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Sample records for adapted shared reading

  1. Adapted Shared Reading at School for Minimally Verbal Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucchetti, Charlotte A

    2013-01-01

    Almost nothing is known about the capacity of minimally verbal students with autism to develop literacy skills. Shared reading is a regular practice in early education settings and is widely thought to encourage language and literacy development. There is some evidence that children with severe disabilities can be engaged in adapted shared reading…

  2. Shared Reading Goes High-Tech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Sharon Ruth; Islam, Chhanda

    2011-01-01

    Shared Reading is a powerful teaching technique for teaching beginning reading. Technologies such as Interactive Whiteboards now make Shared Reading much easier to do. Large texts are projected on the whiteboard for Choral reading, and interactive features allow students to learn about letter-sound correspondences, spelling patterns, punctuation,…

  3. Sharing a Reading Technique with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irish, Christy K.; Parsons, Seth A.

    2016-01-01

    Sharing reading techniques with families is an important responsibility of teachers. Dialogic reading is one way to improve young students' expressive vocabulary skills, which are important for later reading success. Dialogic reading also supports students' understanding of story structure and content. This well researched technique has not been…

  4. Do reading and spelling share a lexicon?

    PubMed

    Jones, Angela C; Rawson, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    In the reading and spelling literature, an ongoing debate concerns whether reading and spelling share a single orthographic lexicon or rely upon independent lexica. Available evidence tends to support a single lexicon account over an independent lexica account, but evidence is mixed and open to alternative explanation. In the current work, we propose another, largely ignored account--separate-but-shared lexica--according to which reading and spelling have separate orthographic lexica, but information can be shared between them. We report three experiments designed to competitively evaluate these three theoretical accounts. In each experiment, participants learned new words via reading training and/or spelling training. The key manipulation concerned the amount of reading versus spelling practice a given item received. Following training, we assessed both response time and accuracy on final outcome measures of reading and spelling. According to the independent lexica account, final performance in one modality will not be influenced by the level of practice in the other modality. According to the single lexicon account, final performance will depend on the overall amount of practice regardless of modality. According to the separate-but-shared account, final performance will be influenced by the level of practice in both modalities but will benefit more from same-modality practice. Results support the separate-but-shared account, indicating that reading and spelling rely upon separate lexica, but information can be shared between them.

  5. Shared orthographic neuronal representations for spelling and reading.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Jeremy J; Jiang, Xiong; Eden, Guinevere F

    2017-02-15

    A central question in the study of the neural basis of written language is whether reading and spelling utilize shared orthographic representations. While recent studies employing fMRI to test this question report that the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOTC) are active during both spelling and reading in the same subjects (Purcell et al., 2011a; Rapp and Lipka, 2011), the spatial resolution of fMRI limits the interpretation of these findings. Specifically, it is unknown if the neurons which encode orthography for reading are also involved in spelling of the same words. Here we address this question by employing an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging-adaptation (fMRI-A) paradigm designed to examine shared orthographic representations across spelling and reading. First, we identified areas that independently showed adaptation to reading, and adaptation to spelling. Then we identified spatial convergence for these two separate maps via a conjunction analysis. Consistent with previous studies (Purcell et al., 2011a; Rapp and Lipka, 2011), this analysis revealed the left dorsal IFG, vOTC and supplementary motor area. To further validate these observations, we then interrogated these regions using an across-task adaptation technique, and found adaptation across reading and spelling in the left dorsal IFG (BA 44/9). Our final analysis focused specifically on the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the vOTC, whose variability in location among subjects requires the use of subject-specific identification mechanisms (Glezer and Riesenhuber, 2013). Using a functional localizer for reading, we defined the VWFA in each subject, and found adaptation effects for both within the spelling and reading conditions, respectively, as well as across spelling and reading. Because none of these effects were observed during a phonological/semantic control condition, we conclude that the left dorsal IFG and VWFA are involved in accessing

  6. Shared Reading to Build Vocabulary and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The author presents four approaches to shared reading that he used with first through third graders in a high-needs, urban elementary school with a large population of students from immigrant homes. Using sociocultural and cognitive constructivist principles, the author shows how these approaches built students' academic vocabulary and…

  7. The Effect of Shared Reading on Sixth Grade Students' Motivation to Read and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollimon, Deborah Neal

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are changes in student motivation to read and reading comprehension when the instructional strategy of shared reading is used with sixth grade students. The quasi-experimental design for the study was based on the pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design. The sample for the study…

  8. Interactive Shared Book Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Interactive Shared Book Reading" is a general practice that adults may use when reading with children and is intended to enhance young children's language and literacy skills. Typically, "Interactive Shared Book Reading" involves an adult reading a book to a child or a small group of children and using a variety of techniques…

  9. Parents Sharing Books: Motivation and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shefelbine, John

    This booklet focuses on reading motivation, especially on specific steps to motivate the middle school child to learn. The main topics explored are: finding or making time for reading for pleasure; filling or flooding the house with interesting reading materials; and reading as a way of life. Practical questions from parents are answered and…

  10. Comparing the Effectiveness of Two Oral Reading Practices: Round-Robin Reading and the Shared Book Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldredge, J. Lloyd; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Compares the effectiveness of two oral reading practices on second graders' reading growth: shared book reading and round-robin reading. Concludes that the shared book experience was superior to round-robin reading in reducing young children's oral reading errors, improving their reading fluency, and improving their reading comprehension. (PA)

  11. Teacher Strategies in Shared Reading for Children with Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girgin, Ümit

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Utilization of shared reading practice in hearing impaired children's literacy instruction may yield quite beneficial. However an investigation of Turkish literature revealed no studies regarding application of shared reading within elementary settings for hearing or hearing-impaired children. Furthermore international…

  12. Parental Influence on Child Interest in Shared Picture Book Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Camilo; Stowe, Rebecca M.; Arnold, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated whether parents can affect their children's interest in shared reading. Found that after 1 week, children in the interest intervention group were more interested in shared reading than children in the attention-control group. After 4 weeks, intervention parents still reported increased child interest, although direct observations…

  13. Computerized Adaptive Testing in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smittle, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of computerized placement testing at Santa Fe Community College to enable students needing only a short review of reading skills to exit early from a College Preparatory Reading Class (CPRC). Describes CPRC placement, structure, curriculum, and exit criteria; the Early Exit Reading Project; and project results. (DMM)

  14. Shared Reading, the Pupil, and the Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Pupil/teacher interaction provides opportunities for many kinds of learning experiences. Within the reading curriculum, there are a plethora of activities in oral communication and working together harmoniously. Thus from every day experiences, the teacher may communicate verbally what he/she has read in an interesting, informative manner on the…

  15. Idea Sharing: The Use of Read-Share-Act to Promote Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charumanee, Nisakorn

    2014-01-01

    Nisakorn Charumanee believes that a reading teacher has an active role in cultivating reading culture or reading habit and in activating students to "want" to read. One way to do this is to integrate extensive reading into the classroom (Day and Bamford, 1998; Bamford and Day, 2004) where extensive reading can be enhanced if the teacher…

  16. Family Pedagogy: Parent-Child Interaction in Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Liang; Fleer, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    How parent-child interaction effectively supports children's bilingual heritage language development in a shared book-reading practice is an under-researched area. The in-depth study reported in this paper examined an episode of one child, a four-year-old girl and her father, reading an English story in Chinese. Approximately 70 hours of video…

  17. A Tension between Theory and Practice: Shared Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Justina

    2014-01-01

    This study had two main aims: first, to offer a descriptive account of shared reading program using an evaluative lens and second, to examine whether teachers' perceptions of the importance of phonological awareness, word decoding, and text comprehension in helping young learners develop their reading abilities were indeed emphasized during…

  18. The Link between Text Difficulty, Reading Speed and Exploration of Printed Text during Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy-Charland, Annie; Perron, Melanie; Turgeon, Krystle-Lee; Hoffman, Nichola; Chamberland, Justin A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study the reading speed of the narration and the difficulty of the text was manipulated and links were explored with children's attention to the printed text in shared book reading. Thirty-nine children (24 grade 1 and 15 grade 2) were presented easy and difficult books at slow (syllable by syllable) or fast (adult reading speed)…

  19. Shared Book Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated April 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Shared book reading" (also known as "interactive shared book reading") encompasses practices that adults can use when reading with children, which are intended to enhance young children's language and literacy skills. During "shared book reading," an adult reads a book to an individual child or a group of children…

  20. Shared Reading within Latino Families: An Analysis of Reading Interactions and Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Terese C.; Filippini, Alexis L.; Gerber, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    Storybook reading research with monolingual families suggests that adult strategies used during shared reading provide greater opportunities for children's verbal participation while facilitating their language and literacy skills. Research of this type with linguistic minority children is relatively uncommon. In the present study, 16 primarily…

  1. Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions do…

  2. Shared Reading for Older Emergent Readers in Bilingual Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enguidanos, Tomas; Ruiz, Nadeen T.

    2008-01-01

    Historically, and continuing to the present, children in the primary grades receive the lion's share of attention and resources in learning to read. This makes sense: Young, early readers have a head start in achieving well not only in literacy skills, but in school in general. However, as inner-city, middle-grade teachers will readily attest,…

  3. Parent-Child Aesthetic Shared Reading with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The participation of parents-shared reading with children is a topic that has generated a lot of attention among many researchers in the world. For the use of picture story books, which have caused positive impact on the child's learning process, has also been recommended as the best strategies to develop children's aesthetic ability. The purpose…

  4. Mother-Child Shared Book Reading and Maternal Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression significantly influences parent-child interactions. While the existence of this impact is well established during playtime, little research has been conducted on the way that maternal depression relates to shared book reading. This is a particularly important activity because it relates to children's language and literacy…

  5. A Sharing Item Response Theory Model for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Daniel O.

    2004-01-01

    A new sharing item response theory (SIRT) model is presented that explicitly models the effects of sharing item content between informants and test takers. This model is used to construct adaptive item selection and scoring rules that provide increased precision and reduced score gains in instances where sharing occurs. The adaptive item selection…

  6. Mother-Child Shared Reading with Print and Digital Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji Eun; Anderson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) compare mother-child interactions in three contexts: shared reading with a book in a traditional print format, with an electronic book in a CD-ROM format, and with an electronic book in a video clip format; (2) compare mother-child interactions with a three-year-old and a seven-year-old; and (3) compare…

  7. Shared Story Reading: Teaching Mathematics to Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtade, Ginevra R.; Lingo, Amy S.; Karp, Karen S.; Whitney, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Shared story reading is a practice that has been used successfully to promote literacy skills for all students. The benefits of shared story reading are not exclusive to literacy instruction and should carry into other disciplines such as mathematics. Using shared story reading to teach mathematics concepts can play an important role in…

  8. Increasing Teacher Mathematical Talk during Shared Book Reading in the Preschool Classroom: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojnoski, Robin; Polignano, Joy; Columba, Helen Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Shared book reading provides opportunities for adults to engage in literacy-related interactions with children in meaningful ways. Research has examined various dimensions of adult and child behavior during shared book-reading interactions with some focus on how book type affects the reading experience. Little research, however,…

  9. Spelling and reading: using visual sensitivity to explore shared or separate orthographic representations.

    PubMed

    Pammer, Kristen; Connell, Ellen; Kevan, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Do we use the same neurocognitive mechanisms to spell that we do to read? There is a considerable number of conflicting findings, such that evidence has been provided to support common mechanisms for reading and spelling, while other research supports the proposal that reading and spelling utilise unique neurocognitive resources. Sensitivity to visual spatial-frequency doubling (FD) has been demonstrated to correlate with and specifically predict orthographic processing when reading; therefore, if spelling and reading share some elements of orthographic representation, sensitivity to FD should similarly correlate with, and predict, spelling ability by virtue of this shared association. A double dissociation between reading and spelling was found such that sensitivity to the FD task, as mediated by the visual dorsal stream, predicted reading ability but not spelling, while the visual control task predicted spelling but not reading ability, in poor readers/spellers. The results support a dual-orthographic model with separate orthographic representations for reading and spelling.

  10. An Examination of Preschool Teachers' Shared Book Reading Practices in Spanish: Before and after Instructional Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Simmons, Leslie; Nava-Walichowski, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Shared book reading is a prominent practice in preschools; however, limited research has examined this practice in classrooms with English language learners (ELLs). This study investigated the shared book reading practices of seven preschool teachers of Spanish-speaking ELLs to describe their vocabulary instructional practices before and after…

  11. Embedding Mathematical Dialogue in Parent-Child Shared Book Reading: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojnoski, Robin L.; Columba, Helen Lynn; Polignano, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Shared book reading provides a meaningful context for rich conversations to occur between a child and an adult and offers opportunities for children to be exposed to a range of vocabulary and concepts that often extend beyond their everyday experiences. Few studies have examined parent-child shared book reading as a context for…

  12. The Method and Significance of Secondary Preservice Teachers Sharing Reading with Individual Teenagers in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study was to describe how secondary preservice teachers of diverse subject areas shared their reading with an individual student in school. A second purpose was to describe the barriers (if any) that they faced sharing their reading. A third purpose was to report their beliefs about the positive aspects of sharing…

  13. Building Vocabulary Knowledge in Preschoolers through Shared Book Reading and Gameplay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Ridge, Katherine; Parker, Amira; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Dickinson, David K.

    2016-01-01

    This study moves beyond previous investigations to examine whether an educational intervention combining shared book reading with a vocabulary game increases children's vocabulary knowledge. Four-year-olds (N = 44) were randomly assigned to dyads in either an intervention (shared book reading plus vocabulary review game) or comparison condition…

  14. Preschool Teachers' Implementation of Vocabulary Strategies during Shared Reading: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Miriam; Adelman, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Shared reading is reported to be the single best instructional practice for emergent literacy skills. Vocabulary instruction practices implemented during shared reading by both Head Start (HS) teachers and teachers from more affluent private school settings were compared to determine whether there were differences between the 2…

  15. A Shared Reading Intervention with Parents to Enhance Young Children's Early Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Susan S. H.; Berthelsen, Donna; Walker, Susan; Nicholson, Jan M.; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was used to investigate the effects of two forms of shared reading on children's language and literacy skills. Parents of 80 children in the preparatory year of school participated in an eight-week home reading intervention. Families were assigned to one of three groups: dialogic reading (DR), dialogic…

  16. Yellow Brick Roads: Shared and Guided Paths to Independent Reading 4-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Janet

    2000-01-01

    This book provides research, practical methods, detailed strategies, and resources for read-aloud, shared, guided, and independent reading. In addition, the author outlines solutions for many of the literacy dilemmas that teachers face every day: (1) understanding what gets in the way of reading; (2) rethinking and reorganizing time and resources;…

  17. Shared-Reading Volume in Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes book reading practices occurring in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms in comparison to early childhood education (ECE) classrooms. Reading logs submitted by 19 ECSE teachers and 13 ECE teachers over one academic year included all books read in whole class settings; these logs were analyzed to assess the…

  18. Parents Sharing Books: Self-Esteem and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Michael, Ed.

    This booklet focuses on self-esteem, especially as to how reading at home can affect reading and school performance and how poor reading attainment can affect self-esteem. Specific steps to help middle school children gain self-esteem are discussed. Practical questions from parents are answered and activities are described which can be used at…

  19. Network Adaptive Deadband: NCS Data Flow Control for Shared Networks

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Cacho, Miguel; Delgado, Emma; Prieto, José A. G.; López, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new middleware solution called Network Adaptive Deadband (NAD) for long time operation of Networked Control Systems (NCS) through the Internet or any shared network based on IP technology. The proposed middleware takes into account the network status and the NCS status, to improve the global system performance and to share more effectively the network by several NCS and sensor/actuator data flows. Relationship between network status and NCS status is solved with a TCP-friendly transport flow control protocol and the deadband concept, relating deadband value and transmission throughput. This creates a deadband-based flow control solution. Simulation and experiments in shared networks show that the implemented network adaptive deadband has better performance than an optimal constant deadband solution in the same circumstances. PMID:23208556

  20. Clinical discourse and engagement during shared storybook reading in preschool groups.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Sylvia F; Vaughn, Bobbie

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of discourse on engagement in shared storybook reading in children who are language impaired and hard to engage. Although active participation in shared storybook reading in children who are typically developing is well defined, research has shown that the engagement of children with language disorders differ as a result of adult reading styles. To investigate the influence of reading style on children who were hard to engage, four shared storybook-reading sessions were analyzed. Within the highly engaged sessions studied, several discourse features were identified that were supportive of the engagement of children with language impairment who were difficult to engage. These features were a balance of requests and responses between clinician and child, use of various scaffolding measures, and a focus on content through the use of pausing, inflection, and volume. The discourse patterns identified were additional to the strategies associated with dialogic book-reading literature focused on active participation.

  1. Increasing young children's contact with print during shared reading: longitudinal effects on literacy achievement.

    PubMed

    Piasta, Shayne B; Justice, Laura M; McGinty, Anita S; Kaderavek, Joan N

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal results for a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) assessing the impact of increasing preschoolers' attention to print during reading are reported. Four-year-old children (N = 550) in 85 classrooms experienced a 30-week shared reading program implemented by their teachers. Children in experimental classrooms experienced shared-book readings 2 or 4 times per week during which their teachers verbally and nonverbally referenced print. Children in comparison classrooms experienced their teachers' typical book reading style. Longitudinal results (n = 356, 366) showed that use of print references had significant impacts on children's early literacy skills (reading, spelling, comprehension) for 2 years following the RCT's conclusion. Results indicate a causal relation between early print knowledge and later literacy skills and have important implications concerning the primary prevention of reading difficulties.

  2. Shared Book Reading Promotes Not Only Language Development, But Also Grapheme Awareness in German Kindergarten Children

    PubMed Central

    Wesseling, Patricia B. C.; Christmann, Corinna A.; Lachmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Effects of shared book reading on expressive vocabulary and grapheme awareness without letter instruction in German kindergarteners (longitudinal; N = 69, 3;0–4;8 years) were investigated. Expressive vocabulary was measured by using a standardized test; grapheme awareness was measured by asking children to identify one grapheme per trial presented amongst non-letter distractors. Two methods of shared book reading were investigated, literacy enrichment (additional books) and teacher training in shared book reading strategies, both without explicit letter instruction. Whereas positive effects of shared book reading on expressive vocabulary were evident in numerous previous studies, the impact of shared book reading on grapheme awareness has not yet been investigated. Both methods resulted in positive effects on children’s expressive vocabulary and grapheme awareness over a period of 6 months. Thus, early shared book reading may not only be considered to be a tool for promoting the development of expressive vocabulary, but also for implicit acquisition of grapheme awareness. The latter is considered an important precondition required for the explicit learning of grapheme–phoneme conversion rules (letter knowledge). PMID:28377732

  3. Shared Book Reading Promotes Not Only Language Development, But Also Grapheme Awareness in German Kindergarten Children.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, Patricia B C; Christmann, Corinna A; Lachmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Effects of shared book reading on expressive vocabulary and grapheme awareness without letter instruction in German kindergarteners (longitudinal; N = 69, 3;0-4;8 years) were investigated. Expressive vocabulary was measured by using a standardized test; grapheme awareness was measured by asking children to identify one grapheme per trial presented amongst non-letter distractors. Two methods of shared book reading were investigated, literacy enrichment (additional books) and teacher training in shared book reading strategies, both without explicit letter instruction. Whereas positive effects of shared book reading on expressive vocabulary were evident in numerous previous studies, the impact of shared book reading on grapheme awareness has not yet been investigated. Both methods resulted in positive effects on children's expressive vocabulary and grapheme awareness over a period of 6 months. Thus, early shared book reading may not only be considered to be a tool for promoting the development of expressive vocabulary, but also for implicit acquisition of grapheme awareness. The latter is considered an important precondition required for the explicit learning of grapheme-phoneme conversion rules (letter knowledge).

  4. Shared Reading Coaching Tool: 3 Days, 1 Book, 3 Times Through

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    This handy resource can be used by teachers, classroom volunteers, and parents for large- or small-group shared reading instruction. Scripted language, fun activities, and sample questions on topics such as directionality, text conventions, high-frequency words, and comprehension provide the instructor with reading strategies to support beginning…

  5. The Seuss Boost: Rhyme Helps Children Retain Words from Shared Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Kirsten; Macauley, Megan; Furay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the potential benefits of rhyme on young children's word retention during shared reading. In two experiments, 2- to 4-year-old children heard their parent read either a rhymed or non-rhymed version of the same animal story, and were then tested on how many animal names they subsequently recognized from the story in Experiment 1…

  6. Prekindergarten Teachers' Verbal References to Print during Classroom-Based, Large-Group Shared Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The frequency with which adults reference print when reading with preschool-age children is associated with growth in children's print knowledge (e.g., L.M. Justice & H.K. Ezell, 2000, 2002). This study examined whether prekindergarten (pre-K) teachers naturally reference print during classroom shared reading and if verbal print…

  7. The Effects of Pre-Reading and Sharing Mechanisms on Learning with the Use of Annotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Hsu, Guo-Liang

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating students' annotation behaviors and their effects on learning achievement with pre-reading (reading before class) exercises and Web-based sharing mechanisms. An 8-week quasi-experiment was conducted with 125 sixth-grade elementary school students. The study shows the following results. First, a significant…

  8. Pilot Study Evaluating the Impact of Dialogic Reading and Shared Reading at Transition to Primary School: Early Literacy Skills and Parental Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillinger, Claire; Wood, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the positive impact of shared reading (SR) and dialogic reading (DR) on young children's language and literacy development. This exploratory study compared the relative impact of parental DR and shared reading interventions on 4-year-old children's early literacy skills and parental attitudes to reading…

  9. The genomic signature of parallel adaptation from shared genetic variation

    PubMed Central

    Roesti, Marius; Gavrilets, Sergey; Hendry, Andrew P.; Salzburger, Walter; Berner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Parallel adaptation is common and may often occur from shared genetic variation, but the genomic consequences of this process remain poorly understood. We first use individual-based simulations to demonstrate that comparisons among populations adapted in parallel from shared variation reveal a characteristic genomic signature around a selected locus: a low divergence valley centered at the locus and flanked by twin peaks of high divergence. This signature is initiated by the hitchhiking of haplotype tracts differing among derived populations in the broader neighborhood of the selected locus (driving the high divergence twin peaks) and shared haplotype tracts in the tight neighborhood of the locus (driving the low divergence valley). This initial hitchhiking signature is reinforced over time because the selected locus acts as a barrier to gene flow from the source to the derived populations, thus promoting divergence by drift in its close neighborhood. We next empirically confirm the peak-valley-peak signature by combining targeted and RAD sequence data at three candidate adaptation genes in multiple marine (source) and freshwater (derived) populations of threespine stickleback. Finally, we use a genome-wide screen for the peak-valley-peak signature to discover additional genome regions involved in parallel marine-freshwater divergence. Our findings offer a new explanation for heterogeneous genomic divergence and thus challenge the standard view that peaks in population divergence harbor divergently selected loci, and that low-divergence regions result from balancing selection or localized introgression. We anticipate that genome scans for peak-valley-peak divergence signatures will promote the discovery of adaptation genes in other organisms. PMID:24635356

  10. Click, Swipe, and Read: Sharing e-Books with Toddlers and Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jessica L.; Paciga, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    e-Books share some key features with traditional printed picture books, but also include distinct features such as live animation, interactive components, and the operation of the technology that require new approaches to shared reading with young children. The purpose of this paper is to better inform adults working with young children (teachers,…

  11. Identifying Reading Problems with Computer-Adaptive Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, C.; Tymms, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an adaptive assessment called Interactive Computerised Assessment System (InCAS) that is aimed at children of a wide age and ability range to identify specific reading problems. Rasch measurement has been used to create the equal interval scales that form each part of the assessment. The rationale for the…

  12. Adapting Books: Ready, Set, Read!: EAT: Equipment, Adaptations, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonover, Judith; Norton-Darr, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Developing multimodal materials to introduce or extend literacy experiences sets the stage for literacy success. Alternative ways to organize, display and arrange, interact and respond to information produces greater understanding of concepts. Adaptations include making books easier to use (turning pages or holding), and text easier to read…

  13. Technology-Enhanced Shared Reading with Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: The Role of a Fluent Signing Narrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Vannesa; Hurtig, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Early shared reading experiences have been shown to benefit normally hearing children. It has been hypothesized that hearing parents of deaf or hard-of-hearing children may be uncomfortable or may lack adequate skills to engage in shared reading activities. A factor that may contribute to the widely cited reading difficulties seen in the majority…

  14. Read Aloud versus Shared Reading: The Effects on Vocabulary Acquisition, Comprehension, and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Militante, Dana Anne Kappy

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of read alouds on eighteen second graders' vocabulary acquisition and comprehension when listening to stories with and without companion texts. Following each reading session, the students were required to complete a 100 word cloze comprehension test, as well as a brief vocabulary test based on…

  15. Studying the Effect Dialogic Reading Has on Family Members' Verbal Interactions during Shared Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, Diana; Dauksas, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The effect dialogic reading training has on the verbal interactions of family members and their "at risk" preschool children was studied. There were significant differences at the time of the post-test between family members who received dialogic reading training and the group that participated in the preschool's traditional family time. Family…

  16. Pedagogical Knowledge and Elementary Reading Methodology Textbooks: In Search of a Shared Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Jay; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines a computer-based concordance of 5,760 references from 12 elementary reading methodology textbooks with copyrights ranging from 1985 to 1989. Suggests the existence of a shared example of pedagogical knowledge, which is composed of a complex amalgam of knowledge on philosophy, principles, and practices. (RS)

  17. The Effects of a Responsive Parenting Intervention on Parent-Child Interactions during Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.; Zucker, Tricia; Crawford, April D.; Solari, Emily F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined mother-child shared book reading behaviors before and after participation in a random-assignment responsive parenting intervention called Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) that occurred during infancy (PALS I), the toddler-preschool (PALS II) period, or both as compared with a developmental assessment (DAS) intervention (DAS…

  18. Exploring Stability and Change in Preschool Teachers' Shared Book Reading Verbal Language Profiles across One Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bales, Mary K. Cockburn

    2013-01-01

    This study explored preschool teachers' verbal language profiles during shared book reading sessions. The verbal language profiles were comprised of a combination of instructional and management strategies both at the fall and winter time points. Latent profile and transition analyses were used to explore the profiles identified in the study's…

  19. Designing Caregiver-Implemented Shared-Reading Interventions to Overcome Implementation Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; Logan, Jessica R.; Damschroder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents an application of the theoretical domains framework (TDF; Michie et al., 2005), an integrative framework drawing on behavior-change theories, to speech-language pathology. Methods: A multistep procedure was used to identify barriers affecting caregivers' implementation of shared-reading interventions with their…

  20. When Reading It Wrong Is Getting It Right: Shared Evaluation Pedagogy among Struggling Fifth Grade Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aukerman, Maren S.

