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Sample records for adapted primary literature

  1. Teaching Mathematical Biology in High School Using Adapted Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL).…

  2. Disciplinary Literacy in the Science Classroom: Using Adaptive Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth; Weaver, Sarah; Blair, Robert B.; Oberhauser, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an innovative version of adaptive primary literature (APL) that we call Science Behind the Scenes used during a summer professional development (PD) program. Classroom teachers read and discussed papers from the primary literature, and created translations of these papers relevant to their own classroom needs. We randomly…

  3. Teaching a Biotechnology Curriculum Based on Adapted Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Hedda; Brill, Gilat; Yarden, Anat

    2008-01-01

    Adapted primary literature (APL) refers to an educational genre specifically designed to enable the use of research articles for learning biology in high school. The present investigation focuses on the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of four high-school biology teachers who enacted an APL-based curriculum in biotechnology. Using a…

  4. Teaching Mathematical Biology in High School Using Adapted Primary Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda

    2012-08-01

    The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL). Both adaptations contained the same content. Two hundred and eleven senior high school students in a Western Canadian school district participated. The numbers of males and females were approximately equal, and all students were registered in an introductory calculus course. All students were given a 90 min class by their teachers that introduced them to the basic mathematical concepts needed to read the articles. Students were randomly assigned to read either the APL or the SL and afterwards to complete a questionnaire, which was common to both groups. Major findings showed that the SL students better understood the article, that the APL students thought more critically about the article, that females understood the article better than males, and that students' attitudes towards reading the articles, regardless of group, were positively associated with their comprehension and use of inquiry skills. The results coincide in important ways with those of similar studies in Israel, and show that asking students to read text that resembles scientific writing increases their use of critical thinking skills when reading.

  5. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published…

  6. Promises and Challenges for the Use of Adapted Primary Literature in Science Curricula: Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Danielle J.

    2009-01-01

    The papers in this collection provide compelling arguments that the use of Adapted Primary Literature (APL) in science education holds great promise for enriching inquiry science instruction at the secondary level. The integration of this genre of written text into science curricula illustrates the ways in which reasoning in reading and reasoning…

  7. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-05-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published article on a mathematical model of the spread of the West Nile virus in North America. The prototype is available as a web-based resource that includes supplemental pedagogical units. Preliminary feedback from use of the prototype in two classrooms is described and a sketch of an ongoing formal evaluation is provided.

  8. "Here the Scientists Explain What I Said." Coordination Practices Elicited during the Enactment of the Results and Discussion Sections of Adapted Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Adapted primary literature (APL) is a novel text genre that retains the authentic characteristics of primary literature. Learning through APL represents an educational intervention with an authentic scientific context. In this case study, we analyzed the 80-min discourse developed during the enactment of an article from an APL-based curriculum in…

  9. Values in Literature: Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    Offering students some thinking and coping tools they can use to make sound decisions based on strong values, this resource book presents numerous selections from children's literature and suggested activities and projects. The book begins with a brief introduction, advice to teachers on using the book, ways to make the classroom more conducive to…

  10. Primary Journal Literature of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Marianne; Thayer, Candace W.

    Four hundred and ninety one primary journals covered by "Physics Abstracts" in 1965 have been studied and their basic characteristics analyzed in terms of sponsorship, distribution by country, language, frequency, and coverage by secondary services other than "Physics Abstracts," and the number of libraries holding each journal. (Author)

  11. Introducing Pre-University Students to Primary Scientific Literature through Argumentation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for…

  12. Primary Literature as a Basis for a High-School Biology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarden, Anat; Brill, Gilat; Falk, Hedda

    2001-01-01

    Adopts primary literature as a means of developing scientific literacy among high-school biology majors. Reports on the development and implementation of a primary literature-based curriculum in developmental biology. Discusses the process of adapting original research articles to the high-school level, as well as a conversational model developed…

  13. Literature Computer Program among Primary School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology - TOJET, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the use of computer in learning Malay literature. The objectives of the study were to identify and discuss the basic knowledge and views towards the Malay literature program by using the computer. The samples of the study consisted of 10 subjects who volunteered from Malay language class. They were nine-year-old male and…

  14. Teaching Students to Read the Primary Literature Using POGIL Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Tracey Arnold

    2014-01-01

    The ability to read, interpret, and evaluate articles in the primary literature are important skills that science majors will use in graduate school and professional life. Because of this, it is important that students are not only exposed to the primary literature in undergraduate education, but also taught how to read and interpret these…

  15. Australian Literature in the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Colleen, Ed.

    This book was designed to supply information on available resources in Australian children's literature and a tradition of teaching which incorporates the Australian experience in an inclusive manner. Essays and their authors consist of the following: (1) "Children's Books in Australia: Two Hundred Years of Social Life" (Maurice Saxby); (2) "One…

  16. Teaching Social Studies in the Primary Grades with Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Ann H.

    Intended for primary school teachers involved in social studies instruction, this paper offers guidelines for selecting and using children's literature to teach social studies concepts. The paper first deals with selecting children's literature works, presenting basic considerations relating children's developmental stages to characteristics of…

  17. Adaptive and Adaptable Automation Design: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kaber, David B.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a review of literature on approaches to adaptive and adaptable task/function allocation and adaptive interface technologies for effective human management of complex systems that are likely to be issues for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, and a focus of research under the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project. Contemporary literature retrieved from an online database search is summarized and integrated. The major topics include the effects of delegation-type, adaptable automation on human performance, workload and situation awareness, the effectiveness of various automation invocation philosophies and strategies to function allocation in adaptive systems, and the role of user modeling in adaptive interface design and the performance implications of adaptive interface technology.

  18. Primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, ZHEN-YU; NING, NING; LI, SONG-YAN; LI, JIE; DU, XIAO-HUI; LI, RONG

    2016-01-01

    Primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is an extremely rare soft tissue cancer; only 22 cases have been reported in the literature to date. In the current study, the case of an 83-year-old male patient who presented with a neck mass that had grown rapidly over the previous 3 months is reported. The patient underwent thyroid lobectomy twice and two cycles of immunotherapy for the treatment of primary thyroid LMS; however, he succumbed to the disease 5 months after the second surgery. An accurate diagnosis of primary thyroid LMS is difficult, as the disease is often misdiagnosed as anaplastic carcinoma, and requires the combined assessment of clinical, imaging and pathological data. Diagnosis of the current patient with primary thyroid LMS and a comprehensive review of the relevant literature are presented herein. PMID:27313727

  19. A literature review: polypharmacy protocol for primary care.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to critically evaluate published protocols on polypharmacy in adults ages 65 and older that are currently used in primary care settings that may potentially lead to fewer adverse drug events. A review of OVID, CINAHL, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, Medline, and PubMed databases was completed using the following key words: protocol, guideline, geriatrics, elderly, older adult, polypharmacy, and primary care. Inclusion criteria were: articles in medical, nursing, and pharmacology journals with an intervention, protocol, or guideline addressing polypharmacy that lead to fewer adverse drug events. Qualitative and quantitative studies were included. Exclusion criteria were: publications prior to the year 1992. A gap exists in the literature. No standardized protocol for addressing polypharmacy in the primary care setting was found. Mnemonics, algorithms, clinical practice guidelines, and clinical strategies for addressing polypharmacy in a variety of health care settings were found throughout the literature. Several screening instruments for use in primary care to assess potentially inappropriate prescription of medications in the elderly, such as the Beers Criteria and the STOPP screening tool, were identified. However, these screening instruments were not included in a standardized protocol to manage polypharmacy in primary care. Polypharmacy in the elderly is a critical problem that may result in adverse drug events such as falls, hospitalizations, and increased expenditures for both the patient and the health care system. No standardized protocols to address polypharmacy specific to the primary care setting were identified in this review of the literature. Given the growing population of elderly in this country and the high number of medications they consume, it is critical to focus on the utilization of a standardized protocol to address the potential harm of polypharmacy in the primary care setting and evaluate its effects on

  20. A Case of Primary Hepatic Lymphoma and Related Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yonghua; Jiang, Jinhong; Wu, Qinli; Zhang, Qiaolei; Xu, Yehui; Qu, Zhigang; Ma, Guangli; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wang, Xiaoli; Jin, Weimei; Fang, Bingmu

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Primary hepatic lymphoma is a rare disease. And the clinical manifestations of this disease are nonspecific. The objective of this paper is to improve clinicians' understanding of this disease. Methods. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of a case of primary hepatic lymphoma in association with hepatitis B virus infection and reviewed the literature. Conclusion. The clinical manifestations of primary hepatic lymphoma are nonspecific. And it is easily misdiagnosed. Postoperative radiotherapy of patients with early stage was previously speculated to achieve favorable improvement. The application of targeted therapeutic drugs, chemotherapy, or combined local radiotherapy has become the first-line treatment strategy. PMID:27403354

  1. Incorporating Primary Literature in Undergraduate Crop Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lori K.; Simmons, Steve R.

    2006-01-01

    Primary literature is an underutilized learning resource for undergraduate courses in crop science. Reading assignments from scientific journals were utilized in an undergraduate University of Minnesota crop physiology course at Southwest Minnesota State University from 2002 to 2004. The subjects of the articles corresponded to the lecture topics.…

  2. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education†

    PubMed Central

    Fankhauser, Sarah C.; Lijek, Rebeccah S.

    2016-01-01

    Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public. PMID:27047607

  3. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education.

    PubMed

    Fankhauser, Sarah C; Lijek, Rebeccah S

    2016-03-01

    Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI) was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public. PMID:27047607

  4. Primary health care assessment tools: a literature review and metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida; Gomes, Maria Fernanda Pereira; Nabão, Fabiana Rodrigues Zequini; Santos, Mariana Souza; Cappellini, Verusca Kelly; de Almeida, Ana Cláudia Correa

    2014-12-01

    This study comprises a systematic review and metasynthesis of qualitative literature on national and international databases to identify the main tools used to assess Primary Health Care (PHC). A total of 3,048 results were returned for literature written in Portuguese, Spanish and English published between 1979 and 2013. Thirty-three articles/studies were selected after thorough reading and analysis. Eight of these studies addressed the use of one or more of the following validated PHC assessment tools: the WHO Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCET); the ADHD Questionnaire for Primary Care Providers (AQ-PCP); the General Practice Assessment Questionnaire (GPAQ), PACOTAPS (primary health care software); and the PCAT (Primary Care Assessment Tool). The study showed that the majority of these tools were used internationally. The PCAT and EUROPEP were used in Brazil and the most commonly used tool in this country was the PCAT. The results show that the use of research tools to assess PHC may assist in the creation of new proposals to improve family healthcare and that PCAT is the most adequate tool for this purpose. PMID:25388193

  5. Introducing Pre-university Students to Primary Scientific Literature Through Argumentation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeneman, Marcel; Goedhart, Martin; Ossevoort, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Primary scientific literature is one of the most important means of communication in science, written for peers in the scientific community. Primary literature provides an authentic context for showing students how scientists support their claims. Several teaching strategies have been proposed using (adapted) scientific publications, some for secondary education, but none of these strategies focused specifically on scientific argumentation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a strategy for teaching pre-university students to read unadapted primary scientific literature, translated into students' native language, based on a new argumentation analysis framework. This framework encompasses seven types of argumentative elements: motive, objective, main conclusion, implication, support, counterargument and refutation. During the intervention, students studied two research articles. We monitored students' reading comprehension and their opinion on the articles and activities. After the intervention, we measured students' ability to identify the argumentative elements in a third unadapted and translated research article. The presented framework enabled students to analyse the article by identifying the motive, objective, main conclusion and implication and part of the supports. Students stated that they found these activities useful. Most students understood the text on paragraph level and were able to read the article with some help for its vocabulary. We suggest that primary scientific literature has the potential to show students important aspects of the scientific process and to learn scientific vocabulary in an authentic context.

  6. Student Comprehension of Primary Literature is Aided by Companion Assignments Emphasizing Pattern Recognition and Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Sarah; Winterman, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Primary literature is our main mode of communication in the sciences. As such, it is important for our undergraduates in the discipline to learn how to read primary literature. Incorporating primary literature into undergraduate science courses is often difficult because students are unprepared to comprehend primary articles. Learning to read and…

  7. Primary adaptive mirrors for ELTs: a report on preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, Armando; Del Vecchio, Ciro; Salinari, Piero; Brusa, Guido; Lardiere, Olivier; Gallieni, Daniele; Biasi, Roberto; Mantegazza, Paolo

    2004-07-01

    At the moment the best bet to obtain an extremely high actuator density for extremely large pupils seems to be that of extending the current adaptive secondary mirror technology to segmented "adaptive primaries." The main components of a segment of an adaptive primary mirror are beng studied in order to determine all the parameters able to statically keep the mechanical response within the optical specifications and to dynamically provide the stiffness and damping features needed by the adaptive optics control system. Both static and dynamical requirements depend critically on actuator geometry and structure, mirror shape and thickness, and implementation of the control system. The mechanical response has been numerically evaluated in terms of deformation under gravity, mirror influence functions and actuator layout, including their interface to the shell.

  8. Primary intratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    YI, JUN; ZHOU, DONG-AI; HUO, JI-RONG; WANG, YUN-HUA; MA, JIN-AN

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) that primarily occurs in the testes is particularly rare, with only retrospective studies and sporadic cases reported in the literature. The present study describes the case of a large, primary intratesticular RMS (ITRMS) that was treated with a radical inguinal orchiectomy (RIO) and a regimen of chemotherapy. The study also presents a review of the literature regarding primary ITRMSs, aiming to elucidate the clinical characteristics and optimal treatment of the disease. A 14-year-old male presented with a 1-year history of a slow-growing, painless, left scrotal mass. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a mass in the left scrotum with mixed signal intensity; no abnormal signals were identified in the right testicle and retroperitoneal lymph node. An X-ray of the chest demonstrated no evidence of metastasis. Subsequent to this, a left RIO was performed. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination confirmed the final diagnosis of embryonal ITRMS. At 21 days post-surgery, an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) scan identified widespread metastatic lesions in the lungs, local lymph nodes and bones, presenting as increased glucose metabolism nodules. Subsequently, the patient received six sequential cycles of adjunct chemotherapy. The patient is alive with disease in October 2015. The case described is noteworthy as it is an example of ITRMS, in which the patient received successful treatment. However, multidisciplinary treatment may further improve the outcome of the disease. PMID:26893684

  9. Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in primary cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Davare, Marco; Sadnicka, Anna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Edwards, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation rely on overlapping circuits predominantly involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Given the importance of these brain regions to the pathophysiology of primary dystonia, and the previous finding of abnormal motor sequence learning in DYT1 gene carriers, we explored motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in patients with primary cervical dystonia. We recruited 12 patients with cervical dystonia and 11 healthy controls matched for age. Subjects used a joystick to move a cursor from a central starting point to radial targets as fast and accurately as possible. Using this device, we recorded baseline motor performance, motor sequence learning and a visuomotor adaptation task. Patients with cervical dystonia had a significantly higher peak velocity than controls. Baseline performance with random target presentation was otherwise normal. Patients and controls had similar levels of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. Our patients had significantly higher peak velocity compared to controls, with similar movement times, implying a different performance strategy. The preservation of motor sequence learning in cervical dystonia patients contrasts with the previously observed deficit seen in patients with DYT1 gene mutations, supporting the hypothesis of differing pathophysiology in different forms of primary dystonia. Normal motor adaptation is an interesting finding. With our paradigm we did not find evidence that the previously documented cerebellar abnormalities in cervical dystonia have a behavioral correlate, and thus could be compensatory or reflect "contamination" rather than being directly pathological. PMID:24411324

  10. Primary retroperitoneal Merkel cell carcinoma: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz-Sandoval, Osvaldo A.; Cuellar-Hubbe, Mario; Lino-Silva, Leonardo S.; Salcedo-Hernández, Rosa A.; López-Basave, Horacio N.; Padilla-Rosciano, Alejandro E.; León-Takahashi, Alberto M.; Herrera-Gómez, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma that affects elderly patients and typically arises in sun-exposed skin. The disease is very rare and only few cases present with no apparent skin lesion. In the retroperitoneum there are only two cases reported in the literature. Case presentation We report a case of a 54-year-old Mexican male with MCC, which presented as a large retroperitoneal mass. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the transabdominal CT-guided biopsy specimen revealed a MCC. The patient underwent preoperative chemotherapy followed by a laparotomy and the mass was successfully excised. Discussion There are two possible explanations for what occurred in our patient. The most plausible theory is the retroperitoneal mass could be a massively enlarged lymph node where precursor cells became neoplastic. This would be consistent with a presumptive diagnosis of primary nodal disease. Moreover, metastasis to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes has been reported as relatively common when compared to other sites such as liver, bone, brain and skin. The less probable theory is the non-described “regression” phenomena of a cutaneous MCC, but we are not found a primary skin lesion. Conclusion Preoperative chemotherapy and excision of the primary tumor is the surgical treatment of choice for retroperitoneal MCC. We propose that further studies are needed to elucidate the true efficacy of chemotherapy in conventional and unconventional patients with MCC. PMID:26708276

  11. Figure facts: encouraging undergraduates to take a data-centered approach to reading primary literature.

    PubMed

    Round, Jennifer E; Campbell, A Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The ability to interpret experimental data is essential to understanding and participating in the process of scientific discovery. Reading primary research articles can be a frustrating experience for undergraduate biology students because they have very little experience interpreting data. To enhance their data interpretation skills, students used a template called "Figure Facts" to assist them with primary literature-based reading assignments in an advanced cellular neuroscience course. The Figure Facts template encourages students to adopt a data-centric approach, rather than a text-based approach, to understand research articles. Specifically, Figure Facts requires students to focus on the experimental data presented in each figure and identify specific conclusions that may be drawn from those results. Students who used Figure Facts for one semester increased the amount of time they spent examining figures in a primary research article, and regular exposure to primary literature was associated with improved student performance on a data interpretation skills test. Students reported decreased frustration associated with interpreting data figures, and their opinions of the Figure Facts template were overwhelmingly positive. In this paper, we present Figure Facts for others to adopt and adapt, with reflection on its implementation and effectiveness in improving undergraduate science education. PMID:23463227

  12. Primary hepatic amyloidosis: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sonthalia, Nikhil; Jain, Samit; Pawar, Sunil; Zanwar, Vinay; Surude, Ravindra; Rathi, Praveen M

    2016-02-28

    We describe a case of 42-year-old female presenting with abdominal pain associated with loss of weight and fever for 8 mo. On evaluation she had gross hepatomegaly with raised alkaline phosphatase and raised GGT levels with normal transaminases and bilirubin. On imaging she had diffuse enlargement of liver with heterogeneous contrast uptake in liver. Her viral marker and autoimmune markers were negative. Liver biopsy depicted massive deposition of amyloid in peri-sinusoidal spaces which revealed apple green birefringence on polarizing microscopy after Congo red staining. Cardiac and renal evaluation was unremarkable. Abdominal fat pad and rectum biopsy was negative for amyloid deposit. There was no evidence of primary amyloidosis as bone marrow examination was normal. Serum and urine immunofixation electrophoresis were normal. Immunoperoxidase staining for serum amyloid associated protein for secondary amyloidosis was negative from liver biopsy. We present this rare case of primary hepatic amyloidosis and review the literature regarding varied presentations of hepatic involvement in amyloidosis. PMID:26962400

  13. Primary hepatic amyloidosis: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sonthalia, Nikhil; Jain, Samit; Pawar, Sunil; Zanwar, Vinay; Surude, Ravindra; Rathi, Praveen M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of 42-year-old female presenting with abdominal pain associated with loss of weight and fever for 8 mo. On evaluation she had gross hepatomegaly with raised alkaline phosphatase and raised GGT levels with normal transaminases and bilirubin. On imaging she had diffuse enlargement of liver with heterogeneous contrast uptake in liver. Her viral marker and autoimmune markers were negative. Liver biopsy depicted massive deposition of amyloid in peri-sinusoidal spaces which revealed apple green birefringence on polarizing microscopy after Congo red staining. Cardiac and renal evaluation was unremarkable. Abdominal fat pad and rectum biopsy was negative for amyloid deposit. There was no evidence of primary amyloidosis as bone marrow examination was normal. Serum and urine immunofixation electrophoresis were normal. Immunoperoxidase staining for serum amyloid associated protein for secondary amyloidosis was negative from liver biopsy. We present this rare case of primary hepatic amyloidosis and review the literature regarding varied presentations of hepatic involvement in amyloidosis. PMID:26962400

  14. Interocular transfer of adaptation in the primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Christopher M; Vorobyov, Vasily; Sengpiel, Frank

    2009-08-01

    Prolonged viewing of an unchanging pattern causes adaptation, which can be demonstrated by visual aftereffects such as the tilt and waterfall illusions. In normal observers, these typically exhibit interocular transfer (IOT), being observed when the adapting and test stimuli are shown to different eyes. Convergence of inputs from both eyes upon binocular neurons only occurs in the primary visual cortex (V1), and adaptation is substantially a cortical phenomenon. However, little is known about a physiological substrate of IOT in V1 and how it relates to the binocularity of neurons and local ocular dominance (OD) column architecture. We employed optical imaging to obtain OD maps in cat V1 and recorded from single neurons at targeted penetration sites to quantify their adaptation by drifting gratings when adapter and test stimulus were presented either to the same or to the opposite eyes. In contrast to earlier reports, clear IOT of adaptation was observed for binocular as well as monocular neurons; at population level, its strength amounted to 55%. Moreover, the position of the cells with respect to OD column borders had no significant effect on the strength of IOT. IOT does not appear to strongly depend on conventional binocularity of neurons. PMID:19015372

  15. Adaptive Processes in Thalamus and Cortex Revealed by Silencing of Primary Visual Cortex during Contrast Adaptation.

    PubMed

    King, Jillian L; Lowe, Matthew P; Stover, Kurt R; Wong, Aimee A; Crowder, Nathan A

    2016-05-23

    Visual adaptation illusions indicate that our perception is influenced not only by the current stimulus but also by what we have seen in the recent past. Adaptation to stimulus contrast (the relative luminance created by edges or contours in a scene) induces the perception of the stimulus fading away and increases the contrast detection threshold in psychophysical tests [1, 2]. Neural correlates of contrast adaptation have been described throughout the visual system including the retina [3], dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) [4, 5], primary visual cortex (V1) [6], and parietal cortex [7]. The apparent ubiquity of adaptation at all stages raises the question of how this process cascades across brain regions [8]. Focusing on V1, adaptation could be inherited from pre-cortical stages, arise from synaptic depression at the thalamo-cortical synapse [9], or develop locally, but what is the weighting of these contributions? Because contrast adaptation in mouse V1 is similar to classical animal models [10, 11], we took advantage of the optogenetic tools available in mice to disentangle the processes contributing to adaptation in V1. We disrupted cortical adaptation by optogenetically silencing V1 and found that adaptation measured in V1 now resembled that observed in dLGN. Thus, the majority of adaptation seen in V1 neurons arises through local activity-dependent processes, with smaller contributions from dLGN inheritance and synaptic depression at the thalamo-cortical synapse. Furthermore, modeling indicates that divisive scaling of the weakly adapted dLGN input can predict some of the emerging features of V1 adaptation. PMID:27112300

  16. Primary intramedullary neurocytoma: Case report and literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montano, Nicola; Di Bonaventura, Rina; Coli, Antonella; Fernandez, Eduardo; Meglio, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary intramedullary neurocytoma is extremely rare. Due to its rarity, it is difficult to collect a wide series in a single institution to perform a survival analysis and give indications about prognosis and treatment. Case Description: Here, we report on a case of a 37-year-old woman with primary intramedullary neurocytoma and perform a systematic statistical analysis of cases reported in the literature. Of 21 articles found, 15 studies and the present case (22 patients) were eligible for the analysis. We studied the impact of age, sex, number of involved levels (≤2 vs. >2), entity of resection, postoperative radiotherapy (RT), proliferation index (Ki67) on the neurological outcome of patients, and on the recurrence of the tumor. Comparison of categorical variables was performed by the χ2 statistic. The Kaplan–Meier curves were plotted to calculate the progression-free survival (PFS) of these patients. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The 1-year PFS was 95.45% and the 2-year PFS was 86.36%. A gross total resection was associated to a worsening of the neurological function with no impact on the tumor recurrence. Adjuvant RT significantly improved the neurological function. A lower Ki67 was strongly associated with a lower tumor recurrence. Conclusions: We think that the goal of the surgery should be to preserve a good neurological function even if a residual tumor has to be left. Ki67 should be always evaluated due to its impact on the prognosis. Although adjuvant RT significantly improved the neurological function, its role in preventing the tumor recurrence is not clearly defined. PMID:26673057

  17. [Folic acid: Primary prevention of neural tube defects. Literature Review].

    PubMed

    Llamas Centeno, M J; Miguélez Lago, C

    2016-03-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common congenital malformations of the nervous system, they have a multifactorial etiology, are caused by exposure to chemical, physical or biological toxic agents, factors deficiency, diabetes, obesity, hyperthermia, genetic alterations and unknown causes. Some of these factors are associated with malnutrition by interfering with the folic acid metabolic pathway, the vitamin responsible for neural tube closure. Its deficit produce anomalies that can cause abortions, stillbirths or newborn serious injuries that cause disability, impaired quality of life and require expensive treatments to try to alleviate in some way the alterations produced in the embryo. Folic acid deficiency is considered the ultimate cause of the production of neural tube defects, it is clear the reduction in the incidence of Espina Bifida after administration of folic acid before conception, this leads us to want to further study the action of folic acid and its application in the primary prevention of neural tube defects. More than 40 countries have made the fortification of flour with folate, achieving encouraging data of decrease in the prevalence of neural tube defects. This paper attempts to make a literature review, which clarify the current situation and future of the prevention of neural tube defects. PMID:26959966

  18. Using Primary Literature for Teaching Undergraduate Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, J.

    2013-05-01

    Articles from the primary scientific literature can be a valuable teaching tool in undergraduate classrooms. At Colgate University, I emphasize selected research articles in an upper-level undergraduate course in planetary sciences. In addition to their value for conveying specific scientific content, I find that they also impart larger lessons which are especially apt in planetary sciences and allied fields. First, because of the interdisciplinary nature of planetary sciences, students discover that contributions to outstanding problems may arrive from unexpected directions, so they need to be aware of the multi-faceted nature of scientific problems. For instance, after millennia of astrometric attempts, the scale of the Solar System was determined with extraordinary precision with emerging radar technology in the 1960's. Second, students learn the importance of careful work, with due attention to detail. After all, the timescales of planetary formation are encoded in systematic isotopic variations of a few parts in 10,000; in students' own experiences with laboratory data they might well overlook such a small effect. Third, students identify the often-tortuous connections between measured and inferred quantities, which corrects a common student misconception that all quantities of interest (e.g., the age of a meteorite) can be measured directly. Fourth, research articles provide opportunities for students to practice the interpretation of graphical data, since figures often represent a large volume of data in succinct form. Fifth, and perhaps of greatest importance, by considering the uncertainties inherent in reported data, students come to recognize the limits of scientific understanding, the extent to which scientific conclusions are justified (or not), and the lengths to which working scientists go to mitigate their uncertainties. These larger lessons are best mediated by students' own encounters with the articles they read, but require instructors to make

  19. Review of Professional Literature: "Favorites, Friendships, Food, and Fantasy: Literature-Based Thematic Units for Early Primary."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddowes, E. Anne

    1994-01-01

    Reviews "Favorites, Friendships, Food, and Fantasy: Literature-Based Thematic Units for Early Primary" (A. Lukasevich and F. Pieronek), a two-volume publication that presents four literature-based thematic units for use in the language arts curriculum. The units are designed to be used sequentially in 12- or 15-day segments, and each lesson has 4…

  20. Assessment of Student Skills for Critiquing Published Primary Scientific Literature Using a Primary Trait Analysis Scale

    PubMed Central

    VARELA, MANUEL F.; LUTNESKY, MARVIN M. F.; OSGOOD, MARCY P.

    2005-01-01

    Instructor evaluation of progressive student skills in the analysis of primary literature is critical for the development of these skills in young scientists. Students in a senior or graduate-level one-semester course in Immunology at a Masters-level comprehensive university were assessed for abilities (primary traits) to recognize and evaluate the following elements of a scientific paper: Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, Results, Critical Thinking and Analysis, and Conclusions. We tested the hypotheses that average recognition scores vary among elements and that scores change with time differently by trait. Recognition scores (scaled 1 to 5), and differences in scores were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) (n = 10 papers over 103 days). By multiple comparisons testing, we found that recognition scores statistically fell into two groups: high scores (for Hypothesis and Rationale, Significance, Methods, and Conclusions) and low scores (for Results and Critical Thinking and Analysis). Recognition scores only significantly changed with time (increased) for Hypothesis and Rationale and Results. ANCOVA showed that changes in recognition scores for these elements were not significantly different in slope (F1,16 = 0.254, P = 0.621) but the Results trait was significantly lower in elevation (F1,17 = 12.456, P = 0.003). Thus, students improved with similar trajectories, but starting and ending with lower Results scores. We conclude that students have greatest difficulty evaluating Results and critically evaluating scientific validity. Our findings show extant student skills, and the significant increase in some traits shows learning. This study demonstrates that students start with variable recognition skills and that student skills may be learned at differential rates. Faculty can use these findings or the primary trait analysis scoring scale to focus on specific paper elements for which they desire

  1. An Online Tutorial for Helping Nonscience Majors Read Primary Research Literature in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Christopher M.; Vaughan, Jasmine; Lye, Bethany R.

    2004-01-01

    Using primary literature is an effective tool for promoting active learning and critical thinking in science classes. However, it can be challenging to use primary literature in large classes and in classes for nonscience majors. We describe the development and implementation of an online tutorial for helping nonscience majors learn to read…

  2. Primary sellar neuroblastoma. A new case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Martin; Bonneville, Fabrice; Grunenwald, Solange; Breibach, Florence; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Chaynes, Patrick; Sol, Jean-Christophe; Caron, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    The primary intracranial development of olfactory neuroblastomas, outside olfactory epithelium, is rare. We report a case of primary sellar neuroblastoma without any aggressive histopathological features, managed solely surgically without adjuvant therapy, with good outcomes at 3 years. Primary sellar neuroblastomas mostly occur in women in the 4th decade with a context of a non-secreting pituitary tumour. Diagnosis is made on histopathological examination (small cells, fibrillary intercellular background, strong immunoreactivity for neurons markers, negative immunoreactivity for anterior pituitary hormones). Management is based on surgery. Adjuvant treatment is not consensual, largely depends on patient's conditions and aggressive histopathological features. PMID:22497798

  3. Adaptive Behavior of Primary School Students with Visual Impairments: The Impact of Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsiou, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the adaptive behavior of primary school students with visual impairments, as well as the impact of educational setting on their adaptive behavior. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Participants were 36 primary school students with visual impairments. The educational…

  4. Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeong Eun; Kim, Byung Seok; Lee, Chang Hyeong

    2016-08-16

    Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors (PHNETs) are extremely rare and difficult to distinguish from other liver tumors, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma, based on medical imaging findings. A 70-year-old man was referred for evaluation of liver mass incidentally discovered on abdominal computed tomography. The characteristic finding from dynamic liver magnetic resonance imaging led to a diagnosis of HCC. The patient underwent right hepatectomy. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed grade 2 neuroendocrine tumor. The postoperative 24-h urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid was within the normal range. Further imaging investigations were performed. No other lesions were found making probable the diagnosis of PHNET. This case shows that the diagnosis of PHNET is a medical challenge, requiring differentiation of PHNETs other hepatic masses and exclusion of occult primary neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis of PHNET can be ascertained after long term follow-up to exclude another primary origin. PMID:27574614

  5. Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeong Eun; Kim, Byung Seok; Lee, Chang Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors (PHNETs) are extremely rare and difficult to distinguish from other liver tumors, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma, based on medical imaging findings. A 70-year-old man was referred for evaluation of liver mass incidentally discovered on abdominal computed tomography. The characteristic finding from dynamic liver magnetic resonance imaging led to a diagnosis of HCC. The patient underwent right hepatectomy. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed grade 2 neuroendocrine tumor. The postoperative 24-h urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid was within the normal range. Further imaging investigations were performed. No other lesions were found making probable the diagnosis of PHNET. This case shows that the diagnosis of PHNET is a medical challenge, requiring differentiation of PHNETs other hepatic masses and exclusion of occult primary neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis of PHNET can be ascertained after long term follow-up to exclude another primary origin. PMID:27574614

  6. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  7. The Relationship Between Primary and Secondary Literature in the Social Sciences: A Study of Secondary Literature in Criminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Line, Maurice B.; And Others

    A Study of the relationship between the primary and secondary journal literature of a social science discipline is described in this working paper. Criminology was chosen as the subject area for study, because it forms a fairly clearly identifiable area of the social sciences, is fairly self-contained, and because it has some distinctive…

  8. Primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Mário Maciel; de Lima, Mário Maciel; Granja, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    Testicular mucinous cystadenomas are rare in urological practice, and their histogenesis, course and management are debated. We report a primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma in a 54-year old male who presented with left testicular swelling and pain. He denied having a history of cryptorchidism, testicular trauma, infections, urinary complaints, or febrile illnesses. He did not have diabetes, but was on treatment for hypertension. The patient underwent a left inguinal radical orchiectomy, and histological examination of the resected tumour confirmed a primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma. The patient had an uneventful recovery, and is being followed up. Conclusively, urologists need to maintain a high index of suspicion of these tumours and their differentiation from metastatic tumours to ensure optimal therapeutic outcomes. PMID:26600891

  9. Primary bone lymphomas—Clinical cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshu; Alam, Kiran; Maheshwari, Veena; Khan, Roobina; Nobin, Hage; Narula, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon clinical entity and a rare presentation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PBL accounts for less than 5% of malignant bone tumors, 4–5% of extra nodal lymphoma and less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounts for the majority of cases of PBL. The incidence of PBL is so rare that many of its aspects remain unknown. A number of studies have been reported from western countries but only a few reports are available from Asia. Out of 20,000 bone lesions received in our department over 5 years, only 5 cases were primary bone lymphoma; all of which were DLBCL. We report our experience on PBLs with main emphasis on two unusual presentations of this rare tumor. PMID:26909283

  10. Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Éden Sartor; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; Corrêa, Isaac José Felippe; Robles, Laercio; Rezende, Marcelo Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Primary hepatic carcinoid tumors are extremely rare neoplasms derived from hormone-producing neuroendocrine cells. It is difficult to make their diagnosis before biopsy, surgical resection or necropsy. A recent publication described only 94 cases of these tumors. There is no sex predilection and apparently it has no association with cirrhosis or preexisting hepatic disease. The most effective treatment is hepatectomy, and resection is determined by size and location of the lesions. PMID:25628206

  11. [Primary breast lymphoma: case report and review of literature].

    PubMed

    La Pinta, M; Stagnitto, D; Lengua, G; Aicardi, P; Loreti, A; Bellioni, M; Ponzani, T; Ascarelli, A; Dell'osso, A

    2007-02-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the breast is a rare entity representing 0.04-0.5% of all malignant female breast tumors, less than 1% of all patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and approximately 1.7-2.2% of all patients with extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas. A 75 years old patient presented with masses in the lateral part of the left breast for 6 weeks. Ultrasound detected 3 masses suggesting fibroadenomas while mammography set the suspicion of breast multicentric carcinoma. Fine needle aspiration cytology of one mass showed low grade lymphoma subsequently confirmed with histopathology which diagnosed extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma MALT type CD 20+/CD 79a+/CD 3-/Bcl 2- and index of proliferation Ki 67=30% (stage IE). Primary non-Hodgkin lymphomas of the breast, though rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast malignancies. At present, a standard treatment doesn't exist yet; low grade lymphomas should be managed with excision biopsy and/or local radiation therapy, while high grade lymphomas should be managed with chemotherapy in association with radiation therapy. PMID:17287692

  12. Children Literature Based Program for Developing EFL Primary Pupils' Life Skills and Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhalim, Safaa M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a proposed English language program based on integrating two forms of children literature, mainly short stories and songs, in developing the needed life skills and language learning strategies of primary school students. Besides, it emphasized the importance of providing EFL fifth year primary students with…

  13. Two Wrongs Make a Right: Using Pseudoscience and Reasoning Fallacies to Complement Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate science students benefit greatly by learning to read and interpret primary research articles. However, once they obtain a level of competence in analyzing primary literature and develop a better understanding of the nature of science, they may become frustrated by the lack of scientific literacy and objectivity demonstrated by the…

  14. The CREATE Method Does Not Result in Greater Gains in Critical Thinking than a More Traditional Method of Analyzing the Primary Literature

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Totten, Miriam; Dalman, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the primary literature in the undergraduate curriculum is associated with gains in student learning. In particular, the CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) method is associated with an increase in student critical thinking skills. We adapted the CREATE method within a required cell biology class and compared the learning gains of students using CREATE to those of students involved in less structured literature discussions. We found that while both sets of students had gains in critical thinking, students who used the CREATE method did not show significant improvement over students engaged in a more traditional method for dissecting the literature. Students also reported similar learning gains for both literature discussion methods. Our study suggests that, at least in our educational context, the CREATE method does not lead to higher learning gains than a less structured way of reading primary literature. PMID:24358379

  15. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  16. Adapting a Multigenre-Response Model for College Readers of American Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Jeng-yih Tim

    2006-01-01

    As an English teacher who has been teaching nearly 10 years in a college of southern Taiwan, the presenter reports his successful experience on a course, titled "Selected Readings from American Literature." In this try-out study, the presenter adapts a multigenre-response model via which he encourages Taiwan college students to bravely write down…

  17. Bibliography of Selected Literature in the 1970s Related to Crises, Family Stress, Coping and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Barbara

    This bibliography of literature from the 1970s related to crises, family stress, coping, and adaptation contains references of particular interest to professionals in the areas of counseling, education, and family social, psychological and health services. The bibliography is divided into 26 categories; references are classified according to major…

  18. Adapting the Community College Model in Other Countries: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abue, Peter

    This document examines what the literature says regarding adaptation of the American community college model to a global perspective. Institutions that draw parallels to U.S. community colleges can be found on almost every continent due to the increasing demand for extended educational opportunity and the need for technical training. When the…

  19. Primary Carcinoid Tumour of the Kidney: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Omiyale, Ayodeji O.; Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2013-01-01

    Context. Primary renal carcinoid tumours are rare. Their pathogenesis is unknown and the clinical presentation is similar to other renal tumours thus posing diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. Objectives. To review the literature for case reports of primary renal carcinoids. Methods. Literature was extensively searched for case reports for primary renal carcinoids. Reports of metastatic carcinoids to the kidneys were excluded. Results. Approximately less than 90 cases of primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney have been reported in the literature. A total of 29 cases of primary renal carcinoids were reviewed. The mean age of presentation was 48 years (range 29–75) with both right kidney (48.3%) and left kidney (44.8%) being equally affected. 28.6% of the cases reviewed were diagnosed as an incidental finding. The mean followup time was 20 months with 73.1% of patients without evidence of disease after surgical treatment (radical or partial nephrectomy). Primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney are often well differentiated tumours. They are often misdiagnosed because of their rarity and similar presentation with other renal tumours. Conclusions. Primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney are rare tumours with an indolent course with frequent metastasis. Metastatic work up and followup is required in their management. PMID:23997766

  20. Primary orbital yolk sac tumor: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Saurabh; Kaliki, Swathi; Sreedhar, Ani; Mishra, Dilip K

    2016-06-01

    Germ cell tumor can affect extragonadal sites. Teratoma is a well-recognized extragonadal tumor in the orbit. Primary yolk sac tumor (YST) or endodermal sinus tumor of orbit is rare and only few cases have been reported in the literature. Its clinical presentation may mimic many common pediatric orbital conditions, and delay in diagnosis affects ocular morbidity and mortality. In the past orbital YST has been treated with multimodal therapy including surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Herein we describe a case of primary orbital YST and reviewed the literature for similar cases. The review aims to describe the clinical presentation, imaging features, histopathological characteristics, and management of orbital YST. PMID:26481249

  1. [Primary psoas abscess in a child. Case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Gilio, A E; Pahl, M M; Barbosa, R B; Henriques, C L; Ejzenberg, B; Okay, Y

    1997-01-01

    Primary psoas abscess is an uncommon disease. In children, clinical manifestations is often inspecific leading to diagnostic delay. The authors relate a primary pyogenic abscess of the psoas muscle in a 7-year-old girl with secondary septic arthritis of the hip. Confirmation of diagnosis was established by computerized tomography (CT) of the abdominal and pelvic areas. A review of the literature is presented about clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, etiology, diagnostic and therapeutic management of this infrequent entity. PMID:9595782

  2. First Experiences with Reading Primary Literature by Undergraduate Life Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lacum, Edwin; Ossevoort, Miriam; Buikema, Hendrik; Goedhart, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Learning to read and understand research articles (primary literature) is an important step in the enculturation of higher education students into the scientific community. We presume, based on ideas from the field of genre analysis, that it is important for the development of reading skills to become conscious of the rhetorical structures in…

  3. Incorporating Primary Literature Summary Projects into a First-Year Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest, Kaya; Rayne, Sierra

    2009-01-01

    In our focus on material that must be covered in a content-rich course such as first-year chemistry, we often neglect the development of other essential skills such as reading, writing, and critical thinking. The primary research literature summary assignment described attempts to address this issue. The purpose of the assignment is to introduce…

  4. The Learning Processes of Two High-School Biology Students when Reading Primary Literature. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Gilat; Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat

    2004-01-01

    Biology education, like education in any other discipline, strives to make students familiar with the knowledge, activities, and ways of thinking of the community of biologists. We produced a curriculum in developmental biology based on learning through primary literature, in an attempt to develop biological literacy among highschool students.…

  5. Primary hypothyroidism associated with acute mania: case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Khemka, D; Ali, J A; Koch, C A

    2011-09-01

    In the evaluation of patients presenting with altered mental function searching for underlying medical conditions is necessary. Abnormal thyroid function has long been implicated in mood changes with the classic associations of depression occurring together with hypothyroidism and of mania along with hyperthyroidism. We here report 3 patients who presented with symptoms consistent with acute manic episode diagnosed using DSM IV-TR criteria and who were found to have primary hypothyroidism biochemically. This led to a review of the literature on this phenomenon resulting in the identification of 10 reports of mania and associated thyroid profiles consistent with primary hypothyroidism. All 3 of our patients improved clinically after use of levothyroxine and psychotropic medications, consistent with the literature reports. This illustrates that thyroid function abnormalities including primary hypothyroidism should be considered and screened for when evaluating patients with acute manic episodes. PMID:21553358

  6. Tampering with History: Adapting Primary Sources for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineburg, Sam; Martin, Daisy

    2009-01-01

    History teachers are faced with an impossible dilemma. Voices from every corner urge them to use primary sources. Sources, teachers are told, are to history what the laboratory is to science: the place where the subject becomes most vital. At the same time, any teacher who has used sources knows the many obstacles. Using sources to make history…

  7. Primary Motor Cortex Involvement in Initial Learning during Visuomotor Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riek, Stephan; Hinder, Mark R.; Carson, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Human motor behaviour is continually modified on the basis of errors between desired and actual movement outcomes. It is emerging that the role played by the primary motor cortex (M1) in this process is contingent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the task being performed, and the stage of learning. Here we used repetitive TMS to…

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial of RSS Reader Use and Resident Familiarity With Primary Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Brian P.; Desai, Bimal R.; Callahan, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Awareness of the primary literature is important for clinicians. Lack of time, poor access to information, and lack of personal initiative may be barriers for some trainees. Really Simple Syndication (RSS) readers aggregate web content, such as journal abstracts, in a single location for easy viewing. Objective We assessed whether use of an RSS reader would increase resident reading frequency, familiarity, and understanding of the primary literature. Methods We conducted a single-center, prospective, randomized, nonblinded, controlled trial of the effect of RSS reader use on knowledge of recent literature among pediatrics residents. Residents were randomly assigned to the RSS group (education in RSS use and receipt of the Pediatrics RSS feed) or a control group that followed standard reading practices. Outcome measures were differences on baseline and monthly surveys of reading frequency, familiarity with recent publications, and knowledge of recent articles (familiarity validation). Results Of 144 eligible residents, 79 (55%) were enrolled in the survey, with 81% (64 of 79) of participants completing all surveys. The RSS reader use was correlated with greater familiarity with selected articles, but not with improved understanding (as measured by ability to answer multiple-choice questions about content). Participants reported satisfaction with the RSS reader based on its ease of use, accessibility, and as an aid in supplementing reading. Conclusions The RSS reader use was accepted by residents and associated with increased familiarity with the primary literature but not with increased understanding. PMID:24949145

  9. Klebsormidium flaccidum genome reveals primary factors for plant terrestrial adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hori, Koichi; Maruyama, Fumito; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Togashi, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Seo, Mitsunori; Sato, Syusei; Yamada, Takuji; Mori, Hiroshi; Tajima, Naoyuki; Moriyama, Takashi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Watanabe, Mai; Wada, Hajime; Kobayashi, Koichi; Saito, Masakazu; Masuda, Tatsuru; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Awai, Koichiro; Shimojima, Mie; Masuda, Shinji; Iwai, Masako; Nobusawa, Takashi; Narise, Takafumi; Kondo, Satoshi; Saito, Hikaru; Sato, Ryoichi; Murakawa, Masato; Ihara, Yuta; Oshima-Yamada, Yui; Ohtaka, Kinuka; Satoh, Masanori; Sonobe, Kohei; Ishii, Midori; Ohtani, Ryosuke; Kanamori-Sato, Miyu; Honoki, Rina; Miyazaki, Daichi; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Umetsu, Jumpei; Higashi, Kouichi; Shibata, Daisuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Sato, Naoki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Ida, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Ken; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The colonization of land by plants was a key event in the evolution of life. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the filamentous terrestrial alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Division Charophyta, Order Klebsormidiales) to elucidate the early transition step from aquatic algae to land plants. Comparison of the genome sequence with that of other algae and land plants demonstrate that K. flaccidum acquired many genes specific to land plants. We demonstrate that K. flaccidum indeed produces several plant hormones and homologues of some of the signalling intermediates required for hormone actions in higher plants. The K. flaccidum genome also encodes a primitive system to protect against the harmful effects of high-intensity light. The presence of these plant-related systems in K. flaccidum suggests that, during evolution, this alga acquired the fundamental machinery required for adaptation to terrestrial environments. PMID:24865297

  10. Klebsormidium flaccidum genome reveals primary factors for plant terrestrial adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Koichi; Maruyama, Fumito; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Togashi, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Seo, Mitsunori; Sato, Syusei; Yamada, Takuji; Mori, Hiroshi; Tajima, Naoyuki; Moriyama, Takashi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Watanabe, Mai; Wada, Hajime; Kobayashi, Koichi; Saito, Masakazu; Masuda, Tatsuru; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Awai, Koichiro; Shimojima, Mie; Masuda, Shinji; Iwai, Masako; Nobusawa, Takashi; Narise, Takafumi; Kondo, Satoshi; Saito, Hikaru; Sato, Ryoichi; Murakawa, Masato; Ihara, Yuta; Oshima-Yamada, Yui; Ohtaka, Kinuka; Satoh, Masanori; Sonobe, Kohei; Ishii, Midori; Ohtani, Ryosuke; Kanamori-Sato, Miyu; Honoki, Rina; Miyazaki, Daichi; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Umetsu, Jumpei; Higashi, Kouichi; Shibata, Daisuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Sato, Naoki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Ida, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Ken; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The colonization of land by plants was a key event in the evolution of life. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the filamentous terrestrial alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Division Charophyta, Order Klebsormidiales) to elucidate the early transition step from aquatic algae to land plants. Comparison of the genome sequence with that of other algae and land plants demonstrate that K. flaccidum acquired many genes specific to land plants. We demonstrate that K. flaccidum indeed produces several plant hormones and homologues of some of the signalling intermediates required for hormone actions in higher plants. The K. flaccidum genome also encodes a primitive system to protect against the harmful effects of high-intensity light. The presence of these plant-related systems in K. flaccidum suggests that, during evolution, this alga acquired the fundamental machinery required for adaptation to terrestrial environments. PMID:24865297

  11. The breadth of primary care: a systematic literature review of its core dimensions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Even though there is general agreement that primary care is the linchpin of effective health care delivery, to date no efforts have been made to systematically review the scientific evidence supporting this supposition. The aim of this study was to examine the breadth of primary care by identifying its core dimensions and to assess the evidence for their interrelations and their relevance to outcomes at (primary) health system level. Methods A systematic review of the primary care literature was carried out, restricted to English language journals reporting original research or systematic reviews. Studies published between 2003 and July 2008 were searched in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, King's Fund Database, IDEAS Database, and EconLit. Results Eighty-five studies were identified. This review was able to provide insight in the complexity of primary care as a multidimensional system, by identifying ten core dimensions that constitute a primary care system. The structure of a primary care system consists of three dimensions: 1. governance; 2. economic conditions; and 3. workforce development. The primary care process is determined by four dimensions: 4. access; 5. continuity of care; 6. coordination of care; and 7. comprehensiveness of care. The outcome of a primary care system includes three dimensions: 8. quality of care; 9. efficiency care; and 10. equity in health. There is a considerable evidence base showing that primary care contributes through its dimensions to overall health system performance and health. Conclusions A primary care system can be defined and approached as a multidimensional system contributing to overall health system performance and health. PMID:20226084

  12. Adaptive Response in Mice Exposed to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Fields: Primary DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen; Zhang, Jie; Tong, Jian; Cao, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of adaptive response (AR) in animal and human cells exposed to ionizing radiation is well documented in scientific literature. We have examined whether such AR could be induced in mice exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF) used for wireless communications. Mice were pre-exposed to 900 MHz RF at 120 µW/cm2 power density for 4 hours/day for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days and then subjected to an acute dose of 3 Gy γ-radiation. The primary DNA damage in the form of alkali labile base damage and single strand breaks in the DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes was determined using the alkaline comet assay. The results indicated that the extent of damage in mice which were pre-exposed to RF for 1 day and then subjected to γ-radiation was similar and not significantly different from those exposed to γ-radiation alone. However, mice which were pre-exposed to RF for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days showed progressively decreased damage and was significantly different from those exposed to γ-radiation alone. Thus, the data indicated that RF pre-exposure is capable of inducing AR and suggested that the pre-exposure for more than 4 hours for 1 day is necessary to elicit such AR. PMID:22389679

  13. Primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma mimicking a carcinoid tumor: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Al-Ani, Zeid; Naqvi, Jawad; Oh, Teik Chooi

    2016-06-01

    Primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma is a rare malignancy. Commonly described radiologic features in the literature include pleural disease and/or effusion, lack of calcification and high uptake on positron emission tomography computerised tomography. A 68-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of cough. Imaging studies showed a right upper lobe mass with internal foci of calcification, endobronchial extension, and low fluorodeoxyglucose avidity on positron emission tomography computerised tomography, leading to an initial diagnosis of carcinoid tumor. However, histologic specimens suggested an unexpected diagnosis of aggressive synovial sarcoma, and the case was referred to the sarcoma MDT. Metastatic synovial sarcoma was ruled out, and radical surgical excision of the lesion was performed. This article highlights the multiple atypical features of primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma as seen in this case and reviews imaging findings described in the literature. Radiologists should be aware of this unusual yet aggressive type of sarcoma. PMID:27257447

  14. Health information technology in primary health care in developing countries: a literature review.

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Elaine; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Maia, Maria de Fatima Santos

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the debate and initiatives concerning the use of information technology (IT) in primary health care in developing countries. The literature from 1992-2002 was identified from searches of the MEDLINE, Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature Database (LILACS), Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. The search identified 884 references, 350 of which were classified according to the scheme described by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). For the analysis of advantages, problems and perspectives of IT applications and systems, 52 articles were selected according to their potential contribution to the primary health-care processes in non-developed countries. These included: 10 on electronic patient registries (EPR), 22 on process and programmatic action evaluation and management systems (PPAEM) and 20 on clinical decision-support systems (CDS). The main advantages, limitations and perspectives are discussed. PMID:15640923

  15. Synchronous double primary gastric and endometrial cancer: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Da, Mingxu; Peng, Lingzhi; Zhang, Yongbin; Yao, Jibin; Duan, Yaoxing; Wen, Yanghui

    2015-01-01

    Multiple primary malignant neoplasms (MPMN) are two or more malignancies in an individual without any relationship between the tumors. In recent years, increasing number of cases were reported. However, Synchronous double primary gastric and endometrial cancer are relatively rare to be reported. Here we present a rare case of synchronous double cancer involving the stomach and endometrium, which is resected simultaneously and received six times chemo. After reviewing lots of literatures at home and abroad, we discuss the risk factors, the diagnostic criteria, the treatment modalities and the prognosis of these rare MPMN. Although a number of risk factors have been proposed in a mass of literatures, but the mechanism of MPMN is still unclear. We didn’t discover a detailed explanation for the mechanism of MPMN from our patient. Therefore, further research should focus on the etiology and mechanism of MPMN. PMID:26339436

  16. Primary myelolipoma presenting as a nasal cavity polyp: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Myelolipomas are rare, benign tumors comprising mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements. The vast majority occur within the adrenal glands, but extra-adrenal myelolipomas have also been reported in the presacral region, retroperitoneum, mesentery, stomach, spleen, liver, mediastinum and lungs. Here, we present a case of primary myelolipoma occurring in an unusual site: the nasal cavity. To the best of our knowledge, we believe that this location for extra-adrenal myelolipoma has not been previously described in the literature. Case presentation We report a case of primary myelolipoma occurring in the nasal cavity of a 48-year-old Asian woman. We describe the etiology, pathology and differential diagnosis of extra-adrenal myelolipomas, and review the literature. Conclusions We chose to present this case because of its unusual location. Although myelolipomas are rare, we conclude that they it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions in this site. PMID:22584001

