fungal processing of soil organic carbon and nutrients in response to changing climate.

  2. Fungal biodegradation of phthalate plasticizer in situ.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, S; Faseela, P; Josh, M K Sarath; Balachandran, S; Devi, R Sudha; Benjamin, Sailas

    2013-04-01

    This unique study describes how Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium brocae and Purpureocillium lilacinum, three novel isolates of our laboratory from heavily plastics-contaminated soil completely utilized the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) bound to PVC blood storage bags (BB) in simple basal salt medium (BSM) by static submerged growth (28 °C). Initial quantification as well as percentage utilization of DEHP blended to BB were estimated periodically by extracting it into n-hexane. A two-stage cultivation strategy was employed for the complete mycoremediation of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, about two-third parts of total (33.5% w/w) DEHP bound to BB were utilized in two weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.32 g per g BB) and sharp declining (to ~3) of initial pH (7.2). At this stagnant growth state (low pH), spent medium was replaced by fresh BSM (pH, 7.2), and thus in the second stage the remaining DEHP (one-third) in BB was utilized completely. The ditches and furrows seen from the topology of the BB as seen by the 3D AFM image further confirmed the bioremediation of DEHP physically bound to BB in situ. Of the three mycelial fungi employed, P. lilacinum independently showed highest efficiency for the complete utilization of DEHP bound to BB, whose activity was comparable to that of the consortium comprising all the three fungi described herein. To sum up, the two-stage cultivation strategy demonstrated in this study shows that a batch process would efficiently remediate the phthalic acid esters blended in plastics on a large scale, and thus it offers potentials for the management of plastics wastes. PMID:22903609

  3. Regulatory Circuitry Governing Fungal Development, Drug Resistance, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Rebecca S.; Robbins, Nicole; Cowen, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Pathogenic fungi have become a leading cause of human mortality due to the increasing frequency of fungal infections in immunocompromised populations and the limited armamentarium of clinically useful antifungal drugs. Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus are the leading causes of opportunistic fungal infections. In these diverse pathogenic fungi, complex signal transduction cascades are critical for sensing environmental changes and mediating appropriate cellular responses. For C. albicans, several environmental cues regulate a morphogenetic switch from yeast to filamentous growth, a reversible transition important for virulence. Many of the signaling cascades regulating morphogenesis are also required for cells to adapt and survive the cellular stresses imposed by antifungal drugs. Many of these signaling networks are conserved in C. neoformans and A. fumigatus, which undergo distinct morphogenetic programs during specific phases of their life cycles. Furthermore, the key mechanisms of fungal drug resistance, including alterations of the drug target, overexpression of drug efflux transporters, and alteration of cellular stress responses, are conserved between these species. This review focuses on the circuitry regulating fungal morphogenesis and drug resistance and the impact of these pathways on virulence. Although the three human-pathogenic fungi highlighted in this review are those most frequently encountered in the clinic, they represent a minute fraction of fungal diversity. Exploration of the conservation and divergence of core signal transduction pathways across C. albicans, C. neoformans, and A. fumigatus provides a foundation for the study of a broader diversity of pathogenic fungi and a platform for the development of new therapeutic strategies for fungal disease. PMID:21646428

  4. Fungal degradation of fiber-reinforced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, J. D.; Lu, C.; Mitchell, R.; Thorp, K.; Crasto, A.

    1997-01-01

    As described in a previous report, a fungal consortium isolated from degraded polymeric materials was capable of growth on presterilized coupons of five composites, resulting in deep penetration into the interior of all materials within five weeks. Data describing the utilization of composite constituents as nutrients for the microflora are described in this article. Increased microbial growth was observed when composite extract was incubated with the fungal inoculum at ambient temperatures. Scanning electron microscopic observation of carbon fibers incubated with a naturally developed population of microorganisms showed the formation of bacterial biofilms on the fiber surfaces, suggesting possible utilization of the fiber chemical sizing as carbon and energy sources. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to monitor the phenomena occurring at the fiber-matrix interfaces. Significant differences were observed between inoculated and sterile panels of the composite materials. A progressive decline in impedance was detected in the inoculated panels. Several reaction steps may be involved in the degradation process. Initial ingress of water into the resin matrix appeared to be followed by degradation of fiber surfaces, and separation of fibers from the resin matrix. This investigation suggested that composite materials are susceptible to microbial attack by providing nutrients for growth.

  5. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review We review the primary immunodeficiencies underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. Recent findings An increasing number of primary immunodeficiencies are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of IL-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of CARD9 immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. Summary Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by primary immunodeficiencies. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of primary immunodeficiency. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases. PMID:24240293

  6. Latest Developments of the Isprs Student Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detchev, I.; Kanjir, U.; Reyes, S. R.; Miyazaki, H.; Aktas, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    The International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) Student Consortium (SC) is a network for young professionals studying or working within the fields of photogrammetry, remote sensing, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and other related geo-spatial sciences. The main goal of the network is to provide means for information exchange for its young members and thus help promote and integrate youth into the ISPRS. Over the past four years the Student Consortium has successfully continued to fulfil its mission in both formal and informal ways. The formal means of communication of the SC are its website, newsletter, e-mail announcements and summer schools, while its informal ones are multiple social media outlets and various social activities during student related events. The newsletter is published every three to four months and provides both technical and experiential content relevant for the young people in the ISPRS. The SC has been in charge or at least has helped with organizing one or more summer schools every year. The organization's e-mail list has over 1,100 subscribers, its website hosts over 1,300 members from 100 countries across the entire globe, and its public Facebook group currently has over 4,500 joined visitors, who connect among one another and share information relevant for their professional careers. These numbers show that the Student Consortium has grown into a significant online-united community. The paper will present the organization's on-going and past activities for the last four years, its current priorities and a strategic plan and aspirations for the future four-year period.

  7. Consortium for materials development in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The status of the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS) is reviewed. Individual CMDS materials projects and flight opportunities on suborbital and orbital carriers are outlined. Projects include: surface coatings and catalyst production; non-linear optical organic materials; physical properties of immiscible polymers; nuclear track detectors; powdered metal sintering; iron-carbon solidification; high-temperature superconductors; physical vapor transport crystal growth; materials preparation and longevity in hyperthermal oxygen; foam formation; measurement of the microgravity environment; and commercial management of space fluids.

  8. External RNA Controls Consortium Beta Version Update

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hangnoh; Pine, P. Scott; McDaniel, Jennifer; Salit, Marc; Oliver, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Spike-in RNAs are valuable controls for a variety of gene expression measurements. The External RNA Controls Consortium developed test sets that were used in a number of published reports. Here we provide an authoritative table that summarizes, updates, and corrects errors in the test version that ultimately resulted in the certified Standard Reference Material 2374. We have noted existence of anti-sense RNA controls in the material, corrected sub-pool memberships, and commented on control RNAs that displayed inconsistent behavior. PMID:27512518

  9. Document delivery by the Jupiter Library Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessels, Robert H. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Jupiter library consortium consists of 4 of the leading libraries in the Netherlands. During 1993 Jupiter received 600,000 requests for copies of journal articles, or 70 percent of all external article requests in the Netherlands. Over 90 percent of the requested documents were delivered from a collection of 40,000 current international journal subscriptions. Jupiter and its affiliate libraries are non-profit organizations belonging to, and serving, the scientific and technical research community. The usage of the current journal collection of the libraries was analyzed to improve the cost/benefit ratio.

  10. University Research Consortium annual review meeting program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This brochure presents the program for the first annual review meeting of the University Research Consortium (URC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). INEL is a multiprogram laboratory with a distinctive role in applied engineering. It also conducts basic science research and development, and complex facility operations. The URC program consists of a portfolio of research projects funded by INEL and conducted at universities in the United States. In this program, summaries and participant lists for each project are presented as received from the principal investigators.

  11. Consortium for materials development in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    During fiscal 1993, the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS) maintained the organizational structure and project orientation established in prior years. The commercial objectives are improved materials, biomedical applications, and infrastructure and support hardware. Projects include nonlinear optical materials; space materials (specifically polymer foam/films, atomic oxygen and high temperature superconductors); alloyed and blended materials: sintered and alloyed materials; polymer and carbonate blends; electrodeposition; organic separation; materials dispersion and biodynamics; space carriers: Consort, COMET support, Spacehab utilization; and flight services: accelerometers, CMIX, USEC, ORSEP, and Space Experiment Facility (SEF).

  12. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1994 Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high {Tc} superconductivity. During the past year, 27 projects produced over 123 talks and 139 publications. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in August and January); with the second MISCON Workshop held in August; 13 external speakers; 79 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 48 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors.

  13. Directed Evolution of Fungal Laccases

    PubMed Central

    Maté, Diana; García-Ruiz, Eva; Camarero, Susana; Alcalde, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Fungal laccases are generalists biocatalysts with potential applications that range from bioremediation to novel green processes. Fuelled by molecular oxygen, these enzymes can act on dozens of molecules of different chemical nature, and with the help of redox mediators, their spectrum of oxidizable substrates is further pushed towards xenobiotic compounds (pesticides, industrial dyes, PAHs), biopolymers (lignin, starch, cellulose) and other complex molecules. In recent years, extraordinary efforts have been made to engineer fungal laccases by directed evolution and semi-rational approaches to improve their functional expression or stability. All these studies have taken advantage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a heterologous host, not only to secrete the enzyme but also, to emulate the introduction of genetic diversity through in vivo DNA recombination. Here, we discuss all these endeavours to convert fungal laccases into valuable biomolecular platforms on which new functions can be tailored by directed evolution. PMID:21966249

  14. The diversity of fungal genome.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    The genome size of an organism varies from species to species. The C-value paradox enigma is a very complex puzzle with regards to vast diversity in genome sizes in eukaryotes. Here we reported the detailed genomic information of 172 fungal species among different fungal genomes and found that fungal genomes are very diverse in nature. In fungi, the diversity of genomes varies from 8.97 Mb to 177.57 Mb. The average genome sizes of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi are 36.91 and 46.48 Mb respectively. But higher genome size is observed in Oomycota (74.85 Mb) species, a lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms. The average coding genes of Oomycota species are almost doubled than that of Acomycota and Basidiomycota fungus. PMID:25866485

  15. Nonculture Diagnostics in Fungal Disease.

    PubMed

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-03-01

    Fungal diagnostics that utilize antibody, antigen or nucleic acid detection offer several advantages that supplement traditional culture-based methods. As a group, nonculture assays can help identify patients with invasive fungal infection (IFI) sooner than is possible with culture, are often more sensitive, and can be used to guide early interventions. Challenges associated with these techniques include the possibility for contamination or cross-reactivity as well as the potential for false negative tests. This review summarized the test characteristics and clinical utility of nonculture-based laboratory methods. PMID:26897062

  16. Measuring Chitinase and Protease Activity in Cultures of Fungal Entomopathogens.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Peter; Glare, Travis R; Rostás, Michael; Haines, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi produce a variety of destructive enzymes and metabolites to overcome the unique defense mechanisms of insects. In a first step, fungal chitinases and proteinases need to break down the insect's cuticle. Both enzyme classes support the infection process by weakening the chitin barrier and by producing nutritional cleavage products for the fungus. In a second step, the pathogen can now mechanically penetrate the weakened cuticle and reach the insect's hemolymph where it starts proliferating. The critical enzymes chitinase and proteinase are also excreted into the supernatants of fungal cultures and can be used as indicators of virulence. Chromogenic assays adapted for 96-well microtiter plates that measure these enzymes provide a sensitive, fast, and easy screening method for evaluating the potential biocontrol activity of fungal isolates and may be considered as an alternative to laborious and time-consuming bioassays. Furthermore, monitoring fungal enzyme production in dependence of time, nutrient sources, or other factors can facilitate in establishing optimal growth and harvesting conditions for selected isolates with the aim of achieving maximum biocontrol activity. PMID:27565500

  17. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook ... Mold . Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because ...

  18. Fungal biotransformation of furanocoumarins by Aspergillus niger

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungi metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a number of detoxification processes. Prevalent fungal detoxification pathways for aromatic compounds include the formation of sulfate and glycosidated conjugates. Such fungal metabolism has been extensively studied as models of mammalian metabo...

  19. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-12-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the Fall SWC Technology Transfer Workshop for the northeastern U.S., in Pittsburgh, PA, on November 9, 2006, and organizing and identifying projects to exhibit during the SWC/Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) joint reception on November 8, 2006; (2) Distributing a paper copy of the Texas Tech 2004 Final Report and a revised, complete compact disc of all 2004 final reports; (3) Invoicing current and potential members for FY2007; (4) Soliciting nominations for the 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; and (5) Communications and outreach.

  20. Overview of the carbon products consortium (CPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, C.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Carbon Products Consortium (CPC) is an industry, university, government cooperative research team which has evolved over the past seven years to produce and evaluate coal-derived feedstocks for carbon products. The members of the Carbon Products Consortium are UCAR Carbon Company, Koppers Industries, CONOCO, Aluminum Company of America, AMOCO Polymers, and West Virginia University. The Carbon and Insulation Materials Technology Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Fiber Materials Inc., and BASF Corporation are affiliates of the CPC. The initial work on coal-derived nuclear graphites was supported by a grant to WVU, UCAR Carbon, and ORNL from the U.S. DOE New Production Reactor program. More recently, the CPC program has been supported through the Fossil Energy Materials program and through PETC`s Liquefaction program. The coal processing technologies involve hydrogenation, extraction by solvents such as N-methyl pyrolidone and toluene, material blending, and calcination. The breadth of carbon science expertise and manufacturing capability available in the CPC enables it to address virtually all research and development issues of importance to the carbon products industry.

  1. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-09-30

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the tenth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: {lg_bullet} 2004 SWC Final Project Reports distribution; {lg_bullet} Exhibit and present at the Midcontinent Oil and Gas Prospect Fair, Great Bend, KS, September 12, 2006; {lg_bullet} Participate and showcase current and past projects at the 2006 Oklahoma Oil and Gas Trade Expo, Oklahoma City, OK, October 26, 2006; {lg_bullet} Finalize agenda and identify exhibitors for the northeastern US, Fall SWC Technical Transfer Workshop, Pittsburghhh, PA, November 9, 2006; {lg_bullet} Continue distribution of the public broadcast documentary, ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''; {lg_bullet} Communications/outreach; and {lg_bullet} New members update.

  2. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) update.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Linda M; Cowan, Morton J; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Kohn, Donald B; Puck, Jennifer M; Shearer, William T; Burroughs, Lauri M; Torgerson, Troy R; Decaluwe, Hélène; Haddad, Elie

    2016-08-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a collaboration of 41 North American centers studying therapy for rare primary immune deficiency diseases (PIDs), including severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). An additional 3 European centers have partnered with the PIDTC to study CGD. Natural history protocols of the PIDTC analyze outcomes of treatment for rare PIDs in multicenter longitudinal retrospective, prospective, and cross-sectional studies. Since 2009, participating centers have enrolled more than 800 subjects on PIDTC protocols for SCID, and enrollment in the studies on WAS and CGD is underway. Four pilot projects have been funded, and 12 junior investigators have received fellowship awards. Important publications of the consortium describe the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation for SCID during 2000-2009, diagnostic criteria for SCID, and the pilot project of newborn screening for SCID in the Navajo Nation. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshops provide an opportunity to strengthen collaborations with junior investigators, patient advocacy groups, and international colleagues. Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Office of Rare Diseases Research, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, the PIDTC has recently received renewal for another 5 years. Here we review accomplishments of the group, projects underway, highlights of recent workshops, and challenges for the future. PMID:27262745

  3. The NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Ainsztein, Alexandra M.; Brooks, Philip J.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Guo, Max; Howcroft, T. Kevin; Kelley, Christine A.; Kuo, Lillian S.; Labosky, Patricia A.; Lenzi, Rebecca; McKie, George A.; Mohla, Suresh; Procaccini, Dena; Reilly, Matthew; Satterlee, John S.; Srinivas, Pothur R.; Church, Elizabeth Stansell; Sutherland, Margaret; Tagle, Danilo A.; Tucker, Jessica M.; Venkatachalam, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    The Extracellular RNA (exRNA) Communication Consortium, funded as an initiative of the NIH Common Fund, represents a consortium of investigators assembled to address the critical issues in the exRNA research arena. The overarching goal is to generate a multi-component community resource for sharing fundamental scientific discoveries, protocols, and innovative tools and technologies. The key initiatives include (a) generating a reference catalogue of exRNAs present in body fluids of normal healthy individuals that would facilitate disease diagnosis and therapies, (b) defining the fundamental principles of exRNA biogenesis, distribution, uptake, and function, as well as development of molecular tools, technologies, and imaging modalities to enable these studies, (c) identifying exRNA biomarkers of disease, (d) demonstrating clinical utility of exRNAs as therapeutic agents and developing scalable technologies required for these studies, and (e) developing a community resource, the exRNA Atlas, to provide the scientific community access to exRNA data, standardized exRNA protocols, and other useful tools and technologies generated by funded investigators. PMID:26320938

  4. Fungal Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases: Their Distribution, Structure, Functions, Family Expansion, and Evolutionary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanping; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jefcoate, Colin; Kim, Sun-Chang; Chen, Fusheng; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase superfamily contributes a broad array of biological functions in living organisms. In fungi, CYPs play diverse and pivotal roles in versatile metabolism and fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches. In this report, CYPomes in the 47 genomes of fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota have been studied. The comparison of fungal CYPomes suggests that generally fungi possess abundant CYPs belonging to a variety of families with the two global families CYP51 and CYP61, indicating individuation of CYPomes during the evolution of fungi. Fungal CYPs show highly conserved characteristic motifs, but very low overall sequence similarities. The characteristic motifs of fungal CYPs are distinguishable from those of CYPs in animals, plants, and especially archaea and bacteria. The four representative motifs contribute to the general function of CYPs. Fungal CYP51s and CYP61s can be used as the models for the substrate recognition sites analysis. The CYP proteins are clustered into 15 clades and the phylogenetic analyses suggest that the wide variety of fungal CYPs has mainly arisen from gene duplication. Two large duplication events might have been associated with the booming of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In addition, horizontal gene transfer also contributes to the diversification of fungal CYPs. Finally, a possible evolutionary scenario for fungal CYPs along with fungal divergences is proposed. Our results provide the fundamental information for a better understanding of CYP distribution, structure and function, and new insights into the evolutionary events of fungal CYPs along with the evolution of fungi. PMID:24966179

  5. Revealing the unexplored fungal communities in deep groundwater of crystalline bedrock fracture zones in Olkiluoto, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin; Miettinen, Hanna; Nyyssönen, Mari; Salavirta, Heikki; Vikman, Minna; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and functional role of fungi, one of the ecologically most important groups of eukaryotic microorganisms, remains largely unknown in deep biosphere environments. In this study we investigated fungal communities in packer-isolated bedrock fractures in Olkiluoto, Finland at depths ranging from 296 to 798 m below surface level. DNA- and cDNA-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing analysis of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene markers was used to examine the total fungal diversity and to identify the active members in deep fracture zones at different depths. Results showed that fungi were present in fracture zones at all depths and fungal diversity was higher than expected. Most of the observed fungal sequences belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Phyla Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were only represented as a minor part of the fungal community. Dominating fungal classes in the deep bedrock aquifers were Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Dothideomycetes from the Ascomycota phylum and classes Microbotryomycetes and Tremellomycetes from the Basidiomycota phylum, which are the most frequently detected fungal taxa reported also from deep sea environments. In addition some fungal sequences represented potentially novel fungal species. Active fungi were detected in most of the fracture zones, which proves that fungi are able to maintain cellular activity in these oligotrophic conditions. Possible roles of fungi and their origin in deep bedrock groundwater can only be speculated in the light of current knowledge but some species may be specifically adapted to deep subsurface environment and may play important roles in the utilization and recycling of nutrients and thus sustaining the deep subsurface microbial community. PMID:26106376

  6. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by a Microbial Consortium Developed from Compost Soils

    PubMed Central

    Nwuche, Charles O.; Ogbonna, James C.

    2014-01-01

    A method for the aerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in shake-flask experiments using a consortium developed from POME compost. POME was initially centrifuged at 4,000 g for 15 min and the supernatant was enriched with (NH4)2SO4 (0.5%) and yeast extract (0.25%) to boost its nitrogen content. At optimum pH (pH 4) and temperature (40°C) conditions, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent decreased from 10,350 to 1,000 mg/L (90.3%) after 7 days. The total bacterial population determined by plate count enumeration was 2.4 × 106 CFU/mL, while the fungal count was 1.8 × 103 colonies/mL. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Bacillus were isolated, while the fungal genera included Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Mucor. When the isolated species were each inoculated into separate batches of the raw effluent, both pH and COD were unchanged. However, at 75 and 50% POME dilutions, the COD dropped by 52 and 44%, respectively, while the pH increased from 4 to 7.53. POME treatment by aerobic method is sustainable and holds promising prospects for cushioning the environment from the problems associated with the use of anaerobic systems. PMID:27433536

  7. A novel sponge disease caused by a consortium of micro-organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Michael; Bulling, Mark; Cerrano, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    In healthy sponges, microbes have been shown to account for up to 40 % of tissues. The majority of these are thought to originate from survivors evading digestion and immune responses of the sponge and growing and residing in the microenvironments of the mesophyll. Although a large percentage of these microbes are likely commensals, they may also include potentially pathogenic agents, which under specific conditions, such as temperature stress, may cause disease. Here we report a novel disease (sponge necrosis syndrome) that is severely affecting populations of the sponge Callyspongia ( Euplacella) aff biru. Both ITS fungal and 16S rDNA bacterial diversities were assessed in healthy and diseased individuals, highlighting six potential primary causal agents for this new disease: two bacteria, a Rhodobacteraceae sp. and a cyanobacterium, Hormoscilla spongeliae (formally identified as Oscillatoria spongeliae), and four fungi, a Ascomycota sp., a Pleosporales sp., a Rhabdocline sp., and a Clasosporium sp. Furthermore, histological analysis showed the dominance of fungal hyphae rather than bacteria throughout the disease lesion, which was absent or rare in healthy tissues. Inoculation trails showed that only a combination of one bacterium and one fungus could replicate the disease, fulfilling Henle-Koch's postulates and showing that this sponge disease is caused by a poly-microbial consortium.

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FUNGAL TREATMENT BULLETIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fungal treatment technology uses white rot fungi (lignin degrading fungi) to treat organic contaminated soils in situ. Organic materials inoculated with the fungi are mechanically mixed into the contaminated soil. Using enzymes normally produced for wood degradation as well as ot...

  9. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  10. Life as a moving fluid: fate of cytoplasmic macromolecules in dynamic fungal syncytia

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Marcus; Lee, ChangHwan; Hickey, Patrick C.; Gladfelter, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    In fungal syncytia dozens, or even millions of nuclei may coexist in a single connected cytoplasm. Recent discoveries have exposed some of the adaptations that enable fungi to marshall these nuclei to produce complex coordinated behaviors, including cell growth, nuclear division, secretion and communication. In addition to shedding light on the principles by which syncytia (including embryos and osteoplasts) are organized, fungal adaptations for dealing with internal genetic diversity and physically dynamic cytoplasm may provide mechanistic insights into how cells generally are carved into different functional compartments. In this review we focus on enumerating the physical constraints associated with maintaining macromolecular distributions within a fluctuating and often flowing cytoplasmic interior. PMID:26226449

  11. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, M.

    2012-02-01

    The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, next to nothing is known about this deep, concealed biosphere. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (~50-200 μm in diameter) body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few μm:s to ∼20 μm in diameter) are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma, and probably still is. It is suggested that near future ocean drilling programs prioritize sampling of live species to better understand this concealed biosphere.

  12. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, M.

    2012-09-01

    The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50-200 µm in diameter) body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter) are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  13. ILC2s and fungal allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Hirohito

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged recently as an important component of the immune system and the cell type that regulates mucosal immune responses and tissue homeostasis. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s), a subset of ILCs, reside in various tissues and are characterized by their capacity to produce type 2 cytokines and tissue growth factors. These ILC2s play an important role in allergic immune responses by linking signals in the atmospheric environment to the immune system. Fungi are one of the major allergens associated with human asthma, and animal and in vitro models using the fungal allergens have provided significant information toward our understanding of the mechanisms of allergic disease. In mouse models of fungus-induced allergic airway inflammation, IL-33, IL-25, and TSLP are released by airway epithelial cells. Lung ILC2s that respond to these cytokines quickly produce a large quantity of type 2 cytokines, resulting in airway eosinophilia, mucus production, and airway hyperreactivity even in the absence of adaptive immune cells. Evidence also suggests that ILC2s interact with conventional immune cells, such as CD4+ T cells, and facilitate development of adaptive immune response and persistent airway inflammation. ILC2s are also present in respiratory mucosa in humans. Further investigations into the biology of ILC2s and their roles in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases will provide major conceptual advances in the field and may provide useful information toward development of new therapeutic strategies for patients. PMID:26117252

  14. ILC2s and fungal allergy.

    PubMed

    Kita, Hirohito

    2015-07-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged recently as an important component of the immune system and the cell type that regulates mucosal immune responses and tissue homeostasis. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s), a subset of ILCs, reside in various tissues and are characterized by their capacity to produce type 2 cytokines and tissue growth factors. These ILC2s play an important role in allergic immune responses by linking signals in the atmospheric environment to the immune system. Fungi are one of the major allergens associated with human asthma, and animal and in vitro models using the fungal allergens have provided significant information toward our understanding of the mechanisms of allergic disease. In mouse models of fungus-induced allergic airway inflammation, IL-33, IL-25, and TSLP are released by airway epithelial cells. Lung ILC2s that respond to these cytokines quickly produce a large quantity of type 2 cytokines, resulting in airway eosinophilia, mucus production, and airway hyperreactivity even in the absence of adaptive immune cells. Evidence also suggests that ILC2s interact with conventional immune cells, such as CD4(+) T cells, and facilitate development of adaptive immune response and persistent airway inflammation. ILC2s are also present in respiratory mucosa in humans. Further investigations into the biology of ILC2s and their roles in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases will provide major conceptual advances in the field and may provide useful information toward development of new therapeutic strategies for patients. PMID:26117252

  15. The Consortium for Higher Education Tax Reform Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Postsecondary and Economic Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper presents the work of the Consortium for Higher Education Tax Reform, a partnership funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation as part of the second phase of its Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery (RADD) initiative. Consortium partners are the Center for Postsecondary and Economic Success at CLASP, the Education Trust, New…

  16. The Technical Writing Consortium: Two-Year--Four-Year Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Joanna M.

    Membership in a technical writing consortium is advantageous both to the local university and to the neighboring community colleges because the consortium guarantees accreditation of the community college courses while increasing enrollment in the advanced technical writing courses and internship programs of the university. An area-wide consortium…

  17. Policy Report of the Physician Consortium on Substance Abuse Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David C.; Faggett, Walter L.

    This report contains the recommendations of the Physician Consortium for significantly improving medical education and training to enhance the physician's role in early identification, treatment, and prevention of substance abuse. In addition, the consortium subcommittees report on their examination of substance abuse treatment needs of ethnic and…

  18. A Consortium-based Research Education Program for Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Anne Victoria; Pieper, David; Hammel, Ernest

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a consortium-based research education seminar program developed by the OHEP Center for Medical Education that presents a yearly research forum in which the best research projects from consortium members are presented by the resident-researchers, who compete for recognition and prize money. Of the 128 presentations to date 25 percent…

  19. Metabolism of 3-methylindole by a methanogenic consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Jidong Gu; Berry, D.F. )

    1992-08-01

    A methanogenic 3-methylindole (3-MI)-degrading consortium, enriched from wetland soil, completely mineralized 3-MI. Degradation proceeded through an initial hydroxylation reaction forming 3-methyloxindole. The consortium was unable to degrade oxindole or isatin, suggesting a new pathway for 3-MI fermentation. 3-Methylindole was identified by mass spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry.

  20. Growth behind the Mirror: The Family Therapy Consortium's Group Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendorf, Donald J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Charts the development of the Family Therapy Consortium, a group that provides supervision and continuing education in family therapy and explores the peer supervision process at work in the consortium. The focus is on individual and group development, which are seen as complementary aspects of the same growth process. (Author/NRB)

  1. The Financing of the Michigan Library Consortium. Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Library Consortium, Detroit.