    2007-01-01

    This study offers an alternative to traditional notions of scaffolding for reading comprehension by tracing the evolution of a fifth-grade small group literature conversation in which the teacher sought to displace himself as "primary knower" (Berry, 1981) in the conversation. The study examines how the teacher shared evaluation with his…

  1. Secondary Preservice Teachers' Attitudes toward and Experiences with Sharing Their Reading with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore 72 preservice teachers' attitudes toward and experiences with sharing their content area as well as their recreational reading with teenager students. Methodology: Preservice teachers who were enrolled in a required secondary content area literacy course at a Midwest university, including 49 in a…

  2. Enhancing Vocabulary, Print Awareness and Phonological Awareness through Shared Storybook Reading with Low-Income Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebvre, Pascal; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of two shared storybook reading (SSR) interventions on language and emergent literacy skills of low-income preschoolers. The control intervention targeted language and print awareness, skills for which there is strong evidence of the effect of SSR. The experimental intervention added a focus on phonological…

  3. Enhancing Preschool Educators' Ability to Facilitate Conversations during Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Girolametto, Luigi; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether professional development enhanced educators' use of conversational strategies during shared book reading with small groups of preschoolers. Twenty preschool educators and small groups of children from each of their classrooms were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. The 10…

  4. Parents' Interactions with Preschoolers during Shared Book Reading: Three Strategies for Promoting Quality Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jisu; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that home environments play a critical role in developing children's early literacy skills. Given the importance of developing early literacy skills to bolster children's chances for subsequent academic success, this article highlights the role of parent-child shared book reading. Summarizing research on different types of…

  5. Shared Storybook Reading in Head Start: Impact of Questioning Styles on the Vocabulary of Hispanic Dual Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sánchez, Claudia; Burnham, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined various ways of asking questions about target vocabulary words during shared storybook reading with young Hispanic dual language learners enrolled in Head Start. The study examined the demand level and placement of adults' questions during shared storybook reading. The research design incorporated five conditions; namely,…

  6. Children with Communication Impairments: Caregivers' and Teachers' Shared Book-Reading Quality and Children's Level of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Justice, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed two aims: First, to examine the quality of adult shared book-reading behaviors for teachers and caregivers of children with communication impairments (CI) and, second, to compare the level of child literacy engagement during the teacher-led (group) and caregiver-led (one-on-one) shared book-reading sessions. Sixteen children…

  7. Shared Reading: assessing the intrinsic value of a literature-based health intervention.

    PubMed

    Longden, Eleanor; Davis, Philip; Billington, Josie; Lampropoulou, Sofia; Farrington, Grace; Magee, Fiona; Walsh, Erin; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2015-12-01

    Public health strategies have placed increasing emphasis on psychosocial and arts-based strategies for promoting well-being. This study presents preliminary findings for a specific literary-based intervention, Shared Reading, which provides community-based spaces in which individuals can relate with both literature and one another. A 12-week crossover design was conducted with 16 participants to compare benefits associated with six sessions of Shared Reading versus a comparison social activity, Built Environment workshops. Data collected included quantitative self-report measures of psychological well-being, as well as transcript analysis of session recordings and individual video-assisted interviews. Qualitative findings indicated five intrinsic benefits associated with Shared Reading: liveness, creative inarticulacy, the emotional, the personal and the group (or collective identity construction). Quantitative data additionally showed that the intervention is associated with enhancement of a sense of 'Purpose in Life'. Limitations of the study included the small sample size and ceiling effects created by generally high levels of psychological well-being at baseline. The therapeutic potential of reading groups is discussed, including the distinction between instrumental and intrinsic value within arts-and-health interventions.

  8. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of…

  9. Shared vs. specific brain activation changes in dyslexia after training of phonology, attention, or reading.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Brinkhaus, Moti; Grande, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Whereas the neurobiological basis of developmental dyslexia has received substantial attention, only little is known about the processes in the brain during remediation. This holds in particular in light of recent findings on cognitive subtypes of dyslexia which suggest interactions between individual profiles, training methods, and also the task in the scanner. Therefore, we trained three groups of German dyslexic primary school children in the domains of phonology, attention, or visual word recognition. We compared neurofunctional changes after 4 weeks of training in these groups to those in untrained normal readers in a reading task and in a task of visual attention. The overall reading improvement in the dyslexic children was comparable over groups. It was accompanied by substantial increase of the activation level in the visual word form area (VWFA) during a reading task inside the scanner. Moreover, there were activation increases that were unique for each training group in the reading task. In contrast, when children performed the visual attention task, shared training effects were found in the left inferior frontal sulcus and gyrus, which varied in amplitude between the groups. Overall, the data reveal that different remediation programmes matched to individual profiles of dyslexia may improve reading ability and commonly affect the VWFA in dyslexia as a shared part of otherwise distinct networks.

  10. Shared neuroanatomical substrates of impaired phonological working memory across reading disability and autism

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chunming; Qi, Zhenghan; Harris, Adrianne; Weil, Lisa Wisman; Han, Michelle; Halverson, Kelly; Perrachione, Tyler K.; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Wexler, Kenneth; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with reading disability or individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are characterized, respectively, by their difficulties in reading or social communication, but both groups often have impaired phonological working memory (PWM). It is not known whether the impaired PWM reflects distinct or shared neuroanatomical abnormalities in these two diagnostic groups. Methods White-matter structural connectivity via diffusion weighted imaging was examined in sixty-four children, ages 5-17 years, with reading disability, ASD, or typical development (TD), who were matched in age, gender, intelligence, and diffusion data quality. Results Children with reading disability and children with ASD exhibited reduced PWM compared to children with TD. The two diagnostic groups showed altered white-matter microstructure in the temporo-parietal portion of the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) and in the temporo-occipital portion of the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), as indexed by reduced fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity. Moreover, the structural integrity of the right ILF was positively correlated with PWM ability in the two diagnostic groups, but not in the TD group. Conclusions These findings suggest that impaired PWM is transdiagnostically associated with shared neuroanatomical abnormalities in ASD and reading disability. Microstructural characteristics in left AF and right ILF may play important roles in the development of PWM. The right ILF may support a compensatory mechanism for children with impaired PWM. PMID:26949750

  11. Technology-enhanced shared reading with deaf and hard-of-hearing children: the role of a fluent signing narrator.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Vannesa; Hurtig, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Early shared reading experiences have been shown to benefit normally hearing children. It has been hypothesized that hearing parents of deaf or hard-of-hearing children may be uncomfortable or may lack adequate skills to engage in shared reading activities. A factor that may contribute to the widely cited reading difficulties seen in the majority of deaf children is a lack of early linguistic and literacy exposure that come from early shared reading experiences with an adult who is competent in the language of the child. A single-subject-design research study is described, which uses technology along with parent training in an attempt to enhance the shared reading experiences in this population of children. The results indicate that our technology-enhanced shared reading led to a greater time spent in shared reading activities and sign vocabulary acquisition. In addition, analysis of the shared reading has identified the specific aspects of the technology and the components of the parent training that were used most often.

  12. Designing Caregiver-Implemented Shared-Reading Interventions to Overcome Implementation Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Jessica R.; Damschroder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study presents an application of the theoretical domains framework (TDF; Michie et al., 2005), an integrative framework drawing on behavior-change theories, to speech-language pathology. Methods A multistep procedure was used to identify barriers affecting caregivers' implementation of shared-reading interventions with their children with language impairment (LI). The authors examined caregiver-level data corresponding to implementation issues from two randomized controlled trials and mapped these to domains in the TDF as well as empirically validated behavior-change techniques. Results Four barriers to implementation were identified as potentially affecting caregivers' implementation: time pressures, reading difficulties, discomfort with reading, and lack of awareness of benefits. These were mapped to 3 TDF domains: intentions, beliefs about capabilities, and skills. In turn, 4 behavior-change techniques were identified as potential vehicles for affecting these domains: reward, feedback, model, and encourage. An ongoing study is described that is determining the effects of these techniques for improving caregivers' implementation of a shared-reading intervention. Conclusions A description of the steps to identifying barriers to implementation, in conjunction with an ongoing experiment that will explicitly determine whether behavior-change techniques affect these barriers, provides a model for how implementation science can be used to identify and overcome implementation barriers in the treatment of communication disorders. PMID:26262941

  13. Parent Education for Dialogic Reading during Shared Storybook Reading: Multiple Case Study of Online and Face-to-Face Delivery Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beschorner, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a parent education program on the frequency of shared storybook reading and dialogic reading techniques. Additionally, the contextual factors that influenced the outcomes of the program were explored. Seventeen parents completed a nine-week face-to-face parent education program and fifteen parents completed a…

  14. Adaptative Peer to Peer Data Sharing for Technology Enhanced Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelaccio, Michele; Buttarazzi, Berta

    Starting from the hypothesis that P2P Data Sharing in a direct teaching scenario (e.g.: a classroom lesson) may lead to relevant benefits, this paper explores the features of EduSHARE a Collaborative Learning System useful for Enhanced Learning Process.

  15. The effects of a responsive parenting intervention on parent-child interactions during shared book reading.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Smith, Karen E; Swank, Paul R; Zucker, Tricia; Crawford, April D; Solari, Emily F

    2012-07-01

    This study examined mother-child shared book reading behaviors before and after participation in a random-assignment responsive parenting intervention called Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) that occurred during infancy (PALS I), the toddler-preschool (PALS II) period, or both as compared with a developmental assessment (DAS) intervention (DAS I and/or II). The efficacy of PALS was previously demonstrated for improving mother and child behaviors within play contexts, everyday activities, and standardized measures of child language. We hypothesized that PALS effects would generalize to influence maternal and child behaviors during a shared reading task even though this situation was not a specific focus of the intervention and that this would be similar for children who varied in biological risk. Participation in at least PALS II was expected to have a positive effect due to children's increased capacity to engage in book reading at this age. Four groups of randomized mothers and their children (PALS I-II, PALS I-DAS II, DAS I-PALS II, DAS I-II) were observed in shared reading interactions during the toddler-preschool period and coded for (a) mother's affective and cognitive-linguistic supports and (b) child's responses to maternal requests and initiations. Support was found for significant changes in observed maternal and child behaviors, and evidence of mediation was found for the intervention to affect children's behaviors through change in maternal responsiveness behaviors. These results add to other studies supporting the importance of targeting a broad range of responsive behaviors across theoretical frameworks in interventions to facilitate children's development.

  16. Learning words during shared book reading: The role of extratextual talk designed to increase child engagement.

    PubMed

    Blewitt, Pamela; Langan, Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Shared book reading (SBR) is a valuable context for word learning during early childhood, and adults' extratextual talk boosts the vocabulary building potential of SBR. We propose that the benefits of such talk depend largely on a reader's success in promoting children's active engagement (attention and interest) during SBR. When readers ask children questions about new words, especially if they respond to children in a prompt, contingent, and appropriate (positive) manner, this verbal responsiveness functions as an effective engagement strategy. We randomly assigned 3- and 4-year-olds to three reading conditions (low, moderate, and high) distinguished by the degree to which the reader used extratextual engagement strategies, including verbal responsiveness. Despite equal exposure to unfamiliar target words, children's performance improved on two measures of word learning across the three conditions, demonstrating the value of engagement strategies in extratextual talk. This study provides a strong experimental demonstration that adult verbal responsiveness directly benefits preschoolers' word learning.

  17. Developing Low-Income Preschoolers' Social Studies and Science Vocabulary Knowledge through Content-Focused Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Kim, Minjun; Simmons, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of integrating science and social studies vocabulary instruction into shared book reading with low-income preschool children. Twenty-one preschool teachers and 148 children from their classrooms were randomly assigned at the class level to either the Words of Oral Reading and Language Development (WORLD)…

  18. Mexican American Mothers of Low and Middle Socioeconomic Status: Communication Behaviors and Interactive Strategies during Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Hines, Rachel; Montiel, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to describe and compare the communication behaviors and interactive reading strategies used by Mexican American mothers of low- and middle-socioeconomic status (SES) background during shared book reading. Method: Twenty Mexican American mother-child dyads from the Southwestern United States were observed…

  19. Enhancing Parent-Child Shared Book Reading Interactions: Promoting References to the Book's Plot and Socio-Cognitive Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Fine, Yaara; Ziv, Margalit

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the efficacy of an intervention designed to promote parents' and preschoolers' references to storybooks' plot and socio-cognitive themes during shared reading within a sample of 58 families from low-SES background. All parents were given four books, one new book weekly, and were instructed to read each book four times per week…

  20. Sharing Educational Success: A Guide for Adoption/Adaption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. National Advisory Council on Supplementary Centers and Services.

    A critical task facing educators is that of uniting those schools that have need of a successful solution to a specific problem with those schools that already have produced such a solution. This guide suggests how practitioners might pursue the problem of sharing educational success in their State. Included are a brief summary of how…

  1. Fuzzy-rule-based Adaptive Resource Control for Information Sharing in P2P Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhengping; Wu, Hao

    With more and more peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies available for online collaboration and information sharing, people can launch more and more collaborative work in online social networks with friends, colleagues, and even strangers. Without face-to-face interactions, the question of who can be trusted and then share information with becomes a big concern of a user in these online social networks. This paper introduces an adaptive control service using fuzzy logic in preference definition for P2P information sharing control, and designs a novel decision-making mechanism using formal fuzzy rules and reasoning mechanisms adjusting P2P information sharing status following individual users' preferences. Applications of this adaptive control service into different information sharing environments show that this service can provide a convenient and accurate P2P information sharing control for individual users in P2P networks.

  2. The role of frequent, interactive prekindergarten shared reading in the longitudinal development of language and literacy skills.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Tricia A; Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M; Pentimonti, Jill M; Kaderavek, Joan N

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we examined the longitudinal relations between frequency and features of reading experiences within the preschool classroom to children's language and literacy outcomes in kindergarten and 1st grade. Frequency refers to the number of shared reading sessions conducted each week as measured by teachers' written reading logs recorded across the academic year. Features refers to teachers' extratextual talk about literal, inferential, or print or phonological topics as assessed by analysis of 6 videotaped readings of narrative and informational texts collected across the preschool year. Participants were 28 preschool teachers and 178 children. The children were largely at risk and randomly selected from among those in each classroom to complete longitudinal assessments. In preschool, results showed that the frequency of classroom shared reading was positively and significantly related to children's receptive vocabulary growth, as was the inclusion of extratextual conversations around the text; only extratextual conversations related to children's preschool literacy growth. There was no evidence of differential influences of these experiences for children; that is, the relationship between frequency or features and children's language and literacy development was not moderated by children's initial skill level. Longitudinally, extratextual talk during preschool shared reading remained associated with children's vocabulary skills through kindergarten, with trends toward significance extending to 1st grade literacy skills. The frequency of preschool shared reading was not a significant predictor of longitudinal outcomes.

  3. Mothers' Attention-Getting Utterances during Shared Book Reading: Links to Low-Income Preschoolers' Verbal Engagement, Visual Attention, and Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Seung-Hee Claire; Tineo, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations among low-income mothers' use of attention-getting utterances during shared book reading, preschoolers' verbal engagement and visual attention to reading, and their early literacy skills (N = 51). Mother-child shared book reading sessions were videotaped and coded for each utterance, including attention talk,…

  4. Shared and Unique Risk Factors Underlying Mathematical Disability and Reading and Spelling Disability

    PubMed Central

    Slot, Esther M.; van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates have been reported between mathematical learning disabilities (MD) and reading and spelling disabilities (RSD). Research has identified skills related to math, such as number sense (NS) and visuospatial working memory (visuospatial WM), as well as to literacy, such as phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN) and verbal short-term memory (Verbal STM). In order to explain the high comorbidity rates between MD and RSD, 7–11-year-old children were assessed on a range of cognitive abilities related to literacy (PA, RAN, Verbal STM) and mathematical ability (visuospatial WM, NS). The group of children consisted of typically developing (TD) children (n = 32), children with MD (n = 26), children with RSD (n = 29), and combined MD and RSD (n = 43). It was hypothesized that, in line with the multiple deficit view on learning disorders, at least one unique predictor for both MD and RSD and a possible shared cognitive risk factor would be found to account for the comorbidity between the symptom dimensions literacy and math. Secondly, our hypotheses were that (a) a probabilistic multi-factorial risk factor model would provide a better fit to the data than a deterministic single risk factor model and (b) that a shared risk factor model would provide a better fit than the specific multi-factorial model. All our hypotheses were confirmed. NS and visuospatial WM were identified as unique cognitive predictors for MD, whereas PA and RAN were both associated with RSD. Also, a shared risk factor model with PA as a cognitive predictor for both RSD and MD fitted the data best, indicating that MD and RSD might co-occur due to a shared underlying deficit in phonological processing. Possible explanations are discussed in the context of sample selection and composition. This study shows that different cognitive factors play a role in mathematics and literacy, and that a phonological processing deficit might play a role in the occurrence of MD and

  5. Shared and Unique Risk Factors Underlying Mathematical Disability and Reading and Spelling Disability.

    PubMed

    Slot, Esther M; van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates have been reported between mathematical learning disabilities (MD) and reading and spelling disabilities (RSD). Research has identified skills related to math, such as number sense (NS) and visuospatial working memory (visuospatial WM), as well as to literacy, such as phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN) and verbal short-term memory (Verbal STM). In order to explain the high comorbidity rates between MD and RSD, 7-11-year-old children were assessed on a range of cognitive abilities related to literacy (PA, RAN, Verbal STM) and mathematical ability (visuospatial WM, NS). The group of children consisted of typically developing (TD) children (n = 32), children with MD (n = 26), children with RSD (n = 29), and combined MD and RSD (n = 43). It was hypothesized that, in line with the multiple deficit view on learning disorders, at least one unique predictor for both MD and RSD and a possible shared cognitive risk factor would be found to account for the comorbidity between the symptom dimensions literacy and math. Secondly, our hypotheses were that (a) a probabilistic multi-factorial risk factor model would provide a better fit to the data than a deterministic single risk factor model and (b) that a shared risk factor model would provide a better fit than the specific multi-factorial model. All our hypotheses were confirmed. NS and visuospatial WM were identified as unique cognitive predictors for MD, whereas PA and RAN were both associated with RSD. Also, a shared risk factor model with PA as a cognitive predictor for both RSD and MD fitted the data best, indicating that MD and RSD might co-occur due to a shared underlying deficit in phonological processing. Possible explanations are discussed in the context of sample selection and composition. This study shows that different cognitive factors play a role in mathematics and literacy, and that a phonological processing deficit might play a role in the occurrence of MD and RSD.

  6. Enhancing topology adaptation in information-sharing social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimini, Giulio; Chen, Duanbing; Medo, Matúš; Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2012-04-01

    The advent of the Internet and World Wide Web has led to unprecedent growth of the information available. People usually face the information overload by following a limited number of sources which best fit their interests. It has thus become important to address issues like who gets followed and how to allow people to discover new and better information sources. In this paper we conduct an empirical analysis of different online social networking sites and draw inspiration from its results to present different source selection strategies in an adaptive model for social recommendation. We show that local search rules which enhance the typical topological features of real social communities give rise to network configurations that are globally optimal. These rules create networks which are effective in information diffusion and resemble structures resulting from real social systems.

  7. Teaching graphic symbol combinations to children with limited speech during shared story reading.

    PubMed

    Tönsing, Kerstin M; Dada, Shakila; Alant, Erna

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an intervention strategy on the production of graphic symbol combinations in children with limited speech. Four children between the ages of 6;5 and 10;8 (years;months) with limited speech participated in the study. A single-subject, multiple probe design across three different types of semantic relations was used. Generalization to untrained exemplars was also monitored. Results were mixed across the four participants: two participants learned to combine symbols across different types of relations, maintained these skills post intervention, and generalized their skills to untrained combinations; and two participants showed less consistent evidence of learning. The effects, as measured during structured probes, were strong for one participant, moderate for another, and inconclusive for the two others. Responses during shared story reading suggested that the measurement probes might have underestimated participants' ability to combine symbols.

  8. ADAPTING A BEGINNING READING PROGRAM FOR SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCNEIL, JOHN D.

    A BEGINNING READING PROGRAM FOR SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN IS REPORTED. A STUDY, SPONSORED BY THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL LABORATORY FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (SWRL), DEVELOPED LEARNING SEQUENCES FOR A BEGINNING READING PROGRAM FOR KINDERGARTEN CLASSROOMS WITH SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN THROUGHOUT THE SOUTHWEST REGION. EACH OF 21 10-MINUTE…

  9. Engaging Fathers in Effective Parenting for Preschool Children Using Shared Book Reading: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Anil; Fabiano, Gregory A; Doctoroff, Greta L; Fortson, Beverly

    2017-01-19

    Engaging fathers and improving their parenting and, in turn, outcomes for their children in preventive/promotion-focused parenting interventions has been a notable, but understudied, challenge in the field. This study evaluated the effects of a novel intervention, Fathers Supporting Success in Preschoolers: A Community Parent Education Program, which focuses on integrating behavioral parent training with shared book reading (i.e., Dialogic Reading) using key conceptual models (i.e., common elements, deployment model, task shifting) to engage and improve father (i.e., male guardians) and child outcomes. One hundred twenty-six low-income, Spanish-speaking fathers and their children were recruited across three Head Start centers in urban communities and were randomized to the intervention or to a waitlist control condition. Outcomes were obtained before and immediately postintervention and included observed and father-reported parenting and child behaviors, standardized assessments of language, and father self-reported parental stress and depressive symptoms. Attendance data were also collected as a proxy measure of engagement to the intervention. Parenting behaviors (observed and father-reported), child behaviors (father-reported), and language development of the children in the intervention group improved significantly relative to those in the waitlist control condition. Effect sizes (ESs) were in the small to large range across outcomes. Fathers can be engaged in parenting interventions, resulting in improved parent and child outcomes. Greater attention must be given to methods for maximizing parenting within a family and toward developing effective, engaging, and sustainable intervention models for fathers.

  10. Children's Responses to the Interactivity of Storybook Apps in Family Shared Reading Events Involving the iPad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliagas, Cristina; Margallo, Ana María

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on some data on the effects of screen-based interactivity on children's engagement with storybook apps during family shared book reading that were gathered in a 2-year, small-scale ethnographic case study in Spain. Data analysis focuses on the complex interplay between the storybook app's interactive features and the children's…

  11. Teaching Adolescents EFL by Integrating Think-Pair-Share and Reading Strategy Instruction: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ying-Chun; Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2015-01-01

    Think-Pair-Share, a cooperative discussion strategy developed by Frank Lyman and colleagues (1981), is often utilized in first language contexts but rarely in second language (L2) contexts. To investigate its usefulness in the L2 context, a traditional English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading class was transformed by integrating…

  12. Parents' Responses to a Kindergarten-Classroom Lending-Library Component Designed to Support Shared Reading at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Lori E.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Yu, SeonYeong; Favazza, Paddy C.; Mouzourou, Chryso; van Luling, Lisa; Park, Hyejin

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often recommend that families engage their children in shared book reading to support literacy learning at home. When teachers purposefully provide families with home literacy activities there are benefits for everyone involved. The purpose of this article is to report the findings of a study that examined parental participation and…

  13. A Theory of Secondary Teachers' Adaptations When Implementing a Reading Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leko, Melinda M.; Roberts, Carly A.; Pek, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the causes and consequences of secondary teachers' adaptations when implementing a research-based reading intervention program. Interview, observation, and artifact data were collected on five middle school intervention teachers, leading to a grounded theory composed of the core component, reconciliation through adaptation, and…

  14. The Case for Adaptability as an Aspect of Reading Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth; Williams, Baxter; Burrowbridge, Sarah; Mauk, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The authors present adaptability as an important component of reading teacher effectiveness. They demonstrate recent conceptions of teacher effectiveness that value the complexity and unpredictability of classroom instruction. Using an example from a middle grades classroom, they illustrate how effective teachers adapt their instruction to enhance…

  15. Adaptation of the Wilson Reading System for Braille Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Roz; McCarthy, Mary; Rines, Justine Carlone

    2014-01-01

    Teachers at Perkins School for the Blind have been teaching braille to students of all ages for many years. As part of this experience, the teachers at Perkins have seen many capable students of different ages struggle to learn to read and write braille. In particular, they observed students who were unable to sound out or decode words because of…

  16. A comparative study of cognitive behavioural therapy and shared reading for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Billington, Josie; Farrington, Grace; Lampropoulou, Sofia; Lingwood, Jamie; Jones, Andrew; Ledson, James; McDonnell, Kate; Duirs, Nicky; Humphreys, Anne-Louise

    2016-12-09

    The case for psychosocial interventions in relation to chronic pain, one of the most common health issues in contemporary healthcare, is well-established as a means of managing the emotional and psychological difficulties experienced by sufferers. Using mixed methods, this study compared a standard therapy for chronic pain, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), with a specific literature-based intervention, shared reading (SR) developed by national charity, The Reader. A 5-week CBT group and a 22-week SR group for patients with chronic pain ran in parallel, with CBT group members joining the SR group after the completion of CBT. In addition to self-report measures of positive and negative affect before and after each experience of the intervention, the 10 participants kept twice-daily (12-hourly) pain and emotion diaries. Qualitative data were gathered via literary-linguistic analysis of audio/video-recordings and transcriptions of the CBT and SR sessions and video-assisted individual qualitative interviews with participants. Qualitative evidence indicates SR's potential as an alternative or long-term follow-up or adjunct to CBT in bringing into conscious awareness areas of emotional pain otherwise passively suffered by patients with chronic pain. In addition, quantitative analysis, albeit of limited pilot data, indicated possible improvements in mood/pain for up to 2 days following SR. Both findings lay the basis for future research involving a larger sample size.