  17. Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the scalp: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Beteddini, Osama S. Al; Sheikh, Salwa; Shareefi, Faisal; Shahab, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma or mucinous eccrine carcinoma of the skin is a rare malignant neoplasm showing predilection to the head and neck. Distinguishing between these primary neoplasms and the more frequent metastatic mucinous deposits on the skin from primaries in the breast and gastrointestinal tract constitutes a diagnostic dilemma. Presentation of case We report a case of a 61-year-old lady who presented with a slow-growing, painless scalp nodule. Upon excision, it was diagnosed as “primary mucinous adenocarcinoma”. An extensive work-up in search for another primary tumour failed to show a primary malignancy elsewhere and the diagnosis of a primary eccrine mucinous adenocarcinoma of the skin was rendered. Discussion A review of the literature on this entity is presented, discussing diagnostic challenges and therapeutic options that of interest to surgeons, pathologists and dermatologists. Conclusion These tumours are indolent and low-grade, with a tendency for local, sometimes multiple, recurrences. Proper patient counselling and follow-up are important in treatment. Sound collaboration between clinicians and pathologists, for good therapeutic results, is of utmost importance. PMID:25708135

  18. Practice Makes Pretty Good: Assessment of Primary Literature Reading Abilities across Multiple Large-Enrollment Biology Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Brian K.; Kadandale, Pavan; He, Wenliang; Murata, Paige M. N.; Latif, Yama; Warschauer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Primary literature is essential for scientific communication and is commonly utilized in undergraduate biology education. Despite this, there is often little time spent "training" our students how to critically analyze a paper. To address this, we introduced a primary literature module in multiple upper-division laboratory courses. In…

  19. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are

  20. Psychosocial Adaptation to Disability Within the Context of Positive Psychology: Findings from the Literature.

    PubMed

    Martz, Erin; Livneh, Hanoch

    2016-03-01

    Purpose This purpose of this article is to review of the trends of research that examined positive psychology constructs in the context of adapting to chronic illness and disability (CID). This article examines the empirical findings on the relationships between six selected positive psychology-associated constructs (optimism, hope, resilience, benefit-finding, meaning-making, and post-traumatic growth) and adaptation to disability. Methods Six positive psychology constructs were selected to represent the trends found in recent literature published on CID. The process of choosing these six variables included reviewing chapters on positive psychology and CID, reviewing the top rehabilitation journals that typically publish articles on psychosocial adaptation to CID, using search engines to find relevant journal articles published since the year 2000, and selecting the most important constructs based on the authors' professional judgment. Conclusion The available evidence supports the unique benefits of these six positive psychology constructs in predicting successful adaptation to a range of disabling conditions. Based on the available findings, the authors offer four suggestions for occupational rehabilitation researchers. PMID:26283187

  1. Primary esophageal Burkitt’s lymphoma: a rare case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Madabhavi, Irappa; Patel, Apurva; Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Choudhary, Mukesh; Anand, Asha; Das, Priyanka; Panchal, Harsha; Parikh, Sonia; Aagre, Suhas; Bhardava, Vishalkumar; Talele, Avinash

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal lymphoma is a rare condition, accounting for less than 1% of all gastrointestinal lymphomas. Primary extra nodal esophageal lymphoma constitutes less than 0.2% cases of the total esophageal lymphomas. The definition of primary GI lymphoma has differed among authors. The etiology of the disease is unknown, with the role of Epstein-Barr virus being controversial. The common symptoms of patients with esophageal lymphoma include dysphasia, odynophagia, weight loss, chest pain or present as a result of complications. Burkitt’s lymphoma is one of the fastest growing human malignancies, with a 100% replication rate. Endemic, sporadic (non-endemic) and immunodeficient variants have been recognized. The diagnosis of Burkitt’s lymphoma relies on morphologic findings, immunophenotyping results, and cytogenetic features. Burkitt’s lymphoma is usually treated with LMB-96 protocol depending on the risk stratification. We present a case of primary esophageal Burkitt’s lymphoma, which has been successfully treated with LMB-96 protocol. An extensive review of literature did not reveal a single case of esophageal Burkitt’s lymphoma. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report in the world literature with diagnosis of primary esophageal Burkitt’s lymphoma. PMID:25289138

  2. Primary renal carcinoid tumor: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Cui, Tongyue; Ban, Ziqin; Luo, Lei; Sun, Lijiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this case report is to discuss the clinicopathological features of a patient with a primary renal carcinoid tumor. Methods We report on the clinical and pathological information of one case of a patient with a primary renal carcinoid tumor as well as review relative literature. Results The patient was diagnosed with a renal tumor when she received physical examination, and exhibited no positive symptoms. The diameter of tumor was 5 cm, the cross surface of the tumor was light yellow and firm, and the central part was soft with hemorrhage and necrosis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed strong and diffuse staining with synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and neuron-specific enolase. Conclusion A primary renal carcinoid tumor is extremely rare. Surgical resection is a preferred therapeutic method. PMID:26966374

  3. Going beyond the textbook: The need to integrate open access primary literature into the Chemistry curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Unrestricted, open access to scholarly scientific literature provides an opportunity for chemistry educators to go beyond the textbook, introducing students to the real work of scientists. Despite the best efforts of textbook authors to provide information about recent research results, textbooks are not a substitute for learning to use the primary literature. Chemical educators can use open access articles to develop research-related skills, to foster curiosity, and to cultivate the next generation of scientists. It is becoming increasingly important for chemical educators to teach undergraduates how online journals are changing the nature of chemical research. Some institutions can not afford online subscription costs, and open access journals can be an important resource to provide practical experience. Open access publications eliminate the barriers to the central work of scientists providing chemistry educators (whether at well-endowed or economically limited colleges) with the key resources for enhancing student learning through current, relevant research. PMID:21470429

  4. Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verner, Zenobia, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue provides a selection of articles about literature and the teaching of literature. Titles include "Sin, Salvation, and Grace in 'The Scarlet Letter,'""'The Road Not Taken': A Study in Ambiguity,""In Search of Shakespeare: The Essential Years,""Right Deeds for Wrong Reasons: Teaching the Bible as Literature,""A Southern Author's Fight for…

  5. Integrating and visualizing primary data from prospective and legacy taxonomic literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeremy A; Agosti, Donat; Penev, Lyubomir; Sautter, Guido; Georgiev, Teodor; Catapano, Terry; Patterson, David; King, David; Pereira, Serrano; Vos, Rutger Aldo; Sierra, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Specimen data in taxonomic literature are among the highest quality primary biodiversity data. Innovative cybertaxonomic journals are using workflows that maintain data structure and disseminate electronic content to aggregators and other users; such structure is lost in traditional taxonomic publishing. Legacy taxonomic literature is a vast repository of knowledge about biodiversity. Currently, access to that resource is cumbersome, especially for non-specialist data consumers. Markup is a mechanism that makes this content more accessible, and is especially suited to machine analysis. Fine-grained XML (Extensible Markup Language) markup was applied to all (37) open-access articles published in the journal Zootaxa containing treatments on spiders (Order: Araneae). The markup approach was optimized to extract primary specimen data from legacy publications. These data were combined with data from articles containing treatments on spiders published in Biodiversity Data Journal where XML structure is part of the routine publication process. A series of charts was developed to visualize the content of specimen data in XML-tagged taxonomic treatments, either singly or in aggregate. The data can be filtered by several fields (including journal, taxon, institutional collection, collecting country, collector, author, article and treatment) to query particular aspects of the data. We demonstrate here that XML markup using GoldenGATE can address the challenge presented by unstructured legacy data, can extract structured primary biodiversity data which can be aggregated with and jointly queried with data from other Darwin Core-compatible sources, and show how visualization of these data can communicate key information contained in biodiversity literature. We complement recent studies on aspects of biodiversity knowledge using XML structured data to explore 1) the time lag between species discovry and description, and 2) the prevelence of rarity in species descriptions. PMID

  6. Integrating and visualizing primary data from prospective and legacy taxonomic literature

    PubMed Central

    Agosti, Donat; Penev, Lyubomir; Sautter, Guido; Georgiev, Teodor; Catapano, Terry; Patterson, David; King, David; Pereira, Serrano; Vos, Rutger Aldo; Sierra, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Specimen data in taxonomic literature are among the highest quality primary biodiversity data. Innovative cybertaxonomic journals are using workflows that maintain data structure and disseminate electronic content to aggregators and other users; such structure is lost in traditional taxonomic publishing. Legacy taxonomic literature is a vast repository of knowledge about biodiversity. Currently, access to that resource is cumbersome, especially for non-specialist data consumers. Markup is a mechanism that makes this content more accessible, and is especially suited to machine analysis. Fine-grained XML (Extensible Markup Language) markup was applied to all (37) open-access articles published in the journal Zootaxa containing treatments on spiders (Order: Araneae). The markup approach was optimized to extract primary specimen data from legacy publications. These data were combined with data from articles containing treatments on spiders published in Biodiversity Data Journal where XML structure is part of the routine publication process. A series of charts was developed to visualize the content of specimen data in XML-tagged taxonomic treatments, either singly or in aggregate. The data can be filtered by several fields (including journal, taxon, institutional collection, collecting country, collector, author, article and treatment) to query particular aspects of the data. We demonstrate here that XML markup using GoldenGATE can address the challenge presented by unstructured legacy data, can extract structured primary biodiversity data which can be aggregated with and jointly queried with data from other Darwin Core-compatible sources, and show how visualization of these data can communicate key information contained in biodiversity literature. We complement recent studies on aspects of biodiversity knowledge using XML structured data to explore 1) the time lag between species discovry and description, and 2) the prevelence of rarity in species descriptions

  7. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma derived from a maxillary cyst: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    MORITA, TAKUMA; YAMASHIRO, MASASHI; KAYAMORI, KOU; MIZUTANI, MIHO; NAKAKUKI, KOICHI; MICHI, YASUYUKI; UZAWA, NARIKAZU; IZUMO, TOSHIYUKI; HARADA, KIYOSHI

    2016-01-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) is a rare malignant central jaw tumor derived from odontogenic epithelial remnants. PIOSCC predominantly affects the mandible, although both jawbones may be involved. This case report describes a PIOSCC type 2 of the maxilla in a 37-year-old man, treated by partial maxillectomy. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as PIOSCC derived from an odontogenic cyst. Postoperatively, the patient has been followed up for 53 months, with no recurrence of the disease. We herein describe the clinical details, treatment results and histopathological characteristics of a rare case of PIOSCC derived from a maxillary odontogenic cyst with reference to the relevant literature. PMID:27073661

  8. Psychiatric manifestations of primary Sjögren's syndrome: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John K F; Nortley, Ross; Andrews, Thomasin; D'Cruz, David

    2014-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman diagnosed with primary Sjögren's syndrome in 2007 presented with a 1-year history of visual hallucinations requiring admission to a psychiatric unit. The hallucinations resolved while on olanzapine and hydroxychloroquine but recurred when they were stopped. Despite restarting olanzapine, her visual hallucinations persisted. When she started a tapering dose of prednisolone, all the hallucinations resolved. This report adds to the small literature on psychiatric manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome and provides evidence that low-dose corticosteroids may be an effective treatment for this manifestation. PMID:24859541

  9. Primary hepatic angiosarcoma: A report of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi-Ping; Chen, Yan-Min; Matro, Erik; Chen, Ren-Biao; Jiang, Zhi-Nong; Mou, Yi-Ping; Hu, Hong-Jie; Huang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guan-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA) is a rare malignancy that carries a poor prognosis. Of 1500 patients who underwent hepatectomy for primary hepatic tumors between 1994 and 2013 at our center, two patients were pathologically diagnosed with PHA. Clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcomes of the two patients were collected and analyzed. Both patients underwent hepatectomy and had a postoperative survival time of 8 and 16 mo, respectively. A search of PubMed yielded eight references reporting 35 cases of PHA published between 2004 and 2013. On the basis of the presented cases and review of the literature, we endorse complete surgical resection as the mainstay definitive treatment of PHA, with adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy potentially improving survival. Palliative chemotherapy is an option in advanced hepatic angiosarcoma. PMID:26019478

  10. Five Simultaneous Primary Tumors in a Single Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Casey W.; Paravati, Anthony; Ghassemi, Majid; Lethert, Kristine; Hua, Patricia; Hartman, Patricia; Sanghvi, Parag

    2015-01-01

    Multiple primary malignancies (MPMs) are present when a patient is diagnosed with more than one primary malignancy and when each tumor is histologically unrelated to the others. MPMs are considered synchronous when they present within 6 months of one another. Here, we report the case of a 57-year-old woman with a past medical history significant for melanoma in 1988, who presented in 2014 with 5 distinct tumors within 4 months: malignant melanoma of the right popliteal fossa, invasive lobular breast carcinoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and a giant cell tumor of tendon sheath/pigmented villonodular synovitis. We discuss her treatment and also present a brief review of the literature. The incidence of MPMs appears to be on the rise, which demands an interdisciplinary, multimodal, and personalized approach to care. PMID:26600775

  11. Acceptability of Adaptations for Struggling Writers: A National Survey with Primary-Grade Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen R.; Bartlett, Brendan J.; Popadopoulou, Eleni; Santoro, Julia

    2016-01-01

    One hundred twenty-five primary-grade teachers randomly selected from across the United States indicated how frequently they made 20 instructional adaptations for the struggling writers in their classroom. The measure of frequency ranged from never, several times a year, monthly, weekly, several times a week, and daily. Using a 6-point Likert-type…

  12. Considerations of Dance Transmission Processes: Adapting Bharata Natyam in a Singapore Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Chee Hoo; Gonda, Donn Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study has, for its purpose, an examination of the pedagogies and practices of a master Bharata Natyam dance instructor working within a Singapore primary school context. It explores the instructor's adaptation within an after-school weekly activity of the South Indian traditional classical dance form. Considerations of…

  13. An Examination of Current Adapted Physical Activity Provision in Primary and Special Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Disability in Sport Taskforce report examining adapted physical activity (APA) in the Irish context (Department of Education and Science, 1999) found that teachers involved in primary mainstream and specialist settings expressed a grave lack of self-confidence, due to lack of training, in the delivery of APA programmes to children with special…

  14. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy: reviewing the literature comparing the results of primary versus secondary surgery.

    PubMed

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Costales, Javier Robla; Paez, Miguel Domínguez; Nizzo, Gustavo; Valbuena, Sebastian; Varone, Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus injuries (OBPP) are a relatively common stretch injury of the brachial plexus that occurs during delivery. Roughly 30 % of patients will not recover completely and will need a surgical repair. Two main treatment strategies have been used: primary surgery, consisting in exploring and reconstructing the affected portions of the brachial plexus within the first few months of the patient's life, and secondary procedures that include tendon or muscle transfers, osteotomies, and other orthopedic techniques. Secondary procedures can be done as the only surgical treatment of OBPP or after primary surgery, in order to minimize any residual deficits. Two things are crucial to achieving a good outcome: (1) the appropriate selection of patients, to separate those who will spontaneously recover from those who will recover only partially or not at all; and (2) a good surgical technique. The objective of the present review is to assess the published literature concerning certain controversial issues in OBPP, especially in terms of the true current state of primary and secondary procedures, their results, and the respective roles each plays in modern-day treatment of this complex pathology. Considerable published evidence compiled over decades of surgical experience favors primary nerve surgery as the initial therapeutic step in patients who do not recover spontaneously, followed by secondary surgeries for further functional improvement. As described in this review, the results of such treatment can greatly ameliorate function in affected limbs. For best results, multi-disciplinary teams should treat these patients. PMID:26615411

  15. Clinicopathological findings of primary esophageal malignant melanoma: report of six cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinfeng; Mo, Haiying; Ma, Shufang; Wang, Zhenzheng

    2014-01-01

    We studied images and histopathological features of primary esophageal malignant melanoma to explore the clinical pathological features, diagnosis, differential diagnoses, and treatment. Immunolabelling was conducted on six cases of esophageal malignant melanoma using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Combined with the related literature, the clinical manifestations, imaging, histopathological and immunohistochemical features, treatment, and prognosis of primary esophageal malignant melanoma were observed and analyzed. The six patients with primary esophageal malignant melanoma were all male with an average age of 63.4 years. Poor food intake was observed in all patients, and the symptoms showed progressive aggravation. Endoscopic feed tube revealed dark brown and black nodular and polypoid lesions, 1/4-1/2 loop cavity. Tumor histopathology revealed the following characteristics: tumor cells arranged in nests, sheets and cords, round or polygonal, abundant and red-stained cytoplasm, melanin granules in the cytoplasm, heterogeneous nucleus sizes, centered or deviated nuclei, clearly identifiable nucleoli, and apparent pathological mitosis. The immune phenotype was as follows: tumor cells had diffuse expression of HMB45, Melan A, and S100. The cells were CK negative, and the Ki67-positive cell number was 40%-45%. Primary esophageal malignant melanoma is rare with high malignancy and poor prognosis. Immunohistochemical staining is helpful for diagnosing this tumor. The differential diagnosis includes low differentiated carcinoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, esophageal sarcomatoid carcinoma, esophageal lymphoma, and other tumors. PMID:25400820

  16. The common characteristics and outcomes of multidisciplinary collaboration in primary health care: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Schepman, Sanneke; Hansen, Johan; de Putter, Iris D.; Batenburg, Ronald S.; de Bakker, Dinny H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Research on collaboration in primary care focuses on specific diseases or types of collaboration. We investigate the effects of such collaboration by bringing together the results of scientific studies. Theory and methods We conducted a systematic literature review of PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane and EMBASE. The review was restricted to publications that test outcomes of multidisciplinary collaboration in primary care in high-income countries. A conceptual model is used to structure the analysis. Results Fifty-one studies comply with the selection criteria about collaboration in primary care. Approximately half of the 139 outcomes in these studies is non-significant. Studies among older patients, in particular, report non-significant outcomes (p < .05). By contrast, a higher proportion of significant results were found in studies that report on clinical outcomes. Conclusions and discussion This review shows a large diversity in the types of collaboration in primary care; and also thus a large proportion of outcomes do not seem to be positively affected by collaboration. Both the characteristics of the structure of the collaboration and the collaboration processes themselves affect the outcomes. More research is necessary to understand the mechanism behind the success of collaboration, especially on the exact nature of collaboration and the context in which collaboration takes place. PMID:26150765

  17. Designing for Risk Assessment Systems for Patient Triage in Primary Health Care: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Background This literature review covers original journal papers published between 2011 and 2015. These papers review the current status of research on the application of human factors and ergonomics in risk assessment systems’ design to cope with the complexity, singularity, and danger in patient triage in primary health care. Objective This paper presents a systematic literature review that aims to identify, analyze, and interpret the application of available evidence from human factors and ergonomics to the design of tools, devices, and work processes to support risk assessment in the context of health care. Methods Electronic search was performed on 7 bibliographic databases of health sciences, engineering, and computer sciences disciplines. The quality and suitability of primary studies were evaluated, and selected papers were classified according to 4 classes of outcomes. Results A total of 1845 papers were retrieved by the initial search, culminating in 16 selected for data extraction after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria and quality and suitability evaluation. Conclusions Results point out that the study of the implications of the lack of understanding about real work performance in designing for risk assessment in health care is very specific, little explored, and mostly focused on the development of tools. PMID:27528543

  18. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Sign Language: Engaging Undergraduate Students’ Critical Thinking Skills Using the Primary Literature

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a modular activity on the neurobiology of sign language that engages undergraduate students in reading and analyzing the primary functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature. Drawing on a seed empirical article and subsequently published critique and rebuttal, students are introduced to a scientific debate concerning the functional significance of right-hemisphere recruitment observed in some fMRI studies of sign language processing. The activity requires minimal background knowledge and is not designed to provide students with a specific conclusion regarding the debate. Instead, the activity and set of articles allow students to consider key issues in experimental design and analysis of the primary literature, including critical thinking regarding the cognitive subtractions used in blocked-design fMRI studies, as well as possible confounds in comparing results across different experimental tasks. By presenting articles representing different perspectives, each cogently argued by leading scientists, the readings and activity also model the type of debate and dialogue critical to science, but often invisible to undergraduate science students. Student self-report data indicate that undergraduates find the readings interesting and that the activity enhances their ability to read and interpret primary fMRI articles, including evaluating research design and considering alternate explanations of study results. As a stand-alone activity completed primarily in one 60-minute class block, the activity can be easily incorporated into existing courses, providing students with an introduction both to the analysis of empirical fMRI articles and to the role of debate and critique in the field of neuroscience. PMID:26557797

  19. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Sign Language: Engaging Undergraduate Students' Critical Thinking Skills Using the Primary Literature.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a modular activity on the neurobiology of sign language that engages undergraduate students in reading and analyzing the primary functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature. Drawing on a seed empirical article and subsequently published critique and rebuttal, students are introduced to a scientific debate concerning the functional significance of right-hemisphere recruitment observed in some fMRI studies of sign language processing. The activity requires minimal background knowledge and is not designed to provide students with a specific conclusion regarding the debate. Instead, the activity and set of articles allow students to consider key issues in experimental design and analysis of the primary literature, including critical thinking regarding the cognitive subtractions used in blocked-design fMRI studies, as well as possible confounds in comparing results across different experimental tasks. By presenting articles representing different perspectives, each cogently argued by leading scientists, the readings and activity also model the type of debate and dialogue critical to science, but often invisible to undergraduate science students. Student self-report data indicate that undergraduates find the readings interesting and that the activity enhances their ability to read and interpret primary fMRI articles, including evaluating research design and considering alternate explanations of study results. As a stand-alone activity completed primarily in one 60-minute class block, the activity can be easily incorporated into existing courses, providing students with an introduction both to the analysis of empirical fMRI articles and to the role of debate and critique in the field of neuroscience. PMID:26557797

  20. Primary Cutaneous Interdigitating Dendritic Cell Sarcoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Catherine M; Cassarino, David

    2016-08-01

    Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) is a rare tumor of spindle to ovoid cells intermixed with lymphocytes and plasma cells. Primary cutaneous IDCS, with no nodal or other organ involvement is extremely rare, with less than 10 cases reported to date. Herein, the authors describe a case in which a 61-year-old man presented with scattered subcutaneous nodules on his left shoulder and right anterior thigh. A biopsy was performed, and the histopathologic findings revealed prominent, diffuse superficial, and deep dermal infiltration by an atypical epithelioid-shaped tumor forming sheets and cords infiltrating throughout the dermis. Immunohistochemical stains were strongly and diffusely positive for S100, CD45, CD68, and lysozyme, whereas CD21, CD23, CD3, CD20, CD30, CD34, and CD117 were all negative. The histologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with an IDCS. A positron emission tomography scan was negative for metastases, leading to the diagnosis of primary cutaneous IDCS. The patient was started on chemotherapy with gemcitabine and docetaxel, and was stable at 4 months follow-up. Our findings contribute to the limited existing literature on primary cutaneous IDCS. This is the first documented case in which chemotherapy with gemcitabine and docetaxel was implemented for treatment, helping to establish an optimal treatment protocol for clinical remission. PMID:27442049

  1. Primary ameloblastic carcinoma of the maxilla: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    UZAWA, NARIKAZU; SUZUKI, MIHO; MIURA, CHIKA; TOMOMATSU, NOBUYOSHI; IZUMO, TOSHIYUKI; HARADA, KIYOSHI

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma (AC) is a rare malignant odontogenic neoplasm that tends to occur in the mandible rather than in the maxilla. This malignancy is classified as a tumor that combines the morphological features of ameloblastoma and carcinoma, regardless of the presence or absence of metastasis. In addition, AC has been classified into two types, primary and secondary. The former develops de novo and the latter develops by malignant transformation of a pre-existing benign ameloblastoma. The present study describes the case of a 22-year-old patient with primary AC of the maxilla. A review of the literature focusing on the clinical details, treatment results and histopathological and phenotypic information available for ameloblastic carcinoma of the maxilla from a 60-year period was also performed. As a result, it was found that primary AC is dominant in the maxilla and does not exhibit an aggressive phenotype compared with secondary AC. In addition, the presence of recurrence was found to correlate with mortality, indicating that early, aggressive and complete removal of the tumor is the best treatment for survival. PMID:25436009

  2. A rare case report of primary bone lymphoma and a brief review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Fan, Shouren; Liu, Jie; Song, Bao

    2016-01-01

    Primary bone lymphoma is a rare and peculiar extranodal presentation of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which threatens human health. It can be defined as a lymphoma that occurs in the bone, consisting of a single bone lesion with or without regional lymphadenopathies, and its underlying causes are largely unknown. In this case report, we describe a male who presented with left-sided distal forearm pain, swelling of 2 months duration, and progressive limited wrist motion for about 1 month. The patient had no significant medical history except diabetes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging demonstrated a sheet-like bone destruction area in the left-sided radius, localized discontinuous bone cortex, and adjacent soft tissue masses. Finally, a bone biopsy examined by histopathological and immunochemical methods confirmed a diagnosis of primary bone diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Due to the rarity of this disease, the level of evidence supporting some diagnostic and therapeutic decisions remains low, and therefore, the details of the rare case may facilitate treatment of similar diseases and provide insight about this obscure lymphoproliferative malignancy. Also, related recent literature reports of primary bone lymphoma are reviewed. PMID:27563248

  3. SBIRT-A: Adapting SBIRT to Maximize Developmental Fit for Adolescents in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Ozechowski, Timothy J; Becker, Sara J; Hogue, Aaron

    2016-03-01

    The Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) model is widely recommended as part of routine visits in pediatric primary care despite a dearth of evidence on its effectiveness, feasibility, and developmental appropriateness for adolescents in this setting. The purpose of this article is to explicate ways that SBIRT may be tailored to better serve adolescents in primary care under a set of recommended adaptations that we refer to collectively as SBIRT-A or Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment for Adolescents. Each component of the SBIRT-A framework incorporates recommendations to optimize developmental fit with adolescents based on extant empirical research, developmental theory, and well-documented barriers to service delivery in primary care. Commonalities across proposed adaptations include reliance upon proactive methods to identify and engage youth; innovation in service delivery aimed at improving the consistency and reach of interventions; and a family-focused approach to engagement, assessment, and intervention. Specific recommendations include taking advantage of every clinical encounter with the family to screen, involving caregivers in assessments and brief interventions, leveraging technology to administer brief interventions and booster sessions, and patient- and family-centered procedures for treatment referral and engagement. The adaptations proposed in this article have the potential to enhance the detection of adolescents with SU problems in primary care, the consistency of intervention provision, and engagement of this typically recalcitrant population into appropriate treatment. PMID:26742723

  4. Conceptual framework alignment between primary literature and education in animal behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierema, Andrea Marie-Kryger

    In 1963, Tinbergen revolutionized the study of animal behaviour in his paper On aims and methods of ethology (Zeitschrift Tierpsycholgie, 20, 410-433) by revamping the conceptual framework of the discipline. His framework suggests an integration of four questions: causation, ontogeny, survival value, and evolution. The National Research Council Committee (U.S.) on Undergraduate Biology Education to Prepare Research Scientists for the 21st Century published BIO2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2003), which suggests alignment between current research and undergraduate education. Unfortunately, alignment has been rarely studied in college biology, especially for fundamental concepts. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to determine if the conceptual framework used by animal behaviour scientists, as presented in current primary literature, aligns with what students are exposed to in undergraduate biology education. After determining the most commonly listed textbooks from randomlyselected animal behaviour syllabi, four of the most popular textbooks, as well as the course descriptions provided in the collected syllabi, underwent content analysis in order to determine the extent that each of Tinbergen's four questions is being applied in education. Mainstream animal behaviour journal articles from 2013 were also assessed via content analysis in order to evaluate the current research framework. It was discovered that over 80% of the textbook text covered only two of Tinbergen's questions (survival value and causation). The other two questions, evolution and ontogeny, were rarely described in the text. A similar trend was found in journal articles. Therefore, alignment is occurring between primary literature and education, but neither aligns with the established conceptual framework of the discipline. According to course descriptions, many instructors intend to use an integrated

  5. Eleven Primary Melanomas, Colon Cancer, and Atypical Nevi in the Same Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Juul Nielsen, Lea; Rosenkrantz Hölmich, Lisbet

    2016-01-01

    Background. As the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma increases in the Caucasian population, an increasing population of melanoma survivors is at risk of developing multiple primary melanomas (MPM) as well as secondary primary cancers. Objective. To present a case of a patient with atypical nevi, 11 primary melanomas over 33 years, and colon cancer and to review the literature on multiple primary melanomas, atypical nevi, and correlation of nonmelanoma cancers. Conclusion. The literature indicates that patients with MPM are not uncommon, although 11 primary melanomas are rarely described, that patients with MPM may have a better survival than patients with single primary melanoma, that atypical nevi are a risk marker of not only melanoma in general but also MPM, and that melanoma patients have a significantly increased risk of developing nonmelanoma skin and other cancers, which may be even higher for patients with MPM. PMID:27022491

  6. Primary Hydatid Cyst of the Small Intestine: A Rare Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ozmen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic disease especially in underdeveloped and developing countries affecting mostly the liver and lungs. The hydatid cysts located in other sites are mostly due to rupture of primary liver or splenic cysts. We present a primary small intestine hydatid cyst resected laparoscopically with the affected intestinal segment. As far as we know, this is the first report of a primary small intestine hydatid disease in the literature. PMID:27610288

  7. Primary Hydatid Cyst of the Small Intestine: A Rare Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Suleyman Caglar; Ozmen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic disease especially in underdeveloped and developing countries affecting mostly the liver and lungs. The hydatid cysts located in other sites are mostly due to rupture of primary liver or splenic cysts. We present a primary small intestine hydatid cyst resected laparoscopically with the affected intestinal segment. As far as we know, this is the first report of a primary small intestine hydatid disease in the literature. PMID:27610288

  8. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tamgadge, Sandhya; Tamgadge, Avinash; Modak, Neha; Bhalerao, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) derived from an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the jaws, which is locally aggressive with quite poor prognosis. The incidence of carcinomas arising in odontogenic cysts was reported to be approximately 1–2/1000. The number of well-documented cases of PIOSCC ex OKC is extremely small; hence, no sufficient incidence data are available in the literature. Overall, the survival rate of an individual, which is a period of two years, is very poor, and this can be attributed to the delayed diagnosis. But knowledge of the histopathological and immunohistological features of PIOSCC allows accurate and early diagnosis of the lesion so that an early and appropriate treatment can be instituted for better prognosis. The following report describes an extremely rare case of PIOSCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 20-year-old female patient. PMID:23717337

  9. Primary splenic angiosarcoma with fever and anemia: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Rui; Chang, Weilong; Wu, Xiuli; Chen, Junhua; Tao, Kaixiong; Zhang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Primary splenic angiosarcoma is an extremely rare and aggressive neoplasm. The prognosis of this disease is dismal, and the mean survival is less than 6 months after the diagnosis. This neoplasm typically presents with abdominal pain, splenomegaly, weight loss, and spontaneous splenic rupture. Fever is a very rare presentation of splenic angiosarcoma. Here we report the case of a 64-year-old man who presented with fever and anemia. A laparoscopic splenectomy was performed and revealed splenic angiosarcoma. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient received 5 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide plus epirubicin. He remained disease free at 9 months after surgery. This is the first case of splenic angiosarcoma with fever as the initial presentation that was treated with laparoscopic splenectomy to be reported in the English literature. PMID:26823717

  10. The learning processes of two high-school biology students when reading primary literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Gilat; Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat

    2004-04-01

    Biology education, like education in any other discipline, strives to make students familiar with the knowledge, activities, and ways of thinking of the community of biologists. We produced a curriculum in developmental biology based on learning through primary literature, in an attempt to develop biological literacy among highschool students. Here we characterize the way in which two high-school biology students read a research article in developmental biology. Mere reading resulted in superficial comprehension. In contrast, when the students answered questions about the text, deeper comprehension evolved. The students could overcome readingcomprehension problems by applying well-established reading strategies, but encountered difficulties resulting from the classical structure of research articles. We hope that our characterization of the learning process of research articles by high-school students will enable the use of these complex texts in high-school biology classrooms.

  11. Primary pulmonary Hodgkin's lymphoma and a review of the literature since 2006

    PubMed Central

    Cooksley, Nathania; Judge, Daniel James; Brown, James

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman of Laotian origin presented with dry cough, fevers, night sweats and weight loss over the preceding 6 weeks. Radiological investigations revealed large complex cavitary lesions in the middle and lower lobes of the right lung, with no mediastinal lymph node enlargement. Bronchoscopic investigations did not yield a diagnosis. CT-guided fine-needle aspiration raised the possibility of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Open lung biopsy initially supported this, but eventually a microscopic and immunohistochemical diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma was made. The final diagnosis was primary pulmonary Hodgkin's lymphoma. We present a new case as well as a literature review of reported cases published since 2006. PMID:24711477

  12. Primary Cutaneous Coccidioidomycosis in an Italian Nun Working in South America and Review of Published Literature.

    PubMed

    Tortorano, A M; Carminati, G; Tosoni, A; Tintelnot, K

    2015-10-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides, endemic in parts of the Southwestern USA and Central and South America. Two species, Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii, were differentiated. Primary cutaneous coccidioidomycosis (PCC) has been reported rarely. An unusual case of PCC characterized by a persistent solitary lesion diagnosed in Italy in an immunocompetent Italian nun living in Argentina is described. The isolate was identified by sequence analysis as C. posadasii. Antibody screening was negative. A total of 39 cases of PCC have been reported in the literature. Infections occurred as a consequence of traumatic implantation in a natural setting in endemic areas or of accidental inoculation in laboratory workers. Importance of accurate investigation of travel history and of occupational hazards to laboratory workers is outlined. PMID:25935662

  13. Primary bone lymphoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, HAI-YAN; GAO, FANG; BU, BING; FU, ZHENG; SUN, XU-JIE; HUANG, CHENG-SUO; ZHOU, DENG-GUANG; ZHANG, SHU; XIAO, JUN

    2014-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the bone (PLB) primarily arising from the medullary cavity is an extremely rare entity, with only retrospective studies and sporadic cases reported in the literature. The current study presents one case of PLB treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and a review of the literature to elucidate the optimal treatment of PLB. A 73-year-old female presented with pain in the left hip that had persisted for two months. Plain X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging of the left hip showed lytic areas involving the left innominatum. Technetium-99m radionuclide imaging showed increased tracer uptake in the ilium, acetabulum and ischium. An 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) scan showed high FDG uptake. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the lesion was performed, and histopathological and immunohistochemical examination confirmed a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma. The patient received radiation therapy followed by six cycles of CHOP regimen (1,000 mg cyclophosphamide, 80 mg epirubicine and 2 mg vincristine on day one, and 100 mg prednisone on days one to five, every three weeks) and achieved a complete response, as confirmed by FDG-PET-CT. At present, the patient is in a good condition. This case is noteworthy, as it is a well-documented case in which the patient received successful treatment. This case demonstrates that PLB has an improved prognosis compared with primary lymphoma of other sites; however, combined therapy may further improve the patient outcome. PMID:25202366

  14. Primary Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma of the Prostate Gland: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2016-01-01

    Background. Primary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the prostate gland (PLELCP) is rare with hardly any information on its diagnostic features and biological behaviour. Aim. To review the literature. Method. Various Internet data bases were searched. Literature Review. PLELCP is extremely rare and there are hardly any pictures of the tumour involving the prostate; hence it would appear that clinicians would need to use their knowledge of the microscopic and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumour in the nasopharynx and urinary bladder as diagnostic aid. PLELCP on microscopy mimics nasopharyngeal LELC. The LELC component of the tumour is characterized by indistinct cytoplasmic borders and a syncytial growth pattern. The stroma may be densely infiltrated by lymphoid cells admixed with some plasma cells and neutrophils and at times prominent infiltration of eosinophils. PLELCPs tend to have adenocarcinoma, either as the only pattern or with additional ductal components or adenosquamous carcinoma. PLELCPs stain positively with PSA, PSAP, AMACR/P504S, EMA, and cytokeratins AE1/AE3, 7, 8, and 20. There is no consensus on treatment of PLECP. The reported prognosis has been poor. Conclusions. PLELCPs should be entered into a multicenter trial to determine the biological behaviour and to find the best treatment option that would improve the prognosis. PMID:26881187

  15. Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma, an extremely rare malignancy: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    YUN, WOO-SUNG; BAE, JUNG-MIN

    2016-01-01

    Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma (PPSC) is an extremely rare malignancy that was first described in 1959. This type of cancer arises from the peritoneal epithelium and is similar to serous ovarian carcinoma. A diagnosis of PPSC is typically made based on the Gynecology Oncology Group criteria; however, a correct differential diagnosis of PPSC is difficult preoperatively. The current study describes the case of a 66 year-old female patient presenting with abdomen distension. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed abundant ascites in the abdominal cavity and omental infiltration. The results of positron emission tomography/CT showed hot uptake in the greater omentum. Furthermore, preoperative serum cancer antigen-125 levels were 1,032 U/ml. Upon surgical exploration, a whitish mass and nodule were found in the greater omentum. Therefore, omentectomy was performed. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a diagnosis of PPSC. PPSC is extremely rare with few cases cited in the current literature. The present study describes a rare case of PPSC with a review of the literature. PMID:27313741

  16. Neuroarthropathy of the foot revealing primary systemic amyloidosis: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Andrei, Irina Adriana; Kuntzer, Thierry; Lobrinus, Johannes Alexander; Jaccard, Arnaud; Zufferey, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this review were to describe the case of a patient with debilitating neuroarthropathy of the ankles and feet and reveal a primary systemic (amyloid light chain, AL) amyloidosis and to review the relevant literature concerning the peripheral neuropathy and neuroarthropathy due to amyloidosis. We will emphasize the diagnostic pitfalls and discuss prognosis and treatments of both the peripheral neuropathy and the arthropathy related to AL amyloidosis. This is a descriptive case report of a patient with neuroarthropathy of the lower limbs due to AL amyloidosis. A review and discussion of relevant literature were conducted, based on a PubMed search from 1973 to December 2013. A 51-year-old female was diagnosed with AL amyloidosis after 20 months of investigation of small painful deformities of the feet. Chronic peripheral neuropathy occurs as a manifestation of AL amyloidosis in 25 % of cases. It may exceptionally be complicated by neuroarthropathy. In this case, the paucity of clinical and electrophysiological signs of the neuropathy delayed the diagnosis, leading to a severe arthropathy. The massive destruction of the joints dominated the clinical and the poor functional outcome. Diagnosis of AL amyloidosis should be considered in the presence of a mild peripheral neuropathy and a distal destructive and painless arthropathy. The two key diagnostic procedures are serum protein electrophoresis and nerve biopsy. Delay in treatment worsens the prognosis. PMID:25227773

  17. Screening instruments for substance use and brief interventions targeting adolescents in primary care: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pilowsky, Daniel J; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-01-01

    Background A review of the literature was conducted to examine substance use screening instruments commonly used with adolescents in medical settings, their comparative usefulness, and SBIRT (Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment). Methods We screened two databases (Ovid MEDLINE and PsycINFO) targeting journal articles dealing with screening for alcohol and drug use in adolescence as well as adolescent SBIRT. Results Adolescents preferred paper forms and computerized questionnaires over interviews with physicians or nurses. The CRAFFT was the best studied instrument for screening for alcohol/drug use and related problems, and is the only tool with data to support its use in medical settings. Other screening instruments require more testing/evaluation in more representative samples of adolescents in primary care settings. Long term follow-up data to establish the efficacy of SBIRT in adolescence are not available. Innovative computerized approaches to screening for substance use in this population have recently been proposed. Although promising, they require further evaluation. Conclusions The CRAFFT has the most consistent data to support its use in primary care settings. The effects of SBIRT in adolescence have not been adequately evaluated. Adolescents’ opinions and preferences for SBIRT should be studied to improve their acceptance. PMID:23454877

  18. Rare Primary Adenocarcinoma of the Broad Ligament: Report of Two Cases and a Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Ai; Miyatake, Takashi; Hara, Takeya; Komiya, Shinnosuke; Komura, Naoko; Tanaka, Asuka; Kanao, Serika; Takeda, Masumi; Mimura, Mayuko; Nagamatsu, Masaaki; Yamasaki, Masaru; Yokoi, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    Malignant primary tumors arising in the uterine broad ligament are extremely rare, and only 26 cases have been reported to date. We describe 2 new cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the broad ligament, and we review the previous literature on such rare tumors. In Case 1, a 71-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of increased yellow vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain during bowel movement. Transvaginal sonography revealed a 6.5 cm mass located on the dorsum of the uterus and a 7.0 cm mass (with cystic and solid parts) near the right adnexa. We postoperatively diagnosed the mass as a high-grade serous carcinoma of the broad ligament (pT3cNXM0). The patient is currently receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin. In Case 2, during a complete medical checkup a 43-year-old woman was found to have a pelvic mass indicative of leiomyoma. Transvaginal sonography revealed a 3.8 cm mass located on the dorsum of the uterus. Following surgery, we diagnosed the mass as a clear cell adenocarcinoma of the broad ligament (pT2bN1M0). This patient is also now receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin. PMID:26699941

  19. Primary subcutaneous hydatid cyst over thoracic spine: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Bayri, Yaşar; Saraçoğlu, Ayten; Uyar Bozkurt, Süheyla; Konya, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    Hydatid disease is a public health problem in endemic areas. Although it is most commonly present in the liver and lung, it rarely affects other tissues. A 62-year-old female patient was admitted to our outpatient clinic with a palpable, moderately mobile mass over the thoracic spine. On MRI, a cystic lesion, hypointense and hyperintense on T1- and T2-weighted scans, respectively, was detected. During surgery, a well capsulated cyst was excised en bloc. On histological examination, a hydatid cyst was diagnosed. Her postoperative serological test was positive. Her whole body was scanned for any other organ involvement, but scans were all negative. She was treated with albendazol. After 3 months, the test result was negative, and there were no local or systemic recurrences. Primary subcutaneous tissue involvement is a rarely reported entity in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a primary subcutaneous hydatid cyst detected over the thoracic spine. PMID:25732887

  20. Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor with multiple liver metastases: A case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Cheng, Ying-Sheng; Yang, Ji-Jin; Jiang, Xu; Guo, Ji-Xiang

    2015-03-14

    We herein present a case involving a 41-year-old woman in whom ultrasound examination revealed multiple liver hemangiomas more than 3 years ago. Follow-up ultrasound examination revealed that the masses had significantly increased; the largest was located in the right lobe (about 8.2 cm × 7.4 cm × 6.0 cm). Abdominal multidetector computed tomography revealed multiple well-circumscribed, heterogeneous, hypodense masses (largest, 6.4 cm × 6.3 cm × 5.0 cm) with significant contrast enhancement during the arterial and portal phases and with contrast wash-out and peripheral enhancement during the delayed phases. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated multiple well-circumscribed, heterogeneous, hypointense hepatic masses with significant contrast enhancement (largest, 6.4 cm × 6.5 cm × 5.1 cm); multiple enlarged porta lymph nodes; and multiple slightly enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Histological and immunohistochemical examination of the right mass biopsy specimen suggested a malignant neoplasm that had originated from a neuroendocrine cell type (grade 2 well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma). After performing a systemic examination to exclude metastasis from an extrahepatic primary site, we considered that the masses had arisen from a primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor with multiple liver metastases. The patient underwent transcatheter arterial chemoembolization using a combination of oxaliplatin (150 mg) mixed with one bottle of gelatin sponge particles (560-710 μm) and lipiodol (6 mL). Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the liver are extremely rare. This case is interesting because of the rarity of this neoplasm and previous misdiagnosis as multiple liver hemangiomas. Previously reported cases in the literature are also reviewed. PMID:25780316

  1. An Annotated Bibliography of the Literature Concerning Students' Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior Patterns in Response to Failure in Achievement Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Kathleen Pelletier

    An examination of the dynamics of academic failure is presented in this monograph in the form of an annotated bibliography of current literature. The writings cited offer a cross-section of research on what factors affect students' choices of adaptive or maladaptive behavior patterns in the classroom and in relation to their peers. Section one of…

  2. Adapting Individual Psychotherapy for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparative Review of the Cognitive-Behavioural and Psychodynamic Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Richard M.; Tudway, Jeremy A.; Look, Roger; Kroese, Biza Stenfert

    2006-01-01

    Background: Historically, adults with intellectual disabilities have had little access to individual psychotherapy. Over the last 20 years an increasing body of literature has described psychotherapy with this client group and reported methods for adapting traditional psychotherapeutic techniques. Method: The current review identified the…

  3. Ipsilateral medial olivocochlear reflex adaptation of the primary-source DPOAE component measured with pulsed tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalhoff, Ernst; Zelle, Dennis; Gummer, Anthony W.

    2015-12-01

    Measurement of contralateral suppression or ipsilateral adaptation of DPOAE due to the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) in humans has so far been complicated by interference between the two major contributors to a DPOAE signal, namely, the nonlinear and the reflection-source components. For instance, while the MOCR has been shown to act inhibitory to the cochlear amplifier, a considerable share of the measured responses has been reported to be of the excitatory type (e.g. 22% for contralateral adaptation in [11]), and it has been shown that the magnitudes of ipsilateral adaptation as well as contralateral suppression depend on the precise frequency choice relative to the position of dips in the DPOAE fine structure [3, 8]. To separate MOCR effects on both source components, we developed a paradigm consisting of five short f2 pulses presented during a 0.35 s on-period of the f1 primary within blocks of 1.35 s length. The responses at f1 and f2 were cancelled using the primary-tone phase variation technique [13]. In 16 normal-hearing subjects, we measured MOCR-induced ipsilateral adaptation at three near-by frequencies in the DPOAE fine structure, corresponding roughly to characteristic interference states between the two major source components of a DPOAE, i.e. constructive, destructive and quadrature interference. Measurements were performed in the frequency range 1.7 ≤ f2 ≤ 2 kHz, f2/f1 = 1.2, and with moderate primary-tone levels (L2 = 45 dB SPL, L1 = 57 dB SPL). Analysis of the DPOAE time traces showed that the nonlinear component typically presents inhibitory adaptation between the 1st and the 5th pulses (median: 0.92 dB). Fitting a single exponential function to the pooled data yielded adaptation of 1.49 dB. From 26 statistically significant MOCR effects (P < 0.1) ranging between 0.29 and 2.81 dB, no excitatory response was detected. The separation of the DPOAE sources when analysing MOCR effects on ipsilateral DPOAE offers the potential of investigating

  4. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  5. Primary ovarian insufficiency: different approaches in three cases and a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ana Marina

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is the condition of intermittent or permanent gonadal insufficiency that occurs in women before the age of 40. We describe three cases of POI referred to the outpatient endocrinology clinic of a university hospital. The three patients met diagnostic criteria for POI and were managed by specific approaches tailored to individualized goals. In the first case, the main concern was fertility and the reproductive prognosis. The second patient was a carrier of a common genetic cause of POI: premutation of the FMR1 gene. The third case was a patient diagnosed with a POI and established osteoporosis, a common complication of estrogen deprivation. This study reports the treatment and follow-up of these cases, with an emphasis on relevant aspects of individualized management, alongside a brief literature review. Learning points A diagnosis of POI should be considered in patients presenting with amenorrhea or irregular menses and high serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels before age 40 years. Patients with POI without an established cause, especially in familial cases, should be tested for FMR1 mutations. Estrogen/progestin replacement therapy is indicated since diagnosis until at least the estimated age of menopause, and is the cornerstone for maintaining the good health of breast and urogenital tract and for primary or secondary osteoporosis prevention in POI. Fertility should be managed through an individualized approach based on patient possibilities, such as egg or embryo donation and ovarian cryopreservation; pregnancy can occur spontaneously in a minority of cases. Women with POI should be carefully monitored for cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:27252868

  6. [Primary immune thrombocytopenia in adults in Mexico: national characteristics and the relation to international literature].

    PubMed

    Meillón-García, Luis Antonio; García-Chávez, Jaime; Gómez-Almaguer, David; Gutiérrez-Espíndola, Guillermo R; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify the clinical approach of a sample of Mexican hematologists for primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in adults in Mexico, we applied an electronic survey via the internet to identify common practices for the diagnosis and treatment of ITP and draw a comparison between the information from these hematologists with international guidelines or the international literature. The results were analyzed using measures of central tendency. The sample was 21 medical hematologists, predominantly from Mexico City (average age: 51.4 years). A total of 66.7% of the surveyed physicians use international guidelines to make therapeutic decisions, and 43% defined ITP including the numerical concept (< 100 x 10(9)/l). We found some differences between requested clinical exams and tests indicated by the guidelines. In first-line treatment (except emergency), 91% of the participants start with prednisone and 24% use dexamethasone. Danazol is used in persistent ITP by most (41%) of the specialists. In second-line treatment, 67% would indicate splenectomy. Some differences were found between clinical practice of the hematologists in Mexico versus guidelines recommendations. PMID:25098212

  7. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tonsil: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yang; Zou, Jian; Zhou, Guang-Yao; Yan, Jia-Qi; Liu, Shi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) that originates in the tonsil is extremely rare and carries a poor prognosis. Only a few cases of this tumor have been reported so far and the standard treatment protocol remains uncertain. Here we describe a 74-year-old woman presented with throat pain for about 2 months. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 3.4×1.8 cm tumor with moderate enhancement in the left tonsil and a 1.3×1.0 cm neck mass in left level II. A biopsy of the tonsillar mass was performed and histologic examination revealed small round to oval tumor cells were arranged in cords or nests, containing hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm. Mitotic figures were readily identified. Immunohistochemical staining showed that tumor cells were strongly positive for CD56, focally positive for PCK and negative for LCA. A diagnosis of primary small cell NEC of the left tonsil was obtained. The patient was treated by six cycles of cisplatin combined with etoposide and the masses showed initial complete response. But recurrence in the left neck was found 9 months after initial diagnosis and the patient refused any further treatment. With a review of the literature, the nomenclature, clinicopathological characteristics and treatment modalities of this rare tumor are discussed. PMID:24966986

  8. Scrotal Irradiation in Primary Testicular Lymphoma: Review of the Literature and In Silico Planning Comparative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brouwer, Charlotte L.; Wiesendanger, Esther M.; Hulst, Peter C. van der; Imhoff, Gustaaf W. van; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Beijert, Max

    2013-02-01

    We examined adjuvant irradiation of the scrotum in primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) by means of a literature review in MEDLINE, a telephone survey among Dutch institutes, and an in silico planning comparative study on scrotal irradiation in PTL. We did not find any uniform adjuvant irradiation technique assuring a safe planning target volume (PTV) coverage in published reports, and the definition of the clinical target volume is unclear. Histopathologic studies of PTL show a high invasion rate of the tunica albuginea, the epididymis, and the spermatic cord. In retrospective studies, a prescribed dose of at least 30 Gy involving the scrotum is associated with best survival. The majority of Dutch institutes irradiate the whole scrotum without using a planning computed tomography scan, with a single electron beam and a total dose of 30 Gy. The in silico planning comparative study showed that all evaluated approaches met a D{sub 95%} scrotal dose of at least 85% of the prescription dose, without exceeding the dose limits of critical organs. Photon irradiation with 2 oblique beams using wedges resulted in the best PTV coverage, with a mean value of 95% of the prescribed dose, with lowest maximum dose. Adjuvant photon or electron irradiation of the whole scrotum including the contralateral testicle with a minimum dose of 30 Gy is recommended in PTL. Computed tomography-based radiation therapy treatment planning with proper patient positioning and position verification guarantees optimal dose coverage.