    Since the formal organization of the Michigan Library Consortium, its financial support has come through membership fees and a grant from the Michigan State Library from Title III funds. The financing of the consortium is already a complex operation and will become even more complex as new programs are undertaken, since funds have been accepted…

  2. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2003-04-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

  3. United States Participation in the Pacific Circle Consortium. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The goal of the Pacific Circle Project is to improve international and intercultural understanding among the people and nations of the Pacific. Consortium member countries are Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. Within the countries are chosen member institutions. Two major types of activities of the consortium are the exchange…

  4. Host Genotype Shapes the Foliar Fungal Microbiome of Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera)

    PubMed Central

    Bálint, Miklós; Tiffin, Peter; Hallström, Björn; O’Hara, Robert B.; Olson, Matthew S.; Fankhauser, Johnathon D.; Piepenbring, Meike; Schmitt, Imke

    2013-01-01

    Foliar fungal communities of plants are diverse and ubiquitous. In grasses endophytes may increase host fitness; in trees, their ecological roles are poorly understood. We investigated whether the genotype of the host tree influences community structure of foliar fungi. We sampled leaves from genotyped balsam poplars from across the species' range, and applied 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize foliar fungal communities. At the time of the sampling the poplars had been growing in a common garden for two years. We found diverse fungal communities associated with the poplar leaves. Linear discriminant analysis and generalized linear models showed that host genotypes had a structuring effect on the composition of foliar fungal communities. The observed patterns may be explained by a filtering mechanism which allows the trees to selectively recruit fungal strains from the environment. Alternatively, host genotype-specific fungal communities may be present in the tree systemically, and persist in the host even after two clonal reproductions. Both scenarios are consistent with host tree adaptation to specific foliar fungal communities and suggest that there is a functional basis for the strong biotic interaction. PMID:23326555

  5. Ascomycota Members Dominate Fungal Communities during Straw Residue Decomposition in Arable Soil

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Anzhou; Zhuang, Xuliang; Wu, Junmei; Cui, Mengmeng; Lv, Di; Liu, Chunzhao; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of fungal community composition in arable soil during the degradation of straw residue. We explored the short-term responses of the fungal community over 28 days of decomposition in soil using culture-independent polymerase chain reaction in combination with a clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Fungal cellobiohydrolase I (cbhI) genes in the soil were also characterized, and their diversity suggested the existence of a different cellulose decomposer. The DGGE profiles based on fungal internal transcribed spacer analysis showed different successions of fungal populations during residue decomposition. Members of Lecythophora and Sordariales were dominant in the early succession, while Hypocrea and Engyodontium were better adapted in the late succession. The succession of fungal communities might be related to changes of residue quality during decomposition. Collectively, sequences assigned to Ascomycota members were dominant at different stages of the fungal succession during decomposition, revealing that they were key drivers responsible for residue degradation in the arable soil tested. PMID:23840414

  6. Ascomycota members dominate fungal communities during straw residue decomposition in arable soil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Anzhou; Zhuang, Xuliang; Wu, Junmei; Cui, Mengmeng; Lv, Di; Liu, Chunzhao; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of fungal community composition in arable soil during the degradation of straw residue. We explored the short-term responses of the fungal community over 28 days of decomposition in soil using culture-independent polymerase chain reaction in combination with a clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Fungal cellobiohydrolase I (cbhI) genes in the soil were also characterized, and their diversity suggested the existence of a different cellulose decomposer. The DGGE profiles based on fungal internal transcribed spacer analysis showed different successions of fungal populations during residue decomposition. Members of Lecythophora and Sordariales were dominant in the early succession, while Hypocrea and Engyodontium were better adapted in the late succession. The succession of fungal communities might be related to changes of residue quality during decomposition. Collectively, sequences assigned to Ascomycota members were dominant at different stages of the fungal succession during decomposition, revealing that they were key drivers responsible for residue degradation in the arable soil tested. PMID:23840414

  7. Systematic and searchable classification of cytochrome P450 proteins encoded by fungal and oomycete genomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs) play diverse and pivotal roles in fungal metabolism and adaptation to specific ecological niches. Fungal genomes encode extremely variable “CYPomes” ranging from one to more than 300 CYPs. Despite the rapid growth of sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes and the resulting influx of predicted CYPs, the vast majority of CYPs remain functionally uncharacterized. To facilitate the curation and functional and evolutionary studies of CYPs, we previously developed Fungal Cytochrome P450 Database (FCPD), which included CYPs from 70 fungal and oomycete species. Here we present a new version of FCPD (1.2) with more data and an improved classification scheme. Results The new database contains 22,940 CYPs from 213 species divided into 2,579 clusters and 115 clans. By optimizing the clustering pipeline, we were able to uncover 36 novel clans and to assign 153 orphan CYP families to specific clans. To augment their functional annotation, CYP clusters were mapped to David Nelson’s P450 databases, which archive a total of 12,500 manually curated CYPs. Additionally, over 150 clusters were functionally classified based on sequence similarity to experimentally characterized CYPs. Comparative analysis of fungal and oomycete CYPomes revealed cases of both extreme expansion and contraction. The most dramatic expansions in fungi were observed in clans CYP58 and CYP68 (Pezizomycotina), clans CYP5150 and CYP63 (Agaricomycotina), and family CYP509 (Mucoromycotina). Although much of the extraordinary diversity of the pan-fungal CYPome can be attributed to gene duplication and adaptive divergence, our analysis also suggests a few potential horizontal gene transfer events. Updated families and clans can be accessed through the new version of the FCPD database. Conclusions FCPD version 1.2 provides a systematic and searchable catalogue of 9,550 fungal CYP sequences (292 families) encoded by 108 fungal species and 147 CYP sequences (9 families

  8. Inner-City Energy and Environmental Education Consortium: Inventory of existing programs. Appendix 13.5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-21

    This is the ``first effort`` to prepare an inventory of existing educational programs, focused primarily on inner-city youth, in operation in Washington, DC, Baltimore, and Philadelphia. The purpose of the inventory is to identify existing programs which could be augmented, adapted, or otherwise strengthened to help fulfil the mission of the Department of Energy-sponsored Inner-City Energy and Environmental Education Consortium, the mission of which is to recruit and retain inner-city youth to pursue careers in energy-related scientific and technical areas and in environmental restoration and waste management. The Consortium does not want to ``reinvent the wheel`` and all of its members need to learn what others are doing. Each of the 30 participating academic institutions was invited to submit as many program descriptions as they wished. Due to the summer holidays, or because they did not believe than they were carrying out programs relevant to the mission of the Consortium, some institutions did not submit any program descriptions. In addition, several industries, governmental agencies, and not-for-profit institutions were invited to submit program descriptions.

  9. Ability of sea-water bacterial consortium to produce electricity and denitrify water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruvada, Nagasamrat V. V.; Tommasi, Tonia; Kaza, Kesava Rao; Ruggeri, Bernardo

    Sea is a store house for varied types of microbes with an ability to reduce and oxidize substances like iron, sulphur, carbon dioxide, etc. Most of these processes happen in the sea water environment, but can be applied for purification of wastewater. In the present paper, we discuss the use of a consortium of seawater bacteria in a fuel cell to produce electricity by oxidizing organic matter and reducing nitrates. We also discuss how the growth of the bacterial consortium can lead to an increased electricity production and decreased diffusional resistance in the cell. The analysis was done using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Here, we use bicarbonate buffered solution, which is the natural buffering agent found in sea. We show that the seawater bacterial consortium can be used in both the anode and cathode parts of the cell. The results confirm the adaptability of the seawater bacteria to different environments and can be used for various applications. Heritage, Erasmus Mundus Programme, European Commission.

  10. Degradation of furfural (2-furaldehyde) to methane and carbon dioxide by an anaerobic consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Grohmann, K.

    1991-12-31

    Furfural, a byproduct formed during the thermal/chemical pretreatment of hemicellulosic biomass, was degraded to methane and carbon dioxide under anaerobic conditions. The consortium of anaerobic microbes responsible for the degradation was enriched using small continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) systems with daily batch feeding of biomass pretreatment liquor and continuous addition of furfural. Although the continuous infusion of furfural was initially inhibitory to the anaerobic CSTR system, adaptation of the consortium occurred rapidly with high rates of furfural addition. Addition rates of 7.35 mg furfural/700-mL reactor/d resulted in biogas productions of 375%, of that produced in control CSTR systems, fed the biomass pretreatment liquor only. The anaerobic CSTR system fed high levels of furfural was stable, with a sludge pH of 7.1 and methane gas composition of 69%, compared to the control CSTR, which had a pH of 7.2 and 77% methane. CSTR systems in which furfural was continuously added resulted in 80% of the theoretically expected biogas. Intermediates in the anaerobic biodegradation of furfural were determined by spike additions in serum-bottle assays using the enriched consortium from the CSTR systems. Furfural was converted to several intermediates, including furfuryl alcohol, furoic acid, and acetic acid, before final conversion to methane and carbon dioxide.

  11. Interactions of fungal pathogens with phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Erwig, Lars P; Gow, Neil A R

    2016-03-01

    The surveillance and elimination of fungal pathogens rely heavily on the sentinel behaviour of phagocytic cells of the innate immune system, especially macrophages and neutrophils. The efficiency by which these cells recognize, uptake and kill fungal pathogens depends on the size, shape and composition of the fungal cells and the success or failure of various fungal mechanisms of immune evasion. In this Review, we describe how fungi, particularly Candida albicans, interact with phagocytic cells and discuss the many factors that contribute to fungal immune evasion and prevent host elimination of these pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26853116

  12. The virtual atomic and molecular data centre (VAMDC) consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubernet, M. L.; Antony, B. K.; Ba, Y. A.; Babikov, Yu L.; Bartschat, K.; Boudon, V.; Braams, B. J.; Chung, H.-K.; Daniel, F.; Delahaye, F.; Del Zanna, G.; de Urquijo, J.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Domaracka, A.; Doronin, M.; Drouin, B. J.; Endres, C. P.; Fazliev, A. Z.; Gagarin, S. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Gratier, P.; Heiter, U.; Hill, C.; Jevremović, D.; Joblin, C.; Kasprzak, A.; Krishnakumar, E.; Leto, G.; Loboda, P. A.; Louge, T.; Maclot, S.; Marinković, B. P.; Markwick, A.; Marquart, T.; Mason, H. E.; Mason, N. J.; Mendoza, C.; Mihajlov, A. A.; Millar, T. J.; Moreau, N.; Mulas, G.; Pakhomov, Yu; Palmeri, P.; Pancheshnyi, S.; Perevalov, V. I.; Piskunov, N.; Postler, J.; Quinet, P.; Quintas-Sánchez, E.; Ralchenko, Yu; Rhee, Y.-J.; Rixon, G.; Rothman, L. S.; Roueff, E.; Ryabchikova, T.; Sahal-Bréchot, S.; Scheier, P.; Schlemmer, S.; Schmitt, B.; Stempels, E.; Tashkun, S.; Tennyson, J.; Tyuterev, Vl G.; Vujčić, V.; Wakelam, V.; Walton, N. A.; Zatsarinny, O.; Zeippen, C. J.; Zwölf, C. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) Consortium is a worldwide consortium which federates atomic and molecular databases through an e-science infrastructure and an organisation to support this activity. About 90% of the inter-connected databases handle data that are used for the interpretation of astronomical spectra and for modelling in many fields of astrophysics. Recently the VAMDC Consortium has connected databases from the radiation damage and the plasma communities, as well as promoting the publication of data from Indian institutes. This paper describes how the VAMDC Consortium is organised for the optimal distribution of atomic and molecular data for scientific research. It is noted that the VAMDC Consortium strongly advocates that authors of research papers using data cite the original experimental and theoretical papers as well as the relevant databases. .

  13. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Drafting and releasing the 2007 Request for Proposals; (2) Securing a meeting facility, scheduling and drafting plans for the 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; (3) Conducting elections and announcing representatives for the four 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; (4) 2005 Final Project Reports; (5) Personal Digital Assistant Workshops scheduled; and (6) Communications and outreach.

  14. Industry/University Consortium for ATS research

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Golan, L.P.

    1993-11-01

    The Industry/University ATS research program is the result of two planning workshops. Workshop I was held April 8--10, 1991 and had the goal of identifying research needs for advanced gas turbine cycles that would permit rapid commercialization of cycles with significant improvements over the machines currently under development, in terms of the cost of electricity produced and the environmental burdens resulting from their use in power producing. Workshop II was held in January 1992 and continued the identification of the research needs to develop advanced gas turbine systems. The goals established for the ATS systems were: (1) efficiency exceeding 60% for large utility turbine system and 15% improvement in heat rate for industrial systems; (2) busbar energy costs 10% less than current state of the art and (3) fuel flexible designs. In addition Workshop II participants agreed that an industry driven research consortium was an acceptable mechanism to achieve base technology development needs.

  15. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1995 Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high Tc superconductivity. During the past year, 26 projects produced over 133 talks and 127 publications. Three Master`s Degrees and 9 Doctor`s of Philosophy Degrees were granted to students working on MISCON projects. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in January and July); the third MISCON Summer School held in July; 12 external speakers; 81 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 54 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temp superconductors.

  16. The Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Sylwester, A.; Baker, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    The United States and Russia discovered a mutual interest in fuel cell development during a series of workshops designed to teach entrepreneurial skills to Russian nuclear weapon scientists and engineers to aid them in converting their skill to peaceful applications. The proposal for a Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium was initiated at the third workshop held in Livermore, CA, in May 1994. Representatives from U.S. fuel cell industries, U.S. research institutes, Russian institutes and ministries, and U.S. national laboratories attended, including those from GAZPROM, the Russian natural gas company. GASPROM needs to provide power for telemetry, cathodic corrosion protection of gas lines, and gas line pumping power in remote areas, and estimates that it needs approximately seventy thousand 1.5 to 15 KW plants to do so. Since the workshop, several direct working relationships have developed between the Russian Nuclear Weapon Institutes and the U.S. fuel cell industry.

  17. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium. Progress report, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bement, A.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high Tc superconductivity. Programmatic research focuses upon key materials-related problems; principally, synthesis and processing and properties limiting transport phenomena. During the past year, 26 projects produced over 133 talks and 113 publications. publications. Two Master`s Degrees and one Ph.D. were granted to students working on MISCON projects. Group activities and interactions involved two MISCON group meetings (held in July and January), twenty external speakers, 36 collaborations, 10 exchanges of samples and/or measurements, and one (1) gift of equipment from industry. Research achievements this past year expanded our understanding of processing phenomena on structure property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors.

  18. Myco-fluidics: The fluid dynamics of fungal chimerism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, Marcus; Hickey, Patrick; Dressaire, Emilie; Roch, Sebastien

    2012-11-01

    Chimeras-fantastical creatures formed as amalgams of many animals-have captured the human imagination since Ancient times. But they are also surprisingly common in Nature. The syncytial cells of filamentous fungi harbor large numbers of nuclei bathed in a single cytoplasm. As a fungus grows these nuclei become genetically diverse, either from mutation or from exchange of nuclei between different fungal individuals, a process that is known to increase the virulence of the fungus and its adaptability. By directly measuring nuclear movement in the model ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa, we show that the fungus' tolerance for internal genetic diversity is enabled by hydrodynamic mixing of nuclei acting at all length scales within the fungal mycelium. Mathematical modeling and experiments in a mutant with altered mycelial morphology reveal some of the exquisite hydraulic engineering necessary to create these mixing flows from spatially coarse pressure gradients.

  19. Fungal zinc metabolism and its connections to virulence

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Charley C.; Kmetzsch, Lívia; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene H.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is a ubiquitous metal in all life forms, as it is a structural component of the almost 10% of eukaryotic proteins, which are called zinc-binding proteins. In zinc-limiting conditions such as those found during infection, pathogenic fungi activate the expression of several systems to enhance the uptake of zinc. These systems include ZIP transporters (solute carrier 39 family) and secreted zincophores, which are proteins that are able to chelate zinc. The expression of some fungal zinc uptake systems are regulated by a master regulator (Zap1), first characterized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this review, we highlight features of zinc uptake and metabolism in human fungal pathogens and aspects of the relationship between proper zinc metabolism and the expression of virulence factors and adaptation to the host habitat. PMID:24133658

  20. Fungal Infections and New Biologic Therapies.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Chiller, Tom M

    2016-05-01

    The development of biologic therapies targeting proinflammatory mediators has led to significant advances in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). Blocking undesired inflammatory effects also has the potential to disrupt the body's immune response and increase the risk for infections, including fungal infections. This review summarizes the published data on the frequency and risk for fungal infections among patients treated with biologics, with a focus on the newer therapies approved for use with IMIDs in the last 10 years. The use of biologics is associated with a small but important risk of fungal infections. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, histoplasmosis, and candidiasis are some of the most common fungal infections associated with biologics. Providers should be vigilant for fungal infection among patients taking biologics, be aware that biologic agents may alter the typical presentation of fungal infections, and take timely steps to diagnose and treat fungal infection to reduce resultant morbidity and mortality. PMID:27032792

  1. Fungal Exopolysaccharide: Production, Composition and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Subhadip; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2013-01-01

    Fungal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have been recognized as high value biomacromolecules for the last two decades. These products, including pullulan, scleroglucan, and botryosphaeran, have several applications in industries, pharmaceuticals, medicine, foods etc. Although fungal EPSs are highly relevant, to date information concerning fungal biosynthesis is scarce and an extensive search for new fugal species that can produce novel EPSs is still needed. In most cases, the molecular weight variations and sugar compositions of fungal EPSs are dependent to culture medium composition and different physical conditions provided during fermentation. An inclusive and illustrative review on fungal EPS is presented here. The general outline of the present work includes fungal EPS production, their compositions and applications. An emphasis is also given to listing out different fungal strains that can produce EPSs. PMID:24826070

  2. The Contribution of Fungal Necromass to Soil Organic Matter Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, K. M.; Blair, N. E.; Buiser, A.; Egerton-Warburton, L.

    2013-12-01

    Saprotrophic fungi have the ability to degrade the three most important biopolymers: cellulose, lignin, and chitin, and therefore are key moderators of a globally important flow of carbon. However, little is known about how that carbon is transformed and/or stored in soil organic matter (SOM). Fungi are also known to produce a variety of biopolymers, such as chitin, melanin, glucan, and mucus-like exudates, and it is likely that these compounds contribute to long-term storage of SOM. In fact, recent work with ectomycorrhizal fungi has shown that a portion of the fungal necromass survives after degradation times of a few weeks to one month (e.g. Drigo et al. 2012, Clemmenson et al. 2013). Until now, the potential contribution of other abundant fungi to recalcitrant SOM has been unknown. Soil incubations have been performed with the common saprotrophic fungus, Fusarium avencum. Approximately 80% of the fungal material was found to turnover over on a time period of days, but 15% of the original biomass was left over at the end of the two-month degradation experiment in both laboratory experiments and in situ in the Dixon Prairie of the Chicago Botanic Garden. In both experiments, degradation was performed by a natural soil microbial consortium. Residual fungal material at each point in the decomposition sequence was analyzed using FTIR and thermochemolysis-GCMS with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide. The recalcitrant fraction contained carbohydrate and amide-linked functional groups, which is consistent with the chitin or chitosan biopolymer. The breakdown of more labile organic carbon (including proteins and ester-linked groups) appears to occur on a more rapid time scale. Additionally, lipid biomarker analyses revealed a succession of microbial degraders in the degradation process. This is the first time a study of this kind has been performed using a widely distributed saprotrophic fungus, and indicates that these fungi are potentially important in long-term C

  3. Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

  4. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  5. Fungal genome resources at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Robbertse, B; Tatusova, T

    2011-09-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools. PMID:22737589

  6. Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fridkin, S K; Jarvis, W R

    1996-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals care for patients at risk for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion in all nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to 5% in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are very common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and some act in combination. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. krusei and Torulopsis (C.) glabrata, have become more common pathogens. Newer molecular typing techniques can assist in the determination of a common source of infection caused by several fungal pathogens. Continued epidemiologic and laboratory research is needed to better characterize these pathogens and allow for improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:8894349

  7. Prevalence and clinical profile of fungal rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Dayanand; Zacharias, George; Palaninathan, Sengottaiah; Vishwanathan, Ravisankar; Venkatraman, Vaidyanathan

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are only a few landmark studies from the Indian subcontinent on fungal rhinosinusitis. The lack of awareness among clinicians regarding the varying clinical presentations of fungal rhinosinusitis prompted us to undertake this study. Objective: To determine the prevalence, etiologic basis, clinical features, radiologic features, and microscopic features of fungal rhinosinusitis, and to evaluate the various treatment modalities available. Methods: This was a prospective study in which evaluation of 100 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis was done. Specimens collected were subjected to both microbiology and pathologic examination; data collected, including clinical and radiologic features, were analyzed by the Pearson χ2 test and Fisher's exact test. Results: The prevalence of fungal rhinosinusitis in our study was 30% (n = 30). Mucor was the most commonly isolated species (n = 15 [50%]) of fungus. Pathologic examination had a higher sensitivity (76.67%) compared with microbiology tests (50%) in the diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis. Fungus ball (n = 14 [46.6%]) was the most prevalent entity in the spectrum of fungal rhinosinusitis. Forty percent of cases (n = 12) were of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. The prevalence of fungal rhinosinusitis was higher among individuals who were immunocompetent (n = 17 [56.6%]). Of patients who were immunocompromised, 84.6% (n = 11) had mucormycosis. Conclusions: Unilateral involvement of paranasal sinuses was more in favor of fungal etiology. Complications were more common in fungal rhinosinusitis caused by Mucor species. Mucormycosis, a rare clinical entity, in subjects who were immunocompetent, had a high prevalence in our study. PMID:27349695

  8. Seamless Resource-Adaptive Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Tim; Stahl, Christoph; Baus, Jörg; Wahlster, Wolfgang

    Research in the project RENA (REsource-Adapative NAvigation) together with DFKI GmbH, BMW Research and Technology AG, and Eyeled GmbH has been concerned with the conceptual and methodological foundations and the design of a resource-adaptive platform for seamless outdoor and indoor navigation that can serve as a basis for product development by the companies in the RENA consortium. Future in-car assistance systems will have a user interface, which adapts to the driveŕs current exposure caused by the actual traffic situation.

  9. Characterization of rhizosphere and endophytic fungal communities from roots of Stipa purpurea in alpine steppe around Qinghai Lake.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dengxue; Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Denghong; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Zhao, Yuhui; Han, Rongbing; Qin, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Stipa purpurea is among constructive endemic species in the alpine steppe on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. To reveal the fungal community structure and diversity in the rhizosphere and roots of this important grass and to analyze the potential influence of different habitats on the structure of fungal communities, we explored the root endophyte and the directly associated rhizosphere communities of S. purpurea by using internal transcribed spacer rRNA cloning and sequencing methods. We found that the roots of S. purpurea are associated with a diverse consortium of Basidiomycota (59.8%) and Ascomycota (38.5%). Most fungi obtained from rhizosphere soil in S. purpurea have been identified as Ascomycetes, while the high proportion detected in roots were basidiomycetous endophytes. The species richness, diversity, and evenness of fungal assemblages were higher in roots than in the rhizosphere soil. Fungi inhabiting the rhizosphere and roots of S. purpurea are significantly different, and the rhizosphere and endophyte communities are largely independent with little overlap in the dominant phyla or operational taxonomic units. Taken together, these results suggested that a wide variety of fungal communities are associated with the roots and rhizosphere soil of S. purpurea and that the fungal assemblages are strongly influenced by different habitats. PMID:27348421

  10. SEEA SOUTHEAST CONSORTIUM FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Block, Timothy; Ball, Kia; Fournier, Ashley

    2014-01-21

    In 2010 the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA) received a $20 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Building Neighborhood Program (BBNP). This grant, funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, also included sub-grantees in 13 communities across the Southeast, known as the Southeast Consortium. The objective of this project was to establish a framework for energy efficiency retrofit programs to create models for replication across the Southeast and beyond. To achieve this goal, SEEA and its project partners focused on establishing infrastructure to develop and sustain the energy efficiency market in specific localities across the southeast. Activities included implementing minimum training standards and credentials for marketplace suppliers, educating and engaging homeowners on the benefits of energy efficiency through strategic marketing and outreach and addressing real or perceived financial barriers to investments in whole-home energy efficiency through a variety of financing mechanisms. The anticipated outcome of these activities would be best practice models for program design, marketing, financing, data collection and evaluation as well as increased market demand for energy efficiency retrofits and products. The Southeast Consortium’s programmatic impacts along with the impacts of the other BBNP grantees would further the progress towards the overall goal of energy efficiency market transformation. As the primary grantee SEEA served as the overall program administrator and provided common resources to the 13 Southeast Consortium sub-grantees including contracted services for contractor training, quality assurance testing, data collection, reporting and compliance. Sub-grantee programs were located in cities across eight states including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Each sub

  11. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  12. Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ayman Hawari; Nolan Hertel; Mohamed Al-Sheikhly; Laurence Miller; Abdel-Moeze Bayoumi; Ali Haghighat; Kenneth Lewis

    2010-12-29

    2 Project Summary: The Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium (MUSIC) was established in response to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program. MUSIC was established as a consortium composed of academic members and national laboratory partners. The members of MUSIC are the nuclear engineering programs and research reactors of Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), North Carolina State University (NCSU), University of Maryland (UMD), University of South Carolina (USC), and University of Tennessee (UTK). The University of Florida (UF), and South Carolina State University (SCSU) were added to the MUSIC membership in the second year. In addition, to ensure proper coordination between the academic community and the nation’s premier research and development centers in the fields of nuclear science and engineering, MUSIC created strategic partnerships with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project and the Joint Institute for Neutron Scattering (JINS), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A partnership was also created with the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) with the aim of utilizing their reactor in research if funding becomes available. Consequently, there are three university research reactors (URRs) within MUSIC, which are located at NCSU (1-MW PULSTAR), UMD (0.25-MW TRIGA) and UF (0.10-MW Argonaut), and the AFRRI reactor (1-MW TRIGA MARK F). The overall objectives of MUSIC are: a) Demonstrate that University Research Reactors (URR) can be used as modern and innovative instruments of research in the basic and applied sciences, which include applications in fundamental physics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive examination, elemental analysis, and contributions to research in the health and medical sciences, b) Establish a strong technical collaboration between the nuclear engineering

  13. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

  14. Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Kaitlin

    2014-01-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

  15. Surgical management of fungal endophthalmitis resulting from fungal keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Nan; Dong, Xiao-Guang; Yuan, Gong-Qiang; Yu, Bin; Xie, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To report the fungal organisms, clinical features, surgical treatment strategies, and outcomes of patients with culture-proven exogenous fungal endophthalmitis (EFE) secondary to keratitis, and evaluate the role of surgery in the treatment. METHODS The clinical records of 27 patients (27 eyes) with culture-proven EFE resulting from fungal keratitis treated at Shandong Eye Institute from January 2007 to January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Information about fungal culture results, clinical features, surgical procedures, and final visual acuity was obtained. RESULTS There were 39 positive culture results from samples of cornea, hypopyon, vitreous and lens capsule, accounting for 56%, 26%, 15% and 2.5%, respectively. Fusarium was identified in 44% (12/27) of the eyes, followed by Aspergillus in 22% (6/27). Posterior segment infection was involved in 78% (21/27) of the patients. The corneal infection was larger than 3 mm ×3 mm in 89% (24/27) of the patients, and 22% (6/27) of them had the entire cornea, and even the sclera involved. Three eyes had silicone oil tamponade, and two eyes had retinal detachment. Twenty-two eyes (81.5%) underwent penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), and over half of them (54.5%) were operated within 3d from the onset of antifungal therapy. Fourteen eyes (52%) underwent intracameral antifungal drug injection, and three of them required repeated injections. Fifteen eyes (55.6%) underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). The rate of the eyes undergoing PPV as the initial surgical procedure was 60% (9/15), lower than 77% in PKP. Intravitreal injection was given in 59% of the eyes (16/27), and 75% of them required repeated injections. The final visual acuity was 20/100 or better in 37% of the eyes, and better than counting fingers in 55.6% of the eyes. Five eyes (18.5%) were eviscerated. In the two eyes with concurrent retinal detachment, one achieved retinal reattachment, and the other was eviscerated. In the three eyes with silicone oil

  16. The Bholghati (howardite) consortium: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C. )

    1990-08-01

    The Bholghati (howardite) has had a complex history. The consortium studies indicate that eucrite clasts show evidence of rapid crystallization followed by prolonged subsolidus annealing. Dark clasts are carbonaceous CM2 type. Bholghati bulk composition can be modeled by 55% eucritic, 45% diogenitic, and 3% dark clast components. The eucritic clasts show a LREE depleted pattern relative to HREEs, which is not typical of a normal eucrite. The LREE depletion requires two-stage melting from a chondritic source. The volatile/mobile trace element patterns in dark and eucritic clasts are highly variable, probably due to volatile redistribution. The eucritic clast shows excess fission Xe, which is attributed to in situ decay of Pu-244. The cosmic-ray exposure age is 10-17 Ma. The Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and K-Ar ages of Bholghati bulk and eucritic clasts indicate 4.53 Ga as crystallization age, 2-3 Ga as metamorphic event, and probably a minor thermal event < 1 Ga. The Bholghati evolution scenario is (1) early multiple magmatic events (4.53 Ga ago), producing eucrites and diogenites; (2) a metamorphic event (2-3 Ga ago) and prolonged subsolidus annealing; (3) Fragmentation and low-temperature mixing of eucrites and diogenites; (4) low-velocity impact (<1 Ga. ago) and admixing of carbonaceous material; (5) disruption of regolith and ejection of Bholghati 10-17 Ma ago; and (6) Bholghati fell on the Earth in 1905.