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship between Parenting, Parent-Child Shared Reading Practices, and Child Development in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Casey A.; Stacks, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between parenting, shared reading practices, and child development. Participants included 28 children (M = 24.66 months, SD = 8.41 months) and their parents. Measures included naturalistic observations of parenting and shared reading quality, assessments of child cognitive and language development, and home reading…

  18. Hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pan, Lei; Pieprzyk, Josef; Xiao, Fuyuan; Orgun, Mehmet A.

    2016-01-01

    With prevalent attacks in communication, sharing a secret between communicating parties is an ongoing challenge. Moreover, it is important to integrate quantum solutions with classical secret sharing schemes with low computational cost for the real world use. This paper proposes a novel hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme, using an m-bonacci orbital angular momentum (OAM) pump, Lagrange interpolation polynomials, and reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. To be exact, we employ entangled states prepared by m-bonacci sequences to detect eavesdropping. Meanwhile, we encode m-bonacci sequences in Lagrange interpolation polynomials to generate the shares of a secret with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. The advantages of the proposed scheme is that it can detect eavesdropping without joint quantum operations, and permits secret sharing for an arbitrary but no less than threshold-value number of classical participants with much lower bandwidth. Also, in comparison with existing quantum secret sharing schemes, it still works when there are dynamic changes, such as the unavailability of some quantum channel, the arrival of new participants and the departure of participants. Finally, we provide security analysis of the new hybrid quantum secret sharing scheme and discuss its useful features for modern applications. PMID:27515908

  19. Hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pan, Lei; Pieprzyk, Josef; Xiao, Fuyuan; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2016-08-12

    With prevalent attacks in communication, sharing a secret between communicating parties is an ongoing challenge. Moreover, it is important to integrate quantum solutions with classical secret sharing schemes with low computational cost for the real world use. This paper proposes a novel hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme, using an m-bonacci orbital angular momentum (OAM) pump, Lagrange interpolation polynomials, and reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. To be exact, we employ entangled states prepared by m-bonacci sequences to detect eavesdropping. Meanwhile, we encode m-bonacci sequences in Lagrange interpolation polynomials to generate the shares of a secret with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. The advantages of the proposed scheme is that it can detect eavesdropping without joint quantum operations, and permits secret sharing for an arbitrary but no less than threshold-value number of classical participants with much lower bandwidth. Also, in comparison with existing quantum secret sharing schemes, it still works when there are dynamic changes, such as the unavailability of some quantum channel, the arrival of new participants and the departure of participants. Finally, we provide security analysis of the new hybrid quantum secret sharing scheme and discuss its useful features for modern applications.

  20. Hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pan, Lei; Pieprzyk, Josef; Xiao, Fuyuan; Orgun, Mehmet A.

    2016-08-01

    With prevalent attacks in communication, sharing a secret between communicating parties is an ongoing challenge. Moreover, it is important to integrate quantum solutions with classical secret sharing schemes with low computational cost for the real world use. This paper proposes a novel hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme, using an m-bonacci orbital angular momentum (OAM) pump, Lagrange interpolation polynomials, and reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. To be exact, we employ entangled states prepared by m-bonacci sequences to detect eavesdropping. Meanwhile, we encode m-bonacci sequences in Lagrange interpolation polynomials to generate the shares of a secret with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. The advantages of the proposed scheme is that it can detect eavesdropping without joint quantum operations, and permits secret sharing for an arbitrary but no less than threshold-value number of classical participants with much lower bandwidth. Also, in comparison with existing quantum secret sharing schemes, it still works when there are dynamic changes, such as the unavailability of some quantum channel, the arrival of new participants and the departure of participants. Finally, we provide security analysis of the new hybrid quantum secret sharing scheme and discuss its useful features for modern applications.

  1. A Small-Scale Comparison of the Relative Impact of Dialogic and Shared Book Reading with an Adult Male on Boys' Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillinger, Claire; Wood, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Dialogic Reading (DR) is a form of interactive shared book reading which promotes children's active participation in reading. Previous studies have demonstrated that DR positively affects young children's literacy development. This small-scale study extends existing DR research to all-male dyads to examine whether DR has a greater impact on boys'…

  2. SHARE and Share Alike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jeffrey Marshall

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a reading comprehension program adopted at J. E. Cosgriff Memorial Catholic School in Salt Lake City, Utah. The program is called SHARE: Students Helping Achieve Reading Excellence, and involves seventh and eighth grade students teaching first and second graders reading comprehension strategies learned in middle school…

  3. Curling Up With a Good E-Book: Mother-Child Shared Story Reading on Screen or Paper Affects Embodied Interaction and Warmth

    PubMed Central

    Yuill, Nicola; Martin, Alex F.

    2016-01-01

    This study compared changes in cognitive, affective, and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children’s shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 min in each of four conditions: mother or child as reader, paper, or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analyzed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers’ commentaries and quality of children’s recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviors that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children’s transition to independent reading. PMID:28018283

  4. Curling Up With a Good E-Book: Mother-Child Shared Story Reading on Screen or Paper Affects Embodied Interaction and Warmth.

    PubMed

    Yuill, Nicola; Martin, Alex F

    2016-01-01

    This study compared changes in cognitive, affective, and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children's shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 min in each of four conditions: mother or child as reader, paper, or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analyzed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers' commentaries and quality of children's recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviors that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children's transition to independent reading.

  5. Effects of generalized and specialized adaptive defense by shared prey on intra-guild predation.

    PubMed

    Ikegawa, Yusuke; Ezoe, Hideo; Namba, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-07

    Intra-guild predation (IGP), predation on consumers which share common prey with the predators, is an important community module to understand a mechanism for persistence of complex food webs. However, classical theory suggests that persistence of an IGP system is unlikely particularly at high productivity, while empirical data do not support the prediction. Recently, adaptive defense by shared prey has been recognized to enhance coexistence of species and stability of the system. Some organisms having multiple predators in IGP systems employ two types of defenses; generalized defense that is effective against multiple predators and specialized one that is effective against only a specific predator species. We consider an IGP model including shared prey that can use the two types of defenses in combination against the consumer or omnivore. Assuming that the shared prey can change the allocation of defensive effort to increase its fitness, we show that the joint use of two types of adaptive defenses promotes three species coexistence and enhances stability of the IGP system when the specialized defense is more effective than the generalized one. When the system is unstable, a variety of oscillations appear and both the population densities and defensive efforts or only the population densities oscillate. Joint use of defenses against the consumer tends to increase the equilibrium population density of the shared prey with the defense efficiencies. In contrast, efficient generalized and specialized defenses against the omnivore often decrease the prey population. Consequently, adaptive defense by shared prey may not necessarily heighten the population size of the defender but sometimes increases densities of both the attackers and defender in IGP systems.

  6. A Rationale and Strategy for Adapting Dialogic Reading for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: RECALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalon, Kelly; Delano, Monica; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    As the number of children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) continues to rise, more children with ASD are accessing early childhood services. Early childhood educators need strategies that benefit a variety of learners served in these settings including those diagnosed with ASD. Shared reading is one routine that is typically used…

  7. Benefit of adaptive FEC in shared backup path protected elastic optical network.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong; Dai, Hua; Wang, Chao; Li, Yongcheng; Bose, Sanjay K; Shen, Gangxiang

    2015-07-27

    We apply an adaptive forward error correction (FEC) allocation strategy to an Elastic Optical Network (EON) operated with shared backup path protection (SBPP). To maximize the protected network capacity that can be carried, an Integer Linear Programing (ILP) model and a spectrum window plane (SWP)-based heuristic algorithm are developed. Simulation results show that the FEC coding overhead required by the adaptive FEC scheme is significantly lower than that needed by a fixed FEC allocation strategy resulting in higher network capacity for the adaptive strategy. The adaptive FEC allocation strategy can also significantly outperform the fixed FEC allocation strategy both in terms of the spare capacity redundancy and the average FEC coding overhead needed per optical channel. The proposed heuristic algorithm is efficient and not only performs closer to the ILP model but also does much better than the shortest-path algorithm.

  8. Genome-wide association study of shared components of reading disability and language impairment.

    PubMed

    Eicher, J D; Powers, N R; Miller, L L; Akshoomoff, N; Amaral, D G; Bloss, C S; Libiger, O; Schork, N J; Darst, B F; Casey, B J; Chang, L; Ernst, T; Frazier, J; Kaufmann, W E; Keating, B; Kenet, T; Kennedy, D; Mostofsky, S; Murray, S S; Sowell, E R; Bartsch, H; Kuperman, J M; Brown, T T; Hagler, D J; Dale, A M; Jernigan, T L; St Pourcain, B; Davey Smith, G; Ring, S M; Gruen, J R

    2013-11-01

    Written and verbal languages are neurobehavioral traits vital to the development of communication skills. Unfortunately, disorders involving these traits-specifically reading disability (RD) and language impairment (LI)-are common and prevent affected individuals from developing adequate communication skills, leaving them at risk for adverse academic, socioeconomic and psychiatric outcomes. Both RD and LI are complex traits that frequently co-occur, leading us to hypothesize that these disorders share genetic etiologies. To test this, we performed a genome-wide association study on individuals affected with both RD and LI in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The strongest associations were seen with markers in ZNF385D (OR = 1.81, P = 5.45 × 10(-7) ) and COL4A2 (OR = 1.71, P = 7.59 × 10(-7) ). Markers within NDST4 showed the strongest associations with LI individually (OR = 1.827, P = 1.40 × 10(-7) ). We replicated association of ZNF385D using receptive vocabulary measures in the Pediatric Imaging Neurocognitive Genetics study (P = 0.00245). We then used diffusion tensor imaging fiber tract volume data on 16 fiber tracts to examine the implications of replicated markers. ZNF385D was a predictor of overall fiber tract volumes in both hemispheres, as well as global brain volume. Here, we present evidence for ZNF385D as a candidate gene for RD and LI. The implication of transcription factor ZNF385D in RD and LI underscores the importance of transcriptional regulation in the development of higher order neurocognitive traits. Further study is necessary to discern target genes of ZNF385D and how it functions within neural development of fluent language.

  9. Early vocabulary, parental education, and the frequency of shared reading as predictors of toddler's vocabulary and grammar at age 2;7: a Slovenian longitudinal CDI study.

    PubMed

    Marjanovič-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Sočan, Gregor

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study, carried out on a sample of Slovenian-speaking toddlers, was to analyze developmental changes and stability in early vocabulary development; to establish relations between toddler's vocabulary and grammar; and to analyze the effects of parental education and the frequency of shared reading on toddlers' vocabulary and grammar. The sample included fifty-one toddlers, aged 1;4 at the time of the first, and 2;7 at the time of the last, assessment. Toddlers' vocabulary and grammar were assessed six times during a 15-month period using the Slovenian adaptation of the CDI. Our findings suggest great individual differences in both size and rate of toddlers' vocabulary development. Toddlers' vocabulary scores remained relatively stable across a 3-month period. Early vocabulary at 1;7 predicted vocabulary, sentence complexity, and mean length of utterance (MLU) at 2;7, while the frequency of shared reading mediated the effect of parental education on toddlers' vocabulary and grammar at 2;7.

  10. Engaging Children with Autism in Shared Book Reading: Strategies for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury, Veronica P.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a developmental disability has been associated with failures in learning to read (Landgren, Kjellman, & Gillberg, 2003). Given that children with disabilities are at higher risk for reading difficulties, it is especially important that they receive repeated opportunities to develop emergent skills--particularly oral language,…

  11. Adaptive changes in early and late blind: a fMRI study of Braille reading.

    PubMed

    Burton, H; Snyder, A Z; Conturo, T E; Akbudak, E; Ollinger, J M; Raichle, M E

    2002-01-01

    Braille reading depends on remarkable adaptations that connect the somatosensory system to language. We hypothesized that the pattern of cortical activations in blind individuals reading Braille would reflect these adaptations. Activations in visual (occipital-temporal), frontal-language, and somatosensory cortex in blind individuals reading Braille were examined for evidence of differences relative to previously reported studies of sighted subjects reading print or receiving tactile stimulation. Nine congenitally blind and seven late-onset blind subjects were studied with fMRI as they covertly performed verb generation in response to reading Braille embossed nouns. The control task was reading the nonlexical Braille string "######". This study emphasized image analysis in individual subjects rather than pooled data. Group differences were examined by comparing magnitudes and spatial extent of activated regions first determined to be significant using the general linear model. The major adaptive change was robust activation of visual cortex despite the complete absence of vision in all subjects. This included foci in peri-calcarine, lingual, cuneus and fusiform cortex, and in the lateral and superior occipital gyri encompassing primary (V1), secondary (V2), and higher tier (VP, V4v, LO and possibly V3A) visual areas previously identified in sighted subjects. Subjects who never had vision differed from late blind subjects in showing even greater activity in occipital-temporal cortex, provisionally corresponding to V5/MT and V8. In addition, the early blind had stronger activation of occipital cortex located contralateral to the hand used for reading Braille. Responses in frontal and parietal cortex were nearly identical in both subject groups. There was no evidence of modifications in frontal cortex language areas (inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Surprisingly, there was also no evidence of an adaptive expansion of the somatosensory or

  12. The Relationship between Parent Report of Adaptive Behavior and Direct Assessment of Reading Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli. Joanne; Stevens, Kirsten; Trembath, David; Simpson, Ian Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to shed light on the profile of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A key aim was to examine the relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in these children. Method: The authors investigated children's reading ability using the Wide…

  13. An Adapted Dialogic Reading Program for Turkish Kindergarteners from Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergül, Cevriye; Akoglu, Gözde; Sarica, Ayse D.; Karaman, Gökçe; Tufan, Mümin; Bahap-Kudret, Zeynep; Zülfikar, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the Adapted Dialogic Reading Program (ADR) on the language and early literacy skills of Turkish kindergarteners from low socio-economic (SES) backgrounds. The effectiveness of ADR was investigated across six different treatment conditions including classroom and home based implementations in various…

  14. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  15. Evaluation of the Display of Cognitive State Feedback to Drive Adaptive Task Sharing

    PubMed Central

    Dorneich, Michael C.; Passinger, Břetislav; Hamblin, Christopher; Keinrath, Claudia; Vašek, Jiři; Whitlow, Stephen D.; Beekhuyzen, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive system intended to address workload imbalances between pilots in future flight decks. Team performance can be maximized when task demands are balanced within crew capabilities and resources. Good communication skills enable teams to adapt to changes in workload, and include the balancing of workload between team members This work addresses human factors priorities in the aviation domain with the goal to develop concepts that balance operator workload, support future operator roles and responsibilities, and support new task requirements, while allowing operators to focus on the most safety critical tasks. A traditional closed-loop adaptive system includes the decision logic to turn automated adaptations on and off. This work takes a novel approach of replacing the decision logic, normally performed by the automation, with human decisions. The Crew Workload Manager (CWLM) was developed to objectively display the workload between pilots and recommend task sharing; it is then the pilots who “close the loop” by deciding how to best mitigate unbalanced workload. The workload was manipulated by the Shared Aviation Task Battery (SAT-B), which was developed to provide opportunities for pilots to mitigate imbalances in workload between crew members. Participants were put in situations of high and low workload (i.e., workload was manipulated as opposed to being measured), the workload was then displayed to pilots, and pilots were allowed to decide how to mitigate the situation. An evaluation was performed that utilized the SAT-B to manipulate workload and create workload imbalances. Overall, the CWLM reduced the time spent in unbalanced workload and improved the crew coordination in task sharing while not negatively impacting concurrent task performance. Balancing workload has the potential to improve crew resource management and task performance over time, and reduce errors and fatigue. Paired with a real-time workload measurement system

  16. Experimental Evaluation of a Braille-Reading-Inspired Finger Motion Adaptive Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Melda; Sipahi, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Braille reading is a complex process involving intricate finger-motion patterns and finger-rubbing actions across Braille letters for the stimulation of appropriate nerves. Although Braille reading is performed by smoothly moving the finger from left-to-right, research shows that even fluent reading requires right-to-left movements of the finger, known as "reversal". Reversals are crucial as they not only enhance stimulation of nerves for correctly reading the letters, but they also show one to re-read the letters that were missed in the first pass. Moreover, it is known that reversals can be performed as often as in every sentence and can start at any location in a sentence. Here, we report experimental results on the feasibility of an algorithm that can render a machine to automatically adapt to reversal gestures of one's finger. Through Braille-reading-analogous tasks, the algorithm is tested with thirty sighted subjects that volunteered in the study. We find that the finger motion adaptive algorithm (FMAA) is useful in achieving cooperation between human finger and the machine. In the presence of FMAA, subjects' performance metrics associated with the tasks have significantly improved as supported by statistical analysis. In light of these encouraging results, preliminary experiments are carried out with five blind subjects with the aim to put the algorithm to test. Results obtained from carefully designed experiments showed that subjects' Braille reading accuracy in the presence of FMAA was more favorable then when FMAA was turned off. Utilization of FMAA in future generation Braille reading devices thus holds strong promise.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of a Braille-Reading-Inspired Finger Motion Adaptive Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Braille reading is a complex process involving intricate finger-motion patterns and finger-rubbing actions across Braille letters for the stimulation of appropriate nerves. Although Braille reading is performed by smoothly moving the finger from left-to-right, research shows that even fluent reading requires right-to-left movements of the finger, known as “reversal”. Reversals are crucial as they not only enhance stimulation of nerves for correctly reading the letters, but they also show one to re-read the letters that were missed in the first pass. Moreover, it is known that reversals can be performed as often as in every sentence and can start at any location in a sentence. Here, we report experimental results on the feasibility of an algorithm that can render a machine to automatically adapt to reversal gestures of one’s finger. Through Braille-reading-analogous tasks, the algorithm is tested with thirty sighted subjects that volunteered in the study. We find that the finger motion adaptive algorithm (FMAA) is useful in achieving cooperation between human finger and the machine. In the presence of FMAA, subjects’ performance metrics associated with the tasks have significantly improved as supported by statistical analysis. In light of these encouraging results, preliminary experiments are carried out with five blind subjects with the aim to put the algorithm to test. Results obtained from carefully designed experiments showed that subjects’ Braille reading accuracy in the presence of FMAA was more favorable then when FMAA was turned off. Utilization of FMAA in future generation Braille reading devices thus holds strong promise. PMID:26849058

  18. Reading Test-Sentence Comprehension: An Adapted Version of Lobrot's Lecture 3 Test for Brazilian Portuguese.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Vilhena, Douglas; Sucena, Ana; Castro, São Luís; Pinheiro, Ângela Maria Vieira

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to analyse the linguistic structure of the Lobrot's Lecture 3 (L3) reading test and to describe the procedure for its adaptation to a Brazilian cultural-linguistic context. The resulting adapted version is called the Reading Test-Sentence Comprehension [Teste de Leitura: Compreensão de Sentenças (TELCS)] and was developed using the European Portuguese adaptation of L3 as a reference. The present study was conducted in seven steps: (1) classification of the response alternatives of L3 test; (2) adaptation of the original sentences into Brazilian Portuguese; (3) back-translation; (4) adaptation of the distractors from TELCS; (5) configuration of TELCS; (6) pilot study; and (7) validation and standardization. In comparison with L3, TELCS included new linguistic and structural variables, such as frequency of occurrence of the distractors, gender neutrality and position of the target words. The instrument can be used for a collective screening or individual clinical administration purposes to evaluate the reading ability of second-to-fifth-grade and 7-to-11-year-old students.

  19. Extending the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways for sub-national impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Absar, Syeda Mariya; Preston, Benjamin L.

    2015-05-25

    The exploration of alternative socioeconomic futures is an important aspect of understanding the potential consequences of climate change. While socioeconomic scenarios are common and, at times essential, tools for the impact, adaptation and vulnerability and integrated assessment modeling research communities, their approaches to scenario development have historically been quite distinct. However, increasing convergence of impact, adaptation and vulnerability and integrated assessment modeling research in terms of scales of analysis suggests there may be value in the development of a common framework for socioeconomic scenarios. The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways represents an opportunity for the development of such a common framework. However, the scales at which these global storylines have been developed are largely incommensurate with the sub-national scales at which impact, adaptation and vulnerability, and increasingly integrated assessment modeling, studies are conducted. Our objective for this study was to develop sub-national and sectoral extensions of the global SSP storylines in order to identify future socioeconomic challenges for adaptation for the U.S. Southeast. A set of nested qualitative socioeconomic storyline elements, integrated storylines, and accompanying quantitative indicators were developed through an application of the Factor-Actor-Sector framework. Finally, in addition to revealing challenges and opportunities associated with the use of the SSPs as a basis for more refined scenario development, this study generated sub-national storyline elements and storylines that can subsequently be used to explore the implications of alternative subnational socioeconomic futures for the assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation.

  20. Weighted log-rank statistic to compare shared-path adaptive treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Kelley M; Wahed, Abdus S

    2013-04-01

    Adaptive treatment strategies (ATSs) more closely mimic the reality of a physician's prescription process where the physician prescribes a medication to his/her patient, and based on that patient's response to the medication, modifies the treatment. Two-stage randomization designs, more generally, sequential multiple assignment randomization trial designs, are useful to assess ATSs where the interest is in comparing the entire sequence of treatments, including the patient's intermediate response. In this paper, we introduce the notion of shared-path and separate-path ATSs and propose a weighted log-rank statistic to compare overall survival distributions of multiple two-stage ATSs, some of which may be shared-path. Large sample properties of the statistic are derived and the type I error rate and power of the test are compared with the standard log-rank test through simulation.

  1. [Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms shared between modern humans and neanderthals: adaptive convergence or evidence for interspecific hybridization?].

    PubMed

    Maliarchuk, B A

    2013-09-01

    An analysis of the variability of the nucleotide sequences in the mitochondrial genome of modern humans, neanderthals, Denisovans, and other primates has shown that there are shared polymorphisms at positions 2758 and 7146 between modern Homo sapiens (in phylogenetic cluster L2'3'4'5'6) and Homo neanderthalensis (in the group of European neanderthals younger than 48000 years). It is suggested that the convergence may be due to adaptive changes in the mitochondrial genomes of modern humans and neanderthals or interspecific hybridization associated with mtDNA recombination.

  2. Persian adaptation of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale: a psychometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Baghaei, Purya; Hohensinn, Christine; Kubinger, Klaus D

    2014-04-01

    The validity and psychometric properties of a new Persian adaptation of the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale were investigated. The scale was translated into Persian and administered to 160 undergraduate students (131 women, 29 men; M age = 23.4 yr., SD = 4.3). Rasch model analysis on the scale's original 20 items revealed that the data do not fit the partial credit model. Principal components analysis identified three factors: one related to feelings of anxiety about reading, the second reflected the reverse-worded items, and the third related to general ideas about reading in a foreign language. In a re-analysis, the 12 items that loaded on the first factor showed a good fit with the partial credit model.

  3. Reading, Writing, and Mapping Our Worlds into Being: Shared Teacher Inquiries into Whose Literacies Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova, Ralph A.; Matthiesen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    An inner-city second grade teacher-researcher and her university-based partner examine how she and her inner-city second graders learned to resist and expand the constraints of their mandated, scripted reading curriculum by exploring their neighborhood and classrooms as communities spaces for literacies learning. Drawing on an interactional…

  4. Vocabulary Acquisition without Adult Explanations in Repeated Shared Book Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…

  5. AAC Modeling with the iPad during Shared Storybook Reading Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Mason, Linda H.

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study describes an intervention package, MODELER for Read and Talk, designed to provide enriched language interaction for children with complex communication needs who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). MODELER (Model, Encourage, Respond) includes (a) modeling AAC as you speak, (b) encouraging communication…

  6. An Interview with Cathy Fowler about Sharing a Love of Reading through Book Raps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strangman, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    Includes an interview with Cathy Fowler, a Year 7 teacher at Kawungan State School in Queensland, Australia. Explains that Cathy is a participant and coordinator of the extremely popular Harry Potter Book Rap, a guided Internet book discussion among students all over the world. Discusses how this activity fueled her students' love for reading. (PM)

  7. Extending the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways for sub-national impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability studies

    DOE PAGES

    Absar, Syeda Mariya; Preston, Benjamin L.