  9. Primary splenic angiosarcoma with liver metastasis: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai-Feng; Li, Yong; Wang, De-Long; Yang, Jun-Wu; Wu, Sen-Yan; Xiao, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Primary splenic angiosarcoma (PSA) is an unusual and highly malignant vascular tumour with a high rate of metastatic. Moreover, the research on prognosis of the disease is poor. The epidemiology, etiology, clinical diagnosis and treatment of the disease remain challenging, because case reports of the disease are few in number. In accordance with other malignant tumors, PSA is very aggressive, and the majority of patients in which this disease is found are at an advanced stage. Almost all patients die within 12 mo of diagnosis irrespective of treatment. We report here a woman who had complained of upper bellyache and anorexia for 10 d. Magnetic resonance imaging showed enlargement of the spleen with multiple heterogeneous masses in the lower pole of the spleen. A hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy was performed which allowed histopathologic diagnosis. The patient was diagnosed with PSA and liver metastasis, and succumbed to the disease 35 d after surgery. The literature was finished combined with the clinical features, diagnosis and management of PSA. PMID:27022233

  10. Prevention of Root Caries: A Literature Review of Primary and Secondary Preventive Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gluzman, Rima; Frey, Barbara J.; McGowan, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This literature review summarizes the effectiveness of the seven leading root caries preventive agents and provides recommendations for use of those agents in clinical practice with older adults and vulnerable elderly. Method Studies were eligible if they assessed the effectiveness of either fluoride, chlorhexidine, xylitol, amorphous calcium phosphate, sealants, saliva stimulators, or silver diamine fluoride to prevent/control root caries in an English-language articles between 1979–2010 Results In the 31 eligible studies, the most effective primary (1°) prevention agents had reductions in RC incidence ranging from 72% to nearly 200% as compared to a placebo while for secondary (2°) prevention, the best agents demonstrated arrest rates between 67–80%. Conclusion For 1° prevention of root caries the recommended ‘best choice’ is a 38% Silver Diamine Fluoride solution professionally applied annually, while for the 2° prevention of root caries, the recommended ‘best choice’ is a 22,500 ppm Sodium Fluoride varnish professionally applied every 3 months. PMID:23600985

  11. The management of type 1 diabetes in primary school: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marks, Anne; Wilson, Valerie; Crisp, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic health conditions in childhood. The introduction of intensive insulin therapy and the rising prevalence of diabetes in younger children has increased the need for involvement of diabetes educators and school personnel in school diabetes care. School encompasses a significant proportion of a child's day, therefore diabetes treatment at school needs to be optimal or the child will have poor metabolic control. The aim of this literature review is to examine diabetes management in the early primary school setting. The main areas of diabetes management explored are: type, provision, and location of treatment, the impact on the child, and the role of the credentialed diabetes educator. The review identifies that the majority of children are not receiving intensive diabetes treatment at school. Younger children require more assistance with care and may be disadvantaged due to lack of appropriate school staff support. Most schools do not have nurses to assist with diabetes care, therefore teaching and administration staff are utilized. The use of insulin pump therapy may increase access to insulin at school, as children and teaching staff appear more confident with this method of delivery than injections. Treatment is frequently performed away from the classroom and can impact on class attendance, metabolic control, and emergencies. Diabetes educators need to work in collaboration with children, parents, and school personnel to ensure diabetes care is fully integrated into the school day. PMID:23597278

  12. Treatment of primary cutaneous amyloidosis with laser: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Al Yahya, Rand S

    2016-07-01

    Primary cutaneous amyloidosis (PCA) is a condition characterized by tissue deposition of misfolded proteins. PCA can present in different forms, namely macular, lichen, and nodular amyloidosis. These lesions can be of cosmetic concern and are difficult to treat. Many therapeutic modalities have been suggested for the treatment of PCA, with variable efficacy, including topical and systemic medications, phototherapy, electrodessication, dermabrasion, cryosurgery, and lasers. Over the past decade, several studies have reported successful treatment of PCA with different types of lasers; however, a review of these studies has never been reported in the dermatologic literature. The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and safety of lasers in the treatment of PCA. A search of the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Database was performed. Studies were considered for inclusion based on their relevance, and specific data were extracted from all included studies. Eleven studies, comprising 64 patients, were included in this review. Significant improvements were observed in macular and lichen amyloidosis patients treated with carbon dioxide laser in two studies, while a number of case series and case reports showed good results with other types of laser in the treatment of PCA. This review was limited by the lack of large double-blinded randomized controlled trials and the overall small sample size. Laser treatment is a promising option in the treatment of PCA. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to compare the efficacy of different types of lasers and to select the best parameters for different types of PCA. PMID:26984345

  13. Classroom Journal Club: Collaborative Study of Contemporary Primary Literature in the Biomechanics Classroom.

    PubMed

    Kuxhaus, Laurel; Corbiere, Nicole C

    2016-07-01

    Current engineering pedagogy primarily focuses on developing technical proficiency and problem solving skills; the peer-review process for sharing new research results is often overlooked. The use of a collaborative classroom journal club can engage students with the excitement of scientific discovery and the process of dissemination of research results, which are also important lifelong learning skills. In this work, a classroom journal club was implemented and a survey of student perceptions spanning three student cohorts was collected. In this collaborative learning activity, students regularly chose and discussed a recent biomechanics journal article, and were assessed based on specific, individual preparation tasks. Most student-chosen journal articles were relevant to topics discussed in the regular class lecture. Surveys assessed student perceptions of the activity. The survey responses show that, across all cohorts, students both enjoyed the classroom journal club and recognized it as an important learning experience. Many reported discussing their journal articles with others outside of the classroom, indicating good engagement. The results demonstrate that student engagement with primary literature can foster both technical knowledge and lifelong learning skills. PMID:26902674

  14. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Segura, Sheila; Pender, Jacqueline; Dodge, Jessica; Brandwein, Steven L; El-Fanek, Hani

    2016-04-01

    Primary gastric squamous cell carcinoma (PGSCC) is an exceedingly rare disease, accounting for 0.04% - 0.07% of all gastric cancers. First reported in 1895 by Rörig et al, less than 100 cases of PGSCC worldwide have been reported in the literature. These reports show PGSCC is more common in males (5:1 male to female ratio), and exhibits a peak incidence in the sixth decade of life. It may involve any portion of the stomach with predilection for the proximal stomach, especially along the lesser curvature. Although no clear pathogenesis of this tumor has been reported, several plausible theories have been proposed. These include squamous differentiation of preexisting gastric adenocarcinoma, cancerization of ectopic squamous epithelium, malignant transformation of squamous metaplasia of glandular epithelium, association with Helicobacter pylori or Epstein-Barr virus infection, and evolution in the setting of marked chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia. This report presents and discusses the case of a 64-year-old female who developed PGSCC arising in the gastric fundus. PMID:27265923

  15. Primary Cardiac Angiosarcoma Treated With Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Adaptive Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Elsayad, Khaled; Lehrich, Philipp; Yppaerilae-Wolters, Heidi; Dieckmann, Chantal; Kriz, Jan; Haverkamp, Uwe; Eich, Hans Theodor

    2016-06-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) for inoperable patients with primary cardiac sarcomas or residual tumor is often limited by the sensitivity of the heart and lung to radiation injury. We describe a novel treatment modality with adaptive radiotherapy (ART) using tumor volume tracking in a 37-year-old woman who presented with unresectable primary cardiac angiosarcoma. The patient was treated using positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging-guided ART with 55.8 Gy concomitant with paclitaxel chemotherapy. In conclusion, the treatment was well tolerated, and a significant tumor volume reduction of ∼ 57% was achieved during radiotherapy, suggesting the effectiveness and tolerability of ART in combination with paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. PMID:26514752

  16. Access of primary and secondary literature by health personnel in an academic health center: implications for open access*

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Ryan M.; Moorhead, Laura; O'Brien, Bridget; Willinsky, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The research sought to ascertain the types and quantity of research evidence accessed by health personnel through PubMed and UpToDate in a university medical center over the course of a year in order to better estimate the impact that increasing levels of open access to biomedical research can be expected to have on clinical practice in the years ahead. Methods: Web log data were gathered from the 5,042 health personnel working in the Stanford University Hospitals (SUH) during 2011. Data were analyzed for access to the primary literature (abstracts and full-text) through PubMed and UpToDate and to the secondary literature, represented by UpToDate (research summaries), to establish the frequency and nature of literature consulted. Results: In 2011, SUH health personnel accessed 81,851 primary literature articles and visited UpToDate 110,336 times. Almost a third of the articles (24,529) accessed were reviews. Twenty percent (16,187) of the articles viewed were published in 2011. Conclusion: When it is available, health personnel in a clinical care setting frequently access the primary literature. While further studies are needed, this preliminary finding speaks to the value of the National Institutes of Health public access policy and the need for medical librarians and educators to prepare health personnel for increasing public access to medical research. PMID:23930091

  17. A Review of Homework Literature as a Precursor to Practitioner-Led Doctoral Research in a Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudman, Nicholas Paul Charles

    2014-01-01

    Homework in the primary school is a subject much debated by teachers, parents and pupils. This paper offers a brief critique of key issues in the current homework debate with particular reference to research literature, theoretical perspectives, educational policy and other professional publications. Consequently, a discourse between homework in…

  18. A Journal Club Workshop that Teaches Undergraduates a Systematic Method for Reading, Interpreting, and Presenting Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    For success after graduation, science undergraduates must master a number of skills such as scientific literacy (interpretation and evaluation of primary research articles) and effective communication. Many researchers have recognized the benefits of journal clubs in developing such skills, and a large body of literature describes how they may be…

  19. Practice makes pretty good: assessment of primary literature reading abilities across multiple large-enrollment biology laboratory courses.

    PubMed

    Sato, Brian K; Kadandale, Pavan; He, Wenliang; Murata, Paige M N; Latif, Yama; Warschauer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Primary literature is essential for scientific communication and is commonly utilized in undergraduate biology education. Despite this, there is often little time spent training our students how to critically analyze a paper. To address this, we introduced a primary literature module in multiple upper-division laboratory courses. In this module, instructors conduct classroom discussions that dissect a paper as researchers do. While previous work has identified classroom interventions that improve primary literature comprehension within a single course, our goal was to determine whether including a scientific paper module in our classes could produce long-term benefits. On the basis of performance in an assessment exam, we found that our module resulted in longitudinal gains, including increased comprehension and critical-thinking abilities in subsequent lab courses. These learning gains were specific to courses utilizing our module, as no longitudinal gains were seen in students who had taken other upper-division labs that lacked extensive primary literature discussion. In addition, we assessed whether performance on our assessment correlated with a variety of factors, including grade point average, course performance, research background, and self-reported confidence in understanding of the article. Furthermore, all of the study conclusions are independent of biology disciplines, as we observe similar trends within each course. PMID:25452490

  20. Use of a Laboratory Exercise on Molar Absorptivity to Help Students Understand the Authority of the Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soundararajan, Madhavan; Bailey, Cheryl P.; Markwell, John

    2008-01-01

    To promote understanding of the authority of the primary literature in students taking our biochemistry laboratory courses, a biochemistry laboratory exercise on the determination of an acceptable molar absorptivity value of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) was developed. This made the laboratory course much more relevant by linking to a thematic thread,…

  1. Effect of the Keck telescope`s segmented primary on the performance on the Keck adaptive optics system

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.

    1997-06-01

    The 349 degree of freedom Keck adaptive optics system will be mapped on to the 36 segment Keck primary mirror. Each telescope segment is independently controlled in piston and tilt by an active control system and each segment also has its own set of aberrations. This presents a unique set of problems for the Keck adaptive optics system, not encountered with continuous primaries. To a certain extent the low order segment aberrations, beginning with focus, can be corrected statically by the adaptive optic system. However, the discontinuous surface at the segment edges present special problems in sensing and correcting wavefront with laser guide stars or natural guide stars.

  2. Identification of signaling pathways regulating primary cilium length and flow-mediated adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Besschetnova, Tatiana Y.; Kolpakova-Hart, Elona; Guan, Yinghua; Zhou, Jing; Olsen, Bjorn R.; Shah, Jagesh V.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The primary cilium acts as a transducer of extracellular stimuli into intracellular signaling [1, 2]. Its regulation, particularly with respect to length, has been defined primarily by genetic experiments and human disease states in which molecular components that are necessary for its proper construction have been mutated or deleted [1]. However, dynamic modulation of cilium length, a phenomenon observed in ciliated protists [3, 4], has not been well-characterized in vertebrates. Here we demonstrate that decreased intracellular calcium (Ca2+) or increased cyclic AMP (cAMP), and subsequent PKA activation, increases primary cilium length in mammalian epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Anterograde intraflagellar transport is sped up in lengthened cilia, potentially increasing delivery flux of cilium components. The cilium length response creates a negative feedback loop whereby fluid shear-mediated deflection of the primary cilium, which decreases intracellular cAMP, leads to cilium shortening and thus decreases mechanotransductive signaling. This adaptive response is blocked when the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) gene products, polycystin-1 or -2, are reduced. Dynamic regulation of cilium length is thus intertwined with cilium-mediated signaling and provides a natural braking mechanism in response to external stimuli that may be compromised in PKD. PMID:20096584

  3. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection - Systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kottanattu, Lisa; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Helbling, Rossana; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis have been occasionally reported in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. We completed a review of the literature and retained 48 scientific reports published between 1966 and 2016 for the final analysis. Acute pancreatitis was recognized in 14 and acalculous cholecystitis in 37 patients with primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. In all patients, the features of acute pancreatitis or acalculous cholecystitis concurrently developed with those of primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis resolved following a hospital stay of 25days or less. Acalculous cholecystitis was associated with Gilbert-Meulengracht syndrome in two cases. In conclusion, this thorough analysis indicates that acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis are unusual but plausible complications of primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis deserve consideration in cases with severe abdominal pain. These complications are usually rather mild and resolve spontaneously without sequelae. PMID:27434148

  4. Literature and Film Adaptations: Dealing with Hot Topics in the ESL and Literacy Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gareis, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Offers suggestions to help teachers handle controversial topics (such as sex and nudity, violence, language, and other questionable issues) when using novels, plays, and their film adaptations in English-as-a-Second-Language and literacy classrooms. (SR)

  5. Adaptability of Physicians Offering Primary Care to the Poor: Social Competency Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Loignon, Christine; Boudreault-Fournier,, Alexandrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to go deeper into the topic of social competency of physicians who provide primary care to populations living in poverty in Montreal. Adaptability as well as the ability to tailor practices according to patient expectations, needs and capabilities were found to be important in the development of the concept of social competency. The case of paternalism is used to demonstrate how a historically and socially contested medical approach is readapted by players in certain contexts in order to better meet patient expectations. This paper presents data collected in a qualitative study comprising 25 semi-supervised interviews with physicians recognized by their peers as having developed exemplary practices in Montreal's impoverished neighbourhoods. PMID:24289940

  6. Implementation of Spanish adaptation of the European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The successful implementation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines relies heavily on primary care physicians (PCPs) providing risk factor evaluation, intervention and patient education. The aim of this study was to ascertain the degree of awareness and implementation of the Spanish adaptation of the European guidelines on CVD prevention in clinical practice (CEIPC guidelines) among PCPs. Methods A cross-sectional survey of PCPs was conducted in Spain between January and June 2011. A random sample of 1,390 PCPs was obtained and stratified by region. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Results More than half (58%) the physicians were aware of and knew the recommendations, and 62% of those claimed to use them in clinical practice, with general physicians (without any specialist accreditation) being less likely to so than family doctors. Most PCPs (60%) did not assess cardiovascular risk, with the limited time available in the surgery being cited as the greatest barrier by 81%. The main reason to be sceptical about recommendations, reported by 71% of physicians, was that there are too many guidelines. Almost half the doctors cited the lack of training and skills as the greatest barrier to the implementation of lifestyle and behavioural change recommendations. Conclusions Most PCPs were aware of the Spanish adaptation of the European guidelines on CVD prevention (CEIPC guidelines) and knew their content. However, only one third of PCPs used the guidelines in clinical practice and less than half CVD risk assessment tools. PMID:23506390

  7. Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Activation of the Primary Visual Cortex Predicts Size Adaptation Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Arrighi, Roberto; Biagi, Laura; Morrone, Maria Concetta

    2016-01-01

    In natural scenes, objects rarely occur in isolation but appear within a spatiotemporal context. Here, we show that the perceived size of a stimulus is significantly affected by the context of the scene: brief previous presentation of larger or smaller adapting stimuli at the same region of space changes the perceived size of a test stimulus, with larger adapting stimuli causing the test to appear smaller than veridical and vice versa. In a human fMRI study, we measured the blood oxygen level-dependent activation (BOLD) responses of the primary visual cortex (V1) to the contours of large-diameter stimuli and found that activation closely matched the perceptual rather than the retinal stimulus size: the activated area of V1 increased or decreased, depending on the size of the preceding stimulus. A model based on local inhibitory V1 mechanisms simulated the inward or outward shifts of the stimulus contours and hence the perceptual effects. Our findings suggest that area V1 is actively involved in reshaping our perception to match the short-term statistics of the visual scene. PMID:24089504

  8. The primary cilium is a self-adaptable, integrating nexus for mechanical stimuli and cellular signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, An M.; Young, Y.-N.; Jacobs, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mechanosensation is crucial for cells to sense and respond to mechanical signals within their local environment. While adaptation allows a sensor to be conditioned by stimuli within the environment and enables its operation in a wide range of stimuli intensities, the mechanisms behind adaptation remain controversial in even the most extensively studied mechanosensor, bacterial mechanosensitive channels. Primary cilia are ubiquitous sensory organelles. They have emerged as mechanosensors across diverse tissues, including kidney, liver and the embryonic node, and deflect with mechanical stimuli. Here, we show that both mechanical and chemical stimuli can alter cilium stiffness. We found that exposure to flow stiffens the cilium, which deflects less in response to subsequent exposures to flow. We also found that through a process involving acetylation, the cell can biochemically regulate cilium stiffness. Finally, we show that this altered stiffness directly affects the responsiveness of the cell to mechanical signals. These results demonstrate a potential mechanism through which the cell can regulate its mechanosensing apparatus. PMID:26603473

  9. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the omentum presenting as an ovarian carcinoma, case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Barel, Oshri; Qian, Christine; Manolitsas, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Primary omental leiomyosarcoma is a rare tumor. We report a case of successfully resected omental leiomyosarcoma whose presentation mimicked ovarian carcinoma. Symptoms of abdominal distension and discomfort that lasted 8 months followed by pain lead to a diagnosis of a large mass in the abdomen. Physical examination revealed a large, over 20 cm tumor, suspected to be of ovarian origin. A small amount of ascites was found on Computerized Tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) scans. Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy and tumor debulking procedure was planned. Laparotomy revealed normal uterus ovaries and tubes with a leiomyosarcoma of the omentum which was completely resected successfully. Only 26 cases of primary leiomyosarcoma of the omentum were previously described in the literature. A review of the literature is also presented. PMID:27489871

  10. Two of Everything: Developing Functional Thinking in the Primary Grades through Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Tracey; Bragg, Leicha A.; Livy, Sharyn

    2015-01-01

    The concept of functional thinking as a foundational idea associated with algebraic thinking is explored by Tracey Muir, Leicha Bragg and Sharyn Livy. They provide ideas for using children's literature as a context to promote functional thinking

  11. Primary Adenocarcinoma of the Urethra: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Abbas; Moghadasi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Valipour, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Primary adenocarcinoma of the urethra is rarely reported. We report a case of a 47-year-old male with symptoms of urinary obstruction started 2 years before diagnosis. Video-assisted urethrocystoscopy revealed a papillary mass almost obstructing the entire lumen with bleeding. Pathology report was consistent with primary adenocarcinoma of the urethra.

  12. Adopting public values and climate change adaptation strategies in urban forest management: A review and analysis of the relevant literature.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez Barona, Camilo

    2015-12-01

    Urban trees are a dominant natural element in cities; they provide important ecosystem services to urban citizens and help urban areas adapt to climate change. Many rationales have been proposed to provide a purpose for urban forest management, some of which have been ineffective in addressing important ecological and social management themes. Among these rationales we find a values-based perspective, which sees management as a process where the desires of urban dwellers are met. Another perspective is climate change adaptation, which sees management as a process where urban forest vulnerability to climate change is reduced and resilience enhanced. Both these rationales have the advantage of complementing, enhancing, and broadening urban forest management objectives. A critical analysis of the literature on public values related to urban forests and climate change adaptation in the context of urban forests is undertaken to discuss what it means to adopt these two issues in urban forest management. The analysis suggests that by seeing urban forest management as a process by which public values are satisfied and urban-forest vulnerabilities to climate change are reduced, we can place issues such as naturalization, adaptive management, and engaging people in management at the centre of urban forest management. Focusing urban forest management on these issues may help ensure the success of programs focused on planting more trees and increasing citizen participation in urban forest management. PMID:26410091

  13. Pedagogy--How Is It Influenced in Primary Schools? A Comparative Study of Literature about Pedagogical Influences in Primary Schools in England and Poland, with a Focus on English Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Ewa Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This article is a critical review of recent literature comparing pedagogical influences in primary schools in England and Poland. It identifies curriculum, assessment, leadership, teacher perceptions and personal fears as immense influences on pedagogy and considers how these factors influence pedagogy. Comparison of England's prescriptive…

  14. A Systematic Review of Literature on Culturally Adapted Obesity Prevention Interventions for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…

  15. Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, DAWEI; GU, WEIHONG; LI, WENZHONG; LIU, XIAOLIANG; YANG, XIAOYU

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the clinical diagnosis and management of a patient with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (Bcl) of the central nervous system (CNS). Making an early diagnosis of primary diffuse large Bcl is challenging due to the variable and complicated clinical manifestations of the disease. The relevant literature was reviewed, and high-dose methotrexate, whole brain radiotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy was recommended for the patient. The present study elucidates the role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans for the diagnosis and management of primary diffuse large Bcl of the CNS, and demonstrates the importance of resection surgery in the management of the disease. Specifically, the present study proposes that resection surgery may be applied in the early stages of disease for patients with a single occupied lesion and increased intracranial pressure. PMID:27123068

  16. Role of chemotherapy in the management of primary rectal lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Primary rectal lymphoma is a rare disease. In this paper we present an unusual case of primary rectal lymphoma which was managed with chemotherapy and discussed by a thorough review of the related literature. Cases presentation An 85-years-male patient was diagnosed in Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah Hospital as having diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the rectum at a bulky stage two. This patient was managed successfully with 8 treatment cycles of Cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2 at day 1 of each cycle, Doxorubicin (50 mg/m2 in the first 4 cycles and 25 mg/m2 in the subsequent cycles) at day 1 of each cycle, Vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 at day 1 of each cycle, and prednisone 50 mg/m2 at day 1 to 5 of each cycle. Conclusion The optimal treatment of primary rectal lymphoma needs more research studying to be achieved. PMID:20062547

  17. Coping, acculturation, and psychological adaptation among migrants: a theoretical and empirical review and synthesis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ben C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Given the continuous, dynamic demographic changes internationally due to intensive worldwide migration and globalization, the need to more fully understand how migrants adapt and cope with acculturation experiences in their new host cultural environment is imperative and timely. However, a comprehensive review of what we currently know about the relationship between coping behavior and acculturation experience for individuals undergoing cultural changes has not yet been undertaken. Hence, the current article aims to compile, review, and examine cumulative cross-cultural psychological research that sheds light on the relationships among coping, acculturation, and psychological and mental health outcomes for migrants. To this end, this present article reviews prevailing literature pertaining to: (a) the stress and coping conceptual perspective of acculturation; (b) four theoretical models of coping, acculturation and cultural adaptation; (c) differential coping pattern among diverse acculturating migrant groups; and (d) the relationship between coping variabilities and acculturation levels among migrants. In terms of theoretical understanding, this review points to the relative strengths and limitations associated with each of the four theoretical models on coping-acculturation-adaptation. These theories and the empirical studies reviewed in this article further highlight the central role of coping behaviors/strategies in the acculturation process and outcome for migrants and ethnic populations, both conceptually and functionally. Moreover, the review shows that across studies culturally preferred coping patterns exist among acculturating migrants and migrant groups and vary with migrants' acculturation levels. Implications and limitations of the existing literature for coping, acculturation, and psychological adaptation research are discussed and recommendations for future research are put forth. PMID:25750766

  18. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of the Pharynx: A Series of Five Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Syeda Samia; Din, Nasir Ud; Ahmad, Zubair

    2015-12-01

    Synovial sarcoma comprises approximately 10 % of all soft tissue sarcomas. Although synovial sarcoma has been reported in practically every organ, the extremities are the commonest site of occurrence followed by the head and neck. Primary synovial sarcoma of the pharynx is rare and only case reports have been published. We report a series of five cases of primary synovial sarcoma involving the pharynx. PMID:26022274

  19. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the bladder: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mahfoud, Tarik; Tanz, Rachid; Mesmoudi, Mohamed; Khmamouche, Mohamed Réda; El Khannoussi, Basma; Ichou, Mohamed; Errihani, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the bladder is a very rare entity. The clinical, radiological and endoscopic signs are not specifics. The diagnosis is exclusively histological. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery are the different therapeutic options used either alone or in combination. We report a 57 years old patient treated with chemotherapy (6 cycles of R-CHOP) for primary NHL of the bladder with a complete response while discussing the different specificities of this disease. PMID:24319526

  20. Considerations for the direct pulp capping procedure in primary teeth: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kopel, H M

    1992-01-01

    In reviewing the various studies concerning the direct pulp capping procedure in primary teeth, using rigid criteria for case selection and procedure appears to insure a significant amount of success. It is acknowledged that vital primary pulp tissue is capable of healing without resorting to complete pulpectomy, although statistically direct pulp capping has been found to be less successful in primary teeth than indirect pulp therapy or coronal amputation (pulpotomy). To achieve success for direct pulp capping in primary teeth, the considerations involve: selecting teeth with minimal or no clinical signs of pulpal inflammation; or pretreating the carious tooth with a sedative restoration before excavating the caries; disinfecting the cavity floor; enlarging the actual exposure, and flushing out dentinal debris with mild solutions; controlling bleeding by not allowing a clot to form; placing a hard-set, CaOH material over the exposure, followed by a fast-setting, zinc oxide-eugenol cement to achieve a hermetic seal; and lastly, placing a stainless steel crown to minimize microleakage and prevent a fractured or defective restoration. These procedural steps can hardly ensure complete success in direct pulp capping of a primary tooth; but, based on the many cited investigations in this review, a significant amount of success can be expected without resorting more frequently to invasive techniques. Surely the evidence presented leading to the feasibility of direct pulp capping in primary teeth merits further investigations, before dogmatically rejecting this procedure of pulp therapy. PMID:1583199

  1. "These Words Are Not Mine": Are We Still Teaching Literature when We Use Adaptations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoMonico, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Why do educators teach literature? The author thinks they can hear the answer in the voice of Huckleberry Finn and David Copperfield and Holden Caulfield and the omniscient narrator in "Beloved." It's the wonderful sound of those words, the gorgeous flow of those well-crafted sentences, and the marvelous way Twain and Dickens and Morrison and…

  2. Mapping Techno-Literary Spaces: Adapting Multiple Correspondence Analysis for Literature and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paling, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This paper constitutes part of a series of studies intended to establish "Literature and Art Informatics". The paper describes the conceptual background of multiple correspondence analysis and its use in visualizing conceptual spaces to describe the values that motivate the use of information technology by literary authors. An…

  3. A safety incident reporting system for primary care. A systematic literature review and consensus procedure by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Klemp, Kerstin; Zwart, Dorien; Hansen, Jørgen; Hellebek, Torben; Luettel, Dagmar; Verstappen, Wim; Beyer, Martin; Gerlach, Ferdin M.; Hoffmann, Barbara; Esmail, Aneez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Incident reporting is widely used in both patient safety improvement programmes, and in research on patient safety. Objective: To identify the key requirements for incident reporting systems in primary care; to develop an Internet-based incident reporting and learning system for primary care. Methods: A literature review looking at the purpose, design and requirements of an incident reporting system (IRS) was used to update an existing incident reporting system, widely used in Germany. Then, an international expert panel with knowledge on IRS developed the criteria for the design of a new web-based incident reporting system for European primary care. A small demonstration project was used to create a web-based reporting system, to be made freely available for practitioners and researchers. The expert group compiled recommendations regarding the desirable features of an incident reporting system for European primary care. These features covered the purpose of reporting, who should be involved in reporting, the mode of reporting, design considerations, feedback mechanisms and preconditions necessary for the implementation of an IRS. Results: A freely available web-based reporting form was developed, based on these criteria. It can be modified for local contexts. Practitioners and researchers can use this system as a means of recording patient safety incidents in their locality and use it as a basis for learning from errors. Conclusion: The LINNEAUS collaboration has provided a freely available incident reporting system that can be modified for a local context and used throughout Europe. PMID:26339835

  4. The Historical Representation of Thanksgiving within Primary- and Intermediate-Level Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickford, John H., III; Rich, Cynthia W.

    2015-01-01

    State and national initiatives have compelled significant change in English language arts and social studies/history curricula. English language arts teachers are required to balance fiction (or literature) and nonfiction (or informational texts), which is a considerable change for a content area formerly occupied by fiction (National Governors…

  5. What Causes Asthma? Using the Primary Scientific Literature in Introductory Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    Peer-reviewed literature is the single most important forum in which research findings are presented for critical review. College biology students can benefit a great deal from early exposure to this resource, but insufficient background information, technical jargon, and complex statistical analyses often present considerable obstacles to…

  6. Primary synovial sarcoma of the abdominal wall: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Sangkhathat, Surasak; Mitarnun, Winyou

    2015-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is the fourth most common type of soft tissue sarcoma, following malignant fibrous histiocytoma, liposarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. It usually occurs in the extremities near the large joints of middle-aged patients. We describe a case of synovial sarcoma of the anterior abdominal wall (SSAW) in an adolescent girl and undertake a review of the literature. PMID:26629297

  7. The Evaluation of the Treatment of Egypt in American Primary and Secondary School Literature. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziadeh, Farhat J.; Allen, Calvin H.

    In this study of the treatment of Egypt in elementary and secondary school literature, the content of 109 textbooks and 180 supplementary works is analyzed and evaluated and recommendations for specific corrections and additions are presented. The purpose is to alert the authors of educational materials and teachers about the imperfections in…

  8. Primary oral soft tissue angiosarcoma of the cheek: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Samaila, Modupe; Edaigbini, Sunday; Agbara, Rowlan; Okeke, Uche Albert

    2015-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive malignant tumor that has a poor prognosis. It represents less than 1% of all malignancies occurring in the oral cavity and salivary glands. We present a 35-year-old male with angiosarcoma of the cheek following traumatic injury and a review of the current literature. PMID:26568931

  9. Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the cervix: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sal, Veysel; Kahramanoglu, Ilker; Turan, Hasan; Tokgozoglu, Nedim; Bese, Tugan; Aydin, Ovgu; Demirkiran, Fuat; Arvas, Macit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Primary signet cell carcinoma of the cervix has been reported only in 18 cases to date. Presentation of case A 48-year-old woman was seen at our Gynecologic Oncology Unit, because she complained postcoital bleeding during the last three months. She had 1–2 cm cervical mass, originating from the endocervical canal. A biopsy revealed a signet ring cell-type adenocarcinoma. Suspected primary sites were excluded after gastroscopy, colonoscopy and mammography. The patient underwent a laparoscopic type-3 radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo–oophorectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection and paraaortic lymph node dissection with a presumed diagnosis of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the cervix. Microscopically, the tumour consisted of 70% signet ring cell type and 30% endocervical adenocarcinoma. She did not receive any adjuvant treatment. Follow-up at 18 months after surgery showed no evidence of recurrence. Discussion Nineteenth case of a primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the cervix was presented. Immunohistochemical studies and HPV DNA positivity may help in diagnosis. Conclusion It is crucial to differentiate primary tumour from metastatic signet cell carcinoma, while treatment and prognosis differ significantly. PMID:26874582

  10. Primary Malignant Melanoma of Pleura: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Poojan; Nambiyar, Kaniyyapan; Manju Kaushal; Bhardwaj, Minakshi

    2016-07-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive and treatment resistant skin cancers. India enjoys a low incidence of melanoma, and age specific incidence rates for cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) are being less than 0.5 per 1,000,000. This could be due to under-reporting of melanoma on account of a low index of suspicion by clinicians and pathologists alike. Most common site for origin of primary melanoma is skin, accounting for about 91.2% of all reported primary malignant melanoma cases. Other primary sites are relatively uncommon. Primary pleural melanoma is a very rare tumor and to the best of our knowledge, only seven cases have been reported so far worldwide. We hereby discuss a new case, only second from India. Our patient also had coexistent congenital hairy nevus, an unusual association also noted in two previously reported cases. Excluding primary cutaneous melanoma with pleural metastasis was a diagnostic challenge in this case but multiple cutaneous biopsies together with clinical and findings helped us arrive at this unusual diagnosis. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to his illness. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:648-652. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27164972

  11. Primary Myeloid Sarcoma of the Small Intestine: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Scott; Trangucci, John; Frederick, William; Richi, A Aziz; Abunnaja, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Primary myeloid sarcoma is a rare extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Typically, myeloid sarcoma presents after a diagnosis of AML or other myeloproliferative disorder. However, primary myeloid sarcoma may present without any preexisting condition, thereby making it extremely difficult to diagnose. We discuss a case of a 22-year-old female who was misdiagnosed initially with acute appendicitis and underwent an appendectomy. Postoperatively, she continued to be symptomatic and eventually developed small bowel obstruction. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed multiple small bowel masses as well as diffuse abdominal and pelvic lymphadenopathy. After extensive pathological review and additional workup consisting of immunohistochemistry and molecular studies, the correct diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma was made. This review will discuss the presentation, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of primary myeloid sarcoma. PMID:27509642

  12. Primary tuberculous gingival enlargement - A rare clinical entity: Case report and brief review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Suhail Majid; Khan, Fayiza Youqoob; Bhat, Muzafar Ahmad; Behal, Roobal

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic specific granulomatous disease and a major cause of death in developing countries. The clinical presentation of TB lesions of the oral cavity varies widely and can manifest as ulcerations, diffuse inflammatory lesions, granulomas and fissures. Oral lesions generally appear secondary to primary TB infection elsewhere, although primary infection of the oral mucosa by Mycobacterium tuberculosis has also been described. We hereby report a case of primary TB of the gingiva manifesting as gingival enlargement. Diagnosis was based on histopathological examination, complete blood count, X-ray chest and immunological investigations with detection of antibodies against M. tuberculosis. Anti-tuberculous therapy was carried out for over 6 months and was followed by surgical excision of the residual enlargement under local anesthesia. After 1-year follow-up, there was no recurrence of the disease. This case report emphasizes the need for dentists to include TB in the differential diagnosis of various types of gingival enlargements. PMID:25425826

  13. A pure primary transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary: A rare case report with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chandanwale, Shirish S; Kamble, Tushar; Mishra, Neha; Kumar, Harsh; Jadhav, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ovary is a rare and recently recognized subtype of ovarian surface epithelial-stromal cancer. Pure forms of the TCC ovary account for only 1% of surface epithelial carcinomas. The clinical presentation is indistinguishable from other types of ovarian cancers. They have a favorable response to chemotherapy than other surface epithelial cancers. We report a case of 55-year-old woman who presented with a hard mass in the abdomen. Computed tomography-diagnosed it as a carcinoma of the ovary. Tumor was immunoreactive with Wilms’ tumor protein-1 and nonreactive with cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and CK20. Histopathology diagnosis of primary TCC of the ovary was made. These tumors are needed to be differentiated from metastatic TCC from other sites and undifferentiated carcinomas of ovaries. Clinical features and immunohistochemistry are helpful. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach followed by standardized chemotherapy. PMID:27127747

  14. Primary testicular lymphoma: Two case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cakiroglu, Basri; Eyyupoglu, Seyit Erkan; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Noseri, Umit; Aksoy, Suleyman Hilmi; Ozturk, Ahmet Bekir

    2015-12-01

    Primary testicular lymphoma, is a rare testis tumor that accounts for only less than 9% of all testis tumors. In the preoperative period, it is extremely difficult to distinguish this tumor from other testis tumors. Its diagnosis is done by histological analysis. Most commonly encountered histological type is diffuse large Bcell lymphoma. Adjuvant radiotheraphy and/or chemotheraphy is given after orchiectomy. Prognosis is worse than other testis tumors. Non-metastatic tumors indicates good prognosis within one year. Ongoing research in patients with primary testicular lymphoma, are on efficacy of adjuvant theraphies and preventive and cure effect on extranodal extension to central nervous system which is the most common site for recurrency. There are conflicting results because of the small number of patient size. Here we present two cases with primary testicular lymphoma at the ages 71 and 82. PMID:26766810

  15. A pure primary transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary: A rare case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Chandanwale, Shirish S; Kamble, Tushar; Mishra, Neha; Kumar, Harsh; Jadhav, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ovary is a rare and recently recognized subtype of ovarian surface epithelial-stromal cancer. Pure forms of the TCC ovary account for only 1% of surface epithelial carcinomas. The clinical presentation is indistinguishable from other types of ovarian cancers. They have a favorable response to chemotherapy than other surface epithelial cancers. We report a case of 55-year-old woman who presented with a hard mass in the abdomen. Computed tomography-diagnosed it as a carcinoma of the ovary. Tumor was immunoreactive with Wilms' tumor protein-1 and nonreactive with cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and CK20. Histopathology diagnosis of primary TCC of the ovary was made. These tumors are needed to be differentiated from metastatic TCC from other sites and undifferentiated carcinomas of ovaries. Clinical features and immunohistochemistry are helpful. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach followed by standardized chemotherapy. PMID:27127747

  16. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Seddik, Youssef; Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Afqir, Said

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma is a well known malignancy of the skin and other organs composed of squamous cells, which are normally not found inside the breast. Therefore, a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is an exceedingly uncommon phenomen and the management of this type of disease is still unclear. We report the case of a 43-year-old Moroccan woman, without significant medical history, presented an infected mass of 9 cm in the left breast associated with ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. The mass's surgical biopsy revealed a triple negative primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. She underwent a neoadjuvant chemotherapy using 5 Fluoro-Uracil and platinum. After three courses, she presented a contralateral breast progression and apparition of metastasis at D10. She received one course of a palliative chemotherapy based on weekly paclitaxel stopped because of her peformans status deterioration. She died 7 months after her admission.

  17. Primary yolk sac tumor of the gluteus: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Jiang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shitai; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Qing-Fu; OuYang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a common malignant primitive germ cell tumor that often exhibits differentiation into endodermal structures. They most commonly occur in childhood and adolescence and are rare after the age of 40 years. Derived from the yolk sac during the embryonic period, YSTs can occur in the gonads and germ cells because the tumor cells migrate from the yolk sac toward the gonads. Here, we present a rare case of primary gluteus YST in a 3-year-old girl. She received BEP chemotherapy (bleomycin + etoposide + cisplatin) after surgical resection. There was no evidence of recurrence 7 months after primary treatment. PMID:27536133

  18. Primary yolk sac tumor of the gluteus: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Jiang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shitai; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Qing-Fu; OuYang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a common malignant primitive germ cell tumor that often exhibits differentiation into endodermal structures. They most commonly occur in childhood and adolescence and are rare after the age of 40 years. Derived from the yolk sac during the embryonic period, YSTs can occur in the gonads and germ cells because the tumor cells migrate from the yolk sac toward the gonads. Here, we present a rare case of primary gluteus YST in a 3-year-old girl. She received BEP chemotherapy (bleomycin + etoposide + cisplatin) after surgical resection. There was no evidence of recurrence 7 months after primary treatment. PMID:27536133

  19. Diagnostic Imaging of Primary Hepatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Case and Discussion of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tuong, Betty; Harris, Alison C.; Yoshida, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are derived from neuroendocrine cells that are capable of producing functional peptide hormones. These tumors occur most frequently in the GI tract and lungs. GI NETs frequently metastasize into the liver, though NETs of primary hepatic origin are extremely rare. Ultrasound, CT, and MRI are typically all employed for characterization of these lesions but their appearance on diagnostic imaging can be highly variable. Reported here is an interesting case of a primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor (PHNET), along with a discussion of the imaging characteristics of these tumors. Additionally, the current standards for definitive diagnosis and treatment of PHNETs are discussed. PMID:25258691

  20. Avascular necrosis of bone associated with primary antiphospholipid syndrome: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zonana-Nacach, Abraham; Jiménez-Balderas, Francisco Javier

    2004-08-01

    We describe, the case of a 34-year-old mestizo Mexican woman with previous history of fetal loss, deep vein thrombosis that developed avascular necrosis (AVN) of the right knee with strong positive levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) IgG and IgM. AVN of bone in association with aCL has been seen principally in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. However, few cases have been reported of AVN as a clinical manifestation of primary antiphospholipid syndrome. A review of the association of aCL and AVN in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, primary antiphospholipid syndrome, and idiopathic osteonecrosis is presented. PMID:17043512

  1. Primary extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma of bronchus and lung: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chu-Chun; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Lin, Min-Hsi; Hsieh, Pin-Pen

    2016-01-01

    Primary pulmonary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is very rare. It represents less than 1% of all NHL, and 0.5-1% of all primary pulmonary malignancies. Almost all cases of primary pulmonary NHL originate from B-cell lineage. We present a case of a 53-year-old man with primary extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma of the bronchus and lung, presented progressive dyspnea caused by right lower lung consolidation, and pleural effusion. Initial chest computed tomography suggested advanced lung cancer. Bronchofiberscopy showed a polypoid tumor on which a biopsy was performed. Histologically, the diffusely infiltrative atypical cells were positive for cytoplasmic CD3, CD56, granzyme B, and negative for cytokeratin, CD20 immunostains, suggesting NK/T cell lineages. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus encoded ribonucleic acid (EBER) was positive. Herein, we discuss the clinicopathological features of this case and review the literature on primary extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma of the lung. Compared with other patients, who died after the first cycle of chemotherapy and/or within three months, our patient had longer survival under aggressive chemotherapy and auto-peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. PMID:26816549

  2. Evaluation of root canal morphology of human primary molars by using CBCT and comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Gozde; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Cantekin, Kenan; Aydinbelge, Mustafa; Dogan, Salih

    2016-05-01

    Objective Knowledge of primary tooth morphology is essential for clinical dentistry, especially for root canal treatment and dental traumatology. However, this has not been well documented to date with a large sample. This study was carried out to investigate the variation in number and morphology of the root canals of the primary molars, to study the applicability of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) in assessing the same and to provide a comprehensive review of the literature. Materials and methods A total of 343 primary molars, without any root resorption, were divided into four main groups including the maxillary first molars, maxillary second molars, mandibular first molars and mandibular second molars. All of them were analysed in CBCT images in the axial, sagittal and coronal planes. Various parameters such as the number of roots, number of canals, the root canal type, diameter of root and root canal and root canal curvature were studied. Results Primary molars in all four groups showed variability in the number of roots and root canals. As far as length of the roots was concerned, the palatal root of the maxillary molar was found to be longest, while the distobuccal root was shortest. In mandibular molars, the mesial root was longer than the distal root. The length of distobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars and the distolingual canal of the mandibular molars was found to be shortest. The number of roots and root canals varied from two to four and three to four, respectively. The maxillary molars exhibited more one-canal than two-canal roots. Conclusion The present study provides comprehensive information to the existing literature concerning the variation in root canal morphology of the maxillary and mandibular primary molar teeth. These data may help clinicians in the root canal treatment of these teeth. PMID:26523502

  3. Systematic review on the primary and secondary reporting of the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature

    PubMed Central

    Stretton, Serina

    2014-01-01

    Background Ghostwriting of industry-sponsored articles is unethical and is perceived to be common practice. Objective To systematically review how evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting is reported in the medical literature. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed 1966+, EMBASE 1966+, The Cochrane Library 1988+, Medical Writing 1998+, The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) Journal 1986+, Council of Science Editors Annual Meetings 2007+, and the Peer Review Congress 1994+ were searched electronically (23 May 2013) using the search terms ghostwrit*, ghostauthor*, ghost AND writ*, ghost AND author*. Eligibility criteria All publication types were considered; only publications reporting a numerical estimate of possible ghostwriting prevalence were included. Data extraction Two independent reviewers screened the publications; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data to be collected included a numerical estimate of the prevalence of possible ghostwriting (primary outcome measure), definitions of ghostwriting reported, source of the reported prevalence, publication type and year, study design and sample population. Results Of the 848 publications retrieved and screened for eligibility, 48 reported numerical estimates for the prevalence of possible ghostwriting. Sixteen primary publications reported findings from cross-sectional surveys or descriptive analyses of published articles; 32 secondary publications cited published or unpublished evidence. Estimates on the prevalence of possible ghostwriting in primary and secondary publications varied markedly. Primary estimates were not suitable for meta-analysis because of the various definitions of ghostwriting used, study designs and types of populations or samples. Secondary estimates were not always reported or cited correctly or appropriately. Conclusions Evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature is limited and can be outdated, misleading or mistaken. Researchers should not inflate

  4. Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debasis; Datta, Samadarshi; Das, Anirban; Halder, Khokan Chand; Chattopadhyay, Sarbani

    2016-01-01

    Primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma is a very rare, but highly aggressive tumor. Metastatic pulmonary sarcoma due to hematogenous dissemination is much more common. Hence why in any case of pulmonary sarcoma, whole body survey is necessary to exclude a primary tumor elsewhere. No clinical or radiological presentations are specific for pulmonary sarcoma hence; it is often confused with bronchogenic carcinoma. On the other hand, image-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is very much helpful in diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma, whereas, it may be inclusive in cases pulmonary sarcomas including primary synovial sarcoma, especially in cases of huge pulmonary masses. So why image-guided tru-cut core biopsy or open lung biopsy and their histopathological examination, supplemented by immunohistochemistry are preferable for the tissue diagnosis of pulmonary synovial sarcoma, although FNAC and immunocytochemistry may be used for the diagnosis. Surgical resection is treatment of choice, if it is not possible, palliative chemotherapy may be an option. Here, we report a rare case of primary synovial sarcoma which occupied almost whole of the right hemithorax in a 60-year-old male farmer. PMID:26958527

  5. Figure Facts: Encouraging Undergraduates to Take a Data-Centered Approach to Reading Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Round, Jennifer E.; Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The ability to interpret experimental data is essential to understanding and participating in the process of scientific discovery. Reading primary research articles can be a frustrating experience for undergraduate biology students because they have very little experience interpreting data. To enhance their data interpretation skills, students…

  6. Cloacal Exstrophy Repair with Primary Closure of Bladder Exstrophy: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Johal, Navroop; Cuckow, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cloacal exstrophy is the most complex congenital, ventral, abdominal wall defect. Traditionally surgery consists of a staged approach to repair which takes place on many separate theatre visits. In this case a primary approach was undertaken resulting in a relatively short inpatient stay and a reduced risk from multiple surgical procedures under general anaesthesia. PMID:27313937

  7. Cloacal Exstrophy Repair with Primary Closure of Bladder Exstrophy: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Bethell, George; Johal, Navroop; Cuckow, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cloacal exstrophy is the most complex congenital, ventral, abdominal wall defect. Traditionally surgery consists of a staged approach to repair which takes place on many separate theatre visits. In this case a primary approach was undertaken resulting in a relatively short inpatient stay and a reduced risk from multiple surgical procedures under general anaesthesia. PMID:27313937

  8. Support Material for a Literature and Expressive Language Curriculum in the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvas, Elizabeth

    Reporting on a doctoral practicum that examined children's literary works and developed related expressive language activities, this document contains a description of the practicum--including its purpose, goals, procedures, and results--and a guide for primary teachers to use in language arts instruction. The expressive language activities…

  9. Assessment of Primary Representational Systems with Neurolinguistic Programming: Examination of Preliminary Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Fred J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the inconsistent findings of studies on neurolinguistic programing and recommends some areas that should be examined to verify various claims. Discusses methods of assessing client's primary representational systems, including predicate usage and eye movements, and suggests that more reliable methods of assessing PRS must be found. (JAC)

  10. Culturally Relevant Literature: What Matters Most to Primary-Age Urban Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keesey, Susan; Bennett, Jessica G.; Ramnath, Rajiv; Council, Morris R., III.

    2016-01-01

    The ratings and rationales primary-age urban learners gave culturally relevant reading passages was the focus of this descriptive study. First- and second-grade students each read 30 researcher-developed passages reflecting the students' immediate and historical backgrounds. The students rated the passages and gave a reason for their ratings. A…

  11. Differential Mitochondrial Adaptation in Primary Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from a Diabetic Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Amy C.; Knaub, Leslie A.; McClatchey, P. Mason; Connon, Chelsea A.; Bouchard, Ron; Miller, Matthew W.; Geary, Kate E.; Walker, Lori A.; Klemm, Dwight J.; Reusch, Jane E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes affects more than 330 million people worldwide and causes elevated cardiovascular disease risk. Mitochondria are critical for vascular function, generate cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and are perturbed by diabetes, representing a novel target for therapeutics. We hypothesized that adaptive mitochondrial plasticity in response to nutrient stress would be impaired in diabetes cellular physiology via a nitric oxide synthase- (NOS-) mediated decrease in mitochondrial function. Primary smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from aorta of the nonobese, insulin resistant rat diabetes model Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and the Wistar control rat were exposed to high glucose (25 mM). At baseline, significantly greater nitric oxide evolution, ROS production, and respiratory control ratio (RCR) were observed in GK SMCs. Upon exposure to high glucose, expression of phosphorylated eNOS, uncoupled respiration, and expression of mitochondrial complexes I, II, III, and V were significantly decreased in GK SMCs (p < 0.05). Mitochondrial superoxide increased with high glucose in Wistar SMCs (p < 0.05) with no change in the GK beyond elevated baseline concentrations. Baseline comparisons show persistent metabolic perturbations in a diabetes phenotype. Overall, nutrient stress in GK SMCs caused a persistent decline in eNOS and mitochondrial function and disrupted mitochondrial plasticity, illustrating eNOS and mitochondria as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27034743

  12. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy modelling of anaerobic digestion of primary sedimentation sludge.