  17. AGRICOH: A Consortium of Agricultural Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Maria E.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Douwes, Jeroen; Hoppin, Jane A.; Kromhout, Hans; Lebailly, Pierre; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Schenker, Marc; Schüz, Joachim; Waring, Stephen C.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Baldi, Isabelle; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Ferro, Giles; Fervers, Béatrice; Langseth, Hilde; London, Leslie; Lynch, Charles F.; McLaughlin, John; Merchant, James A.; Pahwa, Punam; Sigsgaard, Torben; Stayner, Leslie; Wesseling, Catharina; Yoo, Keun-Young; Zahm, Shelia H.; Straif, Kurt; Blair, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    AGRICOH is a recently formed consortium of agricultural cohort studies involving 22 cohorts from nine countries in five continents: South Africa (1), Canada (3), Costa Rica (2), USA (6), Republic of Korea (1), New Zealand (2), Denmark (1), France (3) and Norway (3). The aim of AGRICOH, initiated by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) and coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), is to promote and sustain collaboration and pooling of data to investigate the association between a wide range of agricultural exposures and a wide range of health outcomes, with a particular focus on associations that cannot easily be addressed in individual studies because of rare exposures (e.g., use of infrequently applied chemicals) or relatively rare outcomes (e.g., certain types of cancer, neurologic and auto-immune diseases). To facilitate future projects the need for data harmonization of selected variables is required and is underway. Altogether, AGRICOH provides excellent opportunities for studying cancer, respiratory, neurologic, and auto-immune diseases as well as reproductive and allergic disorders, injuries and overall mortality in association with a wide array of exposures, prominent among these the application of pesticides. PMID:21655123

  18. Consortium for Materials Development in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During FY99 the Consortium for Materials Development in Space (CMDS) was reorganized around the following guidelines: industry driven, product focus, an industry led advisory council, focus on University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) core competencies, linkage to regional investment firms to assist commercialization and to take advantage of space flights. The organizational structure of the CMDS changed considerably during the year. The decision was made to reduce the organization to a Director and an Administrative Assistant. The various research projects, including the employees, were transferred to the appropriate UAH research center or college. In addition, an advisory council was established to provide direction and guidance to the CMDS to ensure a strong commercial focus. The council will (i) review CMDS commercial development plans and provide feedback, (ii) perform an annual evaluation of the Center's progress and present the results of this review to the UAH Vice President for Research, (iii) serve as an avenue of communication between the CMDS and its commercial partners, and (iv) serve as an ambassador and advocate for the CMDS.

  19. SUNrises on the International Plant Nucleus Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Graumann, Katja; Bass, Hank W.; Parry, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear periphery is a dynamic, structured environment, whose precise functions are essential for global processes—from nuclear, to cellular, to organismal. Its main components—the nuclear envelope (NE) with inner and outer nuclear membranes (INM and ONM), nuclear pore complexes (NPC), associated cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal components as well as chromatin are conserved across eukaryotes (Fig. 1). In metazoans in particular, the structure and functions of nuclear periphery components are intensely researched partly because of their involvement in various human diseases. While far less is known about these in plants, the last few years have seen a significant increase in research activity in this area. Plant biologists are not only catching up with the animal field, but recent findings are pushing our advances in this field globally. In recognition of this developing field, the Annual Society of Experimental Biology Meeting in Salzburg kindly hosted a session co-organized by Katja Graumann and David E. Evans (Oxford Brookes University) highlighting new insights into plant nuclear envelope proteins and their interactions. This session brought together leading researchers with expertise in topics such as epigenetics, meiosis, nuclear pore structure and functions, nucleoskeleton and nuclear envelope composition. An open and friendly exchange of ideas was fundamental to the success of the meeting, which resulted in founding the International Plant Nucleus Consortium. This review highlights new developments in plant nuclear envelope research presented at the conference and their importance for the wider understanding of metazoan, yeast and plant nuclear envelope functions and properties. PMID:23324458

  20. Consortium-Based Genetic Studies of Kawasaki Disease in Korea: Korean Kawasaki Disease Genetics Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young Mi; Jang, Gi Young; Yun, Sin Weon; Yu, Jeong Jin; Yoon, Kyung Lim; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kil, Hong-Rang

    2015-01-01

    In order to perform large-scale genetic studies of Kawasaki disease (KD) in Korea, the Korean Kawasaki Disease Genetics Consortium (KKDGC) was formed in 2008 with 10 hospitals. Since the establishment of KKDGC, there has been a collection of clinical data from a total of 1198 patients, and approximately 5 mL of blood samples per patient (for genomic deoxyribonucleic acid and plasma isolation), using a standard clinical data collection form and a nation-wide networking system for blood sample pick-up. In the clinical risk factor analysis using the collected clinical data of 478 KD patients, it was found that incomplete KD type, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) non-responsiveness, and long febrile days are major risk factors for coronary artery lesions development, whereas low serum albumin concentration is an independent risk factor for IVIG non-responsiveness. In addition, we identified a KD susceptibility locus at 1p31, a coronary artery aneurysm locus (KCNN2 gene), and the causal variant in the C-reactive protein (CRP) promoter region, as determining the increased CRP levels in KD patients, by means of genome-wide association studies. Currently, this consortium is continually collecting more clinical data and genomic samples to identify the clinical and genetic risk factors via a single nucleotide polymorphism chip and exome sequencing, as well as collaborating with several international KD genetics teams. The consortium-based approach for genetic studies of KD in Korea will be a very effective way to understand the unknown etiology and causal mechanism of KD, which may be affected by multiple genes and environmental factors. PMID:26617644

  1. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  2. Regional Development and the European Consortium of Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Saskia Loer; Kokkeler, Ben; van der Sijde, P. C.

    2002-01-01

    The European Consortium of Innovative Universities is a network that shares information not just among universities but with affiliated incubators, research parks, and other regional entities. The learning network contributes to regional development.(JOW)

  3. Genome Structure Gallery from the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Structual Genomics Consortium

    DOE Data Explorer

    The TB Structural Genomics Consortium works with the structures of proteins from M. tuberculosis, analyzing these structures in the context of functional information that currently exists and that the Consortium generates. The database of linked structural and functional information constructed from this project will form a lasting basis for understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and for structure-based drug design. The Consortium's structural and functional information is publicly available. The Structures Gallery makes more than 650 total structures available by PDB identifier. Some of these are not consortium targets, but all are viewable in 3D color and can be manipulated in various ways by Jmol, an open-source Java viewer for chemical structures in 3D from http://www.jmol.org/

  4. Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2)

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium studies the etiology of this common cancer and build on resources from existing studies by combining data across studies in order to advance the understanding of the etiology of this disease.

  5. National Consortium Supports Cities in Evaluating LED Streetlights

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-30

    Fact sheet that introduces Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium, a group of municipalities, utilities, and energy efficiency organizations who are interested in making investments in LED street and area lighting.

  6. Consortium--A New Direction for Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Adrienne B.

    1976-01-01

    The shared services and joint planning of the area-wide continuing education program of the Northwest Allegheny Hospitals Corporation (a Consortium of seven acute care and two rehabilitation centers in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania) are described. (LH)

  7. Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Cancer.gov

    Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium collaborates with three genomic facilities, epidemiologists, population geneticists, and biostatisticians from multiple institutions to study hormone-related gene variants and environmental factors in breast and prostate cancers.

  8. Farming of a defensive fungal mutualist by an attelabid weevil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Feng, Yu; Tian, Jianqing; Xiang, Meichun; Sun, Jingzu; Ding, Jianqing; Yin, Wen-Bing; Stadler, Marc; Che, Yongsheng; Liu, Xingzhong

    2015-01-01

    The mutualism between fungus-growing animals and fungi is a classic example of a complex interspecies association. A handful of insects, notably the well-recognized fungus-farming ants, termites and beetles, have developed advanced agriculture, which includes seeding new gardens with crop propagules, improving growth conditions and protecting and harvesting the fungal crop. More examples, which could be called ‘proto-fungiculture', involve fewer adaptations, as exemplified by marine snails that farm intertidal fungi on marsh grass. Recent work has indicated that the solitary leaf-rolling weevil Euops chinensis (family Attelabidae) has a protofarming symbiosis with the mycangial fungus Penicillium herquei (family Trichocomaceae). In this study, we investigated how the weevils create cradles (leaf-rolls) for their offspring and protect the fungal garden. We describe new specialized structures and behaviors that E. chinensis females use for leaf-rolling and fungus inoculation. The fungus P. herquei produces the antibiotic (+)-scleroderolide in laboratory culture and in leaf-rolls, which can serve to inhibit microbial ‘weeds' and pests, thus protecting the fungal garden against potential infection. The fungiculture of E. chinensis differs from other advanced insect fungiculture systems because female weevils do not continuously tend the inoculated microbe and do not depend nutritionally on the fungus. The defensive role of the cultivated fungus makes the attelabid weevils exceptional in ‘proto-fungiculture' animals. PMID:25658054

  9. Farming of a defensive fungal mutualist by an attelabid weevil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Feng, Yu; Tian, Jianqing; Xiang, Meichun; Sun, Jingzu; Ding, Jianqing; Yin, Wen-Bing; Stadler, Marc; Che, Yongsheng; Liu, Xingzhong

    2015-08-01

    The mutualism between fungus-growing animals and fungi is a classic example of a complex interspecies association. A handful of insects, notably the well-recognized fungus-farming ants, termites and beetles, have developed advanced agriculture, which includes seeding new gardens with crop propagules, improving growth conditions and protecting and harvesting the fungal crop. More examples, which could be called 'proto-fungiculture', involve fewer adaptations, as exemplified by marine snails that farm intertidal fungi on marsh grass. Recent work has indicated that the solitary leaf-rolling weevil Euops chinensis (family Attelabidae) has a protofarming symbiosis with the mycangial fungus Penicillium herquei (family Trichocomaceae). In this study, we investigated how the weevils create cradles (leaf-rolls) for their offspring and protect the fungal garden. We describe new specialized structures and behaviors that E. chinensis females use for leaf-rolling and fungus inoculation. The fungus P. herquei produces the antibiotic (+)-scleroderolide in laboratory culture and in leaf-rolls, which can serve to inhibit microbial 'weeds' and pests, thus protecting the fungal garden against potential infection. The fungiculture of E. chinensis differs from other advanced insect fungiculture systems because female weevils do not continuously tend the inoculated microbe and do not depend nutritionally on the fungus. The defensive role of the cultivated fungus makes the attelabid weevils exceptional in 'proto-fungiculture' animals. PMID:25658054

  10. The Global Burden of Fungal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Mody, Rajal K; Walker, Tiffany; Chiller, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Fungal diseases require greater attention today than ever before, given the expanding population of immunosuppressed patients who are at higher risk for these diseases. This article reports on distribution, incidence, and prevalence of various fungal diseases and points out gaps in knowledge where such data are not available. Fungal diseases that contribute substantially to global morbidity and mortality are highlighted. Long-term, sustainable surveillance programs for fungal diseases and better noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tools are needed to estimate the burden of these diseases more accurately. PMID:26739604

  11. Burden of fungal disease in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Dorgan, Eileen; Denning, David W; McMullan, Ronan

    2015-04-01

    Our objective was to estimate the burden of fungal disease on the island of Ireland, as part of a coordinated project estimating the global burden. Published epidemiology data describing fungal infection in Ireland were identified. Population and underlying disease data were collected for 2010 and a structured set of assumptions were applied to estimate burden of fungal disease based on immunosuppression, chronic disease, and other demographic information indicating predisposition to fungal infection. From Ireland's population of 6.4 million, we estimate 117, 000 patients develop significant fungal disease each year. By far the most common fungal disease is recurrent Candida vaginitis, with an estimated 95, 000 episodes annually (3000 per 100 000 women). Other fungal diseases which may be less well recognized are severe asthma with fungal sensitization and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, with estimated episodes per year of 11, 700 and 9000, respectively (182 and 140 per 100, 000 population, respectively). The model also estimates 450 episodes of invasive aspergillosis, 200 of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 600 of oesophageal candidiasis and 450 of candidaemia per year (7, 3, 9 and 6 episodes per 100, 000 population, respectively). This is, we believe, the first attempt to estimate the burden of fungal disease in our population and provides a basis for estimating its impact on human health and resource use. PMID:25596121

  12. Human fungal pathogens: Why should we learn?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Yoon

    2016-03-01

    Human fungal pathogens that cause invasive infections are hidden killers, taking lives of one and a half million people every year. However, research progress in this field has not been rapid enough to effectively prevent or treat life-threatening fungal diseases. To update recent research progress and promote more active research in the field of human fungal pathogens, eleven review articles concerning the virulence mechanisms and host interactions of four major human fungal pathogens-Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Histoplasma capsulatum-are presented in this special issue. PMID:26920875

  13. Nuclear dynamics in a fungal chimera.

    PubMed

    Roper, Marcus; Simonin, Anna; Hickey, Patrick C; Leeder, Abby; Glass, N Louise

    2013-08-01

    A fungal colony is a syncytium composed of a branched and interconnected network of cells. Chimerism endows colonies with increased virulence and ability to exploit nutritionally complex substrates. Moreover, chimera formation may be a driver for diversification at the species level by allowing lateral gene transfer between strains that are too distantly related to hybridize sexually. However, the processes by which genomic diversity develops and is maintained within a single colony are little understood. In particular, both theory and experiments show that genetically diverse colonies may be unstable and spontaneously segregate into genetically homogenous sectors. By directly measuring patterns of nuclear movement in the model ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa, we show that genetic diversity is maintained by complex mixing flows of nuclei at all length scales within the hyphal network. Mathematical modeling and experiments in a morphological mutant reveal some of the exquisite hydraulic engineering necessary to create the mixing flows. In addition to illuminating multinucleate and multigenomic lifestyles, the adaptation of a hyphal network for mixing nuclear material provides a previously unexamined organizing principle for understanding morphological diversity in the more-than-a-million species of filamentous fungi. PMID:23861490

  14. Population Genomics of Fungal and Oomycete Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Grünwald, Niklaus J; McDonald, Bruce A; Milgroom, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    We are entering a new era in plant pathology in which whole-genome sequences of many individuals of a pathogen species are becoming readily available. Population genomics aims to discover genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypes associated with adaptive traits such as pathogenicity, virulence, fungicide resistance, and host specialization, as genome sequences or large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms become readily available from multiple individuals of the same species. This emerging field encompasses detailed genetic analyses of natural populations, comparative genomic analyses of closely related species, identification of genes under selection, and linkage analyses involving association studies in natural populations or segregating populations resulting from crosses. The era of pathogen population genomics will provide new opportunities and challenges, requiring new computational and analytical tools. This review focuses on conceptual and methodological issues as well as the approaches to answering questions in population genomics. The major steps start with defining relevant biological and evolutionary questions, followed by sampling, genotyping, and phenotyping, and ending in analytical methods and interpretations. We provide examples of recent applications of population genomics to fungal and oomycete plant pathogens. PMID:27296138

  15. Fungal Diversity Is Not Determined by Mineral and Chemical Differences in Serpentine Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Daghino, Stefania; Murat, Claude; Sizzano, Elisa; Girlanda, Mariangela; Perotto, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of serpentine soils lead to strong selection of plant species. Whereas many studies have described the serpentine flora, little information is available on the fungal communities dwelling in these sites. Asbestos minerals, often associated with serpentine rocks, can be weathered by serpentine-isolated fungi, suggesting an adaptation to this substrate. In this study, we have investigated whether serpentine substrates characterized by the presence of rocks with distinct mineral composition could select for different fungal communities. Both fungal isolation and 454 pyrosequencing of amplicons obtained from serpentine samples following direct DNA extraction revealed some fungal taxa shared by the four ophiolitic substrates, but also highlighted several substrate-specific taxa. Bootstrap analysis of 454 OTU abundances indicated weak clustering of fungal assemblages from the different substrates, which did not match substrate classification based on exchangeable macronutrients and metals. Intra-substrate variability, as assessed by DGGE profiles, was similar across the four serpentine substrates, and comparable to inter-substrate variability. These findings indicate the absence of a correlation between the substrate (mineral composition and available cations) and the diversity of the fungal community. Comparison of culture-based and culture-independent methods supports the higher taxonomic precision of the former, as complementation of the better performance of the latter. PMID:23028507

  16. Ecological succession reveals potential signatures of marine-terrestrial transition in salt marsh fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Pylro, Victor Satler; Baldrian, Petr; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2016-08-01

    Marine-to-terrestrial transition represents one of the most fundamental shifts in microbial life. Understanding the distribution and drivers of soil microbial communities across coastal ecosystems is critical given the roles of microbes in soil biogeochemistry and their multifaceted influence on landscape succession. Here, we studied the fungal community dynamics in a well-established salt marsh chronosequence that spans over a century of ecosystem development. We focussed on providing high-resolution assessments of community composition, diversity and ecophysiological shifts that yielded patterns of ecological succession through soil formation. Notably, despite containing 10- to 100-fold lower fungal internal transcribed spacer abundances, early-successional sites revealed fungal richnesses comparable to those of more mature soils. These newly formed sites also exhibited significant temporal variations in β-diversity that may be attributed to the highly dynamic nature of the system imposed by the tidal regime. The fungal community compositions and ecophysiological assignments changed substantially along the successional gradient, revealing a clear signature of ecological replacement and gradually transforming the environment from a marine into a terrestrial system. Moreover, distance-based linear modelling revealed soil physical structure and organic matter to be the best predictors of the shifts in fungal β-diversity along the chronosequence. Taken together, our study lays the basis for a better understanding of the spatiotemporally determined fungal community dynamics in salt marshes and highlights their ecophysiological traits and adaptation in an evolving ecosystem. PMID:26824176

  17. ICONE: An International Consortium of Neuro Endovascular Centres

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, J.; White, P.; Kallmes, D.F.; Spears, J.; Marotta, T.; Roy, D.; Guilbert, F.; Weill, A.; Nguyen, T.; Molyneux, A.J.; Cloft, H.; Cekirge, S.; Saatci, I.; Bracard, S.; Meder, J.-F.; Moret, J.; Cognard, C.; Qureshi, A.I.; Turk, A.S.; Berenstein, A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The proliferation of new endovascular devices and therapeutic strategies calls for a prudent and rational evaluation of their clinical benefit. This evaluation must be done in an effective manner and in collaboration with industry. Such research initiative requires organisational and methodological support to survive and thrive in a competitive environment. We propose the formation of an international consortium, an academic alliance committed to the pursuit of effective neurovascular therapies. Such a consortium would be dedicated to the design and execution of basic science, device development and clinical trials. The Consortium is owned and operated by its members. Members are international leaders in neurointerventional research and clinical practice. The Consortium brings competency, knowledge, and expertise to industry as well as to its membership across a spectrum of research initiatives such as: expedited review of clinical trials, protocol development, surveys and systematic reviews; laboratory expertise and support for research design and grant applications to public agencies. Once objectives and protocols are approved, the Consortium provides a stable network of centers capable of timely realization of clinical trials or preclinical investigations in an optimal environment. The Consortium is a non-profit organization. The potential revenue generated from client-sponsored financial agreements will be re-directed to the academic and research objectives of the organization. The Consortium wishes to work in concert with industry, to support emerging trends in neurovascular therapeutic development. The Consortium is a realistic endeavour optimally structured to promote excellence through scientific appraisal of our treatments, and to accelerate technical progress while maximizing patients’ safety and welfare. PMID:20557763

  18. Fungal spores: hazardous to health?

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, W G

    1999-01-01

    Fungi have long been known to affect human well being in various ways, including disease of essential crop plants, decay of stored foods with possible concomitant production of mycotoxins, superficial and systemic infection of human tissues, and disease associated with immune stimulation such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis and toxic pneumonitis. The spores of a large number of important fungi are less than 5 microm aerodynamic diameter, and therefore are able to enter the lungs. They also may contain significant amounts of mycotoxins. Diseases associated with inhalation of fungal spores include toxic pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, tremors, chronic fatigue syndrome, kidney failure, and cancer. PMID:10423389

  19. Topical therapy for fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Amber A; Dahl, Mark V

    2004-01-01

    Fungi often infect the skin surface and subsequently invade the stratum corneum to avoid being shed from the skin surface by desquamation. Pharmacologic agents applied to the surface of the skin in the form of creams, lotions, or sprays, readily penetrate into the stratum corneum to kill the fungi (fungicidal agents), or at least render them unable to grow or divide (fungistatic agents). Thus, topical therapies work well to rid the skin of topical fungi and yeasts. Azole drugs such as miconazole, clotrimazole, and ketoconazole are fungistatic, limiting fungal growth but depending on epidermal turnover to shed the still-living fungus from the skin surface. Allylamines and benzylamines such as terbinafine, naftifine, and butenafine are fungicidal, actually killing the fungal organisms. Fungicidal drugs are often preferred over fungistatic drugs for treatment of dermatophytic fungal infections, since treatment times as short as one application daily for 1 week are associated with high cure rates. Furthermore, patients often stop treatments when the skin appears healed, usually after about a week of treatment. If this short-term treatment is stopped, fungi recur more often when fungistatic, rather than fungicidal, drugs have been used. Yeast infections such as those caused by Candida albicans respond less well to allylamine drugs. The azole drugs are often preferred for these types of infections. Nail infections are difficult to cure with topical therapies because the infections usually occur under the nail instead of on top of it and products penetrate poorly, if at all, through the nail plate. Infections of hair follicles, nails, and widespread infections often require systemic treatments. Antifungal agents are compounded into many different types of vehicles. Patients often prefer to treat weeping infections with spray formulations. Most physicians prescribe branded products in cream or lotion bases. Cost is a factor dictating prescription choice, especially since

  20. Establishment of a multi-state experiential pharmacy program consortium.

    PubMed

    Duke, Lori J; Unterwagner, Whitney L; Byrd, Debbie C

    2008-06-15

    In 2002, a regional consortium was created for schools and colleges of pharmacy in Georgia and Alabama to assist experiential education faculty and staff members in streamlining administrative processes, providing required preceptor development, establishing a professional network, and conducting scholarly endeavors. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy with many shared experiential practice sites formed a consortium to help experiential faculty and staff members identify, discuss, and solve common experience program issues and challenges. During its 5 years in existence, the Southeastern Pharmacy Experiential Education Consortium has coordinated experiential schedules, developed and implemented uniform evaluation tools, coordinated site and preceptor development activities, established a work group for educational research and scholarship, and provided opportunities for networking and professional development. Several consortium members have received national recognition for their individual experiential education accomplishments. Through the activities of a regional consortium, members have successfully developed programs and initiatives that have streamlined administrative processes and have the potential to improve overall quality of experiential education programs. Professionally, consortium activities have resulted in 5 national presentations. PMID:18698386

  1. The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) - Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Kartik; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Hooper, Eric; National Astronomy Consortium

    2015-01-01

    The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC; see https://sites.google.com/site/nraonac/) is a growing national partnership between majority and minority universities and institutions with the goal of increasing the numbers of under-represented minorities and students who might otherwise be overlooked by the traditional academic pipeline into STEM, or related, careers. The NAC model is based on the successful 'Posse Foundation' model for undergraduate success and incorporates all its major components: pre-training of cohorts to prepare them for the research experience, joint weekly cohort activities throughout the research summer, peer- and multiple mentoring, weekly discussion of various aspects of professional and career development, continued engagement of students in science after return to home institution and lifelong mentoring. The mentors also form a cohort, exchanging information and learning from each other. With its partner institutions, the NAC aims to build a complete pipeline from undergraduate through career for the next generation of scientists and engineers. Our annual goal is to create two to three cohorts of four to five students at each site (currently NRAO-Charlottesville, NRAO-Socorro and U. Wisconsin - Madison). Recruitment occurs in the fall semester with seminars and colloquia in partnership with faculty at the minority serving institutions and the GRAD-MAP program at the University of Maryland. In this talk we describe in detail all the components of the NAC and report on our progress. We are keen to interact and partner with new universities and institutions and encourage them to contact the NAC at nac4stem@googlegroups.com.

  2. Introduction to ALFA and the GALFA Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, P. F.

    2004-12-01

    In this talk, I give an overview of the ALFA instrument, a 7 element focal plane array on the Arecibo 305m telescope, which covers the frequency range 1225 to 1525 MHz. Each pixel observes two orthogonal linear polarizations. There are several spectrometers for different types of observations. For Galactic astronomy, a FFT spectrometer has been developed by D. Werthimer and colleagues, which has 8192 channels covering 7 MHz ( 1500 km/s at 0.2 km/s resolution) along with 256 channels covering 100 MHz intended for measuring and removing spectral baselines. ALFA test observations have been underway since August 2004, and astronomical observations should be ramping up through Fall 2004 and be in full swing by early 2005. The GALFA consortium is comprised of individuals interested in using the ALFA system for galactic astronomy. It is divided by interest into subconsortia, focusing on a number of the outstanding problems which can be addressed by ALFA on the Arecibo telescope, with 8-10 K/Jy gain, 3.5' beamwidth, and 30-35 K system temperature. One subconsortium is planning to carry out a survey of 21cm continuum radiation from the Milky Way, focusing on mapping the polarized emission in order to perform Faraday tomography of the magnetic field distribution. Radio recombination lines are the focus of another subconsortium; the ALFA system will be able to observe multiple RRLs that fall within its bandpass. HI emission and absorption will be utilized by a number of consortia, but applied to different problems, including the Galactic plane, high latitude clouds, high velocity clouds, turbulence, and the relationship of the atomic and molecular components of the ISM. Each subconsortium is making plans, starting with relatively small-scale projects, and working towards large-scale projects. Commensal (GALFA together with extragalactic or pulsar observations) are anticipated, using multiple signal processing systems simultaneously.

  3. POSSIBLE ROLE OF FUNGAL HEMOLYSINS IN SICK BUILDING SYNDROME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi produce proteinaceous hemolytic agents. Like bacterial hemolysins, fungal hemolysins create pores or holes in membranes. Depending on which membranes are damaged, fungal hemolysins can produce a variety of effects. Fungal hemolysins can cause histamine release from ...

  4. Fungal infections of the orbit

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Bipasha; Raichura, Nirav Dilip; Alam, Md. Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the orbit can lead to grave complications. Although the primary site of inoculation of the infective organism is frequently the sinuses, the patients can initially present to the ophthalmologist with ocular signs and symptoms. Due to its varied and nonspecific clinical features, especially in the early stages, patients are frequently misdiagnosed and even treated with steroids which worsen the situation leading to dire consequences. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with the clinical spectrum of disease and the variable presentation of this infection, as early diagnosis and rapid institution of appropriate therapy are crucial elements in the management of this invasive sino-orbital infection. In this review, relevant clinical, microbiological, and imaging findings are discussed along with the current consensus on local and systemic management. We review the recent literature and provide a comprehensive analysis. In the immunocompromised, as well as in healthy patients, a high index of suspicion must be maintained as delay in diagnosis of fungal pathology may lead to disfiguring morbidity or even mortality. Obtaining adequate diagnostic material for pathological and microbiological examination is critical. Newer methods of therapy, particularly oral voriconazole and topical amphotericin B, may be beneficial in selected patients. PMID:27380972

  5. Fungal Septicemia in Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Roberto J.; Wolff, William I.

    1974-01-01

    Opportunistic systemic fungal infections are more frequent than generally realized. Increased awareness and a high index of suspicion of fungal super-infection in the presence of sepsis is required to bring about recognition and therapy. The intravenous catheter is an important portal of entry or may act as a foreign body favoring localization of a septic process. In its presence, fungemia must be guarded against. Whenever an intravenous catheter is removed, its tip should be cultured. Removal alone may be a critical item in therapy. In febrile patients, in whom the course of fever is not established, frequent blood cultures with attention directed specifically at fungi should be obtained. Fungi are not easily isolated and identified and only by requesting special attention from the microbiologist can the diagnosis be established in the average institutional laboratory in time to permit appropriate therapy. Since available therapeutic measures are strikingly effective when instituted early, awareness and alertness on the part of the clinician constitute the key to cure. PMID:4213622

  6. Naming names: the etymology of fungal entomopathogens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter introduces the reader to the etymology of the generic names given to 26 fungal entomopathogens. Possessing some knowledge on how a name originates sometimes provides us with information on a fungal characteristic that might help us identify the organism, e.g., Conidiobolus, Cordyceps, P...

  7. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... of hospital-associated infections for more information. Fungal infections can happen any time after your surgery. Fungal infections can happen ... Neofytos D, Fishman JA, Horn D, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of invasive ... in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplant Infectious Disease ...

  8. Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green coffee seeds from Colombia, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, and Vietnam were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Sections of surface sterilized seeds were plated on yeast malt agar, and fungal growth was isolated for subsequent DNA extraction and sequencing....