    2015-05-25

    The exploration of alternative socioeconomic futures is an important aspect of understanding the potential consequences of climate change. While socioeconomic scenarios are common and, at times essential, tools for the impact, adaptation and vulnerability and integrated assessment modeling research communities, their approaches to scenario development have historically been quite distinct. However, increasing convergence of impact, adaptation and vulnerability and integrated assessment modeling research in terms of scales of analysis suggests there may be value in the development of a common framework for socioeconomic scenarios. The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways represents an opportunity for the development of such a common framework. However,more » the scales at which these global storylines have been developed are largely incommensurate with the sub-national scales at which impact, adaptation and vulnerability, and increasingly integrated assessment modeling, studies are conducted. Our objective for this study was to develop sub-national and sectoral extensions of the global SSP storylines in order to identify future socioeconomic challenges for adaptation for the U.S. Southeast. A set of nested qualitative socioeconomic storyline elements, integrated storylines, and accompanying quantitative indicators were developed through an application of the Factor-Actor-Sector framework. Finally, in addition to revealing challenges and opportunities associated with the use of the SSPs as a basis for more refined scenario development, this study generated sub-national storyline elements and storylines that can subsequently be used to explore the implications of alternative subnational socioeconomic futures for the assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation.« less

  8. Adaptive working-memory training benefits reading, but not mathematics in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Karbach, Julia; Strobach, Tilo; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) capacity is highly correlated with general cognitive ability and has proven to be an excellent predictor for academic success. Given that WM can be improved by training, our aim was to test whether WM training benefited academic abilities in elementary-school children. We examined 28 participants (mean age = 8.3 years, SD = 0.4) in a pretest-training-posttest-follow-up design. Over 14 training sessions, children either performed adaptive WM training (training group, n = 14) or nonadaptive low-level training (active control group, n = 14) on the same tasks. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up at 3 months after posttest included a neurocognitive test battery (WM, task switching, inhibition) and standardized tests for math and reading abilities. Adaptive WM training resulted in larger training gains than nonadaptive low-level training. The benefits induced by the adaptive training transferred to an untrained WM task and a standardized test for reading ability, but not to task switching, inhibition, or performance on a standardized math test. Transfer to the untrained WM task was maintained over 3 months. The analysis of individual differences revealed compensatory effects with larger gains in children with lower WM and reading scores at pretest. These training and transfer effects are discussed against the background of cognitive processing resulting from WM span training and the nature of the intervention.

  9. Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Jeremy, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    A collection of articles reflecting the underlying concern of British contributors with continuity--conceiving reading and learning as a whole throughout the school years--comprises this special issue of "English in Education." Specific topics treated are: "What Children Learn in Learning to Read" by R. Morris; "Reading without Primers" by W.…

  10. Effects of a Family Literacy Program Adapting Parental Intervention to First Graders' Evolution of Reading and Writing Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Laurent, Lise; Giasson, Jocelyne

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the effects of a family literacy program for first graders that had three main characteristics: (1) book reading with parents that adapts parental intervention to the child's gradually increasing skills in reading during the school year, (2) support for writing activities, and (3) enjoyable home activities complementing the…

  11. Adapting federated cyberinfrastructure for shared data collection facilities in structural biology

    PubMed Central

    Stokes-Rees, Ian; Levesque, Ian; Murphy, Frank V.; Yang, Wei; Deacon, Ashley; Sliz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Early stage experimental data in structural biology is generally unmaintained and inaccessible to the public. It is increasingly believed that this data, which forms the basis for each macromolecular structure discovered by this field, must be archived and, in due course, published. Furthermore, the widespread use of shared scientific facilities such as synchrotron beamlines complicates the issue of data storage, access and movement, as does the increase of remote users. This work describes a prototype system that adapts existing federated cyberinfra­structure technology and techniques to significantly improve the operational environment for users and administrators of synchrotron data collection facilities used in structural biology. This is achieved through software from the Virtual Data Toolkit and Globus, bringing together federated users and facilities from the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, the Advanced Photon Source, the Open Science Grid, the SBGrid Consortium and Harvard Medical School. The performance and experience with the prototype provide a model for data management at shared scientific facilities. PMID:22514186

  12. An Efficient Shared Adaptive Packet Loss Concealment Scheme through 1-Port Gateway System for Internet Telephony Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinsul; Lee, Hyunwoo; Ryu, Won; Lee, Byungsun; Hahn, Minsoo

    In this letter, we propose a shared adaptive packet loss concealment scheme for the high quality guaranteed Internet telephony service which connects multiple users. In order to recover packet loss efficiently in the all-IP based convergence environment, we provide a robust signal recovery scheme which is based on the shared adaptive both-side information utilization. This scheme is provided according to the average magnitude variation across the frames and the pitch period replication on the 1-port gateway (G/W) system. The simulated performance demonstrates that the proposed scheme has the advantages of low processing times and high recovery rates in the all-IP based ubiquitous environment.

  13. Teacher Adaptations to a Core Reading Program: Increasing Access to Curriculum for Elementary Students in Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniates, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how three urban elementary school teachers adapted pedagogical strategies from a school district--adopted core reading program to increase their students' access to the curriculum. Using teacher interviews and classroom observations to construct a descriptive case study of teacher adaptation, analysis reveals that the…

  14. Reducing False Negative Reads in RFID Data Streams Using an Adaptive Sliding-Window Approach

    PubMed Central

    Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D. M.; Vermaak, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:22666027

  15. SHARE: an adaptive algorithm to select the most informative set of SNPs for candidate genetic association.

    PubMed

    Dai, James Y; Leblanc, Michael; Smith, Nicholas L; Psaty, Bruce; Kooperberg, Charles

    2009-10-01

    Association studies have been widely used to identify genetic liability variants for complex diseases. While scanning the chromosomal region 1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time may not fully explore linkage disequilibrium, haplotype analyses tend to require a fairly large number of parameters, thus potentially losing power. Clustering algorithms, such as the cladistic approach, have been proposed to reduce the dimensionality, yet they have important limitations. We propose a SNP-Haplotype Adaptive REgression (SHARE) algorithm that seeks the most informative set of SNPs for genetic association in a targeted candidate region by growing and shrinking haplotypes with 1 more or less SNP in a stepwise fashion, and comparing prediction errors of different models via cross-validation. Depending on the evolutionary history of the disease mutations and the markers, this set may contain a single SNP or several SNPs that lay a foundation for haplotype analyses. Haplotype phase ambiguity is effectively accounted for by treating haplotype reconstruction as a part of the learning procedure. Simulations and a data application show that our method has improved power over existing methodologies and that the results are informative in the search for disease-causal loci.

  16. Shared and Unique Proteins in Human, Mouse and Rat Saliva Proteomes: Footprints of Functional Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Karn, Robert C.; Chung, Amanda G.; Laukaitis, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of our study was to compare the proteins found in the saliva proteomes of three mammals: human, mouse and rat. Our first objective was to compare two human proteomes with very different analysis depths. The 89 shared proteins in this comparison apparently represent a core of highly-expressed human salivary proteins. Of the proteins unique to each proteome, one-half to 2/3 lack signal peptides and probably are contaminants instead of less highly-represented salivary proteins. We recently published the first rodent saliva proteomes with saliva collected from the genome mouse (C57BL/6) and the genome rat (BN/SsNHsd/Mcwi). Our second objective was to compare the proteins in the human proteome with those we identified in the genome mouse and rat to determine those common to all three mammals, as well as the specialized rodent subset. We also identified proteins unique to each of the three mammals, because differences in the secreted protein constitutions can provide clues to differences in the evolutionary adaptation of the secretions in the three different mammals. PMID:24926433

  17. New method adaptive to geospatial information acquisition and share based on grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yingchun; Yuan, Xiuxiao

    2005-11-01

    As we all know, it is difficult and time-consuming to acquire and share multi-source geospatial information in grid computing environment, especially for the data of different geo-reference benchmark. Although middleware for data format transformation has been applied by many grid applications and GIS software systems, it remains difficult to on demand realize spatial data assembly jobs among various geo-reference benchmarks because of complex computation of rigorous coordinate transformation model. To address the problem, an efficient hierarchical quadtree structure referred as multi-level grids is designed and coded to express the multi-scale global geo-space. The geospatial objects located in a certain grid of multi-level grids may be expressed as an increment value which is relative to the grid central point and is constant in different geo-reference benchmark. A mediator responsible for geo-reference transformation function with multi-level grids has been developed and aligned with grid service. With help of the mediator, a map or query spatial data sets from individual source of different geo-references can be merged into an uniform composite result. Instead of complex data pre-processing prior to compatible spatial integration, the introduced method is adaptive to be integrated with grid-enable service.

  18. Coordinated Translanguaging Pedagogy as Distributed Cognition: A Case Study of Two Dual Language Bilingual Education Preschool Coteachers' Languaging Practices during Shared Book Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontier, Ryan; Gort, Mileidis

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how a pair of Spanish/English dual language bilingual education (DLBE) preschool teachers enacted their bilingualism while working cohesively and simultaneously toward common instructional goals. We drew on classroom video data, field notes, and other relevant artifacts collected weekly during shared readings of English- and…

  19. The Interaction of Child-Parent Shared Reading with an Augmented Reality (AR) Picture Book and Parents' Conceptions of AR Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Following a previous study (Cheng & Tsai, 2014. "Computers & Education"), this study aimed to probe the interaction of child-parent shared reading with the augmented reality (AR) picture book in more depth. A series of sequential analyses were thus conducted to infer the behavioral transition diagrams and visualize the continuity…

  20. Bridging Academic Discourse for Emergent Bilingual Preschoolers: A Spanish-English Dual Language Teacher's Instructional Practices and Extratextual Talk during Shared Readings across Two Different Genres and Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sembiante, Sabrina F.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines the nature of a dual language preschool teacher's instructional practices and extratextual talk during shared-book reading practices with two different genres of books in Spanish and English. Specifically, I explore the interpersonal, ideational, and textual features of one teacher's talk in English- and…

  1. Fractional water allocation and reservoir capacity sharing concepts: An adaptation for the Komati Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlamini, Enoch M.; Dhlamini, Sidney; Mthimkhulu, Sindy

    This paper presents an adaptation of fractional water allocation and reservoir capacity sharing (FWARCS) concepts for application in the Komati Basin, a river system shared between South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. Many traditional methods for allocating water are based on volume-per-unit-time allocation that is supplied at some level of assurance and managed using priority-based reservoir and river system operating rules, as well as on the “use it or lose it” principle, which is considered exclusive by water users as it leaves them out of the management of their water allocations. In the Komati Basin, these traditional methods of water allocation led to frequent conflicts among users and with water managers. However, the introduction of the modified FWARCS, which assigns available water in the system to water users according to the proportions of their water entitlements and allows water to be banked in reservoirs, appears to be a solution to some of these problems. This method allows water users to decide when and how much of that entitlement they may use. Since the implementation of the modified FWARCS technique in the Komati Basin in 2002, the regulation, transparency and efficiency of operating the system improved and subsequently the number of disputes over water has declined. South Africa improved from an overuse of 8.2 Mm 3 in 2002/03 water year to realize a saving of 29.5 Mm 3 in 2005/06. Similarly, Swaziland improved from an overuse of 3.9 Mm 3 in 2002/03 to achieve a saving of 14.6 Mm 3 in 2005/06. Users have recognised and embraced the transparency and flexibility of the modified FWARCS. They choose, as the need and opportunity arise, when and how much water they utilise, whether to “bank” and/or “trade” the water they save subject to the conditions of their entitlements. The implementation of the modified FWARCS was also made successful by the existence of proper institutional structures, appropriate decision support tools, good water

  2. Making psycholinguistics musical: self-paced reading time evidence for shared processing of linguistic and musical syntax.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Rosenberg, Jason C; Patel, Aniruddh D

    2009-04-01

    Linguistic processing, especially syntactic processing, is often considered a hallmark of human cognition; thus, the domain specificity or domain generality of syntactic processing has attracted considerable debate. The present experiments address this issue by simultaneously manipulating syntactic processing demands in language and music. Participants performed self-paced reading of garden path sentences, in which structurally unexpected words cause temporary syntactic processing difficulty. A musical chord accompanied each sentence segment, with the resulting sequence forming a coherent chord progression. When structurally unexpected words were paired with harmonically unexpected chords, participants showed substantially enhanced garden path effects. No such interaction was observed when the critical words violated semantic expectancy or when the critical chords violated timbral expectancy. These results support a prediction of the shared syntactic integration resource hypothesis (Patel, 2003), which suggests that music and language draw on a common pool of limited processing resources for integrating incoming elements into syntactic structures. Notations of the stimuli from this study may be downloaded from pbr.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  3. Enhancing children's vegetable consumption using vegetable-promoting picture books. The impact of interactive shared reading and character-product congruence.

    PubMed

    de Droog, Simone M; Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated whether and how a picture book promoting carrots can increase young children's carrot consumption. One hundred and four children (aged 4-6years) participated in shared reading sessions using the book on five consecutive days in school. These children were assigned randomly to one of four experimental conditions. In a 2×2 between-subjects design, the reading style and character in the book were manipulated. The reading style was either passive (listening to the story) or interactive (also answering questions about the story). The character in the book fitted either conceptually well with carrots (a rabbit) or not (a turtle). Compared to a baseline group of 56 children who were not exposed to the book, the children in the experimental groups consumed almost twice as much carrots (in proportion to other foods consumed), F(1,159)=7.08, p<.01. Results suggest that picture books are particularly effective when children are actively involved, answering questions about the story. Young children seem to enjoy this interactive shared reading style, triggering positive feelings that increase children's liking and consumption of the healthy food promoted in the book.

  4. Adapting an Evidence-Based Reading Comprehension Strategy for Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalon, Kelly; Hart, Juliet E.

    2011-01-01

    Reading is a critical skill for student success in school and postschool opportunities. Although a number of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will develop the decoding skills necessary to read text, many will continue to struggle with reading comprehension. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education…

  5. The Shared "AH-HA Experience": Literature Conversations and Self-Organizing Complex Adaptive Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Leslie; Cotten, Carol; Kimbell-Lopez, Kim; Pavonetti, Linda; VanHorn, Leigh

    1998-01-01

    Describes literature conversations as complex adaptive systems. Discusses four research studies from this perspective, and explains some assertions about this conceptual framework as a tool for teacher researchers. (SR)

  6. The role of disease perceptions and results sharing in psychological adaptation after genetic susceptibility testing: the REVEAL Study.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Koehly, Laura M; Roberts, J Scott; Chen, Clara A; Hiraki, Susan; Green, Robert C

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which psychological adaptation (validated measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and test-specific distress) after genetic susceptibility testing is influenced by changes in beliefs about Alzheimer's disease (AD) and sharing of test results with others. Adult children of AD patients (N=269) from a randomized clinical trial involving genetic testing for apolipoprotein E (APOE) provided information before, as well as 6 weeks and 12 months after results disclosure. The levels of adaptation varied highly among participants at 12-month assessment. Participants who learned that they were ε4 negative (lower risk) had a reduction in perceived risk and concern about developing AD compared with those who learned that they were ε4 positive. Those who received results through an extended educational protocol (three in-person visits) had a larger decline in AD concern than those in a condensed protocol (educational brochure and two in-person visits). Increase in AD concern 6 weeks after disclosure was associated with increase in depression scores (b=0.20, P<0.01) and anxiety levels (b=0.20, P<0.01), and higher distress associated with AD genetic testing (b=0.18, P=0.02) 1 year after testing. Increase in perceived risk (b=0.16, P=0.04) was also associated with higher AD genetic testing distress. Sharing the test results with health professionals and friends (but not family) was associated with decrease in depression (b=-0.11, P=0.05) and anxiety levels (b=-0.16, P<0.01), respectively after a year. Enhancing discussion with regard to risks and concerns about AD during pretesting counseling and obtaining support through sharing the results after testing may help facilitate test recipients' long-term psychological adaptation.

  7. Good/Bad Girls Read Together: Pre-Adolescent Girls' Co-Authorship of Feminine Subject Positions during a Shared Reading Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enciso, Patricia E.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses reading with pre-teens Francine Pascal's "Sweet Valley Twins: Best Friends," one of a series of pre-romance novels featuring identical twin sisters. Interviews six girls using the Symbolic Representation Interview (SRI) about the good girl/bad girl dichotomy in novels and other media. Provides comments by Tom Romano and Diana Mitchell.…

  8. Divergence and gene flow among Darwin's finches: a genome-wide view of adaptive radiation driven by interspecies allele sharing

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Daniela H.; Kronforst, Marcus R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent analysis of the genomes of Darwin's finches revealed extensive interspecies allele sharing throughout the history of the radiation and identified a key locus responsible for morphological evolution in this group. The radiation of Darwin's finches on the Galápagos archipelago has long been regarded as an iconic study system for field ecology and evolutionary biology. Coupled with an extensive history of field work, these latest findings affirm the increasing acceptance of introgressive hybridization, or gene flow between species, as a significant contributor to adaptive evolution. Here we review and discuss these findings in relation to both classical work on Darwin's finches and contemporary work showing similar evolutionary signatures in other biological systems. The continued unification of genomic data with field biology promises to further elucidate the molecular basis of adaptation in Darwin's finches and well beyond. PMID:26200327

  9. A-Book: A Feedback-Based Adaptive System to Enhance Meta-Cognitive Skills during Reading

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Ernesto; Mellado, Guido

    2017-01-01

    In the digital era, tech devices (hardware and software) are increasingly within hand’s reach. Yet, implementing information and communication technologies for educational contexts that have robust and long-lasting effects on student learning outcomes is still a challenge. We propose that any such system must a) be theoretically motivated and designed to tackle specific cognitive skills (e.g., inference making) supporting a given cognitive task (e.g., reading comprehension) and b) must be able to identify and adapt to the user’s profile. In the present study, we implemented a feedback-based adaptive system called A-book (assisted-reading book) and tested it in a sample of 4th, 5th, and 6th graders. To assess our hypotheses, we contrasted three experimental assisted-reading conditions; one that supported meta-cognitive skills and adapted to the user profile (adaptive condition), one that supported meta-cognitive skills but did not adapt to the user profile (training condition) and a control condition. The results provide initial support for our proposal; participants in the adaptive condition improved their accuracy scores on inference making questions over time, outperforming both the training and control groups. There was no evidence, however, of significant improvements on other tested meta-cognitive skills (i.e., text structure knowledge, comprehension monitoring). We discussed the practical implications of using the A-book for the enhancement of meta-cognitive skills in school contexts, as well as its current limitations and future developments that could improve the system. PMID:28348523

  10. Shared Human-Chimpanzee Pattern of Perinatal Femoral Shaft Morphology and Its Implications for the Evolution of Hominin Locomotor Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Naoki; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Acquisition of bipedality is a hallmark of human evolution. How bipedality evolved from great ape-like locomotor behaviors, however, is still highly debated. This is mainly because it is difficult to infer locomotor function, and even more so locomotor kinematics, from fossil hominin long bones. Structure-function relationships are complex, as long bone morphology reflects phyletic history, developmental programs, and loading history during an individual’s lifetime. Here we discriminate between these factors by investigating the morphology of long bones in fetal and neonate great apes and humans, before the onset of locomotion. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparative morphometric analysis of the femoral diaphysis indicates that its morphology reflects phyletic relationships between hominoid taxa to a greater extent than taxon-specific locomotor adaptations. Diaphyseal morphology in humans and chimpanzees exhibits several shared-derived features, despite substantial differences in locomotor adaptations. Orangutan and gorilla morphologies are largely similar, and likely represent the primitive hominoid state. Conclusions/Significance These findings are compatible with two possible evolutionary scenarios. Diaphyseal morphology may reflect retained adaptive traits of ancestral taxa, hence human-chimpanzee shared-derived features may be indicative of the locomotor behavior of our last common ancestor. Alternatively, diaphyseal morphology might reflect evolution by genetic drift (neutral evolution) rather than selection, and might thus be more informative about phyletic relationships between taxa than about locomotor adaptations. Both scenarios are consistent with the hypothesis that knuckle-walking in chimpanzees and gorillas resulted from convergent evolution, and that the evolution of human bipedality is unrelated to extant great ape locomotor specializations. PMID:22848680

  11. Teacher Knows Best: Adaptations to District-Adopted Math Program as Shared by Elementary Math Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Anne Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Despite the resources and training provided, teachers make decisions to adapt from the written curriculum throughout their day. Some would argue that the teacher's ability to not only recognize when students are struggling, but to also be able to select adequate instructional strategies to reteach the concept, is their most valuable asset. The…

  12. Selecting Learning Tasks: Effects of Adaptation and Shared Control on Learning Efficiency and Task Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Complex skill acquisition by performing authentic learning tasks is constrained by limited working memory capacity [Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. "Science, 255", 556-559]. To prevent cognitive overload, task difficulty and support of each newly selected learning task can be adapted to the learner's competence level and perceived task…

  13. The Impact of Reading to Engage Children with Autism in Language and Learning (RECALL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalon, Kelly; Martinez, Jose R.; Shannon, Darbianne; Butcher, Colleen; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    A multiple baseline across participants design was used to investigate the impact of RECALL (Reading to Engage Children With Autism in Language and Learning) on the correct, unprompted responding and initiations of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). RECALL is an adapted shared reading intervention based on dialogic reading. RECALL…

  14. Effect of the Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend Intervention on the Reading Achievement of Middle and High School Readers Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirmer, Barbara R.; Schaffer, Laura; Therrien, William J.; Schirmer, Todd N.

    2016-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine if the Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (RAAC) repeated reading fluency intervention is effective in improving the reading achievement of deaf middle school and high school students. Participants included six middle school students and eight high school students. We found consistently good comprehension…

  15. Effects of Bilingual and English as a Second Language Adaptations of Success for All on the Reading Achievement of Students Acquiring English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy A.

    Two adaptations of Success for All, a comprehensive instructional reform program for elementary schools, have been used with students acquiring English as a second language. One is a Spanish bilingual version called "Exito para Todos," in which students are taught to read in Spanish and then transitioned to English reading, usually in…

  16. A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique…

  17. The change probability effect: incidental learning, adaptability, and shared visual working memory resources.

    PubMed

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2011-12-01

    Statistical properties in the visual environment can be used to improve performance on visual working memory (VWM) tasks. The current study examined the ability to incidentally learn that a change is more likely to occur to a particular feature dimension (shape, color, or location) and use this information to improve change detection performance for that dimension (the change probability effect). Participants completed a change detection task in which one change type was more probable than others. Change probability effects were found for color and shape changes, but not location changes, and intentional strategies did not improve the effect. Furthermore, the change probability effect developed and adapted to new probability information quickly. Finally, in some conditions, an improvement in change detection performance for a probable change led to an impairment in change detection for improbable changes.

  18. Effects of Bilingual and English as a Second Language Adaptations of Success for All on the Reading Achievement of Students Acquiring English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Studied the effects of two adaptations of the Success for All program, a Spanish bilingual version (Exito para Todos) and an adaptation that integrates English-as-a-Second-Language strategies with English reading instruction using data from six studies. Notes substantially positive effects of both approaches on students acquiring English. (SLD)

  19. Shared usage of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by primary and laboratory-adapted strains of feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J; Pancino, G; Merat, R; Leste-Lasserre, T; Moraillon, A; Schneider-Mergener, J; Alizon, M; Sonigo, P; Heveker, N

    1999-05-01

    Strains of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) presently under investigation exhibit distinct patterns of in vitro tropism. In particular, the adaptation of FIV for propagation in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells results in the selection of strains capable of forming syncytia with cell lines of diverse species origin. The infection of CrFK cells by CrFK-adapted strains appears to require the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and is inhibited by its natural ligand, stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha). Here we found that inhibitors of CXCR4-mediated infection by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1), such as the bicyclam AMD3100 and short peptides derived from the amino-terminal region of SDF-1alpha, also blocked infection of CrFK by FIV. Nevertheless, we observed differences in the ranking order of the peptides as inhibitors of FIV and HIV-1 and showed that such differences are related to the species origin of CXCR4 and not that of the viral envelope. These results suggest that, although the envelope glycoproteins of FIV and HIV-1 are substantially divergent, FIV and HIV-1 interact with CXCR4 in a highly similar manner. We have also addressed the role of CXCR4 in the life cycle of primary isolates of FIV. Various CXCR4 ligands inhibited infection of feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by primary FIV isolates in a concentration-dependent manner. These ligands also blocked the viral transduction of feline PBMC by pseudotyped viral particles when infection was mediated by the envelope glycoprotein of a primary FIV isolate but not by the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus, indicating that they act at an envelope-mediated step and presumably at viral entry. These findings strongly suggest that primary and CrFK-adapted strains of FIV, despite disparate in vitro tropisms, share usage of CXCR4.

  20. Integrating Functional and Academic Goals into Literacy Instruction for Adolescents with Significant Cognitive Disabilities through Shared Story Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Carly A.; Leko, Melinda M.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple baseline single-case study examined the integration of functional and academic goals in an individualized story-based lesson plan incorporating an adapted text on grade level content for adolescent students with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities across three staff--student dyads. The research team collected data on teacher…

  1. Differential utilization of the same reading frame in a Xenopus homeobox gene encodes two related proteins sharing the same DNA-binding specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, K W; Goetz, J; Wright, C V; Fritz, A; Hardwicke, J; De Robertis, E M

    1988-01-01

    Xenopus XlHbox 1 produces two transcripts during early development. One encodes a long open reading frame (ORF) and the other a short ORF sharing the same homeodomain, but differing by an 82 amino acid domain at the amino terminus. The long protein amino terminus is conserved with many other homeodomain proteins, and its absence from the short protein could have functional consequences. Some viral genes also utilize a single ORF to encode transcription factors of antagonistic functions. The overall organization of the homologous genes in frog and man is similar, supporting the notion that both transcripts are of functional significance. Studies on XlHbox 1 function show that the region common to the long and short proteins has a sequence-specific DNA-binding activity, and that microinjection of specific antibodies into embryos results in the loss of structures derived from cells normally expressing XlHbox 1. Images PMID:2901347

  2. Reference as an Interactive Achievement: Sequential and Longitudinal Analyses of Labeling Interactions in Shared Book Reading and Free Play

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Vivien; Rohlfing, Katharina J.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines how young children and their caregivers establish reference by jointly developing stable patterns of bodily, perceptual, and interactive coordination. Our longitudinal investigation focuses on two mother–child dyads engaged in picture-book reading and play. The dyads were videotaped at home once every 6 weeks while the children aged from 9 to 24 months. Inspired by conversation analysis and multimodal analysis, our developmental approach builds on the insight that the situated and embodied production of reference is fundamentally an interactive achievement. To examine the acquisition of reference, we developed a descriptive instrument that takes account of not only the dyad's joint accomplishment but also each participant's contributions to it. The instrument is based on the sequential reconstruction of the jobs that both participants have to accomplish jointly in order to achieve reference: establishing visual perception as a relevant resource, constituting a domain of scrutiny, locating a target, and construing the (meaning of the) referent. Methodologically, these jobs serve as a tertium comparationis for the longitudinal comparison of both the adult's as well as the child's contributions to establishing reference. We used this instrument to examine (1) what bodily and verbal resources the participants employed, and (2) how their contributions to accomplishing the jobs changed over time. Findings showed that the acquisition of reference was closely related to the child's increasing ability to recognize, fulfill, and set up conditional relevancies. We conclude that the adult's dynamic and contextualized use of conditional relevancies, recipient design, and observability is a crucial driving force in the acquisition of reference. PMID:28261122

  3. Read Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This manual, designed to help public libraries in Arizona to plan their summer reading programs for children, celebrates the 25th anniversary of the Arizona Reading Program. The material in the manual is prepared for libraries to adapt for their own uses. Chapters of the manual include: (1) Introductory Materials; (2) Goals, Objectives and…

  4. Preschool Children's Use of Thematic Vocabulary during Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Storie, Sloan

    2016-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the expressive use of thematic vocabulary by three preschool children with developmental delays during Dialogic Reading, a shared book reading intervention, and Activity-Based Intervention, a naturalistic play-based teaching method. The design was replicated across two early childhood…

  5. Analysis of Swedish Forest Owners' Information and Knowledge-Sharing Networks for Decision-Making: Insights for Climate Change Communication and Adaptation.