    PubMed

    Cakmakci, Mehmet

    2007-09-01

    Modelling of anaerobic digestion systems is difficult because their performance is complex and varies significantly with influent characteristics and operational conditions. In this study, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) were used for modelling of anaerobic digestion system of primary sludge of Kayseri municipal WasteWater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Effluent Volatile Solid (VS) and methane yield were predicted by the ANFIS. Two stage models were performed. In the first stage, effluent VS concentration was predicted using pH, VS concentration, flowrate of pre-thickened sludge and temperature of the influent as input parameters. In the second stage, effluent VS concentration in addition to first stage input parameters were used as input parameters to predict methane yield. The low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and high Index of agreement (IA) values were obtained with subtractive clustering method of a first order Sugeno type inference. The model performance was evaluated with statistical parameters. According to statistical evaluations, the models satisfactorily predict effluent VS concentration and methane yield. PMID:17593401

  13. Differential Mitochondrial Adaptation in Primary Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from a Diabetic Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Keller, Amy C; Knaub, Leslie A; McClatchey, P Mason; Connon, Chelsea A; Bouchard, Ron; Miller, Matthew W; Geary, Kate E; Walker, Lori A; Klemm, Dwight J; Reusch, Jane E B

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes affects more than 330 million people worldwide and causes elevated cardiovascular disease risk. Mitochondria are critical for vascular function, generate cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and are perturbed by diabetes, representing a novel target for therapeutics. We hypothesized that adaptive mitochondrial plasticity in response to nutrient stress would be impaired in diabetes cellular physiology via a nitric oxide synthase- (NOS-) mediated decrease in mitochondrial function. Primary smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from aorta of the nonobese, insulin resistant rat diabetes model Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and the Wistar control rat were exposed to high glucose (25 mM). At baseline, significantly greater nitric oxide evolution, ROS production, and respiratory control ratio (RCR) were observed in GK SMCs. Upon exposure to high glucose, expression of phosphorylated eNOS, uncoupled respiration, and expression of mitochondrial complexes I, II, III, and V were significantly decreased in GK SMCs (p < 0.05). Mitochondrial superoxide increased with high glucose in Wistar SMCs (p < 0.05) with no change in the GK beyond elevated baseline concentrations. Baseline comparisons show persistent metabolic perturbations in a diabetes phenotype. Overall, nutrient stress in GK SMCs caused a persistent decline in eNOS and mitochondrial function and disrupted mitochondrial plasticity, illustrating eNOS and mitochondria as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27034743

  14. Neuromagnetic correlates of adaptive plasticity across the hand-face border in human primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Muret, Dollyane; Daligault, Sébastien; Dinse, Hubert R; Delpuech, Claude; Mattout, Jérémie; Reilly, Karen T; Farnè, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that permanent or transient reduction of somatosensory inputs, following hand deafferentation or anesthesia, induces plastic changes across the hand-face border, supposedly responsible for some altered perceptual phenomena such as tactile sensations being referred from the face to the phantom hand. It is also known that transient increase of hand somatosensory inputs, via repetitive somatosensory stimulation (RSS) at a fingertip, induces local somatosensory discriminative improvement accompanied by cortical representational changes in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). We recently demonstrated that RSS at the tip of the right index finger induces similar training-independent perceptual learning across the hand-face border, improving somatosensory perception at the lips (Muret D, Dinse HR, Macchione S, Urquizar C, Farnè A, Reilly KT.Curr Biol24: R736-R737, 2014). Whether neural plastic changes across the hand-face border accompany such remote and adaptive perceptual plasticity remains unknown. Here we used magnetoencephalography to investigate the electrophysiological correlates underlying RSS-induced behavioral changes across the hand-face border. The results highlight significant changes in dipole location after RSS both for the stimulated finger and for the lips. These findings reveal plastic changes that cross the hand-face border after an increase, instead of a decrease, in somatosensory inputs. PMID:26888099

  15. Adapting evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral interventions for anxiety for use with adults in integrated primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Shepardson, Robyn L; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Weisberg, Risa B

    2016-06-01

    Evidence-based treatments for adult patients with anxiety are greatly needed within primary care settings. Psychotherapy protocols, including those for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), are often disorder-specific and were developed for specialty mental health settings, rendering them infeasible in primary care. Behavioral health consultants (BHCs) integrated into primary care settings are uniquely positioned to provide anxiety treatment. However, due to the dearth of empirically supported brief treatments for anxiety, BHCs are tasked with adapting existing treatments for use in primary care, which is quite challenging due to the abbreviated format and population-based approach to care. CBT protocols are highly effective in the treatment of anxiety and fit well with the self-management emphasis of integrated primary care. We review the rationale and procedure for 6 evidence-based CBT intervention techniques (psycho-education, mindfulness and acceptance-based behavioral techniques, relaxation training, exposure, cognitive restructuring, and behavioral activation) that can be adapted for use in the brief format typical of integrated primary care. We offer tips based on our clinical experience, highlight resources (e.g., handouts, websites, apps), and discuss 2 case examples to aid BHCs in their everyday practice. Our goal is to provide BHCs with practical knowledge that will facilitate the use of evidence-based interventions to improve the treatment of anxiety in primary care settings. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27064434

  16. Primary Vaginal Adenosarcoma With Sarcomatous Overgrowth Arising in Recurrent Endometriosis: Feasibility of Laparoscopic Treatment and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Pontrelli, Giovanni; Cozzolino, Mauro; Stepniewska, Anna; Bruni, Francesco; Pesci, Anna; Ceccaroni, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a primary vaginal adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth in a postmenopausal 58-year-old woman with recurrent endometriosis. In the past 5 years she underwent several biopsies of a polypoid lesion on the vaginal cuff, and the last histologic examination of the biopsy showed an adenosarcoma with "sarcomatous overgrowth" in a background of endometriosis. There was no evidence of distant metastatic disease on the diagnostic workup, and we performed a laparoscopy to remove the pelvic mass. We reviewed the literature on the electronic databases Medline, Embase, and Science Direct on articles published in English from 1990 to 2015. We identified 5 articles in which the surgical treatment was performed via a laparotomic approach. The present case is the first in the literature to report feasibility of laparoscopic treatment for this kind of pathology with a detailed description of the surgical technique. PMID:27041653

  17. Intravascular Lymphomatosis Mimicking Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Oomura, Masahiro; Sakakibara, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Shugo; Wakita, Atsushi; Mori, Yuji; Kamimoto, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    We herein report a 75-year-old female patient with intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL) who presented with fever of unknown origin. Examination, including contrast-enhanced CT and 67Ga scintigraphy, failed to show any lesions. Her blood levels of lactate dehydrogenase and soluble interleukin-2 receptors were high, suggesting a lymphomatous tumor. A bone marrow puncture was negative, and a random skin biopsy revealed a monoclonal proliferation of naked, large lymphocytes in the vascular space of the subcutaneous tissue, confirming the diagnosis of IVL. MRI, performed 7 weeks after admission, showed a brain mass mimicking primary central nervous system lymphoma. The mass was considered to be a collection of malignant lymphocyte cells invading from the vessels. Without the random skin biopsy, this case may have been misdiagnosed as primary central nervous system lymphoma. PMID:24761147

  18. Giant primary synovial sarcoma of the anterior mediastinum: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ukekwe, F I; Ezemba, N; Olusina, D B; Igbokwe, U; Ngene, C

    2016-01-01

    Primary synovial sarcoma is a very rare tumor of the mediastinum, which is unreported in the entire subcontinent of West Africa, and presents daunting challenges from diagnosis to management with lack of standard management strategies. We present a case of primary monophasic synovial sarcoma of the anterior mediastinum, in a 22-year-old Nigerian lady who presented with cough, chest pain, and pleural effusion. Chest X-ray (CXR) and computed tomography on admission showed a left-sided huge mass in the left anterior mediastinum with no metastasis to the contralateral pleural cavity. Complete resection of the mediastinal tumor was done and histologic and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed a diagnosis of monophasic synovial sarcoma. However, 10 months postoperation she represented with chest pain, productive cough and a repeat CXR showed multiple left pulmonary nodules. She received two cycles of docetaxel and gemcitabine chemotherapy, but declined further treatment until her demise 8 months later. PMID:26856298

  19. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult. PMID:23798840

  20. Primary dural non-hodgkin's lymphoma mimicking meningioma: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kudrimoti, Jyoti K; Gaikwad, Manish J; Puranik, Shaila C; Chugh, Ashish P

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old immunocompetent female presented with headache, vomiting and diminished unilateral vision. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were suggestive of high-grade meningioma. Neurological examination and routine hematological parameters were within normal limits. Craniotomy was performed; the tumor was arising from the dura mater, which was completely resected. Hematoxylin and eosin showed lesion comprising a tumor mass with monomorphic population of tumor cells arranged in sheets and small follicles. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for leukocyte common antigen and CD20 and immunonegative for glial fibrillary acid protein, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, CD3 and CD30. Rest of the body scan was normal. A diagnosis of primary dural non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was made. We report this exceedingly rare case of primary dural non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which mimicked clinically and radiologically as meningioma. PMID:26458614

  1. Primary malignant melanoma of the ovary: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gök, Nazlı Demır; Yildiz, Kürşat; Corakçi, Aydın

    2011-05-01

    Ovarian malignant melanomas are extremely rare tumors. Most of them are secondary tumors and disseminated metastases are recognized at the time of diagnosis. Primary tumors are even more rare and usually associated with a teratoma. A 67-year-old female had a pelvic mass that was recognized on ultrasonography (USG) and physical examination. Intraoperative pathological consultation was reported as "pigmented solid ovarian tumor, probably compatible with malignant melanoma". Paraffin sections, and histochemical (Masson Fontana and Prussia blue) and immunohistochemical examination (S-100 and HMB-45) were also consistent with "malignant melanoma". This case was accepted as "Probably primary ovarian malignant melanoma" in lack of any other tumor focus on detailed clinical and radiological investigation, skin biopsies or pigmented lesions in medical history. It is reported for being an extremely rare tumor and its distinctive characteristics for differential diagnosis are emphasized. PMID:21630207

  2. Primary brachial vein transposition for hemodialysis access: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lambidis, Constantinos; Galanopoulos, Georgios

    2013-07-01

    The superiority of autogenous fistulae in patients with end-stage renal disease, performing hemodialysis, is well established and largely accepted. However, in case that superficial veins in the upper arm are not available for fistula construction, brachial vein transposition may be a viable alternative prior to graft placement. This transposition could be done as a primary or staged procedure, depending on the vein size. We present the case of a 63-year-old male patient with a thrombosed arteriovenous graft in the forearm and a large brachial vein in the ipsilateral upper arm. A one-stage (primary) brachial vein transposition was performed. The fistula, 10 months after its construction, is still patent. No complications have occurred. PMID:23134151

  3. [Primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder. Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Habeck, J O

    1993-11-01

    An autopsy case of a 57-year-old man with primary melanoma of the gallbladder is described. The tumour appeared as a polypoid mass, measuring 4 cm in diameter. Microscopic examination revealed mostly spindle cells with vesicular nuclei and large nucleoli. Many cells stained positively for S 100 protein and HMB 45 using immunohistochemistry and they contained dark brown pigment that stained as melanin pigment with Fontana-Masson. The tumour had metastasised and affected the stomach, the duodenum, the jejunum, the lung, the brain and a bronchopulmonary lymph node. Examination of the skin and both eyes showed no abnormality. Primary malignant melanomas of the gallbladder are very rare. Only 23 cases have been described. These cases are summarized and reviewed. PMID:8130168

  4. Primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Haskaraca, Mehmet Fatih; Ozsoy, Mustafa; Ozsan, Ismail; Kurt, Kamile

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is characterized by the ability of diffuse metastases. Since the first report of an isolated malignant melanoma case of the gallbladder, it is already controversial whether isolated cases are metastatic or primary tumors. A 49-year-old woman appealed to the emergency unit because of abdominal pain. Ultrasonography revealed increased thickness of the gallbladder wall and a lesion with surrounding fluid sized 12 mm without acoustic shadow, which arose from the gallbladder wall and was consistent with a polyp. Histopathologic evaluation of the surgical specimen after laparoscopic cholecystectomy revealed malign epithelial tumor consisting of atypical cells with large eosinophilic cytoplasm and dense melanin pigment within the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. As no other focus was identified as a result of the evaluation, the patient was diagnosed with primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder. In this paper, we aimed to define our treatment modality for a case with isolated malignant melanoma of the gallbladder. PMID:23094182

  5. Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vulva: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    SUI, YANXIA; ZOU, JUNKAI; BATCHU, NASRA; LV, SHULAN; SUN, CHAO; DU, JIANG; WANG, QING; SONG, QING; LI, QILING

    2016-01-01

    Primary vulvar cancer is a rare disease with an incidence of 2–3 per 100,000 women. The vast majority of vulvar carcinomas are of the squamous cell type (90%). Primary vulvar adenocarcinomas rank among the rare gynecological malignancies. We herein present a case of a vulvar mass near the vaginal orifice, the biopsy of which revealed a mucinous adenocarcinoma. Local excision was performed, followed by postoperative chemotherapy. The patient was asymptomatic and developed no recurrence during the 2 years of follow-up after surgery and chemotherapy. We consider local excision, with or without chemotherapy, to be an effective therapeutic approach to this type of tumor. However, further studies are required to support our conclusions for early-stage vulvar mucinous adenocarcinoma. PMID:27073659

  6. Primary malignant melanoma of the pleura with rapid progression: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QIONG; CHEN, JING; DASSARATH, MEERA; YIN, ZHONGYUAN; YANG, XIUPING; YANG, KUNYU; WU, GANG

    2015-01-01

    A primary melanocytic lesion arising from the pleura is a rare occurrence. This is the case report of a 36-year-old female patient with a primary pleural melanocytic tumor. The positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan revealed multiple nodular soft tissue thickenings of the left hemipleura and a large amount of pleural effusion in the left hemithorax. The results of the histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. The disease progressed 4 months following immunotherapy and chemotherapy and the patient succumbed to the disease 2 months later. This type of tumor appears to exhibit a highly aggressive biological behavior and responds poorly to immunotherapy and chemotherapy, which are characteristics similar to those exhibited by melanomas arising in other regions. PMID:26137133

  7. Primary pericardial extragastrointestinal stromal tumor: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    ARPACI, TANER; TOKAT, FATMA; ARPACI, RABIA BOZDOGAN; AKBAS, TUGANA; UGURLUER, GAMZE; YAVUZ, SINAN

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most prevalent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are considered to originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal, the pacemakers of the peristaltic activity of the gastrointestinal tract. More than 95% of GISTs express KIT protein and discovered on GIST-1. GISTs may also be encountered in locations outside the gastrointestinal tract, in which case they are referred to as extra-GISTs (EGISTs) and often behave more aggressively. This is the case report of a primary pericardial EGIST in a 53-year-old male patient, confirmed by immunohistochemistry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case of EGIST diagnosed above the diaphragm, without being associated with the esophageal wall. Two cases of primary EGIST arising from the pleura were reported previously. In addition, this is the first reported case of an EGIST originating from the pericardium. PMID:26137136

  8. Primary anorectal Hodgkin lymphoma: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; Rocca, Bruno Jim; Barone, Aurora; Mastrogiulio, Maria Grazia; Costa, Aurelio; Bellan, Cristiana; Lazzi, Stefano

    2014-03-01

    Primary colorectal lymphomas are very rare. They are mostly B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Only 2 cases of anorectal Hodgkin lymphoma have been described so far, both affecting HIV-infected males and showing Epstein-Barr virus infection. We report an unusual case of primary Hodgkin lymphoma of the anorectal region in an HIV-negative, Epstein-Barr virus-infected patient and in the absence of inflammatory bowel disease. The importance of distinguishing Hodgkin lymphoma from Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoproliferative disorders and from Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly is stressed in particular in non-immunocompromised patients and in the absence of history of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24440095

  9. Primary alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of fallopian tube masquerading as a unilateral adnexal mass: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Nisreen Abu; Alqaisy, Amin; Zheng, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a high-grade sarcoma that predominantly affects children, and rarely, the adult population. RMS demonstrates three major histologic variants: Embryonal, alveolar, and pleomorphic. A limited number of documented pure RMS cases of the gynecologic organs in adult women are found in the literature. Of these reports, the fallopian tube (FT) is reported as the primary site in only three cases, those included one of embryonal and two of the pleomorphic histologic variants. Herein, we report the first case of alveolar RMS arising in the FT of an adult woman and presenting as a unilateral adnexal mass. PMID:26549082

  10. Primary Spinal Glioblastoma Multiforme with Secondary Manifestation as a Cerebral “Angioglioma.” Literature Review and Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Linsenmann, Thomas; Westermaier, Thomas; Vince, Giles Hamilton; Monoranu, Camelia Maria; Löhr, Mario; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Stetter, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Primary intramedullary spinal glioblastoma multiforme (sGBM) with a secondary cerebral manifestation is a very rare entity with a poor outcome. Case studies show a mean average of survival of 10 months after diagnosis. These tumors tend to develop at a young age. A combination with an arteriovenous malformation in the same location has never been published before. Vascular malformations in association with cerebral glioblastomas have only been reported in five cases so far. Proangiogenic factors are assumed to be involved in the appearance of both entities. We present a case study and a review of the literature. PMID:26251789

  11. Experimental Design and Primary Data Analysis Methods for Comparing Adaptive Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Qian, Min; Almirall, Daniel; Pelham, William E.; Gnagy, Beth; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Yu, Jihnhee; Murphy, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, research in the area of intervention development has been shifting from the traditional fixed-intervention approach to "adaptive interventions," which allow greater individualization and adaptation of intervention options (i.e., intervention type and/or dosage) over time. Adaptive interventions are operationalized via a sequence…

  12. Primary Retroperitoneal Müllerian Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, C.; Strambi, S.; Tartaglia, D.; Di Franco, G.; Pucci, V.; Faviana, P.; Lencioni, M.

    2013-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal müllerian adenocarcinoma (PRMA) is an extremely rare clinical entity. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with a mass in the right lower retroperitoneum, identified during an ultrasound exam. Computed tomography confirmed a retroperitoneal mass measuring 11 cm. The patient underwent laparotomy and the mass was completely excised. The histopathological exam revealed PRMA. PMID:24474926

  13. Primary retroperitoneal müllerian adenocarcinoma: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, C; Strambi, S; Tartaglia, D; Di Franco, G; Pucci, V; Faviana, P; Lencioni, M

    2013-09-01

    Primary retroperitoneal müllerian adenocarcinoma (PRMA) is an extremely rare clinical entity. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with a mass in the right lower retroperitoneum, identified during an ultrasound exam. Computed tomography confirmed a retroperitoneal mass measuring 11 cm. The patient underwent laparotomy and the mass was completely excised. The histopathological exam revealed PRMA. PMID:24474926

  14. Primary localized cutaneous nodular amyloidosis of the feet: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Simon A; Beachkofsky, Thomas; Schreml, Stephan; Gaspari, Anthony; Hivnor, Chad M

    2014-02-01

    Primary localized cutaneous nodular amyloidosis (PLCNA) is a rare disorder that manifests as the cutaneous formation of nodules composed of light-chain amyloid. Although the type of amyloid deposit is similar to primary systemic amyloidosis, there seems to be little, if any, crossover between the 2 diseases. Because reports of PLCNA are sparse, there is no established protocol for treating this disease. This case report presents a 42-year-old man with a visually striking presentation of PLCNA on both feet with some of the lesions possibly being secondary to trauma, a rare phenomenon. The lesions had been present for more than 4 years, and there were no signs or symptoms of systemic amyloidosis. The lesions responded well to a combination of complete curettage followed by CO2; laser ablation. Primary localized cutaneous nodular amyloidosis is rare and difficult to treat, with high rates of recurrence and a concern for progression to systemic amyloidosis. The diagnosis, workup, treatment, and monitoring of PLCNA also are discussed. PMID:24605345

  15. Primary extramedullary spinal melanoma mimicking spinal meningioma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    LI, YU-PING; ZHANG, HENG-ZHU; SHE, LEI; WANG, XIAO-DONG; DONG, LUN; XU, ENXI; WANG, XING-DONG

    2014-01-01

    Primary spinal melanoma is a rare lesion, which occurs throughout the cranial and spinal regions, however, is primarily observed in the middle or lower thoracic spine. The clinical features of primary spinal melanoma are complex and unspecific, resulting in a high misdiagnosis rate. In the present case report, a rare case of spinal melanoma exhibiting the dural tail sign and mimicking spinal meningioma is reported. The initial diagnosis, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was unclear. Thus, melanin-containing tumors and spinal meningioma should have been considered in the differential diagnosis. The tumor was completely resected using a standard posterior midline approach, which was followed by chemotherapy. Subsequent to the surgery, the patient was discharged with improved motor capacity and a follow-up MRI scan showed no recurrence after six months. The present study demonstrates that it is critical for neurosurgeons to focus on increasing the accuracy of initial diagnoses in order to make informed decisions regarding the requirement for surgical resection. The present case report presents the clinical, radiological and pathological features of primary extramedullary spinal melanoma mimicking spinal meningioma to emphasize the importance of early identification and diagnosis. PMID:24959273

  16. Genetic Adaptation of Influenza A Viruses in Domestic Animals and Their Potential Role in Interspecies Transmission: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Olga; De Nardi, Marco; van der Meulen, Karen; van Reeth, Kristien; Koopmans, Marion; Harris, Kate; von Dobschuetz, Sophie; Freidl, Gudrun; Meijer, Adam; Breed, Andrew; Hill, Andrew; Kosmider, Rowena; Banks, Jill; Stärk, Katharina D C; Wieland, Barbara; Stevens, Kim; van der Werf, Sylvie; Enouf, Vincent; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Dundon, William; Cattoli, Giovanni; Capua, Ilaria

    2016-03-01

    In December 2011, the European Food Safety Authority awarded a Grant for the implementation of the FLURISK project. The main objective of FLURISK was the development of an epidemiological and virological evidence-based influenza risk assessment framework (IRAF) to assess influenza A virus strains circulating in the animal population according to their potential to cross the species barrier and cause infections in humans. With the purpose of gathering virological data to include in the IRAF, a literature review was conducted and key findings are presented here. Several adaptive traits have been identified in influenza viruses infecting domestic animals and a significance of these adaptations for the emergence of zoonotic influenza, such as shift in receptor preference and mutations in the replication proteins, has been hypothesized. Nonetheless, and despite several decades of research, a comprehensive understanding of the conditions that facilitate interspecies transmission is still lacking. This has been hampered by the intrinsic difficulties of the subject and the complexity of correlating environmental, viral and host factors. Finding the most suitable and feasible way of investigating these factors in laboratory settings represents another challenge. The majority of the studies identified through this review focus on only a subset of species, subtypes and genes, such as influenza in avian species and avian influenza viruses adapting to humans, especially in the context of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. Further research applying a holistic approach and investigating the broader influenza genetic spectrum is urgently needed in the field of genetic adaptation of influenza A viruses. PMID:25630935

  17. Using Primary Literature to Teach Science Literacy to Introductory Biology Students

    PubMed Central

    Krontiris-Litowitz, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students struggle to read the scientific literature and educators have suggested that this may reflect deficiencies in their science literacy skills. In this two-year study we develop and test a strategy for using the scientific literature to teach science literacy skills to novice life science majors. The first year of the project served as a preliminary investigation in which we evaluated student science literacy skills, created a set of science literacy learning objectives aligned with Bloom’s taxonomy, and developed a set of homework assignments that used peer-reviewed articles to teach science literacy. In the second year of the project the effectiveness of the assignments and the learning objectives were evaluated. Summative student learning was evaluated in the second year on a final exam. The mean score was 83.5% (±20.3%) and there were significant learning gains (p < 0.05) in seven of nine of science literacy skills. Project data indicated that even though students achieved course-targeted lower-order science literacy objectives, many were deficient in higher-order literacy skills. Results of this project suggest that building scientific literacy is a continuing process which begins in first-year science courses with a set of fundamental skills that can serve the progressive development of literacy skills throughout the undergraduate curriculum. PMID:23858355

  18. Metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Al-Taee, Ahmad; Almukhtar, Rawaa; Lai, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the increasingly sophisticated diagnostic workup, detailed investigations fail to reveal a primary site of origin for about 3–5% of metastatic tumors. The most commonly reported subtype in cancer of unknown primary origin is adenocarcinoma. Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare poorly differentiated aggressive subtype of adenocarcinoma that most commonly arise from the gastrointestinal tract. It usually presents late and is associated with poor prognosis. Treatment options remain limited to anecdotal reports. However, immunohistochemical studies can be useful in suggesting an origin and therefore may help guide investigations and treatment options. Here we present an unusual case of metastatic SRCC of unknown primary origin presenting as peritoneal carcinomatosis in a 73-year-old man. We also review the literature on metastatic SRCC of unknown primary origin and discuss the relevant findings. This work highlights the importance of collaboration between clinicians and pathologists as well as detailed histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses which can help guide investigations and management options. PMID:27570777

  19. Primary sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma of kidney with variant histomorphologic features: report of 2 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ertoy Baydar, Dilek; Kosemehmetoglu, Kemal; Aydin, Oguz; Bridge, Julia A; Buyukeren, Berrin; Aki, Fazil Tuncay

    2015-01-01

    The authors present two cases of primary sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) of the kidney. Both patients had a mass in the upper part of the left kidney without any primary extrarenal neoplastic lesions. Grossly, the tumors were solid masses both measuring 7.5 cm in the greatest diameter. Histologically, one of the lesions exhibited a predominantly lobular growth of round or oval small uniform epithelioid cells in variable cellularity. Circular zones of crowded tumor cells alternating with hypocellular collagenous tissue in a concentric fashion around entrapped native renal tubules were distinctive. The second case was distinctive with significant cytological atypia in the neoplastic cells and prominent reactive proliferations in the trapped renal tubules. Immunohistochemically, vimentin, bcl-2 and MUC4 were diffusely positive in both. They were negative for S-100 protein, CD34, and desmin, whereas CD99 were positive in one lesion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assay using dual staining probes detected EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusion in each lesion, which is characteristic molecular findings of SEF. One patient presented widespread distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. In the other, no tumor deposits were detected other than primary. Both patients have been alive with 30 and 10 month follow-ups, respectively. These tumors are 6th and 7th cases of primary renal SEF in the literature confirmed by FISH study, which exhibit unique and remarkable histomorphologic features. PMID:26449317

  20. Primary Burkitt’s lymphoma of the thyroid without Epstein-Barr virus infection: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LIYING; GAO, LANXIANG; LIU, GUANG; WANG, LUPING; XU, CHUNWEI; LI, LIN; TIAN, YUWANG; FENG, HUIRU; GUO, ZHE

    2014-01-01

    Primary thyroid lymphomas are rare, and the majority are B-cell lymphoma. Primary Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) of the thyroid is much less common than the other types of lymphoma. The current study presents the case of an eight-year-old male with a mass in the right lobe of the thyroid, which was detected by B-ultrasound. The patient was diagnosed with BL by immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of MYC (8q24) and immunoglobulin rearrangement assays. Furthermore, subsequent positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans revealed no abnormal metabolites in the left lobe of the thyroid or in other parts of the body following surgery. The patient underwent alternate R-B-NHL-BFM-90-A and R-B-NHL-BFM-90-B treatment for four cycles each following the thyroidectomy. The patient is well and remains free of disease recurrence following almost four years follow-up. The present study discusses this rare case of primary BL of the thyroid and presents a review of the literature. This case report provides evidence that the immediate diagnosis and treatment of primary Burkitt’s lymphoma of the thyroid is likely to improve patient outcome. PMID:24765169

  1. Primary Urinary Bladder Angiosarcoma with Osteoclast-Like Multinucleated Giant Cells: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Nawar, Nariman A.; Olsen, Jamie; Jelic, Tomislav M.; He, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 68 Final Diagnosis: Urinary bladder angiosarcoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: TURBT Specialty: Diagnostics, Laboratory Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Angiosarcoma is a fatal and aggressive mesenchymal tumor. It occurs in skin, breast, and parenchymal organs. It rarely arises primarily in the urinary bladder. Only 13 cases of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma have been reported in the English literature. Case Report: The patient was a 68-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Department with inability to void. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed a urinary bladder mass. Surgical excision of the mass was performed. Pathological examination results were consistent with angiosarcoma. In addition to the unusual location of this tumor, the pathology was different from the previously reported cases in that this case was rich with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. Conclusions: The pathological diagnosis of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma is challenging. Histological patterns and immunophenotypes are variable. Here, we review all reported cases of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma, highlight the clinical and morphological features of this malignant neoplasm, and report a unique case of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. PMID:26947436

  2. Primary paraesophageal Ewing’s sarcoma: an uncommon case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tarazona, Noelia; Navarro, Lara; Cejalvo, Juan Miguel; Gambardella, Valentina; Pérez-Fidalgo, J Alejandro; Sempere, Alejo; Navarro, Samuel; Cervantes, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Ewing’s sarcoma is a rare and highly aggressive cancer most frequently arising in people under 20 years of age. We report an uncommon case of primary paraesophageal Ewing’s sarcoma in a 25-year-old male harboring the infrequent EWSR1/ERG fusion transcript with multiple splice variants coexisting in the same tumor. The patient was totally refractory to chemotherapy and died 17 months after diagnosis. We underscore the need for better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the disease and improved systemic therapy options. PMID:25999740

  3. A rational approach to uninvestigated dyspepsia in primary care: review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Arents, N; Thijs, J; Kleibeuker, J

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the rationale and limitations of the four most important approach strategies to dyspepsia in primary care (empiric treatment, prompt endoscopy, "test-and-scope", and "test-and-treat") are analysed. It is concluded that in the absence of alarm symptoms, a "test-and-treat" approach is currently the most rational approach provided that three conditions are met: (1) a highly accurate test should be used, (2) the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the population should not be too low, and (3) an effective anti-H pylori regimen should be prescribed taking sufficient time to instruct and motivate the patient. PMID:12509687

  4. Adult Primary Spinal Epidural Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Bustoros, Mark; Thomas, Cheddhi; Frenster, Joshua; Modrek, Aram S; Bayin, N Sumru; Snuderl, Matija; Rosen, Gerald; Schiff, Peter B; Placantonakis, Dimitris G

    2016-01-01

    Background. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare malignancy, especially in adults. Case Presentation. A 40-year-old male presented with back pain and urinary hesitancy. MRI revealed a thoracic extradural mass with no osseous involvement. He underwent surgery for gross total resection of the mass, which was diagnosed as Ewing's sarcoma. He was subsequently treated with chemoradiotherapy. He remains disease-free 1 year after surgery. Review of the literature indicated only 45 previously reported cases of spinal epidural extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in adults. Conclusions. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare clinical entity that should be included in the differential for spinal epidural masses. Its treatment is multidisciplinary but frequently requires surgical intervention due to compressive neurologic symptoms. Gross total resection appears to correlate with improved outcomes. PMID:27610254

  5. Adult Primary Spinal Epidural Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Cheddhi; Modrek, Aram S.; Bayin, N. Sumru; Snuderl, Matija; Schiff, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare malignancy, especially in adults. Case Presentation. A 40-year-old male presented with back pain and urinary hesitancy. MRI revealed a thoracic extradural mass with no osseous involvement. He underwent surgery for gross total resection of the mass, which was diagnosed as Ewing's sarcoma. He was subsequently treated with chemoradiotherapy. He remains disease-free 1 year after surgery. Review of the literature indicated only 45 previously reported cases of spinal epidural extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in adults. Conclusions. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma in the spinal epidural space is a rare clinical entity that should be included in the differential for spinal epidural masses. Its treatment is multidisciplinary but frequently requires surgical intervention due to compressive neurologic symptoms. Gross total resection appears to correlate with improved outcomes. PMID:27610254

  6. Primary intradural sacral epidermoid in a nondysraphic spine: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraju, Laxminadh; Thakar, Sumit; Ghosal, Nandita; Hegde, Alangar S

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of epidermoids within the spinal canal is uncommon. Most of the reported spinal epidermoids (SEs) have been described in the thoracic or lumbar regions. They occur either following trauma or in the setting of coexistent spinal dysraphism. The authors describe an unusual case of a 28-year-old lady who presented with long-standing back pain and urinary incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her spine demonstrated a sacral SE without any coexistent spinal dysraphism. The diagnosis of an epidermoid was confirmed by histopathological examination following laminectomy and excision. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the third case of a sacral SE occurring in a non-dysraphic spine. The case is discussed in the light of a relevant literature review. PMID:27217657

  7. Bereavement care in primary care: a systematic literature review and narrative synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nagraj, Shobhana; Barclay, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background Over half a million people die in Britain each year and, on average, a GP will have 20 patients die annually. Bereavement is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but the research evidence on which GPs and district nurses can base their practice is limited. Aim To review the existing literature concerning how GPs and district nurses think they should care for patients who are bereaved and how they do care for them. Design Systematic literature review. Method Searches of AMED, BNI, CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline and PsychInfo databases were undertaken, with citation searches of key papers and hand searches of two journals. Inclusion criteria were studies containing empirical data relating to adult bereavement care provided by GPs and district nurses. Information from data extraction forms were analysed using NVivo software, with a narrative synthesis of emergent themes. Results Eleven papers relating to GPs and two relating to district nurses were included. Both groups viewed bereavement care as an important and satisfying part of their work, for which they had received little training. They were anxious not to ‘medicalise’ normal grief. Home visits, telephone consultations, and condolence letters were all used in their support of bereaved people. Conclusion A small number of studies were identified, most of which were >10 years old, from single GP practices, or small in size and of limited quality. Although GPs and district nurses stated a preference to care for those who were bereaved in a proactive fashion, little is known of the extent to which this takes place in current practice, or the content of such care. PMID:21401990

  8. Primary Amelanotic Rhabdoid Melanoma: A Case Report with Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takahide; Korekawa, Ayumi; Akasaka, Eijiro; Rokunohe, Daiki; Nakano, Hajime; Sawamura, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Primary rhabdoid melanoma (PRM) is a rare variant of melanoma. Herein, we describe a case of primary amelanotic rhabdoid melanoma and review the clinicopathological features of previously reported cases of PRMs. A 63-year-old Japanese man presented with a nonpigmented red granular tumor without peripheral pigmented macules on the left heel measuring 21 × 18 mm in size. Light microscopic examination revealed a tumor mass composed entirely of polygonal neoplastic cells resembling pulmonary alveoli. Tumor cells were also discohesive with bizarre nuclei, prominent nucleoli and large hyaline cytoplasmic inclusions. No melanin pigment was present. Tumor cells were strongly and diffusely positive for S-100, MART-1, HMB-45 and vimentin, while negative for desmin, αSMA and synaptophysin. According to previous reviews, PRM tends to be amelanotic and nodular. S-100 protein and vimentin stained in all cases contrary to low stainability for HMB-45, which was, by contrast, positive in our case. Prognosis of PRM remains controversial due to the very rare occurrence of this tumor and the small number of confirmed cases that have been reported. Recognition of this rare entity is important in clinical practice even for skillful dermatologists to avoid misdiagnosis with the other tumors and to determinate the subsequent treatment principles. PMID:26594166

  9. Primary Amelanotic Rhabdoid Melanoma: A Case Report with Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Takahide; Korekawa, Ayumi; Akasaka, Eijiro; Rokunohe, Daiki; Nakano, Hajime; Sawamura, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Primary rhabdoid melanoma (PRM) is a rare variant of melanoma. Herein, we describe a case of primary amelanotic rhabdoid melanoma and review the clinicopathological features of previously reported cases of PRMs. A 63-year-old Japanese man presented with a nonpigmented red granular tumor without peripheral pigmented macules on the left heel measuring 21 × 18 mm in size. Light microscopic examination revealed a tumor mass composed entirely of polygonal neoplastic cells resembling pulmonary alveoli. Tumor cells were also discohesive with bizarre nuclei, prominent nucleoli and large hyaline cytoplasmic inclusions. No melanin pigment was present. Tumor cells were strongly and diffusely positive for S-100, MART-1, HMB-45 and vimentin, while negative for desmin, αSMA and synaptophysin. According to previous reviews, PRM tends to be amelanotic and nodular. S-100 protein and vimentin stained in all cases contrary to low stainability for HMB-45, which was, by contrast, positive in our case. Prognosis of PRM remains controversial due to the very rare occurrence of this tumor and the small number of confirmed cases that have been reported. Recognition of this rare entity is important in clinical practice even for skillful dermatologists to avoid misdiagnosis with the other tumors and to determinate the subsequent treatment principles. PMID:26594166

  10. Spontaneous rupture of primary splenic angiosarcoma: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen is a rare mesenchymal malignant tumor of vascular origin often with a poor prognosis, due to its high metastatic potential. This disease often presents with atraumatic rupture and lethal hemorrhage. Case presentation We report a case of a 65-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and palpable abdominal mass with unstable blood pressure. Laparotomy revealed a huge actively bleeding spleen, thus splenectomy was performed. Some liver metastasis foci were also found during the procedure. Histopathology diagnosis of the removed spleen was primary splenic angiosarcoma. The patient was discharged on the 10th day post operation with no complication. Conclusions Splenic angiosarcoma should be considered one of the differential diagnoses in patients with spleen parenchymal lesions. Definitive diagnosis requires laparotomy followed by splenectomy. In the majority of the patients with spleen angiosarcoma, metastatic diseases have already occurred at the time of laparotomy, so splenectomy is an approach more for diagnostic purpose rather than curative purpose. PMID:23497454

  11. Multiple Primary Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma of the Jejunal Mesentery: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Vats, Manu; Pandey, Diwakar; Ahlawat, Himani; Akhtar, Azaz; Singh, Nain

    2016-01-01

    Liposarcoma arising primarily from the intestinal mesentery is a rare malignancy. Malignancy is said to be synchronous when there is occurrence of two or more tumours that have not spread from a common site or recurred and show no evidence of metastasis. Multiple synchronous primary liposarcoma of the mesentery is a very unusual clinical finding. Here, we report a rare case of synchronous multiple primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma of jejunal mesentery in a 36-year-old female patient. Radiological investigations aided in making a provisional diagnosis of an ovarian malignancy. A staging laparotomy was performed and general surgeon's help was sought due to the presence of three separate jejunal mesenteric masses of sizes 8x6 cms, 6x6 cms and 25x20 cms respectively. Complete excision of mesenteric masses with one feet of involved jejunum was done and a jejuno-jejunal anastomosis made. The histopathology report was indicative of multiple dedifferentiated liposarcoma of jejunal mesentery. Postoperatively patient received Doxorubicin, Dacarbazine and Ifosfamide based adjuvant chemotherapy in view of poorly differentiated tumour. Patient remains tumour free for the last 12 months of follow up. PMID:26894164

  12. A Review of the Literature on Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the Prostate Gland

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2015-01-01

    Primary leiomyosarcoma of the prostate (PLSOP) is rare, with less than 200 cases reported so far. PLSOPs present with lower urinary tract symptoms, haematuria, and perineal pain; may or may not be associated with a history of previous treatment for adenocarcinoma of prostate by means of radiotherapy and or hormonal treatment; may afflict children and adult male. Examination may reveal benign enlarged prostate and hard enlarged mass. PLSOPs may be diagnosed by histological examination findings of spindle-shaped carcinoma cells in prostate specimens. Immunohistochemical staining tends to be positive for vimentin, CD44, smooth muscle actin, and calponin, focally positive for desmin, and at times positive for keratin. They stain negatively for PSA, S-100, CD34, CD117, and cytokeratin. Cytogenetic study on primary leiomyosarcoma of the prostate gland may show clonal chromosomal rearrangement involving Chromosomes 2, 3, 9, 11, and 19. On the whole the prognosis is poor. Surgery with or without chemotherapy would appear to be the mainstay of treatment for PLSOPs that are operable, but generally there is no consensus opinion on the best therapeutic approach. Most cases of PLSOPs are diagnosed in an advanced stage of the disease. A global multicenter trial is required to find therapies that would improve the prognosis. PMID:26640482

  13. Primary Peritoneal Mesothelioma Resulting in Small Bowel Obstruction: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Frontario, S. Christopher N.; Loveitt, Andrew; Goldenberg-Sandau, Anna; Liu, Jun; Roy, Darshan; Cohen, Larry W.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 76 Final Diagnosis: Peritoneal mesothelioma epithelioid type Symptoms: Alternating bowel habits • ascites • small bowel obstruction • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Exploratory laparotomy • excisional biopsy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare malignancy that affects the serosal surfaces of the peritoneum. The peritoneum is the second most common site of mesothelium affected following the pleura. The aggressive nature and vague presentation pose many obstacles in not only diagnosis but also the treatment of patients with this disease. Case Report: We present a case of a 76-year-old woman who presented with small bowel obstruction secondary to carcinomatosis secondary to primary peritoneal mesothelioma. The patient had multiple risk factors with asbestos exposure and prior therapeutic radiation. Conclusions: We discuss the highly varied and elusive presentation of peritoneal mesothelioma. Cumulative asbestos exposure, either directly or indirectly, remains the leading cause of mesothelioma. However, there are other non-asbestos etiologies. Small bowel obstruction often is a late-presenting symptom of widespread tumor burden. A concise review of the current diagnostic and surgical treatment of primary peritoneal mesothelioma demonstrates that early diagnosis and implementation remains vital. PMID:26222965

  14. A systematic literature review of the Profix in primary total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Roberto; Marega, Luca; Breemans, Eric; Miró, Rafael Llopis

    2012-02-01

    Despite more than a decade of use, there are currently no comprehensive reviews summarising clinical results with the Profix Total Knee System in primary total knee arthroplasty. Searching the PubMed and Google Scholar databases revealed 17 potentially relevant Profix manuscripts. After author review and exclusion of studies not meeting predetermined variables, 8 manuscripts were selected. Knee Society data were provided in all 8 and implant survival data in 4. Data for 987 patients (1152 knees) were available. The overall estimated implant survival was 98.6% at 5 years and 94.2% at 10 years with revision for any reason as an endpoint, and 100% at both time points with radiographic loosening as an endpoint. Mean/median preoperative Knee Society knee scores improved from 39.2/24.7 at baseline, to 91.4/92.1 at the last postoperative follow-up visit. Good medium-to long-term clinical results can be expected with the Profix in primary total knee arthroplasty. PMID:22523928

  15. Primary Epithelioid Angiosarcoma of Spleen: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Rania Abdallah; Asaad, Nancy Yousef; Al-Sharaky, Dalia Rifaat; Alhanafy, Alshimaa Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Splenic angiosarcomas are usually secondary tumours, and only few primary cases have been encountered. We report a unique primary case of epithelioid angiosarcoma arising in the spleen in a male patient 55-year-old and presented to our hospital as a medical emergency with acute abdomen and haemorrhagic ascitis. CT revealed splenic focal lesion and suggested that this abdominal haemorrhage was due to ruptured splenic haemangioma, thus abdominal exploration and splenectomy were done. The histopathological examination showed an infiltrating ill-defined growth formed of high grade epithelioid cells arranged in sheet-like growth pattern, with occasional papillary appearance. The presence of rudimentary vascular channels lined by epithelioid endothelial cells with occasional intraluminal erythrocytes suggested vascular tumour origin. The neoplastic cells showed diffuse expression of CD31 together with focal expression of cytokeratin (CK) and CD34. Because of its epithelioid morphology and unmistakable positivity for CK, this case may be easily misdiagnosed as a metastatic carcinoma, which is not uncommon finding in the spleen. Epithelioid angiosarcoma is a rare type of vascular tumour in the spleen, which co-expresses vascular and epithelial markers making its distinction from metastatic carcinoma is sometimes difficult. PMID:26894076

  16. Methods of Intracanal Reinforcement in Primary Anterior Teeth–Assessing the Outcomes through a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Hind Pal; Haider, Khushtar

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To assess how the various methods of intracanal reinforcement (short root canal posts) performed in their clinical and radiographic outcomes for restoring grossly broken down primary anterior teeth after pulpectomy for 1 year or longer follow-up period. Materials and methods: Literature search of electronic databases (Sept 2013) and various journals (1980-Sept 2013) using medical subject headings and free text terms was conducted. For inclusion in quality assessment, prespecified inclusion criteria were applied. Quality assessment was performed by using ‘The Cochrane collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias’. Results: Seven relevant papers were selected for full text evaluation. After applying the inclusion criteria, only two trials could be considered for quality assessment. Both of these were classified as having high risk of bias. Conclusion: The evidence to support any method of intracanal reinforcement for restoring grossly broken down anterior teeth is presently lacking. Further trials with well-defined methodology are needed. How to cite this article: Mittal N, Bhatia HP, Haider K. Methods of Intracanal Reinforcement in Primary Anterior Teeth– Assessing the Outcomes through a Systematic Literature Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):48-54. PMID:26124581

  17. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  18. Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Pregnancy: A Two-Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Martínez, A. D.; Bahamondes-Opazo, R.; Palomares-Ortega, R.; Muñoz-Jiménez, C.; Gálvez-Moreno, M. A.; Quesada Gómez, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) in pregnant women is an uncommon disease. It could be easily misdiagnosed because of physiologic changes during pregnancy; in some cases, patients could remain asymptomatic maintaining elevated calcium serum levels, and this situation represents a threat to the health of both mother and fetus. We present two cases of PHPT during pregnancy and their evolution after surgical treatment in the second trimester; there were no observed complications during pregnancy or delivery in our patients. Early diagnosis and medical/surgical treatment in PHPT are necessary for avoiding maternal and fetal complications which could not be predicted based on duration or severity of hypercalcemia. An appropriate management of PHPT during pregnancy is necessary for preserving the health of both the woman and the fetus. PMID:25893124

  19. Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia: An Update on New Diagnostic Modalities and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Haver, Kenan; Casey, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic condition affecting approximately 1 in 15,000–20,000 individuals, and the majority of cases exhibit an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. However, genetic heterogenicity is seen in PCD and reflects the complexity of ciliary structure and biogenesis. There have been many recent advances in the diagnosis and management of PCD in the last few years, including advanced genetic sequencing, nasal nitric oxide assay, and ciliary motility tests. This article focuses on the ultrastructure and pathophysiology of ciliary dyskinesias, along with a review of clinical features, screening, and diagnostic tests. It also reflects upon the diagnostic challenge caused by the diverse clinical presentation, which will be of great value to pediatricians for considering PCD in their differential list, henceforth leading to early recognition and management, along with awareness of the recent advances in the field of genetics and other techniques for diagnosis of this condition. PMID:24963453

  20. Primary Malignancies of the Small Bowel: A Report of 96 Cases and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, James M.; Melvin, David B.; Gray, George F.; Thorbjarnarson, Bjorn

    1974-01-01

    The clinical records and histologic sections of 96 cases of primary small bowel malignancies (excluding lymphomas and periamullary lesions) were reviewed. The location, clinical presentation, pathologic findings, treatment and outcome are compared to the collected published experience, approximately 2400 cases. There were 48 adenocarcinomas, 37 carcinoids, and 11 leiomyosarcomas. Fifty-one men and 45 women ranged from 31 to 83 years old. Eighty-four caused symptoms leading to operative diagnosis; 12 carcinoids were incidental autopsy findings. The most common presentation was pain (33%) followed by weight loss (23%) obstruction (16%), hemorrhage (15%), jaundice (5%), intussusception (3%) and perforation (3%). Masses were felt in 30% of the cases, but were usually dilated bowel or intussusception rather than the tumor per se. Curative resection was attempted in 80 of 84 operatively diagnosed tumors. The 80% mortality among patients followed 5 years is attributed to the late appearance of symptoms and anatomic obstacles to a truly radical operation. PMID:4843046

  1. Primary endobronchial myxoid leiomyoma in a child: An unusual case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Ashutosh; Dubey, Suparna; Sabhikhi, Abha K; Bal, Sabyasachi

    2016-01-01

    Primary leiomyomas are rare benign tumors of the lung and only 25 cases have been documented in children, most of which are endobronchial. Leiomyomas are benign smooth muscle neoplasms, usually diagnosed on morphological characteristics. However, immunohistochemistry plays a crucial role in the lineage differentiation when these are encountered at unusual sites or with unexpected morphological features. We report a case of endobronchial tumor of a 13-year-old male child who presented with a dry cough and hemoptysis. A mass lesion in the right main bronchus was detected by bronchoscopy and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. On histopathological examination of the resected specimen, a diagnosis of myxoid leiomyoma was made. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of myxoid leiomyoma to be reported in the respiratory tract. This case also demonstrates the need for a high index of suspicion and the role of immunomarkers in the diagnosis of such challenging cases. PMID:26960646

  2. Primary Aortoduodenal Fistula-A Case Report and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Mercy; Jorgensen, Geir Torvik; Aune, Camilla; Bergan, Ragnhild; Norderval, Stig; Moland, Jarl

    2016-07-01

    Primary aortoduodenal fistula (PADF) is a direct communication between the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and duodenum. It is a rare entity and causes life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion, and surgery offers the only hope for survival. We present a 73-year-old male who was initially admitted to the hospital with back pain and fever. He was diagnosed with pyelonephritis and treated with antibiotics. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed an AAA, but no aortoduodenal fistula was seen. Twelve days later, he was admitted to the hospital as he was hemodynamically unstable. An emergency laparotomy revealed a PADF which was repaired. The aortic aneurysm was repaired with an in situ silver graft and a bifemoral bypass. However, the patient developed severe graft infection and later succumbed. PMID:27174358

  3. Obstructive Uropathy as an Initial Presentation of Primary Myelofibrosis: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Anirban; Chalokia, Ramandeep Singh; Kaur, Brahm Jyot

    2016-06-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a rare hematological disorder associated with progressive cytopenia and extra-medullary hematopoiesis. Acute kidney injury in this disease has been reported from diverse etiologies such as renal and peri-renal extramedullary hematopoiesis and tumor lysis syndrome. We report a patient who presented with obstructive uropathy from uric acid stones who was incidentally diagnosed with PMF during workup for persistent thrombocytosis and leukocytosis. Marrow histopathology was unique in presenting features of early PMF despite clinical picture mimicking essential thrombocythemia. Despite a common background of hyperuricemia in myeloproliferative neoplasms, AKI resulting from urate nephrolithiasis has seldom been reported in PMF. Published data on this association and clinical management is reviewed briefly. PMID:27408371

  4. Critical reappraisal of primary osseous composite sarcoma (malignant mesenchymoma) - analysis of four cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chow, Louis T C

    2016-06-01

    In accordance with recent terminology, it is proposed that malignant mesenchymoma should be renamed 'composite sarcoma' and defined as 'a sarcoma composed of two or more cellular types each of which is sufficiently differentiated to permit clear recognition of its histogenetic type microscopically, immunohistochemically or ultrastructurally; excluding fibrosarcomatous and high-grade pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcomatous component, dedifferentiated sarcoma and the combination of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma which is regarded as a single histogenetic type'. Four cases of primary osseous composite sarcoma (POCS) were identified among 928 primary bone sarcomas. Their age ranged from 10 to 87 years, peak incidence in the second decade with equal sex distribution. Most presented with pain, commonest in the knee, affecting the metaphysis, appearing radiologically as expansile infiltrative osteolytic lesions with cortical erosion, periosteal reaction, variable extent of osteoblastic areas and soft tissue extension. All contained variable amounts of conventional high-grade osteosarcoma with or without chondrosarcoma component; the other constituents were liposarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma. In all cases, Ki67 proliferative index was over 35%, there was no CDK4 and MDM2 amplification. The absence of low-grade component supported the de novo origin of POCS rather than derivation from divergent dedifferentiation. The two older patients with hitherto undescribed osteoleiomyosarcoma died 2 and 10 months after operation, whereas the two younger with osteorhabdomyosarcoma and osteoliposarcoma enjoyed disease-free survival at 16 and 6 years after chemotherapy despite the latter showing lung metastasis at presentation. Identification of the different lines of differentiation together with their approximate amounts and histological grades is therefore mandatory for POCS as multi-agent chemotherapy catered for each sarcoma component might offer hope for long

  5. Epidemiology of primary brain tumors: current concepts and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Wrensch, Margaret; Minn, Yuriko; Chew, Terri; Bondy, Melissa; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a sufficiently detailed perspective on epidemiologic studies of primary brain tumors to encourage multidisciplinary etiologic and prognostic studies among surgeons, neuro-oncologists, epidemiologists, and molecular scientists. Molecular tumor markers that predict survival and treatment response are being identified with hope of even greater gains in this area from emerging array technologies. Regarding risk factors, studies of inherited susceptibility and constitutive polymorphisms in genes pertinent to carcinogenesis (for example, DNA repair and detoxification genes and mutagen sensitivity) have revealed provocative findings. Inverse associations of the history of allergies with glioma risk observed in 3 large studies and reports of inverse associations of glioma with common infections suggest a possible role of immune factors in glioma genesis or progression. Studies continue to suggest that brain tumors might result from workplace, dietary, and other personal and residential exposures, but studies of cell phone use and power frequency electromagnetic fields have found little to support a causal connection with brain tumors; caveats remain. The only proven causes of brain tumors (that is, rare hereditary syndromes, therapeutic radiation, and immune suppression giving rise to brain lymphomas) account for a small proportion of cases. Progress in understanding primary brain tumors might result from studies of well-defined histologic and molecular tumor types incorporating assessment of potentially relevant information on subject susceptibility and environmental and noninherited endogenous factors (viruses, radiation, and carcinogenic or protective chemical exposures through diet, workplace, oxidative metabolism, or other sources). Such studies will require the cooperation of researchers from many disciplines. PMID:12356358

  6. Primary adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma metastatic to the lung: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, CHUANGZHI; ZHENG, AIPING; MAO, XIANGMING; SHI, BENTAO; LI, XIANXIN

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare adrenal carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, only 11 cases have been reported since 1987. Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma presents a diagnostic challenge due to its atypical symptoms and histological patterns. At the time of diagnosis, a large percentage of patients are already at the metastatic stage and succumb within a few months. The present study reports a case of a 59-year-old man presenting with asthenia and weight loss with adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma metastatic to the lung. A computed tomography (CT) scan and ultrasonography of the patient's abdomen suggested a large homogeneous mass in the right adrenal gland, and a CT scan of his chest suggested lung metastasis. Right adrenalectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was composed of sarcomatous and carcinomatous differentiation elements. Immunohistochemical examination revealed tumor cell positivity for vimentin and cytokeratin. At the 6-month follow-up the patient exhibited no disease progression and refused further proposed treatment. The patient was alive at the time of writing the current report. The present case report additionally reviews the literature, for the purpose of raising awareness of these rare lesions and assisting in achieving accurate diagnoses and effective treatment. PMID:27123074

  7. Primary Ovarian Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumour: A Case Report and Brief Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Çakir, Tansel; Ilhan, Tolgay Tuyan; Karabagli, Pinar; Çelik, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumour of the Ovary (OMMMT), also referred to as carcinosarcoma is a very rare tumour accounting for less than 1% of all ovarian cancers. Due to the rarity of OMMMT, little is known about the disease course and outcome of women with these tumours. It is important to evaluate because of its aggressive behaviour with extremely unfavourable prognosis. These tumours are composed of both malignant epithelial and mesenchymal elements. Current data in the literature is still limited to small case series and case reports, therefore, its optimal treatment is somewhat controversial. In the current report, we introduce a case of OMMMT which was successfully treated with Platinum-based combination chemotherapy after optimal cytoreductive surgery. The clinical manifestations, pathologic characteristics, diagnosis and management of these tumours are reviewed here. Although the most effective treatment is currently unknown, optimal cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy appears to improve the outcomes. Despite the aggressive nature of this tumour and its poor response to the treatment, management works best when cancer is found early. The stage of the disease is the most important prognostic factor. Therefore, the crucial question is how to diagnose the cancer at earlier stages rather than seeking the optimal treatment. PMID:27134951

  8. Primary Thyroid Extranasal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma Associated With Good Outcome: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-he; He, Hong-hong; Cheng, Yuan; He, Wen-jing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Most thyroid lymphomas are B-lineage, and T-cell lymphomas are rare. None of primary thyroid extranasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) has been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of extranasal NKTCL exclusively arising in the thyroid in an 18-year-old Chinese. The patient presented with rapid anterior swelling at the neck and aggravated dyspnea for 2 months. Neck computer tomography scan revealed diffuse thyroid enlargement in the left lobe compressing the trachea. The thyroid function test was indicative of hypothyroidism. Gastroscopy demonstrated chronic nonspecific gastritis. Subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. Histological examination showed a diffuse infiltration of neoplastic lymphoid cells with an angiodestructive behavior. Immunophenotype is positive for CD2, CD56, CD43, and TIA-1, and typically negative for surface CD3. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs were detected in tumor cells. A diagnose of primary thyroid extranasal NKTCL-N lymphoma was confirmed by the findings. The patient was treated with CHOP-L combination chemotherapy followed by local radiotherapy, and tolerated the modality well. The patient has been in remission for 28 months so far. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of primary extranasal NKTCL exclusively arising in the thyroid. The case has a relatively good treatment outcome with timely diagnosis and multimodality approach. PMID:27196451

  9. Testicular Signet-Ring Cell Metastasis from a Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kollas, Aristomenes; Zarkavelis, George; Goussia, Anna; Kafantari, Aikaterini; Batistatou, Anna; Sintou, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Signet-ring cell carcinoma is a highly malignant adenocarcinoma consisting of cells characterized as cytoplasmic vacuoles filled with mucin. The most common primary location of this type of cancer is the stomach, but it may also be found in other organs such as prostate, testis, bladder, ovaries, or colon. To date, metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) site to the testis is an extremely rare entity in daily practice. Reviewing the literature, we have been able to detect only three cases of testicular metastases from CUP, two with histological diagnosis of a signet-ring cell carcinoma and one with an adenocarcinoma. In this short paper, we report a case of a 56-year-old man who presented to our Department with testicular mass and ascites. Following a standard diagnostic approach no primary tumor could be identified. CUP was the final clinical diagnosis, histologically characterized as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells involving the peritoneum and the testicular structures. PMID:27504206

  10. Testicular Signet-Ring Cell Metastasis from a Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kollas, Aristomenes; Zarkavelis, George; Goussia, Anna; Kafantari, Aikaterini; Batistatou, Anna; Evangelou, Zoi; Sintou, Eva; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Signet-ring cell carcinoma is a highly malignant adenocarcinoma consisting of cells characterized as cytoplasmic vacuoles filled with mucin. The most common primary location of this type of cancer is the stomach, but it may also be found in other organs such as prostate, testis, bladder, ovaries, or colon. To date, metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) site to the testis is an extremely rare entity in daily practice. Reviewing the literature, we have been able to detect only three cases of testicular metastases from CUP, two with histological diagnosis of a signet-ring cell carcinoma and one with an adenocarcinoma. In this short paper, we report a case of a 56-year-old man who presented to our Department with testicular mass and ascites. Following a standard diagnostic approach no primary tumor could be identified. CUP was the final clinical diagnosis, histologically characterized as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells involving the peritoneum and the testicular structures. PMID:27504206

  11. Primary Neoplasms of Bones in Mice: Retrospective Study and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kavirayani, A. M.; Sundberg, J. P.; Foreman, O.