  9. Renal fungal bezoar owing to Geotrichum candidum

    PubMed Central

    Yegneswaran Prakash, Peralam; Seetaramaiah, Venkatesh K; Thomas, Joseph; Khanna, Vinay; Rao, Sugandhi P

    2012-01-01

    Geotrichum candidum is yeast like fungi that cause infections in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of renal fungal ball with Geotrichum candidum in a 27 yr. old women post-partum. This case to our knowledge is the first case of renal fungal bezoar due to Geotrichum candidum reported in India.

  10. [Activity of NTDs Drug-discovery Research Consortium].

    PubMed

    Namatame, Ichiji

    2016-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are an extremely important issue facing global health care. To improve "access to health" where people are unable to access adequate medical care due to poverty and weak healthcare systems, we have established two consortiums: the NTD drug discovery research consortium, and the pediatric praziquantel consortium. The NTD drug discovery research consortium, which involves six institutions from industry, government, and academia, as well as an international non-profit organization, is committed to developing anti-protozoan active compounds for three NTDs (Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and African sleeping sickness). Each participating institute will contribute their efforts to accomplish the following: selection of drug targets based on information technology, and drug discovery by three different approaches (in silico drug discovery, "fragment evolution" which is a unique drug designing method of Astellas Pharma, and phenotypic screening with Astellas' compound library). The consortium has established a brand new database (Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease Database; iNTRODB), and has selected target proteins for the in silico and fragment evolution drug discovery approaches. Thus far, we have identified a number of promising compounds that inhibit the target protein, and we are currently trying to improve the anti-protozoan activity of these compounds. The pediatric praziquantel consortium was founded in July 2012 to develop and register a new praziquantel pediatric formulation for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Astellas Pharma has been a core member in this consortium since its establishment, and has provided expertise and technology in the area of pediatric formulation development and clinical development. PMID:26831798

  11. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes. PMID:21747869

  12. Fungal natural products in research and development.

    PubMed

    Schueffler, Anja; Anke, Timm

    2014-10-01

    To date approximately 100 000 fungal species are known although far more than one million are expected. The variety of species and the diversity of their habitats, some of them less exploited, allow the conclusion that fungi continue to be a rich source of new metabolites. Besides the conventional fungal isolates, an increasing interest in endophytic and in marine-derived fungi has been noticed. In addition new screening strategies based on innovative chemical, biological, and genetic approaches have led to novel fungal metabolites in recent years. The present review focuses on new fungal natural products published from 2009 to 2013 highlighting the originality of the structures and their biological potential. Furthermore synthetic products based on fungal metabolites as well as new developments in the uses or the biological activity of known compounds or new derivatives are discussed. PMID:25122538

  13. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Junhyun; Kwon, Seomun; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:25288980

  14. Hydrodynamics, Fungal Physiology, and Morphology.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Carreón, L; Galindo, E; Rocha-Valadéz, J A; Holguín-Salas, A; Corkidi, G

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous cultures, such as fungi and actinomycetes, contribute substantially to the pharmaceutical industry and to enzyme production, with an annual market of about 6 billion dollars. In mechanically stirred reactors, most frequently used in fermentation industry, microbial growth and metabolite productivity depend on complex interactions between hydrodynamics, oxygen transfer, and mycelial morphology. The dissipation of energy through mechanically stirring devices, either flasks or tanks, impacts both microbial growth through shearing forces on the cells and the transfer of mass and energy, improving the contact between phases (i.e., air bubbles and microorganisms) but also causing damage to the cells at high energy dissipation rates. Mechanical-induced signaling in the cells triggers the molecular responses to shear stress; however, the complete mechanism is not known. Volumetric power input and, more importantly, the energy dissipation/circulation function are the main parameters determining mycelial size, a phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of mycelial aggregates and Kolmogorov eddies. The use of microparticles in fungal cultures is also a strategy to increase process productivity and reproducibility by controlling fungal morphology. In order to rigorously study the effects of hydrodynamics on the physiology of fungal microorganisms, it is necessary to rule out the possible associated effects of dissolved oxygen, something which has been reported scarcely. At the other hand, the processes of phase dispersion (including the suspended solid that is the filamentous biomass) are crucial in order to get an integral knowledge about biological and physicochemical interactions within the bioreactor. Digital image analysis is a powerful tool for getting relevant information in order to establish the mechanisms of mass transfer as well as to evaluate the viability of the mycelia. This review focuses on (a) the main characteristics of the two most

  15. National University Consortium on Microwave Research (NUCOMR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Robert J.; Agee, Forrest J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper introduces a new cooperative research program of national scale that is focused on crucial research issues in the development of high energy microwave sources. These have many applications in the DOD and industry. The Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), in coopertaion with the Phillips Laboratory, the Naval Research Laboratory, and the Army Research Laboratory, has established a tri-service research consortium to investigate novel high energy microwave sources. The program is part of the DODs 'Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative' and will be funded at a rate of $DLR3.0M per year for up to five years. All research performed under this program will be unclassified. Under its auspices, HPM scientists at nine US universities will be attacking twenty-two separate research projects under the leadership of Neville Luhmann at UC-Davis, Victor Granatstein at Maryland, Magne Kristiansen at Texas Tech, Edl Schamiloglu at New Mexico, John Nation at Cornell, Ned Birdsall at UC-Berkeley, George Caryotakis at Standord, Ronald Gilgenbach at Michigan, and Anthony Lin at UCLA. To facilitate the rapid transition of research results into the industrial community, formal collaborative subcontracts are already in place with James Benford at Physics International, Carter Armstrong at Northrop, and Glen Huffman at Varian Associates. Although this new program officially only came into existence in mid-March of this year, it builds on over a decade of microwave research efforts funded by the plasma physics office at AFOSR. It also is synergistic with the ongoing Tri-Service Vacuum Electronics Initiative led by Robert Parker of NRL as well as with the AFOSR's and Rome Laboratory's long standing Advanced Thermionic Research Initiative. An overview will be given of the broad spectrum of research objectives encompassed by NUCOMR. Areas of collaboration and technology transfer will be highlighted. The areas in which the three university consortia will conduct

  16. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Phillips, D.I.; Luttrell, G.H.; Basim, B.; Sohn, S.; Jiang, X.; Tao, D.; Parekh, B.K.; Meloy, T.

    1996-10-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The consortium has three charter members, including Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky. The Consortium also includes industry affiliate members that form an Advisory Committee. In keeping with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee, first-year R&D activities were focused on two areas of research: fine coal dewatering and modeling of spirals. The industry representatives to the Consortium identified fine coal dewatering as the most needed area of technology development. Dewatering studies were conducted by Virginia Tech`s Center for Coal and Minerals Processing and a spiral model was developed by West Virginia University. For the University of Kentucky the advisory board approved a project entitled: ``A Study of Novel Approaches for Destabilization of Flotation Froth``. Project management and administration will be provided by Virginia Tech., for the first year. Progress reports for coal dewatering and destabilization of flotation froth studies are presented in this report.

  17. ACTS Operations Extended Through a University-Based Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Robert A.; Krawczyk, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program was slated for decommissioning in October 2000. With plans in place to move the spacecraft to an orbital graveyard and then shut the system down, NASA was challenged to consider the feasibility of extending operations for education and research purposes provided that an academic organization would be willing to cover operations costs. This was determined to be viable, and in the fall of 2000, NASA announced that it would consider extending operations. On March 19, 2001, NASA, the Ohio Board of Regents, and the Ohio University signed a Space Act Agreement to continue ACTS operations for 2 more years with options to extend operations up to a total of 4 years. To accomplish this, the Ohio University has formed a university-based consortium, the Ohio Consortium for Advanced Communications Technology (OCACT), and acts as the managing member. The Ohio University is responsible for the full reimbursement of NASA's operations costs, and does this through consortium membership. NASA retains the operating license of the spacecraft and has two contractors supporting spacecraft and master control station operations. This flexible arrangement between NASA and academia allows the education community to access a large communications satellite for learning about spacecraft operations and to use the system's transponders for communications applications. It also allows other organizations, such as commercial companies, to become consortium members and use the ACTS wideband Ka-band (30/20 GHz) payload. From the consortium members, six areas of interest have been identified.

  18. Innate Defense against Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Rebecca A.; Gaffen, Sarah L.; Hise, Amy G.; Brown, Gordon D.

    2014-01-01

    Human fungal infections have been on the rise in recent years and proved increasingly difficult to treat as a result of the lack of diagnostics, effective antifungal therapies, and vaccines. Most pathogenic fungi do not cause disease unless there is a disturbance in immune homeostasis, which can be caused by modem medical interventions, disease induced immunosuppression, and naturally occurring human mutations. The innate im mune system is weII equipped to recognize and destroy pathogeni cf ungi through speciaIized cells expressing a broad range of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). This review will outline the cells and PRRs required for effective antifungal immunity, with a special focus on the major antifungal cytokine IL-17 and recently characterized antifungal inflammasomes. PMID:25384766

  19. Dancing genomes: fungal nuclear positioning

    PubMed Central

    Gladfelter, Amy; Berman, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The many different mechanisms that fungi use to transmit and share genetic material are mediated by a broad range of chromosome and nuclear dynamics. The mechanics underlying nuclear migration are well integrated into detailed models, in which the forces supplied by plus- and minus-end-directed microtubule motors position and move the nucleus in a cell. Although we know much about how cells move nuclei, we know much less about why the cell invests in so many different nuclear ‘dances’. Here, we briefly survey the available models for the mechanics of nuclear migration in fungi and then focus on examples of how fungal cells use these nuclear dances — the movement of intact nuclei in and between cells — to control the integrity, ploidy and assortment of specific genomes or individual chromosomes. PMID:19898490

  20. Classification of fungal chitin synthases.

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, A R; Chen-Wu, J L; Momany, M; Young, R; Szaniszlo, P J; Robbins, P W

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of the chitin synthase genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHS1 and CHS2 with the Candida albicans CHS1 gene (UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:chitin 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.16) revealed two small regions of complete amino acid sequence conservation that were used to design PCR primers. Fragments homologous to chitin synthase (approximately 600 base pairs) were amplified from the genomic DNA of 14 fungal species. These fragments were sequenced, and their deduced amino acid sequences were aligned. With the exception of S. cerevisiae CHS1, the sequences fell into three distinct classes, which could represent separate functional groups. Within each class phylogenetic analysis was performed. Although not the major purpose of the investigation, this analysis tends to confirm some relationships consistent with current taxonomic groupings. Images PMID:1731323

  1. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival. PMID:23711036

  2. A chemical ecogenomics approach to understand the roles of secondary metabolites in fungal cereal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chooi, Yit-Heng; Solomon, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites (SMs) are known to play important roles in the virulence and lifestyle of fungal plant pathogens. The increasing availability of fungal pathogen genome sequences and next-generation genomic tools have allowed us to survey the SM gene cluster inventory in individual fungi. Thus, there is immense opportunity for SM discovery in these plant pathogens. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics have been employed to obtain insights on the genetic features that enable fungal pathogens to adapt in individual ecological niches and to adopt the different pathogenic lifestyles. Here, we will discuss how we can use these tools to search for ecologically important SM gene clusters in fungi, using cereal pathogens as models. This ecological genomics approach, combined with genome mining and chemical ecology tools, is likely to advance our understanding of the natural functions of SMs and accelerate bioactive molecule discovery. PMID:25477876

  3. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research. PMID:25721271

  4. A novel class of fungal lipoxygenases.

    PubMed

    Heshof, Ruud; Jylhä, Sirpa; Haarmann, Thomas; Jørgensen, Ann Louise Worsøe; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; de Graaff, Leo H

    2014-02-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are well-studied enzymes in plants and mammals. However, fungal LOXs are less studied. In this study, we have compared fungal LOX protein sequences to all known characterized LOXs. For this, a script was written using Shell commands to extract sequences from the NCBI database and to align the sequences obtained using Multiple Sequence Comparison by Log-Expectation. We constructed a phylogenetic tree with the use of Quicktree to visualize the relation of fungal LOXs towards other LOXs. These sequences were analyzed with respect to the signal sequence, C-terminal amino acid, the stereochemistry of the formed oxylipin, and the metal ion cofactor usage. This study shows fungal LOXs are divided into two groups, the Ile- and the Val-groups. The Ile-group has a conserved WRYAK sequence that appears to be characteristic for fungal LOXs and has as a C-terminal amino acid Ile. The Val-group has a highly conserved WL-L/F-AK sequence that is also found in LOXs of plant and animal origin. We found that fungal LOXs with this conserved sequence have a Val at the C-terminus in contrast to other LOXs of fungal origin. Also, these LOXs have signal sequences implying these LOXs will be expressed extracellularly. Our results show that in this group, in addition to the Gaeumannomyces graminis and the Magnaporthe salvinii LOXs, the Aspergillus fumigatus LOX uses manganese as a cofactor. PMID:24276623

  5. The ISPRS Student Consortium: From launch to tenth anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjir, U.; Detchev, I.; Reyes, S. R.; Akkartal Aktas, A.; Lo, C. Y.; Miyazaki, H.

    2014-04-01

    The ISPRS Student Consortium is an international organization for students and young professionals in the fields of photogrammetry, remote sensing, and the geospatial information sciences. Since its start ten years ago, the number of members of the Student Consortium has been steadily growing, now reaching close to 1000. Its increased popularity, especially in recent years, is mainly due to the organization's worldwide involvement in student matters. The Student Consortium has helped organize numerous summer schools, youth forums, and student technical sessions at ISPRS sponsored conferences. In addition, the organization publishes a newsletter, and hosts several social media outlets in order to keep its global membership up-to-date on a regular basis. This paper will describe the structure of the organization, and it will give some example of its past student related activities.

  6. A consortium for purchase of blood products directed by physicians.

    PubMed

    Aledort, L M; Lipton, R A; Hilgartner, M

    1988-05-01

    Clotting-factor therapy is a costly part of comprehensive hemophilia treatment. Physicians treating patients with hemophilia in New York formed a consortium for the purchasing and regional distribution of clotting-factor concentrates. Concentrates are centrally purchased based on a bidding formula aimed at obtaining the lowest price for quality product while guaranteeing all suppliers continued involvement in a large market area. The consortium has successfully maintained, and, in instances, lowered prices each year. Estimated regional savings this year are more than $750,000 for an anticipated purchase of approximately 60,00,000 units of clotting-factors VIII and IX. Central distribution has additionally lowered costs to participating hospitals. The consortium is able to provide patients and third-party payers with some of the lowest prices for clotting-factor concentrates in the United States. A physician-directed regional approach to purchasing costly medical products might be applied to other areas of clinical medicine. PMID:3358574

  7. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea).

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea) was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December) using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6%) and Basidiomycota (2.8%). A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii) was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions. PMID:26132745

  8. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea)

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea) was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December) using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6%) and Basidiomycota (2.8%). A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii) was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions. PMID:26132745

  9. Circadian Control Sheds Light on Fungal Bioluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Anderson G.; Stevani, Cassius V.; Waldenmaier, Hans E.; Viviani, Vadim; Emerson, Jillian M.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bioluminescence, the creation and emission of light by organisms, affords insight into the lives of organisms doing it. Luminous living things are widespread and access diverse mechanisms to generate and control luminescence [1-5]. Among the least studied bioluminescent organisms are phylogenetically rare fungi – only 71 species, all within the ~9000 fungi of the temperate and tropical Agaricales Order - are reported from among ~100,000 described fungal species [6,7]. All require oxygen [8] and energy (NADH or NADPH) for bioluminescence, and are reported to emit green light (λmax 530 nm) continuously, implying a metabolic function for bioluminescence, perhaps as a by-product of oxidative metabolism in lignin degradation. Here, however, we report that bioluminescence from the mycelium of Neonothopanus gardneri is controlled by a temperature compensated circadian clock, the result of cycles in content/activity of the luciferase, reductase, and the luciferin that comprise the luminescent system. Because regulation implies an adaptive function for bioluminescence, a controversial question for more than two millenia [8-15], we examined interactions between luminescent fungi and insects [16]. Prosthetic acrylic resin “mushrooms”, internally illuminated by a green LED emitting light similar to the bioluminescence, attract staphilinid rove beetles (coleopterans) as well as hemipterans (true bugs), dipterans (flies), and hymenopterans (wasps and ants) at numbers far greater than dark control traps. Thus, circadian control may optimize energy use for when bioluminescence is most visible, attracting insects that can in turn help in spore dispersal, thereby benefitting fungi growing under the forest canopy where wind flow is greatly reduced. PMID:25802150

  10. Circadian control sheds light on fungal bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Anderson G; Stevani, Cassius V; Waldenmaier, Hans E; Viviani, Vadim; Emerson, Jillian M; Loros, Jennifer J; Dunlap, Jay C

    2015-03-30

    Bioluminescence, the creation and emission of light by organisms, affords insight into the lives of organisms doing it. Luminous living things are widespread and access diverse mechanisms to generate and control luminescence [1-5]. Among the least studied bioluminescent organisms are phylogenetically rare fungi-only 71 species, all within the ∼ 9,000 fungi of the temperate and tropical Agaricales order-are reported from among ∼ 100,000 described fungal species [6, 7]. All require oxygen [8] and energy (NADH or NADPH) for bioluminescence and are reported to emit green light (λmax 530 nm) continuously, implying a metabolic function for bioluminescence, perhaps as a byproduct of oxidative metabolism in lignin degradation. Here, however, we report that bioluminescence from the mycelium of Neonothopanus gardneri is controlled by a temperature-compensated circadian clock, the result of cycles in content/activity of the luciferase, reductase, and luciferin that comprise the luminescent system. Because regulation implies an adaptive function for bioluminescence, a controversial question for more than two millennia [8-15], we examined interactions between luminescent fungi and insects [16]. Prosthetic acrylic resin "mushrooms," internally illuminated by a green LED emitting light similar to the bioluminescence, attract staphilinid rove beetles (coleopterans), as well as hemipterans (true bugs), dipterans (flies), and hymenopterans (wasps and ants), at numbers far greater than dark control traps. Thus, circadian control may optimize energy use for when bioluminescence is most visible, attracting insects that can in turn help in spore dispersal, thereby benefitting fungi growing under the forest canopy, where wind flow is greatly reduced. PMID:25802150

  11. The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C.; Constable, C.; Tauxe, L.; Koppers, A.; Banerjee, S.; Jackson, M.; Solheid, P.

    2003-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is a multi-user facility to establish and maintain a state-of-the-art relational database and digital archive for rock and paleomagnetic data. The goal of MagIC is to make such data generally available and to provide an information technology infrastructure for these and other research-oriented databases run by the international community. As its name implies, MagIC will not be restricted to paleomagnetic or rock magnetic data only, although MagIC will focus on these kinds of information during its setup phase. MagIC will be hosted under EarthRef.org at http://earthref.org/MAGIC/ where two "integrated" web portals will be developed, one for paleomagnetism (currently functional as a prototype that can be explored via the http://earthref.org/databases/PMAG/ link) and one for rock magnetism. The MagIC database will store all measurements and their derived properties for studies of paleomagnetic directions (inclination, declination) and their intensities, and for rock magnetic experiments (hysteresis, remanence, susceptibility, anisotropy). Ultimately, this database will allow researchers to study "on the internet" and to download important data sets that display paleo-secular variations in the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field over geological time, or that display magnetic data in typical Zijderveld, hysteresis/FORC and various magnetization/remanence diagrams. The MagIC database is completely integrated in the EarthRef.org relational database structure and thus benefits significantly from already-existing common database components, such as the EarthRef Reference Database (ERR) and Address Book (ERAB). The ERR allows researchers to find complete sets of literature resources as used in GERM (Geochemical Earth Reference Model), REM (Reference Earth Model) and MagIC. The ERAB contains addresses for all contributors to the EarthRef.org databases, and also for those who participated in data collection, archiving and

  12. Allergic fungal otomastoiditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiung-Ming; Chiang, Ching-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Allergic mucin is described as thick, peanut butter-like mucus impacted in the paranasal sinuses of patients with allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The presence of allergic mucin in the middle ear has never been reported. We encountered a 65-year-old female with allergic mucin found impacted in her left middle ear and mastoid cavity during revised tympanoplasty surgery at our institute. Bilateral endoscopic sinus surgery performed 3 months later showed no evidence of fungal infection or allergic mucin in her paranasal sinuses. We report the case herein and propose the term allergic fungal otomastoiditis for this disease entity. PMID:22825725

  13. Fungal glycans and the innate immune recognition

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides such as α- and β-glucans, chitin, and glycoproteins extensively modified with both N- and O-linked carbohydrates are the major components of fungal surfaces. The fungal cell wall is an excellent target for the action of antifungal agents, since most of its components are absent from mammalian cells. Recognition of these carbohydrate-containing molecules by the innate immune system triggers inflammatory responses and activation of microbicidal mechanisms by leukocytes. This review will discuss the structure of surface fungal glycoconjugates and polysaccharides and their recognition by innate immune receptors. PMID:25353009

  14. The clinical importance of fungal biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ramage, Gordon; Williams, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Fungal biofilms have become an increasingly important clinical problem. The widespread use of antibiotics, frequent use of indwelling medical devices, and a trend toward increased patient immunosuppression have resulted in a creation of opportunity for clinically important yeasts and molds to form biofilms. This review will discuss the diversity and importance of fungal biofilms in the context of clinical medicine, provide novel insights into the clinical management of fungal biofilm infection, present evidence why these structures are recalcitrant to antifungal therapy, and discuss how our knowledge and understanding may lead to novel therapeutic intervention. PMID:23763758

  15. Invasive fungal infections in transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Marisa H.; Alangaden, George

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant and solid organ transplant recipients. Evolving transplant modalities and techniques, complex and extensive immunosuppressant strategies, and the increased use of broad spectrum antifungal prophylaxis has greatly impacted the epidemiology and temporal pattern of invasive fungal infections in the transplant population. The goal of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the most commonly encountered invasive fungal infections seen in transplant recipients, including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas, management and their overall influence on outcomes. PMID:25165546

  16. Molecular Basis of a Bacterial Consortium: Interspecies Catabolism of Atrazine

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Mervyn L.; Newcombe, David; Alvey, Sam; Crowley, David E.; Hay, Anthony; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    1998-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP contains the genes, atzA, -B, and -C, that encode three enzymes which metabolize atrazine to cyanuric acid. Atrazine-catabolizing pure cultures isolated from around the world contain genes homologous to atzA, -B, and -C. The present study was conducted to determine whether the same genes are present in an atrazine-catabolizing bacterial consortium and how the genes and metabolism are subdivided among member species. The consortium contained four or more bacterial species, but two members, Clavibacter michiganese ATZ1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain CN1, collectively mineralized atrazine. C. michiganese ATZ1 released chloride from atrazine, produced hydroxyatrazine, and contained a homolog to the atzA gene that encoded atrazine chlorohydrolase. C. michiganese ATZ1 stoichiometrically metabolized hydroxyatrazine to N-ethylammelide and contained genes homologous to atzB and atzC, suggesting that either a functional AtzB or -C catalyzed N-isopropylamine release from hydroxyatrazine. C. michiganese ATZ1 grew on isopropylamine as its sole carbon and nitrogen source, explaining the ability of the consortium to use atrazine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. A second consortium member, Pseudomonas sp. strain CN1, metabolized the N-ethylammelide produced by C. michiganese ATZ1 to transiently form cyanuric acid, a reaction catalyzed by AtzC. A gene homologous to the atzC gene of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP was present, as demonstrated by Southern hybridization and PCR. Pseudomonas sp. strain CN1, but not C. michiganese, metabolized cyanuric acid. The consortium metabolized atrazine faster than did C. michiganese individually. Additionally, the consortium metabolized a much broader set of triazine ring compounds than did previously described pure cultures in which the atzABC genes had been identified. These data begin to elucidate the genetic and metabolic bases of catabolism by multimember consortia. PMID:16349478

  17. NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 1995-1999 Self Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Schaffart, Mary M.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium receives funds from NASA to allow Nebraska colleges and universities to implement balanced programs of research, education and public service related to aeronautics, space science and technology. Nebraska is a capability enhancement state which directs efforts and resources toward developing research infrastructure and enhancing the quality of aerospace research and education for all Nebraskans. Furthermore, the Nebraska Space Grant strives to provide national leadership in applied aspects of aeronautics. Nebraska has met, meets and will continue to meet all requirements set forth by NASA. Nebraska is a top-tier consortium and will continue to be a model program.

  18. Terragenome: International Soil Metagenome Sequencing Consortium (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Jansson, Janet [LBNL

    2011-04-29

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Janet Jansson of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory discusses the Terragenome Initiative at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009

  19. Augmentation of a Microbial Consortium for Enhanced Polylactide (PLA) Degradation.

    PubMed

    Nair, Nimisha R; Sekhar, Vini C; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2016-03-01

    Bioplastics are eco-friendly and derived from renewable biomass sources. Innovation in recycling methods will tackle some of the critical issues facing the acceptance of bioplastics. Polylactic acid (PLA) is the commonly used and well-studied bioplastic that is presumed to be biodegradable. Considering their demand and use in near future, exploration for microbes capable of bioplastic degradation has high potential. Four PLA degrading strains were isolated and identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Serratia marcescens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. A consortium of above strains degraded 44 % (w/w) PLA in 30 days time in laboratory conditions. Subsequently, the microbial consortium employed effectively for PLA composting. PMID:26843697

  20. The IPTi Consortium: research for policy and action.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, David; Cisse, Badara; Menendez, Clara

    2006-07-01

    The results of a randomized controlled trial in Tanzania suggest that intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi), delivered through the Expanded Program on Immunization, might be a useful approach to controlling malaria in countries where it is endemic. An international consortium of research collaborations, involving the World Health Organization and United Nation's Children's Fund, is now evaluating IPTi in a range of different settings to generate robust and compelling evidence to guide policy. This review summarizes the available information on IPTi and presents the consortium's approach to determining whether IPTi might be a valuable additional strategy in programs to control malaria. PMID:16713739

  1. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium - Final Progress Report October 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Bement, Arden L.

    2001-10-23

    The basic mission of the Consortium was to advance the science and understanding of high-T{sub c} superconductivity and to promote the development of new materials and improved processing technology. Focused group efforts were the key element of the research program. One program area is the understanding of the layered structures involved in candidate materials and the factors that control their formation, stability and relationship superconductor properties. The other program area had a focus upon factors that limit or control the transport properties such as weak links, flux lattice behavior, and interfaces. Interactions among Consortium d with industrial armiates were an integral part of the program.

  2. Research plan for pilot studies of the biodiversity research consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kiester, A.R.; White, D.; Preston, E.M.; Master, L.L.; Loveland, T.R.

    1993-06-03

    This report presents a research plan for an assessment of risks to biodiversity. The plan describes the theoretical basis of the research approach and the data and methods to be used in the assessment. Initial research activities are formulated as a set of pilot studies that will examine nine research questions concerning the assumptions, data, and methods of the approach. A collection of government, academic, and nongovernmental organizations, called the Biodiversity Research Consortium, has developed this research approach and prepared the plan. Authors of the plan represent current members of the Consortium.

  3. Th2 Allergic Immune Response to Inhaled Fungal Antigens is Modulated By TLR-4-Independent Bacterial Products

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Jenna B.; Rinaldi, Lisa; Wargo, Matt; Allen, Gilman; Akira, Shizuo; Uematsu, Satoshi; Poynter, Matthew E.; Hogan, Deborah A.; Rincon, Mercedes; Whittaker, Laurie A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Allergic airway disease is characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and increased airway resistance. Fungal antigens are ubiquitous within the environment and are well know triggers of allergic disease. Bacterial products are also frequently encountered within the environment and may alter the immune response to certain antigens. The consequence of simultaneous exposure to bacterial and fungal products on the lung adaptive immune response has not been explored. Here we show that oropharyngeal aspiration of fungal lysates (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus) promotes airway eosinophilia, secretion of Th2 cytokines and mucus cell metaplasia. In contrast, oropharyngeal exposure to bacterial lysates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) promotes airway inflammation characterized by neutrophils, Th1 cytokine secretion and no mucus production. More importantly, administration of bacterial lysates together with fungal lysates deviates the adaptive immune response to a Th1 type associated with neutrophilia and diminished mucus production. The immunomodulatory effect that bacterial lysates have on the response to fungi is TLR4-independent but MyD88 dependent. Thus, different types of microbial products within the airway can alter the host's adaptive immune response, and potentially impact the development of allergic airway disease to environmental fungal antigens. PMID:19224641

  4. Expanding Fungal Diets Through Synthetic Algal-Fungal Mutualism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Alaisha; Galazka, Jonathan (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    Fungi can synthesize numerous molecules with important properties, and could be valuable production platforms for space exploration and colonization. However, as heterotrophs, fungi require reduced carbon. This limits their efficiency in locations such as Mars, where reduced carbon is scarce. We propose a system to induce mutualistic symbiosis between the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa. This arrangement would mimic natural algal-fungal relationships found in lichens, but have added advantages including increased growth rate and genetic tractability. N. crassa would metabolize citrate (C6H5O7 (sup -3)) and release carbon dioxide (CO2) that C. reinhardtii would assimilate into organic sugars during photosynthesis. C. reinhardtii would metabolize nitrate (NO3-) and release ammonia (NH3) as a nitrogen source for N. crassa. A N. crassa mutant incapable of reducing nitrate will be used to force this interaction. This system eliminates the need to directly supply its participants with carbon dioxide and ammonia. Furthermore, the release of oxygen by C. reinhardtii via photosynthesis would enable N. crassa to respire. We hope to eventually create a system closer to lichen, in which the algae transfers not only nitrogen but reduced carbon, as organic sugars, to the fungus for growth and production of valuable compounds.