    PubMed

    André, Karin; Baird, Julia; Gerger Swartling, Åsa; Vulturius, Gregor; Plummer, Ryan

    2017-03-08

    To further the understanding of climate change adaptation processes, more attention needs to be paid to the various contextual factors that shape whether and how climate-related knowledge and information is received and acted upon by actors involved. This study sets out to examine the characteristics of forest owners' in Sweden, the information and knowledge-sharing networks they draw upon for decision-making, and their perceptions of climate risks, their forests' resilience, the need for adaptation, and perceived adaptive capacity. By applying the concept of ego-network analysis, the empirical data was generated by a quantitative survey distributed to 3000 private forest owners' in Sweden in 2014 with a response rate of 31%. The results show that there is a positive correlation, even though it is generally weak, between forest owner climate perceptions and (i) network features, i.e. network size and heterogeneity, and (ii) presence of certain alter groups (i.e. network members or actors). Results indicate that forest owners' social networks currently serve only a minimal function of sharing knowledge of climate change and adaptation. Moreover, considering the fairly infrequent contact between respondents and alter groups, the timing of knowledge sharing is important. In conclusion we suggest those actors that forest owners' most frequently communicate with, especially forestry experts providing advisory services (e.g. forest owner associations, companies, and authorities) have a clear role to communicate both the risks of climate change and opportunities for adaptation. Peers are valuable in connecting information about climate risks and adaptation to the actual forest property.

  6. Re-Fitting for a Different Purpose: A Case Study of Item Writer Practices in Adapting Source Texts for a Test of Academic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anthony; Hawkey, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The important yet under-researched role of item writers in the selection and adaptation of texts for high-stakes reading tests is investigated through a case study involving a group of trained item writers working on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS). In the first phase of the study, participants were invited to reflect in…

  7. Second Year Validation Studies of the Brockton Battery: A Special Needs Assessment for Linguistic Minority Students. (The Tests of Reading Readiness and the Scales of Adaptive Behavior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennett, Kenneth H.

    Procedures are described to determine reliability and validity of the Brockton (Massachusetts) Battery's Tests of Reading Readiness and the Adaptive Behavior Scales, which were developed to assess performance levels of Hispanic, Portuguese, and Cape Verdean normal and high risk children. Among reasons given for development of the instruments are…

  8. Evaluation of a Condition-Adaptive Test of Reading Comprehension for Students with Reading-Based Learning Disabilities. Research Report. ETS RR-13-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Elizabeth; Cook, Linda; Laitusis, Cara

    2013-01-01

    This study presents secondary analyses on a 2-stage test of reading comprehension for students with reading-based learning disabilities (RLD). The present paper describes student perceptions of the test and its features as well as analyses focused on the routing test and associated cut score. The routing test contained typical state assessment…

  9. "Este Libro Es Mi Historia": Mother-Child Interactions during Storybook Reading in a Mexican-American Household.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyak, Patrick

    A study explored the storybook reading experiences between Ms. Garza and her children. A broad conception of the zone of proximal development, involving use, adaptation, and transformation of culturally shaped tools in the process of shared activity, provides the framework for examining this particular Mexican-American family's reading behavior.…

  10. Reading Games: Close Viewing and Guided Playing of Multimedia Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozdras, Deborah; Joseph, Christine; Schneider, Jenifer Jasinski

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe how literacy strategies can be adapted for playing (and reading) video games--games that embed disciplinary content in multimedia texts. Using close viewing and guided playing strategies with online games and simulations, we share ideas for helping students navigate and comprehend multimedia texts in order to learn…

  11. Cosmetology Reading Strategies. 1980 Vocational Reading Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, L. Jay; And Others

    Cosmetology Reading Strategies is one of five instructional guides in the Reading Strategies in Vocational Education Series. Developed to assist teachers working with students considered disadvantaged because of reading deficiency, the guide contains several strategies, suitable for adaptation, specifically related to cosmetology instruction. Each…

  12. Sharing the cost of river basin adaptation portfolios to climate change: Insights from social justice and cooperative game theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The adaptation of water resource systems to the potential impacts of climate change requires mixed portfolios of supply and demand adaptation measures. The issue is not only to select efficient, robust, and flexible adaptation portfolios but also to find equitable strategies of cost allocation among the stakeholders. Our work addresses such cost allocation problems by applying two different theoretical approaches: social justice and cooperative game theory in a real case study. First of all, a cost-effective portfolio of adaptation measures at the basin scale is selected using a least-cost optimization model. Cost allocation solutions are then defined based on economic rationality concepts from cooperative game theory (the Core). Second, interviews are conducted to characterize stakeholders' perceptions of social justice principles associated with the definition of alternatives cost allocation rules. The comparison of the cost allocation scenarios leads to contrasted insights in order to inform the decision-making process at the river basin scale and potentially reap the efficiency gains from cooperation in the design of river basin adaptation portfolios.

  13. Women's Writing in India: An Adaptable Syllabus with Annotated Reading List. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ruth

    This paper contains a course outline for a survey of writing by women from various time periods, geographic regions, and social classes of India. Particular attention is given to themes and issues concerning women's lives with readings on topics such as women's work, health and water, children, and religion. The reading list is arranged…

  14. Adapting a MOOC for Research: Lessons Learned from the First Presentation of "Literature and Mental Health: Reading for Wellbeing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    The University of Warwick's FutureLearn MOOC "Literature and Mental Health: Reading for Wellbeing," which began its first presentation February 2016, was identified as an opportunity to conduct some research into the course subject area, "reading for wellbeing" or "bibliotherapy". Since 2013, a substantial body of…

  15. Determinants of Reading Achievement of Immigrant Adolescents: The Role of Demographic and Psycho-Cultural Factors in School Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Pedro R.; Zady, Madelon F.

    Following a previous study's finding that demographic and psychosocial factors mediated the effect of ethnicity in predicting standardized reading performance, this study examined the effects of these predictors on immigrant adolescents' reading achievement. It investigated the extent to which Asian-origin and Spanish-speaking groups differed in…

  16. Performance Enhancement of a USV INS/CNS/DVL Integration Navigation System Based on an Adaptive Information Sharing Factor Federated Filter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuying; Cui, Xufei; Li, Yibing; Ye, Fang

    2017-02-03

    To improve the ability of autonomous navigation for Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs), multi-sensor integrated navigation based on Inertial Navigation System (INS), Celestial Navigation System (CNS) and Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) is proposed. The CNS position and the DVL velocity are introduced as the reference information to correct the INS divergence error. The autonomy of the integrated system based on INS/CNS/DVL is much better compared with the integration based on INS/GNSS alone. However, the accuracy of DVL velocity and CNS position are decreased by the measurement noise of DVL and bad weather, respectively. Hence, the INS divergence error cannot be estimated and corrected by the reference information. To resolve the problem, the Adaptive Information Sharing Factor Federated Filter (AISFF) is introduced to fuse data. The information sharing factor of the Federated Filter is adaptively adjusted to maintaining multiple component solutions usable as back-ups, which can improve the reliability of overall system. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by simulation and experiment, the results show that for the INS/CNS/DVL integrated system, when the DVL velocity accuracy is decreased and the CNS cannot work under bad weather conditions, the INS/CNS/DVL integrated system can operate stably based on the AISFF method.

  17. Performance Enhancement of a USV INS/CNS/DVL Integration Navigation System Based on an Adaptive Information Sharing Factor Federated Filter

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiuying; Cui, Xufei; Li, Yibing; Ye, Fang

    2017-01-01

    To improve the ability of autonomous navigation for Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs), multi-sensor integrated navigation based on Inertial Navigation System (INS), Celestial Navigation System (CNS) and Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) is proposed. The CNS position and the DVL velocity are introduced as the reference information to correct the INS divergence error. The autonomy of the integrated system based on INS/CNS/DVL is much better compared with the integration based on INS/GNSS alone. However, the accuracy of DVL velocity and CNS position are decreased by the measurement noise of DVL and bad weather, respectively. Hence, the INS divergence error cannot be estimated and corrected by the reference information. To resolve the problem, the Adaptive Information Sharing Factor Federated Filter (AISFF) is introduced to fuse data. The information sharing factor of the Federated Filter is adaptively adjusted to maintaining multiple component solutions usable as back-ups, which can improve the reliability of overall system. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by simulation and experiment, the results show that for the INS/CNS/DVL integrated system, when the DVL velocity accuracy is decreased and the CNS cannot work under bad weather conditions, the INS/CNS/DVL integrated system can operate stably based on the AISFF method. PMID:28165369

  18. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  19. The Potency of "READS" to Inform Students' Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik

    2012-01-01

    This paper shares an initiative conducted in Malaysia in terms of knowledge to gauge students' Reading Age and to inform teachers of their students' reading progress and learning. Ensuring teachers understand the needs of students' reading ability and preparing students to read and comprehend texts are the two most fundamental parallel tasks in…

  20. [The territorial expression of health-service planning: scenarios for shared decision-making on the development and adaptation of services on a territorial level].

    PubMed

    Fusté, Josep; Frigola, David; Olivet, Miquel

    2008-12-01

    To apply planning criteria on a territorial level, with a forward-looking approach and taking into account the specificities of each location, in the Health Map of Catalonia, scenarios have been constructed for the development and adaptation of services for the 2015 horizon. The territorial scale is that of the 37 areas into which Catalonia has been divided in order to promote a new form of decentralised, combined decision- making, through the Territorial Health Governments. The new territorial health organisation is the substrate which must enable the relationship between professionals and services that share the same reference population to be coordinated. This article deals with the methodology for constructing the scenarios, and a summary is given of the principal action proposals which arise from the map in the aforementioned 37 territories. Detailed content of the territorial scenarios is also given, based on two practical cases.

  1. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  2. Differential Predictors of Mathematics and Reading Achievement: What May Be Learned from Immigrant Adolescents' Adaptation to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Pedro R.; Zady, Madelon F.

    This study focused on potential overall differences in predicting mathematics and reading achievement among various immigrant groups. The dataset for the study, the sample from the Second Generation Project in Miami, Florida, and San Diego, California, was composed of 5,267 second-generation immigrants in grades 8 and 9. The results from two…

  3. Creating an Adaptive Technology Using a Cheminformatics System to Read Aloud Chemical Compound Names for People with Visual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamijo, Haruo; Morii, Shingo; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Toyooka, Naoki; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Hirobayashi, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Various tactile methods, such as Braille, have been employed to enhance the recognition ability of chemical structures by individuals with visual disabilities. However, it is unknown whether reading aloud the names of chemical compounds would be effective in this regard. There are no systems currently available using an audio component to assist…

  4. Motivating Interest in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association. Utah Council.

    This yearbook is a collection of articles on the topic of motivating interest in reading. The articles are: "An Introduction to Recreational Reading in the Classroom" by Floyd Sucher, which discusses objectives, materials, setting, scheduling, and sharing activities; "New Words and New Meaning for Old Words" by Vermont Harward, Dan Bird, and Edith…

  5. Celebrate Summer with Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    School is out and the summer is full of both official and unofficial holidays that prompt us to enjoy science and the profession of sharing it. As in past years, the reviewers and editors of "NSTA Recommends"--ready and willing to share their enthusiasm for reading with you--have been gathering suggestions for the summer. So along with your beach…

  6. Genes for Reading and Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Timothy C.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews research on the behavioral and molecular genetics of reading and, where available, spelling. Recent research is summarized, suggesting that reading and spelling appear to share a common genetic basis, and that dyslexia lies on a genetic continuum with normal variance in reading skill. Research also suggests that while many of…

  7. Can the computer replace the adult for storybook reading? A meta-analysis on the effects of multimedia stories as compared to sharing print stories with an adult

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Zsofia K.; Swart, Elise K.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2014-01-01

    The present meta-analysis challenges the notion that young children necessarily need adult scaffolding in order to understand a narrative story and learn words as long as they encounter optimally designed multimedia stories. Including 29 studies and 1272 children, multimedia stories were found more beneficial than encounters with traditional story materials that did not include the help of an adult for story comprehension (g+ = 0.40, k = 18) as well as vocabulary (g+ = 0.30, k = 11). However, no significant differences were found between the learning outcomes of multimedia stories and sharing traditional print-like stories with an adult. It is concluded that multimedia features like animated illustrations, background music and sound effects provide similar scaffolding of story comprehension and word learning as an adult. PMID:25520684

  8. Can the computer replace the adult for storybook reading? A meta-analysis on the effects of multimedia stories as compared to sharing print stories with an adult.

    PubMed

    Takacs, Zsofia K; Swart, Elise K; Bus, Adriana G

    2014-01-01

    The present meta-analysis challenges the notion that young children necessarily need adult scaffolding in order to understand a narrative story and learn words as long as they encounter optimally designed multimedia stories. Including 29 studies and 1272 children, multimedia stories were found more beneficial than encounters with traditional story materials that did not include the help of an adult for story comprehension (g+ = 0.40, k = 18) as well as vocabulary (g+ = 0.30, k = 11). However, no significant differences were found between the learning outcomes of multimedia stories and sharing traditional print-like stories with an adult. It is concluded that multimedia features like animated illustrations, background music and sound effects provide similar scaffolding of story comprehension and word learning as an adult.

  9. Dialogic Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Dialogic reading is an interactive shared picture-book reading practice designed to enhance young children's language and literacy skills. During the shared reading practice, the adult and the child switch roles so that the child learns to become the storyteller with the assistance of the adult, who functions as an active listener and questioner.…

  10. Dialogic Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Dialogic Reading" is an interactive shared picture book reading practice designed to enhance young children's language and literacy skills. During the shared reading practice, the adult and the child switch roles so that the child learns to become the storyteller with the assistance of the adult, who functions as an active listener and…

  11. Human herpesvirus 8 open reading frame 26 and open reading frame 65 sequences from multiple myeloma patients: a shared pattern not found in Kaposi's sarcoma or primary effusion lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, H J; Sjak-Shie, N N; Vescio, R A; Kaminsky, M; Mikail, A; Pold, M; Parker, K; Beksac, M; Belson, D; Moss, T J; Wu, C H; Zhou, J; Zhang, L; Chen, G; Said, J W; Berenson, J R

    2000-11-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), multicentric Castleman's disease, and recently multiple myeloma (MM). DNA sequence analyses of HHV-8 suggest that multiple HHV-8 strains exist. We extracted DNA from 24 patients with MM and 3 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and compared HHV-8 open reading frames (ORFs) 26 and 65 sequences with those derived from patients with KS, PEL, and two HHV-8-positive PEL cell lines KS-1 and BC-1. ORF26 sequence data suggest that MM patients are consistently carriers of HHV-8 strain subtype C3. All MM patients also consistently revealed either a single bp deletion or substitution at position 112197 in ORF65. This unique alteration is not present in patients with KS or PEL or in PEL cell lines. It occurs in the portion of ORF65 that is known to be responsible for a serological response to HHV-8.

  12. Desire-state attribution: Benefits of a novel paradigm using the food-sharing behavior of Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius).

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Cheke, Lucy G; Shaw, Rachael C; Legg, Edward W; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have investigated the possibility that Eurasian jay food sharing might rely on desire-state attribution. The female's desire for a particular type of food can be decreased by sating her on it (specific satiety) and the food sharing paradigm can be used to test whether the male's sharing pattern reflects the female's current desire. Our previous findings show that the male shares the food that the female currently wants. Here, we consider 3 simpler mechanisms that might explain the male's behavior: behavior reading, lack of self-other differentiation and behavioral rules. We illustrate how we have already addressed these issues and how our food sharing paradigm can be further adapted to answer outstanding questions. The flexibility with which the food sharing paradigm can be applied to rule out alternative mechanisms makes it a useful tool to study desire-state attribution in jays and other species that share food.

  13. Medical Assisting Reading Strategies. 1980 Vocational Reading Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, L. Jay; And Others

    Medical Assisting Reading Strategies is one of five instructional guides in the Reading Strategies in Vocational Education Series. Developed to assist teachers working with students considered disadvantaged because of reading deficiency, the guide contains several strategies, suitable for adaptation, specifically related to medical assisting…

  14. Man's Best Friend as a Reading Facilitator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donita Massengill

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript was to describe information about an animal-assisted therapy, specifically the Reading Education Assistance Dog (R.E.A.D.) program. In this manuscript I provide information about R.E.A.D. programs in general. Next, I share perspectives solicited from R.E.A.D. participants, specifically teachers, parents, students and…

  15. Elements of an Effective Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantes, Thomas; Collins, Susan R.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys 20 elementary school administrators. Finds they: do not share the same definition of reading, and differ in their perception of which aspects of reading are most important; agreed that teachers and central office personnel established goals for reading programs, and seek advice from teachers and reading supervisors; and felt they best…

  16. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  17. Reading(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Geoffrey; Summerfield, Judith

    Developed for college English courses, this book presents selections of poetry, short stories, and commentary intended to invite different ways of reading and interpreting literature. An introduction provides an overview of the book's content, as well as a discussion of how to read. The first section, "Entering a Language," considers the…

  18. Reading Ourselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherriff, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    Describes how reading and art have taught the author to slow down. Discusses how she wants her students to leave the third-grade classroom reading--reading words, reading pictures, and reading their world. Considers how one student slows down her reading, pays attention to her thinking, and begins to see the pictures and connections that poems…

  19. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  20. Reading Faster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

  1. The Style of Reading and Reading in Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeece, Pauline Davey

    2007-01-01

    Adult read aloud book activities, including literature selections, have significant impact on children's language learning opportunities. The style in which books are orally shared with children is also important. Detailed examination of adult-child book reading conversations has demonstrated a variety of teaching and learning approaches in the…

  2. Exploring Reading Nightmares of Middle and Secondary School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bintz, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses "reading nightmares" of reading educators. Shares what junior high and senior high school content area teachers say about their own reading nightmares, in which they often feel unable or unwilling to teach reading in the content area. Argues that by viewing reading as a lifelong process, teachers can help students become better readers.…

  3. Shared Attention.

    PubMed

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world.

  4. Sharing code

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

  5. Reading and Writing Literary Genres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Kathleen; Karnowski, Lee

    This book presents an interactive model using quality children's literature as the foundation for teaching reading and writing in grades 3 through 6, based on the premise that reading and writing are complementary processes through the shared goal of constructing meaning. Four main genres (fiction, traditional literature, fantasy, and non-fiction)…

  6. Learning by Sharing Graded Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisin, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Discusses using students' graded papers as a "text" to be read and commented upon by other students. Notes that sharing students' papers (and the teacher's comments) (1) reassures the students that they are not the only ones making errors; (2) deepens their understanding of literature; and (3) increases their awareness of writing styles and…

  7. Home Book Reading and Reading Achievement in EU Countries: The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2011 (PIRLS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araújo, Luisa; Costa, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Home shared book reading during the preschool years is a strong predictor of students' reading achievement in primary school, and, according to Sénéchal (2012), it can benefit more children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. This study examines the association between frequency of book reading before the start of compulsory education…

  8. Reading Comics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  9. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A.…

  10. Reading Rituals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    The Ogden, Utah schools have used the mandates of the federal Reading First grant program to transform reading instruction and student achievement in low-performing schools. Reading First was approved by Congress in 2001 under the No Child Left Behind Act to bring scientifically based reading methods and materials to struggling schools. The $1…

  11. Scaffolding Instruction for Reading the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Denise E.; McPherson, Pam

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that text reading and Web reading, while sharing some similarities, require a different balance of strategies. Adult language learners, especially those with limited previous experience with the Web, may therefore need explicit, scaffolded instruction in order to read the Web. This article reports on teacher action research and…

  12. Student Academic Reading Preferences: A Study of Online Reading Habits and Inclinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolsky, Tim; Soiferman, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore student preferences regarding reading print materials or online reading materials for academic purposes, as well as to examine how students adapt traditional reading strategies such as underlining, highlighting, and taking marginal notes when reading electronic texts. A total of 61 participants (32…

  13. Early Book Sharing: What Teachers Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragler, Sherry; Martin, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Describes strategies that research indicates caregivers use while reading books with young children: strategies that simplify or extend book language; prosody; and management strategies so the book reading event is meaningful for children. Suggests how teachers can use these same strategies in preschool settings to plan meaningful book sharing.…

  14. Dialogic Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Dialogic Reading" is an interactive shared picture book reading practice designed to enhance young children's language and literacy skills. During the shared reading practice, the adult and the child switch roles so that the child learns to become the storyteller with the assistance of the adult who functions as an active listener and…

  15. Parents in Reading: Administrator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    Adapted from Idaho's original Parents in Reading program, the materials in this booklet are designed for use by school administrators who want to begin a positive program that involves parents in reading. Various sections contain samples of board policy statements, press releases, and radio commercials; samples of letters to parents new to the…

  16. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  17. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

  18. Read Naturally [R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The “Read Naturally[R]” program is a supplemental reading program that aims to improve reading fluency, accuracy, and comprehension of elementary and middle school students using a combination of texts, audio CDs, and computer software. The program uses one of four products that share a common fluency-building strategy: “Read Naturally[R] Masters…

  19. Readings in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uberto, Jeffrey A.

    Designed to encourage vocational high school students to read by offering reading materials relevant to their vocational goals, this document contains thirty-seven articles related to air conditioning and refrigeration which have been selected from trade journals, magazines, and newspapers and adapted to the students' reading capabilities. A…

  20. Learning to Read through Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra Conservation Center, Jamestown, CA.

    One of the twelve exemplary programs summarized in the Introduction to Right to Read's "Effective Reading Programs: Summaries of 222 Selected Programs" (CS001934), this program attempts to raise the reading skills of inmates of the Sierra Conservation Center to the level needed for training in conservation work while in prison, or for…

  1. Discussing Stories: On How a Dialogic Reading Intervention Improves Kindergartners' Oral Narrative Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, Rosemary; Senechal, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Oral narrative skills are assumed to develop through parent-child interactive routines. One such routine is shared reading. A causal link between shared reading and narrative knowledge, however, has not been clearly established. The current research tested whether an 8-week shared reading intervention enhanced the fictional narrative skills of…

  2. Promoting Active Participation in Book Reading for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury, Veronica P.; Miramontez, Shane Herriott; Hudson, Roxanne F.; Schwartz, Ilene S.

    2014-01-01

    A common literacy practice in early childhood classrooms is reading aloud to children. Little is known, however, about the quality of engagement in shared reading activities for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Dialogic reading is one method of shared reading in which adults encourage children to actively participate in the…

  3. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  4. Required Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janko, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author insists that those seeking public office prove their literary mettle. As an English teacher, he does have a litmus test for all public officials, judges and senators included--a reading litmus test. He would require that all candidates and nominees have read and reflected on a nucleus of works whose ideas and insights…

  5. Against Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Edmundson states that if he could make one wish for the members of his profession, college and university professors of literature, he would wish that for one year, two, three, or five, they would give up readings. By "a reading," he means the application of an analytical vocabulary to describe and (usually) to judge a work of literary art.…

  6. Bilingual Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garganta, Soledad; Ramirez, Inez

    This report discusses the importance of bilingual reading instruction for limited English speaking ability (LESA) students, and careful testing of their language dominance and reading levels. Bilingual students, and English- and Spanish-dominant students from the Fabens Independent School District, Grades K-13, were tested for the data reported…

  7. Teaching Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Described are five approaches to teaching reading: Language Experience, Modified Alphabet, Linguistic, Programmed, and Basal. It is suggested that a good teacher, well trained, certified in his or her profession, an active participant in professional organizations, can teach reading successfully using almost any approach. (KC)

  8. Reading Remixed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

  9. Reading?...Pah! (I Got It!): Innovative Reading Techniques for Successful Deaf Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Connie (Ruth) S.; Edwards, Sandra G.; Prickett, Hugh T.