    2011-01-01

    To compare and summarize the mechanisms, frequencies of occurrence, and classification schemes of spontaneous, experimental, and genetically engineered, mouse skeletal neoplasms, the literature was reviewed and archived case material at The Jackson Laboratory examined. The frequency of occurrence of spontaneous bone neoplasms was less than 1% for most strains, with the exceptions of osteomas in CF-1 (5.5% and 10% in two studies) and OF-1 outbred strains (35%), and osteosarcomas in NOD/ShiLtJ (11.5%) and NOD derived (7.1%) mice. The frequency was 100% for osteochondromas induced by conditional inactivation of exostoses (multiple) 1 (Ext1) in chondrocytes, osteosarcomas induced by tibial intramedullary inoculation of Moloney’s murine sarcoma virus, and osteosarcomas induced by conditional inactivation of Trp53-with or without inactivation of Rb1-in osteoblast precursors. Spontaneous osteogenic neoplasms were more frequent than spontaneous cartilaginous and vascular types. Malignant neoplasms were more frequent than benign ones. The age of occurrence for spontaneous neoplasms ranged from 37 to 720 (Mean 316.35) days for benign, and 35 to 990 (Mean 299.28) days for malignant neoplasms. In genetically engineered mice, the average age of occurrence ranged from 28 to 70 days for benign, and from 35 to 690 days for malignant neoplasms. Histologically, non-osteogenic neoplasms were similar across strains and mutant stocks; osteogenic neoplasms exhibited greater diversity. This comparison and summarization of mouse bone neoplasms provides valuable information for the selection of strains to create, compare, and validate models of bone neoplasms. PMID:21343597

  12. Primary gliosarcoma with long-survival: report of two cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Zhen; Yang, Di; Shen, Jie; Li, Yuan; Wu, Huanwen; Meng, Yunxiao; Zhang, Shuying; Luo, Yufeng; Cao, Jinling; Liang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gliosarcoma (GS) is a rare high-grade malignant tumor with poor prognosis. The survival period of GS ranges from 4 to 18.5 months. Rarely would it be over 40 months. Survival of intraventricular GS is less than 8 months. Methods: There were 2 cases of primary gliosarcoma in our hospital with long-term survival after resection, with one of pure intraventricular origin. We confirmed that our diagnosis was correct by light microscopy, GFAP immunohistochemistry and histochemistry of reticular fiber staining. Results: In the first case, a 47-year-old man with intraventricular gliosarcoma survived for 130 months after surgery. In another case, a 63-year-old woman survived for 4 years after resection. Both cases of GS exhibited biphasic glioblastoma and fibrosarcoma with necrosis. According to the review of surgical records, complete tumor resections, including extended resections were carried out in both cases. The two patients received postoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy without any further recurrence and metastasis. Conclusions: We reported two cases of GS with long survival. The presented cases demonstrate that, in rare instances, gliosarcoma may show prolonged survival with after surgical excision combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. PMID:25337286

  13. Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the colon: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    JI, WUYANG; ZHONG, MINER; YOU, YAN; HU, KE; WU, BIN

    2016-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman was admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital with a 6-week history of fever of undetermined origin. The computed tomography scan revealed a space-occupying lesion in the ascending colon and colonic endoscopy revealed a protrusive lesion in the initial segment of the ascending colon, occupying 3/5 of the lumen. Pathological examination of a biopsy specimen revealed malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). The patient then underwent a laparotomy for right hemicolectomy and en bloc lymph node dissection. The histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of MFH and administration of adjuvant radiotherapy was decided. MFH is a high-grade sarcoma that rarely arises in the alimentary tract. To the best of our knowledge, there has only been one case of primary colorectal MFH treated by radiotherapy recorded to date, which makes our case the second trial. We herein present a case of MFH in the ascending colon and a review of previous case reports of patients presenting with this unusual type of MFH. PMID:27284436

  14. Acute Urinary Retention due to Primary Pelvic Hydatid Cyst: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Priyanka; Das, Mohan Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Panja, Soumyajyoti

    2016-01-01

    Causes of urinary retention in old men include benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, prostate cancer, Scarring of the urethra or bladder neck as a result of injury or surgery, use of certain medicines particularly NSAIDs and opioid analgesics, constipation and neurogenic bladder. When the above common causes are not quite obvious by clinical examination and relevant investigations, then it is necessary to think of other rare diseases. It is with the above in our mind that a case of bladder outflow obstruction due to a large primary retrovesical hydatid cyst is herein reported in a 58-year-old man. Ultrasonography (USG) and Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis of the patient revealed a large, multilocular, nonenhancing, cystic lesion in the rectovesical pouch having typical cartwheel appearance without any other intraabdominal organ involvement. These typical radiological characteristics led us to suspect the presence of a hydatid cyst. He underwent exploratory laparotomy where cystopericycstectomy was done. Pre-operative and post-operative albendazole prophylaxis was also given. In conclusion, hydatid cyst should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic cystic masses, specially in endemic regions. PMID:27190883

  15. Primary pulmonary T-cell lymphoma mimicking pneumonia: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    YANG, LINGYI; FENG, WEI; CHEN, CHENG; ZHANG, XIUQIN; ZHU, YEHAN; LEI, WEI; HUANG, JIAN-AN

    2016-01-01

    Primary pulmonary T-cell lymphoma is an extremely rare neoplasm. The present study describes the case of an elderly male patient who was admitted to hospital with initial symptoms including a fever, coughing and dyspnea. A chest computed tomography scan detected pneumonia-like features, including multiple variable nodules, ground-glass opacities, patchy infiltration and subpleural consolidation, which progressed rapidly. No mediastinal or hilar adenopathy was noted. The patient was initially diagnosed with severe pneumonia; however, the patient developed severe respiratory failure and extensive progression in radiographic manifestation despite receiving a combination treatment of broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungal agents. Negative results were obtained for anti-nuclear antibodies and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody assays, which eliminated the possibility that the patient was affected by a connective tissue disease. A bronchoscopy with transbronchial lung biopsy was not performed on account of intolerance. A histological examination, which was performed using specimens obtained via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, allowed the final diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma to be confirmed. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to respiratory failure and a probable thoracic hemorrhage prior to the initiation of chemotherapy. PMID:27347063

  16. Time to adapt exercise training regimens in pulmonary rehabilitation – a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Annemarie L; Holland, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life, and acute exacerbations are features characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD often report comorbidities and other secondary manifestations, which diversifies the clinical presentation. Pulmonary rehabilitation that includes whole body exercise training is a critical part of management, and core programs involve endurance and resistance training for the upper and lower limbs. Improvement in maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, health-related quality of life, and psychological symptoms are outcomes associated with exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation, irrespective of the clinical state in which it is commenced. There may be benefits for the health care system as well as the individual patient, with fewer exacerbations and subsequent hospitalization reported with exercise training. The varying clinical profile of COPD may direct the need for modification to traditional training strategies for some patients. Interval training, one-legged cycling (partitioning) and non-linear periodized training appear to be equally or more effective than continuous training. Inspiratory muscle training may have a role as an adjunct to whole body training in selected patients. The benefits of balance training are also emerging. Strategies to ensure that health enhancing behaviors are adopted and maintained are essential. These may include training for an extended duration, alternative environments to undertake the initial program, maintenance programs following initial exercise training, program repetition, and incorporation of approaches to address behavioral change. This may be complemented by methods designed to maximize uptake and completion of a pulmonary rehabilitation program. PMID:25419125

  17. Time to adapt exercise training regimens in pulmonary rehabilitation--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annemarie L; Holland, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life, and acute exacerbations are features characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD often report comorbidities and other secondary manifestations, which diversifies the clinical presentation. Pulmonary rehabilitation that includes whole body exercise training is a critical part of management, and core programs involve endurance and resistance training for the upper and lower limbs. Improvement in maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, health-related quality of life, and psychological symptoms are outcomes associated with exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation, irrespective of the clinical state in which it is commenced. There may be benefits for the health care system as well as the individual patient, with fewer exacerbations and subsequent hospitalization reported with exercise training. The varying clinical profile of COPD may direct the need for modification to traditional training strategies for some patients. Interval training, one-legged cycling (partitioning) and non-linear periodized training appear to be equally or more effective than continuous training. Inspiratory muscle training may have a role as an adjunct to whole body training in selected patients. The benefits of balance training are also emerging. Strategies to ensure that health enhancing behaviors are adopted and maintained are essential. These may include training for an extended duration, alternative environments to undertake the initial program, maintenance programs following initial exercise training, program repetition, and incorporation of approaches to address behavioral change. This may be complemented by methods designed to maximize uptake and completion of a pulmonary rehabilitation program. PMID:25419125

  18. Why do patients with ‘primary care sensitive’ problems access ambulance services? A systematic mapping review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Matthew J; Shaw, Ali R G; Purdy, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective Emergency ambulance use for problems that could be managed in primary care continues to rise owing to complex reasons that are poorly understood. The objective of this systematic review is to draw together published evidence across a variety of study methodologies and settings to gain a better understanding of why patients seek help from ambulance services for these problems. Design Systematic searches were undertaken across the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, Health Management Information Consortium and Health Management Information Service publication databases. Google Scholar, Web of Science, OpenSigle, EThOS and DART databases were also systematically searched for reports, proceedings, book chapters and theses, along with hand-searching of grey literature sources. Studies were included if they reported on findings examining patient, carer, health professional or service management interactions with ambulance services for primary care problems. All study methodologies and perspectives were of interest. Data were extracted, quality assessed and systematically mapped according to key findings through generation of an iterative framework. Results A total of 31 studies met inclusion criteria. Findings were summarised across 5 broad categories: factors associated with individual patients; actions of care-givers and bystanders; population-level factors; health infrastructure factors; challenges faced by health professionals. A number of subcategories were developed to explore these factors in more detail. Conclusions This review reports important factors that may impact on ambulance use for primary care problems across a global setting, including demographic measures associated with deprivation, minority status and individual social circumstances. Categorising ambulance calls for primary care problems as ‘inappropriate’ is context dependant and may be unhelpful. Potential implications for triage and risk management strategies are discussed. PMID

  19. A Challenging Surgical Approach to Locally Advanced Primary Urethral Carcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Spilotros, Marco; Vavallo, Antonio; Palazzo, Silvano; Miacola, Carlos; Forte, Saverio; Matera, Matteo; Campagna, Marcello; Colamonico, Ottavio; Schiralli, Francesco; Sebastiani, Francesco; Di Cosmo, Federica; Bettocchi, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Vincenti, Leonardo; Ludovico, Giuseppe; Ditonno, Pasquale; Battaglia, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is a rare and aggressive cancer, often underdetected and consequently unsatisfactorily treated. We report a case of advanced PUC, surgically treated with combined approaches.A 47-year-old man underwent transurethral resection of a urethral lesion with histological evidence of a poorly differentiated squamous cancer of the bulbomembranous urethra. Computed tomography (CT) and bone scans excluded metastatic spread of the disease but showed involvement of both corpora cavernosa (cT3N0M0). A radical surgical approach was advised, but the patient refused this and opted for chemotherapy. After 17 months the patient was referred to our department due to the evidence of a fistula in the scrotal area. CT scan showed bilateral metastatic disease in the inguinal, external iliac, and obturator lymph nodes as well as the involvement of both corpora cavernosa. Additionally, a fistula originating from the right corpus cavernosum extended to the scrotal skin. At this stage, the patient accepted the surgical treatment, consisting of different phases. Phase I: Radical extraperitoneal cystoprostatectomy with iliac-obturator lymph nodes dissection. Phase II: Creation of a urinary diversion through a Bricker ileal conduit. Phase III: Repositioning of the patient in lithotomic position for an overturned Y skin incision, total penectomy, fistula excision, and "en bloc" removal of surgical specimens including the bladder, through the perineal breach. Phase IV: Right inguinal lymphadenectomy.The procedure lasted 9-and-a-half hours, was complication-free, and intraoperative blood loss was 600 mL. The patient was discharged 8 days after surgery. Pathological examination documented a T4N2M0 tumor. The clinical situation was stable during the first 3 months postoperatively but then metastatic spread occurred, not responsive to adjuvant chemotherapy, which led to the patient's death 6 months after surgery.Patients with advanced stage tumors of the

  20. Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the anterior hard palate: A rare case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Misra, Satya Ranjan; Mishra, Lora; Mishra, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are defined as neoplasms of large transformed B cells, i.e. with nuclear diameter more than twice that of a normal lymphocyte. These account for 30-40% of all adult non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). Intraoral lymphomas are relatively rare and often difficult to diagnose in clinical settings. In this case report, we describe a case of primary DLBCL affecting the anterior part of the hard palate of an elderly male patient. DLBCL of anterior part of hard palate is yet to be reported in the English literature, even though DLBCL cases involving the posterior palate have been recorded, thus making the present case to be first of its kind. Emphasis has also been given on the subclassification, differential diagnosis and prognostic antibody factors determining the outcome of DLBCL. PMID:24959047

  1. Adjuvant chemotherapy after primary treatments for cervical cancer: a critical point of view and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Angioli, Roberto; Luvero, Daniela; Aloisi, Alessia; Capriglione, Stella; Gennari, Paolo; Linciano, Francesca; Li Destri, Marta; Scaletta, Giuseppe; Montera, Roberto; Plotti, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent female malignancy worldwide. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy represents the standard of care for patients with advanced stage cervical cancer, while radical surgery (RS) and radiotherapy is widely used for treating early stage cervical cancer. However, the poor control of micrometastasis, declining operability, the lack of radiotherapy departments and the high incidence of long-term complications due to radiotherapy have brought about the development of different therapeutic approaches such as neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by RS. Unfortunately, treatment results are still unsatisfactory due to a high recurrence rate and several authors have studied the possibility to add an adjuvant treatment to primary therapy. We reviewed the literature concerning the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in advanced cervical cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by RS and after chemoradiotherapy. PMID:24483847

  2. Primary sarcomatoid carcinoma of the jejunum with massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, BIN; CHENG, BO; WANG, LINXIONG; ZHAO, KE; ZHUO, GUANG-ZUAN; DING, JIAN-HUA

    2016-01-01

    Primary sarcomatoid carcinoma of the jejunum is an extremely rare condition, with only 16 cases reported in the literature to date. We herein report an additional case of a giant sarcomatoid carcinoma of the jejunum in a 62-year-old male patient, presenting as massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage. During emergency laparotomy, ~5 litres of bloody ascites was found in the peritoneal cavity and the tumor was located in the proximal jejunum. The tumor involved the entire wall of the jejunum and had directly invaded the neighboring parietal peritoneum, omentum, transverse colon and mesentery, with metastatic lymph nodes. The patient underwent palliative resection of the tumor; however, the course was rapidly progressive and he succumbed to progression of abdominal and liver metastases 4 weeks after surgery. The tumor was found to be positive for epithelial and mesenchymal markers on immunohistochemical analysis. This case emphasizes the aggressive clinical course and metastatic nature of this malignant tumor, with a supplementary review of the previously published literature. PMID:27123285

  3. Rare case of a primary non-dural central nervous system low grade B-cell lymphoma and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Wang, Huan-You; Lee, Roland R; Wong, Anna; Hansen, Lawrence A; Mahooti, Sepi; Rashidi, Hooman H

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of a 70-year-old HIV negative man with a five-year history of progressive dysnomia and new onset right extremity numbness, dysarthria, and blurry vision. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an infiltrative enhancing tumor was noted. Follow up brain biopsy results revealed a small lymphocytic infiltrate with scattered plasma cells in a predominantly perivascular growth pattern. Flow-cytometric findings revealed a lambda monotypic B-cell population. The morphology and the flow cytometric findings were consistent with involvement by a low grade B-cell lymphoma. Subsequent positron emission tomography (PET) studies along with bone marrow biopsy and serum protein electrophoresis showed no evidence of systemic disease. The above findings are consistent with involvement by a non-dural extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL) primary to the central nervous system (CNS). This is the first reported case of a primary CNS MZBCL with flow cytometric analysis. A review of literature on this rare entity is also included. PMID:22295152

  4. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in dentigerous cyst: Report of 2 cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Camps-Font, Octavi; López-Ramírez, Marta; Vidal-Bel, August

    2015-01-01

    Dentigerous cysts are one of the most common odontogenic cysts of the oral cavity. Odontogenic cysts can give rise to a variety of neoplasms. Carcinoma arising in a dentigerous cyst is extremely rare, with a review of literature showing near 30 cases. The present report describes 2 cases of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma originated from a dentigerous cyst. The first one refers to a 57-year old female with a persistent lesion in the left retromolarregion and diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma originated fromthe incomplete excision of the lower third molar follicle during its surgical extraction. The second case describes the case of an 18-year old male with an impacted upper canine with previous history of infection and swelling of the oral cavity. The histopathological study revealed the malignization of the follicle surrounding the dental crown. These two cases confirmed the importance of the histopathological study of all the tissue samples obtained from surgical procedures. Although the development of a malignant lesion from a dentigerous cyst is rare and its clinical-radiological features are apparently innocuous, this entity should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Key words:Dentigerous cyst, odontogenic cyst, squamous cell carcinoma, primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma, odontogenic carcinoma. PMID:26644846

  5. Primary cellulitis and cutaneous abscess caused by Yersinia enterocolitica in an immunocompetent host: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Shugo; Sekiya, Noritaka

    2016-06-01

    Primary extraintestinal complications caused by Yersinia enterocolitica are extremely rare, especially in the form of skin and soft-tissue manifestations, and little is known about their clinical characteristics and treatments. We presented our case and reviewed past cases of primary skin and soft-tissue infections caused by Y enterocolitica. We report a case of primary cellulitis and cutaneous abscess caused by Y enterocolitica in an immunocompetent 70-year-old woman with keratodermia tylodes palmaris progressiva. She presented to an outpatient clinic with redness, swelling, and pain of the left ring finger and left upper arm without fever or gastrointestinal symptoms 3 days before admission. One day later, ulceration of the skin with exposed bone of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left ring finger developed, and cefditoren pivoxil was described. However, she was admitted to our hospital due to deterioration of symptoms involving the left finger and upper arm. Cefazolin was initiated on admission, then changed to sulbactam/ampicillin and vancomycin with debridement of the left ring finger and drainage of the left upper arm abscess. Wound culture grew Y enterocolitica serotype O:8 and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Blood cultures were negative and osteomyelitis was ruled out. Vancomycin was switched to ciprofloxacin, then skin and soft-tissue manifestations showed clear improvement within a few days. The patient received 14 days of ciprofloxacin and oral amoxicillin/clavulanate and has since shown no recurrence. We reviewed 12 cases of primary skin and soft-tissue infections caused by Y enterocolitica from the literature. In several past cases, portal entry involved failure of the skin barrier on distal body parts. Thereafter, infection might have spread to the regional lymph nodes from the ruptured skin. Y enterocolitica is typically resistant to aminopenicillins and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins. In most cases, these inefficient

  6. Primary bladder lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell type: Case report and literature review of 26 cases.

    PubMed

    Simpson, W Greg; Lopez, Armando; Babbar, Paurush; Payne, Lynnetta Faith

    2015-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder is exceedingly rare, representing 0.2% of all extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Although Matsuno et al. and others state the most common type is mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, 20% of all the primary lymphomas of the urinary bladder are considered to be high grade neoplasms; the majority being diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This is a case report of a 48-year-old man that presented with hematuria, frequency, nocturia, and flank pain that was found to have high grade DLBCL. Twenty-six other cases of both low and high grade primary bladder lymphomas were selected in order to provide a thorough comparison of different treatment modalities. Of the cases reviewed, bladder lymphoma was more common in females (2:1). The average age at diagnosis was 63.9 years old (low grade: 68.7 years old, high grade: 58.8 years old). The most common low-grade neoplasm was MALT lymphoma (85.7%). For the low-grade malignancies, the most successful treatments were simple therapies (2 transurethral resection of a bladder tumour [TURBT], 1 antibiotics), solitary chemotherapy, and combination TURBT/chemo; all 3 of which achieved 100% clinical remission (CR) in the cases reviewed. The most common high grade neoplasm was DLBCL (76.9%). The most successful therapies used to treat high grade lesions were solitary chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, duanorubacin, vincristine, prednisolone [CHOP] or ritoximab, CHOP [R-CHOP]) and combination therapies (2 radiation/CHOP, 2 surgery/CHOP). In the agreement with the current literature, this review has shown that simple therapies (TURBT) are equally as effective as aggressive treatments (chemotherapy, radiation) and should therefore be used as first line treatment in low grade tumors. For high grade malignancies, chemotherapy (R-CHOP or CHOP) alone or combination therapy (CHOP/surgery or CHOP/radiation) is recommended. PMID:25837971

  7. Primary bladder lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell type: Case report and literature review of 26 cases

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, W. Greg; Lopez, Armando; Babbar, Paurush; Payne, Lynnetta Faith

    2015-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder is exceedingly rare, representing 0.2% of all extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Although Matsuno et al. and others state the most common type is mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, 20% of all the primary lymphomas of the urinary bladder are considered to be high grade neoplasms; the majority being diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This is a case report of a 48-year-old man that presented with hematuria, frequency, nocturia, and flank pain that was found to have high grade DLBCL. Twenty-six other cases of both low and high grade primary bladder lymphomas were selected in order to provide a thorough comparison of different treatment modalities. Of the cases reviewed, bladder lymphoma was more common in females (2:1). The average age at diagnosis was 63.9 years old (low grade: 68.7 years old, high grade: 58.8 years old). The most common low-grade neoplasm was MALT lymphoma (85.7%). For the low-grade malignancies, the most successful treatments were simple therapies (2 transurethral resection of a bladder tumour [TURBT], 1 antibiotics), solitary chemotherapy, and combination TURBT/chemo; all 3 of which achieved 100% clinical remission (CR) in the cases reviewed. The most common high grade neoplasm was DLBCL (76.9%). The most successful therapies used to treat high grade lesions were solitary chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, duanorubacin, vincristine, prednisolone [CHOP] or ritoximab, CHOP [R-CHOP]) and combination therapies (2 radiation/CHOP, 2 surgery/CHOP). In the agreement with the current literature, this review has shown that simple therapies (TURBT) are equally as effective as aggressive treatments (chemotherapy, radiation) and should therefore be used as first line treatment in low grade tumors. For high grade malignancies, chemotherapy (R-CHOP or CHOP) alone or combination therapy (CHOP/surgery or CHOP/radiation) is recommended. PMID:25837971

  8. The Adaptation of Creativity Fostering Primary Teachers Index Scale into Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikici, Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the creativity fostering teacher index scale into Turkish. For the language equivalence, firstly, the English version of the scale was translated by 30 English lecturers and then the Turkish version of the scale retranslated by the same lecturers. Later, the scale was applied to 288 teachers working in Nigde…

  9. Primary intracranial soft tissue sarcomas in children, adolescents, and young adults: single institution experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maher, Ossama M; Khatua, Soumen; Mukherjee, Devashis; Olar, Adriana; Lazar, Alexander; Luthra, Raja; Liu, Diane; Wu, Jimin; Ketonen, Leena; Zaky, Wafik

    2016-03-01

    There is a paucity of literature reporting the outcome of intracranial sarcomas (IS) in children, adolescents, and young adults (CAYA). A multimodal therapeutic approach is commonly used, with no well-established treatment consensus. We conducted a retrospective review of CAYA with IS, treated at our institution, to determine their clinical findings, treatments, and outcomes. Immunohistochemistry (PDGFRA and EGFR) and DNA sequencing were performed on 5 tumor samples. A literature review of IS was also conducted. We reviewed 13 patients (median age, 7 years) with a primary diagnosis of IS between 1990 and 2015. Diagnoses included unclassified sarcoma (n = 9), chondrosarcoma (n = 2), and rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 2). Five patients underwent upfront gross total resection (GTR) of the tumor. The 5-drug regimen (vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and ifosfamide) was the most common treatment used. Nine patients died due to progression or recurrence (n = 8) or secondary malignancy (n = 1). The median follow-up period of the 4 surviving patients was 1.69 years (range 1.44-5.17 years). The 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 21 and 44 %, respectively. BRAF, TP53, KRAS, KIT, ERBB2, MET, RET, ATM, and EGFR mutations were detected in 4 of the 5 tissue samples. All 5 samples were immunopositive for PDGFRA, and only 2 were positive for EGFR. IS remain a therapeutic challenge due to high progression and recurrence rates. Collaborative multi-institutional studies are warranted to delineate a treatment consensus and investigate tumor biology to improve the disease outcome. PMID:26718692

  10. Using Principles of Complex Adaptive Systems to Implement Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Kottke, Thomas E; Huebsch, Jacquelyn A; McGinnis, Paul; Nichols, Jolleen M; Parker, Emily D; Tillema, Juliana O; Maciosek, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    Context: Primary care practice. Objective: To test whether the principles of complex adaptive systems are applicable to implementation of team-based primary care. Design: We used complex adaptive system principles to implement team-based care in a private, five-clinic primary care practice. We compared randomly selected samples of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes before system implementation (March 1, 2009, to February 28, 2010) and after system implementation (December 1, 2011, to March 31, 2013). Main Outcome Measures: Rates of patients meeting the composite goals for CHD (blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level < 100 mg/dL, tobacco-free, and using aspirin unless contraindicated) and diabetes (CHD goal plus hemoglobin A1c concentration < 8%) before and after the intervention. We also measured provider and patient satisfaction with preventive services. Results: The proportion of patients with CHD who met the composite goal increased from 40.3% to 59.9% (p < 0.0001) because documented aspirin use increased (65.2%–97.5%, p < 0.0001) and attainment of the cholesterol goal increased (77.0%–83.9%, p = 0.0041). The proportion of diabetic patients meeting the composite goal rose from 24.5% to 45.4% (p < 0.0001) because aspirin use increased (58.6%–97.6%, p < 0.0001). Increased percentages of patients meeting the CHD and diabetes composite goals were not significantly different (p = 0.2319). Provider satisfaction with preventive services delivery increased significantly (p = 0.0017). Patient satisfaction improved but not significantly. Conclusion: Principles of complex adaptive systems can be used to implement team-based care systems for patients with CHD and possibly diabetic patients. PMID:26784851

  11. Adaptive changes in the neuromagnetic response of the primary and association somatosensory areas following repetitive tactile hand stimulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Anda; Barlow, Steven; Venkatesan, Lalit; Wang, Jingyan; Popescu, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Cortical adaptation in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) has been probed using different stimulation modalities and recording techniques, in both human and animal studies. In contrast, considerably less knowledge has been gained about the adaptation profiles in other areas of the cortical somatosensory network. Using magnetoencephalography, we examined the patterns of short-term adaptation for evoked responses in SI and somatosensory association areas during tactile stimulation applied to the glabrous skin of the right hand. Cutaneous stimuli were delivered as trains of serial pulses with a constant frequency of 2 Hz and 4 Hz in separate runs, and a constant inter-train interval of 5 s. The unilateral stimuli elicited transient responses to the serial pulses in the train, with several response components that were separated by Independent Component Analysis. Subsequent neuromagnetic source reconstruction identified regional generators in the contralateral SI and somatosensory association areas in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Activity in the bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex (i.e. SII/PV) was also identified, although less consistently across subjects. The dynamics of the evoked activity in each area and the frequency-dependent adaptation effects were assessed from the changes in the relative amplitude of serial responses in each train. We show that the adaptation profiles in SI and PPC can be quantitatively characterized from neuromagnetic recordings using tactile stimulation, with the sensitivity to repetitive stimulation increasing from SI to PPC. A similar approach for SII/PV has proven less straightforward, potentially due to the selective nature of these areas to respond predominantly to certain stimuli. PMID:22331631

  12. Primary Ureteral Thyroid Transcription Factor 1-Positive Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Andrés Martin; Hamedani, Farid Saei; Meeks, Joshua James; Wu, Shoujin

    2015-09-01

    Upper urinary tract neoplasms comprise only 5% of urinary malignancies overall, the overwhelming majority showing an urothelial histology. Nonurothelial lesions represent 1.9% of upper tract neoplasms, and small cell carcinomas (SmCCs) only account for a minute fraction of them, with few cases reported in the literature to date. In the genitourinary tract, these lesions are most frequently found in the urinary bladder, where they tend to show a mixed histology with a characteristic small cell neuroendocrine component that is positive for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CD56 immunostains. Urinary SmCCs are almost invariably aggressive, with a propensity to infiltrate surrounding tissues and vascular structures. Unfortunately, clinical stage at presentation is often advanced, with early dissemination to lymph nodes or distant organs in a significant proportion of patients. For the most part, prognosis is dismal and can be predicted by the pathologic stage at diagnosis. Recently, new chemotherapeutic regimens have shown some potential benefit for the treatment of urinary SmCC, albeit not achieving curative results. Here we present the case of a 71-year-old male patient with a history of treated bladder urothelial carcinoma that presented with subacute flank pain and was diagnosed with a primary pure SmCC of the ureter. Besides the usual neuroendocrine immunomarkers, this tumor showed intense positivity for TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor-1), a phenomenon that has been described for extrapulmonary SmCC of other locations. PMID:26162396

  13. Primary carcinoma of the ureteral stump following radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    JIN, SHIHUA; WANG, GANG; YU, CHENGFAN; LI, NINGCHEN

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of primary carcinoma of the ureteral stump following radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma is extremely rare; 7 patients with the disease have been reported previously. All these patients were males with transitional cell carcinoma. The current study reports the case of a 61-year-old woman, who presented with gross hematuria following a radical nephrectomy for local clear cell renal carcinoma. A computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a mass on the ureteral stump. The patient underwent a left ureteral stump and bladder cuff excision. The histological diagnosis was high-grade transitional cell carcinoma of the ureteral stump, with focal interstitial cancer cell infiltrates. There was no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of 35 months. In addition, the present study reviewed the literature for previous patients with ureteral stump carcinoma following a radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma; 7 previous patients with the disease were identified. The present study suggests that, if patients who have previously undergone a radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma present with hematuria, the possibility of ureteral stump carcinoma should be considered, particularly in East Asian countries. The existence or a history of bladder carcinoma should be considered as a high-risk factor for developing ureteral stump carcinoma. A ureteral stump and bladder cuff excision should be performed once ureteral stump carcinoma is diagnosed. PMID:27123110

  14. Metachronous, Single Metastasis to the Parotid, from Primary Breast Cancer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kmeid, Michel; Kamar, François G.; Nasser, Selim; Moukarzel, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Background. The parotid gland is an unusual site for metastatic disease and when metastasis occurs, it commonly originates from head and neck primaries. Spread from distant infraclavicular sites such as the breast, into the parotid, is even more unusual with very few cases reported in the literature. Case Report. We describe the case of a 65-year-old woman presenting for a rapidly enlarging right parotid mass. She had a history of an invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast and was disease-free in the past 6 years prior to her presentation. She was thereafter diagnosed as having a solitary parotid metastasis from breast origin. A total parotidectomy was done and she was referred for adjuvant radiotherapy. Conclusion. Any parotid metastasis should be investigated, especially in patients with a prior history of cancer where the possibility of metastasis, even if improbable, should be kept in mind. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the first diagnostic procedure to be done and immunocytochemistry can provide valuable information even if it is not always needed for diagnosis. Superficial parotidectomy when feasible with adjuvant radiotherapy is the preferred approach for solitary metastasis of the parotid. The prognosis, however, remains poor regardless of the treatment modality used. PMID:26942028

  15. Primary Sjögren’s syndrome accompanied by pleural effusion: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dedong; Lu, Hongxiu; Qu, Yiqing; Wang, Shanshan; Ying, Yangyang; Xiao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by the infiltration of lymphocytes in exocrine glands, specifically the salivary and lacrimal glands, resulting in the typical symptoms of xerophthalmia and xerostomia. SS may be accompanied by pleural effusion when the lung is involved, but this occurrence has been reported in only 10 cases in the literature. We report the case of a 42 year-old woman with severe bilateral pleural effusion for eight years. Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome was finally diagnosed based on the presence of xerophthalmia and xerostomia, biopsy of the minor salivary glands, and positive anti-SS-A antibody in the serum and pleural effusion. Biopsy of the parietal pleura through video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed infiltration of lymphocytes. The patient had a long history of pleural effusion without clear etiology. Malignant disease was first suspected because of abnormal density lesion on the left lung and malignant cells found on cytology, but PET-CT revealed no malignant lesion. Examinations did not support infection, malignant tumor, pulmonary sarcoidosis, or other connective tissue diseases. This data could be useful for the future study of pleural effusion in SS. PMID:26823888

  16. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus (PSCEC) Associated with Paraneoplastic Sweating Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi Masoum, Seyed Hosein; Sharifi, Noorieh; Taraz Jamshidi, Shirin; Sharifian, Alireza; Rezaee, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus (PSCEC) associated with paraneoplastic sweating syndrome is a rare disease characterized with rapid growth rate, metastasis at the time of diagnosis, and poor prognosis. The lung is the most common site for small cell carcinoma but this malignancy includes 0.1% to 1% of all gastrointestinal and 0.8% to 2.7% of esophageal malignancies. So far more than 200 cases of PSCEC have been reported in literature. Case Report: The patient is a 54-year-old female from the Golestan province who presented with dysphagia, 19 kg-weight loss (from 105 kgs to 86 kgs), and excessive sweating. She was admitted in the thoracic surgery ward, at Ghaem Hospital, in the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, with a pathological diagnosis of small cell carcinoma. She underwent transhiatal total esophagectomy. Excessive sweating was eradicated after surgery and she was discharged after 13 days without any complication. She received chemotherapy and at her 5-year follow up, she showed no recurrence or metastasis. Conclusion: PSCEC usually requires chemotherapy with or without surgery. A favorable outcome, with total resection of the lesion combined with chemotherapy, was obtained. However, due to the rarity of the disease there is no definitive choice of treatment. PMID:26788492

  17. Primary carcinoma of the frontal sinus with extensive intracranial invasion: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HENG-ZHU; LI, YU-PING; SHE, LEI; WANG, XIAO-DONG; YAN, ZHENG-CUN; ZHANG, NAN; XU, EN-XI

    2014-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of the frontal sinus is quite rare, with an incidence of 0.3–1.0% of all paranasal sinus carcinomas. The early diagnosis is often difficult and the condition is often mistakenly considered to involve mucoceles, pyoceles or osteomyelitis. The present study reports the case of a 66-year-old male with squamous cell carcinoma originating in the frontal sinus. The presenting symptoms were a cutaneous nodule on the left side of the forehead and a gradually progressive headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated erosion of the ethmoid sinus, frontal lobe and orbit. The radical resection under frontal craniotomy was performed followed by post-operative radiotherapy. Six months after the surgery, the MRI examinations did not find any recurrence, and the patient currently lives symptom-free. The present study illustrates that frontal sinus cancer should be diagnosed early with caution. Total surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, used singly or in combination, may result in favorable outcomes. The current study discusses the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the present case and reviews the associated literature to emphasize the importance of an early identification of this rare disease. PMID:24932258

  18. Organic Chemistry of the Cell: An Interdisciplinary Approach To Learning with a Focus on Reading, Analyzing, and Critiquing Primary Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Craig A.; Liotta, Louis J.

    2005-12-01

    A sophomore-level learning community entitled Organic Chemistry of the Cell has been designed that is comprised of two linked courses, Organic Chemistry I and Cell Biology, and an Integrative Seminar. The Integrative Seminar is grounded in the reading, critical analysis, and discussion of primary literature that ties together organic chemistry and cell biology. Each student takes on the roles of learner, facilitator, and research proposal writer throughout the semester. Students take an active role in their learning; student teams lead the class through an in-depth analysis of selected articles. This leadership role requires the students to understand and be familiar with the relevant background knowledge, the experiments conducted, the interpretation of data, and conclusions drawn from that data. The discussion leaders must also be able to organize and prioritize the information and their thoughts, and be able to clearly communicate to their classmates in an engaging manner. The seminar culminates with student teams developing research proposals that outline experiments addressing a specific area of interest on the boundary between organic chemistry and cell biology. The proposals are communicated in both written and oral forms allowing fellow students to evaluate and expand upon the proposed ideas.

  19. Anatomy of Student Models in Adaptive Learning Systems: A Systematic Literature Review of Individual Differences from 2001 to 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakic, Jelena; Granic, Andrina; Glavinic, Vlado

    2015-01-01

    This study brings an evidence-based review of user individual characteristics employed as sources of adaptation in recent adaptive learning systems. Twenty-two user individual characteristics were explored in a systematically designed search procedure, while 17 of them were identified as sources of adaptation in final selection. The content…

  20. The Primary Health Worker, Working Guide, Guidelines for Training, Guidellnes for Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This working guide outlines the structure and content of training for the primary health worker (PHW) on the basis of the most common health problems of communities in developing countries. Part 1 is intended for use by the PHW as a learning text and reference in his work. It covers thirty-four problems considered to be most common which are…

  1. Nalidixic Acid-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Presenting as a Primary Psoas Abscess: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shakespeare, William A.; Davie, Daniel; Tonnerre, Claude; Rubin, Michael A.; Strong, Michael; Petti, Cathy A.

    2005-01-01

    We report an unusual case of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi presenting as a primary psoas abscess. The isolate tested susceptible to ciprofloxacin but resistant to nalidixic acid in vitro, a pattern associated with fluoroquinolone therapeutic failures. We review the literature for serovar Typhi psoas abscess in the absence of bacteremia and discuss the importance of identifying isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMID:15695728

  2. Cognitive and Affective Contributions of the Literature Circles Method on the Acquisition of Reading Habits and Comprehension Skills in Primary Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Suleyman; Yuksel, Arzu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of literature circles on fourth grade primary students' reading habits and comprehension skills and collected the opinions of students and teachers about the method. In this study, quantitative (pre-test and post-test designs) and qualitative (case study) methods were employed together. The study was…

  3. The CREATE Strategy for Intensive Analysis of Primary Literature Can Be Used Effectively by Newly Trained Faculty to Produce Multiple Gains in Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Leslie M.; Hoskins, Sally G.

    2014-01-01

    The CREATE (Consider Read, Elucidate the hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) strategy aims to demystify scientific research and scientists while building critical thinking, reading/analytical skills, and improved science attitudes through intensive analysis of primary literature. CREATE was developed and…

  4. Microbial Biodiversity: Approaches to Experimental Design and Hypothesis Testing in Primary Scientific Literature from 1975 to 1999

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Cindy E.; Bardin, Marc; Berge, Odile; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Fromin, Nathalie; Girardin, Hélène; Guinebretière, Marie-Hélène; Lebaron, Philippe; Thiéry, Jean M.; Troussellier, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Research interest in microbial biodiversity over the past 25 years has increased markedly as microbiologists have become interested in the significance of biodiversity for ecological processes and as the industrial, medical, and agricultural applications of this diversity have evolved. One major challenge for studies of microbial habitats is how to account for the diversity of extremely large and heterogeneous populations with samples that represent only a very small fraction of these populations. This review presents an analysis of the way in which the field of microbial biodiversity has exploited sampling, experimental design, and the process of hypothesis testing to meet this challenge. This review is based on a systematic analysis of 753 publications randomly sampled from the primary scientific literature from 1975 to 1999 concerning the microbial biodiversity of eight habitats related to water, soil, plants, and food. These publications illustrate a dominant and growing interest in questions concerning the effect of specific environmental factors on microbial biodiversity, the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of this biodiversity, and quantitative measures of population structure for most of the habitats covered here. Nevertheless, our analysis reveals that descriptions of sampling strategies or other information concerning the representativeness of the sample are often missing from publications, that there is very limited use of statistical tests of hypotheses, and that only a very few publications report the results of multiple independent tests of hypotheses. Examples are cited of different approaches and constraints to experimental design and hypothesis testing in studies of microbial biodiversity. To prompt a more rigorous approach to unambiguous evaluation of the impact of microbial biodiversity on ecological processes, we present guidelines for reporting information about experimental design, sampling strategies, and analyses of results in

  5. ESPA: EELV secondary payload adapter with whole-spacecraft isolation for primary and secondary payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maly, Joseph R.; Haskett, Scott A.; Wilke, Paul S.; Fowler, E. C.; Sciulli, Dino; Meink, Troy E.

    2000-04-01

    ESPA, the Secondary Payload Adapter for Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles, addresses two of the major problems currently facing the launch industry: the vibration environment of launch vehicles, and the high cost of putting satellites into orbit. (1) During the 1990s, billions of dollars have been lost due to satellite malfunctions, resulting in total or partial mission failure, which can be directly attributed to vibration loads experienced by payloads during launch. Flight data from several recent launches have shown that whole- spacecraft launch isolation is an excellent solution to this problem. (2) Despite growing worldwide interest in small satellites, launch costs continue to hinder the full exploitation of small satellite technology. Many small satellite users are faced with shrinking budgets, limiting the scope of what can be considered an 'affordable' launch opportunity.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of Salicornia europaea under Saline Conditions Revealed the Adaptive Primary Metabolic Pathways as Early Events to Facilitate Salt Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Pengxiang; Nie, Lingling; Jiang, Ping; Feng, Juanjuan; Lv, Sulian; Chen, Xianyang; Bao, Hexigeduleng; Guo, Jie; Tai, Fang; Wang, Jinhui; Jia, Weitao; Li, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    Background Halophytes such as Salicornia europaea have evolved to exhibit unique mechanisms controlled by complex networks and regulated by numerous genes and interactions to adapt to habitats with high salinity. However, these mechanisms remain unknown. Methods To investigate the mechanism by which halophytes tolerate salt based on changes in the whole transcriptome, we performed transcriptome sequencing and functional annotation by database search. Using the unigene database, we conducted digital gene expression analysis of S. europaea at various time points after these materials were treated with NaCl. We also quantified ion uptakes. Gene functional enrichment analysis was performed to determine the important pathways involved in this process. Results A total of 57,151 unigenes with lengths of >300 bp were assembled, in which 57.5% of these unigenes were functionally annotated. Differentially expressed genes indicated that cell wall metabolism and lignin biosynthetic pathways were significantly enriched in S. europaea to promote the development of the xylem under saline conditions. This result is consistent with the increase in sodium uptake as ions pass through the xylem. Given that PSII efficiency remained unaltered, salt treatment activated the expression of electron transfer-related genes encoded by the chloroplast chromosome. Chlorophyll biosynthesis was also inhibited, indicating the energy-efficient state of the electron transfer system of S. europaea. Conclusions The key function of adjusting important primary metabolic pathways in salt adaption was identified by analyzing the changes in the transcriptome of S. europaea. These pathways could involve unique salt tolerance mechanisms in halophytes. This study also provided information as the basis of future investigations on salt response genes in S. europaea. Ample gene resources were also provided to improve the genes responsible for the salt tolerance ability of crops. PMID:24265831

  7. Computer-Adaptive Testing for Students with Disabilities: A Review of the Literature. Research Report. ETS RR-11-32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Elizabeth; Davey, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in developing computer-adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage assessments for K-12 accountability assessments. The move to adaptive testing has been met with some resistance by those in the field of special education who express concern about routing of students with divergent profiles (e.g., some students with…

  8. An adaptive approach to facilitating research productivity in a primary care clinical department.

    PubMed

    Weber-Main, Anne Marie; Finstad, Deborah A; Center, Bruce A; Bland, Carole J

    2013-07-01

    Efforts to foster the growth of a department's or school's research mission can be informed by known correlates of research productivity, but the specific strategies to be adopted will be highly context-dependent, influenced by local, national, and discipline-specific needs and resources. The authors describe a multifaceted approach-informed by a working model of organizational research productivity-by which the University of Minnesota Department of Family Medicine and Community Health (Twin Cities campus) successfully increased its collective research productivity during a 10-year period (1997-2007) and maintained these increases over time.Facing barriers to recruitment of faculty investigators, the department focused instead on nurturing high-potential investigators among their current faculty via a new, centrally coordinated research program, with provision of training, protected time, technical resources, mentoring, and a scholarly culture to support faculty research productivity. Success of these initiatives is documented by the following: substantial increases in the department's external research funding, rise to a sustained top-five ranking based on National Institutes of Health funding to U.S. family medicine departments, later-stage growth in the faculty's publishing record, increased research capacity among the faculty, and a definitive maturation of the department's research mission. The authors offer their perspectives on three apparent drivers of success with broad applicability-namely, effective leadership, systemic culture change, and the self-awareness to adapt to changes in the local, institutional, and national research environment. PMID:23702527

  9. Favorites, Friendships, Food, and Fantasy: Literature-Based Thematic Units for Early Primary. Volume One [and] Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukasevich, Ann; Pieronek, Florence

    Written for teachers who are interested in learning how to use literature to enhance emergent literacy growth, this handbook, in two volumes, focuses on how to implement integrated, literature-based, thematic units that stress the development of effective strategies required of independent, self-directed competent readers and writers. The first…

  10. Overcoming a "probable" diagnosis in antimitochondrial antibody negative primary biliary cirrhosis: study of 100 sera and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Covini, Giovanni; Rosina, Floriano; Muratori, Paolo; Tonutti, Elio; Villalta, Danilo; Pesente, Fiorenza; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Tampoia, Marilina; Antico, Antonio; Platzgummer, Stefan; Porcelli, Brunetta; Terzuoli, Lucia; Liguori, Marco; Bassetti, Danila; Brusca, Ignazio; Almasio, Piero L; Tarantino, Giuseppe; Bonaguri, Chiara; Agostinis, Paolo; Bredi, Elena; Tozzoli, Renato; Invernizzi, Pietro; Selmi, Carlo

    2012-06-01

    Serum anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are the serological hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), yet up to 15% of PBC sera are AMA negative at routine indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) while being referred to as "probable" cases. The diagnostic role of PBC-specific antinuclear antibodies (ANA) remains to be determined. We will report herein data on the accuracy of new laboratory tools for AMA and PBC-specific ANA in a large series of PBC sera that were AMA-negative at IIF. We will also provide a discussion of the history and current status of AMA detection methods. We included IIF AMA-negative PBC sera (n=100) and sera from patients with other chronic liver diseases (n=104) that had been independently tested for IIF AMA and ANA; sera were blindly tested with an ELISA PBC screening test including two ANA (gp210, sp100) and a triple (pMIT3) AMA recombinant antigens. Among IIF AMA-negative sera, 43/100 (43%) manifested reactivity using the PBC screening test. The same test was positive for 6/104 (5.8%) control sera. IIF AMA-negative/PBC screen-positive sera reacted against pMIT3 (11/43), gp210 (8/43), Sp100 (17/43), both pMIT3 and gp210 (1/43), or both pMIT3 and Sp100 (6/43). Concordance rates between the ANA pattern on HEp-2 cells and specific Sp100 and gp210 ELISA results in AMA-negative subjects were 92% for nuclear dots and Sp100 and 99% for nuclear rim and gp210. Our data confirm the hypothesis that a substantial part of IIF AMA-negative (formerly coined "probable") PBC cases manifest disease-specific autoantibodies when tested using newly available tools and thus overcome the previously suggested diagnostic classification. As suggested by the recent literature, we are convinced that the proportion of AMA-negative PBC cases will be significantly minimized by the use of new laboratory methods and recombinant antigens. PMID:21188646

  11. Plasma membrane proteomics in the maize primary root growth zone: novel insights into root growth adaptation to water stress.

    PubMed

    Voothuluru, Priyamvada; Anderson, Jeffrey C; Sharp, Robert E; Peck, Scott C

    2016-09-01

    Previous work on maize (Zea mays L.) primary root growth under water stress showed that cell elongation is maintained in the apical region of the growth zone but progressively inhibited further from the apex. These responses involve spatially differential and coordinated regulation of osmotic adjustment, modification of cell wall extensibility, and other cellular growth processes that are required for root growth under water-stressed conditions. As the interface between the cytoplasm and the apoplast (including the cell wall), the plasma membrane likely plays critical roles in these responses. Using a simplified method for enrichment of plasma membrane proteins, the developmental distribution of plasma membrane proteins was analysed in the growth zone of well-watered and water-stressed maize primary roots. The results identified 432 proteins with differential abundances in well-watered and water-stressed roots. The majority of changes involved region-specific patterns of response, and the identities of the water stress-responsive proteins suggest involvement in diverse biological processes including modification of sugar and nutrient transport, ion homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and cell wall composition. Integration of the distinct, region-specific plasma membrane protein abundance patterns with results from previous physiological, transcriptomic and cell wall proteomic studies reveals novel insights into root growth adaptation to water stress. PMID:27341663

  12. Meeting the Mental Health Needs of Low-Income Immigrants in Primary Care: A Community Adaptation of an Evidence-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Kaltman, Stacey; Pauk, Jennifer; Alter, Carol L.