  5. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  6. Analysis of fungal ball rhinosinusitis by culturing fungal clumps under endoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junyi; Li, Yunchuan; Lu, Xinxin; Wang, Xiangdong; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Zhou, Bing; Zhang, Luo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the clinical microbiology of fungal ball (FB) rhinosinusitis by culturing fungal clumps collected under endoscopic surgery. Methods: From April to November of 2012, fungal clumps were sampled by endoscopic surgery from patients diagnosed with FB using clinical and histopathological methods. The specimens were subjected to smear microscopy, and cultured for bacteria and fungi analysis. Results: Out of the 81 specimens from 80 patients, 69 (69/81, 85.19%) specimens were detected a mixed infection of bacteria and fungi. However, only 25 (25/81, 30.86%) specimens resulted in fungal growth. There were 12 (12/81, 14.81%) specimens with fungal infections alone. The cultured fungi included 36 strains belonging to five genera, and most of them were Aspergillus spp. (30/36, 83.3%). The cultured bacteria included 94 strains belonging to 16 genera, and the most frequently seen was Staphylococcus spp. (23/94, 35.94%). When it was fungal and Pseudomonas aeruginosa mixed infection, the fungal growth was inhibited (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Patients with fungal ball usually have mixed fungal and bacterial infections. The fungi from these samples are sometimes difficult to culture, which may be the result of the inhibition by bacteria in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26131186

  7. (Post-)genomics approaches in fungal research.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Pontes, María Victoria; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, Miaomiao

    2014-11-01

    To date, hundreds of fungal genomes have been sequenced and many more are in progress. This wealth of genomic information has provided new directions to study fungal biodiversity. However, to further dissect and understand the complicated biological mechanisms involved in fungal life styles, functional studies beyond genomes are required. Thanks to the developments of current -omics techniques, it is possible to produce large amounts of fungal functional data in a high-throughput fashion (e.g. transcriptome, proteome, etc.). The increasing ease of creating -omics data has also created a major challenge for downstream data handling and analysis. Numerous databases, tools and software have been created to meet this challenge. Facing such a richness of techniques and information, hereby we provide a brief roadmap on current wet-lab and bioinformatics approaches to study functional genomics in fungi. PMID:25037051

  8. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  9. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we describe the disease symptoms and protocols commonly used in research of honey bee fungal diseases chalkbrood and stonebrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis and Aspergillus spp. respectively....

  10. Scolecobasidium humicola, a fungal pathogen of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1973-01-01

    Scolecobasidium humicola, a previously undescribed fungal pathogen of fish was isolated from coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In natural infections the kidney was the organ most affected. The disease was difficult to transmit experimentally and appeared to be only weakly contagious.

  11. Intracranial fungal aneurysm caused by Candida endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Takeda, S; Wakabayashi, K; Yamazaki, K; Miyakawa, T; Arai, H

    1998-01-01

    We describe a 67-year-old man who died 4 days after suffering a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Autopsy revealed a fresh subarachnoid hemorrhage and a ruptured fungal aneurysm near the trifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery. In comparison with 21 previously reported cases in which the fungal aneurysms were proved to be intracranial, the present case had several characteristic features: the causative fungus of the aneurysm was Candida (only one such case has been reported previously). The aneurysm was caused by direct Candida invasion of the arterial wall from the Candida embolus (previously reported aneurysms have been caused by direct invasion of the arterial wall during fungal meningitis). The source of the Candida was endocarditis (the main sources of fungus in previously reported cases have been sinusitis, dental extraction wounds, and some forms of surgery). We describe the features of this rare autopsy case of a ruptured fungal aneurysm caused by Candida originating from endocarditis and review the literature. PMID:9707334

  12. Foreword: Special issue on fungal grapevine diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An impressively large proportion of fungicides applied in European, North American and Australian agriculture has been used to manage grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator), grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), and botrytis bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea). These fungal and oomycetous plan...

  13. Developing fungal pigments for "painting" vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sara C

    2012-02-01

    The use of fungal pigments as color additives to wood as a method to increase forest revenue is a relatively new, but quickly developing field. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is currently the primary utilized hardwood for spalting and appears to be the best suited North American hardwood for such purposes. The combination of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta has been identified in several instances as a strong fungal pairing for zone line production; however, Xylaria polymorpha is capable of creating zone lines without the antagonism of a secondary fungus. Few fungal pigments have been developed for reliable use; Scytalidium cuboideum is capable of producing a penetrating pink/red stain, as well as a blue pigment after extended incubation, and Chlorociboria sp. produces a blue/green pigment if grown on aspen (Populus tremuloides). Several opportunities exist for stimulation of fungal pigments including the use of copper sulfate and changes in wood pH. PMID:22237673

  14. The structure and function of fungal cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozawa, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The structure and function of fungal cell walls were studied with particular emphasis on dermatophytes. Extraction, isolation, analysis, and observation of the cell wall structure and function were performed. The structure is described microscopically and chemically.

  15. Update on Multistate Outbreak of Fungal Infections Associated with Contaminated Methylprednisolone Injections, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    McCotter, Orion Z; Smith, Rachel M; Westercamp, Mathew; Kerkering, Thomas M; Malani, Anurag N; Latham, Robert; Peglow, Sheree L; Mody, Rajal K; Pappas, Peter G; Chiller, Tom M

    2015-10-30

    During September 2012, CDC, in collaboration with state and local health departments and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), investigated a multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections caused by injections of contaminated methylprednisolone acetate solution (MPA). After this unprecedented outbreak, scientists in the CDC Mycotic Diseases Branch, along with infectious diseases specialists who cared for patients from the outbreak, clinical experts, and public health officials from affected states, have continued to monitor the recovery of affected patients. A long-term follow-up study involving these patients was initiated and is being conducted by the Mycoses Study Group Education and Research Consortium (MSGERC). This update summarizes subsequent information about the current state of the outbreak. PMID:26513534

  16. Downscaling the in vitro test of fungal bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Drevinskas, Tomas; Mickienė, Rūta; Maruška, Audrius; Stankevičius, Mantas; Tiso, Nicola; Mikašauskaitė, Jurgita; Ragažinskienė, Ona; Levišauskas, Donatas; Bartkuvienė, Violeta; Snieškienė, Vilija; Stankevičienė, Antanina; Polcaro, Chiara; Galli, Emanuela; Donati, Enrica; Tekorius, Tomas; Kornyšova, Olga; Kaškonienė, Vilma

    2016-02-01

    The miniaturization and optimization of a white rot fungal bioremediation experiment is described in this paper. The optimized procedure allows determination of the degradation kinetics of anthracene. The miniaturized procedure requires only 2.5 ml of culture medium. The experiment is more precise, robust, and better controlled comparing it to classical tests in flasks. Using this technique, different parts, i.e., the culture medium, the fungi, and the cotton seal, can be analyzed. A simple sample preparation speeds up the analytical process. Experiments performed show degradation of anthracene up to approximately 60% by Irpex lacteus and up to approximately 40% by Pleurotus ostreatus in 25 days. Bioremediation of anthracene by the consortium of I. lacteus and P. ostreatus shows the biodegradation of anthracene up to approximately 56% in 23 days. At the end of the experiment, the surface tension of culture medium decreased comparing it to the blank, indicating generation of surfactant compounds. PMID:26660875

  17. Inner-City Energy and Environmental Education Consortium: Inventory of existing programs, Second edition. Appendix 13.11

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-23

    This is the second edition of an inventory of existing educational programs, focused primarily on inner-city youth, in operation in Washington, DC, Baltimore, and Philadelphia. The first edition was published on 21 August 1992 and can be obtained from the Weston Institute. However, the complete context of the first edition are included in this edition. The purpose of the inventory is to identify existing programs which could be augmented, adapted, or otherwise strengthened to help fulfil the mission of the Department of Energy-sponsored Inner-City Energy and Environmental Education Consortium, the mission of which is to recruit and retain inner-city youth to pursue careers in energy-related scientific and technical areas and in environmental restoration and waste management. In planning its programs, the Consortium does not want to ``reinvent the wheel`` and all of its members need to learn what others are doing. Each of the 32 participating academic institutions was invited to submit as many program descriptions as they wished. Due to the summer holidays, or because they did not believe than they were carrying out programs relevant to the mission of the Consortium, some institutions did not submit any program descriptions for the first edition. This second edition lists programs of 27 participating institutions. In addition, several industries, governmental agencies, and not-for-profit institutions were invited to submit program descriptions.

  18. Lichensphere: a protected natural microhabitat of the non-lichenised fungal communities living in extreme environments of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Iara F; Soares, Marco Aurélio; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-11-01

    We surveyed the diversity, distribution and ecology of non-lichenised fungal communities associated with the Antarctic lichens Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra across Antarctica. The phylogenetic study of the 438 fungi isolates identified 74 taxa from 21 genera of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota. The most abundant taxa were Pseudogymnoascus sp., Thelebolus sp., Antarctomyces psychrotrophicus and Cryptococcus victoriae, which are considered endemic and/or highly adapted to Antarctica. Thirty-five fungi may represent new and/or endemic species. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, the similarity among the communities was variable. After discovering rich and diverse fungal communities composed of symbionts, decomposers, parasites and endemic and cold-adapted cosmopolitan taxa, we introduced the term "lichensphere". We hypothesised that the lichensphere may represent a protected natural microhabitat with favourable conditions able to help non-lichenised fungi and other Antarctic life forms survive and disperse in the extreme environments of Antarctica. PMID:26400492

  19. Fungal biodegradation of pomegranate ellagitannins.

    PubMed

    Ascacio-Valdés, Juan A; Buenrostro, José J; De la Cruz, Reynaldo; Sepúlveda, Leonardo; Aguilera, Antonio F; Prado, Arely; Contreras, Juan C; Rodríguez, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2014-01-01

    Ellagitannins (ETs) are phytochemicals derived from secondary metabolism associated to defense system, with complex chemical structures, which have high participation during all stages of protection against microbial infection. In this study, we report the fungal biodegradation of a bioactive ET, named punicaline which was recovered and purified from pomegranate peels and used as carbon source in solid-state culture (SSC) using polyurethane as solid support. SSC was kinetically monitored during 36 h of incubation time. ETs and glycosides consumption were spectrophotometrically determined. Ellagic acid (EA) accumulation was analyzed by HPLC. Several enzymatic activities were assayed (cellulase, xylanase, β-glucosydase, polyphenoloxidase, tannase, and ET hydrolyzing activities). The consumption levels of ETs and glycosides were 66 and 40%, while EA accumulation reached 42.02 mg g(-1). A differential pattern of enzymatic activities was found; evidence from our studies suggests that the ET hydrolyzing activity is directly associated to EA accumulation, and production of this enzyme may represent the most critical step to successfully develop a bioprocess for production of an important bioactive compound, the EA. PMID:23564673

  20. Atopic cough and fungal allergy

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We have shown that some patients presenting with chronic bronchodilator-resistant non-productive cough have a global atopic tendency and cough hypersensitivity without nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness, abbreviated as atopic cough (AC). The cough can be treated successfully with histamine H1 antagonists and/or glucocorticoids. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis and cough hypersensitivity are pathological and physiological characteristics of AC. Fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC) is defined as chronic cough associated with basidiomycetous (BM) fungi found in induced sputum, and recognition of FACC has provided the possibility of using antifungal drugs as new treatment strategies. Bjerkandera adusta is a wood decay BM fungus, which has attracted attention because of its potential role in enhancing the severity of cough symptoms in FACC patients by sensitization to this fungus. Before making a diagnosis of “idiopathic cough” in cases of chronic refractory cough, remaining intractable cough-related laryngeal sensations, such as “a sensation of mucus in the throat (SMIT),” which is correlated with fungal colonization, should be evaluated and treated appropriately in each patient. The new findings, i.e., the detection of environmental mushroom spores that should not be present in the human airways in addition to the good clinical response of patients to antifungal drugs, may lead to the development of novel strategies for treatment of chronic cough. PMID:25383202

  1. Atopic cough and fungal allergy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    We have shown that some patients presenting with chronic bronchodilator-resistant non-productive cough have a global atopic tendency and cough hypersensitivity without nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness, abbreviated as atopic cough (AC). The cough can be treated successfully with histamine H1 antagonists and/or glucocorticoids. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis and cough hypersensitivity are pathological and physiological characteristics of AC. Fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC) is defined as chronic cough associated with basidiomycetous (BM) fungi found in induced sputum, and recognition of FACC has provided the possibility of using antifungal drugs as new treatment strategies. Bjerkandera adusta is a wood decay BM fungus, which has attracted attention because of its potential role in enhancing the severity of cough symptoms in FACC patients by sensitization to this fungus. Before making a diagnosis of "idiopathic cough" in cases of chronic refractory cough, remaining intractable cough-related laryngeal sensations, such as "a sensation of mucus in the throat (SMIT)," which is correlated with fungal colonization, should be evaluated and treated appropriately in each patient. The new findings, i.e., the detection of environmental mushroom spores that should not be present in the human airways in addition to the good clinical response of patients to antifungal drugs, may lead to the development of novel strategies for treatment of chronic cough. PMID:25383202

  2. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    PubMed

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies. PMID:27147531

  3. Association of fungal secondary metabolism and sclerotial biology

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Ana M.; Cary, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal secondary metabolism and morphological development have been shown to be intimately associated at the genetic level. Much of the literature has focused on the co-regulation of secondary metabolite production (e.g., sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus flavus, respectively) with conidiation or formation of sexual fruiting bodies. However, many of these genetic links also control sclerotial production. Sclerotia are resistant structures produced by a number of fungal genera. They also represent the principal source of primary inoculum for some phytopathogenic fungi. In nature, higher plants often concentrate secondary metabolites in reproductive structures as a means of defense against herbivores and insects. By analogy, fungi also sequester a number of secondary metabolites in sclerotia that act as a chemical defense system against fungivorous predators. These include antiinsectant compounds such as tetramic acids, indole diterpenoids, pyridones, and diketopiperazines. This chapter will focus on the molecular mechanisms governing production of secondary metabolites and the role they play in sclerotial development and fungal ecology, with particular emphasis on Aspergillus species. The global regulatory proteins VeA and LaeA, components of the velvet nuclear protein complex, serve as virulence factors and control both development and secondary metabolite production in many Aspergillus species. We will discuss a number of VeA- and LaeA-regulated secondary metabolic gene clusters in A. flavus that are postulated to be involved in sclerotial morphogenesis and chemical defense. The presence of multiple regulatory factors that control secondary metabolism and sclerotial formation suggests that fungi have evolved these complex regulatory mechanisms as a means to rapidly adapt chemical responses to protect sclerotia from predators, competitors and other environmental stressors. PMID:25762985

  4. Computational Astrophysics Consortium 3 - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, Stan

    2014-08-29

    Final project report for UCSC's participation in the Computational Astrophysics Consortium - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis. As an appendix, the report of the entire Consortium is also appended.

  5. Implementing Teleconference Educational Programming in a Community College Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Jan Flohr

    1983-01-01

    Lists seven requisites for the implementation of community college teleconferencing. Describes the development of a consortium comprised of 15 Iowa community colleges and Iowa State University designed to increase educational program offerings using the community college telenet system. Analyzes results and problems and offers recommendations.…

  6. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Phillips, D.I.; Luttrell, G.H.; Basim, B.; Sohn, S.

    1996-07-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The consortium has three charter members, including Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky. The Consortium also includes industry affiliate members that form an Advisory Committee. In keeping with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee, first-year R&D activities are focused on two areas of research: fine coal dewatering and modeling of spirals. The industry representatives to the Consortium identified fine coal dewatering as the most needed area of technology development. Dewatering studies will be conducted by Virginia Tech`s Center for Coal and Minerals Processing. A spiral model is developed by West Virginia University. The research to be performed by the University of Kentucky has recently been determined to be: ``A Study of Novel Approaches for Destabilization of Flotation Froth``. Acoomplishments to date are reported.

  7. Reflections on the MEC Consortium: Classroom Teacher as Teacher Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Edward W.

    The role of teachers serving as policy board members of the Metrolina Educational Consortium (MEC) in North Carolina is discussed. The MEC is concerned with teacher education programs and is composed of classroom teachers, college representatives, local education agency staff, and state education department staff. The board members are mandated to…

  8. The Research Consortium, 1977-2010: Contributions, Milestones, and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Claman, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    Research and innovation are a cornerstone of any progressive organization. The Research Consortium (RC) has served as the principal organization fulfilling this function on behalf of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) throughout much of its history. The RC is an organization of approximately 5,000…

  9. Places to Go: OpenCourseWare Consortium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In his Places to Go column, Stephen Downes visits the OpenCourseWare Consortium, a Web site that consolidates access to multiple university-based open courseware initiatives and materials. Downes finds, however, that the site's layout and restricted access hinders the development of the very community it proposes to be supporting. Downes'…

  10. University Library Cooperation in Israel: The MALMAD Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Elhanan

    1999-01-01

    Describes the MALMAD (Israel Center for Digital Information Services) consortium that was set up by the eight universities of Israel to serve as a common framework for the procurement and licensing of digital information. Discusses the organizational framework, budget, services, and future plans. (Author/LRW)

  11. AACJC International/Intercultural Consortium Summer Study Programs Overseas, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Becky

    Responses are presented to a questionnaire on overseas summer programs that was sent in January 1979 to members of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges (AACJC) International/Intercultural Consortium (IIC). Program descriptions are listed alphabetically by world region and country. Program information includes: name of program,…

  12. The Consortium for Advancing Renewable Energy Technology (CARET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, E. M.; Henderson, D. O.; Buffinger, D. R.; Fuller, C. W.; Uribe, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Consortium for Advancing Renewable Energy (CARET) is a research and education program which uses the theme of renewable energy to build a minority scientist pipeline. CARET is also a consortium of four universities and NASA Lewis Research Center working together to promote science education and research to minority students using the theme of renewable energy. The consortium membership includes the HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities), Fisk, Wilberforce and Central State Universities as well as Kent State University and NASA Lewis Research Center. The various stages of this pipeline provide participating students experiences with a different emphasis. Some emphasize building enthusiasm for the classroom study of science and technology while others emphasize the nature of research in these disciplines. Still others focus on relating a practical application to science and technology. And, of great importance to the success of the program are the interfaces between the various stages. Successfully managing these transitions is a requirement for producing trained scientists, engineers and technologists. Presentations describing the CARET program have been given at this year's HBCU Research Conference at the Ohio Aerospace Institute and as a seminar in the Solar Circle Seminar series of the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. In this report, we will describe the many positive achievements toward the fulfillment of the goals and outcomes of our program. We will begin with a description of the interactions among the consortium members and end with a description of the activities of each of the member institutions .

  13. Academic Library Consortium in Jordan: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mustafa H.; Suleiman, Raid Jameel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the current financial and managerial difficulties that are encountered by libraries in public universities in Jordan and the geographical diffusion of these academic institutions, the idea of establishing a consortium was proposed by the Council of Higher Education to combine these libraries. This article reviews the reality of…

  14. It Takes a Consortium to Support Open Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Judy

    2009-01-01

    If the Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources (CCCOER) has its way, expensive textbooks may go the way of typewriters and carbon paper. Ideally, Internet access for all students would allow educators to replace commercially printed textbooks with interactive digital textbooks and personal learning environments. However, until…

  15. Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome (Prrs) Host Genetics Consortium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A PRRS Host Genetics Consortium has been formed in the US; its objectives are to use genotyping and phenotyping tools to determine if there are host genes controlling resistance/susceptibility to PRRSV infection. The general plan is to use the nursery pig model of primary response to infection, i.e....

  16. The Appalachian Model Teaching Consortium: Preparing Teachers for Rural Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proffit, Alvin C.; Sale, R. Paul; Alexander, Ann E.; Andrews, Ruth S.

    2004-01-01

    The Appalachian Model Teacher Consortium is a partnership involving Radford University, Wytheville Community College, and the Grayson County (Virginia) School System. Its purpose is to prepare highly qualified teachers for rural southwest Virginia. The model was developed in response to the growing teacher shortage facing school districts in rural…

  17. The Worker Rights Consortium Makes Strides toward Legitimacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Werf, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of the Workers Rights Consortium, a student-originated group with 44 member institutions which opposes sweatshop labor conditions especially in the apparel industry. Notes disagreements about the number of administrators on the board of directors and about the role of industry representives. Compares this group with the…

  18. Virginia Space Grant Consortium Upper Atmospheric Payload Balloon System (Vps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marz, Bryan E.; Ash, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the launch and post-launch activities of Virginia Space Grant Consortium Upper Atmospheric Payload Balloon System, V(ps). It is a comprehensive overview covering launch activities, post-launch activities, experimental results, and future flight recommendations.

  19. Organizing a Basic Skills Consortium: The Results of a Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenstein, Ronnie B.

    A one-day meeting of leaders of basic skills organizations was held in order to create a consortium to promote the sharing of ideas and information, assist in the transfer of effective programs and materials, and encourage the joint development of new programs and products to train adults and youth in need. After familiarizing themselves with the…

  20. The Non-Territorial Imperative in a CBTE Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry, Kent B.

    The problems associated with development of a field based teacher education program in the public schools are examined. Conflict between the college education department and the cooperating schools for control of time and curriculum frequently appears in such programs. A model is proposed for the structure and development of a consortium that…

  1. Teach Louisiana Consortium: A Fifth Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haj-Broussard, Michelle; Stringer, Angelle

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a fifth year program evaluation of a private provider program for teacher certification in Louisiana. The study sought to evaluate the success of the Teach Louisiana Consortium program in terms of teacher placement, teacher retention, administrative satisfaction, teacher attitudes, and teacher pedagogical knowledge. Initial…

  2. Alabama Linkage: An Innovative Higher Education Consortium Maximizing Statewide Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Charles L.; And Others

    In the late 1960's and early 1970's, attracting physicians to areas of rural Alabama was virtually impossible because of the lack of professional health care workers available to become part of the necessary health care team. To address this problem, the University of Alabama (UA) adopted a plan to create a consortium of higher education…

  3. The LearnShare Consortium: A Model for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corry, Rick

    LearnShare is a consortium of non-competing companies that share training expertise and innovative practices. Evolving the concept of a collaborative approach to training, LearnShare combines the best training practices and programs of the partners with leading-edge distance learning technology. The result provides LearnShare members electronic…

  4. Health Science Careers: Tech Prep Consortium for New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maillet, Julie O'Sullivan; D'Anna, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    A high school health sciences program consists of an interdisciplinary core curriculum, clinical job shadowing, and potential to earn college credit. Interactive television and CD-ROMs enhance teaching. A consortium of high schools offers the tech prep program in collaboration with the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. (SK)

  5. Appeal Resource and Training Consortium (ARTC) 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    APPEAL (Asia Pacific Programme of Education for All) Resource and Training Consortium (ARTC) was initiated in May 1997 at the Technical Working Group Meeting organized by APPEAL in cooperation with the Indian Institute of Education (IIE) to provide technical support and assistance to the work of APPEAL among the Member States. This booklet is a…

  6. Western Pennsylvania Schools Without Failure Consortium: First Year Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, James R.

    The consortium was formed in the summer of 1971 as a means of implementing William Glasser's philosophy and methods. The program was implemented in two parochial elementary schools and in nine public elementary schools located in eight school districts. The evaluation discussed in this report included questionnaires to measure pupil self concepts…

  7. The Detroit Approach to Adapted Physical Education and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Bruce; Czapski, Stephen

    The report describes Detroit's Adaptive Physical Education Consortium Project in Michigan. Among the main objectives of the project are to coordinate all physical education and recreation services to the handicapped in the Detroit area; to facilitate the mainstreaming of capable handicapped individuals into existing "regular" physical education…

  8. Improving safety of aircraft engines: a consortium approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasche, Lisa J. H.

    1996-11-01

    With over seven million departures per year, air transportation has become not a luxury, but a standard mode of transportation for the United States. A critical aspect of modern air transport is the jet engine, a complex engineered component that has enabled the rapid travel to which we have all become accustomed. One of the enabling technologies for safe air travel is nondestructive evaluation, or NDE, which includes various inspection techniques used to assess the health or integrity of a structure, component, or material. The Engine Titanium Consortium (ETC) was established in 1993 to respond to recommendations made by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Titanium Rotating Components Review Team (TRCRT) for improvements in inspection of engine titanium. Several recent accomplishments of the ETC are detailed in this paper. The objective of the Engine Titanium Consortium is to provide the FAAand the manufacturers with reliable and costeffective new methods and/or improvements in mature methods for detecting cracks, inclusions, and imperfections in titanium. The consortium consists of a team of researchers from academia and industry-namely, Iowa State University, Allied Signal Propulsion Engines, General Electric Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Engines-who work together to develop program priorities, organize a program plan, conduct the research, and implement the solutions. The true advantage of the consortium approach is that it brings together the research talents of academia and the engineering talents of industry to tackle a technology-base problem. In bringing industrial competitors together, the consortium ensures that the research results, which have safety implications and result from FAA funds, are shared and become part of the public domain.

  9. 25 CFR 1000.425 - How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal conference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.425 How does a Tribe/Consortium request an informal conference? The Tribe/Consortium shall file its request for an informal conference with the...

  10. 47 CFR 54.636 - Eligible participant-constructed and owned network facilities for consortium applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... network facilities for consortium applicants. 54.636 Section 54.636 Telecommunication FEDERAL... owned network facilities for consortium applicants. (a) Subject to the funding limitations under §§ 54.675 and 54.638 and the following restrictions, consortium applicants may receive support for...

  11. 47 CFR 54.636 - Eligible participant-constructed and owned network facilities for consortium applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... network facilities for consortium applicants. 54.636 Section 54.636 Telecommunication FEDERAL... owned network facilities for consortium applicants. (a) Subject to the funding limitations under §§ 54.675 and 54.638 and the following restrictions, consortium applicants may receive support for...

  12. 77 FR 43237 - Genome in a Bottle Consortium-Work Plan Review Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Genome in a Bottle Consortium--Work Plan Review Workshop... stakeholders about the draft consortium work plan, broadly solicit consortium membership from interested stakeholders, and invite members to participate in work plan implementation. DATES: The Genome in a...

  13. 24 CFR 943.124 - What elements must a consortium agreement contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What elements must a consortium agreement contain? 943.124 Section 943.124 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND... elements must a consortium agreement contain? (a) The consortium agreement among the participating...

  14. 24 CFR 943.124 - What elements must a consortium agreement contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What elements must a consortium agreement contain? 943.124 Section 943.124 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND... elements must a consortium agreement contain? (a) The consortium agreement among the participating...

  15. 24 CFR 943.124 - What elements must a consortium agreement contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What elements must a consortium agreement contain? 943.124 Section 943.124 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND... elements must a consortium agreement contain? (a) The consortium agreement among the participating...

  16. 24 CFR 943.124 - What elements must a consortium agreement contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What elements must a consortium agreement contain? 943.124 Section 943.124 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND... elements must a consortium agreement contain? (a) The consortium agreement among the participating...

  17. 24 CFR 943.124 - What elements must a consortium agreement contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What elements must a consortium agreement contain? 943.124 Section 943.124 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... elements must a consortium agreement contain? (a) The consortium agreement among the participating...