    1999-01-01

    A reading program utilizing five components (a shortcut to phonemic awareness, Adapted Dolch words, Bridge lists and the Bridging process, reading comprehension, and American Sign Language development/language experience stories) resulted in dramatic gains in the reading levels of 48 elementary students at a residential school for the deaf.…

  10. High School Students and "Read Across America"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Julieta Dias; Hill, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Although more commonly associated with elementary school rather than high school students, "Read Across America" celebrations can cater to any age group and generate enthusiasm for reading long after the festivities have ended. In this article, the authors, library media specialists at Washington Township High School in Sewell, New Jersey, share

  11. How Comics Made Me Love Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberkleit, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    The co-CEO of Archie Comics, a former elementary school art teacher, knows from personal experience that comics should be a tool in a teacher's toolbox. Comics can hook students on the love of reading. The author shares her experience of not enjoying to read, and even struggling with reading, to becoming the co-CEO of Archie Comics, which has…

  12. Examining the genetic and environmental associations among spelling, reading fluency, reading comprehension and a high stakes reading test in a combined sample of third and fourth grade students

    PubMed Central

    Little, Callie W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the genetic and environmental effects on the associations among reading fluency, spelling and earlier reading comprehension on a later reading comprehension outcome (FCAT) in a combined sample of 3rd and 4th grade students using data from the 2011-2012 school year of the Florida Twin project on Reading (Taylor et al., 2013). A genetically sensitive model was applied to the data with results indicating a common genetic component among all four measures, along with shared and non-shared environmental influences common between reading fluency, spelling and FCAT. PMID:26770052

  13. Nonlinear Secret Image Sharing Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2⁡m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

  14. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  15. On Teaching Adaptively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corno, Lyn

    2008-01-01

    New theory on adaptive teaching reflects the social dynamics of classrooms to explain what practicing teachers do to address student differences related to learning. In teaching adaptively, teachers respond to learners as they work. Teachers read student signals to diagnose needs on the fly and tap previous experience with similar learners to…

  16. Read Together, Talk Together: The Acceptability of Teaching Parents to Use Dialogic Reading Strategies via Videotaped Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom-Hoffman, Jessica; O'Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M.; Cutting, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    Dialogic reading (DR) is a set of book-sharing strategies that caregivers can use with preliterate children. The strategies involve actively engaging young children and encouraging them to verbalize during shared book reading. There is a substantial research base that describes the benefits of using DR strategies with toddlers and preschool-age…

  17. Independent Activities for Accelerated Students: Individualized Reading Instruction for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapides Parish School Board, Alexandria, LAa.

    The teaching guide for use with accelerated elementary school students contains suggestions for independent reading activities, a list of independent reading books for beginning readers, and suggestions for creative activities. Stressed is the value of sharing enthusiasm about books to spur independent reading. Suggestions are given for talking…

  18. The Fish Bowl: A Strategy for Assessing Independent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann

    2001-01-01

    Explains Fish Bowl, an activity for upper elementary and middle school students to share what they read and a method for teachers to assess student understanding of a book. Discusses benefits of reading aloud a summary of the book, reading a passage from the book, asking appropriate questions, and answering questions. (LRW)

  19. Reading Kiosks: Literacy Empowerment for the Girl-Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Moji A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the Reading Kiosks English literacy project carried out in Opa-settlement, Ile-Ife in Nigeria. In all, 46 girls between the ages of 7 and 22 years took part in activities such as journal writing, shared reading, uninterrupted sustained silent reading, world literacy day celebration, story telling, retelling and writing, a…

  20. Writing Instruction and Standardized Reading Scores among Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Donna

    2010-01-01

    The reading scores on the "Nation's Report Card for 2007" indicate that not all children share the same proficiency in literacy. Reading and writing require the use of similar cognitive processes, yet few studies focus on this relationship or how writing can be a tool for reading remediation. The research questions in this study addressed the…

  1. The Child's View of Reading: Understandings for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Pamela A.

    This book adopts the point of view of a child to consider young children and how they think about reading. A premise of the book is that beginning readers have rich understandings of reading and are able to share these insights with any adults who care to listen. The book argues that reading instruction can be improved by listening to children and…

  2. The Reading First Controversy: Promises and Perils of Federal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbash, Shepard

    2008-01-01

    "Reading First is the most effective federal program in history." So reads the opening line of a report that Alabama superintendent of education Joseph Morton sent to his congressional delegation last June, in which he recounts how the program has raised reading achievement for poor students in his charge. Morton's view is shared by…

  3. Read Naturally[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Read Naturally"[R] program is a supplemental reading program that aims to improve reading fluency, accuracy, and comprehension of elementary and middle school students using a combination of texts, audio CDs, and computer software. The program uses one of four products that share a common fluency-building strategy: "Read…

  4. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  5. The Practice of Sharing a Historical Muse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Sharing an imaginative energy for the storied landscape is one kind of pedagogical passion. The author had taken on the challenge of offering this particular passion to his fellow travellers. With students, the practice of peppering a trip with a historical muse involves focussed readings, in the moment stories, planned ceremonies and rituals and,…

  6. Social Reading: Promoting Reading in the Millennial Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preddy, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    Students' minds today are attracted to entertainment and all things social. To engage the reading attitudes of this generation, educators need to adapt some old tricks and add new tricks to their bag to meet these Digital Natives where they live--the world of social interaction and social technology. This article discusses the three R's necessary…

  7. Reading Disorders:

    PubMed Central

    Seaber, Emma

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between eating disorders and reading behaviors, arguing that there is a meaningful difference in a minority of readers' approach to and understanding of anorexia life-writing, and of literary texts more broadly. To illuminate this distinction, this article begins by considering the reported deleterious influence of Marya Hornbacher’s anorexia memoir, Wasted, elaborating the ways Hornbacher offers a positive presentation of anorexia nervosa that may, intentionally or not, induce certain readers to “try it” themselves. This is followed by an exploration of how Hornbacher’s own reading praxis is implicated in a discursive feedback loop around anorexia narratives. It concludes with a discussion of disordered reading attitudes in relation to the emergence of the “pro-anorexia” phenomenon.

  8. Electronic Thermometer Readings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Stennis' adaptive predictive algorithm for electronic thermometers uses sample readings during the initial rise in temperature and applies an algorithm that accurately and rapidly predicts the steady state temperature. The final steady state temperature of an object can be calculated based on the second-order logarithm of the temperature signals acquired by the sensor and predetermined variables from the sensor characteristics. These variables are calculated during tests of the sensor. Once the variables are determined, relatively little data acquisition and data processing time by the algorithm is required to provide a near-accurate approximation of the final temperature. This reduces the delay in the steady state response time of a temperature sensor. This advanced algorithm can be implemented in existing software or hardware with an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM). The capability for easy integration eliminates the expense of developing a whole new system that offers the benefits provided by NASA Stennis' technology.

  9. Reading, Readin', and Skimming: Preadolescent Girls Navigate the Sociocultural Landscapes of Books and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    This article shares the voices of preadolescent girls as they participated in an eight-month book selection study which enabled them to be active agents in their book and reading experiences. The girls, school-identified as struggling readers and self-identified as resistant readers, complicate current notions of reading, as influenced by…

  10. Learning Partners: Reading and Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    The bulletin contains suggestions for secondary level social studies teachers to improve students' reading skills in social studies while at the same time enhancing the learning of social studies content. The materials can be easily adapted for elementary grades. Chapter one describes specific procedures for determining student reading levels.…

  11. Infants and Toddlers: Sharing Stories with Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2004-01-01

    New brain research reveals that synapses, the connections between neurons, are twice as plentiful at 24 months as in adulthood. Reading to babies helps "wire in" those synapses so that babies get an early intellectual boost. This article discusses early reading for babies as it promotes early literacy. Sharing picture books is a wonderful way to…

  12. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  13. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  14. Reading Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    The parents of students who attend Decatur High School thought that there was little hope of their kids going on to college. After a year or so in Decatur's reading program, their sons and daughters were both transformed and college bound. In this article, the author describes how Decatur was able to successfully transform their students. Seven…

  15. Reading Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    The central purpose of this book is to challenge current social constructions of poverty, reading education, and the putative relationship between the two. It explores how official and popular representations of poverty are bound to specific historical, social, and economic conditions of their own production. The book offers four stances of…

  16. SHARING EDUCATIONAL SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.

    SHARED SERVICES, A COOPERATIVE SCHOOL RESOURCE PROGRAM, IS DEFINED IN DETAIL. INCLUDED IS A DISCUSSION OF THEIR NEED, ADVANTAGES, GROWTH, DESIGN, AND OPERATION. SPECIFIC PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING STATE AID IN SHARED SERVICES, EFFECTS OF SHARED SERVICES ON THE SCHOOL, AND HINTS CONCERNING SHARED SERVICES ARE DESCRIBED. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL…

  17. Kindergarten Reading Curriculum: Reading Abilities, Not Reading Readiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ida Santos

    1985-01-01

    Addresses attitudes toward reading resulting in beginning reading instruction in the kindergarten and preschool curriculum. Argues that previously accepted notions of the necessity of reading readiness are no longer viable and encourages home and classroom support for the acquisition of reading abilities through written and oral language. (DST)

  18. Reading Words and Reading Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    The research and practical questions about the internal lexicon, the associated network of internal representation basic to word meaning, boil down to whether in reading English the phonological route is obligatory or optional. Since the English writing system is morphophonemic, not phonetic, access to the internal lexicon cannot and should not…

  19. Reading and General Cognitive Ability: A Multivariate Analysis of 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association between reading and general cognitive ability (g) in a population-based sample of 6,476 pairs of 7-year-old twins. Additive genetic influences largely accounted for individual differences in reading and the covariation between reading and g. Furthermore, both genetic and shared environmental influences on reading and g…

  20. Added Value of Dialogic Parent-Child Book Readings: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mol, Suzanne E.; Bus, Adriana G.; de Jong, Maria T.; Smeets, Daisy J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Book reading has been demonstrated to promote vocabulary. The current study was conducted to examine the added value of an interactive shared book reading format that emphasizes active as opposed to noninteractive participation by the child. Studies that included a dialogic reading intervention group and a reading-as-usual control group, and that…

  1. TEACHING READING TO THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STRANG, RUTH

    THE READING PROBLEMS OF ADOLESCENTS WHO HAVE BEEN DEPRIVED OF PRE-READING EXPERIENCES AND OTHER ADVANTAGES THAT CHILDREN FROM MORE PRIVILEGED HOMES ENJOY ARE DISCUSSED. TECHNIQUES TO COMBAT APATHY AND TO USE WITH INFORMAL READING MATERIAL FOR DIAGNOSTIC PURPOSES ARE SUGGESTED. TEN PROCEDURES FOLLOW WHICH COULD BE ADAPTED TO VARIOUS SITUATIONS--(1)…

  2. Captions and Reading Rates of Hearing-Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shroyer, Edgar H.; Birch, Jack

    1980-01-01

    By adapting the scoring procedure of the Gates McGinitie Reading Test, speed and accuracy portion, the reading rates of 185 randomly selected hearing impaired students from residential schools for the deaf were obtained. Rates were then compared with the reading rates of hearing students and extempore speech. (Author)

  3. Reading Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Reading the average science textbook, one is struck with a question: Why would people devote their lives to the study of a subject as dry as the Sahara Desert? Students in science classes only need to be let in on the great secret of science. It is fun and full of the stuff in page-turner novels--intrigue, mystery, romance, and sometimes just dumb…

  4. Redesigning Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Gay

    2000-01-01

    All students, including struggling readers, need opportunities to make choices in their reading. Schools should shun round-robin oral reading and basal readers, prioritize reading time, allocate resources for varied reading materials keyed to student interests, and develop better reading teachers, not better reading programs. (Contains 20…

  5. Reading Research 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodacre, Elizabeth J.

    The reading research contributions discussed in this survey are arranged under the following headings: reading standards and tests, dyslexia and specific reading retardation, remedial and reading provision, reading development, and materials and reading interests. Each section summarizes research and findings in that area of study during 1975.…

  6. Collaboratively Sharing Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal

    Scientific research becomes increasingly reliant on multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration through sharing experimental data. Indeed, data sharing is mandatory by government research agencies such as NIH. The major hurdles for data sharing come from: i) the lack of data sharing infrastructure to make data sharing convenient for users; ii) users’ fear of losing control of their data; iii) difficulty on sharing schemas and incompatible data from sharing partners; and iv) inconsistent data under schema evolution. In this paper, we develop a collaborative data sharing system SciPort, to support consistency preserved data sharing among multiple distributed organizations. The system first provides Central Server based lightweight data integration architecture, so data and schemas can be conveniently shared across multiple organizations. Through distributed schema management, schema sharing and evolution is made possible, while data consistency is maintained and data compatibility is enforced. With this data sharing system, distributed sites can now consistently share their research data and their associated schemas with much convenience and flexibility. SciPort has been successfully used for data sharing in biomedical research, clinical trials and large scale research collaboration.

  7. Linear combination reading program for capture gamma rays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Allan B.

    1971-01-01

    This program computes a weighting function, Qj, which gives a scalar output value of unity when applied to the spectrum of a desired element and a minimum value (considering statistics) when applied to spectra of materials not containing the desired element. Intermediate values are obtained for materials containing the desired element, in proportion to the amount of the element they contain. The program is written in the BASIC language in a format specific to the Hewlett-Packard 2000A Time-Sharing System, and is an adaptation of an earlier program for linear combination reading for X-ray fluorescence analysis (Tanner and Brinkerhoff, 1971). Following the program is a sample run from a study of the application of the linear combination technique to capture-gamma-ray analysis for calcium (report in preparation).

  8. Effects of a Whole-Class Reading Program Designed for Different Reading Levels and the Learning Needs of L1 and L2 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Susanne; Schwab, Susanne; Gasteiger-Klicpera, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the whole-class reading program Language And Reading Skills (LARS) and its effects on the decoding, reading comprehension, and language abilities of 1st-language (L1) and 2nd-language (L2) German 2nd graders. The program consisted of teacher training and differentiated reading materials adapted to the needs of both L1…

  9. Dialogic reading and morphology training in Chinese children: effects on language and literacy.

    PubMed

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Chow, Celia Sze-Lok

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of parent-child shared book reading and metalinguistic training on the language and literacy skills of 148 kindergartners in Hong Kong. Children were pretested on Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, morphological awareness, and reading interest and then assigned randomly to 1 of 4 conditions: the dialogic reading with morphology training (DR + MT), dialogic reading (DR), typical reading, or control condition. After a 12-week intervention period, the DR intervention yielded greater gains in vocabulary, and the DR + MT intervention yielded greater improvement in character recognition and morphological awareness. Both interventions enhanced children's reading interest. Results confirm that different home literacy approaches influence children's oral and written language skills differently: Shared book reading promotes language development, whereas parents' explicit metalinguistic training within a shared book reading context better prepares children for learning to read.

  10. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  11. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  12. Rehearsed Oral Reading: Providing Authentic Reading Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matz, Karl A.

    A two-part study investigated the prevalence of unrehearsed oral reading and compared reading fluency for rehearsed and unrehearsed reading passages. In the first part of the study, a total of 21 teachers were interviewed and 24 classrooms were observed. Results indicated that by far the most prevalent practice in basal reading programs is the…

  13. Taiwanese Mothers' Beliefs about Reading Aloud with Preschoolers: Findings from the Parent Reading Belief Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chu-Chu; Honig, Alice Sterling

    2010-01-01

    In this study we adapted DeBaryshe and Binder's Parent Reading Belief Inventory (PRBI) with middle-class, well-educated (M = 14-15 years of education) Taiwanese mothers to find what their beliefs were about reading aloud to young children. Parental reports of home literacy practices including children's emergent literacy behaviours were also…

  14. Reading Training by Means of Disappearing Text: Effects on Reading Performance and Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Dimigen, Olaf; Sommer, Werner; Breznitz, Zvia

    2016-01-01

    The Reading Acceleration Program (RAP), which uses adaptively increasing text erasure rates to enforce reading rate improvements, has been positively evaluated in various languages, reader and age groups. The current study compared the established incremental increase of text erasure rate with a training using fixed erasure rates in two groups of…

  15. An Actor's Role-Reading Approach to Reading Fluency with Junior High Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide teachers, tutors and parents with an effective and enjoyable approach to practicing reading fluency, increasing comprehension and encouraging the joy of reading, based on the theories and methods of Sally L. Smith. This method can be applied and adapted to individual student's needs. Sally Smith, the…

  16. Reading Is Your Thing (Even if You're Not a Reading Teacher)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The activities described in this article, Prediction Path and Quotation Cafe, are adapted from the IRA book "Building Reading Comprehension Habits in Grades 6-12." They highlight the reading comprehension habit of making inferences and predictions, which can be used across content areas and grade levels. In creating this toolkit of activities, the…

  17. Developing Reading Comprehension Modules to Facilitate Reading Comprehension among Malaysian Secondary School ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to develop a set of 6 Reading Comprehension Modules (RCMs) for Malaysian ESL teachers to facilitate different reading abilities of ESL students effectively. Different skill categories were selected for developing the RCMs. This article describes how and why diverse texts of varying length were adopted and adapted from various…

  18. fMRI-Adaptation Evidence of Overlapping Neural Representations for Objects Related in Function or Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Eiling; Drucker, Daniel M.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Sensorimotor-based theories of semantic memory contend that semantic information about an object is represented in the neural substrate invoked when we perceive or interact with it. We used fMRI adaptation to test this prediction, measuring brain activation as participants read pairs of words. Pairs shared function (flashlight–lantern), shape (marble–grape), both (pencil–pen), were unrelated (saucer–needle), or were identical (drill–drill). We observed adaptation for pairs with both function and shape similarity in left premotor cortex. Further, degree of function similarity was correlated with adaptation in three regions: two in the left temporal lobe (left medial temporal lobe, left middle temporal gyrus), which has been hypothesized to play a role in mutimodal integration, and one in left superior frontal gyrus. We also found that degree of manipulation (i.e., action) and function similarity were both correlated with adaptation in two regions: left premotor cortex and left intraparietal sulcus (involved in guiding actions). Additional considerations suggest that the adaptation in these two regions was driven by manipulation similarity alone; thus, these results imply that manipulation information about objects is encoded in brain regions involved in performing or guiding actions. Unexpectedly, these same two regions showed increased activation (rather than adaptation) for objects similar in shape. Overall, we found evidence (in the form of adaptation) that objects that share semantic features have overlapping representations. Further, the particular regions of overlap provide support for the existence of both sensorimotor and amodal/multimodal representations. PMID:20034582

  19. Generalized quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srikanth, R.

    2005-01-01

    We explore a generalization of quantum secret sharing (QSS) in which classical shares play a complementary role to quantum shares, exploring further consequences of an idea first studied by Nascimento, Mueller-Quade, and Imai [Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)]. We examine three ways, termed inflation, compression, and twin thresholding, by which the proportion of classical shares can be augmented. This has the important application that it reduces quantum (information processing) players by replacing them with their classical counterparts, thereby making quantum secret sharing considerably easier and less expensive to implement in a practical setting. In compression, a QSS scheme is turned into an equivalent scheme with fewer quantum players, compensated for by suitable classical shares. In inflation, a QSS scheme is enlarged by adding only classical shares and players. In a twin-threshold scheme, we invoke two separate thresholds for classical and quantum shares based on the idea of information dilution.

  20. Sensorpedia: Information Sharing Across Autonomous Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Bryan L; Resseguie, David R; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher H

    2009-01-01

    The concept of adapting social media technologies is introduced as a means of achieving information sharing across autonomous sensor systems. Historical examples of interoperability as an underlying principle in loosely-coupled systems is compared and contrasted with corresponding tightly-coupled, integrated systems. Examples of ad hoc information sharing solutions based on Web 2.0 social networks, mashups, blogs, wikis, and data tags are presented and discussed. The underlying technologies of these solutions are isolated and defined, and Sensorpedia is presented as a formalized application for implementing sensor information sharing across large-scale enterprises with incompatible autonomous sensor systems.

  1. Describing functional requirements for knowledge sharing communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Sandra; Caldwell, Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Human collaboration in distributed knowledge sharing groups depends on the functionality of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support performance. Since many of these dynamic environments are constrained by time limits, knowledge must be shared efficiently by adapting the level of information detail to the specific situation. This paper focuses on the process of knowledge and context sharing with and without mediation by ICT, as well as issues to be resolved when determining appropriate ICT channels. Both technology-rich and non-technology examples are discussed.

  2. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    PubMed

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  3. Adapting Reading Intervention for Online Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Baiyun; Hirumi, Atsusi

    2004-01-01

    With the advances of computer and network technologies, student enrollment in distance education has increased rapidly since the 1990s. In 2003, it is estimated that about 40,000 to 50,000 K-12 students are enrolled in online courses nationwide (Golden, Wicks, & Williams, 2004). With the ever-increasing number of K-12 students who attend online…

  4. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-09-01

    The authors review research on children's reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children's reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children's reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers have identified in both laboratory and classroom-based research instructional practices that positively impact students' reading motivation and ultimately their reading comprehension. There is a strong need for researchers to build on this work and develop and study in different age groups of children effective classroom-based reading motivation instructional programs for a variety of narrative and informational materials.

  5. Reading Workshop Survival Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muschla, Gary Robert

    Intended for reading and classroom teachers, this book, organized in two parts, is a complete, step-by-step guide to setting up and running a reading workshop for grades 5-12 where reading is "the" priority. Part 1, "Management of the Reading Workshop," shows how to create a reading workshop, offers specific tools and…

  6. Parents Teach Reading, Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Linda Mixon

    Parents and teachers need to be involved in teaching children to read and to enjoy reading. There are three planks in a platform that will help all parents become involved in their children's learning to read. First, parents must set the example. If they want their children to read, parents must read around them and to them. Secondly, they must…

  7. Socio-Cultural Variation in Reading Comprehension Development among Fifth Graders in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Silvia Morales; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over the course of fifth grade, were related to the…

  8. Bilingual Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "Bilingual Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition" ("BCIRC") program, an adaptation of the "Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition" ("CIRC") program, was designed to help Spanish-speaking students succeed in reading Spanish and then making a successful transition to English reading. In…

  9. "It's Not Their Job to Share Content": A Case Study of the Role of Senior Students in Adapting Teaching Materials as Open Educational Resources at the University of Cape Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson-Williams, Cheryl; Paskevicius, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's landmark decision to make its teaching and learning materials freely available to the public as OpenCourseWare (OCW), many other higher education institutions have followed suit sharing resources now more generally referred to as Open Educational Resources (OER). The University of Cape Town…

  10. Children Can Love Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zibart, Rosemary

    1980-01-01

    Describes the Reading Is Fundamental Program (RIF), whose reading motivation concept is simple: young people who get the opportunity to freely choose and to own books may begin to experience reading as a pleasurable activity. (Author/LLS)

  11. Proactive quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2015-11-01

    A proactive quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the participants can update their key shares periodically. In an updating period, one participant randomly generates the EPR pairs, and the other participants update their key shares and perform the corresponding unitary operations on the particles of the EPR pairs. Then, the participant who generated the EPR pairs performs the Bell-state measurement and updates his key share according to the result of the Bell-state measurement. After an updating period, each participant can change his key share, but the secret is changeless, and the old key shares will be useless even if they have been stolen by the attacker. The proactive property of our scheme is very useful to resist the mobile attacker.

  12. Faith, Phonics and Identity: Reading in Faith Complementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosowsky, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of UK school children spend considerable time during a lengthy period of their youth learning to read, or decode, a 'religious classical', the liturgical language connected to their faith. Drawing on recent theories of reading, identity and literacy practices, this paper briefly describes and seeks to share tentative thoughts about some…

  13. Learning from Picturebooks: Reading and Writing Multimodally in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Prisca; Martens, Ray; Doyle, Michelle Hassay; Loomis, Jenna; Aghalarov, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    This article shares the authors' work with first graders and how, through various reading, writing, and art experiences around picturebooks, the children learned to read and communicate through art along with written language. The work is grounded in multimodality theory and the belief that all modes (particularly art for the purposes of this…

  14. Validity of the Children's Orientation to Book Reading Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderavek, Joan N.; Guo, Ying; Justice, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the validity of a 4-point rating scale used to measure the level of preschool children's orientation to literacy during shared book reading. Validity was explored by (a) comparing the children's level of literacy orientation as measured with the "Children's Orientation to Book Reading Rating Scale" (COB)…

  15. Poetry Portfolios: Using Poetry to Teach Reading and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jennifer

    This lesson plan can help teach primary students about sentence structure, rhyming words, sight words, vocabulary, and print concepts using a weekly poem. These important skills for reading and writing are demonstrated in a whole-to-parts approach using engaging poems, shared reading, and independent activities. During five 15-minute class…

  16. Writing Poetry in the School Library (And Reading It Too!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendelin, Karla

    2013-01-01

    Although April is National Poetry Month, poems are for any time... and all the time... and sharing poetry should be part of the library experience. Before we ask students to write poetry, however, we need to read poetry to and with them. We also need to provide opportunities for them to browse the poetry section and select poems to read to each…

  17. Enhancements of Dialogic Reading for Young Children with Down's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Staci; Miller, Gloria L.; Riley, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Dialogic Reading (DR) is a highly developed and well-documented shared-reading approach designed specifically to increase adult and child verbal exchanges while promoting language development, early literacy skills, and long-term academic functioning in children with and without language delays. This article provides ideas and concrete strategies…

  18. Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Vera

    2013-01-01

    In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…

  19. Teaching Reading Comprehension through Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Klingner, Janette Kettman

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of collaborative strategic reading (CSR) as an approach to enhancing the reading-comprehension skills of students with learning disabilities. Procedures for implementing CSR with collaborative groups and techniques for teaching reading-comprehension skills are provided. The role of the teacher is described and sample teaching…

  20. Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

  1. Processing of irregular polysemes in sentence reading.

    PubMed

    Brocher, Andreas; Foraker, Stephani; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-01

    The degree to which meanings are related in memory affects ambiguous word processing. We examined irregular polysemes, which have related senses based on similar or shared features rather than a relational rule, like regular polysemy. We tested to what degree the related meanings of irregular polysemes (wire) are represented with shared semantic information versus unshared information represented separately, like homonyms (bank). Monitoring eye fixations, we found that later context supporting the less frequent meaning of an irregular polyseme did not slow down reading compared with control conditions, whereas for homonyms it did. This indicates that in the absence of preceding biasing context, readers access a shared component of an irregular polyseme's representation. Additionally, when the same context words preceded the ambiguous word, both irregular polysemes and homonyms initially elicited longer reading times, but the observed reading slow-down was weaker and less persistent for irregular polysemes than homonyms, indicating less competition between meaning components. We interpret these results as evidence of a shared features representation for irregular polysemes, which additionally incorporates unshared portions of meaning that can compete. When preceding, biasing context is available, readers activate shared and unshared components of the senses, producing a more fully instantiated meaning. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. A nursing journal club thrives through shared governance.