    2011-01-01

    Low-income, uninsured immigrants are burdened by poverty and a high prevalence of trauma exposure, and thus are vulnerable to mental health problems. Disparities in access to mental health services highlight the importance of adapting evidence-based interventions in primary care settings that serve this population. In 2005, The Montgomery Cares Behavioral Health Program (MCBHP) began adapting and implementing a collaborative care model for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders in a network of primary care clinics that serve low-income, uninsured residents of Montgomery County, Maryland, the majority of whom are immigrants. In its 6th year now, the program has generated much needed knowledge about the adaptation of this evidence-based model. The current article describes the adaptations to the traditional collaborative care model that were necessitated by patient characteristics and the clinic environment. PMID:21977940

  13. Trajectories of Pain and Function after Primary Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: The ADAPT Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lenguerrand, Erik; Wylde, Vikki; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Sayers, Adrian; Brunton, Luke; Beswick, Andrew D.; Dieppe, Paul; Blom, Ashley W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Pain and function improve dramatically in the first three months after hip and knee arthroplasty but the trajectory after three months is less well described. It is also unclear how pre-operative pain and function influence short- and long-term recovery. We explored the trajectory of change in function and pain until and beyond 3-months post-operatively and the influence of pre-operative self-reported symptoms. Methods The study was a prospective cohort study of 164 patients undergoing primary hip (n = 80) or knee (n = 84) arthroplasty in the United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of pain and function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index were collected pre-operatively and at 3 and 12 months post-operatively. Hip and knee arthroplasties were analysed separately, and patients were split into two groups: those with high or low symptoms pre-operatively. Multilevel regression models were used for each outcome (pain and function), and the trajectories of change were charted (0–3 months and 3–12 months). Results Hip: Most improvement occurred within the first 3 months following hip surgery and patients with worse pre-operative scores had greater changes. The mean changes observed between 3 and twelve months were statistically insignificant. One year after surgery, patients with worse pre-operative scores had post-operative outcomes similar to those observed among patients with less severe pre-operative symptoms. Knee: Most improvement occurred in the first 3 months following knee surgery with no significant change thereafter. Despite greater mean change during the first three months, patients with worse pre-operative scores had not ‘caught-up’ with those with less severe pre-operative symptoms 12 months after their surgery. Conclusion Most symptomatic improvement occurred within the first 3 months after surgery with no significant change between 3–12 months. Further investigations are now required to

  14. Non-Diethylstilbestrol-Associated Primary Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Vagina: Two Case Reports with Immunohistochemical Studies and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mufti, Shagufta T.; Ali, Hiba Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Primary clear cell adenocarcinomas most commonly involve the genitourinary system, including the vagina. Previously, primary clear cell adenocarcinomas of the vagina have been discussed within the context of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol. Due to its widely proven role in the development of this carcinoma, administration of diethylstilbestrol is prohibited. We present two cases of non-diethylstilbestrol-associated primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina from the archives of the Anatomical Pathology Department at King Abdulaziz University in order to improve our understanding of its biological behavior. Our findings suggest that primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina may be unrelated to diethylstilbestrol exposure and that non-diethylstilbestrol-associated primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina, when present at a younger age, may have a worse prognosis. PMID:24850989

  15. Using Learning Teams for Reflective Adaptation (ULTRA): Insights From a Team-Based Change Management Strategy in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Chase, Sabrina M.; Nutting, Paul A.; Cohen, Deborah J.; Strickland, Pamela A. Ohman; Crosson, Jesse C.; Miller, William L.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The Using Learning Teams for Reflective Adaptation (ULTRA) study used facilitated reflective adaptive process (RAP) teams to enhance communication and decision making in hopes of improving adherence to multiple clinical guidelines; however, the study failed to show significant clinical improvements. The purpose of this study was to examine qualitative data from 25 intervention practices to understand how they engaged in a team-based collaborative change management strategy and the types of issues they addressed. METHODS We analyzed field notes and interviews from a multimethod practice assessment, as well as field notes and audio-taped recordings from RAP meetings, using an iterative group process and an immersion-crystallization approach. RESULTS Despite a history of not meeting regularly, 18 of 25 practices successfully convened improvement teams. There was evidence of improved practice-wide communication in 12 of these practices. At follow-up, 8 practices continued RAP meetings and found the process valuable in problem solving and decision making. Seven practices failed to engage in RAP primarily because of key leaders dominating the meeting agenda or staff members hesitating to speak up in meetings. Although the number of improvement targets varied considerably, most RAP teams targeted patient care-related issues or practice-level organizational improvement issues. Not a single practice focused on adherence to clinical care guidelines. CONCLUSION Primary care practices can successfully engage in facilitated team meetings; however, leaders must be engaged in the process. Additional strategies are needed to engage practice leaders, particularly physicians, and to target issues related to guideline adherence. PMID:20843884

  16. Multiple primary Ewing's sarcomas in cerebral cranium of a child: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Guo, Zongze

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common pediatric bone tumor. Primary Ewing's sarcoma occurring in the cerebral cranium is exceptionally rare, with only one reported case of multiple tumor lesions in adolescence to date. We report a case of a 5-year-old male patient with multiple primary Ewing's sarcomas associated with the cranial bones, the first pediatric case report to date. We also review 71 cases Ewing's sarcoma involving intracranial extension. The purpose of this article is to provide data concerning the clinical and therapeutic course of multiple primary Ewing's sarcomas in associated with cerebral cranium. PMID:26261672

  17. Mutation status concordance between primary lesions and metastatic sites of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and the impact of mutation testing methodologies: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, James; Dearden, Simon; Ratcliffe, Marianne; Walker, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Increased understanding of the genetic aetiology of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) has facilitated personalised therapies that target specific molecular aberrations associated with the disease. Biopsy samples for mutation testing may be taken from primary or metastatic sites, depending on which sample is most accessible, and upon differing diagnostic practices between territories. However, the mutation status concordance between primary tumours and corresponding metastases is the subject of debate. This review aims to ascertain whether molecular diagnostic testing of either the primary or metastatic tumours is equally suitable to determine patient eligibility for targeted therapies. A literature search was performed to identify articles reporting studies of mutations in matched primary and metastatic aNSCLC tumour samples. Clinical results of mutation status concordance between matched primary and metastatic tumour samples from patients with aNSCLC were collated. Articles included in this review (N =26) all reported mutation status data from matched primary and metastatic tumour samples obtained from adult patients with aNSCLC. Generally, substantial concordance was observed between primary and metastatic tumours in terms of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, p16 and p53 mutations. However, some level of discordance was seen in most studies; mutation testing methodologies appeared to play a key role in this, along with underlying tumour heterogeneity. Substantial concordance in mutation status observed between primary and metastatic tumour sites suggests that diagnostic testing of either tumour type may be suitable to determine a patient's eligibility for personalised therapies. As with all diagnostic testing, highly sensitive and appropriately validated mutation analysis methodologies are desirable to ensure accuracy. Additional work is also required to define how much discordance is clinically significant given natural tumour heterogeneity. The ability of both

  18. English Language and Literature in the Post-War Bosnia and Herzegovina: Challenges and Experiences of a Transcultural Academic Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an account of the author's firsthand experiences between 2006 and 2010, relating to his involvement in the establishment of the English Language and Literature department at the International University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and of the difficulties and challenges of the venture in the post-war country, whose…

  19. Teachers' Understandings of Curriculum Adaptations for Learners with Learning Difficulties in Primary Schools in Botswana: Issues and Challenges of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otukile-Mongwaketse, Mpho; Mangope, Boitumelo; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2016-01-01

    This paper derives from research carried out in a number of Botswana primary schools on teachers' understanding of curriculum adaptations for learners who experience learning difficulties (LD) as part of implementing inclusive education. Teachers' understanding play a crucial role in how they make curriculum accessible for learners with LD during…

  20. Collision tumor consisting of primary follicular lymphoma and adenocarcinoma in the cecum: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    KUS, TULAY; AKTAS, GOKMEN; KALENDER, MEHMET EMIN; SARI, IBRAHIM; ULKER, ESRA; CAMCI, CELALETDIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the case of a collision tumor consisting of follicular lymphoma (FL) and adenocarcinoma in the cecum of a 73-year-old man. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the 11th case of a collision tumor consisting of colon adenocarcinoma and lymphoma to be reported in the literature, and the first case of cecum adenocarcinoma with low grade FL in the same segment of the cecum and the same regional lymph node to be reported. The present study reviewed the literature to determine treatment options for patients with collision tumors. The present patient was administered with adjuvant chemotherapy for T3N1M0 colon cancer following surgery, due to the dominance of colon adenocarcinoma in the collision tumor. Following the completion of treatment, progression of the untreated FL was observed. In the literature, patients with collision tumors are administered with chemotherapy for stage IV FL, and following the completion of treatment patients have presented with a recurrence of early stage colon adenocarcinoma. The recommended treatment for collision tumors is dependent on the dominant tumor; however, the treatment options for collision tumors in the literature appeared to exacerbate the other tumor. The characteristics of the tumors altered following chemotherapy, and immunological alterations in the tumors due to chemotherapy appear to have contributed to the exacerbation of the tumors. Therefore, patients with early-stage tumors should be considered at risk of recurrence of other malignancies, which are present in collision tumors. PMID:27073555

  1. Teaching the Fundamentals of Biological Research with Primary Literature: Learning from the Discovery of the Gastric Proton Pump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    For the purpose of teaching collegians the fundamentals of biological research, literature explaining the discovery of the gastric proton pump was presented in a 50-min lecture. The presentation included detailed information pertaining to the discovery process. This study was chosen because it demonstrates the importance of having a broad range of…

  2. Simultaneous double primary clear cell carcinomas of liver and kidney: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Yan-Xia; Lu, Qing; Yu, Wen-Juan; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yu-Lin; Zhao, Hui; Zhuang, Jie; Li, Yu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein are simultaneous double primary clear cell carcinomas arising from liver and kidney. A 63-year-old man underwent a partial wedge nephrectomy of the right kidney in a surgical resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. Coincidently, on histology the tumors in liver and kidney were consisted of clear cancer cells, which arranged in haphazardly intermixed pattern without capsules. Immunohistochemically, the clear neoplastic cells in the liver were positive for HepPar-1, GPC3, and negative for nephrogenic markers; however, renal clear neoplastic cells were positive for CD10, RCC and Pax-8, but negative to liver-derived markers. These findings led to the diagnosis of simultaneous double primary clear cell carcinomas of kidney and liver. Multiple primary carcinomas of kidney and liver, especially both are primary clear cell carcinomas, are extremely rare neoplasms, only 1 case has been reported previously until now. To our knowledge, this is a report of multiple primary carcinomas arising from the liver and kidney and reminders us of differentiation diagnosis with carcinoma metastasis. PMID:25755808

  3. Primary intraosseous atypical inflammatory meningioma presenting as a lytic skull lesion: Case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bohara, Sangita; Agarwal, Swapnil; Khurana, Nita; Pandey, P N

    2016-01-01

    Primary extradural meningiomas of the skull comprise 1% of all meningiomas, and lytic skull meningiomas are still rarer and are said to be more aggressive. We present a case of 38-year-old male with an extradural tumor which on histopathological examination showed features of inflammatory atypical meningioma (WHO Grade II). The intense inflammatory nature of osteolytic primary intraosseous meningioma has not been reported before. This entity deserves special mention because of the need for adjuvant therapy and proper follow-up. PMID:27510685

  4. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the urethral diverticulum mimicking prostate cancer: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Yildirim, Zubeyde; Bayol, Umit; Diniz, Gulden; Karaca, Cezmi; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2015-01-01

    Primary urethral carcinomas are uncommon, with urothelial carcinoma as the most common subtype. Urethral diverticulum is also rarely seen in men. A 44-year-old male presented with voiding symptoms. Abdominoperineal resection, prostatectomy, bladder neck excision, and proximal urethral excision were performed. A pathological examination revealed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) located inside an urethral diverticulum. We report this unusual case because primary SCC of the male urethral diverticulum is extremely rare. To our knowledge, our patient is only the second reported case. PMID:26029309

  5. Determinate primary root growth as an adaptation to aridity in Cactaceae: towards an understanding of the evolution and genetic control of the trait

    PubMed Central

    Shishkova, Svetlana; Las Peñas, María Laura; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Matvienko, Marta; Kozik, Alex; Montiel, Jesús; Patiño, Anallely; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Species of Cactaceae are well adapted to arid habitats. Determinate growth of the primary root, which involves early and complete root apical meristem (RAM) exhaustion and differentiation of cells at the root tip, has been reported for some Cactoideae species as a root adaptation to aridity. In this study, the primary root growth patterns of Cactaceae taxa from diverse habitats are classified as being determinate or indeterminate, and the molecular mechanisms underlying RAM maintenance in Cactaceae are explored. Genes that were induced in the primary root of Stenocereus gummosus before RAM exhaustion are identified. Methods Primary root growth was analysed in Cactaceae seedlings cultivated in vertically oriented Petri dishes. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified after reverse northern blots of clones from a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library. Key Results All species analysed from six tribes of the Cactoideae subfamily that inhabit arid and semi-arid regions exhibited determinate primary root growth. However, species from the Hylocereeae tribe, which inhabit mesic regions, exhibited mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Preliminary results suggest that seedlings of members of the Opuntioideae subfamily have mostly determinate primary root growth, whereas those of the Maihuenioideae and Pereskioideae subfamilies have mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Seven selected transcripts encoding homologues of heat stress transcription factor B4, histone deacetylase, fibrillarin, phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase, cytochrome P450 and gibberellin-regulated protein were upregulated in S. gummosus root tips during the initial growth phase. Conclusions Primary root growth in Cactoideae species matches their environment. The data imply that determinate growth of the primary root became fixed after separation of the Cactiodeae/Opuntioideae and Maihuenioideae/Pereskioideae lineages, and that the genetic regulation of

  6. Successful Chemo-Radiotherapy for Primary Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma of the Lung: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qian; Liu, Yongmei; Chen, Huijiao; Zhang, Yan; Du, Zedong; Wang, Jin; Wang, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 39 Final Diagnosis: Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the lung Symptoms: Hemoptysis • palpitation • shortness of breath Medication: Cyclophosphamide • Doxorubicin • Vincristine • Prednisone Clinical Procedure: Chemoradiotherapy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) of the lung is an extremely rare disease. This disease is a great challenge for pneumologists due to its nonspecific clinical presentations and radiological findings. Appropriate invasive biopsy and immunohistochemistry are important for diagnosis. There is currently no standard treatment. Case Report: We report a very rare case of primary pulmonary ALCL in a 39-year-old man. The clinical features, imaging, pathological findings, treatment outcomes, and prognosis, are described. Successful treatment outcomes were achieved after 6 cycles of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) chemotherapy followed by involved field radiotherapy of 54Gy/27f. The patient was disease-free after follow-up for 65 months. Conclusions: Our study found that chemotherapy (such as CHOP) is recognized as the first-line regimen for primary ALCL of the lung. For patients with dyspnea caused by a mass blocking the main bronchus, chemoradiotherapy may be a reasonable therapeutic option. The prognosis is better for patients with positive ALK staining. CD56(+), age older than 60 years, Ann Arbor stage III or IV, survivin expression, PS>2, and high serum LDH level and IPI scores are the poor prognostic factors of ALCL. PMID:26852792

  7. Primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma as content of an incarcerated umbilical hernia: A case-report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Varga-Szabó, D.; Papadakis, M.; Pröpper, S.; Zirngibl, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Umbilical hernia is a common finding in many cases, posing potentially life-threatening complications, such as incarceration or strangulation. The presence of malignancy in hernia sacs is, however, rather rare. Presentation of case Here we report on a case of primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma found through histological examination of omental tissue, resected due to an incarcerated umbilical hernia of an 84-years-old woman. There was no macroscopic sign of malignancy during operation; only after routine examination of histological sections the diagnosis was found. Discussion To our knowledge this is the first report of primary peritoneal cancer as content of an umbilical hernia. This is a rare neoplasm and histologically identical to epithelial ovarian carcinoma. For this reason, the diagnosis is usually based on the histological finding and exclusion of a primary ovarian tumor. Primary peritoneal cancer has a poor outcome in general. Early diagnosis is, therefore, essential for effective treatment. Conclusion Histological analysis of resected hernia sac or content should be performed routinely to discover malignant diseases in the background of a hernia. PMID:26748210

  8. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A literature study and critical review of the American National Science Education Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alake-Tuenter, Ester; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Tobi, Hilde; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Oosterheert, Ida; Mulder, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils' application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach inquiry-based science. Our purpose is to develop a profile of professional competence, required for effective inquiry-based science teaching in primary schools in the Netherlands. This article reviews literature and compares the outcomes to the American National Science Education Standards (NSES). In so doing, it seeks to answer the following research questions: What elements of competencies required by primary school teachers who teach inquiry-based science are mentioned, discussed and researched in recent literature? To what extent are the American NSES (introduced 15 years ago) consistent with elements of competencies found in recent literature? A comprehensive literature review was conducted using Educational Resources Information Centre and Google Scholar databases. Fifty-seven peer-reviewed scientific journal articles from 2004 to 2011 were found using keyword combinations. Analysis of these articles resulted in the identification and classification of 22 elements of competencies. This outcome was compared to the American NSES, revealing gaps in the standards with respect to a lack of focus on how teachers view science teaching and themselves as teachers. We also found that elements of competencies are connected and poor mastery of one may affect a teacher's mastery of another. Therefore, we propose that standards for the Netherlands should be presented in a non-linear, holistic, competence-based model.

  9. Nephron sparing endoscopic treatment for primary carcinoma of the renal calyx: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QI; OU, TONG-WEN; XU, JIA-WEI; LI, JIN; BORAZJANI, ALI; JIA, CHUN-SONG; WANG, XU; YAN, HAO

    2016-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of the renal calyx is extremely rare. The present study reported nephron sparing endoscopic treatment for primary carcinoma of the renal calyx. An 81-year-old female presented with a 1-year history of intermittent painless gross hematuria. Computed tomography and X-ray of the urinary tract were unable to definitively identify any lesion. Flexible ureteroscopic examination revealed a tumor with epicenter in the lower calyx of the right kidney, with additional involvement around the calyx. Biopsies were obtained and pathology revealed low-grade urothelial carcinoma. Considering additional co-morbidities, the patient elected to undergo endoscopic management with thulium laser. The present report described the feasibility of flexible ureteroscopic thulium laser resection for the treatment of renal calyx carcinoma. PMID:27330785

  10. Pyoderma Vegetans: A Case Report in a Child Suspected to Primary Immunodeficiency and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Mahboubeh; Rakhshan, Azadeh; Shahidi-Dadras, Mohammad; Karimi, Abdollah; Alavi, Samin

    2015-01-01

    Pyoderma vegetans (PV) is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by vegetating pustules and plaques affecting the skin and mucosal membranes. It is believed that this entity is mostly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic malnutrition, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malignancies, and other immunocompromised states. Pyoderma vegetans occurs more commonly in young and middle-aged adults. There is no sex predilection for this entity. The lesions could heal spontaneously, but usually recur and become chronic. Our patient was an 11-year-old girl suspected to have primary combined immunodeficiency complicated by chronic recurrent vegetating pustular lesions on the face and postauricular area since one year of age. The histological features of the lesions were consistent with pyoderma vegetans. This is the first case of PV beginning from early infancy in the setting of primary immunodeficiency and in an unusual location. PMID:26170528

  11. Pyoderma Vegetans: A Case Report in a Child Suspected to Primary Immunodeficiency and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mahboubeh; Rakhshan, Azadeh; Shahidi-Dadras, Mohammad; Karimi, Abdollah; Alavi, Samin

    2015-07-01

    Pyoderma vegetans (PV) is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by vegetating pustules and plaques affecting the skin and mucosal membranes. It is believed that this entity is mostly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic malnutrition, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malignancies, and other immunocompromised states. Pyoderma vegetans occurs more commonly in young and middle-aged adults. There is no sex predilection for this entity. The lesions could heal spontaneously, but usually recur and become chronic. Our patient was an 11-year-old girl suspected to have primary combined immunodeficiency complicated by chronic recurrent vegetating pustular lesions on the face and postauricular area since one year of age. The histological features of the lesions were consistent with pyoderma vegetans. This is the first case of PV beginning from early infancy in the setting of primary immunodeficiency and in an unusual location. PMID:26170528

  12. Clinical Considerations for Insulin Pharmacotherapy in Ambulatory Care, Part Two: Review of Primary Literature and an Evidence-Based Approach for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Maria Miller; Bourg, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    IN BRIEF This article reinforces the dosing guidance from the package inserts of available insulin products and supplemental information provided by the manufacturers of insulin products. It reviews and evaluates pertinent primary literature detailing algorithms for the initiation and titration of insulin therapy that have helped to shape current clinical practice guidelines. The article discusses the clinical applicability of the evidence on insulin pharmacotherapy and offers recommendations for initiation and titration of various insulin products for insulin-requiring people with type 2 diabetes in the ambulatory care setting. PMID:25653469

  13. Primary Stenting of Focal Atherosclerotic Infrarenal Aortic Stenoses: Long-Term Results in 13 Patients and a Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Saim Sindel, Timur; Yegin, Arif; Erdogan, Abdullah; Lueleci, Ersin

    2004-03-15

    We conducted this study to investigate the value of primary stent implantation for the endovascular treatment of focal atherosclerotic stenoses of the infrarenal abdominal aorta. The data of 13 patients with a localized complex infrarenal aortic stenosis who underwent primary stenting was retrospectively evaluated. The patients (6 females, 7 males) had a mean age of 57.3 {+-} 9.1 years (mean {+-} SD). In all patients, the aortic diameter was measured on CT sections, and a self-expanding endoprosthesis was primarily implanted followed by dilatation with single or double balloons. In 3 patients, additional distal stenoses were also endovascularly treated. The procedure was technically successful in all patients. No complications occurred except for 2 minor groin hematomas. During the 43 {+-} 23 months (mean {+-} SD) follow-up (range: 12-96 months), all stented aortic segments remained patent. Clinical patency was lost in 4 patients, which was due to atherosclerosis or restenosis distal to the aorta. In view of the excellent early and long-term results, we believe that primary stenting should be considered the first line treatment in properly selected patients with focal atherosclerotic infrarenal stenoses of the abdominal aorta.

  14. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in pre-existing keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    BAI, MING-RU; SHEN, TING; CHEN, YU; GENG, NING

    2016-01-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) is a rare type of odontogenic carcinoma that arises within the jaws. PIOSCC has no initial connection with oral mucosa and possibly develops from the residues of the odontogenic epithelium or from an odontogenic cyst or tumor. The diagnosis of PIOSCC can be difficult as it must be differentiated from other odontogenic carcinomas, such as malignant ameloblastoma, from SCCs arising from the overlying oral mucosa, from the primary tumors of the maxillary sinus or nasal mucosa, and from the tumors that have metastasized to the jaws from other primary sites. The present study reported a rare case of a 59-year-old male patient with a course of keratocystic odontogenic tumor for 25 years, between 1988 and 2013, which eventually transformed into PIOSCC after at least five recurrences and corresponding treatments. The mandible excision and titanium plate reconstruction was performed. Follow-up examinations have revealed no sign of recurrence thus far. The present study discussed this case from three aspects of clinical history, radiological examination and pathological features. PMID:26893858

  15. Oceanic primary production: 1. Adaptation of a spectral light-photosynthesis model in view of application to satellite chlorophyll observations

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, D.; Morel, A.

    1996-03-01

    This study was performed with two purposes: (1) to develop a method to calculate the cross section for photosynthesis per unit of chlorophyll (psi*), based on standard values for physiological parameters controlling the photosynthetic response of algae; and (2) to perform a sensitivity analysis of the impact of deviations in these parameters. A spectral light-photosynthesis model was used to generate psi* lookup tables for well-mixed or stratified upper layers with uniform or non-uniform chlorophyll vertical profiles. The tables contain values for psi*, the photosynthetically available radiation impinging at the sea surface, the column-integrated chlorphyll content, and the product of these values, the primary production (P) from the chlorophyll concentration. It was numerically verified that linear interpolations provide psi* and P values that are accurate within less than 2% compared to values computed for the specified conditions. Sensitivity analyses made in reference to the lookup tables included the effects of biomass vertical structure, possible light and temperature adaptation, and the presence of degraded pigments. The parameters were arranged in increasing order of their impact on psi* and then on P as follows: (1) the shape of the absorption spectrum of algae in correspondence with a change in dominant species has a minor effect, (2) a similar conclusion applies to inhibition, (3) ignoring or accounting for the nonuniformity of the vertical algal distribution produces serious deviations in the value of psi*, (4) the influence of the scaling irradiance is severe, and (5) the bulk maximum efficiency and the pigment activity index are crucial parameters. 55 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Primary Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults as a Risk Factor for Pulmonary Embolism: An Up-to-Date Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Ali, Alaa M.; Barbaryan, Aram; Prueksaritanond, Suartcha; Hussain, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Patients with nephrotic syndrome are at an increased risk for thrombotic events; deep venous thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism are quite common in patients with nephrotic syndrome. It is important to note that nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy may impose a greater thrombotic risk for unclear reasons. Increased platelet activation, enhanced red blood cell aggregation, and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors are thought to underlie the excessive thrombotic risk in patients with nephrotic syndrome. The current scientific literature suggests that patients with low serum albumin levels and membranous nephropathy may benefit from primary prophylactic anticoagulation. A thorough approach which includes accounting for all additional thrombotic risk factors is, therefore, essential. Patient counseling regarding the pros and cons of anticoagulation is of paramount importance. Future prospective randomized studies should address the question regarding the utility of primary thromboprophylaxis in patients with nephrotic syndrome. PMID:24829800

  17. Primary intestinal mold infection in children with solid tumors: a case report in an adolescent with Ewing sarcoma, and literature review.

    PubMed

    Naselli, Aldo; Garaventa, Alberto; Buffa, Piero; Granata, Claudio; Bandettini, Roberto; Cangemi, Giuliana; Moscatelli, Andrea; Castagnola, Elio

    2016-09-01

    We report a case of primary intestinal infection due to filamentous fungi in an adolescent with Ewing sarcoma. The clinical picture was that of peritonitis secondary to intestinal perforation and the diagnosis was established only on histopathological bases. This condition is very rare, and only one case of primary intestinal mold infection in children with solid tumors has been reported in the literature, although more records can be found describing similar conditions in other cancer patient populations (i.e. adults with solid tumors or children with hematological malignancies or patients receiving hemopoietic stem cell transplant). Clinicians must be aware of this possibility since only an aggressive medical and surgical approach can improve patients' prognosis. PMID:27602424

  18. Towards a Mastery Understanding of Critical Reading in Biology: The Use of Highlighting by Students to Assess Their Value Judgment of the Importance of Primary Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mark; Rinaldo, Vince

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of critical reading styles of freshmen and senior biology students was compared to that of biology faculty members through the use of highlighting a primary research article. Sentence-by-sentence comparisons were made within each group and the data were analyzed; the composite picture from each group was then compared to the other groups. There appears to be a close agreement of what is deemed important content as judged by faculty but less agreement by seniors and even less agreement by freshmen regarding the value of each line of the text. The results imply that experts in a field appear able to discriminate what is important and valuable in the primary literature and that the novice appears to develop some degree of scientific literacy during his or her undergraduate career. PMID:23653801

  19. Does remnant gastric cancer really differ from primary gastric cancer? A systematic review of the literature by the Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Haga, Yoshio; Oba, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Remnant gastric cancer, most frequently defined as cancer detected in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for benign disease and those cases after surgery of gastric cancer at least 5 years after the primary surgery, is often reported as a tumor with poor prognosis. The Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association for Research Promotion evaluated the clinical impact of remnant gastric cancer by systematically reviewing publications focusing on molecular carcinogenesis, lymph node status, patient survival, and surgical complications. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "remnant," "stomach," and "cancer," revealing 1154 relevant reports published up to the end of December 2014. The mean interval between the initial surgery and the diagnosis of remnant gastric cancer ranged from 10 to 30 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases at the splenic hilum for remnant gastric cancer is not significantly higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer. Lymph node involvement in the jejunal mesentery is a phenomenon peculiar to remnant gastric cancer after Billroth II reconstruction. Prognosis and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates seem to be comparable to those for primary proximal gastric cancer. The crude 5-year mortality for remnant gastric cancer was 1.08 times higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, although no prospective cohort study has yet evaluated the clinical significance of remnant gastric cancer, our literature review suggests that remnant gastric cancer does not adversely affect patient prognosis and postoperative course. PMID:26667370

  20. Congenital anomalies of the genitourinary system can help in diagnosis of the primary site of metastatic cancer: a case report and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Deptala, Andrzej; Romanowicz, Agnieszka; Czerw, Aleksandra; Walecki, Jerzy; Rogowski, Wojciech; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze whether the presence of congenital anomalies of the genitourinary system that are accompanied by specific types of cancer and predispose patients to many complications, including infection, obstruction, stasis, calculus formation, and impaired renal function, could help in the diagnosis of the primary site of a metastatic tumor. Case presentation We report a case of a 58-year-old man with metastatic adenocarcinoma, in whom congenital anomalies of the genitourinary system proved helpful for the diagnosis of the primary site of cancer originating in the seminal vesicles. Conclusion We report an extremely rare case of primary adenocarcinoma arising probably from the left seminal vesicle associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis. The lesion was detected on ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computed tomography and confirmed histologically with ultrasound-guided biopsy. Serum markers, ie, CA19-9 and CA125, were elevated, while prostate-specific antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen were within normal limits. Such a constellation of markers strengthened the diagnosis. Our patient unfortunately presented very late in the course of the disease. Hence, we decided to initiate antiandrogen therapy and best supportive care in a hospice setting. Only early detection seems to be the key factor that may result in improved cure rates for cancer of the seminal vesicles. We also performed a literature search for current concepts related to the diagnosis and clinical management of primary adenocarcinoma of seminal vesicles. PMID:27499637

  1. Primary intracranial neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome: A rare and complicated case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    LIU, HAILONG; ZHANG, MINGSHAN; WANG, XUAN; QU, YANMING; ZHANG, HONGWEI; YU, CHUNJIANG

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome are frequent in adult patients. However, primary intracranial NETs, exhibiting immunonegativity for ACTH, high serum ACTH level and treated with anterior skull base reconstruction, are rare and complicated. We herein present a case of a primary intracranial NET immunonegative for ACTH, resulting in ectopic ACTH syndrome. A 40-year-old woman presented with intermittent rhinorrhea, rapid weight gain, polydipsia, polyuria, hypertension, dimness, bilateral exophthalmus, diminution of vision in the left eye and pigmentation of the skin of the face and trunk. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a sizeable enhancing tumor in the anterior cranial fossa, which infiltrated the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses bilaterally, the left maxillary sinus and the nasal cavity. Abdominal CT scans revealed bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. The biochemical findings included hypokalemia and high glucose, cortisol, plasma ACTH, 24-h urinary free cortisol and testosterone levels. The neoplasm was exposed through a right frontal craniotomy, while anterior skull base reconstruction was performed during surgery. The intracranial surgery achieved gross removal of the tumor; however, part of the tumor remained in the nasal cavity. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of a low-grade small-cell NET, exhibiting immunonegativity for ACTH. A postoperative abdominal CT scan demonstrated bilateral regression of the adrenal gland hyperplasia and the serum ACTH level returned to normal after 16 days. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of primary intracranial NETs, immunohistochemically negative for ACTH, resulting in ectopic ACTH syndrome. PMID:27330775

  2. Examine the patient not the hernia: identification of an asymptomatic giant primary retroperitoneal pseudocyst. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Karim, Lawen; Larkin, David; Sadat, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old man with a giant right-sided retroperitoneal pseudocyst, confirmed histologically after resection to be benign with appearances dissimilar to pancreatic and adrenal tissue. The cyst was noted incidentally on table at the time of laparoscopic surgery. Retroperitoneal pseudocysts most commonly arise from the pancreas and adrenal glands occurring as a result of an inflammatory process. Primary retroperitoneal pseudocysts are a rare entity. This case highlights the importance of examining the patient thoroughly and not focusing on the obvious. The mass was not palpated on initial review prior to listing for surgery, and the patient was asymptomatic from the mass. PMID:27190202

  3. Recurrent Primary Angiosarcoma of the Breast Presenting as Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chowdary, Prashanth Basappa; Sadashivaiah, Shivaswamy Badanaval

    2016-01-01

    Angiosarcoma of the breast is an unusual tumour. The diagnosis of this condition is difficult clinically, pathologically and radiologically. Treatment includes surgery followed by chemoradiation. The tumour is notorious for its recurrence and is generally associated with poor prognosis. Kasabach-Merritt syndrome also is a very rare entity seen primarily in infants with vascular malformations and carries a poor prognosis. In this report, the authors describe a patient with recurrent primary angiosarcoma of the breast, which presented as Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. PMID:27042570

  4. Examine the patient not the hernia: identification of an asymptomatic giant primary retroperitoneal pseudocyst. A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Lawen; Larkin, David; Sadat, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old man with a giant right-sided retroperitoneal pseudocyst, confirmed histologically after resection to be benign with appearances dissimilar to pancreatic and adrenal tissue. The cyst was noted incidentally on table at the time of laparoscopic surgery. Retroperitoneal pseudocysts most commonly arise from the pancreas and adrenal glands occurring as a result of an inflammatory process. Primary retroperitoneal pseudocysts are a rare entity. This case highlights the importance of examining the patient thoroughly and not focusing on the obvious. The mass was not palpated on initial review prior to listing for surgery, and the patient was asymptomatic from the mass. PMID:27190202

  5. Cutaneous Metastases of the Synchronous Primary Endometrial and Bilateral Ovarian Cancer: An Infrequent Presentation and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kanyilmaz, Gul; Aktan, Meryem; Koc, Mehmet; Findik, Siddika

    2016-01-01

    There are limited data about the cutaneous metastases of gynecological malignancies in the literature. Based on this limited number of studies, cutaneous metastases from gynecological malignancies are uncommon occurrences. Cutaneous metastases from the synchronous endometrioid carcinoma of the uterine corpus and bilateral ovaries arising from endometriosis are extremely rare. Herein, we report a 51-year-old woman with FIGO Stage 1A Grade 1 endometrial endometrioid-type adenocarcinoma and synchronous bilateral Stage 1B ovarian endometrioid-type adenocarcinoma who presented 34 months following total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with skin metastases. After the patient underwent an excisional biopsy, we applied a palliative radiotherapy. The patient received the combination therapy with cisplatin and doxorubicin after the completion of radiotherapy but the disease evolution was rapidly fatal and the patient died 4 months after her admission to our department due to widely disseminated disease. PMID:27597911

  6. Cesium removal from liquid acidic wastes with the primary focus on ammonium molybdophosphate as an ion exchanger: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    Many articles have been written concerning the selective removal of cesium from both acidic and alkaline defense wastes. The majority of the work performed for cesium removal from defense wastes involves alkaline feed solutions. Several different techniques for cesium removal from acidic solutions have been evaluated such as precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion exchange. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review various techniques for cesium removal from acidic solutions. The main focus of the review will be on ion exchange techniques, particularly those involving ammonium molybdophosphate as the exchanger. The pertinent literature sources are condensed into a single document for quick reference. The information contained in this document was used as an aid in determining techniques to evaluate cesium removal from the acidic Idaho Chemical Processing Plant waste matrices. 47 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Cutaneous Metastases of the Synchronous Primary Endometrial and Bilateral Ovarian Cancer: An Infrequent Presentation and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Mehmet; Findik, Siddika

    2016-01-01

    There are limited data about the cutaneous metastases of gynecological malignancies in the literature. Based on this limited number of studies, cutaneous metastases from gynecological malignancies are uncommon occurrences. Cutaneous metastases from the synchronous endometrioid carcinoma of the uterine corpus and bilateral ovaries arising from endometriosis are extremely rare. Herein, we report a 51-year-old woman with FIGO Stage 1A Grade 1 endometrial endometrioid-type adenocarcinoma and synchronous bilateral Stage 1B ovarian endometrioid-type adenocarcinoma who presented 34 months following total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with skin metastases. After the patient underwent an excisional biopsy, we applied a palliative radiotherapy. The patient received the combination therapy with cisplatin and doxorubicin after the completion of radiotherapy but the disease evolution was rapidly fatal and the patient died 4 months after her admission to our department due to widely disseminated disease. PMID:27597911

  8. Primary central nervous system vasculitis preceded by granulomatous hypophysitis: Case report with a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Meng; Steele, William J.; Baskin, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is an idiopathic inflammatory process that selectively affects CNS vasculature without a systemic inflammatory response, and causes luminal obstruction with resultant ischemia of recipient tissue. Its varying clinical symptoms and signs depend on the caliber of vessels involved and distribution and location of the affected structures. Granulomatous hypophysitis (GH) is an autoimmune inflammatory process typically affecting women, and usually presents with hypopituitarism, and at times, diabetes insipidus, and/or visual loss. Both entities are rare CNS diseases, which, to our knowledge, have never been previously reported in the same patient. Case Description: We present a unique case of chronic progressive primary CNS vasculitis causing limbic encephalopathy in a 30-year-old male with only a history of medication-controlled hypertension. He initially presented 4 months prior with nonspecific neurological complaints and was found to have a homogenously enhancing and enlarged pituitary, which was biopsy proven to be GH. Conclusion: This rather unique presentation highlights the need to maintain a high index of suspicion for underlying PCNS vasculitis in a patient who does not fit the typical demographic for isolated GH. PMID:26539311

  9. Primary Hyperparathyroidism and Hyperthyroidism in a Patient with Myotonic Dystrophy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cherif, Yosra; Zantour, Baha; Alaya, Wafa; Berriche, Olfa; Younes, Samia; Sfar, Mohamed Habib

    2015-01-01

    Various endocrine manifestations are commonly described in myotonic dystrophy (MD), including primary hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus, and thyroid and parathyroid dysfunction. We describe a 46-year-old woman with a family history of MD with her son. She was diagnosed with cardiac arrhythmia and required the implantation of a pacemaker. She was noted to have a bilateral cataract. She complained of muscle weakness, diffuse myalgia, and palpitation. The electromyography (EMG) showed myotonic discharges. Laboratory tests showed high serum calcium 2.83 mmol/L, serum phosphate 1.2 mmol/L, parathormone 362.5 pg/mL, thyroid stimulating hormone TSH 0.02 mIU/L (normal range: 0.34–5.6 mIU/L), FT4 21.17 ng/mL, and negative anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies. Cervical ultrasound revealed a multinodular goiter. The 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy localized a lower right parathyroid adenoma. The clinical data, the family history of MD, EMG data, and endocrine disturbances were strongly suggestive of MD associated with hyperthyroidism and primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26175917

  10. Primary Myelofibrosis Presenting as Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Transplanted Liver Graft: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mohyuddin, Ghulam Rehman; Yacoub, Abdulraheem

    2016-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) commonly results in extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) in the spleen and liver as well as a variety of other organs. We present a first report of a unique presentation of PMF in a liver transplant recipient patient as EMH in the transplanted liver graft. A 76-year-old man with history of cryptogenic cirrhosis received cadaveric liver transplantation in 1996. He maintained a normal graft function and stable hematologic parameters until 2013 when he presented with anemia and progressive fatigue. Extensive work-up did not identify the etiology of the recent decline in his hemoglobin; thus a liver biopsy was done which showed findings of EMH within the sinusoids with increased megakaryocytes, some with atypical morphology. A BM biopsy revealed a hypercellular marrow, moderately increased reticulin fibrosis, and features consistent with primary myelofibrosis. Abdominal imaging showed a normal-size spleen and did not identify any sites of EMH outside of the liver. The diagnosis of myelofibrosis was thus made, and this case demonstrated predominant tropism to a transplanted liver graft with absence of EMH elsewhere. We would thus like to emphasize that findings of EMH in subjects with no preexisting hematologic neoplasm should warrant close follow-up and assessment. PMID:26885416

  11. Primary osteolytic intraosseous atypical meningioma with soft tissue and dural invasion: report of a case and review of literatures.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Koo

    2014-12-01

    Primary intraosseous meningioma is a rare tumor, and atypical pathologic components both osteolytic lesion and dura and soft tissue invasion is extremely rare. A 65-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of a soft mass on the right frontal area. MR imaging revealed a 4 cm sized, multilobulated, strongly-enhancing lesion on the right frontal bone, and CT showed a destructive skull lesion. The mass was adhered tightly to the scalp and dura mater, and it extended to some part of the outer and inner dural layers without brain invasion. The extradural mass and soft tissue mass were totally removed simultaneously and we reconstructed the calvarial defect with artificial bone material. The pathological study revealed an atypical meningioma as World Health Organization grade II. Six months after the operation, brain MR imaging showed that not found recurrence in both cranial and spinal lesion. Here, we report a case of primary osteolytic intraosseous atypical meningioma with soft tissue and dural invasion. PMID:25628813

  12. Accessory breast cancer occurring concurrently with bilateral primary invasive breast carcinomas: a report of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jin-Yan; Yang, Cui-Cui; Liu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Yi-Ling; Li, Shuai; Li, Wei-Dong; Li, Ya-Qing; Lang, Rong-Gang; Fan, Yu; Paulos, Estifanos; Zhang, Xin-Min; Fu, Li

    2012-09-01

    The development of accessory breast tissue, which is found anywhere along the milk line, is attributed to the failure of milk line remnants to regress during embryogenesis. Primary tumors may arise from any ectopic breast tissue. Accessory breast cancer occurring concurrently with primary invasive breast cancer is extremely rare. Two such cases were reported in this article. One was a 43-year-old Chinese female who exhibited bilateral breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified, IDC-NOS) and an accessory breast carcinoma (IDC-NOS) incidentally identified in her left axilla. The ectopic breast tissue in her right axilla presented with adenosis. The patient was surgically treated, followed by postoperative docetaxel epirubicin (TE) chemotherapy. The second case was a 53-year-old Chinese female with bilateral breast cancer (apocrine carcinoma) accompanied by an accessory breast carcinoma (IDC-NOS) in her right axilla that was also incidentally identified. The patient was surgically treated after three doses of cyclophosphamide epirubicin docetaxel (CET) neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy of the same regimen. PMID:23691479

  13. A Literature Synthesis Indicates Very Low Quality, but Consistent Evidence of Improvements in Function after Surgical Interventions for Primary Osteoarthritis of the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Joshua I.; Vandervoort, Anthony A.; MacDermid, Joy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Primary osteoarthritis of the elbow is a debilitating disease with an overall incidence of about 2%. Pain and reduced motion (ROM) lead to disability and loss of functional independence. Purpose. To critically review the literature on patient-related important functional outcomes (pain, ROMs and functional recovery) after surgery for primary OA of the elbow, utilizing the 2011 OCEBM levels of evidence. Design. A literature synthesis. Results. Twenty-six articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria; 25 of the studies were at level IV evidence, and 1 at level III. All three surgical techniques led to improvement in pain, ROM, and functional recovery in the short- and medium-term follow-up. Long-term follow-up results, available only for open joint debridement, showed recurrence of osteoarthritic signs on X-ray with minimal loss of motion. Recently, there seems to be an increased focus on arthroscopic debridement. Conclusion. The quality of research addressing surgical interventions is very low, including total elbow arthroplasty (TEA). However, the evidence concurs that open and arthroscopic joint debridement can improve function in patients with moderate-to-severe OA of the elbow. TEA is reserved for treating severe joint destruction, mostly for elderly individuals with low physical demands when other intervention options have failed. PMID:23424682

  14. Effecting change in primary care management of respiratory conditions: a global scoping exercise and literature review of educational interventions to inform the IPCRG's E-Quality initiative.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Juliet; Williams, Siân; Chavannes, Niels H; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Fardy, H John; Fletcher, Monica; Stout, James; Tomlins, Ron; Yusuf, Osman M; Pinnock, Hilary

    2012-12-01

    This discussion paper describes a scoping exercise and literature review commissioned by the International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) to inform their E-Quality programme which seeks to support small-scale educational projects to improve respiratory management in primary care. Our narrative review synthesises information from three sources: publications concerning the global context and health systems development; a literature search of Medline, CINAHL and Cochrane databases; and a series of eight interviews conducted with members of the IPCRG faculty. Educational interventions sit within complex healthcare, economic, and policy contexts. It is essential that any development project considers the local circumstances in terms of economic resources, political circumstances, organisation and administrative capacities, as well as the specific quality issue to be addressed. There is limited evidence (in terms of changed clinician behaviour and/or improved health outcomes) regarding the merits of different educational and quality improvement approaches. Features of educational interventions that were most likely to show some evidence of effectiveness included being carefully designed, multifaceted, engaged health professionals in their learning, provided ongoing support, were sensitive to local circumstances, and delivered in combination with other quality improvement strategies. To be effective, educational interventions must consider the complex healthcare systems within which they operate. The criteria for the IPCRG E-Quality awards thus require applicants not only to describe their proposed educational initiative but also to consider the practical and local barriers to successful implementation, and to propose a robust evaluation in terms of changed clinician behaviour or improved health outcomes. PMID:22875141

  15. Critical Analysis of Primary Literature in a Master’s-Level Class: Effects on Self-Efficacy and Science-Process Skills

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Christopher; Parris, Julian; Lie, Richard; Guzdar, Amy; Tour, Ella

    2015-01-01

    The ability to think analytically and creatively is crucial for success in the modern workforce, particularly for graduate students, who often aim to become physicians or researchers. Analysis of the primary literature provides an excellent opportunity to practice these skills. We describe a course that includes a structured analysis of four research papers from diverse fields of biology and group exercises in proposing experiments that would follow up on these papers. To facilitate a critical approach to primary literature, we included a paper with questionable data interpretation and two papers investigating the same biological question yet reaching opposite conclusions. We report a significant increase in students’ self-efficacy in analyzing data from research papers, evaluating authors’ conclusions, and designing experiments. Using our science-process skills test, we observe a statistically significant increase in students’ ability to propose an experiment that matches the goal of investigation. We also detect gains in interpretation of controls and quantitative analysis of data. No statistically significant changes were observed in questions that tested the skills of interpretation, inference, and evaluation. PMID:26250564

  16. Critical Analysis of Primary Literature in a Master's-Level Class: Effects on Self-Efficacy and Science-Process Skills.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Christopher; Parris, Julian; Lie, Richard; Guzdar, Amy; Tour, Ella

    2015-01-01

    The ability to think analytically and creatively is crucial for success in the modern workforce, particularly for graduate students, who often aim to become physicians or researchers. Analysis of the primary literature provides an excellent opportunity to practice these skills. We describe a course that includes a structured analysis of four research papers from diverse fields of biology and group exercises in proposing experiments that would follow up on these papers. To facilitate a critical approach to primary literature, we included a paper with questionable data interpretation and two papers investigating the same biological question yet reaching opposite conclusions. We report a significant increase in students' self-efficacy in analyzing data from research papers, evaluating authors' conclusions, and designing experiments. Using our science-process skills test, we observe a statistically significant increase in students' ability to propose an experiment that matches the goal of investigation. We also detect gains in interpretation of controls and quantitative analysis of data. No statistically significant changes were observed in questions that tested the skills of interpretation, inference, and evaluation. PMID:26250564

  17. Primary Cardiac Sarcoidosis with Syncope and Refractory Atrial Arrhythmia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Manoj; Nathan, Sriram; Kar, Biswajit; Petrovic, Marija; Patel, Manish; Loyalka, Pranav; Buja, L Maximilian; Gregoric, Igor D

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the case of a 38-year-old black man who presented at our hospital with his first episode of syncope, recently developed atrial arrhythmias refractory to pharmacologic therapy, and a left atrial thrombus. He was diagnosed with primary cardiac sarcoidosis characterized by predominant involvement of the epicardium that caused atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Histologic analysis of his epicardial lesions yielded a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. This patient's atrial arrhythmia was successfully treated with a hybrid operation that involved resection of his atrial appendage, an Epicor maze procedure, and radiofrequency ablation during a catheter-based electrophysiologic study. The cardiac sarcoidosis was successfully managed with corticosteroid therapy. Our case report shows that sarcoidosis can initially manifest itself as syncope with new-onset atrial arrhythmia. Sarcoidosis is important in the differential diagnosis because of its progressive nature and its potential for treatment with pharmacologic, surgical, and catheter-based interventions. PMID:27303240

  18. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the maxilla: An investigative loom—report of a challenging case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Simarpreet Virk; Sodhi, S P S; Rai, Sachin; Bansal, Himanta

    2014-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a malignant neoplasm composed of cells showing distinct smooth muscle features. Majority of the tumors are located in the retroperitoneum, including the pelvis and the uterus but are rare in the oral and pharyngeal region. Intraorally, they are present as painless, lobulated, fixed masses of the submucosal tissues in middle-aged or older individuals. Lesions are usually slow growing and are less than 2 cm in diameter at the time of diagnosis. Here we report the clinico-pathological findings of a case of primary LMS of the maxilla in 63-year-old male patient with an emphasis on the judicious use of ancillary diagnostic modalities to arrive at a definitive diagnosis. PMID:25949006

  19. Primary Cardiac Sarcoidosis with Syncope and Refractory Atrial Arrhythmia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Thangam, Manoj; Nathan, Sriram; Kar, Biswajit; Petrovic, Marija; Patel, Manish; Loyalka, Pranav; Buja, L. Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the case of a 38-year-old black man who presented at our hospital with his first episode of syncope, recently developed atrial arrhythmias refractory to pharmacologic therapy, and a left atrial thrombus. He was diagnosed with primary cardiac sarcoidosis characterized by predominant involvement of the epicardium that caused atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Histologic analysis of his epicardial lesions yielded a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. This patient's atrial arrhythmia was successfully treated with a hybrid operation that involved resection of his atrial appendage, an Epicor maze procedure, and radiofrequency ablation during a catheter-based electrophysiologic study. The cardiac sarcoidosis was successfully managed with corticosteroid therapy. Our case report shows that sarcoidosis can initially manifest itself as syncope with new-onset atrial arrhythmia. Sarcoidosis is important in the differential diagnosis because of its progressive nature and its potential for treatment with pharmacologic, surgical, and catheter-based interventions. PMID:27303240

  20. Primary Cutaneous Nocardiosis in a Patient With Nephrotic Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Tang, Jin; Lu, Zeyuan; Wang, Niansong; Gao, Xuping; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia infection is not common in clinical practice and most cases occur as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients.We report a case of primary cutaneous nocardiosis characterized by multiple subcutaneous abscesses due to Nocardia brasiliensis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome undergoing long-term corticosteroid therapy. The patient was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome 9 months ago, and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis was confirmed by renal biopsy. Subsequently, his renal disease was stable under low-dose methylprednisolone (8 mg/d). All of the pus cultures, which were aspirated from 5 different complete abscesses, presented Nocardia. Gene sequencing confirmed that they were all N. brasiliensis. The patient was cured by surgical drainage and a combination of linezolid and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole.The case highlights that even during the period of maintenance therapy with low-dose corticosteroid agents, an opportunistic infection still could occur in patients with nephrotic syndrome. PMID:26817885

  1. Primary Hodgkin’s Lymphoma of the Sternum: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Sternal masses present a unique diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. A wide array of differential diagnosis of a sternal mass includes osteomyelitis, tuberculosis, eosinophilic granuloma, sarcoma and lymphoma (usually Non-Hodgkin’s) amongst others. Sternum is a rare site of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and is usually misdiagnosed as tuberculosis or eosinophilic granuloma on routine histopathology. This delayed diagnosis culminates in death of patients. We report a 30-year-old lady who presented with swelling in upper part of chest wall since 1 month. Past history was significant for a similar swelling 2 years back, which was diagnosed as hodgkin’s lymphoma and treated with 4 cycles of chemotherapy at another centre (which led to resolution of the swelling). Examination revealed a 6x6.5cm firm swelling originating from the upper part of sternum. There was no lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Histopathological examination (with immunohistochemistry) of the trucut biopsy from the swelling confirmed the diagnosis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma (nodular sclerosis). Patient was diagnosed as a late relapse of primary sternal Hodgkin’s lymphoma (stage IBE) and was administered 4 cycles of ABVD followed by local radiotherapy to the involved site which led to complete resolution of the disease as assessed by PET scan. We present this unusual case of primary sternal Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Rarity of this entity, with diagnostic challenges encountered and treatment options available are highlighted in the current report. A pubmed search revealed 18 cases of sternal involvement in Hodgkin’s lymphoma which have been tabulated. PMID:27504392

  2. Tricks, tips, and literature review on the adapted vaporize system to deliver volatile agents during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Nigro Neto, Caetano; De Simone, Francesco; Cassarà, Luigi; Dos Santos Silva, Carlos Gustavo; Maranhão Cardoso, Thiago Augusto Almeida; Carcò, Francesco; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, evidence of cardio-protection and reduction in mortality due to the use of volatile agents during cardiac surgery led to an increase in their use during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). These findings seem to be enhanced when the volatile agents are used during all the surgical procedure, including the CPB period. Aims: Since the administration of volatile agents through CPB can be beneficial to the patients, we decided to review the use of volatile agents vaporized in the CPB circuit and to summarize some tricks and tips of this technique using our 10-year experience of Brazilian and Italian centers with a large volume of cardiac surgeries. Study Setting: Hospital. Methods: A literature review. Results: During the use of the volatile agents in CPB, it is very important to analyze all gases that come in and go out of the membrane oxygenators. The proper monitoring of inhaled and exhaled fraction of the gas allows not only monitoring of anesthesia level, but also the detection of possible leakage in the circuit. Any volatile agent in the membrane oxygenator is supposed to pollute the operating theater. This is the major reason why proper scavenging systems are always necessary when this technique is used. Conclusion: While waiting for industry upgrades, we recommend that volatile agents should be used during CPB only by skilled perfusionists and physicians with the aim to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:27052063

  3. Effectiveness of Non-Primary Care-Based Smoking Cessation Interventions for Adults with Diabetes: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Register, Shilpa J; Harrington, Kathy F; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects over 25 million adults, many of whom are smokers. The negative health impact of diabetes and comorbid smoking is significant and requires comprehensive interdisciplinary management. The National Diabetes Education Program has identified specific providers, known as PPOD, who include pharmacists, podiatrists, optometrists, and dentists, as key individuals to improve diabetes-related clinical outcomes. These providers are encouraged to work together through interdisciplinary collaboration and to implement evidence-based strategies as outlined in the PPOD toolkit. The toolkit encourages healthcare providers to ask, advise, and assist patients in their efforts to engage in risk reduction and healthy behaviors, including smoking cessation as an important risk factor. While individual PPOD providers have demonstrated effective smoking cessation interventions in adults with other acute and chronic systemic diseases, they lack specific application and focus on adults with diabetes. This literature review examines the current role of PPOD providers in smoking cessation interventions delivered to adults with diabetes. PMID:27424070

  4. Primary Thyroid Extranasal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma Associated With Good Outcome: A Case Report and Literature Review: A Care-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-He; He, Hong-Hong; Cheng, Yuan; He, Wen-Jing

    2016-05-01

    Most thyroid lymphomas are B-lineage, and T-cell lymphomas are rare. None of primary thyroid extranasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) has been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of extranasal NKTCL exclusively arising in the thyroid in an 18-year-old Chinese.The patient presented with rapid anterior swelling at the neck and aggravated dyspnea for 2 months. Neck computer tomography scan revealed diffuse thyroid enlargement in the left lobe compressing the trachea. The thyroid function test was indicative of hypothyroidism. Gastroscopy demonstrated chronic nonspecific gastritis. Subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. Histological examination showed a diffuse infiltration of neoplastic lymphoid cells with an angiodestructive behavior. Immunophenotype is positive for CD2, CD56, CD43, and TIA-1, and typically negative for surface CD3. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs were detected in tumor cells. A diagnose of primary thyroid extranasal NKTCL-N lymphoma was confirmed by the findings.The patient was treated with CHOP-L combination chemotherapy followed by local radiotherapy, and tolerated the modality well. The patient has been in remission for 28 months so far.To our knowledge, this is the first case report of primary extranasal NKTCL exclusively arising in the thyroid. The case has a relatively good treatment outcome with timely diagnosis and multimodality approach. PMID:27196451

  5. Primary inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the breast: a case report of an unusual variant and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Randy; Gilani, Syed M; Falk, Jeffery; Kelly, Michael J; Ockner, Daniel; Danforth, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of adults, but its presence in the breast is rare. We report a case of primary inflammatory MFH in a 72-year-old Caucasian female with no previous medical history and no prior radiation exposure. She presented with a palpable mass that was suspicious for malignancy on mammography. Histologic evaluation of the core needle biopsy revealed sheets of large, pleomorphic neoplastic cells within a dense background of acute and chronic inflammatory cells. The neoplastic cells exhibited a moderate to abundant amount of finely vacuolated cytoplasm and atypical nuclei with vesicular nuclear chromatin and prominent nucleoli. Mitotic activity was readily identified, and foci of necrosis were noted. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive with CD68, alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and vimentin. The diagnosis of MFH was rendered after thorough microscopic examination of the entire mass following mastectomy. MFH of the breast is a diagnosis of exclusion. The definitive treatment of MFH is surgical, either with wide local excision or total mastectomy. The roles of sentinel lymph node biopsy, axillary lymph node dissection, chemotherapy, and radiation have yet to be definitively clarified. The prognosis of MFH of the breast is generally poor. PMID:23827212

  6. Primary adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis, ureter and the urinary bladder: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    XIONG, XING; JIA, LINGHUA; WANG, JINGEN

    2016-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma is a rare type of urological neoplasm. The present study reports the case of a 55-year-old man with multifocal adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder that occurred in association with a large cystic calculus and perinephric abscess. The patient had suffered from gross hematuria for 2 years and right flank pain for 2 months. Following a series of investigations, a large cystic calculus with multiple tumors in the renal pelvis and ureter was identified. Multifocal tumors and a large calculus were located in the bladder using a cystoscope. The pathological report of 3 individual biopsies revealed a moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. Right nephrectomy, ureterectomy, radical cystectomy and left ureterocutaneostomy were performed. The pathological investigation revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder. No additional treatment was administered and the patient remains alive at follow-up without disease recurrence or metastasis. Although uncommon, the development of a tumor is possible in patients that possess long-standing urolithiasis, particularly when accompanied by hydronephrosis or infection. PMID:26998081

  7. An Adverse Drug Reaction to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Revealing Primary HIV: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Charles; Behm, Nicole; Brown, Emily; Copeland, Nathanial K.; Sklar, Marvin J.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to antibiotics complicate the management of any infection, particularly opportunistic infections in advanced HIV as some ADRs are potentiated by HIV. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) causes ADRs in 40–80% of HIV infected individuals, compared to 3–5% in the general population. The incidence and severity of ADRs among HIV infected individuals appear to increase as they progress from latent infection to AIDS. We present a single case report of a 55-year-old African American male found to have an otherwise asymptomatic acute HIV infection who developed an ADR to TMP-SMX, despite having previously tolerating the medication. The proposed mechanisms for the increased incidence of sulfa hypersensitivity reactions among HIV infected individuals focus on either (1) HIV-induced changes in the immune function driven by falling levels of CD4 cells or (2) other HIV-specific factors correlated with rising viral load. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of new sulfa hypersensitivity in primary HIV and may provide clinical evidence to support the correlation between viral load and ADRs to TMP-SMX without a severely diminished CD4 count, though further research is necessary. This case also demonstrates a rare and easily overlooked presentation of HIV that may aid in early diagnosis. PMID:26798528