  18. Etiological Analysis of Fungal Keratitis and Rapid Identification of Predominant Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    He, Dan; Hao, Jilong; Gao, Song; Wan, Xue; Wang, Wanting; Shan, Qiushi; Wang, Li

    2016-02-01

    Fungal keratitis is a worldwide-distributed refractory and potentially blinding ocular infection caused by various fungi. It is necessary to investigate the etiological and epidemiological characteristics of this disease and establish a rapid and specific pathogenic identification method. Here, we isolated and identified fungal pathogens of 275 patients with presumed fungal keratitis from Jilin Province, China, and conducted statistical analyses of epidemiological information. The positive rate of fungal culture was 72.0 %. Fusarium sp. was the most common genus among 210 fungal isolates. The predominant species were Fusarium solani, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida glabrata, which accounted for over 50 % of the isolated organisms. Corneal trauma and previous use of drugs were the most important predisposing factors. In addition, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was designed with species-specific primers of the three species that could identify them with amplicons of approximately 330 bp from F. solani, 275 bp from A. fumigatus, and 230 bp from C. glabrata. Additionally, PCR with fungal universal primers and multiplex PCR were performed using DNA prepared by an improved DNA extraction method from corneal scrapings. With this method, fungal pathogens from corneal scrapings could be specifically and rapidly identified within 8 h. The culture-independent rapid identification of corneal scrapings may have great significance for the early diagnosis and treatment of fungal keratitis. PMID:26446032

  19. Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M S; Frisvad, J C; Nielsen, P V

    1998-06-30

    The influence of fungal starter cultures on growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal contaminants associated with cheese was studied on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. Isolates of the species Penicillium nalgiovense, P. camemberti, P. roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum were used as fungal starters. The species P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. verrucosum, P. discolor, P. solitum, P. coprophilum and Aspergillus versicolor were selected as contaminants. The fungal starters showed different competitive ability on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. The presence of the Penicillium species, especially P. nalgiovense, showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungal contaminants on laboratory media. G. candidum caused a significant inhibition of the fungal contaminants on Camembert cheese. The results indicate that G. candidum plays an important role in competition with undesirable microorganisms in mould fermented cheeses. Among the starters, P. nalgiovense caused the largest reduction in secondary metabolite production of the fungal contaminants on the laboratory medium. On Camembert cheese no significant changes in metabolite production of the fungal contaminants was observed in the presence of the starters. PMID:9706802

  20. Pathogenic roles for fungal melanins.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, E S

    2000-10-01

    Melanins represent virulence factors for several pathogenic fungi; the number of examples is growing. Thus, albino mutants of several genera (in one case, mutated precisely in the melanizing enzyme) exhibit decreased virulence in mice. We consider the phenomenon in relation to known chemical properties of melanin, beginning with biosynthesis from ortho-hydroquinone precursors which, when oxidized enzymatically to quinones, polymerize spontaneously to melanin. It follows that melanizing intermediates are cross-linking reagents; melanization stabilizes the external cell wall against hydrolysis and is thought to determine semipermeability in the osmotic ram (the appressorium) of certain plant pathogens. Polymeric melanins undergo reversible oxidation-reduction reactions between cell wall-penetrating quinone and hydroquinone oxidation states and thus represent polymeric redox buffers; using strong oxidants, it is possible to titrate the melanin on living cells and thereby demonstrate protection conferred by melanin in several species. The amount of buffering per cell approximately neutralizes the amount of oxidant generated by a single macrophage. Moreover, the intermediate oxidation state, the semiquinone, is a very stable free radical and is thought to trap unpaired electrons. We have suggested that the oxidation state of external melanin may be regulated by external Fe(II). An independent hypothesis holds that in Cryptococcus neoformans, an important function of the melanizing enzyme (apart from melanization) is the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III), thereby forestalling generation of the harmful hydroxyl radical from H(2)O(2). Thus, problems in fungal pathogenesis have led to evolving hypotheses regarding melanin functioning. PMID:11023965

  1. Pathogenic Roles for Fungal Melanins

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Eric S.

    2000-01-01

    Melanins represent virulence factors for several pathogenic fungi; the number of examples is growing. Thus, albino mutants of several genera (in one case, mutated precisely in the melanizing enzyme) exhibit decreased virulence in mice. We consider the phenomenon in relation to known chemical properties of melanin, beginning with biosynthesis from ortho-hydroquinone precursors which, when oxidized enzymatically to quinones, polymerize spontaneously to melanin. It follows that melanizing intermediates are cross-linking reagents; melanization stabilizes the external cell wall against hydrolysis and is thought to determine semipermeability in the osmotic ram (the appressorium) of certain plant pathogens. Polymeric melanins undergo reversible oxidation-reduction reactions between cell wall-penetrating quinone and hydroquinone oxidation states and thus represent polymeric redox buffers; using strong oxidants, it is possible to titrate the melanin on living cells and thereby demonstrate protection conferred by melanin in several species. The amount of buffering per cell approximately neutralizes the amount of oxidant generated by a single macrophage. Moreover, the intermediate oxidation state, the semiquinone, is a very stable free radical and is thought to trap unpaired electrons. We have suggested that the oxidation state of external melanin may be regulated by external Fe(II). An independent hypothesis holds that in Cryptococcus neoformans, an important function of the melanizing enzyme (apart from melanization) is the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III), thereby forestalling generation of the harmful hydroxyl radical from H2O2. Thus, problems in fungal pathogenesis have led to evolving hypotheses regarding melanin functioning. PMID:11023965

  2. The Evolution of Fungal Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rokas, Antonis

    2014-01-01

    Fungi contain a remarkable range of metabolic pathways, sometimes encoded by gene clusters, enabling them to digest most organic matter and synthesize an array of potent small molecules. Although metabolism is fundamental to the fungal lifestyle, we still know little about how major evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication (GD) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), have interacted with clustered and non-clustered fungal metabolic pathways to give rise to this metabolic versatility. We examined the synteny and evolutionary history of 247,202 fungal genes encoding enzymes that catalyze 875 distinct metabolic reactions from 130 pathways in 208 diverse genomes. We found that gene clustering varied greatly with respect to metabolic category and lineage; for example, clustered genes in Saccharomycotina yeasts were overrepresented in nucleotide metabolism, whereas clustered genes in Pezizomycotina were more common in lipid and amino acid metabolism. The effects of both GD and HGT were more pronounced in clustered genes than in their non-clustered counterparts and were differentially distributed across fungal lineages; specifically, GD, which was an order of magnitude more abundant than HGT, was most frequently observed in Agaricomycetes, whereas HGT was much more prevalent in Pezizomycotina. The effect of HGT in some Pezizomycotina was particularly strong; for example, we identified 111 HGT events associated with the 15 Aspergillus genomes, which sharply contrasts with the 60 HGT events detected for the 48 genomes from the entire Saccharomycotina subphylum. Finally, the impact of GD within a metabolic category was typically consistent across all fungal lineages, whereas the impact of HGT was variable. These results indicate that GD is the dominant process underlying fungal metabolic diversity, whereas HGT is episodic and acts in a category- or lineage-specific manner. Both processes have a greater impact on clustered genes, suggesting that metabolic gene clusters

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community divergence within a common host plant in two different soils in a subarctic Aeolian sand area.

    PubMed

    Francini, Gaia; Männistö, Minna; Alaoja, Vilhelmiina; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2014-10-01

    There is rising awareness that different arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have different autoecology and occupy different soil niches and that the benefits they provide to the host plant are dependent on plant-AM fungus combination. However, the role and community composition of AM fungi in succession are not well known and the northern latitudes remain poorly investigated ecosystems. We studied AM fungal communities in the roots of the grass Deschampsia flexuosa in two different, closely located, successional stages in a northern Aeolian sand area. The AM fungal taxa richness in planta was estimated by cloning and sequencing small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. AM colonization, shoot δ (13)C signature, and %N and %C were measured. Soil microbial community structure and AM fungal mycelium abundance were estimated using phospholipid (PLFA) and neutral lipid (NLFA) analyses. The two successional stages were characterized by distinct plant, microbial, and fungal communities. AM fungal species richness was very low in both the early and late successional stages. AM frequency in D. flexuosa roots was higher in the early successional stage than in the late one. The AM fungal taxa retrieved belonged to the genera generally adapted to Arctic or extreme environments. AM fungi seemed to be important in the early stage of the succession, suggesting that AM fungi may help plants to better cope with the harsh environmental conditions, especially in an early successional stage with more extreme environmental fluctuations. PMID:24687606

  4. Preliminary study of the fungal ecology at the haematology and medical-oncology ward in Bamako, Mali.

    PubMed

    Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Normand, Anne Cécile; Diallo, Yacouba Lazarre; Dembelé, Abdoul Karim; Thera, Mahamadou A; Diallo, Dapa; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ranque, Stéphane

    2014-08-01

    Data on fungal epidemiology in sub-Saharan African countries are scarce. This exploratory study aimed to characterize the fungal flora at the Onco-Haematology ward of the National Teaching Hospital of Point G in Bamako, Mali. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the dry and in the rainy seasons. Nasal swab and sputum samples were collected from the hospitalized patients while airborne fungal spores were collected using electrostatic dust-fall collectors. Fungi were identified by their morphological characteristics and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Candida albicans was the most frequent yeast species colonizing patients; Aspergillus species were isolated in 86 % of the patients and were the main airborne environmental contaminants. Overall, airborne fungal contamination rates increased from 33.8 % in the dry to 66.2 % in the rainy season (p < 0.001). The most frequent Aspergillus species were Aspergillus niger (36.6 %) and Aspergillus flavus (32.92 %). In contrast, Aspergillus fumigatus (5.43 %) was relatively rare. This high level of fungal exposure raises concern regarding the management of at-risk patients in this Onco-Haematology ward and stresses the need for strengthening the mycological diagnostic capacities to accompany the implementation of adapted fungal infection prevention and management policies. PMID:24889723

  5. Pupal cocoons affect sanitary brood care and limit fungal infections in ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The brood of ants and other social insects is highly susceptible to pathogens, particularly those that penetrate the soft larval and pupal cuticle. We here test whether the presence of a pupal cocoon, which occurs in some ant species but not in others, affects the sanitary brood care and fungal infection patterns after exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum. We use a) a comparative approach analysing four species with either naked or cocooned pupae and b) a within-species analysis of a single ant species, in which both pupal types co-exist in the same colony. Results We found that the presence of a cocoon did not compromise fungal pathogen detection by the ants and that species with cocooned pupae increased brood grooming after pathogen exposure. All tested ant species further removed brood from their nests, which was predominantly expressed towards larvae and naked pupae treated with the live fungal pathogen. In contrast, cocooned pupae exposed to live fungus were not removed at higher rates than cocooned pupae exposed to dead fungus or a sham control. Consistent with this, exposure to the live fungus caused high numbers of infections and fungal outgrowth in larvae and naked pupae, but not in cocooned pupae. Moreover, the ants consistently removed the brood prior to fungal outgrowth, ensuring a clean brood chamber. Conclusion Our study suggests that the pupal cocoon has a protective effect against fungal infection, causing an adaptive change in sanitary behaviours by the ants. It further demonstrates that brood removal–originally described for honeybees as “hygienic behaviour”–is a widespread sanitary behaviour in ants, which likely has important implications on disease dynamics in social insect colonies. PMID:24125481

  6. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  7. Proteomics of survival structures of fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Loginov, Dmitry; Šebela, Marek

    2016-09-25

    Fungal pathogens are causal agents of numerous human, animal, and plant diseases. They employ various infection modes to overcome host defense systems. Infection mechanisms of different fungi have been subjected to many comprehensive studies. These investigations have been facilitated by the development of various '-omics' techniques, and proteomics has one of the leading roles in this regard. Fungal conidia and sclerotia could be considered the most important structures for pathogenesis as their germination is one of the first steps towards a host infection. They represent interesting objects for proteomic studies because of the presence of unique proteins with unexplored biotechnological potential required for pathogen viability, development and the subsequent host infection. Proteomic peculiarities of survival structures of different fungi, including those of biotechnological significance (e.g., Asperillus fumigatus, A. nidulans, Metarhizium anisopliae), in a dormant state, as well as changes in the protein production during early stages of fungal development are the subjects of the present review. We focused on biological aspects of proteomic studies of fungal survival structures rather than on an evaluation of proteomic approaches. For that reason, proteins that have been identified in this context are discussed from the point of view of their involvement in different biological processes and possible functions assigned to them. This is the first review paper summarizing recent advances in proteomics of fungal survival structures. PMID:26777984

  8. Incidence and Outcome of Documented Fungal Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Badiee, Parisa; Amirghofran, Ahmad Ali; Ghazi Nour, Mohammad; Shafa, Masih; Nemati, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fungal endocarditis, the most severe form of infective endocarditis, is characterized by excessive mortality and morbidity. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the characteristics of fungal endocarditis to improve the management of these patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, vegetations on the mitral or tricuspid valves and embolic material surgically removed from the patients with suspected infective endocarditis between December 2009 and November 2011 were examined for fungal infection by direct smear and culture, and the susceptibility patterns of the isolated species were determined. Then, blood samples were cultured on BACTEC media and real-time PCR was done with blood and tissue samples. Results: Of the 31 patients with suspected infective endocarditis who did not respond to antibacterial therapy, 11 had confirmed fungal endocarditis. The most frequent predisposing risk factors were previous surgery and drug abuse. The organisms isolated were Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans. Resistance to amphotericin B and itraconazole was observed in Aspergillus species, and to fluconazole in Candida albicans. Positive PCR results were obtained in blood and tissue samples. Conclusions: Fungal endocarditis should be considered in the patients not responsive to antimicrobials. Moreover, management of these patients can be improved with molecular diagnostic methods and by determining the susceptibility patterns of the etiologic agents. PMID:25614858

  9. Burden of serious fungal infections in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Lagrou, Katrien; Maertens, Johan; Van Even, Ellen; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to estimate the total number of serious fungal infections occurring yearly in Belgium. The number of cryptococcal infections was retrieved from the National Reference Center for Mycosis. Populations at risk and fungal infections frequencies in these populations were used to estimate incidence or prevalence of other fungal infections. The Belgian population consists of 11.10 million people. Cryptococcal meningitis is rare. In all, 15 of the 1227 newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS cases presented with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. This accounts for ±14% of total PCP cases (n = 120). The incidence of candidaemia is estimated as 5/100,000 resulting in 555 cases and 213 deaths. A total number of 675 invasive aspergillosis cases and ≥169 deaths attributed to this infection were calculated. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is estimated to be prevalent in 662 cases. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis cases were estimated to be 23,119 applying a 2.5% and 15% rate in adult asthma and cystic fibrosis patients respectively. Severe asthma with fungal sensitisation cases was estimated to be 30,402. There were 174,760 women with recurrent Candida vaginitis assuming a 6% rate in women aged between 15 and 50. Approximately 233,000 people of the Belgian population (2.1%) are estimated to suffer from a fungal infection on a yearly basis. PMID:26449500

  10. [Pulmonary fungal infection in patients with AIDS].

    PubMed

    Denis, B; Lortholary, O

    2013-10-01

    Fungal infections are the most common opportunistic infections (OI) occurring during the course of HIV infection, though their incidence has decreased dramatically with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART). Most cases occur in untreated patients, noncompliant patients or patients whose multiple antiretroviral regimens have failed and they are a good marker of the severity of cellular immunodepression. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is the second most frequent OI in France and cryptococcosis remains a major problem in the Southern Hemisphere. With the increase in travel, imported endemic fungal infection can occur and may mimic other infections, notably tuberculosis. Fungal infections often have a pulmonary presentation but an exhaustive search for dissemination should be made in patients infected with HIV, at least those at an advanced stage of immune deficiency. Introduction of cART in combination with anti-fungal treatment depends on the risk of AIDS progression and on the risk of cumulative toxicity and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) if introduced too early. Fungal infections in HIV infected patients remain a problem in the cART era. IRIS can complicate the management and requires an optimised treatment regime. PMID:24182654

  11. Towards a Cancer Drug of Fungal Origin

    PubMed Central

    Kornienko, Alexander; Evidente, Antonio; Vurro, Maurizio; Mathieu, Véronique; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Marco; van Otterlo, Willem A. L.; Dasari, Ramesh; Lefranc, Florence; Kiss, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Although fungi produce highly structurally diverse metabolites, many of which have served as excellent sources of pharmaceuticals, no fungi-derived agent has been approved as a cancer drug so far. This is despite a tremendous amount of research being aimed at the identification of fungal metabolites with promising anticancer activities. This review discusses the results of clinical testing of fungal metabolites and their synthetic derivatives, with the goal to evaluate how far we are from an approved cancer drug of fungal origin. Also, because in vivo studies in animal models are predictive of the efficacy and toxicity of a given compound in a clinical situation, literature describing animal cancer testing of compounds of fungal origin is reviewed as well. Agents showing the potential to advance to clinical trials are also identified. Finally, the technological challenges involved in the exploitation of fungal biodiversity and procurement of sufficient quantities of clinical candidates are discussed and potential solutions that could be pursued by researchers are highlighted. PMID:25850821

  12. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  13. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    PubMed

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26646287

  14. Potential Roles of Fungal Extracellular Vesicles during Infection.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Luna S; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by virtually all cell types. Within the past few years, work in this field has revealed more information about fungal EVs. Fungal EVs have been shown to carry proteins, lipids, pigments, polysaccharides, and RNA; these components are known virulence factors, a fact which supports the hypothesis that fungal EVs concentrate pathogenic determinants. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated that fungal EVs stimulate the host immune system. In this review, putative roles of fungal EVs are discussed, including their potential as vaccination tools and their possible contribution to pathogenesis in invasive fungal diseases. PMID:27390779

  15. Potential Roles of Fungal Extracellular Vesicles during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Luna S.; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by virtually all cell types. Within the past few years, work in this field has revealed more information about fungal EVs. Fungal EVs have been shown to carry proteins, lipids, pigments, polysaccharides, and RNA; these components are known virulence factors, a fact which supports the hypothesis that fungal EVs concentrate pathogenic determinants. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated that fungal EVs stimulate the host immune system. In this review, putative roles of fungal EVs are discussed, including their potential as vaccination tools and their possible contribution to pathogenesis in invasive fungal diseases. PMID:27390779

  16. Fungal infections in burns: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Struck, M F; Gille, J

    2013-09-30

    Burn wound infections remain the most important factor limiting survival in burn intensive care units. Large wound surface, impaired immune systems, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy contribute to the growth of opportunistic fungal species. Faced with challenging fluid resuscitation, wound excision and cardiopulmonary stabilization, mycosis in burns are likely to be underestimated. Diagnostic performance can sometimes be delayed because clinical signs are unspecific and differentiation between colonization and infection is difficult. Therapeutic measures range from infection prophylaxis over treatment with antifungal agents towards radical amputation of infected limbs. New methods of early and reliable detection of fungal organisms, as well as the use of novel antifungal substances, are promising but require wider establishment to confirm the beneficial effects in burn patients. This review aims to highlight the main important aspects of fungal infections in burns including incidence, infection control, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, prognosis and outcomes. PMID:24563641

  17. Virulence factors in fungal pathogens of man.

    PubMed

    Brunke, Sascha; Mogavero, Selene; Kasper, Lydia; Hube, Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    Human fungal pathogens are a commonly underestimated cause of severe diseases associated with high morbidity and mortality. Like other pathogens, their survival and growth in the host, as well as subsequent host damage, is thought to be mediated by virulence factors which set them apart from harmless microbes. In this review, we describe and discuss commonly employed strategies for fungal survival and growth in the host and how these affect the host-fungus interactions to lead to disease. While many of these strategies require host-specific virulence factors, more generally any fitness factor which allows growth under host-like conditions can be required for pathogenesis. Furthermore, we briefly summarize how different fungal pathogens are thought to damage the host. We find that in addition to a core of common activities relevant for growth, different groups of fungi employ different strategies which in spite of (or together with) the host's response can lead to disease. PMID:27257746

  18. Prospects for the development of fungal vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Deepe, G S

    1997-01-01

    In an era that emphasizes the term "cost-effective," vaccines are the ideal solution to preventing disease at a relatively low cost to society. Much of the previous emphasis has been on childhood scourges such as measles, mumps, rubella, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. The concept of vaccines for fungal diseases has had less impact because of the perceived limited problem. However, fungal diseases have become increasingly appreciated as serious medical problems that require recognition and aggressive management. The escalation in the incidence and prevalence of infection has prompted a renewed interest in vaccine development. Herein, I discuss the most recent developments in the search for vaccines to combat fungal infections. Investigators have discovered several inert substances from various fungi that can mediate protection in animal models. The next challenge will be to find the suitable mode of delivery for these immunogens. PMID:9336663

  19. [Fungal keratitis caused by Cylindrocarpon lichenicola].

    PubMed

    Gaujoux, T; Borsali, E; Gavrilov, J-C; Touzeau, O; Goldschmidt, P; Despiau, M-C; Chaumeil, C; Laroche, L; Borderie, V

    2012-05-01

    We report a case of a 67-year-old woman with no significant past ocular history, who was referred for management of an unresponsive microbial keratitis resulting from trauma with a piece of clothing fabric 1 month previously in Portugal and worsening despite topical fortified antibiotics. On examination, visual acuity was limited to "light perception". Slit lamp examination revealed an 11×11mm full-thickness corneal infiltrate. Confocal images showed branching hyphae suggestive of a fungal infection. Fungal cultures of corneal scrapings revealed growth of Cylindrocarpon lichenicola, a saprophytic, filamentous fungus, which is an unusual cause of keratitis. Despite aggressive antifungal therapy with voriconazole and amphotericin B, she required penetrating keratoplasty for impending corneal perforation. Follow-up was uneventful, with no recurrence at 1 year. Fungal infections must be suspected in all corneal ulcers of traumatic etiology. Specific cultures and confocal microscopy must be performed early, so as to enable early treatment modification. PMID:22137679

  20. Immunological Consequences of Intestinal Fungal Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Matthew L; Limon, Jose J; Bar, Agnieszka S; Leal, Christian A; Gargus, Matthew; Tang, Jie; Brown, Jordan; Funari, Vincent A; Wang, Hanlin L; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe; Underhill, David M; Iliev, Iliyan D

    2016-06-01

    Compared to bacteria, the role of fungi within the intestinal microbiota is poorly understood. In this study we investigated whether the presence of a "healthy" fungal community in the gut is important for modulating immune function. Prolonged oral treatment of mice with antifungal drugs resulted in increased disease severity in acute and chronic models of colitis, and also exacerbated the development of allergic airway disease. Microbiota profiling revealed restructuring of fungal and bacterial communities. Specifically, representation of Candida spp. was reduced, while Aspergillus, Wallemia, and Epicoccum spp. were increased. Oral supplementation with a mixture of three fungi found to expand during antifungal treatment (Aspergillus amstelodami, Epicoccum nigrum, and Wallemia sebi) was sufficient to recapitulate the exacerbating effects of antifungal drugs on allergic airway disease. Taken together, these results indicate that disruption of commensal fungal populations can influence local and peripheral immune responses and enhance relevant disease states. PMID:27237365

  1. Fungal infections in burns: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Struck, M.F.; Gille, J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Burn wound infections remain the most important factor limiting survival in burn intensive care units. Large wound surface, impaired immune systems, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy contribute to the growth of opportunistic fungal species. Faced with challenging fluid resuscitation, wound excision and cardiopulmonary stabilization, mycosis in burns are likely to be underestimated. Diagnostic performance can sometimes be delayed because clinical signs are unspecific and differentiation between colonization and infection is difficult. Therapeutic measures range from infection prophylaxis over treatment with antifungal agents towards radical amputation of infected limbs. New methods of early and reliable detection of fungal organisms, as well as the use of novel antifungal substances, are promising but require wider establishment to confirm the beneficial effects in burn patients. This review aims to highlight the main important aspects of fungal infections in burns including incidence, infection control, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, prognosis and outcomes. PMID:24563641

  2. A Consortium of Universities Partnering with Tribal Colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, G. A.; Rattling Leaf, J.

    2003-12-01

    Institutions participating in the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) are the Universities of North Dakota, Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming; North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana State Universities; the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; and Sinte Gleska University. UMAC?s purpose is to build learning communities integrating researchers with stakeholders, with the intent of leading a regional transition toward sustainability. No single culture has a monopoly on ideas for a sustainable future; in fact, the more diverse the input, the better the emergent ideas will be. The region spanned by the Consortium includes 20 Indian reservations and 18 tribal colleges/universities. The input from these institutions is an essential part of any integrated program to change lifestyles for the benefit of present and future generations. Success stories in education and in resource management, including management of cultural and sacred resources by tribal officials and educators, will be described.

  3. Meeting Report from the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) Workshop 8

    PubMed Central

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Field, Dawn; Sterk, Peter; Kottmann, Renzo; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Hirschman, Lynette; Garrity, George M.; Cochrane, Guy; Wooley, John

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the 8th meeting of the Genomic Standards Consortium held at the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute in Walnut Creek, CA, USA on September 9-11, 2009. This three-day workshop marked the maturing of Genomic Standards Consortium from an informal gathering of researchers interested in developing standards in the field of genomic and metagenomics to an established community with a defined governance mechanism, its own open access journal, and a family of established standards for describing genomes, metagenomes and marker studies (i.e. ribosomal RNA gene surveys). There will be increased efforts within the GSC to reach out to the wider scientific community via a range of new projects. Further information about the GSC and its activities can be found at http://gensc.org/. PMID:21304696

  4. A University Consortium on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Research

    SciTech Connect

    Assanis, Dennis; Atreya, Arvind; Bowman, Craig; Chen, Jyh-Yuan; Cheng, Wai; Davidson, David; Dibble, Robert; Edwards, Chris; Filipi, Zoran; Golden, David; Green, William; Hanson, Ronald; Hedrick, J Karl; Heywood, John; Im, Hong; Lavoie, George; Sick, Volker; Wooldridge, Margaret

    2007-03-31

    Over the course of this four year project, the consortium team members from UM, MIT, Stanford, and Berkeley along with contributors from Sandia National Labs and LLNL, have produced a wide range of results on gasoline HCCI control and implementation. The work spanned a wide range of activities including engine experiments, fundamental chemical kinetics experiments, and an array of analytical modeling techniques and simulations. Throughout the project a collaborative approach has produced a many significant new insights into HCCI engines and their behavior while at the same time we achieved our key consortium goal: to develop workable strategies for gasoline HCCI control and implementation. The major accomplishments in each task are summarized, followed by detailed discussion.

  5. Identification & Characterization of Fungal Ice Nucleation Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Kampf, Christopher Johannes; Mauri, Sergio; Weidner, Tobias; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures is dependent on ice nucleation catalysis facilitated by ice nuclei (IN). These IN can be of various origins and although extensive research was done and progress was achieved, the nature and mechanisms leading to an effective IN are to date still poorly understood. Some of the most important processes of our geosphere like the water cycle are highly dependent on effective ice nucleation at temperatures between -2°C - -8°C, a temperature range which is almost exclusively covered by biological IN (BioIN). BioIN are usually macromolecular structures of biological polymers. Sugars as well as proteins have been reported to serve as IN and the best characterized BioIN are ice nucleation proteins (IN-P) from gram negative bacteria. Fungal strains from Fusarium spp. were described to be effective IN at subfreezing temperatures up to -2°C already 25 years ago and more and more fungal species are described to serve as efficient IN. Fungal IN are also thought to be proteins or at least contain a proteinaceous compound, but to date the fungal IN-P primary structure as well as their coding genetic elements of all IN active fungi are unknown. The aim of this study is a.) to identify the proteins and their coding genetic elements from IN active fungi (F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, M. alpina) and b.) to characterize the mechanisms by which fungal IN serve as effective IN. We designed an interdisciplinary approach using biological, analytical and physical methods to identify fungal IN-P and describe their biological, chemical, and physical properties.

  6. Fungal infections in burns: Diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Capoor, Malini R.; Sarabahi, Sujata; Tiwari, Vinay Kumar; Narayanan, Ravi Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Burn wound infection (BWI) is a major public health problem and the most devastating form of trauma worldwide. Fungi cause BWI as part of monomicrobial or polymicrobial infection, fungaemia, rare aggressive soft tissue infection and as opportunistic infections. The risk factors for acquiring fungal infection in burns include age of burns, total burn size, body surface area (BSA) (30–60%), full thickness burns, inhalational injury, prolonged hospital stay, late surgical excision, open dressing, artificial dermis, central venous catheters, antibiotics, steroid treatment, long-term artificial ventilation, fungal wound colonisation (FWC), hyperglycaemic episodes and other immunosuppressive disorders. Most of the fungal infections are missed owing to lack of clinical awareness and similar presentation as bacterial infection coupled with paucity of mycology laboratories. Expedient diagnosis and treatment of these mycoses can be life-saving as the mortality is otherwise very high. Emergence of resistance in non-albicans Candida spp., unusual yeasts and moulds in fungal BWI, leaves very few fungi susceptible to antifungal drugs, leaving many patients susceptible. There is a need to speciate fungi as far as the topical and systemic antifungal is concerned. Deep tissue biopsy and other relevant samples are processed by standard mycological procedures using direct microscopy, culture and histopathological examination. Patients with FWC should be treated by aggressive surgical debridement and, in the case of fungal wound infection (FWI), in addition to surgical debridement, an intravenous antifungal drug, most commonly amphotericin B or caspofungin, is prescribed followed by de-escalating with voriconazole or itraconazole, or fluconazole depending upon the species or antifungal susceptibility, if available. The propensity for fungal infection increases, the longer the wound is present. Therefore, the development of products to close the wound more rapidly, improvement in

  7. Transformation of phenol into phenylalanine by a methanogenic consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, F.; Milot, S.; Beaudet, R.; Villemur, R.