    PubMed

    Gloeckner, Mary B; Robinson, Carolene B

    2010-01-01

    Promoting professional growth within the practice of nursing is a challenge for nurses in staff development. When that growth includes reading research articles and discussing implications for practice, it is even more difficult to spark interest among frontline clinicians. Most nurses struggle to understand research studies and find reading and critiquing the content intimidating. This article shares the success of a nursing research journal club that was launched through a community hospital's shared governance model. The article will encourage nurses in staff development to implement a journal club that is meaningful to the bedside nurse in all practice areas.

  3. Media Type Influences Preschooler's Literacy Development: E-Book versus Printed Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozminsky, Ely; Asher-Sadon, Revital

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, children's books are in a printed format and shared book reading is done with an adult. In recent years, interactive E-books have become a common medium for children's books and shared book reading is diminishing. This study compared the contribution of book format to the development of literacy in kindergarten children. We…

  4. Retooling the Reading Lesson: Matching the Right Tools to the Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Ruth A.; Kane, Mary; Peeling, Tammy

    2000-01-01

    Describes a year long literacy improvement project in two third-grade classrooms that focused on struggling readers. Describes small-group reading instruction in the classrooms that focused on 3 components: rereading familiar texts; shared and guided reading, incorporating strategy use in decoding unfamiliar words; and shared and guided writing.…

  5. Models, Norms and Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.

    To investigate the effect of modeling on altruism, 156 third and fifth grade children were exposed to a model who either shared with them, gave to a charity, or refused to share. The test apparatus, identified as a game, consisted of a box with signal lights and a chute through which marbles were dispensed. Subjects and the model played the game…

  6. Shared Parenting Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkat, Ira Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Joint custody of children is the most prevalent court ordered arrangement for families of divorce. A growing body of literature indicates that many parents engage in behaviors that are incompatible with shared parenting. This article provides specific criteria for a definition of the Shared Parenting Dysfunction. Clinical aspects of the phenomenon…

  7. Intelligence Sharing in Bosnia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    increases with the demands of near real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing...operating system providing actionable near-real- time intelligence to commanders for coalition synchronization and the requirement to protect national...real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing requirements across an ad hoc coalition

  8. Exploring the Co-Development of Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Little, Callie W; Hart, Sara A; Quinn, Jamie M; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Taylor, Jeanette; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-11-10

    This study explores the co-development of two related but separate reading skills, reading fluency and reading comprehension, across Grades 1-4. A bivariate biometric dual change score model was applied to longitudinal data collected from 1,784 twin pairs between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Grade 1 skills were influenced by highly overlapping genetic and environmental factors. Growth in both skills was influenced by highly overlapping shared environmental factors. Cross-lagged parameters indicated bidirectional effects, with stronger effects from fluency to comprehension change than from comprehension to fluency change.

  9. Longitudinal stability in reading comprehension is largely heritable from grades 1 to 6.

    PubMed

    Soden, Brooke; Christopher, Micaela E; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Olson, Richard K; Cutting, Laurie; Keenan, Janice M; Thompson, Lee A; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik G; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a foundational academic skill and significant attention has focused on reading development. This report is the first to examine the stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on reading comprehension across Grades 1 to 6. This developmental range is particularly important because it encompasses the timespan in which most children move from learning how to read to using reading for learning. Longitudinal simplex models were fitted separately for two independent twin samples (N = 706; N = 976). Results suggested that the shared environment contributed to variance in early but not later reading. Instead, stability in reading development was largely mediated by continuous genetic influences. Thus, although reading is clearly a learned skill and the environment remains important for reading development, individual differences in reading comprehension appear to be also influenced by a core of genetic stability that persists through the developmental course of reading.

  10. Psychometric Research in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frederick B.

    This review of psychometric research in reading analyzes the factors which seem related to reading comprehension skills. Experimental analysis of reading comprehension by L. E. Thorndike revealed two major components: knowledge of word meanings and verbal reasoning abilities. Subsequent analysis of experimental studies of reading comprehension…

  11. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  12. Roads to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Ralph C.

    This book is a collection of ideas that have been used in many countries for the encouragement of reading. Its purposes are to provide information about reading and the reading habit; to put forward examples of local, national, and international reading promotion activities selected as useful, representative of different approaches, and adaptable…

  13. Big Read, Big ROI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Beth

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) released a grim report on the state of literary reading in America. "Reading at Risk" (www.nea.gov/pub/ReadingAtRisk.pdf) detailed a dramatic decline in recreational reading across all segments of the American population--young and old, black, brown, and white. It also included the projected…

  14. Some Approaches to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nila Banton; Strickland, Ruth

    This pamphlet discusses some beginning approaches and technological approaches to reading instruction, and the relationship between children's language and reading. The first section looks at several approaches to reading instruction: "The Language Experience Approach,""The Initial Teaching Alphabet,""Linguistic Approaches to Reading,""Programed…

  15. Approaches to Beginning Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aukerman, Robert C.

    The more than one hundred approaches to initial reading instruction can be grouped under ten headings: basal reader, phonemics, phonemic reading, "linguistics," total language arts, language-experience, one-to-one sound symbol, individualized reading, early reading, and perceptual discrimination. Although the basal reader approach is used in more…

  16. Reading with Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linderholm, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    In college-level courses, the vast majority of students read expository textbooks with a primary purpose in mind: to memorize and, hopefully, understand enough information to receive a particular grade on a course exam. Intuitively, this kind of reading is different than the kind of reading that these same students do when reading a novel while…

  17. Requirement of MgtC for Brucella suis Intramacrophage Growth: a Potential Mechanism Shared by Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Adaptation to a Low-Mg2+ Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; O'Callaghan, David; Blanc-Potard, Anne-Béatrice

    2005-01-01

    A Brucella suis mgtC mutant is defective for growth within macrophages and in low-Mg2+ medium. These phenotypes are strikingly similar to those observed with mgtC mutants from Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, two other pathogens that proliferate within phagosomes. MgtC appears as a remarkable virulence factor that would have been acquired by distantly related intracellular pathogens to contribute to the adaptation to a low-Mg2+ environment in the phagosome. PMID:15845525

  18. The relations between reading and spelling: an examination of subtypes of reading disability.

    PubMed

    Bar-Kochva, Irit; Amiel, Meirav

    2016-07-01

    Three groups of reading-disabled children were found in studies of English, German, and French: a group with a double deficit in reading and spelling, a group with a single spelling deficit, and a more rarely reported group presenting a single reading deficit. This study set out to examine whether these groups can be found in adults, readers and spellers of Hebrew, which differs from the previously studied orthographies in many aspects. To this end, Hebrew-speaking adults with or without reading disability were administered various literacy and literacy-related tests. Results confirm the existence of the same three groups. While all shared a phonological deficit, subtle differences in phonological decoding ability and in speed of processing distinguished between the groups. The study therefore suggests that the previously reported associations and dissociations between reading and spelling are not restricted to English, German, or French and may not be only developmental in nature.

  19. Learning to Read in First Grade: Developing Effective Programs in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragler, Sherry; Martin, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the reading instructional program that first-graders in an urban school located in a large, Midwestern city received as a result of a grant initiative. Various assessments of the children's reading revealed some important areas for reading success were missing. As a result, suggestions were shared with the school staff to…

  20. Sensitivity to Rime Unit Frequency and Children's Early Word-Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Emily; Farrington-Flint, Lee; Underwood, Jean; Stiller, James

    2012-01-01

    The current work examines children's sensitivity to rime unit spelling-sound correspondences within the context of early word reading as a way of assessing word-specific influences on early word-reading strategies. Sixty 6-7-year-olds participated in an experimental reading task that comprised word items that shared either frequent or infrequent…

  1. Can evolution provide perfectly optimal solutions for a universal model of reading?

    PubMed

    Behme, Christina

    2012-10-01

    Frost has given us good reason to question the universality of existing computational models of reading. Yet, he has not provided arguments showing that all languages share fundamental and invariant reading universals. His goal of outlining the blueprint principles for a universal model of reading is premature. Further, it is questionable whether natural evolution can provide the optimal solutions that Frost invokes.

  2. Enhancing Linguistic Performance: Parents and Teachers as Book Reading Partners for Children with Language Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain-Thoreson, Catherine; Dale, Philip S.

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 32 children with language delays investigated the effectiveness of Dialogic Reading, an interactive language-facilitation technique. After adult instruction in Dialogic Reading, children spoke more, made longer utterances, produced more words, and participated more in shared book reading. No differences were found in vocabulary…

  3. Once upon a Time: Parent-Child Dialogue and Storybook Reading in the Electronic Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish-Morris, Julia; Mahajan, Neha; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Collins, Molly Fuller

    2013-01-01

    Early experiences with books predict later reading success, and an interactive shared reading style called "dialogic reading" is especially beneficial to emergent literacy. Electronic console (EC) books, CD-rom books, and e-book apps are designed to teach preschoolers preliteracy skills, but research has yet to systematically explore the…

  4. Share with thy neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Surendar; Yu, Xuwen

    2007-01-01

    Peer to peer (P2P) systems are traditionally designed to scale to a large number of nodes. However, we focus on scenarios where the sharing is effected only among neighbors. Localized sharing is particularly attractive in scenarios where wide area network connectivity is undesirable, expensive or unavailable. On the other hand, local neighbors may not offer the wide variety of objects possible in a much larger system. The goal of this paper is to investigate a P2P system that shares contents with its neighbors. We analyze the sharing behavior of Apple iTunes users in an University setting. iTunes restricts the sharing of audio and video objects to peers within the same LAN sub-network. We show that users are already making a significant amount of content available for local sharing. We show that these systems are not appropriate for applications that require access to a specific object. We argue that mechanisms that allow the user to specify classes of interesting objects are better suited for these systems. Mechanisms such as bloom filters can allow each peer to summarize the contents available in the neighborhood, reducing network search overhead. This research can form the basis for future storage systems that utilize the shared storage available in neighbors and build a probabilistic storage for local consumption.

  5. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschoolers with Disabilities Using Adult-Child Shared Bookreading: A Comparison of Traditional and Electronic Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…

  6. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  7. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  8. A Sharing Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)

  9. Textmasters: Bringing Literature Circles to Textbook Reading across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfong, Lori G.

    2009-01-01

    A fifth-grade science teacher and university researcher challenged the notion that textbook reading follows the same archaic formula: read the textbook and answer the questions at the end of the section. Together, they adapted literature circle roles to fit textbook structures, resulting in the strategy they call Textmasters. This article…

  10. Reading Scientifically: Practices Supporting Intertextual Reading Using Science Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enfield, Mark

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on a study of teachers' actions when reading informational and narrative texts in the context of elementary science learning experiences. Focusing on the development of fundamental and derived senses of science literacy through the integrated science lessons, the research further explores the affordances of different genres of text in science learning. The findings highlight that teacher actions can support students engaging in inquiry provoked during reading events. However, this was not easy to do and required more than providing students with opportunities to discuss and share their questions. Furthermore, the study revealed that purposes for reading and the notion of making predictions were contextualized activities that impact the nature of students' engagement with texts. Based on these findings it is possible to make inferences that raise questions for future research. The construct of fundamental and derived senses of science literacy revealed that most of the actions of teachers focused on fundamental senses. Yet, there were moments of derived senses of science literacy that offer glimpses of the usefulness of this construct for supporting integrated learning. Thus the outcome is to consider this framework when developing integrated learning experiences in science.

  11. Into the Curriculum. Art/Social Studies: What Costume Can You Make?; Mathematics: Roman Numerals; Reading/Language Arts: The "Rumplestiltskin Problem" and Other Adapted Tales; Social Studies: What's the Truth about Gladiators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwick, Martha

    2002-01-01

    Provides four fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in art, social studies, reading, and language arts. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each activity. (LRW)

  12. Reading without Nonsense. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frank

    Intended for reading teachers, this book is concerned with the process of reading, with the perceptual and language skills involved in reading, and with the nature of the task confronting children learning to read. It shows that it is only through reading that children learn to read, and that a teacher's role must therefore be to make reading easy…

  13. On Reading and Not Reading Today: A Commentary on L. Borusiak's Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Boris

    2012-01-01

    In this commentary, the author stresses that reading habits in Russia have changed since the Soviet era, and the more intellectual journals and magazines in particular have lost their importance. Audiences for books and magazines have fragmented, and there are fewer sources of commonly shared information and ideas than was true a few decades ago.…

  14. Star Trek as Recreational Reading for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Mecedes

    A study investigated the appropriateness of the "Star Trek" book series for use as recreational reading material for elementary school children. The 12 books were adapted from the television series by James Blish. Appropriateness was determined by evaluating the quality and the readability levels of the books. Quality was ascertained by examining…

  15. Chocolate: Reading across the Five C's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jody

    2007-01-01

    The reading and literacy focus of a unit that centers on chocolate can provide a context for using the interpretive mode of the communication standard from the "National Standards in Foreign Language Education." This article presents a thematic unit that is applicable to all languages and adaptable to any level. Inspired by Woodlands'…

  16. Sharing Responsibility for Results: Breakthrough to Literacy[R].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, NY. Educational and Professional Publishing Group.

    This report considers six schools in two urban districts that made deliberate commitments to improve student performance in early language and literacy--each story is different, yet they all share an important insight: that a school and a model provider can work together to help every child learn to read. As the stories in the report demonstrate,…

  17. Sharing Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents ideas related to: (1) graphs (considering patterns, periodic functions, and problem-solving); (2) curing common errors (such as an incorrect way of canceling); (3) the median of a trapezoid; and (4) using a telephone directory to teach probability, graphing, random-number tables, reading tables, calculating percentages, and other topics.…

  18. Shadow-Reading: Guidelines for a Socially-Mediated Approach to Reading in the Second/Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commander, Millie; de Guerrero, María C. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes shadow-reading, a pedagogical technique aimed at fostering reading comprehension and retention in second (L2) or foreign language (FL) classrooms. The technique is an adaptation of "conversational shadowing," a procedure which requires listeners to repeat what their interlocutors say in an attempt to remember the…

  19. Reading Disabilities and PASS Reading Enhancement Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    Children experience difficulties in reading either because they fail to decode the words and thus are unable to comprehend the text or simply fail to comprehend the text even if they are able to decode the words and read them out. Failure in word decoding results from a failure in phonological coding of written information, whereas reading…

  20. Learning with sublexical information from emerging reading vocabularies in exceptionally early and normal reading development.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G Brian; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M; Wilson, Kathryn J; McKay, Michael F; Margrain, Valerie G

    2015-03-01

    Predictions from theories of the processes of word reading acquisition have rarely been tested against evidence from exceptionally early readers. The theories of Ehri, Share, and Byrne, and an alternative, Knowledge Sources theory, were so tested. The former three theories postulate that full development of context-free letter sounds and awareness of phonemes are required for normal acquisition, while the claim of the alternative is that with or without such, children can use sublexical information from their emerging reading vocabularies to acquire word reading. Results from two independent samples of children aged 3-5, and 5 years, with mean word reading levels of 7 and 9 years respectively, showed underdevelopment of their context-free letter sounds and phoneme awareness, relative to their word reading levels and normal comparison samples. Despite such underdevelopment, these exceptional readers engaged in a form of phonological recoding that enabled pseudoword reading, at the level of older-age normal controls matched on word reading level. Moreover, in the 5-year-old sample further experiments showed that, relative to normal controls, they had a bias toward use of sublexical information from their reading vocabularies for phonological recoding of heterophonic pseudowords with irregular consistent spelling, and were superior in accessing word meanings independently of phonology, although only if the readers were without exposure to explicit phonics. The three theories were less satisfactory than the alternative theory in accounting for the learning of the exceptionally early readers.

  1. Labia Majora Share

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hanjing; Yap, Yan Lin; Low, Jeffrey Jen Hui

    2017-01-01

    Defects involving specialised areas with characteristic anatomical features, such as the nipple, upper eyelid, and lip, benefit greatly from the use of sharing procedures. The vulva, a complex 3-dimensional structure, can also be reconstructed through a sharing procedure drawing upon the contralateral vulva. In this report, we present the interesting case of a patient with chronic, massive, localised lymphedema of her left labia majora that was resected in 2011. Five years later, she presented with squamous cell carcinoma over the left vulva region, which is rarely associated with chronic lymphedema. To the best of our knowledge, our management of the radical vulvectomy defect with a labia majora sharing procedure is novel and has not been previously described. The labia major flap presented in this report is a shared flap; that is, a transposition flap based on the dorsal clitoral artery, which has consistent vascular anatomy, making this flap durable and reliable. This procedure epitomises the principle of replacing like with like, does not interfere with leg movement or patient positioning, has minimal donor site morbidity, and preserves other locoregional flap options for future reconstruction. One limitation is the need for a lax contralateral vulva. This labia majora sharing procedure is a viable option in carefully selected patients. PMID:28194353

  2. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    PubMed

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  3. Can Reading Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)

  4. Assessing Motivation to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Motivation to Read Profile (MRP), which assesses children's self-concepts as readers and the value they see in reading. Discusses its development and offers suggestions for its use with elementary students. Includes the MRP. (SR)

  5. Reading a Research Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schantz, Donna; Lindeman, Carol A.

    1982-01-01

    The authors present guidelines for reading a research report. They discuss the format for research reports and point out critical questions to keep in mind when critiquing a research study or reading published research reports. (Editor)

  6. Shared care (comanagement).

    PubMed

    Montero Ruiz, E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical departments have increasing difficulties in caring for their hospitalised patients due to the patients' advanced age and comorbidity, the growing specialisation in medical training and the strong political-healthcare pressure that a healthcare organisation places on them, where surgical acts take precedence over other activities. The pressure exerted by these departments on the medical area and the deficient response by the interconsultation system have led to the development of a different healthcare organisation model: Shared care, which includes perioperative medicine. In this model, 2 different specialists share the responsibility and authority in caring for hospitalised surgical patients. Internal Medicine is the most appropriate specialty for shared care. Internists who exercise this responsibility should have certain characteristics and must overcome a number of concerns from the surgeon and anaesthesiologist.

  7. Collaborate, compete and share

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Castellano, Claudio; Marsili, Matteo; Pietronero, Luciano

    2009-02-01

    We introduce and study a model of an interacting population of agents who collaborate in groups which compete for limited resources. Groups are formed by random matching agents and their worth is determined by the sum of the efforts deployed by agents in group formation. Agents, on their side, have to share their effort between contributing to their group’s chances to outcompete other groups and resource sharing among partners, when the group is successful. A simple implementation of this strategic interaction gives rise to static and evolutionary properties with a very rich phenomenology. A robust emerging feature is the separation of the population between agents who invest mainly in the success of their group and agents who concentrate in getting the largest share of their group’s profits.

  8. Dialogic Reading's Potential to Improve Children's Emergent Literacy Skills and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Meier, Catherine R

    Young children entering school with poor oral vocabulary skills may be "doubly disadvantaged." Their poor oral vocabulary skills will likely impede their attempts to become proficient readers while also possibly increasing the frequency of their problem behaviors. Dialogic Reading is a scientifically-validated shared storybook reading intervention that is known to boost at risk children's oral vocabulary skills. As such, use of Dialogic Reading is one potential way to help children avoid both later reading failure and the negative outcomes associated with poor behavior. In this article, we detail both (a) a research-based rationale for using Dialogic Reading and (b) Dialogic Reading's set of procedures and prompts.

  9. Reading and Writing Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jana M., Ed.

    This collection of papers, from a conference on reading and writing connections held at the University of Illinois in October 1986, reflects the value of demonstrating connections between reading instruction and writing. The book shows practitioners how writing can be blended with reading instruction and how writing activities can be used not just…

  10. Oral Communication in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Noting that oral communication skills need continuous refinement, this document outlines various methods of practicing these skills, such as literature circles in reading; a reader's theater; presentations of book reports; story telling; a poetry reading club; and choral reading. The document describes literature circles as small groups of readers…

  11. The Future of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The future of reading is very much in doubt. In this century, reading could soar to new heights or crash and burn. Some educators and librarians fear that sustained reading for learning, for work, and for pleasure may be slowly dying out as a widespread social practice. Several social and technological developments of the 20th century, such as…

  12. Foreign Language Reading Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Yoshiko; Horwitz, Elaine K.; Garza, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of anxiety in response to foreign- or second-language reading. Introduces the construct of foreign-language reading anxiety, offers a scale for its measurement, and reports on a preliminary study of reading anxiety in 30 intact first-semester classes of Spanish, Russian, and Japanese. (VWL)

  13. Free Reading Is UTOPIA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCrone, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

  14. Reading and Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  15. Guidelines for Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Supervisory Union 40, Milford.

    A reading program should stimulate intellectual curiosity. This philosophy is expressed in a 1967 reading guide for primary and secondary schools prepared by the Reading Committee of the Union 40 Curriculum Council of Milford, New Hampshire. It was developed as a result of the 1966 curriculum study by the Union 40 Curriculum Council. While it is…

  16. Current Issues in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Michael P., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Articles in this journal issue focus on reading acquisition and instruction. The titles and authors are as follows: (1) "10 Good Ways to Involve Parents in the Reading Program," by Nickolas Criscuolo; (2) "A Parent Guide for Helping the Child with A Reading Disability," by Frederick Duffelmeyer and Dale Baum; (3)…

  17. ELLs' Perceptions of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rachael M.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated reading support and book preferences of fourth grade English language learners (ELLs) who were struggling readers. This qualitative research focused on three case studies. Interviews were conducted to explore ELLs' perceptions on reading motivation, reading programs, and types of support they received. Descriptions of…

  18. Staff Development and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Much is being emphasized in staff development in the area of reading instruction. It is important for teachers to study and think reflectively about what can be done to improve the elementary reading curriculum. One procedure that can be used is to hold a quality workshop based on the needs of reading teachers. Teachers might volunteer to serve on…

  19. Prose reading in neglect.

    PubMed

    Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers.

  20. Reading as a Whole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Constance

    Underlying virtually all of the basal reading series available in the United States today is the assumption that learning to read is a skill-by-skill and word-by-word process. This part-to-whole approach to teaching reading is based on principles of behavioral psychology and "scientific management" developed a half century ago and treats…

  1. Reading is Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohann, Rosemary

    1979-01-01

    The focus article in this newsletter contains a discussion of the theory of reading as a thinking process and offers practical suggestions for implementing instruction in teaching reading as a thinking process. The section on theory is based on observations of the reading process as perceived by psycholinguists such as Frank Smith and Kenneth…

  2. Reading/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    These seven projects comprise the reading and language arts section of a report on Elementary Secondary Education Act Title IV programs for the state of Illinois. Complete descriptions are furnished for the following: a multi-text, individualized reading skills program for grades four through eight; a reading program which stresses phonetic and…

  3. Monster Moose Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Frank

    Monster Moose (MM) Reading is a program specifically aimed at improving children's language, beginning reading, and self-concept development through the creation and utilization of student-authored reading materials which feature a series of wordless picture books about a magical moose. The MM Program is based on the following general principles…

  4. Early Bilingual Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Renzo

    1985-01-01

    This discussion reviews literature on early bilingualism and early reading in two languages and summarizes a research project aimed at developing the experimental conditions for teaching early bilingual reading in institutional settings. The review notes positive effects of early reading generally and of early bilingual literacy on intellectual…

  5. Reading in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taschow, Horst G.

    Difficulties inherent in the reading of mathematics at secondary and college levels are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the reading of arithmetic numerals, literal numbers, operational symbols, and expressions of relationships, as well as the reading of technical vocabularies and specialized meanings of general words. While each…

  6. Gifted and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; And Others

    This article reviews the literature and practice (especially in New Mexico) concerning reading instruction of gifted children. It considers early or "precocious" reading, instruction in the early grades, and identification of the gifted in New Mexico. Reading teachers in New Mexico are urged to be aware of specific conflicts in the area…

  7. The Teaching of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Ralph C., Ed.

    Designed as a sourcebook, this volume considers reading instruction as a complex, intellectual task rather than as just a matter of pronunciation of words. It is designed for both teachers and parents interested in developing the language and concepts of children. Contents include "Reading in Today's World" by Ralph C. Staiger, "Learning to Read"…

  8. Reading and Writing Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Drawing from both research and practice, the articles in this collection address a number of issues related to the reading and writing connection. The 24 articles are grouped into five sections: "Reading, Writing, and Thinking"; "The Parts and the Whole"; "Reading for Writing"; "Contexts for Literacy"; and…

  9. FOUR PATHS TO READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOYT, HOMER

    FOUR DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO BEGINNING READING--THE BASIC READING PROGRAM, SELF-SELECTION IN READING, LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE APPROACH, AND PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION ARE EXPLAINED. THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ABOUT EACH METHOD ARE ANSWERED--WHAT IS MEANT BY THIS METHOD. WHY IS THIS METHOD CONSIDERED A SOUND APPROACH. HOW DOES THE TEACHER BEGIN. HOW DOES THE…

  10. Summer Library Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Carole D.

    2007-01-01

    Virtually all public libraries in the United States provide some type of summer library reading program during the traditional summer vacation period. Summer library reading programs provide opportunities for students of many ages and abilities to practice their reading skills and maintain skills that are developed during the school year. Fiore…

  11. THE TEACHING OF READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WARDEBERG, HELEN L.

    CONTAINED IN THE GUIDE IS INFORMATION ON THE BASIC SKILLS TO BE INCLUDED IN ANY INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM IN READING, ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GUIDED PROGRAM FOR INDIVIDUAL AND PERSONAL READING, AND ON THE EVALUATION OF A READING PROGRAM. THE OBJECTIVE IS TO HELP EACH CHILD BECOME AS EFFICIENT AND DIVERSIFIED A READER AS HIS ABILITIES PERMIT. NO LESSON…

  12. Reading to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading…

  13. Reading and the Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    For each student to achieve optimally, a quality reading program must provide for individual differences. To guide students to learn as much as possible individually, selected philosophies of reading instruction may be used. These include: (1) experimentalism with its stress placed upon students reading to solve problems; (2) measurably stated…

  14. Goals of Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The reading teacher needs to choose students' reading goals carefully. This paper considers some of these possible goals, and states that, in the reading curriculum, the teacher needs to guide pupils to move upward on the cognitive level of objectives. The paper also states that pupils need to achieve well in the affective dimension of objectives,…

  15. Reading, Language Arts & Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthew, Kathy, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on educational technology issues related to reading, language arts, and literacy: (1) "The Infusion of Technology into a Teacher Education Course: Issues and Strategies" (Mary Ann Kolloff); (2) "Project READ: Developing Online Course Materials for a Reading Methods Class" (Judith A.…

  16. Multiparty quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhanjun; Li Yong; Man Zhongxiao

    2005-04-01

    Based on a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol [Phys. Rev. A 69 052319 (2004)], we propose a (n,n)-threshold scheme of multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical messages (QSSCM) using only single photons. We take advantage of this multiparty QSSCM scheme to establish a scheme of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information (SSQI), in which only all quantum information receivers collaborate can the original qubit be reconstructed. A general idea is also proposed for constructing multiparty SSQI schemes from any QSSCM scheme.