  8. An Adverse Drug Reaction to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Revealing Primary HIV: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Charles; Behm, Nicole; Brown, Emily; Copeland, Nathanial K; Sklar, Marvin J

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to antibiotics complicate the management of any infection, particularly opportunistic infections in advanced HIV as some ADRs are potentiated by HIV. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) causes ADRs in 40-80% of HIV infected individuals, compared to 3-5% in the general population. The incidence and severity of ADRs among HIV infected individuals appear to increase as they progress from latent infection to AIDS. We present a single case report of a 55-year-old African American male found to have an otherwise asymptomatic acute HIV infection who developed an ADR to TMP-SMX, despite having previously tolerating the medication. The proposed mechanisms for the increased incidence of sulfa hypersensitivity reactions among HIV infected individuals focus on either (1) HIV-induced changes in the immune function driven by falling levels of CD4 cells or (2) other HIV-specific factors correlated with rising viral load. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of new sulfa hypersensitivity in primary HIV and may provide clinical evidence to support the correlation between viral load and ADRs to TMP-SMX without a severely diminished CD4 count, though further research is necessary. This case also demonstrates a rare and easily overlooked presentation of HIV that may aid in early diagnosis. PMID:26798528

  9. Challenges in Identifying and Managing Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults in the Primary Care Setting: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine how to screen for and establish a correct diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and to identify the outcomes associated with untreated ADHD. Data Sources: PubMed was searched using the key words ADHD, adult, diagnosis, and primary care from the years 1999 to 2009. Study Selection: This search produced 50 publications. Data Extraction: Publications were screened for data specific to the diagnosis or management of adult patients with ADHD in the primary care setting. Data Synthesis: The estimated prevalence of ADHD in adults throughout the United States is 4.4% or approximately 10 million adults. Adults with ADHD by definition must experience impairment from the symptoms of ADHD in at least 2 areas of their life. Despite significant impairment, only 1 in 10 adults with ADHD have received ADHD treatment within the past year. Given the high rates of undertreatment, primary care physicians, who provide much of the general adult mental health care in the United States, are increasingly charged with making the diagnosis of ADHD in adults. ADHD symptoms are often masked by comorbid psychiatric conditions or patient adaptations such as choice of occupation. One of the ADHD assessment tools, a short 6-item screener, can simplify identification and management of ADHD in adults and help identify which patients may require further evaluation. Conclusions: Primary care physicians should consult with other members of the health care community such as psychiatrists and psychologists when necessary, but should also develop a level of comfort with diagnosing and treating ADHD. PMID:21494335

  10. Intrabiliary Hepatic Metastasis of Colorectal Carcinoma Mimicking Primary Cholangiocarcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yimin; Patel, Hitendra; Patel, Charmi

    2016-01-01

    Intrabiliary metastasis from colorectal carcinoma (CRC) growing within or invading bile ducts is not a very common pattern. However, accurate diagnosis of metastatic lesions is very important for selection of adjuvant therapy and prognosis. We report a case of 71-year-old male who developed painless jaundice due to hepatobiliary obstruction. MRI demonstrated 1.4 cm intraductal mass at hepatic hilum with severe intrahepatic ductal dilation, consistent with cholangiocarcinoma. ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) showed intraductal segmental biliary stricture. Biopsy from the lesion showed adenocarcinoma favoring primary cholangiocarcinoma due to the papillary morphology and location of the mass. His past history was significant for rectosigmoid carcinoma (pT1N0) ten years ago and liver resection for metastatic CRC four years ago. He subsequently underwent central hepatectomy with resection of common bile duct. Grossly, there was a 1.2 cm intraductal mass at the bifurcation of bile ducts with multiple nodules in liver parenchyma. Microscopic examination revealed intraductal carcinoma with papillary architecture colonizing bile duct epithelium with resultant dilation and tortuosity. Occasional liver parenchymal nodules show classical metastatic pattern resembling CRC. Because of two distinct morphologic patterns and patient's past history, immunostains were performed. CK7 stained uninvolved bile duct epithelium with no staining in intrabiliary metastatic growth. CK20 and CDX2 were positive, thus confirming intrabiliary growth as metastatic growth from CRC. In summary, findings from our case indicate that intrabiliary growth of metastatic CRC can easily be overlooked with major duct involvement. Pathologic evaluation with use of immunohistochemical stains is very important to achieve correct diagnosis. PMID:27429820

  11. Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and its mimickers: a rare case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Win, T T; Kamaludin, Z; Husin, A

    2016-08-01

    Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBL) is an uncommon non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a distinct clinicopathological entity in the WHO classification of lymphoid malignancies. It is known to originate from B-cells of the thymus. It mimics thymic neoplasms and other lymphomas clinically and histopathologically. We reported a 33-year-old obese man who presented with shortness of breath off and on for 4 years. Radiologically, there was a huge anterior mediastinal mass. Tru-cut biopsy was initially diagnosed as type-A thymoma. Histopathological examination of the excised specimen revealed PMLBL with stromal fibrosis and sclerosis which created a diagnostic difficulty. The neoplastic cells varied from medium-sized to large pleomorphic cells, including mononuclear cells with centroblastic and immunoblastic features as well as bi-lobed Reed Sternberg (RS)-like cells and horse-shoe like hallmark cells. Some interlacing spindle cells and epithelioid cells were also present. Immunohistochemically, tumour cells expressed diffuse positivity for LCA, CD20, CD79a, CD23, Bcl2, MUM-1 and heterogenous positivity for CD30 and EMA, and were negative for CD10, CD15 and ALK. Ki67 scoring was very high. Tumour cells infiltrated into peri-thymic fat and pericardium. No malignant cells were detected in the pleural fluid and there was no bone marrow infiltration. The patient showed partial response to 6 cycles of RICE chemotherapy, and was planned for second line chemotherapy using hyper-CVAD regimen followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. This case illustrates the importance of thorough sampling and immunohistochemistry in differentiating PMLBL from its differential diagnoses. PMID:27568673

  12. A Systematic Review on the Characteristics, Treatments and Outcomes of the Patients with Primary Spinal Glioblastomas or Gliosarcomas Reported in Literature until March 2015

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Stefanie; von Bueren, André O.; Klautke, Gunther; Guckenberger, Matthias; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with primary spinal glioblastomas (GB) or gliosarcomas (GS) reported in literature until March 2015. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for peer-reviewed articles pertaining to cases of glioblastomas / gliosarcomas with primary spinal origin, using predefined search terms. Furthermore we performed hand searches tracking the references from the selected papers. Eighty-two articles published between 1938 and March 2015 were eligible. They reported on 157 patients. Median age at diagnosis was 22 years. The proportion of patients who received adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy clearly increased from the time before 1980 until present. Median overall survival from diagnosis was 8.0 ± 0.9 months. On univariate analysis age influenced overall survival, whereas tumor location, gender and the extent of initial resection did not. Outcomes did not differ between children (< 18 years) and adults. However, the patients who were treated after 1980 achieved longer survival times than the patients treated before. On multivariable analysis only age (< 60 years) and the time period of treatment (≥ 1980) were confirmed as positive independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, primary spinal GB / GS mainly affect younger patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. However, most likely due to the increasing use of adjuvant treatment, modest therapeutic progress has been achieved over recent decades. The characteristics and treatments of primary spinal glioblastomas should be entered into a central registry in order to gain more information about the ideal treatment approach in the future. PMID:26859136

  13. A Systematic Review on the Characteristics, Treatments and Outcomes of the Patients with Primary Spinal Glioblastomas or Gliosarcomas Reported in Literature until March 2015.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Stefanie; von Bueren, André O; Klautke, Gunther; Guckenberger, Matthias; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Pietschmann, Sophie; Müller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with primary spinal glioblastomas (GB) or gliosarcomas (GS) reported in literature until March 2015. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for peer-reviewed articles pertaining to cases of glioblastomas / gliosarcomas with primary spinal origin, using predefined search terms. Furthermore we performed hand searches tracking the references from the selected papers. Eighty-two articles published between 1938 and March 2015 were eligible. They reported on 157 patients. Median age at diagnosis was 22 years. The proportion of patients who received adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy clearly increased from the time before 1980 until present. Median overall survival from diagnosis was 8.0 ± 0.9 months. On univariate analysis age influenced overall survival, whereas tumor location, gender and the extent of initial resection did not. Outcomes did not differ between children (< 18 years) and adults. However, the patients who were treated after 1980 achieved longer survival times than the patients treated before. On multivariable analysis only age (< 60 years) and the time period of treatment (≥ 1980) were confirmed as positive independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, primary spinal GB / GS mainly affect younger patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. However, most likely due to the increasing use of adjuvant treatment, modest therapeutic progress has been achieved over recent decades. The characteristics and treatments of primary spinal glioblastomas should be entered into a central registry in order to gain more information about the ideal treatment approach in the future. PMID:26859136

  14. Understanding stroke survivors’ and informal carers’ experiences of and need for primary care and community health services—a systematic review of the qualitative literature: protocol

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, N A; Pindus, D M; Mullis, R; Mant, J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the rising prevalence of stroke, no comprehensive model of postacute stroke care exists. Research on stroke has focused on acute care and early supported discharge, with less attention dedicated to longer term support in the community. Likewise, relatively little research has focused on long-term support for informal carers. This review aims to synthesise and appraise extant qualitative evidence on: (1) long-term healthcare needs of stroke survivors and informal carers, and (2) their experiences of primary care and community health services. The review will inform the development of a primary care model for stroke survivors and informal carers. Methods and analysis We will systematically search 4 databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL for published qualitative evidence on the needs and experiences of stroke survivors and informal carers of postacute care delivered by primary care and community health services. Additional searches of reference lists and citation indices will be conducted. The quality of articles will be assessed by 2 independent reviewers using a Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or third party adjudication. Meta-ethnography will be used to synthesise the literature based on first-order, second-order and third-order constructs. We will construct a theoretical model of stroke survivors’ and informal carers’ experiences of primary care and community health services. Ethics and dissemination The results of the systematic review will be disseminated via publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant conference. The study does not require ethical approval as no patient identifiable data will be used. PMID:26739728

  15. Adaptation and cross-cultural validation of the United States Primary Care Assessment Tool (expanded version) for use in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Abdul-Rauf; le Grange, Cynthia; Bhagwan, Susheela; Manga, Nayna

    2015-01-01

    Background Measuring primary care is important for health sector reform. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) measures performance of elements essential for cost-effective care. Following minor adaptations prior to use in Cape Town in 2011, a few findings indicated a need to improve the content and cross-cultural validity for wider use in South Africa (SA). Aim This study aimed to validate the United States of America-developed PCAT before being used in a baseline measure of primary care performance prior to major reform. Setting Public sector primary care clinics, users, practitioners and managers in urban and rural districts in the Western Cape Province. Methods Face value evaluation of item phrasing and a combination of Delphi and Nominal Group Technique (NGT) methods with an expert panel and user focus group were used to obtain consensus on content relevant to SA. Original and new domains and items with > = 70% agreement were included in the South African version – ZA PCAT. Results All original PCAT domains achieved consensus on inclusion. One new domain, the primary healthcare (PHC) team, was added. Three of 95 original items achieved < 70% agreement, that is consensus to exclude as not relevant to SA; 19 new items were added. A few items needed minor rephrasing with local healthcare jargon. The demographic section was adapted to local socio-economic conditions. The adult PCAT was translated into isiXhosa and Afrikaans. Conclusion The PCAT is a valid measure of primary care performance in SA. The PHC team domain is an important addition, given its emphasis in PHC re-engineering. A combination of Delphi and NGT methods succeeded in obtaining consensus on a multi-domain, multi-item instrument in a resource- constrained environment. PMID:26245610

  16. Use of {sup 99m}Tc 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile in minimally invasive radioguided surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A narrative review of the current literature

    SciTech Connect

    Denmeade, Kristie A; Constable, Chris; Reed, Warren M

    2013-06-15

    The use of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc MIBI) for assistance in minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS) is growing in popularity as a safe, effective, and proficient technique used for parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treatment. Previously, the preferred treatment for PHPT was bilateral neck exploration (BNE), a very invasive, costly, and lengthy procedure. However, as a large majority (80–85% of cases of PHPT) are attributed to a single parathyroid adenoma (PA), a simpler more direct technique such as MIRS is a far better option. The following article is an exploration of the current literature concerning varied protocols utilizing {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS for patients undergoing treatment of PHPT. This technique boasts many advantageous outcomes for patients suffering from PHPT. These include a reduction in cost, operating time, and patient recovery; less evidence of post-surgical hypocalcaemia, less pain, and complications; superior cosmetic results; same-day discharge; and the possibility of local anaesthesia which is particularly beneficial in elderly patients. Better outcomes for patients with deep or ectopic PAs, reduced intra-operative complications, and improved cosmetic outcomes for patients who have previously undergone thyroid and/or parathyroid surgery are also advantageous. Of the literature reviewed it was also found that no patients suffered any major surgical complications such as laryngeal nerve palsy or permanent hypoparathyroidism using {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS.

  17. Use of (99m)Tc 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile in minimally invasive radioguided surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A narrative review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Denmeade, Kristie A; Constable, Chris; Reed, Warren M

    2013-06-01

    The use of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ((99m)Tc MIBI) for assistance in minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS) is growing in popularity as a safe, effective, and proficient technique used for parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treatment. Previously, the preferred treatment for PHPT was bilateral neck exploration (BNE), a very invasive, costly, and lengthy procedure. However, as a large majority (80-85% of cases of PHPT) are attributed to a single parathyroid adenoma (PA), a simpler more direct technique such as MIRS is a far better option. The following article is an exploration of the current literature concerning varied protocols utilizing (99m)Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS for patients undergoing treatment of PHPT. This technique boasts many advantageous outcomes for patients suffering from PHPT. These include a reduction in cost, operating time, and patient recovery; less evidence of post-surgical hypocalcaemia, less pain, and complications; superior cosmetic results; same-day discharge; and the possibility of local anaesthesia which is particularly beneficial in elderly patients. Better outcomes for patients with deep or ectopic PAs, reduced intra-operative complications, and improved cosmetic outcomes for patients who have previously undergone thyroid and/or parathyroid surgery are also advantageous. Of the literature reviewed it was also found that no patients suffered any major surgical complications such as laryngeal nerve palsy or permanent hypoparathyroidism using (99m)Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS. PMID:26229609

  18. Use of 99mTc 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile in minimally invasive radioguided surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A narrative review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Denmeade, Kristie A; Constable, Chris; Reed, Warren M

    2013-01-01

    The use of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (99mTc MIBI) for assistance in minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS) is growing in popularity as a safe, effective, and proficient technique used for parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treatment. Previously, the preferred treatment for PHPT was bilateral neck exploration (BNE), a very invasive, costly, and lengthy procedure. However, as a large majority (80–85% of cases of PHPT) are attributed to a single parathyroid adenoma (PA), a simpler more direct technique such as MIRS is a far better option. The following article is an exploration of the current literature concerning varied protocols utilizing 99mTc MIBI for assistance in MIRS for patients undergoing treatment of PHPT. This technique boasts many advantageous outcomes for patients suffering from PHPT. These include a reduction in cost, operating time, and patient recovery; less evidence of post-surgical hypocalcaemia, less pain, and complications; superior cosmetic results; same-day discharge; and the possibility of local anaesthesia which is particularly beneficial in elderly patients. Better outcomes for patients with deep or ectopic PAs, reduced intra-operative complications, and improved cosmetic outcomes for patients who have previously undergone thyroid and/or parathyroid surgery are also advantageous. Of the literature reviewed it was also found that no patients suffered any major surgical complications such as laryngeal nerve palsy or permanent hypoparathyroidism using 99mTc MIBI for assistance in MIRS. PMID:26229609

  19. Bridging the Human Resource Gap in Primary Health Care Delivery Systems of Developing Countries With mHealth: Narrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) has the potential to solve human resource issues in the health care sector. mHealth is of particular interest in developing countries, where widespread mobile networks and access to devices are connecting people like never before. Objective The aim of this paper was to review published and unpublished literature, field projects, and pilot studies on mHealth usage in overcoming shortage of human health resources in developing countries. Methods A narrative literature review was undertaken using an iterative approach in extracting literature focused on mHealth and human health resources of low-income countries, especially India. The present review has undertaken comprehensive coverage of the work on related field projects that have been either published, accepted for publication, or pilot tested. Results This review presented the use of mHealth across various dimensions of primary health care, including data collection, disease surveillance, health education, supervision, monitoring, and feedback. Field studies of fast, error-free data collection and transmission using mHealth were also documented. New apps for supervision, monitoring, and utilization of innovative health education tools were documented in the current review. Practical limitations of mHealth and challenges set forth in developing countries included issues of data security, cost constraints, health provider privacy, and technical barriers. Conclusions In the present review, we have documented a few mHealth projects that contribute to the proficient use of human resources. These projects pave the path for the efficient utilization of mHealth, offering solutions to emerging human resource challenges and simultaneously revamping the health care delivery in resource-limited settings. PMID:25099436

  20. Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the skin metastatic to the lymph nodes: immunohistochemical study of a new case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Rocas, Delphine; Asvesti, Catherine; Tsega, Artemis; Katafygiotis, Patroklos; Kanitakis, Jean

    2014-03-01

    Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma (PCACC) is a rare adnexal skin tumor first described in 1975, of which merely 62 cases have so far been studied in detail and reported in the English literature. PCACC is usually regarded as apocrine in origin/differentiation, but its precise histogenesis is still not well known. PCACC has in most cases a rather indolent course but can produce local recurrences and, more rarely, regional (lymph node) and distant (pulmonary) metastases. We report herein a Greek woman with a long-standing PCACC that grew slowly over several years and produced metastasis in the regional lymph nodes, highlighting the potentially aggressive course of this tumor. The primary and metastatic tumors were studied immunohistochemically and proved to express several (sweat gland-related) antigens (such as keratin 7, epithelial membrane antigen, CD10, and CD117) but neither hormonal receptors nor p63 or Gross Cystic disease Fluid Protein 15. The salient clinicopathologic features of this rare cutaneous adnexal tumor are reviewed. PMID:23812021

  1. Adaptation and validation of indicators concerning the sterilization process of supplies in Primary Health Care services1

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Isis Pienta Batista Dias; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Roseira, Camila Eugênia; de Figueiredo, Rosely Moralez

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to adapt and validate, by expert consensus, a set of indicators used to assess the sterilization process of dental, medical and hospital supplies to be used in PHC services. METHOD: qualitative methodological study performed in two stages. The first stage included a focal group composed of experts to adapt the indicators to be used in PHC. In the second stage, the indicators were validated using a 4-point Likert scale, which was completed by judges. A Content Validity Index of ≥ 0.75 was considered to show approval of the indicators. RESULTS: the adaptations implemented by the focal group mainly referred to the physical structure, inclusion of dental care professionals, inclusion of chemical disinfection, and replacement of the hot air and moist heat sterilization methods. The validation stage resulted in an index of 0.96, which ranged from 0.90 to 1.00, for the components of the indicators. CONCLUSION: the judges considered the indicators after adaptation to be validated. Even though there may be differences among items processed around the world, there certainly are common characteristics, especially in countries with economic and cultural environments similar to Brazil. The inclusion of these indicators to assess the safety of healthcare supplies used in PHC services should be considered. PMID:25806643

  2. Primary Production and Photoadaptation in Light- and Shade-Adapted Colonies of the Symbiotic Coral, Stylophora pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, J. W.; Muscatine, L.; Dubinsky, Z.; Falkowski, P. G.

    1984-08-01

    Photoadaptation by photosynthetic organisms to lowered light intensities occurs in part through changes in pigment concentrations and in characteristics of the photosynthetic response curve. We have characterized photoadaptive responses of light- and shade-adapted colonies of the reef coral Stylophora pistillata, which possesses symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) and grows naturally under a variety of light intensities in the highly cavernous reefs of the Red Sea. Shade-adapted corals have significantly more chlorophyll per individual zooxanthella cell than light-adapted corals (2.98 compared to 12.97 pg chlorophyll a per cell), but not a significantly different number of cells per unit area (1.00 × 106 cells per square centimetre), with the result that the mass of chlorophyll per unit area is greater for shade-adapted corals than for light-adapted corals. Tissue nitrogen content per unit area is significantly lower (p < 0.05) in shade-adapted corals, correlating with a decrease in polyp density (0.10 > p > 0.05) in shade forms. These biomass characteristics are concomitant with a variety of functional responses to natural light intensities. Rate of photosynthesis at saturating light intensities is the same per unit area in both forms (20.2 μ g O2 cm-2 h-1 for shade specimens; 18.8 for light specimens); but it is significantly different when measured by amount of chlorophyll (1.6 μ g O2 (chl a)-1 h-1 for shade specimens compared with 5.0 for light specimens). The initial slope of the P:I curve, α , is significantly higher for shade specimens by area (0.21 for shade corals compared with 0.12 for light corals), but significantly lower for shade specimens by amount of chlorophyll a (0.01 for specimens from shade compared to 0.04 for specimens growing in the light). Ik (the point at which maximum production begins) is significantly lower for shade specimens (138 μ mol m-2 s-1 for shade compared to 273 for light), and likewise Ic (the compensation point at which net

  3. Opinions on Further Strengthening and Improving Primary and Secondary School Moral Education Work to Adapt to the New Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In order to earnestly carry out the spirit of Comrade Jiang Zemin's February 1, 2000, "Conversations on Issues in Education" and his important speech at the Party Central Committee's Ideological and Political Work Conference; further strengthen and improve primary and secondary school (including vocational secondary school) moral education work;…

  4. The risk of developing a second primary cancer in melanoma patients: a comprehensive review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Caini, Saverio; Boniol, Mathieu; Botteri, Edoardo; Tosti, Giulio; Bazolli, Barbara; Russell-Edu, William; Giusti, Francesco; Testori, Alessandro; Gandini, Sara

    2014-07-01

    The number of cutaneous melanoma survivors has been increasing for years due to improvements in early diagnosis and subsequent prolonged survival. These patients are at increased risk of developing a second melanoma and a second primary malignancy (SPM) at other sites as well. We performed a review of scientific literature and meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of developing a SPM (other than melanoma) among melanoma patients. Twenty-three independent papers and over 350,000 melanoma patients were included. Risk of cancer among melanoma survivors was increased overall (1.57, 95% CI 1.29-1.90) and at several sites: bone (2.09, 95% CI 1.08-4.05), non-melanoma skin cancer (4.01, 95% CI 1.81-8.87), soft tissue (6.80, 95% CI 1.29-35.98), colon-rectum (1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.25), female breast (1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.22), kidney (1.34, 95% CI 1.23-1.45), prostate (1.25, 95% CI 1.13-1.37) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (1.37, 95% CI 1.22-1.54). The overall risk of SPM showed a tendency to decrease as the time from melanoma diagnosis lengthened. Most of our findings may be explained by the tendency of some exposures, which are risk factors for different tumors, to occur simultaneously in the same individuals. These results suggest primary and secondary cancer prevention counselling for melanoma survivors. PMID:24680127

  5. PAX2, PAX8 and CDX2 Expression in Metastatic Mucinous, Primary Ovarian Mucinous and Seromucinous Tumors and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ates Ozdemir, D; Usubutun, A

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecologic cancer death. Both morphologically and immunohistochemically, metastatic mucinous tumors are the best mimickers of mucinous ovarian tumors; its pathogenesis still remains a mystery. PAX2 and PAX8 immunohisyochemistries are useful for differentiating numerous primary tumour types from metastatic ones. There are few studies in literature about PAX expressions in mucinous and seromucinous tumors. None of these are takes into account the histologic type (whether it is seromucinous or mucinous) or the metastatic origin. With this purpose hematoxylin and eosine slides of ovarian mucinous and seromucinous tumors were re-evaluated and one block was chosen for each case. The study included 76 ovarian mucinous and seromucinous tumors of the ovary reported in Hacettepe University department of pathology between 2000 and 2013. Tissue microarray (TMA) was designed from the chosen blocks, PAX2, PAX8, CDX2 immunostains was preformed to the TMA slides. As a result, most of the metastatic cases were negative for PAX2 (91.2 %) and PAX8 (86.3 %), many were diffusely and strongly positive for CDX2 (68.2 %). Seromucinous tumors were devoid of CDX2 expression; but all cases (except one) displayed strong and diffuse positivity with PAX8. In other words differing from mucinous tumors, seromucinous tumors show strong PAX8 positivity-similar to serous tumors. This study shows that PAX8 and CDX2 could be useful in differentiating primary mucinous from metastatic tumor. Furthermore unlike the homogeneity in seromucinous tumors for PAX8 and CDX2 mucinous tumors shows heterogeneity with different expression patterns. PMID:26797858

  6. Alteration of the Physical and Chemical Structure of the Primary Cell Wall of Growth-Limited Plant Cells Adapted to Osmotic Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Iraki, Naim M.; Bressan, Ray A.; Hasegawa, P. M.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    1989-01-01

    Cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) adapted to grow in severe osmotic stress of 428 millimolar NaCl (−23 bar) or 30% polyethylene glycol 8000 (−28 bar) exhibit a drastically altered growth physiology that results in slower cell expansion and fully expanded cells with volumes only one-fifth to one-eighth those of unadapted cells. This reduced cell volume occurs despite maintenance of turgor pressures sometimes severalfold higher than those of unadapted cells. This report and others (NM Iraki et al [1989] Plant Physiol 90: 000-000 and 000-000) document physical and biochemical alterations of the cell walls which might explain how adapted cells decrease the ability of the wall to expand despite diversion of carbon used for osmotic adjustment away from synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. Tensile strength measured by a gas decompression technique showed empirically that walls of NaCl-adapted cells are much weaker than those of unadapted cells. Correlated with this weakening was a substantial decrease in the proportion of crystalline cellulose in the primary cell wall. Even though the amount of insoluble protein associated with the wall was increased relative to other wall components, the amount of hydroxyproline in the insoluble protein of the wall was only about 10% that of unadapted cells. These results indicate that a cellulosic-extensin framework is a primary determinant of absolute wall tensile strength, but complete formation of this framework apparently is sacrificed to divert carbon to substances needed for osmotic adjustment. We propose that the absolute mass of this framework is not a principal determinant of the ability of the cell wall to extend. PMID:16667031

  7. The CREATE Strategy for Intensive Analysis of Primary Literature Can Be Used Effectively by Newly Trained Faculty to Produce Multiple Gains in Diverse Students

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Leslie M.

    2014-01-01

    The CREATE (Consider Read, Elucidate the hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) strategy aims to demystify scientific research and scientists while building critical thinking, reading/analytical skills, and improved science attitudes through intensive analysis of primary literature. CREATE was developed and piloted at the City College of New York (CCNY), a 4-yr, minority-serving institution, with both upper-level biology majors and first-year students interested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. To test the extent to which CREATE strategies are broadly applicable to students at private, public, research-intensive, and/or primarily undergraduate colleges/universities, we trained a cohort of faculty from the New York/New Jersey/Pennsylvania area in CREATE pedagogies, then followed a subset, the CREATE implementers (CIs), as they taught all or part of an existing course on their home campuses using CREATE approaches. Evaluation of the workshops, the CIs, and their students was carried out both by the principal investigators and by an outside evaluator working independently. Our data indicate that: intensive workshops change aspects of faculty attitudes about teaching/learning; workshop-trained faculty can effectively design and teach CREATE courses; and students taught by such faculty on multiple campuses make significant cognitive and affective gains that parallel the changes documented previously at CCNY. PMID:26086655

  8. The CREATE Strategy for Intensive Analysis of Primary Literature Can Be Used Effectively by Newly Trained Faculty to Produce Multiple Gains in Diverse Students.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Leslie M; Hoskins, Sally G

    2014-01-01

    The CREATE (Consider Read, Elucidate the hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) strategy aims to demystify scientific research and scientists while building critical thinking, reading/analytical skills, and improved science attitudes through intensive analysis of primary literature. CREATE was developed and piloted at the City College of New York (CCNY), a 4-yr, minority-serving institution, with both upper-level biology majors and first-year students interested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. To test the extent to which CREATE strategies are broadly applicable to students at private, public, research-intensive, and/or primarily undergraduate colleges/universities, we trained a cohort of faculty from the New York/New Jersey/Pennsylvania area in CREATE pedagogies, then followed a subset, the CREATE implementers (CIs), as they taught all or part of an existing course on their home campuses using CREATE approaches. Evaluation of the workshops, the CIs, and their students was carried out both by the principal investigators and by an outside evaluator working independently. Our data indicate that: intensive workshops change aspects of faculty attitudes about teaching/learning; workshop-trained faculty can effectively design and teach CREATE courses; and students taught by such faculty on multiple campuses make significant cognitive and affective gains that parallel the changes documented previously at CCNY. PMID:26086655

  9. Primary immunodeficiency association with systemic lupus erythematosus: review of literature and lessons learned by the Rheumatology Division of a tertiary university hospital at São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Errante, Paolo Ruggero; Perazzio, Sandro Félix; Frazão, Josias Brito; da Silva, Neusa Pereira; Andrade, Luis Eduardo Coelho

    2016-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) represent a heterogeneous group of diseases resulting from inherited defects in the development, maturation and normal function of immune cells; thus, turning individuals susceptible to recurrent infections, allergy, autoimmunity, and malignancies. In this retrospective study, autoimmune diseases (AIDs), in special systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) which arose associated to the course of PID, are described. Classically, the literature describes three groups of PID associated with SLE: (1) deficiency of Complement pathway components, (2) defects in immunoglobulin synthesis, and (3) chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Currently, other PID have been described with clinical manifestation of SLE, such as Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and idiopathic CD4(+) lymphocytopenia. Also we present findings from an adult cohort from the outpatient clinic of the Rheumatology Division of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. The PID manifestations found by our study group were considered mild in terms of severity of infections and mortality in early life. Thus, it is possible that some immunodeficiency states are compatible with survival regarding infectious susceptibility; however these states might represent a strong predisposing factor for the development of immune disorders like those observed in SLE. PMID:27267335

  10. Primary sclerosing cholangitis as an independent risk factor for colorectal cancer in the context of inflammatory bowel disease: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rosy; Leong, Rupert W

    2014-01-01

    To examine and evaluate recent evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of colorectal cancer (CRC) development in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was conducted for relevant articles in English from the past 10 years. Relevant studies investigating PSC as a risk factor for CRC in IBD in the context of incidence and prevalence, pathogenesis, prevention and prognosis were included in this review. Recent evidence increasingly points to PSC as a significant risk factor in the development of CRC in patients with concomitant IBD. PSC may be an important risk factor for CRC in different populations worldwide. The mechanism for this increase in risk is still unclear. The efficacy of UDCA as a chemopreventive agent remains controversial. Liver transplantation does not halt the development of CRC, although there is not enough evidence to suggest that it is associated with increased incidence of CRC. While routine colonoscopic surveillance should be performed in patients with concurrent PSC and IBD, more high-level evidence is required to support the benefits of the procedure. While many new developments have taken place in the last decade, the pathogenesis and optimal management of CRC development in IBD-PSC patients remain unclear. PMID:25083052

  11. CD20-positive primary gastric T-cell lymphoma poorly responding to initial treatment with rituximab plus CHOP, and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Kakinoki, Yasutaka; Hashiguchi, Junichi; Ishio, Takashi; Chiba, Koji; Niino, Daisuke; Ohshima, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    There have been rare reported cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) that co-expressed CD20. A 44-year-old Japanese male was initially misdiagnosed as CD20-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a background of reactive CD3-positive T-cells in the stomach. After four cycles of R-CHOP [rituximab plus cyclophosphamide (CY), doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (PSL)], total gastrectomy with regional lymph node dissection was performed due to the poor response to R-CHOP. A final diagnosis of CD20-positive primary gastric PTCL-NOS was made based on the immunohistochemical, flow cytometric, and molecular genetic findings. In the present case, CD20 immunostaining for T-cell lymphoma cells in tumor tissue varied; in a large part, these were strong to weak-positive, and in some parts, absent. We additionally reviewed the literature focusing on CD20-positive PTCL-NOS treated with rituximab. The administration of rituximab has been performed as an initial treatment in 11 cases, including the case reported here. The response was good in cases with high expression of CD20, while it was poor in cases with variable intensity in CD20 staining, which is consistent with our experience in the present case. The efficacy of rituximab may be associated with intensity of CD20 expression in T cells and its homogeneity in the tumor tissue. PMID:26251099

  12. The contribution of primary and secondary somatosensory cortices to the representation of body parts and body sides: an fMRI adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Tamè, Luigi; Braun, Christoph; Lingnau, Angelika; Schwarzbach, Jens; Demarchi, Gianpaolo; Li Hegner, Yiwen; Farnè, Alessandro; Pavani, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Although the somatosensory homunculus is a classically used description of the way somatosensory inputs are processed in the brain, the actual contributions of primary (SI) and secondary (SII) somatosensory cortices to the spatial coding of touch remain poorly understood. We studied adaptation of the fMRI BOLD response in the somatosensory cortex by delivering pairs of vibrotactile stimuli to the finger tips of the index and middle fingers. The first stimulus (adaptor) was delivered either to the index or to the middle finger of the right or left hand, and the second stimulus (test) was always administered to the left index finger. The overall BOLD response evoked by the stimulation was primarily contralateral in SI and was more bilateral in SII. However, our fMRI adaptation approach also revealed that both somatosensory cortices were sensitive to ipsilateral as well as to contralateral inputs. SI and SII adapted more after subsequent stimulation of homologous as compared with nonhomologous fingers, showing a distinction between different fingers. Most importantly, for both somatosensory cortices, this finger-specific adaptation occurred irrespective of whether the tactile stimulus was delivered to the same or to different hands. This result implies integration of contralateral and ipsilateral somatosensory inputs in SI as well as in SII. Our findings suggest that SI is more than a simple relay for sensory information and that both SI and SII contribute to the spatial coding of touch by discriminating between body parts (fingers) and by integrating the somatosensory input from the two sides of the body (hands). PMID:22849401

  13. The C.R.E.A.T.E. Approach to Primary Literature Shifts Undergraduates' Self-Assessed Ability to Read and Analyze Journal Articles, Attitudes about Science, and Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Sally G.; Lopatto, David; Stevens, Leslie M.

    2011-01-01

    The C.R.E.A.T.E. (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment) method uses intensive analysis of primary literature in the undergraduate classroom to demystify and humanize science. We have reported previously that the method improves students' critical thinking and content integration abilities,…

  14. Adapting the posterior probability of diagnosis index to enhance evidence-based screening: an application to ADHD in primary care.

    PubMed

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Yu, Lan; Grasso, Damion J; Kolko, David J; Youngstrom, Eric A

    2015-04-01

    This study adapts the Posterior Probability of Diagnosis (PPOD) Index for use with screening data. The original PPOD Index, designed for use in the context of comprehensive diagnostic assessments, is overconfident when applied to screening data. To correct for this overconfidence, we describe a simple method for adjusting the PPOD Index to improve its calibration when used for screening. Specifically, we compare the adjusted PPOD Index to the original index and naïve Bayes probability estimates on two dimensions of accuracy, discrimination and calibration, using a clinical sample of children and adolescents (N = 321) whose caregivers completed the Vanderbilt Assessment Scale to screen for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and who subsequently completed a comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Results indicated that the adjusted PPOD Index, original PPOD Index, and naïve Bayes probability estimates are comparable using traditional measures of accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve), but the adjusted PPOD Index showed superior calibration. We discuss the importance of calibration for screening and diagnostic support tools when applied to individual patients. PMID:25000935

  15. The primary substrate binding site in the b' domain of ERp57 is adapted for endoplasmic reticulum lectin association.

    PubMed

    Russell, Sarah J; Ruddock, Lloyd W; Salo, Kirsi E H; Oliver, Jason D; Roebuck, Quentin P; Llewellyn, David H; Roderick, H Llewelyn; Koivunen, Peppi; Myllyharju, Johanna; High, Stephen

    2004-04-30

    ERp57 is a member of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family that is located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and characterized by its specificity for glycoproteins. Substrate selection by ERp57 is dependent upon its formation of discrete complexes with two ER resident lectins, soluble calreticulin and membrane-bound calnexin. It is these two lectins that directly associate with glycoproteins bearing correctly trimmed oligosaccharide side chains. Thus, ERp57 is presented with a preselected set of substrates upon which it can act, and the specific binding of calreticulin and calnexin to ERp57 is pivotal to the functions of the resulting complexes. To gain further insights into the formation of these ERp57-ER lectin complexes, we have investigated the regions of ERp57 that are specifically required for its binding to calreticulin. Using a quantitative pull-down assay to investigate the binding of ERp57/PDI chimeras to calreticulin, we define the b and b' domains of ERp57 as the minimal elements that are sufficient for complex formation. This analysis further identifies a novel role for the distinctive C-terminal extension of ERp57 in reconstituting complex formation to wild type levels. Using our understanding of substrate binding to the b' domain of PDI as a paradigm, we show that alterations to specific residues in the b' domain of ERp57 dramatically reduce or completely abolish its binding to calreticulin. On the basis of these data, we propose a model where the region of ERp57 equivalent to the primary substrate binding site of archetypal PDI is occupied by calreticulin and suggest that the ER lectins act as adaptor molecules that define the substrate specificity of ERp57. PMID:14871899

  16. Bridging the Gap between the Language of Science and the Language of School Science through the Use of Adapted Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Linda M.; Norris, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we make the case that the language of school science and the language of science are widely divergent. We trace the divergence to a simple view of reading that prevails not only in science education but in most of schooling. Based upon the importance of language in science and the role of language in capturing the essential nature of…

  17. Policies on Free Primary and Secondary Education in East Africa: A Review of the Literature. Create Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oketch, Moses O.; Rolleston, Caine M.

    2007-01-01

    Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda are among the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa which have recently implemented policies for free primary education, motivated in part by renewed democratic accountability following the re-emergence of multi-party politics in the 1990s. However, it is not the first time that the goal of expanding primary education has been…

  18. The C.R.E.A.T.E. Approach to Primary Literature Shifts Undergraduates’ Self-Assessed Ability to Read and Analyze Journal Articles, Attitudes about Science, and Epistemological Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Sally G.; Lopatto, David; Stevens, Leslie M.

    2011-01-01

    The C.R.E.A.T.E. (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment) method uses intensive analysis of primary literature in the undergraduate classroom to demystify and humanize science. We have reported previously that the method improves students’ critical thinking and content integration abilities, while at the same time enhancing their self-reported understanding of “who does science, and why.” We report here the results of an assessment that addressed C.R.E.A.T.E. students’ attitudes about the nature of science, beliefs about learning, and confidence in their ability to read, analyze, and explain research articles. Using a Likert-style survey administered pre- and postcourse, we found significant changes in students’ confidence in their ability to read and analyze primary literature, self-assessed understanding of the nature of science, and epistemological beliefs (e.g., their sense of whether knowledge is certain and scientific talent innate). Thus, within a single semester, the inexpensive C.R.E.A.T.E. method can shift not just students’ analytical abilities and understanding of scientists as people, but can also positively affect students’ confidence with analysis of primary literature, their insight into the processes of science, and their beliefs about learning. PMID:22135371

  19. Lung Cancer Detected 5 Years after Resection of Cancer of Unknown Primary in a Mediastinal Lymph Node: A Case Report and Review of Relevant Cases from the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Hidenori; Arakaki, Kazunari; Taira, Naohiro; Furugen, Tomonori; Ichi, Takaharu; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawabata, Tsutomu

    2016-04-20

    We report the rare and interesting case of a primary lung cancer detected 5 years after cancer of unknown primary (CUP) of a mediastinal lymph node (LN) was resected. A 40-year-old male was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of unknown primary in a mediastinal lymph node after resection of the mediastinal tumor. Five years after resection of the CUP in mediastinal LN, a small, abnormal nodular shadow in left upper lobe was detected by chest CT. This pulmonary tumor was diagnosed as a lung adenocarcinoma. The pathological and immunohistological findings of the resected pulmonary tumor resembled those of the LN resected 5 years before. We speculated that the pulmonary lesion represented primary lung cancer that enlarged later than the metastatic mediastinal LN. This case illustrates the importance of careful observation and long-term follow-up in patients treated for CUP of a thoracic LN. PMID:26328596

  20. A Feasibility Study on Adaptive 18F-FDG-guided Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head and Neck Cancer in the Previously Irradiated Territory.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-30

    Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.

  1. Adherence to clinical practice guidelines among three primary contact professions: a best evidence synthesis of the literature for the management of acute and subacute low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Amorin-Woods, Lyndon G.; Beck, Randy W.; Parkin-Smith, Gregory F.; Lougheed, James; Bremner, Alexandra P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine adherence to clinical practice guidelines in the medical, physiotherapy and chiropractic professions for acute and subacute mechanical low back pain through best-evidence synthesis of the healthcare literature. Methods: A structured best-evidence synthesis of the relevant literature through a literature search of relevant databases for peer-reviewed papers on adherence to clinical practice guidelines from 1995 to 2013. Inclusion of papers was based on selection criteria and appraisal by two reviewers who independently applied a modified Downs & Black appraisal tool. The appraised papers were summarized in tabular form and analysed by the authors. Results: The literature search retrieved 23 potentially relevant papers that were evaluated for methodological quality, of which 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The main finding was that no profession in the study consistently attained an overall high concordance rating. Of the three professions examined, 73% of chiropractors adhered to current clinical practice guidelines, followed by physiotherapists (62%) and then medical practitioners (52%). Conclusions: This review showed that quality papers in this area of research are very limited. Notwithstanding, chiropractors appear to adhere to clinical practice guidelines more so than physiotherapists and medical practitioners, although there is scope for improvement across all three professions. PMID:25202150

  2. Primary bone marrow diffuse large B-cell lymphoma accompanying cold agglutinin disease: A case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Tomoko; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Moro, Hiroko; Yumoto, Hirofumi; Uchibayashi, Sachiko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Nakanishi, Ryota; Okuno, Hiroko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okuno, Takafumi; Hodohara, Keiko; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a well-recognized complication of lymphoproliferative disorders. It has been previously recognized that cases of primary CAD frequently exhibit underlying malignant lymphoma in the bone marrow. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma is the most common subtype of malignant lymphoma; however, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has also been documented, albeit extremely rare. The current report presents a case of primary bone marrow DLBCL accompanying CAD. A 76-year-old male presented with fever and fatigue. Laboratory tests revealed anemia and elevated bilirubin and cold agglutinins with a titer of 8,192 at 4°C. Bone marrow biopsy demonstrated DLBCL and systemic surveillance failed to detect tumorous lesions or lymphadenopathy. Following R-THP-COP therapy, cold agglutinins titer was markedly decreased (by <4); however, malignant lymphoma relapsed and cold agglutinin levels increased again (4,096). This is the second documented case of primary bone marrow DLBCL accompanying CAD. Previously, malignant lymphoma exclusively involving the bone marrow, namely primary bone marrow lymphoma (PBML), has been recognized as a rare and aggressive subtype. The analyses of the present study revealed that the incidence of hemolytic anemia in primary bone marrow DLBCL may be high compared with conventional DLBCL. Therefore, additional analyses are required to clarify the clinicopathological features of PBML. PMID:24348825

  3. Primary bone marrow diffuse large B-cell lymphoma accompanying cold agglutinin disease: A case report with review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    YAMASHITA, TOMOKO; ISHIDA, MITSUAKI; MORO, HIROKO; YUMOTO, HIROFUMI; UCHIBAYASHI, SACHIKO; YOSHII, MIYUKI; NAKANISHI, RYOTA; OKUNO, HIROKO; YOSHIDA, TAKASHI; OKUNO, TAKAFUMI; HODOHARA, KEIKO; OKABE, HIDETOSHI

    2014-01-01

    Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a well-recognized complication of lymphoproliferative disorders. It has been previously recognized that cases of primary CAD frequently exhibit underlying malignant lymphoma in the bone marrow. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma is the most common subtype of malignant lymphoma; however, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has also been documented, albeit extremely rare. The current report presents a case of primary bone marrow DLBCL accompanying CAD. A 76-year-old male presented with fever and fatigue. Laboratory tests revealed anemia and elevated bilirubin and cold agglutinins with a titer of 8,192 at 4°C. Bone marrow biopsy demonstrated DLBCL and systemic surveillance failed to detect tumorous lesions or lymphadenopathy. Following R-THP-COP therapy, cold agglutinins titer was markedly decreased (by <4); however, malignant lymphoma relapsed and cold agglutinin levels increased again (4,096). This is the second documented case of primary bone marrow DLBCL accompanying CAD. Previously, malignant lymphoma exclusively involving the bone marrow, namely primary bone marrow lymphoma (PBML), has been recognized as a rare and aggressive subtype. The analyses of the present study revealed that the incidence of hemolytic anemia in primary bone marrow DLBCL may be high compared with conventional DLBCL. Therefore, additional analyses are required to clarify the clinicopathological features of PBML. PMID:24348825

  4. Primary urinary bladder mucosa associated lymphoid tissue type lymphoma presenting as a close mimic for genitourinary tuberculosis: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Jitani, Ankit Kumar; Mishra, Jaya; Sailo, Stephen L.; Raphael, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the urinary bladder is a rare entity. It has a distinctively different presentation than the urothelial carcinoma, which is the most common form of bladder cancer, but might mimic inflammatory lesions such as tubercular cystitis, clinically as well as radiologically. We present a case of primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the bladder, which was a close mimicker of tuberculosis, leading to delay in diagnosis. We highlight the role of biopsy in prompt diagnosis of these cases. We emphasize on the high index of suspicion required to identify such cases at an early stage, which has pronounced prognostic implications. PMID:26834416

  5. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis and obvious ossification due to primary pulmonary MALT lymphoma with extensive plasmacytic differentiation: Report of a rare case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hua; Wu, Zuqun; Wang, Zhaoming; Yao, Hongtian

    2015-01-01

    Localized (primary) pulmonary amyloidosis associated with pulmonary low-grade B cell lymphoma is rarely occurred. Here we report an unusual case of nodular pulmonary amyloidosis and obvious ossification due to primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with extensive plasmacytic differentiation in a 59-year-old man; moreover, two bronchial lymph nodes were involved histologically. The patient underwent a left lower lobectomy along with mediastinal lymphadenectomy. He received no adjuvant therapy and the postoperative course was uneventful within the 14 months follow-up period after his initial diagnosis. PMID:26261657

  6. Primary ectopic breast carcinoma in a supernumerary breast arising in the anterior chest wall: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Sally; Aggarwal, Ajay; Predolac, Domonica; Cunnick, Giles; Ashford, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Accessory mammary tissue occurs in 0.2-6% of women, and is under the same hormonal influences as breast tissue, potentially undergoing malignant transformation. Carcinomas of accessory mammary tissue account for ∼0.3% of breast cancers, 5% of which are within a supernumerary breast. Due to its rarity and the low index of clinical suspicion, it is often diagnosed at a later stage compared with breast cancer. Reports of carcinoma developing in a supernumerary breast are rare. We describe a case of a 48-year-old woman, presenting with ectopic breast carcinoma within a supernumerary breast below the inframammary fold. We describe the mode of presentation, diagnosis and treatment with reference to the available literature. The radiotherapy treatment plan is discussed in detail to provide reference for future cases as the available literature offers no formal guidance on radiotherapy dose, fractionation or treatment field. PMID:24968437

  7. From PALSA PLUS to PALM PLUS: adapting and developing a South African guideline and training intervention to better integrate HIV/AIDS care with primary care in rural health centers in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Only about one-third of eligible HIV/AIDS patients receive anti-retroviral treatment (ART). Decentralizing treatment is crucial to wider and more equitable access, but key obstacles are a shortage of trained healthcare workers (HCW) and challenges integrating HIV/AIDS care with other primary care. This report describes the development of a guideline and training program (PALM PLUS) designed to integrate HIV/AIDS care with other primary care in Malawi. PALM PLUS was adapted from PALSA PLUS, developed in South Africa, and targets middle-cadre HCWs (clinical officers, nurses, and medical assistants). We adapted it to align with Malawi's national treatment protocols, more varied healthcare workforce, and weaker health system infrastructure. Methods/Design The international research team included the developers of the PALSA PLUS program, key Malawi-based team members and personnel from national and district level Ministry of Health (MoH), professional associations, and an international non-governmental organization. The PALSA PLUS guideline was extensively revised based on Malawi national disease-specific guidelines. Advice and input was sought from local clinical experts, including middle-cadre personnel, as well as Malawi MoH personnel and representatives of Malawian professional associations. Results An integrated guideline adapted to Malawian protocols for adults with respiratory conditions, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and other primary care conditions was developed. The training program was adapted to Malawi's health system and district-level supervision structure. PALM PLUS is currently being piloted in a cluster-randomized trial in health centers in Malawi (ISRCTN47805230). Discussion The PALM PLUS guideline and training intervention targets primary care middle-cadre HCWs with the objective of improving HCW satisfaction and retention, and the quality of patient care. Successful adaptations are feasible, even across health systems as different as those of

  8. Diagnosis and management of a patient with primary pulmonary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, AI-GUI; GAO, XIAO-YAN; LU, HUI-YU

    2014-01-01

    Primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) is an uncommon type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The majority of PPLs are of low-grade, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type. Primary pulmonary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is extremely rare, and prompt diagnosis may be challenging since its clinical symptoms and signs are nonspecific. Although the clinical features, diagnostic procedures, optimal management and prognostic factors of this disease have not yet been well defined, open thoracotomy and chest computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous biopsy are the preferred methods used in previous studies. In the present case report, the diagnosis and management of a patient with primary pulmonary DLBCL is reported. A 68-year-old patient was admitted to hospital in May 2013, with complaints of shortness of breath and intermittent wheezing and a cough associated with the production of small amounts of phlegm. Following admission, chest CT scans revealed a mass in the right middle lobe with ground-glass opacities at the lesion margins, as well as air bronchograms in the areas of consolidation. Bronchoscopy was performed and revealed an endobronchial lesion and partial stenosis in the distal end of the middle segment bronchus. Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) of the right hilar lymph node, as well as endobronchial biopsy, was performed. The patient was diagnosed with primary pulmonary DLBCL by subsequent histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of biopsy specimens collected via TBNA. Following the final diagnosis, standard treatment with CHOP chemotherapy resulted in significant clinical and radiological response and the patient remained in remission 8 months later. These results indicate that TBNA may be an effective method for the diagnosis of primary pulmonary DLBCL. PMID:25120602

  9. Association of a wide invasive malignant thymoma with myastenia gravis and primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid adenoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Triggiani, Vincenzo; Guastamacchia, Edoardo; Lolli, Ivan; Troccoli, Giuseppe; Resta, Francesco; Sabbà, Carlo; Ruggieri, Nadia; Tafaro, Emilio

    2006-01-01

    There are few cases described in the world literature reporting an association of thymoma (with myasthenia gravis or not) with hyperparathyroidism. In these cases the hyperparathyroidism was due to the presence of an adenoma or hyperplasic parathyroid tissue either in the cervical region or in an ectopic intrathymic location.(12345) In other cases the syndrome of hypercalcemia was due to the secretion of parathyroid-related protein (PTHRP) (6) or parathyroid hormone (PTH) (7) by the thymoma itself. We report the first case, at the best of our knowledge, of a wide invasive malignant thymoma (type B3), associated with myasthenia gravis and hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma. PMID:16873103

  10. Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent/Primary Caregiver Form: Ages 0-5--Its Factor Structure and Other Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

    2011-01-01

    A child's acquisition of adaptive behavior and skills may constitute his or her most important goal during infancy and early childhood. In addition, adaptive behavior data often are required when making decisions under Part C of the 2004 Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act. This study reports the results of a factor analysis of…

  11. Intratympanic steroids as primary initial treatment of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Labatut, Tomás; Daza, María José; Alonso, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness, dosage, safety and comfort of intratympanic steroids as primary initial treatment of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). Prospective nonrandomized clinical practice study was performed in Tertiary referral center university hospital. A total of 35 consecutive patients suffering from newly diagnosed sudden sensorineural hearing loss with mean pure-tone average thresholds of 81 ± 21 dB were treated. No previous therapy had been undertaken. Intratympanic steroid injection as primary initial treatment was administered during 2 weeks on a twice a week schedule, between 2010 and 2011. Treatment was started on average within 2 days of symptoms onset. Pre and post-treatment audiometric evaluations were analyzed on follow-up as well as tolerance of the procedure and possible adverse effects. 66-85 % of patients achieved successful treatment according to the different outcome criteria used to evaluate hearing improvement (Furuhashi criteria/improvement of ≥10 dB in pure-tone average). Mean post-treatment improvement regarding pure-tone average was 34 ± 21 dB. A 48 ± 43 % improvement in speech discrimination score was observed. Patients received an average of 18 mg of methylprednisolone per injection and a total dose of 72 mg per treatment cycle. No serious adverse effects were noted. Intratympanic steroid injection is an effective, safe and well-tolerated office based-procedure for the treatment of ISSHL as primary initial treatment that can avoid the potential adverse effects of systemic steroids. A higher dose, schedule of administration as well as standardization of hearing recovery criteria still need to be established. PMID:23254396

  12. Sorafenib in combination with low-dose-homoharringtonine as a salvage therapy in primary refractory FLT3-ITD-positive AML: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gaixiang; Mao, Liping; Liu, Hui; Yang, Min; Jin, Jie; Qian, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    The presence of internal tandem duplications (ITD) in the Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (FLT3) has been associated with a poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Over the past decade, FLT3 is a promising target in FLT3-ITD-positive AML. Sorafenib which is one of the commonly focused FLT3 inhibitors may improve outcome, but only few patients display long-term responses in previously reported cases, prompting the search for underlying resistance mechanisms and therapeutic strategies to overcome them. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report about sorafenib in combination with low-dose-homoharringtonine as a salvage therapy successfully administrated and got complete remission (CR) in primary refractory FLT3-ITD-positive AML. Our result demonstrates the combination of this two drugs may be a good choice for the primary refractory FLT3-ITD-positive AML patient, although cooperative studies of large numbers of these patients are needed to evaluate and optimize this combination. PMID:26884901

  13. Primary Cutaneous Cryptococcosis Treated with Debridement and Fluconazole Monotherapy in an Immunosuppressed Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jennifer; Bartelt, Luther; Yu, Deborah; Joshi, Anjali; Weinbaum, Bradley; Pierson, Tiffany; Patrizio, Michael; Warren, Cirle A.; Hughes, Molly A.; Donowitz, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic yeast present in the environment. Practitioners are familiar with the presentation and management of the most common manifestation of cryptococcal infection, meningoencephalitis, in patients with AIDS or other conditions of immunocompromise. There is less awareness, however, of uncommon presentations where experience rather than evidence guides therapy. We report a case of primary cutaneous cryptococcosis (PCC) in a patient who had been immunosuppressed by chronic high-dose corticosteroid for the treatment of severe asthma. This case highlights the importance of early recognition of aggressive cellulitis that fails standard empiric antibiotic treatment in an immunocompromised patient. It also demonstrates successful treatment of PCC with a multispecialty approach including local debridement and fluconazole monotherapy. PMID:25722900

  14. Primary NK/T-cell lymphoma of the larynx: Report of 2 cases and review of the English-, Japanese-, and Chinese-language literature.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Su-Yu; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Ke; Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Ju-Mei; Lu, Qiong-Hui; Huang, Zai-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer/T (NK/T) -cell lymphoma in the larynx is extremely rare, as only 29 cases have been previously reported in the English-language, Japanese-language, and Chinese-language literature. Its characteristics have never been systematically illustrated. We report 2 new cases of laryngeal NK/T-cell lymphoma, and we discuss the process of the diagnosis of this disease, the choice of treatment, and treatment outcomes. We also summarize all 31 cases reported thus far. Symptoms of laryngeal NK/T-cell lymphoma are difficult to differentiate from those of other laryngeal diseases. The most common laryngeal subsite in the reported cases was the supraglottis, and roughly one-third of these cases involved the cervical lymph nodes. Because of our limited experience with this disease and the difficulties encountered in interpreting the pathologic findings, most patients required multiple biopsies over a few months before their diagnosis was confirmed. The outcome of treatment was generally poor. Radiotherapy, alone or combined with chemotherapy, was superior to chemotherapy alone in treating this disease in its early stages. In view of the frequency of local lymph node metastasis, irradiation fields should cover the entire cervical area. We believe that prompt diagnosis and treatment with radiotherapy are both critical to improving survival for patients with laryngeal NK/T-cell lymphoma. PMID:27140022

  15. Habituation of visual adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  16. Habituation of visual adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  17. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  18. Using HeLa cell stress response to introduce first year students to the scientific method, laboratory techniques, primary literature, and scientific writing.