    1996-03-01

    Phenol is a widely used chemical found in many wastewaters of industrial origin. The degradation of phenol by methanogenic bacterial consortia has been reported by many investigators. To better characterise the metabolism of this consortium, a new metabolic pathway of benzoic acid, an intermediary in the degradation of phenol, is reported. This study describes the transformations of benzoic acid into 3-phenylpropionic acid and phenylalanine. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  8. FLYSUB-Consortium Tracking and RICH Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Soha, Aria; Azumoun, Bob; Blatnik, Marie; Pak, Robert; Purschke, Martin; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Woody, Craig; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Hohlmann, Marcus; Twigger, Jessie; Zhang, Aiwu; Dehmelt, Klaus; Deshpande, Abhay; Feege, Nils; Hemmick, Thomas; Bai, Xinzhang; Gnanvo, Kondo; Gu, Chao; Liyanage, Nilanga; Majka, Richard; Smirnov, Nikolai

    2013-09-23

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experiments of FLYSUB-Consortium who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2013-2014 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The ultimate goal of this test-beam effort is to test and verify the performance of the individual components according to their expectation.

  9. The Cometa Consortium and the PI2S2 project .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becciani, U.

    The new grid e-Infrastructure in Sicily is offering new perspectives and important resources and starts to give new great opportunity for research using the HPC resources. We will show the infrastructure of the Cometa Consortium, the main activities of the PI2S2 project and the new challenges, mainly in the HPC area, that the project is carrying out. A simple but useful procedure for running HPC is also described.

  10. Vesicular transport across the fungal cell wall

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Williamson, Peter; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that fungi use vesicular transport to deliver substances across their cell walls. Fungal vesicles are similar to mammalian exosomes and could originate from cytoplasmic multivesicular bodies. Vesicular transport enables the export of large molecules across the cell wall, and vesicles contain lipids, proteins and polysaccharides, many of which are associated with virulence. Concentration of fungal products in vesicles could increase their efficiency in food acquisition and/or delivering potentially noxious substances to other cells, such as amoebae or phagocytes. The discovery of vesicular transport in fungi opens many new avenues for investigation in basic cell biology and pathogenesis. PMID:19299133

  11. Fungal proteinaceous compounds with multiple biological activities.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Chan, Yau Sang; Dan, Xiuli; Pan, Wenliang; Wang, Hexiang; Guan, Suzhen; Chan, Ki; Ye, Xiuyun; Liu, Fang; Xia, Lixin; Chan, Wai Yee

    2016-08-01

    Fungi comprise organisms like molds, yeasts and mushrooms. They have been used as food or medicine for a long time. A large number of fungal proteins or peptides with diverse biological activities are considered as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anticancer agents. They encompass proteases, ribosome inactivating proteins, defensins, hemolysins, lectins, laccases, ribonucleases, immunomodulatory proteins, and polysaccharopeptides. The target of the present review is to update the status of the various bioactivities of these fungal proteins and peptides and discuss their therapeutic potential. PMID:27338574

  12. Biodegradation of hexachlorobenzene by a constructed microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Yan, Da-Zhong; Mao, Ling-Qi; Li, Cun-Zhi; Liu, Jun

    2015-02-01

    A consortium comprised of an engineered Escherichia coli DH5α and a natural pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrader, Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 39723, was assembled for degradation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a persistent organic pollutant. The engineered E. coli strain, harbouring a gene cassette (camA (+) camB (+) camC) that encodes the F87W/Y96F/L244A/V247L mutant of cytochrome P-450cam (CYP101), oxidised HCB to PCP. The resulting PCP was then further completely degraded by ATCC 39723. The results showed that almost 40 % of 4 μM HCB was degraded by the consortium at a rate of 0.033 nmol/mg (dry weight)/h over 24 h, accompanied by transient accumulation and immediate consumption of the intermediate PCP, detected by gas chromatography. In contrast, in the consortium comprised of Pseudomonas putida PaW340 harbouring camA (+) camB (+) camC and ATCC 39723, PCP accumulated in PaW340 cells but could not be further degraded, which may be due to a permeability barrier of Pseudomonas PaW340 for PCP transportation. The strategy of bacterial co-culture may provide an alternative approach for the bioremediation of HCB contamination. PMID:25532745

  13. Essential metals at the host–pathogen interface: nutritional immunity and micronutrient assimilation by human fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Aaron; Wilson, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The ability of pathogenic microorganisms to assimilate sufficient nutrients for growth within their hosts is a fundamental requirement for pathogenicity. However, certain trace nutrients, including iron, zinc and manganese, are actively withheld from invading pathogens in a process called nutritional immunity. Therefore, successful pathogenic species must have evolved specialized mechanisms in order to adapt to the nutritionally restrictive environment of the host and cause disease. In this review, we discuss recent advances which have been made in our understanding of fungal iron and zinc acquisition strategies and nutritional immunity against fungal infections, and explore the mechanisms of micronutrient uptake by human pathogenic fungi. PMID:26242402

  14. Indirect effects of a fungal entomopathogen, Lecanicillium lecanii (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), on a coffee agroecosystem ant community.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, A J; Jackson, D; Zemenick, K

    2013-08-01

    Fungal entomopathogens are widely distributed across natural and managed systems, with numerous host species and likely a wide range of community impacts. While the potential for fungal pathogens to provide biological control has been explored in some detail, less is known about their community interactions. Here we investigate the effects of fungal epizootics of the entomopathogen Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmerman) on a keystone mutualism between Azteca instabilis (F. Smith), a dominant arboreal ant, and the green coffee scale (Coccus viridis Green), as well as broader impacts on a coffee agroecosystem ant community. We hypothesized that seasonal epizootics cause shifts in the foraging ranges of A. instabilis as the ants adapt to the loss of the resource. We further hypothesized that the magnitude of these shifts depends on the availability of alternate resources located in neighboring shade trees. To test these hypotheses, we induced an epizootic in experimental sites, which were compared with control sites. Surveys of ant activity were undertaken pre- and post-epizootic. We found a decrease in foraging activity of A. instabilis and increase in activity of other ant species in the experimental sites post-epizootic. The decrease in abundance of A. instabilis foragers was greater on plants in which an epizootic was induced than in other plants. This relationship was modified by shade tree density where higher shade tree density was associated with larger decreases in A. intabilis foraging activity in coffee plants. These results demonstrate the potential for fungal entomopathogens to influence the structure and diversity of ecological communities. PMID:23905728

  15. Temporal variation of Bistorta vivipara-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in the High Arctic.

    PubMed

    Mundra, Sunil; Bahram, Mohammad; Tedersoo, Leho; Kauserud, Håvard; Halvorsen, Rune; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken

    2015-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are important for efficient nutrient uptake of several widespread arctic plant species. Knowledge of temporal variation of ECM fungi, and the relationship of these patterns to environmental variables, is essential to understand energy and nutrient cycling in Arctic ecosystems. We sampled roots of Bistorta vivipara ten times over two years; three times during the growing-season (June, July and September) and twice during winter (November and April) of both years. We found 668 ECM OTUs belonging to 25 different ECM lineages, whereof 157 OTUs persisted throughout all sampling time-points. Overall, ECM fungal richness peaked in winter and species belonging to Cortinarius, Serendipita and Sebacina were more frequent in winter than during summer. Structure of ECM fungal communities was primarily affected by spatial factors. However, after accounting for spatial effects, significant seasonal variation was evident revealing correspondence with seasonal changes in environmental conditions. We demonstrate that arctic ECM richness and community structure differ between summer (growing-season) and winter, possibly due to reduced activity of the core community, and addition of fungi adapted for winter conditions forming a winter-active fungal community. Significant month × year interactions were observed both for fungal richness and community composition, indicating unpredictable between-year variation. Our study indicates that addressing seasonal changes requires replication over several years. PMID:26547806

  16. Aspergillus fumigatus mitochondrial electron transport chain mediates oxidative stress homeostasis, hypoxia responses, and fungal pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grahl, Nora; Dinamarco, Taisa Magnani; Willger, Sven D.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Cramer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We previously observed that hypoxia is an important component of host microenvironments during pulmonary fungal infections. However, mechanisms of fungal growth in these in vivo hypoxic conditions are poorly understood. Here, we report that mitochondrial respiration is active in hypoxia (1% oxygen) and critical for fungal pathogenesis. We generated Aspergillus fumigatus alternative oxidase (aoxA) and cytochrome C (cycA) null mutants and assessed their ability to tolerate hypoxia, macrophage killing, and virulence. In contrast to ΔaoxA, ΔcycA was found to be significantly impaired in conidia germination, growth in normoxia and hypoxia, and displayed attenuated virulence. Intriguingly, loss of cycA results in increased levels of AoxA activity, which results in increased resistance to oxidative stress, macrophage killing, and long-term persistence in murine lungs. Thus, our results demonstrate a previously unidentified role for fungal mitochondrial respiration in the pathogenesis of aspergillosis, and lay the foundation for future research into its role in hypoxia signaling and adaptation. PMID:22443190

  17. Chemosensitization of fungal pathogens to antimicrobial agents using phenolic compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the theory behind use of chemosensitization to control fungal pathogens. Oxidative stress response systems of fungal pathogens play important roles in protecting cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during host defense or environmental factors. Therefore, oxidati...

  18. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-16

    MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

  19. 25 CFR 1000.281 - Does FTCA cover employees of the Tribe/Consortium who are paid by the Tribe/Consortium from funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... paid by the Tribe/Consortium from funds other than those provided through the self-governance AFA? 1000... who are paid by the Tribe/Consortium from funds other than those provided through the self-governance... services out of which the claim arose were performed in carrying out the self-governance AFA....

  20. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  1. Fungal bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues; opportunities & perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and beta-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

  2. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Ghabrial, Said A.; Castón, José R.; Nibert, Max L.; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  3. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  4. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases) and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium) have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains. PMID:19774110

  5. Fungal association with sessile marine invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Yarden, Oded

    2014-01-01

    The presence and association of fungi with sessile marine animals such as coral and sponges has been well established, yet information on the extent of diversity of the associated fungi is still in its infancy. Culture – as well as metagenomic – and transcriptomic-based analyses have shown that fungal presence in association with these animals can be dynamic and can include “core” residents as well as shifts in fungal communities. Evidence for detrimental and beneficial interactions between fungi and their marine hosts is accumulating and current challenges include the elucidation of the chemical and cellular crosstalk between fungi and their associates within the holobionts. The ecological function of fungi in association with sessile marine animals is complex and is founded on a combination of factors such as fungal origin, host health, environmental conditions and the presence of other resident or invasive microorganisms in the host. Based on evidence from the much more studied terrestrial systems, the evaluation of marine animal–fungal symbioses under varying environmental conditions may well prove to be critical in predicting ecosystem response to global change, including effects on the health of sessile marine animals. PMID:24860565

  6. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yarden, O.; Ebbole, D.J.; Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Dickman, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  7. Simple quantification of in planta fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, Michael; Periyannan, Sambasivam K; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian; Schumann, Ulrike; Lagudah, Evans; Pryor, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    An accurate assessment of the disease resistance status of plants to fungal pathogens is an essential requirement for the development of resistant crop plants. Many disease resistance phenotypes are partial rather than obvious immunity and are frequently scored using subjective qualitative estimates of pathogen development or plant disease symptoms. Here we report a method for the accurate comparison of total fungal biomass in plant tissues. This method, called the WAC assay, is based upon the specific binding of the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin to fungal chitin. The assay is simple, high-throughput, and sensitive enough to discriminate between single Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici infection sites on a wheat leaf segment. It greatly lends itself to replication as large volumes of tissue can be pooled from independent experiments and assayed to provide truly representative quantification, or, alternatively, fungal growth on a single, small leaf segment can be quantified. In addition, as the assay is based upon a microscopic technique, pathogen infection sites can also be examined at high magnification prior to quantification if desired and average infection site areas are determined. Previously, we have demonstrated the application of the WAC assay for quantifying the growth of several different pathogen species in both glasshouse grown material and large-scale field plots. Details of this method are provided within. PMID:24643560

  8. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. tha...

  9. Other fungal diseases of chickpea and lentil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are about 20 fungal diseases of chickpea and lentil that have very little information available. These diseases may not cause significant damage or may cause damage at specific and limited locales. Examples of these diseases include Cylindrosporium leaf spot and stem canker, Ozonium wilt and...

  10. Habitat filters in fungal endophyte community assembly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes can influence host health, and more broadly, can instigate trophic cascades with effects scaling to the ecosystem level. Despite this, biotic mechanisms of endophyte community assembly are largely unknown. We used maize to investigate three potential habitat filters in endophyte co...

  11. The Amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was developed at a international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the curren...

  12. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; Bittencourt, Mona Lisa de Assis; Caprara, Carolina Canielles; de Freitas, Marcela; de Almeida, Renata Paula Coppini; Silveira, Dâmaris; Fonseca, Yris Maria; Ferreira, Edivaldo Ximenes; Pessoa, Adalberto; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications. PMID:26273247

  13. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; Bittencourt, Mona Lisa de Assis; Caprara, Carolina Canielles; de Freitas, Marcela; de Almeida, Renata Paula Coppini; Silveira, Dâmaris; Fonseca, Yris Maria; Ferreira Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes; Pessoa Junior, Adalberto; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications. PMID:26273247

  14. How to describe a new fungal species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The formal and informal requirements for the publication of descriptions of new fungal species are discussed. This involves following the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature as well as meeting the standards set by the editorial board of the journals in which these descriptions ...

  15. Fungal infections of the folds (intertriginous areas).

    PubMed

    Metin, Ahmet; Dilek, Nursel; Demirseven, Duriye Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections are widespread, regardless of age and gender, in populations all around the world and may affect the skin and skin appendages. Although there are thousands of fungal infections from various genera and families in nature, those that are pathogenic for humans and nesting in skin folds are limited in number. The prevalence and distribution of these fungi vary according to the patients and certain environmental factors. Because the areas including the lids, external auditory canal, behind the ears, navel, inguinal region, and axillae, also called flexures, are underventilated and moist areas exposed to friction, they are especially sensitive to fungal infections. Fungi can both directly invade the skin, leading to infections, and indirectly stimulate immune mechanisms due to tissue interaction and their antigenic character and contribute to the development or exacerbation of secondary bacterial infections, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Superficial fungal infections can be classified and studied as dermatophyte infections, candidal infections, Malassezia infections, and other superficial infections independently from the involved skin fold areas. PMID:26051058

  16. Fungal entomopathogens: new insights on their ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One important mechanism for insect pest control is the use of fungal entomopathogens. Even though these organisms have been studied for more than 100 years, their effective use in the field remains elusive. Recently, however, it has been discovered that many of these entomopathogenic fungi play addi...

  17. ASSESSING ALLERGENICITY OF INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing Allergenicity of Indoor Air Fungal Contaminants
    M D W Ward1, M E Viana2, N Haykal-Coates1, L B Copeland1, S H Gavett1, and MJ K Selgrade1. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Rationale: The indoor environment has increased in impor...

  18. Opportunistic invasive fungal infections: diagnosis & clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Badiee, Parisa; Hashemizadeh, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a significant health problem in immunocompromised patients. The clinical manifestations vary and can range from colonization in allergic bronchopulmonary disease to active infection in local aetiologic agents. Many factors influence the virulence and pathogenic capacity of the microorganisms, such as enzymes including extracellular phospholipases, lipases and proteinases, dimorphic growth in some Candida species, melanin production, mannitol secretion, superoxide dismutase, rapid growth and affinity to the blood stream, heat tolerance and toxin production. Infection is confirmed when histopathologic examination with special stains demonstrates fungal tissue involvement or when the aetiologic agent is isolated from sterile clinical specimens by culture. Both acquired and congenital immunodeficiency may be associated with increased susceptibility to systemic infections. Fungal infection is difficult to treat because antifungal therapy for Candida infections is still controversial and based on clinical grounds, and for molds, the clinician must assume that the species isolated from the culture medium is the pathogen. Timely initiation of antifungal treatment is a critical component affecting the outcome. Disseminated infection requires the use of systemic agents with or without surgical debridement, and in some cases immunotherapy is also advisable. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between drug dose and treatment outcome. Drug dose monitoring is necessary to ensure that therapeutic levels are achieved for optimal clinical efficacy. The objectives of this review are to discuss opportunistic fungal infections, diagnostic methods and the management of these infections. PMID:24718393

  19. Fungal spore fragmentation as a function of airflow rates and fungal generation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaani, Hussein; Hargreaves, Megan; Ristovski, Zoran; Morawska, Lidia

    The aim of this study was to characterise and quantify the fungal fragment propagules derived and released from several fungal species ( Penicillium, Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium cladosporioides) using different generation methods and different air velocities over the colonies. Real time fungal spore fragmentation was investigated using an Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVASP) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The study showed that there were significant differences ( p < 0.01) in the fragmentation percentage between different air velocities for the three generation methods, namely the direct, the fan and the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST) methods. The percentage of fragmentation also proved to be dependent on fungal species. The study found that there was no fragmentation for any of the fungal species at an air velocity ≤0.4 m s -1 for any method of generation. Fluorescent signals, as well as mathematical determination also showed that the fungal fragments were derived from spores. Correlation analysis showed that the number of released fragments measured by the UVAPS under controlled conditions can be predicted on the basis of the number of spores, for Penicillium and A. niger, but not for C. cladosporioides. The fluorescence percentage of fragment samples was found to be significantly different to that of non-fragment samples ( p < 0.0001) and the fragment sample fluorescence was always less than that of the non-fragment samples. Size distribution and concentration of fungal fragment particles were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively, by both UVAPS and SMPS, and it was found that the UVAPS was more sensitive than the SMPS for measuring small sample concentrations, whilethe results obtained from the UVAPS and SMAS were not identical for the same samples.

  20. Fungal infections in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asif; El-Charabaty, Elie; El-Sayegh, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Organ transplantation has always been considered to be the standard therapeutic interventions in patients with end-stage organ failure. In 2008, more than 29,000 organ transplants were performed in US. Survival rates among transplant recipients have greatly improved due to better understanding of transplant biology and more effective immunosuppressive agents. After transplant, the extent of the immune response is influenced by the amount of interleukin 2 (IL-2) being produced by the T-helper cells. Transplant immunosuppressive therapy primarily targets T cell-mediated graft rejection. Calcineurin inhibitor, which includes cyclosporine, pimecrolimus and tacrolimus, impairs calcineurin-induced up-regulation of IL-2 expression, resulting in increased susceptibility to invasive fungal diseases. This immunosuppressive state allows infectious complication, leading to a high mortality rate. Currently, overall mortality due to invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in solid organ transplant recipients ranges between 25% and 80%. The risk of IFI following renal transplant is associated with the dosage of immunosuppressive agents given, environmental factors and post-transplant duration. Most fungal infections occur in the first 6 months after transplant because of the use of numerous immunosuppressors. Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. are the yeasts most frequently isolated, while most frequent filamentous fungi (molds) isolated are Aspergillus spp. The symptoms of systemic fungal infections are non-specific and early detection of fungal infections and proper therapy are important in improving survival and reducing mortality. This article will provide an insight on the risk factors and clinical presentation, compare variation in treatment of IFIs in renal transplant patients, and evaluate the role of prophylactic therapy in this group of patients. We also report the course and management of two renal transplant recipients admitted to Staten Island University Hospital, both of

  1. Fungal Infections in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Asif; El-Charabaty, Elie; El-Sayegh, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation has always been considered to be the standard therapeutic interventions in patients with end-stage organ failure. In 2008, more than 29,000 organ transplants were performed in US. Survival rates among transplant recipients have greatly improved due to better understanding of transplant biology and more effective immunosuppressive agents. After transplant, the extent of the immune response is influenced by the amount of interleukin 2 (IL-2) being produced by the T-helper cells. Transplant immunosuppressive therapy primarily targets T cell-mediated graft rejection. Calcineurin inhibitor, which includes cyclosporine, pimecrolimus and tacrolimus, impairs calcineurin-induced up-regulation of IL-2 expression, resulting in increased susceptibility to invasive fungal diseases. This immunosuppressive state allows infectious complication, leading to a high mortality rate. Currently, overall mortality due to invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in solid organ transplant recipients ranges between 25% and 80%. The risk of IFI following renal transplant is associated with the dosage of immunosuppressive agents given, environmental factors and post-transplant duration. Most fungal infections occur in the first 6 months after transplant because of the use of numerous immunosuppressors. Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. are the yeasts most frequently isolated, while most frequent filamentous fungi (molds) isolated are Aspergillus spp. The symptoms of systemic fungal infections are non-specific and early detection of fungal infections and proper therapy are important in improving survival and reducing mortality. This article will provide an insight on the risk factors and clinical presentation, compare variation in treatment of IFIs in renal transplant patients, and evaluate the role of prophylactic therapy in this group of patients. We also report the course and management of two renal transplant recipients admitted to Staten Island University Hospital, both of

  2. Biosorption of organochlorine pesticides using fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, A L; Smith, E; Smith, J; Naidu, R

    2002-10-01

    Cladosporium strain AJR(3)18501 was tested for its ability to sorb the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) p,p'-DDT from aqueous media. When p,p'-DDT was added to distilled water, ethanol or 1-propanol solutions in excess of its solubility, p,p'-DDT was sorbed onto the fungal biomass. Increasing the amount of p,p'-DDT in solution by changing the medium composition increased sorbent uptake: p,p'-DDT uptake by the fungal biomass was 2.5 times greater in 25% 1-propanol (17 mg of p,p'-DDT g(-1) dry weight fungal biomass) than in distilled water. When p,p'-DDT was dissolved in 25% 1-propanol (12 mg x l(-1)), rapid p,p'-DDT sorption occurred during the first 60 min of incubation. p,p'-DDT in solution was reduced to 2.5 mg x l(-1) with the remaining p,p'-DDT recovered from the fungal biomass. A number of environmental parameters were tested to determine their effect on p,p'-DDT biosorption. As arsenic (As) is prevalent at DDT-contaminated cattle dip sites, its effect on p,p'-DDT uptake was determined. The presence of As [As(III) or As(V) up to 50 mg x l(-1)] did not inhibit p,p'-DDT uptake and neither As species could be sorbed by the fungal biomass. Changing the pH of the medium from pH 3 to 10 had a small effect on p,p'-DDT sorption at low pH indicating that an ion exchange process is not the major mechanism for p,p'-DDT sorption. Other mechanisms such as Van der Waals forces, chemical binding, hydrogen bonding or ligand exchange may be involved in p,p'-DDT uptake by Cladosporium strain AJR(3)18501. PMID:12355313

  3. Cytochemical Labeling for Fungal and Host Components in Plant Tissues Inoculated with Fungal Wilt Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellette, G. B.; Baayen, R. P.; Chamberland, H.; Simard, M.; Rioux, D.; Charest, P. M.

    2004-08-01

    Antibodies to detect pectin in present investigations attached to distinct fibrils in vessel lumina. In carnation infected with an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., labeling of pathogen cells also occurred; in a resistant cultivar (cv.), it was coincident with proximate pectin fibrils and linked to altered fungal walls, which was the opposite in the susceptible cv., indicating that hindrance of pathogen ability to degrade pectin may be related to resistance. Labeling of the fungus in culture was nil, except in media containing pectin, showing that pectin is not native to the pathogen. Labeling of fungal walls for cellulose in elm (inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) and carnation also occurred, linked to adsorbed host wall components. The chitin probe often attached to dispersed matter, in vessel lumina, traceable to irregularly labeled fungal cells and host wall degradation products. With an anti-horseradish peroxidase probe, host and fungal walls were equally labeled, and with a glucosidase, differences of labeling between these walls were observed, depending on pH of the test solution. Fungal extracellular matter and filamentous structures, present in fungal walls, predominantly in another elm isolate (Phaeotheca dimorphospora), did not label with any of the probes used. However, in cultures of this fungus, extracellular material labeled, even at a distance from the colony margin, with an anti-fimbriae probe.

  4. Thin agar film for enhanced fungal growth and microscopic viewing in a new sealable fungal culture case.

    PubMed

    Hill, D R

    1996-09-01

    This project was undertaken to find ways to enhance fungus colony maturation, to make viewing of fungal cultures easier, and to reduce disruption of the fungal structures to be observed for identification. Accordingly, a technique using a thin (0.2-mm) agar film that avoids problems inherent in traditional methods of fungal culture and identification was developed. In addition, to accommodate the 0.2-mm layer of agar film and a contiguous thicker 4-mm section of agar, a sealable fungal culture case that fits within microscope stage calipers and under the objective lenses was invented. The growth and identification of 28 organisms were evaluated in the sealable fungal culture cases and on double-pour agar plates by using potato dextrose agar in both. Compared with results obtained with the double-pour agar plates (rated as "good"), fungal growth and identification with the sealable fungal culture case were superior (rated as "excellent") (P < 0.05, chi-square test). The thin agar film limits excessive mycelial growth, while it often promotes complete sporulation or other forms of maturation of the fungal colony. More importantly, the thin agar film allows direct microscopic viewing of the developing fungal colonies. The portion of the sealable fungal culture case with the 4-mm layer of agar can be used for evaluation of colony pigment and texture. In conclusion, this new sealable fungal culture case allows direct viewing and earlier fungal species identification with greater intrinsic safety. PMID:8862573

  5. Fungal glycan interactions with epithelial cells in allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Roy, René M.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to fungi results in a wide range of health outcomes, from invasive disease or allergy to immune tolerance. Inhaled fungi contact airway epithelial cells as an early event, and this host:fungal interaction can shape the eventual immunological outcome. Emerging evidence points to exposure to fungal cell wall carbohydrates in the development of allergic airway disease. Herein, we describe determinants of fungal allergenicity, and review the responses of airway epithelial cells to fungal carbohydrates. A greater understanding of the recognition of and response to fungal carbohydrates by airway epithelial cells may lead to the development of targeted therapies that ameliorate allergic airway disease. PMID:23602359

  6. Altered Immunity in Crowded Locust Reduced Fungal (Metarhizium anisopliae) Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yundan; Yang, Pengcheng; Cui, Feng; Kang, Le

    2013-01-01

    The stress of living conditions, similar to infections, alters animal immunity. High population density is empirically considered to induce prophylactic immunity to reduce the infection risk, which was challenged by a model of low connectivity between infectious and susceptible individuals in crowded animals. The migratory locust, which exhibits polyphenism through gregarious and solitary phases in response to population density and displays different resistance to fungal biopesticide (Metarhizium anisopliae), was used to observe the prophylactic immunity of crowded animals. We applied an RNA-sequencing assay to investigate differential expression in fat body samples of gregarious and solitary locusts before and after infection. Solitary locusts devoted at least twice the number of genes for combating M. anisopliae infection than gregarious locusts. The transcription of immune molecules such as pattern recognition proteins, protease inhibitors, and anti-oxidation proteins, was increased in prophylactic immunity of gregarious locusts. The differentially expressed transcripts reducing gregarious locust susceptibility to M. anisopliae were confirmed at the transcriptional and translational level. Further investigation revealed that locust GNBP3 was susceptible to proteolysis while GNBP1, induced by M. anisopliae infection, resisted proteolysis. Silencing of gnbp3 by RNAi significantly shortened the life span of gregarious locusts but not solitary locusts. By contrast, gnbp1 silencing did not affect the life span of both gregarious and solitary locusts after M. anisopliae infection. Thus, the GNBP3-dependent immune responses were involved in the phenotypic resistance of gregarious locusts to fungal infection, but were redundant in solitary locusts. Our results indicated that gregarious locusts prophylactically activated upstream modulators of immune cascades rather than downstream effectors, preferring to quarantine rather than eliminate pathogens to conserve energy

  7. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-03-31

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative

  8. Long-term increase in snow depth leads to compositional changes in arctic ectomycorrhizal fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Luis N; Semenova, Tatiana A; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2016-09-01

    Many arctic ecological processes are regulated by soil temperature that is tightly interconnected with snow cover distribution and persistence. Recently, various climate-induced changes have been observed in arctic tundra ecosystems, e.g. shrub expansion, resulting in reduction in albedo and greater C fixation in aboveground vegetation as well as increased rates of soil C mobilization by microbes. Importantly, the net effects of these shifts are unknown, in part because our understanding of belowground processes is limited. Here, we focus on the effects of increased snow depth, and as a consequence, increased winter soil temperature on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in dry and moist tundra. We analyzed deep DNA sequence data from soil samples taken at a long-term snow fence experiment in Northern Alaska. Our results indicate that, in contrast with previously observed responses of plants to increased snow depth at the same experimental site, the ECM fungal community of the dry tundra was more affected by deeper snow than the moist tundra community. In the dry tundra, both community richness and composition were significantly altered while in the moist tundra, only community composition changed significantly while richness did not. We observed a decrease in richness of Tomentella, Inocybe and other taxa adapted to scavenge the soil for labile N forms. On the other hand, richness of Cortinarius, and species with the ability to scavenge the soil for recalcitrant N forms, did not change. We further link ECM fungal traits with C soil pools. If future warmer atmospheric conditions lead to greater winter snow fall, changes in the ECM fungal community will likely influence C emissions and C fixation through altering N plant availability, fungal biomass and soil-plant C-N dynamics, ultimately determining important future interactions between the tundra biosphere and atmosphere. PMID:27004610

  9. Mechanisms of nutrient acquisition and utilization during fungal infections of leaves.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Jessie; Marroquin-Guzman, Margarita; Wilson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Foliar fungal pathogens challenge global food security, but how they optimize growth and development during infection is understudied. Despite adopting several lifestyles to facilitate nutrient acquisition from colonized cells, little is known about the genetic underpinnings governing pathogen adaption to host-derived nutrients. Homologs of common global and pathway-specific gene regulatory elements are likely to be involved, but their contribution to pathogenicity, and how they are connected to broader genetic networks, is largely unspecified. Here, we focus on carbon and nitrogen metabolism in foliar pathogens and consider what is known, and what is not known, about fungal exploitation of host nutrient and ask how common metabolic regulators have been co-opted to the plant-pathogenic lifestyle as well as how nutrients are utilized to drive infection. PMID:24848414

  10. Fungal biodiversity in the periglacial soil of Dosdè Glacier (Valtellina, Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Rodolfi, Marinella; Longa, Claudia Maria Oliveira; Pertot, Ilaria; Tosi, Solveig; Savino, Elena; Guglielminetti, Maria; Altobelli, Elisa; Del Frate, Giuseppe; Picco, Anna Maria

    2016-03-01

    Periglacial areas are one of the least studied habitats on Earth, especially in terms of their fungal communities. In this work, both molecular and culture-dependent methods have been used to analyse the microfungi in soils sampled on the front of the East Dosdè Glacier (Valtellina, Northern Italy). Although this survey revealed a community that was rich in fungal species, a distinct group of psychrophilic microfungi has not been detected. Most of the isolated microfungi were mesophiles, which are well adapted to the sensitive climatic changes that occur in this alpine environment. A discrepancy in the results that were obtained by means of the two diagnostic approaches suggests that the used molecular methods cannot entirely replace traditional culture-dependent methods, and vice versa. PMID:26575579

  11. Geodesy and the UNAVCO Consortium: Three Decades of Innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, L. R.; Miller, M. M.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    UNAVCO, a non-profit, university consortium that supports geoscience research using geodesy, began with the ingenious recognition that the nascent Global Positioning System constellation (GPS) could be used to investigate earth processes. The consortium purchased one of the first commercially available GPS receivers, Texas Instrument's TI-4100 NAVSTAR Navigator, in 1984 to measure plate deformation. This early work was highlighted in a technology magazine, GPSWorld, in 1990. Over a 30-year period, UNAVCO and the community have helped advance instrument design for mobility, flexibility, efficiency and interoperability, so research could proceed with higher precision and under ever challenging conditions. Other innovations have been made in data collection, processing, analysis, management and archiving. These innovations in tools, methods and data have had broader impacts as they have found greater utility beyond research for timing, precise positioning, safety, communication, navigation, surveying, engineering and recreation. Innovations in research have expanded the utility of geodetic tools beyond the solid earth science through creative analysis of the data and the methods. For example, GPS sounding of the atmosphere is now used for atmospheric and space sciences. GPS reflectrometry, another critical advance, supports soil science, snow science and ecological research. Some research advances have had broader impacts for society by driving innovations in hazards risk reduction, hazards response, resource management, land use planning, surveying, engineering and other uses. Furthermore, the geodetic data is vital for the design of space missions, testing and advancing communications, and testing and dealing with interference and GPS jamming. We will discuss three decades (and counting) of advances by the National Science Foundation's premiere geodetic facility, consortium and some of the many geoscience principal investigators that have driven innovations in

  12. Effect of temperature on perchloroethylene dechlorination by a methanogenic consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J.; Skeen, R.S.; Hooker, B.S.

    1995-04-01

    The effect of temperature on the kinetics of growth, substrate metabolism, and perchloroethylene (PCE) dechlorination by a methanogenic consortium is reported. In all cases, a simple kinetic model accurately reflected experimental data. Values for the substrate and methane yield coefficients, and the maximum specific growth rate are fairly consistent at each temperature. Also, the substrate and methane yield coefficients show little temperature sensitivity. In contrast, both the maximum specific growth rate and the PCE dechlorination yield coefficient (Y{sub PCE}) are temperature dependent.

  13. Exploring the genetic basis of stroke. Spanish stroke genetics consortium.

    PubMed

    Giralt-Steinhauer, E; Jiménez-Conde, J; Soriano Tárraga, C; Mola, M; Rodríguez-Campello, A; Cuadrado-Godia, E; Ois, A; Fernández-Cádenas, I; Carrera, C; Montaner, J; Díaz Navarro, R M; Vives-Bauzá, C; Roquer, J

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of stroke genetics studies ranging from the candidate gene approach to more recent studies by the genome wide association. It highlights the complexity of stroke owing to its different aetiopathogenic mechanisms, the difficulties in studying its genetic component, and the solutions provided to date. The study emphasises the importance of cooperation between the different centres, whether this takes places occasionally or through the creation of lasting consortiums. This strategy is currently essential to the completion of high-quality scientific studies that allow researchers to gain a better knowledge of the genetic component of stroke as it relates to aetiology, treatment, and prevention. PMID:23831412

  14. Accessible mixotrophic growth of denitrifying sulfide removal consortium.

    PubMed

    Juang, Ruey-Shin; Wong, Biing-Teo; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-06-01

    Nitrate, sulfide and organic matters in wastewaters can be removed simultaneously by denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process. Complicated interactions between different microbial groups in the DSR medium render the process design and control difficult to implement. A consortium with DSR activity was grown mixotrophically at varying concentrations of nitrate, acetate or ammonium. The kinetic diagram previously proposed was adopted to quantitatively represent DSR performance with accessible regimes of the diagram being identified. Example on the use of the so-yielded accessible regime was provided. PMID:25795451

  15. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    PubMed Central

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of

  16. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    PubMed

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-06-29

    An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of

  17. 'Strengthening the fungal cell wall through chitin-glucan cross-links: effects on morphogenesis and cell integrity'.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Javier; Farkaš, Vladimír; Sanz, Ana Belén; Cabib, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    The cross-linking of polysaccharides to assemble new cell wall in fungi requires transglycosylation mechanisms by which preexisting glycosidic linkages are broken and new linkages are created between the polysaccharides. The molecular mechanisms for these processes, which are essential for fungal cell biology, are only now beginning to be elucidated. Recent development of in vivo and in vitro biochemical approaches has allowed characterization of important aspects about the formation of chitin-glucan covalent cell wall cross-links by cell wall transglycosylases of the CRH family and their biological function. Covalent linkages between chitin and glucan mediated by Crh proteins control morphogenesis and also play important roles in the remodeling of the fungal cell wall as part of the compensatory responses necessary to counterbalance cell wall stress. These enzymes are encoded by multigene families of redundant proteins very well conserved in fungal genomes but absent in mammalian cells. Understanding the molecular basis of fungal adaptation to cell wall stress through these and other cell wall remodeling enzymatic activities offers an opportunity to explore novel antifungal treatments and to identify potential fungal virulence factors. PMID:27185288

  18. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive dyes and dye wastewater by a developed bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Saratale, R G; Saratale, G D; Chang, J S; Govindwar, S P

    2010-11-01

    A bacterial consortium (consortium GR) consisting of Proteus vulgaris NCIM-2027 and Micrococcus glutamicus NCIM-2168 could rapidly decolorize and degrade commonly-used sulfonated reactive dye Green HE4BD and many other reactive dyes. Consortium GR shows markedly higher decolorization activity than that of the individual strains. The preferable physicochemical parameters were identified to achieve higher dye degradation and decolorization efficiency. The supplementation of cheap co-substrates (e.g., extracts of agricultural wastes) could enhance the decolorization performance of consortium GR. Extent of mineralization was determined with TOC and COD measurements, showing nearly complete mineralization of Green HE4BD by consortium GR (up to 90% TOC and COD reduction) within 24 h. Oxidoreductive enzymes seemed to be involved in fast decolorization/degradation process with the evidence of enzymes induction in the bacterial consortium. Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of Green HE4BD by consortium GR are non-toxic. Consortium GR also shows significant biodegradation and decolorization activities for mixture of reactive dyes as well as the effluent from actual dye manufacturing industry. This confers the possibility of applying consortium GR for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing dye pollutants. PMID:20407917

  19. Indicators of airborne fungal concentrations in urban homes: understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Judith A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Anagnost, Susan E; Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L

    2015-06-01

    Indoor fungal exposure can compromise respiratory health. Low-income urban areas are of concern because of high asthma and allergy rates and housing disrepair. Understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures is important for assessing health risks and for developing mitigation strategies. We examined the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside of homes in low-income areas of Syracuse, NY as well as the effect of snow cover on fungal levels. At 103 homes, air samples for viable fungi were collected, occupants were interviewed and homes were inspected for visible mold, musty odors, water problems and other factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to relate high fungal levels to home conditions. Predominant indoor fungi included Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and hyaline unknowns. Basidiomycetes and an uncommon genus Acrodontium were also found frequently due to analysis methods developed for this project. With snow cover, outdoor total fungal levels were depressed and indoor concentrations were three times higher than outdoor on average with a maximum of 29 times higher. Visible mold was related to elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 4.11 95% CI 1.37-14.0) and bacteria (OR 3.79 95% CI 1.41-11.2). Musty, moldy odors were associated with elevated concentrations of total fungi (OR 3.48 95% CI 1.13-11.6) and basidiomycetes. Cockroaches, an indicator of moisture, were associated with elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 3.66 95% CI 1.16-13.1) and Aspergillus (OR 4.36 95% CI 1.60-13.4). Increasing relative humidity was associated with higher concentrations of Penicillium, yeasts and basidiomycetes. Visible mold, musty odors, indoor humidity and cockroaches are modifiable factors that were important determinants of indoor fungal exposures. Indoor air investigators should interpret indoor:outdoor fungal ratios cautiously when snow cover is present. PMID:25725196

  20. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  1. Saprotrophic fungal mycorrhizal symbionts in achlorophyllous orchids

    PubMed Central

    Martos, Florent; Perry, Brian A; Padamsee, Mahajabeen; Roy, Mélanie; Pailler, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Mycoheterotrophic plants are achlorophyllous plants that obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi. They are usually considered to associate with fungi that are (1) specific of each mycoheterotrophic species and (2) mycorrhizal on surrounding green plants, which are the ultimate carbon source of the entire system. Here we review recent works revealing that some mycoheterotrophic plants are not fungal-specific, and that some mycoheterotrophic orchids associate with saprophytic fungi. A re-examination of earlier data suggests that lower specificity may be less rare than supposed in mycoheterotrophic plants. Association between mycoheterotrophic orchids and saprophytic fungi arose several times in the evolution of the two partners. We speculate that this indirectly illustrates why transition from saprotrophy to mycorrhizal status is common in fungal evolution. Moreover, some unexpected fungi occasionally encountered in plant roots should not be discounted as ‘molecular scraps’, since these facultatively biotrophic encounters may evolve into mycorrhizal symbionts in some other plants. PMID:20061806

  2. Overview of fungal lipase: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2012-01-01

    Lipases (triacylglycerolacyl hydrolases, EC3.1.1.3) are class of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides. In this review paper, an overview regarding the fungal lipase production, purification, and application is discussed. The review describes various industrial applications of lipase in pulp and paper, food, detergent, and textile industries. Some important lipase-producing fungal genera include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Candida, etc. Current fermentation process techniques such as batch, fed-batch, and continuous mode of lipase production in submerged and solid-state fermentations are discussed in details. The purification of lipase by hydrophobic interaction chromatography is also discussed. The development of mathematical models applied to lipase production is discussed with special emphasis on lipase engineering. PMID:22072143

  3. Chytrids dominate arctic marine fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Hassett, B T; Gradinger, R

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is altering Arctic ecosystem structure by changing weather patterns and reducing sea ice coverage. These changes are increasing light penetration into the Arctic Ocean that are forecasted to increase primary production; however, increased light can also induce photoinhibition and cause physiological stress in algae and phytoplankton that can favour disease development. Fungi are voracious parasites in many ecosystems that can modulate the flow of carbon through food webs, yet are poorly characterized in the marine environment. We provide the first data from any marine ecosystem in which fungi in the Chytridiomycota dominate fungal communities and are linked in their occurrence to light intensities and algal stress. Increased light penetration stresses ice algae and elevates disease incidence under reduced snow cover. Our results show that chytrids dominate Arctic marine fungal communities and have the potential to rapidly change primary production patterns with increased light penetration. PMID:26754171

  4. Synthetic biology of fungal natural products

    PubMed Central

    Mattern, Derek J.; Valiante, Vito; Unkles, Shiela E.; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an ever-expanding field in science, also encompassing the research area of fungal natural product (NP) discovery and production. Until now, different aspects of synthetic biology have been covered in fungal NP studies from the manipulation of different regulatory elements and heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways to the engineering of different multidomain biosynthetic enzymes such as polyketide synthases or non-ribosomal peptide synthetases. The following review will cover some of the exemplary studies of synthetic biology in filamentous fungi showing the capacity of these eukaryotes to be used as model organisms in the field. From the vast array of different NPs produced to the ease for genetic manipulation, filamentous fungi have proven to be an invaluable source for the further development of synthetic biology tools. PMID:26284053

  5. Fungal invasion of the rhizosphere microbiome.

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Emilie; Mendes, Rodrigo; Bakker, Peter A H M; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2016-01-01

    The rhizosphere is the infection court where soil-borne pathogens establish a parasitic relationship with the plant. To infect root tissue, pathogens have to compete with members of the rhizosphere microbiome for available nutrients and microsites. In disease-suppressive soils, pathogens are strongly restricted in growth by the activities of specific rhizosphere microorganisms. Here, we sequenced metagenomic DNA and RNA of the rhizosphere microbiome of sugar beet seedlings grown in a soil suppressive to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. rRNA-based analyses showed that Oxalobacteraceae, Burkholderiaceae, Sphingobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere upon fungal invasion. Metatranscriptomics revealed that stress-related genes (ppGpp metabolism and oxidative stress) were upregulated in these bacterial families. We postulate that the invading pathogenic fungus induces, directly or via the plant, stress responses in the rhizobacterial community that lead to shifts in microbiome composition and to activation of antagonistic traits that restrict pathogen infection. PMID:26023875

  6. Rodentborne fungal pathogens in wetland agroecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Manuel; Abraham Samuel, K.; Kurian, Punnen

    2012-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed an overwhelming increase in the incidence of fungal infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Consequently, zoonotic diseases, especially through rodents constitute a prominent group among the emerging diseases. Rodents are commensal to man and related health risks are common. Water rats (Rattus norvegicus) are typical to Vembanadu-Kol wetland agroecosystems, where they can act as a good carrier nexus for pathogens. The present study evaluates the carrier status of water rats with respect to fungal pathogens. A total of fifty two fungi covering eighteen families were isolated. Among the isolates, eight were dermaptophytes and Chrysosporium sp. (89.18%) was the frequent isolate. The source-wise analyses showed an increased isolation from ventral hair (67 isolates). Water rats of Vembanadu-Kol wetland agroecosystem are potent carrier of dermaptophytes and other opportunistic fungi, and strong carrier paths are existing too. PMID:24031825

  7. The consortium approach to producing Earth Science courseware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowerbutts, W. T. C.

    1999-05-01

    A unique project to develop a suite of computer-aided learning modules for use in Earth Science teaching and learning has been underway in the UK since 1992. The consortium approach has been used to develop 21 stand-alone courseware modules for use in degree-level courses throughout the UK and beyond. Authoring software and multimedia techniques have been employed to present text, graphics and movies into structured sequences of teaching material that can be used by both teachers and students of geology. Interactions are used extensively in order to retain student interest and provide feedback on progress. Students are encouraged to work through material at their own pace and repeat sequences they do not fully understand. The courseware has been produced mostly by academics involved in teaching and was testing rigorously before courseware was released for general use. The consortium approach to producing courseware is suited to large projects and situations where CAL software is aimed at a wide range of users.

  8. Extending ACTS Operations Through a University-Based Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Robert; Krawcyzk, Richard; Irwin, Dennis; Kruse, Hans

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program was slated for decommissioning in October 2000 as was announced at the 6th Ka-band Utilization Conference in May 2000. Quite a celebration was had at that event too centering on the decommissioning of this very successful technology program. With plans in place to move the spacecraft to an orbital graveyard and then shut the system down, NASA was challenged to consider the feasibility of extending operations for education and research purposes provided that an academic organization would be willing to cover operations costs. Continuing operations of the system was determined viable and in the fall of 2000, an announcement was made by NASA to consider extending operations. Plans are now in place to continue the operations of ACTS through a university-based consortium led by Ohio University, Athens, Ohio. Initial plans are for two more years of operations, with options to extend up to a total of four years. This paper will present the change in plans to continue operations of ACTS. A description of the multi-month transition of the spacecraft to its new and final orbital location is provided. With the spacecraft at this new location, an update on its performance is presented as well as estimates of long-term performance. The consortium development will be presented along with its organization, membership, and operations plans for using ACTS.

  9. Inner-City Energy and Environmental Education Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-11

    The numbers of individuals with adequate education and training to participate effectively in the highly technical aspects of environmental site cleanup are insufficient to meet the increasing demands of industry and government. Young people are particularly sensitive to these issues and want to become better equipped to solve the problems which will confront them during their lives. Educational institutions, on the other hand, have been slow in offering courses and curricula which will allow students to fulfill these interests. This has been in part due to the lack of federal funding to support new academic programs. This Consortium has been organized to initiate focused educational effort to reach inner-city youth with interesting and useful energy and environmental programs which can lead to well-paying and satisfying careers. Successful Consortium programs can be replicated in other parts of the nation. This report describes a pilot program in Washington, DC, Philadelphia, and Baltimore with the goal to attract and retain inner-city youth to pursue careers in energy-related scientific and technical areas, environmental restoration, and waste management.

  10. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, L. E.; Casas, J. P.; Herrera, V. M.; Miranda, J. J.; Perel, P.; Pichardo, R.; González, A.; Sanchez, J. R.; Ferreccio, C.; Aguilera, X.; Silva, E.; Oróstegui, M.; Gómez, L. F.; Chirinos, J. A.; Medina-Lezama, J.; Pérez, C. M.; Suárez, E.; Ortiz, A. P.; Rosero, L.; Schapochnik, N.; Ortiz, Z.; Ferrante, D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Current, high-quality data are needed to evaluate the health impact of the epidemic of obesity in Latin America. The Latin American Consortium of Studies of Obesity (LASO) has been established, with the objectives of (i) Accurately estimating the prevalence of obesity and its distribution by sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) Identifying ethnic, socioeconomic and behavioural determinants of obesity; (iii) Estimating the association between various anthropometric indicators or obesity and major cardiovascular risk factors and (iv) Quantifying the validity of standard definitions of the various indexes of obesity in Latin American population. To achieve these objectives, LASO makes use of individual data from existing studies. To date, the LASO consortium includes data from 11 studies from eight countries (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Peru, Puerto Rico and Venezuela), including a total of 32 462 subjects. This article describes the overall organization of LASO, the individual studies involved and the overall strategy for data analysis. LASO will foster the development of collaborative obesity research among Latin American investigators. More important, results from LASO will be instrumental to inform health policies aiming to curtail the epidemic of obesity in the region. PMID:19438980

  11. Electron donor preference of a reductive dechlorinating consortium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, M.M.; Majcher, E.; Jones, E.; Driedger, G.; Dworatzek, S.; Graves, D.

    2005-01-01

    A wetland sediment-derived microbial consortium was developed by the USGS and propagated in vitro to large quantities by SiREM Laboratory for use in bioaugmentation applications. The consortium had the capacity to completely dechlorinate 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, cis- and trans-1,2-dichoroethylene, 1.1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. A suite of electron donors with characteristics useful for bioaugmentation applications was tested. The electron donors included lactate (the donor used during WBC-2 development), ethanol, chitin (Chitorem???), hydrogen releasing compound (HRC???), emulsified vegetable oil (Newman Zone???), and hydrogen gas. Ethanol, lactate, and chitin were particularly effective with respect to stimulating, supporting, and sustaining reductive dechlorination of the broad suite of chemicals that WBC-2 biodegraded. Chitorem??? was the most effective "slow release" electron donor tested. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the Proceedings of the 8th International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium (Baltimore, MD 6/6-9/2005).

  12. Multiple Syntrophic Interactions in a Terephthalate-Degrading Methanogenic Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Chen, Chia-Lung; Tringe, Susannah G.; McHardy, Alice C.; Copeland, Alex 5; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2010-08-05

    Terephthalate (TA) is one of the top 50 chemicals produced worldwide. Its production results in a TA-containing wastewater that is treated by anaerobic processes through a poorly understood methanogenic syntrophy. Using metagenomics, we characterized the methanogenic consortium tinside a hyper-mesophilic (i.e., between mesophilic and thermophilic), TA-degrading bioreactor. We identified genes belonging to dominant Pelotomaculum species presumably involved in TA degradation through decarboxylation, dearomatization, and modified ?-oxidation to H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and acetate. These intermediates are converted to CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} by three novel hyper-mesophilic methanogens. Additional secondary syntrophic interactions were predicted in Thermotogae, Syntrophus and candidate phyla OP5 and WWE1 populations. The OP5 encodes genes capable of anaerobic autotrophic butyrate production and Thermotogae, Syntrophus and WWE1 have the genetic potential to oxidize butyrate to COsub 2}/H{sub 2} and acetate. These observations suggest that the TA-degrading consortium consists of additional syntrophic interactions beyond the standard H{sub 2}-producing syntroph ? methanogen partnership that may serve to improve community stability.

  13. Fungal infection in Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Rios-Fabra, A; Moreno, A R; Istúriz, R E

    1994-03-01

    Fungal infections remain a frequent health problem in Latin American countries. Although these diseases exhibit an extraordinary heterogeneity, they have certain features in common. Most patients belong to low socioeconomic groups and live in rural areas. This article presents a general view of the most prevalent subcutaneous mycoses, with emphasis on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment options in the developing countries of Latin America. PMID:8021441

  14. Burden of serious fungal diseases in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Sinkó, János; Sulyok, Mihály; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Valid data on the prevalence of serious fungal diseases are difficult to derive as in most countries these conditions are not reportable infections. To assess the burden of these infections in Hungary prevalence estimates from international peer-reviewed papers and population statistics were utilised. In the intensive care unit (ICU) population at least 370 cases of serious yeast and 52 mould infections can be expected yearly. The total number of candidaemia cases may be as high as 1110 annually. In patients with acute leukaemia and recipients of haematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants the predicted incidence is more than 55 every year. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis--though not a life-threatening condition--can adversely affect the quality of life of more than 177,000 Hungarian women. According to organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD), 4.7% of total population older than 15 will suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 4.4% from asthma, adding another very broad risk group to the aforementioned categories susceptible for mycotic complications. Here more than 17,000 can have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) and more than 13,000 are at risk for developing allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The incidence of dermatomycoses and other superficial fungal infections is even more difficult to assess but--according to international estimations--can affect around 14.3% of the total population. More than 1.6 million Hungarians may suffer from fungal diseases annually, with 33,000 cases being life threatening or very serious. This is an under-recognised problem of special importance for public health. PMID:26449504

  15. New strategic insights into managing fungal biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Elisa; Morace, Giulia; Borgo, Francesca; Rajendran, Ranjith; Sherry, Leighann; Nile, Christopher; Ramage, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections have dramatically increased in the last decades in parallel with an increase of populations with impaired immunity, resulting from medical conditions such as cancer, transplantation, or other chronic diseases. Such opportunistic infections result from a complex relationship between fungi and host, and can range from self-limiting to chronic or life-threatening infections. Modern medicine, characterized by a wide use of biomedical devices, offers new niches for fungi to colonize and form biofilm communities. The capability of fungi to form biofilms is well documented and associated with increased drug tolerance and resistance. In addition, biofilm formation facilitates persistence in the host promoting a persistent inflammatory condition. With a limited availability of antifungals within our arsenal, new therapeutic approaches able to address both host and pathogenic factors that promote fungal disease progression, i.e., chronic inflammation and biofilm formation, could represent an advantage in the clinical setting. In this paper we discuss the antifungal properties of myriocin, fulvic acid, and acetylcholine in light of their already known anti-inflammatory activity and as candidate dual action therapeutics to treat opportunistic fungal infections. PMID:26500623

  16. A combination approach to treating fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sanjib K.; Fosso, Marina Y.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Azoles are antifungal drugs used to treat fungal infections such as candidiasis in humans. Their extensive use has led to the emergence of drug resistance, complicating antifungal therapy for yeast infections in critically ill patients. Combination therapy has become popular in clinical practice as a potential strategy to fight resistant fungal isolates. Recently, amphiphilic tobramycin analogues, C12 and C14, were shown to display antifungal activities. Herein, the antifungal synergy of C12 and C14 with four azoles, fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), posaconazole (POS), and voriconazole (VOR), was examined against seven Candida albicans strains. All tested strains were synergistically inhibited by C12 when combined with azoles, with the exception of C. albicans 64124 and MYA-2876 by FLC and VOR. Likewise, when combined with POS and ITC, C14 exhibited synergistic growth inhibition of all C. albicans strains, except C. albicans MYA-2876 by ITC. The combinations of FLC-C14 and VOR-C14 showed synergistic antifungal effect against three C. albicans and four C. albicans strains, respectively. Finally, synergism between C12/C14 and POS were confirmed by time-kill and disk diffusion assays. These results suggest the possibility of combining C12 or C14 with azoles to treat invasive fungal infections at lower administration doses or with a higher efficiency. PMID:26594050

  17. Fungal ABC transporter deletion and localization analysis.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Weber, Stefan S; Nijland, Jeroen G; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2012-01-01

    Fungal cells are highly complex as their metabolism is compartmentalized harboring various types of subcellular organelles that are bordered by one or more membranes. Knowledge about the intracellular localization of transporter proteins is often required for the understanding of their biological function. Among different approaches available, the localization analysis based on the expression of GFP fusions is commonly used as a relatively fast and cost-efficient method that allows visualization of proteins of interest in both live and fixed cells. In addition, inactivation of transporter genes is an important tool to resolve their specific function. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the deletion and localization analysis of ABC transporters in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. It includes construction of expression plasmids, their transformation into fungal strains, cultivation of transformants, microscopy analysis, as well as additional protocols on staining of fungal cells with organelle-specific dyes like Hoechst 33342, MitoTracker DeepRed, and FM4-64. PMID:22183644

  18. A combination approach to treating fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sanjib K; Fosso, Marina Y; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Azoles are antifungal drugs used to treat fungal infections such as candidiasis in humans. Their extensive use has led to the emergence of drug resistance, complicating antifungal therapy for yeast infections in critically ill patients. Combination therapy has become popular in clinical practice as a potential strategy to fight resistant fungal isolates. Recently, amphiphilic tobramycin analogues, C12 and C14, were shown to display antifungal activities. Herein, the antifungal synergy of C12 and C14 with four azoles, fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), posaconazole (POS), and voriconazole (VOR), was examined against seven Candida albicans strains. All tested strains were synergistically inhibited by C12 when combined with azoles, with the exception of C. albicans 64124 and MYA-2876 by FLC and VOR. Likewise, when combined with POS and ITC, C14 exhibited synergistic growth inhibition of all C. albicans strains, except C. albicans MYA-2876 by ITC. The combinations of FLC-C14 and VOR-C14 showed synergistic antifungal effect against three C. albicans and four C. albicans strains, respectively. Finally, synergism between C12/C14 and POS were confirmed by time-kill and disk diffusion assays. These results suggest the possibility of combining C12 or C14 with azoles to treat invasive fungal infections at lower administration doses or with a higher efficiency. PMID:26594050

  19. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

  20. Fungal Assemblages in Different Habitats in an Erman's Birch Forest.

    PubMed

    Yang, Teng; Sun, Huaibo; Shen, Congcong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of fungal diversity using deeply sequenced marker genes suggest that most fungal taxa are locally distributed. However, little is known about the extent of overlap and niche partitions in total fungal communities or functional guilds within distinct habitats on a local forest scale. Here, we compared fungal communities in endosphere (leaf interior), phyllosphere (leaf interior and associated surface area) and soil samples from an Erman's birch forest in Changbai Mountain, China. Community structures were significantly differentiated in terms of habitat, with soil having the highest fungal richness and phylogenetic diversity. Endophytic and phyllosphere fungi of Betula ermanii were more phylogenetically clustered compared with the corresponding soil fungi, indicating the ability of that host plants to filter and select their fungal partners. Furthermore, the majority of soil fungal taxa were soil specialists, while the dominant endosphere and phyllosphere taxa were aboveground generalists, with soil and plant foliage only sharing <8.2% fungal taxa. Most of the fungal taxa could be assigned to different functional guilds; however, the assigned guilds showed significant habitat specificity with variation in relative abundance. Collectively, the fungal assemblages in this Erman's birch forest were strictly niche specialized and constrained by weak migration among habitats. The findings suggest that phylogenetic relatedness and functional guilds' assignment can effectively interpret the certain ecological processes. PMID:27625646