    PubMed

    Resendes, Karen K

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular biology course that couples inquiry-based experimental design with extensive scientific writing was designed at Westminster College to expose first year students to these concepts early in their undergraduate career. In the module students used scientific literature to design and then implement an experiment on the effect of cellular stress on protein expression in HeLa cells. In parallel the students developed a research paper in the style of the undergraduate journal BIOS to report their results. HeLa cells were used to integrate the research experience with the Westminster College "Next Chapter" first year program, in which the students explored the historical relevance of HeLa cells from a sociological perspective through reading The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot. In this report I detail the design, delivery, student learning outcomes, and assessment of this module, and while this exercise was designed for an introductory course at a small primarily undergraduate institution, suggestions for modifications at larger universities or for upper division courses are included. Finally, based on student outcomes suggestions are provided for improving the module to enhance the link between teaching students skills in experimental design and execution with developing student skills in information literacy and writing. PMID:25726932

  19. Functional Parathyroid Cyst: A Rare Cause of Malignant Hypercalcemia with Primary Hyperparathyroidism—A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Areej; Khan, Yusra; Raza, Shahzad; Akbar, Ghulam; Khan, Monis; Diwan, Nauman; Rizvi, Wajih

    2012-01-01

    Parathyroid cysts are rare lesions found in the neck and anterior mediastinum. They are often nonfunctional (>90%) and rarely in the functional form. This paper discusses a case of severe hypercalcemia (23 mg/dL) secondary to a rare functional parathyroid cyst. The patient was later found to have a hemorrhagic cyst with compression of the right recurrent laryngeal nerve. Preoperative diagnosis of the lesion was parathyroid carcinoma. However, reexploration of the parathyroid mass along with microscopic study confirmed the diagnosis of a parathyroid cyst. Following cystectomy, the patient restored her baseline functional status with preservation of the right recurrent laryngeal nerve. Postoperative followup three years later showed no evidence of cyst recurrence. This paper illustrates the rare presentation of parathyroid functional cysts with severe hypercalcemia and primary hyperparathyroidism. Physicians should be aware of the presence of hemorrhage, inflammation, and compressive symptoms in these cysts which mimic parathyroid carcinoma. These patients should be managed with aggressive medical and surgical intervention. PMID:22431942

  20. Synchronous bilateral primary breast malignant phyllodes tumor and carcinoma of the breast with Paget’s disease: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyuan; Cheng, Xiaoming; Sun, Suhong; Yang, Weiming; Kong, Fanli; Zeng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous bilateral primary breast malignant phyllodes tumor or/and carcinoma of the breast with Paget’s disease is rare. In the article, we present a case of bilateral carcinoma of the breast with Paget’s disease of the right breast and malignant phyllodes tumor of the left breast. A 44-years-old Chinese woman presented with a 1 month history of the right breast nipple with eczema and fester and growing and palpable mass of left breast. Molybdenum target X-ray revealed microcalcification in the right breast, which was highly suspected of malignant tumor, and round-like mass with smooth surface and homogeneous density in the left breast. Color ultrasound showed a lobulated lump which circumferential blood flows around in the left breast, and which did not show any mass in the right breast. The patient was undertaken the bilateral modified radical mastectomy. The histological diagnosis was Paget’s disease associated with infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the right breast and malignant phyllodes tumor the left breast. The patient also received 6 cycles of the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy by using T.T. regimen comprised docetaxel (100 mg) and pirarubicin (60 mg). PMID:26770378

  1. American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Published bimonthly by the National Endowment for the Humanities, this edition of "Humanities" focuses on issues in American literature. Articles and their authors consist of: (1) "Conversations about Literature" (an interview with Cleanth Brooks and Willie Morris about writing and writers in America); (2) "The Spine of Literature" (an interview…

  2. Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma With 6p25.3 Rearrangement in a Cardiac Transplant Recipient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Olson, Luke C; Cheng, Esther; Mathew, Susan; Torres-Quinones, Marta; Magro, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders define an important form of lymphoproliferative disease causally linked with a state of iatrogenic immune dysregulation inherent to the posttransplant setting. Most posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders are in the context of Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disease, most notably diffuse large-cell B-cell lymphoma. A less common variant falls under the rubric of posttransplant T-cell lymphoproliferative disease, which is largely unrelated to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is the most recognized form of posttransplant T-cell lymphoproliferative disease. Although the 6p25.3 translocation is seen in a variety of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, this particular translocation in the spectrum of T-cell lymphoproliferative disease is a fairly specific finding pointing toward a diagnosis of primary cutaneous ALCL and a rare subset of lymphomatoid papulosis. This translocation in the peripheral T-cell lymphoma setting serves as a favorable prognostic predictor. We report a case of an 81-year-old heart transplant recipient who developed an expansile neck mass 17 years after his heart transplant. A diagnosis of cutaneous ALCL was subsequently made with cytogenetic analysis yielding the 6p25.3 translocation. The characteristic biphasic morphology of a small-cell epidermotropic neoplastic cell populace in concert with a dermal based large-cell infiltrate characteristic for those cases of ALCL harboring this translocation was seen. After excision of the nodule, his azathioprine was withheld. He is currently alive and well without evidence of disease. PMID:26863058

  3. Isolated primary extranodal lymphoma of the oral cavity: A series of 15 cases and review of literature from a tertiary care cancer centre in India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gunjan H.; Panwar, Sajid Khan; Chaturvedi, Pankaj P.; Kane, Shubhada N.

    2011-01-01

    well. Isolated oral lymphoma is extremely rare and from our data we can say that oral NHL in Indian sub population is more aggressive compared with western literature. PMID:22174494

  4. A Systematic Review of Depression Treatments in Primary Care for Latino Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Hansen, Marissa C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: A systematic literature review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing depression treatments in primary care for Latinos is conducted. The authors rate the methodological quality of studies, examine cultural and linguistic adaptations, summarize clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness findings, and draw conclusions for improving…

  5. MindMatters--A Programme for the Promotion of Mental Health in Primary and Secondary Schools: Results of an Evaluation of the German Language Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franze, M.; Paulus, P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present a German adaptation of the Australian programme MindMatters for school mental health promotion in secondary schools. Design/methodology/approach: As well as other methods, the external evaluation consisted of a questionnaire-based pre-post-design (at one year interval of measurement; n=633…

  6. Researching Australian Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes about the…

  7. Diagnostic and therapeutic ionizing radiation and the risk of a first and second primary breast cancer, with special attention for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Drooger, Jan C; Hooning, Maartje J; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Baaijens, Margreet H A; Obdeijn, Inge Marie; Sleijfer, Stefan; Jager, Agnes

    2015-02-01

    Occurrence of breast cancer is a well-known long-term side effect of ionizing radiation (both diagnostic and therapeutic). The radiation-induced breast cancer risk increases with longer follow-up, higher radiation dose and younger age of exposure. The risk for breast cancer following irradiation for lymphomas is well known. Although data regarding the carcinogenic risk of adjuvant radiotherapy for a primary breast cancer are sparse, an increased risk is suggested with longer follow-up mainly when exposed at younger age. Particularly, patients with a BRCA1/2 mutation might be more sensitive for the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation due to an impaired capacity of repairing double strand DNA breaks. This might have consequences for the use of mammography in breast cancer screening, as well as the choice between breast conserving therapy including radiotherapy and mastectomy at primary breast cancer diagnosis in young BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Good data regarding this topic, however, are scarce, mainly due to constraints in the design of performed studies. In this review, we will discuss the current literature on the association between ionizing radiation and developing breast cancer, with particular attention to patients with a BRCA1/2 mutation. PMID:25533736

  8. Quantitative Nuclease Protection Assays (qNPA) as Windows into Chemical-Induced Adaptive Response in Cultures of Primary Human Hepatocytes (Concentration and Time-Response)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cultures of primary human hepatocytes have been shown to be dynamic in vitro model systems that retain liver-like functionality (e.g. metabolism, transport, induction). We have utilized these culture models to interrogate 309 ToxCast chemicals. The study design characterized both...

  9. Inclusive Music Education in the Republic of Korea: Policies and Adaptive Instruction for General Educators of Primary School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Jew

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to research the current inclusive practices in primary school music education in the Republic of Korea (ROK), identify issues that hamper optimal inclusion, and develop instructional strategies and recommendations to assist general educators in the accommodation of students with disabilities in their music classes.…

  10. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  11. Parenthood after Primary Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances-Fischer, Jana E.; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the experience of parenting after primary infertility and describes construction and initial testing of an instrument for assessing characteristics of this understudied population. (Contains 52 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  12. High risk of cerebrospinal fluid leakage in surgery of a rare primary intraosseous cavernous hemangioma of the clivus showing meningeal infiltration: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Lucas; Archavlis, Eleftherios; Januschek, Elke; Ulrich, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary intraosseous cavernous hemangiomas (PICH) of the skull represent an infrequent bone tumor. Although some rare cases of PICHs located in the skull base have been published, to our concern only three cases have been reported in the English literature of PICHs arising within the clivus. Case Description: We present the case of a patient presenting an isolated abducens paresis due to a rare PICH of the clivus showing also an unusual destruction of the inner table as well as infiltration of the dura mater. Due to this uncommon infiltrative pattern of an otherwise expected intraosseous tumor, a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-fistula occurred while performing a transnasal biopsy. The patient recovered successfully without need of lumbar drainage or re-surgery. Additionally, intratumoral decompression was sufficient to relief the abducens paresis. Conclusions: Our case provides new and meaningful information about clinical features as well as growth pattern of these rare clival tumors. We also discuss the importance of knowing these peculiarities before surgery in order to plan the optimal operative management as well as to avoid complications while approaching PICHs localized in such a delicate cranial region. PMID:25949853

  13. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peng; Venkatachalam, Jonathen; Lee, Victor Kwan Min

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Leiomyoma is a smooth muscle neoplasm that commonly occurs in the genitourinary system and the gastrointestinal tract of the body. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma is rarely reported in literature. We report a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyoma of a 55‐year‐old male patient presenting with symptoms of cough for six months. PMID:27516882

  14. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Venkatachalam, Jonathen; Lee, Victor Kwan Min; Tan, Sze Khen

    2016-05-01

    Leiomyoma is a smooth muscle neoplasm that commonly occurs in the genitourinary system and the gastrointestinal tract of the body. Primary pulmonary leiomyoma is rarely reported in literature. We report a rare case of primary pulmonary leiomyoma of a 55-year-old male patient presenting with symptoms of cough for six months. PMID:27516882

  15. Adapt or die?

    PubMed

    Visser, S S; Nel, A H

    1996-12-01

    The worldwide economic recession and the concomitant limited stock of finances have had an influence on the available money of every household and have also inhibited the improvement of socio-economic conditions and medicine. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) has the objective of improving the living conditions of the people with regard to housing, education, training and health care. The latter seems to be a major problem which has to be addressed with the emphasis on the preventive and promotional aspects of health care. A comprehensive health care system did not come into being property in the past because of the maldistribution of health care services, personnel and differences in culture and health care beliefs and values. The question that now arises, is how to render a quality health care service within the constraints of inadequate financing and resources. A comprehensive literature study has been done with reference to quality health care and financing followed by a survey of existing health services and finances. Recommendations are made about minimum requirements to be accepted if one were to adapt rather than die in terms of the provision of healthcare: the decentralization and rationalization of the administration of health care, the stress on and realization of effective and efficient primary health care, the acceptance of participative management in health providing organizations, the provision of financial management training for health care managers and the application of management accounting principles for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of management. PMID:9283343

  16. Adapting the Posterior Probability of Diagnosis (PPOD) Index to Enhance Evidence-Based Screening: An Application to ADHD in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Yu, Lan; Grasso, Damion J.; Kolko, David J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study adapts the Posterior Probability of Diagnosis (PPOD) Index for use with screening data. The original PPOD Index, designed for use in the context of comprehensive diagnostic assessments, is overconfident when applied to screening data. To correct for this overconfidence, we describe a simple method for adjusting the PPOD Index to improve its calibration when used for screening. Specifically, we compare the adjusted PPOD Index to the original index and Naïve Bayes probability estimates on two dimensions of accuracy, discrimination and calibration, using a clinical sample of children and adolescents (N = 321) whose caregivers completed the Vanderbilt Assessment Scale to screen for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and who subsequently completed a comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Results indicated that the adjusted PPOD Index, original PPOD Index, and Naïve Bayes probability estimates are comparable using traditional measures of accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, AUC) but the adjusted PPOD Index showed superior calibration. We discuss the importance of calibration for screening and diagnostic support tools when applied to individual patients. PMID:25000935

  17. W4 - Science in Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsler, Karen Jo

    2012-10-01

    We are never too young or too old to enjoy a good piece of literature. Integrating science and literature results in the development of reading skills while helping students discover the wonders of science. This session will focus on learning activities for The Very Lonely Firefly and Why Mosquitoes Buzz in Your Ear. The lessons are designed for upper elementary but could be adapted for any grade level.

  18. Korean Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihl, Marshall R.

    While Chinese was, by and large, the formal and public literary language of the Korean court and aristocracy, native Korean literature survived as an oral tradition in the more informal and private realms of life. The Yi Dynasty which lasted until the Japanese annexation of 1910, produced and recorded a rich treasury of Chinese and Korean…

  19. Women's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.; Quinn, Laura, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The articles in this focused journal issue discuss women authors and examine female images in English and American literature. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Margaret Fuller and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Rhetoric and the Shape of Learning" (Susan Lundvall Brodie); (2) "Feminist Psychology through Feminist…

  20. Teacher Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Three articles are included in this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Form Is Not Enough: Thinking the Unthinkable about Teaching Literature," John Milstead recommends a reading program for high school English courses which emphasizes the quantity (rather than quality) of reading material according to individual student interest so…

  1. Literature Ink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Using images in the classroom to help students find meaning in literature is not new. Although composition teachers have long used the visual arts as a source for stimulating student engagement, sometimes the subject matter can fail to achieve the desired result. Too often, students lack the vocabulary or frame of reference to be engaged in a work…

  2. Cultural Adaptation in Outdoor Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrizio, Sheila M.; Neill, James

    2005-01-01

    Outdoor programs often intentionally provide a different culture and the challenge of working out how to adapt. Failure to adapt, however, can cause symptoms of culture shock, including homesickness, negative personal behavior, and interpersonal conflict. This article links cross-cultural and outdoor programming literature and provides case…

  3. Adjustment to College as Measured by the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire: A Quantitative Review of Its Structure and Relationships with Correlates and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crede, Marcus; Niehorster, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analytic review (k = 237, N = 44,668) of the adjustment to college literature. The review, based on studies using the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, is organized around three primary themes: (1) the structure of students' adjustment to college, (2) the relationship of adjustment to college constructs with…

  4. Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2014-10-01

    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

  5. Adaptation in collaborative governance regimes.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K

    2014-10-01

    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program. PMID:25073764

  6. Robust adaptive transient damping in power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, D.A.; Sadighi, I.; Trudnowski, D.J.; Smith, J.R.; Nehrir, M.H. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1992-09-01

    This Volume 1 of the final report on RP2665-1 contains two parts. part 1 consists of the following: (1) a literature review of real-time parameter identification algorithms which may be used in self-tuning adaptive control; (2) a description of mathematical discrete-time models that are linear in the parameters and that are useful for self-tuning adaptive control; (3) detailed descriptions of several variations of recursive-least-squares algorithms (RLS algorithms) and a unified representation of some of these algorithms; (4) a new variation of RLS called Corrector Least Squares (CLS); (5) a set of practical issues that need to be addressed in the implementation of RLS-based algorithms; (6) a set of simulation examples that illustrate properties of the identification methods; and (7) appendices With FORTRAN listings of several identification codes. Part 2 of this volume addresses the problem of damping electromechanical oscillations in power systems using advanced control theory. Two control strategies are developed. Controllers are then applied to a power system as power system stabilizer (PSS) units. The primary strategy is a decentralized indirect adaptive control scheme where multiple self-tuning adaptive controllers are coordinated. This adaptive scheme is presented in a general format and the stabilizing properties are demonstrated using examples. Both the adaptive and the conventional strategies are applied to a 17-machine computer-simulated power system. PSS units are applied to four generators in the system. Detailed simulation results are presented that show the feasibility and properties of both control schemes. FORTRAN codes for the control simulations are given in appendices of Part 2, as also are FORTRAN codes for the Prony identification method.

  7. Primary immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID) refers to a heterogeneous group of over 130 disorders that result from defects in immune system development and/or function. PIDs are broadly classified as disorders of adaptive immunity (i.e., T-cell, B-cell or combined immunodeficiencies) or of innate immunity (e.g., phagocyte and complement disorders). Although the clinical manifestations of PIDs are highly variable, most disorders involve at least an increased susceptibility to infection. Early diagnosis and treatment are imperative for preventing significant disease-associated morbidity and, therefore, consultation with a clinical immunologist is essential. PIDs should be suspected in patients with: recurrent sinus or ear infections or pneumonias within a 1 year period; failure to thrive; poor response to prolonged use of antibiotics; persistent thrush or skin abscesses; or a family history of PID. Patients with multiple autoimmune diseases should also be evaluated. Diagnostic testing often involves lymphocyte proliferation assays, flow cytometry, measurement of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, assessment of serum specific antibody titers in response to vaccine antigens, neutrophil function assays, stimulation assays for cytokine responses, and complement studies. The treatment of PIDs is complex and generally requires both supportive and definitive strategies. Ig replacement therapy is the mainstay of therapy for B-cell disorders, and is also an important supportive treatment for many patients with combined immunodeficiency disorders. The heterogeneous group of disorders involving the T-cell arm of the adaptive system, such as severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), require immune reconstitution as soon as possible. The treatment of innate immunodeficiency disorders varies depending on the type of defect, but may involve antifungal and antibiotic prophylaxis, cytokine replacement, vaccinations and bone marrow transplantation. This article provides a detailed overview

  8. Beyond Synthesis: Re-Presenting Heterogeneous Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvester, Allan; Tate, Mary; Johnstone, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the nature, role and function of the literature review in academic discourse. Researchers in information systems (IS) are often advised to espouse a neutral viewpoint and adapt the goal of synthesising previous literature when conducting a literature review. However, since research literature in many areas of IS is diverse…

  9. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  10. Problems of Primary Education Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubova, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    Primary education in Russia has failed to adapt to the needs of post-Soviet society, and is still based on rote learning and memorization instead of learning through discovery and learning to use and apply what is learned.

  11. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  12. Evaluating the efficacy of adaptive management approaches: is there a formula for success?

    PubMed

    McFadden, Jamie E; Hiller, Tim L; Tyre, Andrew J

    2011-05-01

    Within the field of natural-resources management, the application of adaptive management is appropriate for complex problems high in uncertainty. Adaptive management is becoming an increasingly popular management-decision tool within the scientific community and has developed into two primary schools of thought: the Resilience-Experimentalist School (with high emphasis on stakeholder involvement, resilience, and highly complex models) and the Decision-Theoretic School (which results in relatively simple models through emphasizing stakeholder involvement for identifying management objectives). Because of these differences, adaptive management plans implemented under each of these schools may yield varying levels of success. We evaluated peer-reviewed literature focused on incorporation of adaptive management to identify components of successful adaptive management plans. Our evaluation included adaptive management elements such as stakeholder involvement, definitions of management objectives and actions, use and complexity of predictive models, and the sequence in which these elements were applied. We also defined a scale of degrees of success to make comparisons between the two adaptive management schools of thought. Our results include the relationship between the adaptive management process documented in the reviewed literature and our defined continuum of successful outcomes. Our data suggest an increase in the number of published articles with substantive discussion of adaptive management from 2000 to 2009 at a mean rate of annual change of 0.92 (r² = 0.56). Additionally, our examination of data for temporal patterns related to each school resulted in an increase in acknowledgement of the Decision-Theoretic School of thought at a mean annual rate of change of 0.02 (r² = 0.6679) and a stable acknowledgement for the Resilience-Experimentalist School of thought (r² = 0.0042; slope = 0.0013). Identifying the elements of successful adaptive management will be

  13. The Worker as Proteus: Understanding Occupational Adaptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faddis, Constance R.

    The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize what is known about occupational adaptability and to propose a heuristic model of the process(es) of adaptation in work. Following an introductory chapter, three chapters contain a review of literature that draws from many disciplines and presents an overview of human adaptation in general, as…

  14. Classifying climate change adaptation frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Complex socio-ecological demographics are factors that must be considered when addressing adaptation to the potential effects of climate change. As such, a suite of deployable climate change adaptation frameworks is necessary. Multiple frameworks that are required to communicate the risks of climate change and facilitate adaptation. Three principal adaptation frameworks have emerged from the literature; Scenario - Led (SL), Vulnerability - Led (VL) and Decision - Centric (DC). This study aims to identify to what extent these adaptation frameworks; either, planned or deployed are used in a neighbourhood vulnerable to climate change. This work presents a criterion that may be used as a tool for identifying the hallmarks of adaptation frameworks and thus enabling categorisation of projects. The study focussed on the coastal zone surrounding the Sizewell nuclear power plant in Suffolk in the UK. An online survey was conducted identifying climate change adaptation projects operating in the study area. This inventory was analysed to identify the hallmarks of each adaptation project; Levels of dependency on climate model information, Metrics/units of analysis utilised, Level of demographic knowledge, Level of stakeholder engagement, Adaptation implementation strategies and Scale of adaptation implementation. The study found that climate change adaptation projects could be categorised, based on the hallmarks identified, in accordance with the published literature. As such, the criterion may be used to establish the matrix of adaptation frameworks present in a given area. A comprehensive summary of the nature of adaptation frameworks in operation in a locality provides a platform for further comparative analysis. Such analysis, enabled by the criterion, may aid the selection of appropriate frameworks enhancing the efficacy of climate change adaptation.

  15. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  16. Helping Children Cope through Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Danielle F.

    2009-01-01

    As a primary educator, I have witnessed the impact literature can have on a child's life. Unfortunately, in our society children are exposed to a much higher level of violence, instability, and death than in previous years. To assist children through these difficult times, it is best to provide them with an outlet of expression. "Bibliotherapy",…

  17. The Literature of City Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Rob

    The research literature on city magazines can be divided into five primary sources: books on magazines, popular magazines/journals and newspapers, business magazines, scholarly journals, and unpublished theses. "The New Yorker," founded in 1925 specifically for a sophisticated, metropolitan audience, is considered a precursor of the current glossy…

  18. [The primary healthcare centres].

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Antonio; Maciocco, Gavino

    2014-04-01

    The central attributes of primary care are: first contact (accessibility), longitudinality (person- focused preventive and curative care overtime), patient-oriented comprehensiveness and coordination (including navigation towards secondary and tertiary care). Besides taking care of the needs of the individuals, primary health care teams are also looking at the community, especially when addressing social determinants of health. The rationale for the benefits for primary care for health has been found in: 1) greater access to needed services; 2) better quality of care; 3) a greater focus on prevention; 4) early management of health problems; 5) organizing and delivering high quality care for chronic non-communicable diseases. This paper describes the role of primary healthcare centres in strengthening community primary services and in reducing health inequalities. Furthemore, the experiences of Regional Health Services from Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna are discussed, with a brief overview of the literature. PMID:24770539

  19. Adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L.

    2016-01-01

    This review starts with a brief history and description of adaptive optics (AO) technology, followed by a showcase of the latest capabilities of AO systems for imaging the human retina and an extensive review of the literature on where AO is being used clinically. The review concludes with a discussion on future directions and guidance on usage and interpretation of images from AO systems for the eye. PMID:26973867

  20. What Factors Influence the Decisions of Parents of Children with Special Educational Needs when Choosing a Secondary Educational Provision for their Child at Change of Phase from Primary to Secondary Education? A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the results of a literature scoping exercise looking at the decisions parents of children with special educational needs (SEN) make when choosing a secondary placement to send their child at change of phase. The review reports on studies that were conducted in England and other areas of the UK as well as in Australia and the…

  1. The Life and Times of Emma Goldman: A Curriculum for Middle and High School Students. Primary Historical Documents on: Immigration, Freedom of Expression, Women's Rights, Anti-Militarism, Art and Literature of Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Candace; And Others

    The documents in this curriculum unit are drawn from the massive archive collected by the Emma Goldman Papers Project at the University of California (Berkeley). They are linked to the standard social studies and humanities curriculum themes of art and literature, First Amendment rights, labor, progressive politics, and Red Scare, the rise of…

  2. Primary Sternal Osteomyelitis Caused by Actinomyces israelii

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho; Jeon, Seok Chol; Jang, Hyo-Jun; Kim, Hyuck; Kim, Young Hak; Chung, Won-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Primary sternal osteomyelitis is a rare disease. Common infectious organisms causing primary sternal osteomyelitis include Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Actinomyces species are common saprophytes of the oral cavity, but there have been few reports in the literature of primary sternal osteomyelitis caused by Actinomyces species. We describe a case of primary sternal osteomyelitis caused by Actinomyces israelii without pulmonary involvement. PMID:25705607

  3. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  4. Toward reflexive climate adaptation research

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Preston, Benjamin L.; Rickards, Lauren; Fünfgeld, Hartmut; Keenan, Rodney J.

    2015-06-22

    Climate adaptation research is expanding very quickly within an increasingly reflexive society where the relationship between academia and other social institutions is in a state of flux. Tensions exist between the two dominant research orientations of research about and research for adaptation. In particular, the research community is challenged to develop processes for successfully executing transdisciplinary research for adaptation when academic institutions and researchers are largely structured around traditional, disciplinary expertise and funding models. One tool for helping to manage this tension is a third, more reflexive, orientation toward adaptation research that is emerging in the literature. Finally, this newmore » ‘research on adaptation research’ promises to help enhance understanding of the research enterprise itself and how it can become more adaptive.« less

  5. Toward reflexive climate adaptation research

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L.; Rickards, Lauren; Fünfgeld, Hartmut; Keenan, Rodney J.

    2015-06-22

    Climate adaptation research is expanding very quickly within an increasingly reflexive society where the relationship between academia and other social institutions is in a state of flux. Tensions exist between the two dominant research orientations of research about and research for adaptation. In particular, the research community is challenged to develop processes for successfully executing transdisciplinary research for adaptation when academic institutions and researchers are largely structured around traditional, disciplinary expertise and funding models. One tool for helping to manage this tension is a third, more reflexive, orientation toward adaptation research that is emerging in the literature. Finally, this new ‘research on adaptation research’ promises to help enhance understanding of the research enterprise itself and how it can become more adaptive.

  6. Providing Adaptivity in Moodle LMS Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despotovic-Zrakic, Marijana; Markovic, Aleksandar; Bogdanovic, Zorica; Barac, Dusan; Krco, Srdjan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an approach to providing adaptivity in e-education courses. The primary goal of the paper is to enhance an existing e-education system, namely Moodle LMS, by developing a method for creating adaptive courses, and to compare its effectiveness with non-adaptive education approach. First, we defined the basic requirements…

  7. Teaching adaptive leadership to family medicine residents: what? why? how?

    PubMed

    Eubank, Daniel; Geffken, Dominic; Orzano, John; Ricci, Rocco

    2012-09-01

    Health care reform calls for patient-centered medical homes built around whole person care and healing relationships. Efforts to transform primary care practices and deliver these qualities have been challenging. This study describes one Family Medicine residency's efforts to develop an adaptive leadership curriculum and use coaching as a teaching method to address this challenge. We review literature that describes a parallel between the skills underlying such care and those required for adaptive leadership. We address two questions: What is leadership? Why focus on adaptive leadership? We then present a synthesis of leadership theories as a set of process skills that lead to organization learning through effective work relationships and adaptive leadership. Four models of the learning process needed to acquire such skills are explored. Coaching is proposed as a teaching method useful for going beyond information transfer to create the experiential learning necessary to acquire the process skills. Evaluations of our efforts to date are summarized. We discuss key challenges to implementing such a curriculum and propose that teaching adaptive leadership is feasible but difficult in the current medical education and practice contexts. PMID:22906156

  8. Primary ectopic frontotemporal extradural craniopharyngioma

    PubMed Central

    Pourkhalili, Reza; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmad; Seif, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of primary ectopic frontotemporal extradural craniopharyngioma. Primary ectopic craniopharyngiomas are very rare and have been reported involving the fourth ventricle, infrasellar region, lateral ventricle, temporal area, cerebellopontine angle, clivus, corpus callosum, and prepontine cistern. There was just 1 case of craniopharyngioma previously presented in the literature, with nearly same location as the presenting case. PMID:27195250

  9. Children's Literature Favorites: Using the Five Senses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stomfay-Stitz, Aline M.

    Predicated on the idea that a multicultural and multisensory classroom program based on literature can attract children's interest, this paper provides guidelines for choosing representative classics from children's literature. The paper advances two primary goals for selection and experiences for children: (1) stimulation of the creativity of…

  10. Stepfamily Strengths: A Review of Popular Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reviewed popular literature (self-help books, magazines, adolescent fiction) that identified stepfamily strengths. Potential strengths of stepfamily life were identified in all three sources. The primary focus of self-help literature and magazine articles, however, was on stepfamily problems. Concludes that adolescent fiction may be used to good…

  11. Primary pulmonary lymphoma-role of fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in the initial staging and evaluating response to treatment - case reports and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Dhanapathi, Halanaik; Nazar, Aftab Hasan; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) is an uncommon entity of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which accounts for <1% of all cases of lymphoma. We present two rare cases of PPL of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which underwent 18fluorine fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography for initial staging and response evaluation after chemotherapy. PMID:27385889

  12. Psychiatry and primary care.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David

    2003-10-01

    There is now almost universal recognition that primary care is the place where most mentally distressed people first present for help. However, the pace at which the health system has adapted to this reality varies greatly from country to country, depending on the amount of resource devoted to mental illness services, the way in which primary care physicians have organized their practice, and the inertia of the system. Here we present several models from developed and developing countries and address briefly the issue of training of health workers. PMID:16946921

  13. Multiple Intelligence Literature Circles: A JFL and an EFL Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sai, Michiko; Hsu, Jeng-yih

    2007-01-01

    The idea of literature circles is not new; however, it is hardly adapted in a second language classroom. In Taiwan, using literature circles to teach a second/foreign language is even less seen. The two college teachers-researchers reported their experiences of trying out literature circles in a JFL (Japanese as a Foreign Language) and an EFL…

  14. Adaptation and risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.

  15. The Bullying Literature Project: Using Children's Literature to Promote Prosocial Behavior and Social-Emotional Outcomes among Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Cixin; Couch, Lauren; Rodriguez, Geovanna Rosas; Lee, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the Bullying Literature Project on social-emotional and behavioral outcomes among elementary school students. The Bullying Literature Project is a five-session classroom-wide intervention that uses children's literature as a springboard to promote adaptive social-cognitive process, teach social…

  16. Primary Intracranial Leptomeningeal Melanomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Lee, Chae-Heuck; Joo, Mee

    2015-01-01

    Primary intracranial malignant melanoma is a very rare and highly aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. A 66-year-old female patient presented a headache that had been slowly progressing for several months. A large benign pigmented skin lesion was found on her back. A brain MRI showed multiple linear signal changes with branching pattern and strong enhancement in the temporal lobe. The cytological and immunohiostochemical cerebrospinal fluid examination confirmed malignant melanoma. A biopsy confirmed that the pigmented skin lesion on the back and the conjunctiva were benign nevi. We report a case of primary intracranial malignant melanoma and review relevant literatures. PMID:26819692

  17. Pelvic organ prolapse: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    South, M; Amundsen, C L

    2007-12-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse has afflicted women since the beginning of mankind. Even though we have been faced with this problem for so many centuries, we still have not found a way to overcome gravity and prevent prolapse. We continue to make efforts to manage prolapse, modifying our techniques based on burgeoning research. This knowledge helps us to avoid repetitive complications from surgery and to improve techniques to prevent recurrent prolapse. In addition, we are constantly adapting our methods depending on available technology. With an aging population, the demand for physicians and surgeons trained in management of pelvic organ prolapse will increase. The rapidly evolving literature on pelvic organ prolapse makes a comprehensive review difficult. However, based on the current literature, randomized controlled trials are needed to compare new prolapse repair techniques to traditional techniques. Physicians specializing in surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse will need to work together to complete quality clinical trials. The primary focus of this review will be on the recent research concerning the epidemiology, etiology, presenting symptoms, and diagnosis of pelvic organ prolapse. We will also discuss the different types of prolapse by compartments of the vagina in which they occur and how each of these types of prolapse can be managed. Finally, we will review recent literature evaluating surgical repairs using transvaginal mesh kits. PMID:18043574

  18. Syphilis - primary

    MedlinePlus

    Primary syphilis; Secondary syphilis; Late syphilis; Tertiary syphilis ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum . This bacterium causes ...

  19. A primary Sjögren's syndrome patient with distal renal tubular acidosis, who presented with symptoms of hypokalemic periodic paralysis: Report of a case study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Soy, Mehmet; Pamuk, Omer Nuri; Gerenli, Murat; Celik, Yahya

    2005-11-01

    Although renal tubular acidosis (RTA), secondary to autoimmune interstitial nephritis, develops in a large proportion of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), most of the subjects are asymptomatic. Here, we shall present a 39-year-old female patient who came to us with hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP), and who was later diagnosed with distal RTA. The patient, who had xerostomia and xerophthalmia for a long period of time, was diagnosed with primary SS from serologic and histologic findings. The patient recovered by being prescribed potassium replacement therapy. Although renal biopsy was not performed, corticosteroids were administered because HPP indicated severe interstitial nephritis. HPP did not reoccur during a 2-year follow-up period. We also review cases with SS-related distal RTA and HPP. PMID:15690142

  20. Diabetes insipidus and increased serum levels of leptin and lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) in an adolescent boy with a primary intracranial germinoma. Case report and an endocrinological revaluation of literature.

    PubMed

    Carella, C; Rotondi, M; Del Buono, A; Sinisi, A M; Del Basso De Caro, M L; Mone, C M; Vizioli, L; Sorvillo, F; Mazziotti, G; Bellastella, A

    1999-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with a four-month history of polyuria-polydipsia and a diplopia which had reverted after treatment. The neuroimaging studies performed had been strongly suggestive of an optic nerve glioma, while endocrinological investigation (beta-hCG 420 IU/L) has lead to the correct diagnosis later confirmed at the immunohystochemical analysis performed at biopsy. The high serum level of hCG was unaffected by bromocriptine nor octreotide, while the PRL level (80.0 microg/L) was reduced only by bromocriptine. Among the several tumor markers which may be secreted by such lesions, ours is the first reported case of an elevation of serum LDH for a primary intracranial germinoma. Moreover, the elevated value of serum leptin reported by us might be due to the insensitivity of the hypothalamic structures to endogenous leptin. PMID:10475155

  1. A Critical Review of the Literature for Sales Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Shannon; Peltier, James W.; Erffmeyer, Robert; Whalen, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The "Journal of Marketing Education" is publishing a special issue on Sales Education and Training in August 2014. In this article, we review the sales education literature from four primary journals and the business literature at large. The four primary journals are the "Journal of Marketing Education," "Marketing Education Review," "Journal of…

  2. TEAM MODEL FOR EVALUATING ALTERNATIVE ADAPTATION STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in the scientific literature have focused attention on the need to develop adaptation strategies to reduce the risks, and take advantage of the opportunities, posed by climate change and climate variability. Adaptation needs to be considered as part of any response plan....

  3. World Literature Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Robert J.

    The development of a curriculum for graduate-level education in world literature, a logical extension of comparative literature, poses many problems. Among these is the misinterpretation and misuse of the term "world literature," which should be defined as literature from all over the world that is taught by those who read it in the original…

  4. Fantasy in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquino, John

    This report discusses the opposition to fantasy, as well as the support for it, both as an activity of the mind and as literature, and concludes that fantasy literature is useful in promoting language development and literature appreciation. The report then discusses characteristics of fantasy literature, lists works suitable for class use, and…

  5. Literature Circles: Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Lisa

    Literature Circles are a great way to supplement a reading program in a literature-based classroom. In this lesson plan, students create and answer comprehension questions, discover new vocabulary, and examine elements of literature. The students feel ownership in Literature Circles, because they are responsible for the meeting. Any genre of…

  6. Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Ernestine P., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The major articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of young adult literature. Specific topics covered in the articles are (1) questions worth asking students about young adult novels, (2) the five major functions of adolescent literature in high school literature programs, (3) Southwestern literature for adolescents, (4) teaching…

  7. Adaptive Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative adaptive seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-adaptive clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. Adaptive sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).

  8. Survey of adaptive control using Liapunov design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindorff, D. P.; Carroll, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of the literature in which Liapunov's second method is used in determining the control law is presented, with emphasis placed on the model-tracking adaptive control problem. Forty references are listed. Following a brief tutorial exposition of the adaptive control problem, the techniques for treating reduction of order, disturbance and time-varying parameters, multivariable systems, identification, and adaptive observers are discussed. The method is critically evaluated, particularly with respect to possibilities for application.

  9. Individual predictors of sensorimotor adaptability

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Peters, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    There are large individual variations in strategies and rates of sensorimotor adaptation to spaceflight. This is seen in both the magnitude of performance disruptions when crewmembers are first exposed to microgravity, and in the rate of re-adaptation when they return to Earth’s gravitational environment. Understanding the sources of this variation can lead to a better understanding of the processes underlying adaptation, as well as provide insight into potential routes for facilitating performance of “slow adapters”. Here we review the literature on brain, behavioral, and genetic predictors of motor learning, recovery of motor function following neural insult, and sensorimotor adaptation. For example, recent studies have identified specific genetic polymorphisms that are associated with faster adaptation on manual joystick tasks and faster recovery of function following a stroke. Moreover, the extent of recruitment of specific brain regions during learning and adaptation has been shown to be predictive of the magnitude of subsequent learning. We close with suggestions for forward work aimed at identifying predictors of spaceflight adaptation success. Identification of “slow adapters” prior to spaceflight exposure would allow for more targeted preflight training and/or provision of booster training and adaptation adjuncts during spaceflight. PMID:26217197

  10. Responding to Literature: Theme 2, Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexford

    This study presents the second of four reports of the results of the 1970-71 National Assessment of Literature. The educational attainments of nine-year-olds, thirteen-year-olds, seventeen-year-olds, and adults (ages 26-35) were surveyed according to the subjects' ability to become engaged in, find meanings in, and evaluate a work of literature.…

  11. Teaching Gifted Children Literature in Grades One through Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensley, Juliana Townsend

    Intended for teachers, administrators, and consultants, the booklet discusses purposes and objectives of teaching literature to gifted students in grades 1-3. Literature is seen as the heritage of important ideas in writing, and the purpose of the primary level gifted child's study of literature is defined as primarily the accumulation of ideas.…

  12. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

  13. Adapting Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John; Wedman, Judy

    1985-01-01

    The "Animals" program found on the Apple II and IIe system master disk can be adapted for use in the mathematics classroom. Instructions for making the necessary changes and suggestions for using it in lessons related to geometric shapes are provided. (JN)

  14. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  15. Adaptive homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kelvin J A

    2016-06-01

    Homeostasis is a central pillar of modern Physiology. The term homeostasis was invented by Walter Bradford Cannon in an attempt to extend and codify the principle of 'milieu intérieur,' or a constant interior bodily environment, that had previously been postulated by Claude Bernard. Clearly, 'milieu intérieur' and homeostasis have served us well for over a century. Nevertheless, research on signal transduction systems that regulate gene expression, or that cause biochemical alterations to existing enzymes, in response to external and internal stimuli, makes it clear that biological systems are continuously making short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of 'normal' capacity. These transient adaptations typically occur in response to relatively mild changes in conditions, to programs of exercise training, or to sub-toxic, non-damaging levels of chemical agents; thus, the terms hormesis, heterostasis, and allostasis are not accurate descriptors. Therefore, an operational adjustment to our understanding of homeostasis suggests that the modified term, Adaptive Homeostasis, may be useful especially in studies of stress, toxicology, disease, and aging. Adaptive Homeostasis may be defined as follows: 'The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events.' PMID:27112802

  16. Evolutionary adaptation to thermosensation.

    PubMed

    Gracheva, Elena O; Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N

    2015-10-01

    Organisms continuously evolve to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Chief among these are daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Relatively small in terms of real physical values, temperature fluctuations of just a few degrees can profoundly affect organismal functions. In vertebrates, temperature is detected by primary afferents of somatosensory neurons, which express thermo-gated ion channels. Most of our knowledge about temperature receptors comes from seminal studies in mice and rats. Recent work uncovered thermosensory mechanisms in other vertebrates, shedding light onto the diversity of thermosensory adaptations. Here, we summarize molecular mechanisms of thermosensation in different species and discuss the need to use the standard laboratory rodents and non-standard species side-by-side in order to understand fundamental principles of somatosensation. PMID:25698346

  17. Primary thrombocythemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... in which the bone marrow produces too many platelets. Platelets are a part of the blood that aids ... Primary thrombocythemia is caused by the overproduction of platelets. If untreated, this condition gets worse over time. ...

  18. Axioms of adaptivity

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, C.; Feischl, M.; Page, M.; Praetorius, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims first at a simultaneous axiomatic presentation of the proof of optimal convergence rates for adaptive finite element methods and second at some refinements of particular questions like the avoidance of (discrete) lower bounds, inexact solvers, inhomogeneous boundary data, or the use of equivalent error estimators. Solely four axioms guarantee the optimality in terms of the error estimators. Compared to the state of the art in the temporary literature, the improvements of this article can be summarized as follows: First, a general framework is presented which covers the existing literature on optimality of adaptive schemes. The abstract analysis covers linear as well as nonlinear problems and is independent of the underlying finite element or boundary element method. Second, efficiency of the error estimator is neither needed to prove convergence nor quasi-optimal convergence behavior of the error estimator. In this paper, efficiency exclusively characterizes the approximation classes involved in terms of the best-approximation error and data resolution and so the upper bound on the optimal marking parameters does not depend on the efficiency constant. Third, some general quasi-Galerkin orthogonality is not only sufficient, but also necessary for the R-linear convergence of the error estimator, which is a fundamental ingredient in the current quasi-optimality analysis due to Stevenson 2007. Finally, the general analysis allows for equivalent error estimators and inexact solvers as well as different non-homogeneous and mixed boundary conditions. PMID:25983390

  19. Adaptive Gas Metal Arc (GMA) Welder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachev, G.; Petkov, B.; Blagoev, L.; Tsankarski, I.

    1984-02-01

    Unlike NC machine-tools, where the tool path is primary and the product shape results from it, in arc welding the product is primary, and the welder - human or robot - has to contend with poor fitups, bad preparations, inexact positionning etc. All this means one thing - adaptivity. The axtent to which this is reasonable is discussed, and then a research project, conducted at IICR with the aim to create an adaptive GMA robot, is presented.

  20. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  1. Literature or Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Dennis

    1978-01-01

    Shows that the need to choose between literature-centered or experience-centered English instruction is a delusion, because instruction in literature also adds to the child's experience of language. (RL)

  2. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Bobby L.; Aeby, Ian

    1982-01-01

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data having variable frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  3. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  4. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  5. Developing Adaptive Teaching Competency through Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Franziska; Rogalla, Marion

    2009-01-01

    The research project Adaptive Teaching Competency seeks to conceptualise the processes of tuning teaching to individual students' learning needs and to empirically test, within the field of science teaching, to what extent Adaptive Teaching Competency can be fostered through teacher education. 32 primary and secondary teachers took part in an…

  6. Primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Madkhali, Tarıq; Alhefdhi, Amal; Chen, Herbert; Elfenbein, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder caused by overactivation of parathyroid glands resulting in excessive release of parathyroid hormone. The resultant hypercalcemia leads to a myriad of symptoms. Primary hyperparathyroidism may increase a patient’s morbidity and even mortality if left untreated. During the last few decades, disease presentation has shifted from the classic presentation of severe bone and kidney manifestations to most patients now being diagnosed on routine labs. Although surgery is the only curative therapy, many advances have been made over the past decades in the diagnosis and the surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism. The aim of this review is to summarize the characteristics of the disease, the work up, and the treatment options. PMID:26985167

  7. Writing from Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R.

    1982-01-01

    An approach to writing for junior high through college writing and literature classes is presented in this brief article. AUTHOR'S COMMENT (excerpt): Writing from literature, instead of only about literature, can provide creative approaches to the study of literary works. The activities listed can be done in conjunction with the study of a single…

  8. Native American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, C. Fayne; And Others

    Designed to accommodate a semester course in Native American Literature for secondary students, this teacher's guide includes a general introduction, a statement of the philosophy and goals upon which it is predicated, a nine-week block on post-Columbian literature, a nine-week block on oral literature, separate appendices for each block, a…

  9. What's Your Literature Quotient?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouzts, Dan T.

    Because a teacher who demonstrates a love of literature and reading is a valuable model for children, a study determined the knowledge of children's and adolescent literature of students enrolled in a graduate reading methods course. A questionnaire entitled "What's Your Literature Quotient?" was administered to 72 teachers concerning knowledge of…

  10. Living with Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    The 32 articles in this special journal issue are intended to familiarize teachers with recent, good young adult literature and to provide them with ways of integrating it into the literature curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include: (1) the changing hero in young adult literature, (2) book clubs, (3) the place of young adult fiction…

  11. Focus on World Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullican, James S., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the "Indiana English Journal" contains four articles: "Value Clarification through World Literature" by R. Baird Shuman; "Polynesian Literature: Coming to Life in the Classroom" (with bibliography) by Barbara M. Elkington and Ruth P. Smith; "The Deirdre Legend in Three Irish Plays" by Ronald L. Baker; and "Teaching Asian Literature"…

  12. Literature Circles. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Hui

    The use of literature circles has been discussed in a variety of academic journals, conference papers, and workshops. Teachers at all grade levels use literature circles as a vehicle through which students learn to: think critically about literature; express their thoughts in oral and written forms; and better enjoy their literacy experiences.…

  13. The "New" Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Kenneth L.

    1970-01-01

    The "new" teaching of literature which is enjoyable and relevant to the lives of students, and which reflects the excitement of the teacher, should (1) make less use of anthologies, more use of paperbacks; (2) involve less common reading, more individualized reading; (3) use less adult literature, more good adolescent literature; (4) consist of…

  14. Psychology and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  15. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A; Al Kharusi, Suad S; Al Bahrani, Bassim J; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-09-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  16. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A.; Al Kharusi, Suad S.; Al Bahrani, Bassim J.; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-01-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  17. Primary Teachers Opinion about Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matei, Stefania; Ciasca, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Homework assignments trigger various perceptions and attitudes in students, parents or teachers: some overestimate them, others reject them, some do it with pleasure and to others they cause tears. Literature indicates both benefits and disadvantages of homework. In Romania, at primary level, homework is a systematic practice. The explanation is…

  18. Primary hepatic angiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, P; Bhadana, U; Singh, R A K; Ahuja, A

    2015-09-01

    Primary hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare, aggressive tumor; composed of spindle or pleomorphic cells that line, or grow into, the lumina of pre-existing vascular spaces like sinusoids and terminal hepatic venules; with only about 200 cases diagnosed annually worldwide but it is the most common primary malignant mesenchymal tumor of the liver in adults and accounts for 2% of all primary hepatic malignancies. HAS occurs in association with known chemical carcinogens, but 75% of the tumors have no known etiology. Patients present with vague symptoms like abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue or an abdominal mass. Hepatic angiosarcoma is usually multicentric and involves both lobes, entire liver may also found to be involved. CD31 is the most reliable marker. These tumors lack specific features on imaging, so, pathological diagnosis is necessary. There are no established treatment guidelines because of low frequency and aggressive nature of tumor, chemotherapy is only palliative, liver resection is indicated for solitary mass and liver transplant is contraindicated. The aim of this article is to comprehensively review all the available literature and to present detailed information and an update on primary hepatic angiosarcoma. PMID:26008857

  19. Climate adaptation heuristics and the science/policy divide

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L.; Mustelin, Johanna; Maloney, Megan C.

    2013-09-05

    The adaptation science enterprise has expanded rapidly in recent years, presumably in response to growth in demand for knowledge that can facilitate adaptation policy and practice. However, evidence suggests such investments in adaptation science have not necessarily translated into adaptation implementation. One potential constraint on adaptation may be the underlying heuristics that are used as the foundation for both adaptation research and practice. In this paper, we explore the adaptation academic literature with the objective of identifying adaptation heuristics, assessing the extent to which they have become entrenched within the adaptation discourse, and discussing potential weaknesses in their framing that could undermine adaptation efforts. This investigation is supported by a multi-method analysis that includes both a quantitative content analysis of the adaptation literature that evidences the use of adaptation heuristics and a qualitative analysis of the implications of such heuristics for enhancing or hindering the implementation of adaptation. Results demonstrate that a number of heuristic devices are commonly used in both the peer-reviewed adaptation literature as well as within grey literature designed to inform adaptation practitioners. Furthermore, the apparent lack of critical reflection upon the robustness of these heuristics for diverse contexts may contribute to potential cognitive bias with respect to the framing of adaptation by both researchers and practitioners. Finally, we discuss this phenomenon by drawing upon heuristic-analytic theory, which has explanatory utility in understanding both the origins of such heuristics as well as the measures that can be pursued toward the co-generation of more robust approaches to adaptation problem-solving.

  20. Climate adaptation heuristics and the science/policy divide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Preston, Benjamin L.; Mustelin, Johanna; Maloney, Megan C.

    2013-09-05

    The adaptation science enterprise has expanded rapidly in recent years, presumably in response to growth in demand for knowledge that can facilitate adaptation policy and practice. However, evidence suggests such investments in adaptation science have not necessarily translated into adaptation implementation. One potential constraint on adaptation may be the underlying heuristics that are used as the foundation for both adaptation research and practice. In this paper, we explore the adaptation academic literature with the objective of identifying adaptation heuristics, assessing the extent to which they have become entrenched within the adaptation discourse, and discussing potential weaknesses in their framing thatmore » could undermine adaptation efforts. This investigation is supported by a multi-method analysis that includes both a quantitative content analysis of the adaptation literature that evidences the use of adaptation heuristics and a qualitative analysis of the implications of such heuristics for enhancing or hindering the implementation of adaptation. Results demonstrate that a number of heuristic devices are commonly used in both the peer-reviewed adaptation literature as well as within grey literature designed to inform adaptation practitioners. Furthermore, the apparent lack of critical reflection upon the robustness of these heuristics for diverse contexts may contribute to potential cognitive bias with respect to the framing of adaptation by both researchers and practitioners. Finally, we discuss this phenomenon by drawing upon heuristic-analytic theory, which has explanatory utility in understanding both the origins of such heuristics as well as the measures that can be pursued toward the co-generation of more robust approaches to adaptation problem-solving.« less