  17. Shared memory for a fault-tolerant computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilley, G. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A system is described for sharing a memory in a fault-tolerant computer. The memory is under the direct control and monitoring of error detecting and error diagnostic units in the fault-tolerant computer. This computer verifies that data to and from the memory is legally encoded and verifies that words read from the memory at a desired address are, in fact, actually delivered from that desired address. The means are provided for a second processor, which is independent of the direct control and monitoring of the error checking and diagnostic units of the fault-tolerant computer, and to share the memory of the fault-tolerant computer. Circuitry is included to verify that: (1) the processor has properly accessed a desired memory location in the memory; (2) a data word read-out from the memory is properly coded; and (3) no inactive memory was erroneously outputting data onto the shared memory bus.

  18. Reading development in young children: genetic and environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jessica A R; Hart, Sara A; Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Schatschneider, Chris; Petrill, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The development of reading skills in typical students is commonly described as a rapid growth across early grades of active reading education, with a slowing down of growth as active instruction tapers. This study examined the extent to which genetics and environments influence these growth rates. Participants were 371 twin pairs, aged approximately 6 through 12, from the Western Reserve Reading Project. Development of word-level reading, reading comprehension, and rapid naming was examined using genetically sensitive latent quadratic growth curve modeling. Results confirmed the developmental trajectory described in the phenotypic literature. Furthermore, the same shared environmental influences were related to early reading skills and subsequent growth, but genetic influences on these factors were unique.

  19. Predicting word reading and comprehension with executive function and speed measures across development: a latent variable analysis.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Micaela E; Miyake, Akira; Keenan, Janice M; Pennington, Bruce; DeFries, John C; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K

    2012-08-01

    The present study explored whether different executive control and speed measures (working memory, inhibition, processing speed, and naming speed) independently predict individual differences in word reading and reading comprehension. Although previous studies suggest these cognitive constructs are important for reading, the authors analyze the constructs simultaneously to test whether each is a unique predictor. Latent variables from 483 participants (ages 8-16 years) were used to portion each cognitive and reading construct into its unique and shared variance. In these models 2 specific issues are addressed: (a) Given that the wide age range may span the theoretical transition from "learning to read" to "reading to learn," the authors first test whether the relation between word reading and reading comprehension is stable across 2 age groups (ages 8-10 and 11-16); and (b) the main theoretical question of interest: whether what is shared and what is separable for word reading and reading comprehension are associated with individual differences in working memory, inhibition, and measures of processing and naming speed. The results indicated that (a) the relation between word reading and reading comprehension is largely invariant across the age groups, and (b) working memory and general processing speed, but not inhibition or the speeded naming of non-alphanumeric stimuli, are unique predictors of both word reading and comprehension, with working memory equally important for both reading abilities and processing speed more important for word reading. These results have implications for understanding why reading comprehension and word reading are highly correlated yet separable

  20. Standardized Reading Tests and the Postsecondary Reading Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Nancy V.

    To help college reading teachers develop an awareness of what standardized reading tests do and do not reveal about students' reading abilities, a study examined the testing of reading and criticized four major standardized tests. Results indicated that reading is tested through (1) reading passages accompanied by multiple choice questions, (2)…

  1. Braille Reading Is Less Efficient Than Visual Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Leon E.; And Others

    The reading performances of fifteen blind readers and fifteen sighted readers were compared by evaluating the reading performances of each reader reading at instructional level from Lippincott's "Basic Reading Series" and from Form A of the "Gray Oral Reading Test." Nine matched pairs of subjects read at grade one first reader level and six pairs…

  2. The Sharing Tree: Preschool Children Learn to Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing activity.…

  3. TELEMETRY EQUIPMENT WITH DIGITAL READING,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Basic peculiarities of telemetry equipment with digital reading ; Elements of pulse technology applied in telemetry equipment with digital... reading ; Digital reading systems; Telemetry systems with digital reading . (Author)

  4. Effects on Science Summarization of a Reading Comprehension Intervention for Adolescents with Behavior and Attention Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogevich, Mary E.; Perin, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-three adolescent boys with behavioral disorders (BD), 31 of whom had comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), participated in a self-regulated strategy development intervention called Think Before Reading, Think While Reading, Think After Reading, With Written Summarization (TWA-WS). TWA-WS adapted Linda Mason's TWA…

  5. The Current State of Motivation to Read among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle J.; Decker, Emmeline O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined middle school students' motivation to read using an adapted version of the Motivation to Read Profile (MRP) Survey. The MRP is comprised of items assessing students' self-concepts as readers and their value of reading. In total, 1080 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students responded. Descriptive and inferential statistics…

  6. Elementary Schoolers' Attitudes toward Reading in English: How Boys Feel Relative to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohd-Asraf, Ratnawati; Abdullah, Hazlina

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study that examined the attitudes of Malaysian primary school boys and girls toward reading in English as a Second Language. Using the Students' Reading Attitude Survey, which the researchers adapted from McKenna and Kear (1990) Elementary Reading Attitude Survey, 2,666 responses were analysed using the…

  7. Measurement of the Effects of Purpose and Passage Difficulty on Reading Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Philip; And Others

    1981-01-01

    This study addressed whether students could change their reading rate when presented with two clearly explicated purposes for reading. Results indicated that students could adapt their reading rate to fit different purposes but that passage difficulty affected the degree of flexibility. (Author/GK)

  8. Sharing Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…

  9. Shared Governance of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald

    Shared decision-making can help schools keep sight of their true goals. In the educational sector the conflicts that arise in collective bargaining disputes can be destructive to the organization. Schools require more than the mere coexistence of labor and management. They require cooperation and strong, supportive relationships. To establish a…

  10. Learning to Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2010-01-01

    In the tug-of-war between researchers and IT for supercomputing resources, a centralized approach can help both sides get more bang for their buck. As 2010 began, the University of Washington was preparing to launch its first shared high-performance computing cluster, a 1,500-node system called Hyak, dedicated to research activities. Like other…

  11. Shared decision making

    MedlinePlus

    ... communicate openly and build a relationship of trust. Alternative Names Patient-centered care References Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The SHARE Approach. Updated September 2016. www.ahrq.gov/professionals/education/curriculum-tools/shareddecisionmaking/index.html . Accessed October 19, ...

  12. Illegal File Sharing 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

  13. Share the Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Site-based management cannot work without the school board's active involvement and determined support. Suggestions are offered from School District 12, Adams County, Colorado, which has been moving away from a centralized administrative system to shared decision-making. (MLF)

  14. Shared Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1997-01-01

    In shared decision making (SDM), principals collaborate with teachers and sometimes parents to take actions aimed at improving instruction and school climate. While research on SDM outcomes is still inconclusive, the literature shows that SDM brings both benefits and problems, and that the principal is a key figure. This brief offers a sampling of…

  15. Adapting to Sea Level Rise to the Year 2100 and Beyond in the State of Florida, USA: A Regional Approach Based upon Common Vulnerabilities and the Utility of Shared Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, R. W.; Harlem, P. W.; Meeder, J.

    2014-12-01

    We simulate the vulnerability of all 35 Florida coastal counties to the ongoing Anthropocene marine transgression unconstrained by the artificial end date of year 2100. Coastal submergence was emulated using a 'bathtub model' and rising sea level associated with an atmospheric temperature increase of +1 oC to +4 oC (see Levermann et al. [1]). Simulation results are organized into seven regions, each representing an area of common vulnerability characterized in this study as high (9% to 30% land loss), higher (16 to 68% land loss) and highest (48% to 97% land loss). This grouping provides a logical basis for establishing or re-enforcing collaboration based upon a common threat and the utility of shared technical and financial resources. Our bathtub model assumes Florida terrain is simply submerged as the shoreline migrates across a static landscape without change in the physical and biological materials subject to marine transgression. However, geologic studies of past and present Florida shorelines indicate the rate of rise is as important as the magnitude when predicting coastal response. To determine the utility of the bathtub model as a representative simulation of Florida's response to future sea level rise, we considered Florida's coastal response to varying rates of sea level rise over the last 14,000 years. Available data clearly demonstrate predicted rates of sea level rise will result in widespread submergence; the rate of rise will be too fast to be offset by the stabilizing forces of biogenic or physical sediment accumulation. Hence the magnitude of land loss and associated shoreline retreat in each of the seven Florida regions - and likely other coastal zones in the southeast U.S. - will be solely a function of topographic elevation and can therefore be reasonably forecast using a bathtub model. While our focus is on Florida's coastal counties, we recognize in some regions the effects of sea level rise will extend further inland. In these areas, the

  16. Discussing stories: on how a dialogic reading intervention improves kindergartners' oral narrative construction.

    PubMed

    Lever, Rosemary; Sénéchal, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Oral narrative skills are assumed to develop through parent-child interactive routines. One such routine is shared reading. A causal link between shared reading and narrative knowledge, however, has not been clearly established. The current research tested whether an 8-week shared reading intervention enhanced the fictional narrative skills of children entering formal education. Dialogic reading, a shared reading activity that involves elaborative questioning techniques, was used to engage children in oral interaction during reading and to emphasize elements of story knowledge. Participants were 40 English-speaking 5- and 6-year-olds who were assigned to either the dialogic reading group or an alternative treatment group. Analysis of covariance results found that the dialogic reading children's posttest narratives were significantly better on structure and context measures than those for the alternative treatment children, but results differed for produced or retold narratives. The dialogic reading children also showed expressive vocabulary gains. Overall, this study concretely determined that aspects of fictional narrative construction knowledge can be learned from interactive book reading.

  17. The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) in Icelandic: Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Halldorsson, Jonas G.; Steinberg, Stacy; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-01

    This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the "Adult Reading History Questionnaire" (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's…

  18. Reading to Deaf Children Who Sign: A Response to Williams (2012) and Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jean F.

    2012-01-01

    A commentary on Williams's (2012) invited article on the use of adapted vocabulary learning interventions focuses on three areas: (a) Vocabulary interventions with storybook reading originally designed for hearing children can be adapted for deaf children. (b) Teachers are invited to reflect on how the read-aloud process in English differs from…

  19. Learning to Assign Lexical Stress during Reading Aloud: Corpus, Behavioral, and Computational Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli, Joanne; Monaghan, Padraic; Seva, Nada

    2010-01-01

    Models of reading aloud have tended to focus on the mapping between graphemes and phonemes in monosyllables. Critical adaptations of these models are required when considering the reading of polysyllables, which constitute over 90% of word types in English. In this paper, we examined one such adaptation--the process of stress assignment in…

  20. A Machine that Reads (Reading Technology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickelman, Robert J.; Henk, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Xerox/Kurzweil Personal Reader which is an advanced optical scanner that reads a greater range of typeset or typewritten text than its predecessors, and converts it into highly naturalistic speech. (MG)

  1. Word reading and picture naming in Italian.

    PubMed

    Bates, E; Burani, C; D'Amico, S; Barca, L

    2001-10-01

    Results from two separate norming studies of lexical access in Italian were merged, permitting a comparison of word-reading and picture-naming latencies and the factors that predict each one for an overlapping subsample of 128 common nouns. Factor analysis of shared lexical predictors yielded four latent variables: a frequency factor, a semantic factor, a length factor, and a final factor dominated by frication on the initial phoneme. Age of acquisition (AoA) loaded highly on the first two factors, suggesting that it can be split into separate sources of variance. Regression analyses using factor scores as predictors showed that word reading and picture naming are both influenced by the frequency/AoA factor. The semantics/AoA factor influenced only picture naming, whereas the length and frication factors influenced only word reading. Generalizability of these results to other languages is discussed, including potential effects of cross-language differences in orthographic transparency.

  2. Adaptive EAGLE dynamic solution adaptation and grid quality enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luong, Phu Vinh; Thompson, J. F.; Gatlin, B.; Mastin, C. W.; Kim, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    In the effort described here, the elliptic grid generation procedure in the EAGLE grid code was separated from the main code into a subroutine, and a new subroutine which evaluates several grid quality measures at each grid point was added. The elliptic grid routine can now be called, either by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to generate a new adaptive grid based on flow variables and quality measures through multiple adaptation, or by the EAGLE main code to generate a grid based on quality measure variables through static adaptation. Arrays of flow variables can be read into the EAGLE grid code for use in static adaptation as well. These major changes in the EAGLE adaptive grid system make it easier to convert any CFD code that operates on a block-structured grid (or single-block grid) into a multiple adaptive code.

  3. Teaching Elementary Students with Multiple Disabilities to Participate in Shared Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Diane M.; Mims, Pamela J.; Spooner, Fred; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn; Lee, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Literacy may be one of the most important instructional areas for enhancing quality of life for all students. One way to promote literacy skills is through engaging students in the shared reading of a story. In this study, methods for planning and implementing shared stories for three students with multiple disabilities was evaluated via a…

  4. As Libraries Go Digital, Sharing of Data Is at Odds with Tradition of Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Colleges share many things on Twitter, but one topic can be risky to broach: the reading habits of library patrons. Patrons' privacy is precious to most librarians. Yet new Web services thrive on collecting and sharing the very information that has long been protected. This points to an emerging tension as libraries embrace digital services.…

  5. Using Poetry Writing and Sharing to Promote Student Empathy and Caring.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Mitzi M; Kowalski, Sonya L

    2015-01-01

    A poetry writing activity revealed both empathy and caring among nursing students. Using course readings to identify a topic, students created and shared their poems in an online format. The poems and students' reactions concur with existing literature that poetry writing and sharing reveals empathy and caring. Suggestions for using a poetry writing activity in nursing education are included.

  6. Policy enabled information sharing system

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Craig R.; Nelson, Brian D.; Ratheal, Steve W.

    2014-09-02

    A technique for dynamically sharing information includes executing a sharing policy indicating when to share a data object responsive to the occurrence of an event. The data object is created by formatting a data file to be shared with a receiving entity. The data object includes a file data portion and a sharing metadata portion. The data object is encrypted and then automatically transmitted to the receiving entity upon occurrence of the event. The sharing metadata portion includes metadata characterizing the data file and referenced in connection with the sharing policy to determine when to automatically transmit the data object to the receiving entity.

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  8. Elastomeric load sharing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isabelle, Charles J. (Inventor); Kish, Jules G. (Inventor); Stone, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An elastomeric load sharing device, interposed in combination between a driven gear and a central drive shaft to facilitate balanced torque distribution in split power transmission systems, includes a cylindrical elastomeric bearing and a plurality of elastomeric bearing pads. The elastomeric bearing and bearing pads comprise one or more layers, each layer including an elastomer having a metal backing strip secured thereto. The elastomeric bearing is configured to have a high radial stiffness and a low torsional stiffness and is operative to radially center the driven gear and to minimize torque transfer through the elastomeric bearing. The bearing pads are configured to have a low radial and torsional stiffness and a high axial stiffness and are operative to compressively transmit torque from the driven gear to the drive shaft. The elastomeric load sharing device has spring rates that compensate for mechanical deviations in the gear train assembly to provide balanced torque distribution between complementary load paths of split power transmission systems.

  9. Shared Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  10. Sharing our knowledge.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Matt

    2017-01-25

    There are more than 70,000 nurse prescribers in the UK, many of whom have years of experience that should be shared with trainee prescribers. In November, the General Pharmaceutical Council launched a consultation on whether pharmacist independent prescribers (PIPs) should be able to mentor trainee PIPs. This discussion, which closes on 1 February, should be expanded to our own and other professional groups, because we could all gain so much from each other.

  11. Intelligence Sharing in Counterproliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Routledge, 2004), 75. 3 Dieter Mahncke, Wyn Rees , and Wayne C. Thompson, Redefining transatlantic security relations: The Challenge of Change...Redefining Transatlantic Security Relations, by Dieter Mahncke, Wyn Rees , and Wayne C. Thompson, it is argued that these differences coupled with...Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction” by U.S. Senators Laurence Silbermann and Charles Robb, “the information sharing problem manifested itself in

  12. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. W.D. Reece

    1999-09-01

    The University Reactor Sharing Program provides funding for reactor experimentation to institutions that do not normally have access to a research reactor. Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material to producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding also gives small colleges and universities the opportunity to use the facility for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy.

  13. Efficient quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2016-05-01

    An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the dealer generates some single particles and then uses the operations of quantum-controlled-not and Hadamard gate to encode a determinate secret into these particles. The participants get their shadows by performing the single-particle measurements on their particles, and even the dealer cannot know their shadows. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more practical within the present technologies.

  14. Toward worldwide data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Raymond; Joy, Steven; King, Todd

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade the nature of space science research has changed dramatically. Earlier investigators could carry out meaningful research by looking at observations from a single instrument on a single spacecraft. Today that is rapidly changing and researchers regularly use data from multiple instruments on multiple spacecraft as well as observations from ground observatories. Increasingly those observations come from missions flown by many countries. Recent advances in distributed data management have made it possible for researchers located around the world to access and use data from multiple nations. By using virtual observatory technology it no longer matters where data are housed they can be freely accessed wherever they reside. In this presentation we will discuss two initiatives designed to make space science data access worldwide. One is the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) and the other is the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC). In both cases the key to worldwide data sharing is adopting common metadata standards. In this talk we will review how these two groups are addressing the worldwide data sharing and their progress in achieving their goals. IPDA and HDMC are two of several efforts to promote broad based data sharing. Talks in the remainder of the symposium will discuss this is more detail.

  15. Can Read, Can Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Linda Worden always loved books. She liked the way they felt in her hands and the way they smelled. The only problem was she could not read them--until she took part in Channel 4's "Can't Read, Can't Write". This article tells the story of Linda Worden and how learning to read changed her life. Her attempts to learn as an adult are a shocking…

  16. Common Core State Standards and Adaptive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamil, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the issues of how Common Core State Standards (CCSS) will impact adaptive teaching. It focuses on 2 of the major differences between conventional standards and CCSS: the increased complexity of text and the addition of disciplinary literacy standards to reading instruction. The article argues that adaptive teaching under CCSS…

  17. Reading disorders and dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Recent findings Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. Summary There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed. PMID:27496059

  18. Summer library reading programs.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Carole D

    2007-01-01

    Virtually all public libraries in the United States provide some type of summer library reading program during the traditional summer vacation period. Summer library reading programs provide opportunities for students of many ages and abilities to practice their reading skills and maintain skills that are developed during the school year. Fiore summarizes some of the research in the field and relates it to library programs and usage by students. Several traditional and innovative programs from U.S. and Canadian libraries are described. She concludes with a call for further research related to summer library reading programs.

  19. Quantum secret sharing between multiparty and multiparty without entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Fengli; Gao Ting

    2005-07-15

    We propose a quantum secret sharing protocol between multiparty (m members in group 1) and multiparty (n members in group 2) using a sequence of single photons. These single photons are used directly to encode classical information in a quantum secret sharing process. In this protocol, all members in group 1 directly encode their respective keys on the states of single photons via unitary operations; then, the last one (the mth member of group 1) sends 1/n of the resulting qubits to each of group 2. Thus the secret message shared by all members of group 1 is shared by all members of group 2 in such a way that no subset of each group is efficient to read the secret message, but the entire set (not only group 1 but also group 2) is. We also show that it is unconditionally secure. This protocol is feasible with present-day techniques.

  20. Assisted Reading with Digital Audiobooks for Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteves, Kelli J.; Whitten, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of assisted reading with digital audiobooks with the traditional practice of sustained silent reading (SSR) in terms of reading fluency and reading attitude with upper elementary students with reading disabilities. Treatment group participants selected authentic children's literature and engaged…

  1. Reading Strategy: Tackling Reading through Topic and Main Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Bharathi; Briewin, Marshal; Embi, Mohamed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is one of the four skills essential in learning English. In a reading class, students tend to read all the information provided in reading materials, but how much do they actually retain? This study explores whether learners use identification of the topic and main ideas as a reading strategy to assist in reading…

  2. Binocular Coordination during Reading and Non-Reading Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkby, Julie A.; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Blythe, Hazel I.; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this review is to evaluate the literature on binocular coordination during reading and non-reading tasks in adult, child, and dyslexic populations. The review begins with a description of the basic characteristics of eye movements during reading. Then, reading and non-reading studies investigating binocular coordination are evaluated.…

  3. Reading Attitudes and Reading Interests of Urban Intermediate Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Jeffrey W.; Fisher, Peter J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Administered Survey of Reading Attitudes and Bundy Reading Preference Survey to 130 fourth- and fifth-grade students. Significant moderate correlation between total score of Bundy Reading Preference Survey and the Reading as Enjoyment Dimension of the Survey of Reading Attitudes contributes to construct validity of both measures. (Author)

  4. Reading homophone puns: Evidence from eye tracking.

    PubMed

    Jared, Debra; Bainbridge, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    We investigated how readers make sense of homophone puns (e.g., The butcher was very glad we could meat up) by tracking their eye movements as they read. Comparison sentences included homophone-error sentences in which the presented homophone was also not correct (e.g., The lawyer was very glad we could meat up) and sentences in which the homophone was correct for the context (e.g., The butcher was very glad to chop meat up for the stew). An effect of the frequency of the unpresented homophone mate (e.g., meet) was found on first-pass reading times for homophones, indicating that participants activated the meaning of the homophone mate through shared phonology. First-fixation and gaze durations on the homophones were longer in puns than in correct-context sentences, indicating that participants immediately noticed that the homophone was incongruous with the adjacent context (e.g., glad we could meat) in puns, but total reading times did not differ, suggesting that the incongruity was quickly resolved. Immediate reading times on homophone in puns and homophone-error sentences did not differ, but total reading times did, suggesting that the impact of the critical context word (e.g., butcher) is delayed. Further analyses examined the resolution process in more detail. Ratings of the funniness of the puns were most strongly related to the strength of the association between the homophone and the critical context word (e.g., butcher). (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Implementing shared governance: a false start.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, J M; Storoz, C E; Andrews, H A

    1992-03-01

    A case study of the implementation of shared governance in a large teaching hospital in Western Canada has been presented. The project was placed in jeopardy due to two major contingencies: turnover in the chief nursing executive position, and a sudden reduction in the operating budget of the nursing division necessitating significant layoffs. Other factors that threatened the survival of shared governance included lack of systematic, long-range planning; the number and diversity of major changes introduced concurrently in the nursing division; and insufficient support systems to sustain organizational change. In particular, some senior and first-line managers could not adapt to or accept the radical philosophical change and so they were unable to empower their staff and to provide the necessary reinforcement needed to ensure the success of shared governance. This combination of these factors contributed to the loss of momentum in the implementation of shared governance. Lowered morale in the wake of layoffs, together with union grievances, and lack of clarity of the role to be played by union representatives in shared governance produced conflict and confrontation within the nursing division and between union and management. Despite the difficulties encountered, there remains optimism and commitment to the challenge of making shared governance succeed. As this article goes to press, remarkable strides have been made in addressing the described issues. A task force composed primarily of staff nurses has developed a "customized" model of governance that meets the needs of the hospital and deals with the identified flaws of the first implementation attempt. The organization is optimistic that by taking time to develop a solid foundation for the proposed change and tending carefully to the details of decision-making processes, an effective structure to support the professional role of the nursing staff will be a reality.

  6. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  7. Tripartite quantum state sharing.

    PubMed

    Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P; Sanders, Barry C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2004-04-30

    We demonstrate a multipartite protocol to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating, any two of the three players can reconstruct the state, while individual players obtain nothing. We characterize this (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme in terms of fidelity, signal transfer, and reconstruction noise. We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73+/-0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources.

  8. The genetic and environmental etiologies of the relations between cognitive skills and components of reading ability.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Micaela E; Keenan, Janice M; Hulslander, Jacqueline; DeFries, John C; Miyake, Akira; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik; Pennington, Bruce; Olson, Richard K

    2016-04-01

    Although previous research has shown cognitive skills to be important predictors of reading ability in children, the respective roles for genetic and environmental influences on these relations is an open question. The present study explored the genetic and environmental etiologies underlying the relations between selected executive functions and cognitive abilities (working memory, inhibition, processing speed, and naming speed) with 3 components of reading ability (word reading, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension). Twin pairs drawn from the Colorado Front Range (n = 676; 224 monozygotic pairs; 452 dizygotic pairs) between the ages of 8 and 16 (M = 11.11) were assessed on multiple measures of each cognitive and reading-related skill. Each cognitive and reading-related skill was modeled as a latent variable, and behavioral genetic analyses estimated the portions of phenotypic variance on each latent variable due to genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental influences. The covariance between the cognitive skills and reading-related skills was driven primarily by genetic influences. The cognitive skills also shared large amounts of genetic variance, as did the reading-related skills. The common cognitive genetic variance was highly correlated with the common reading genetic variance, suggesting that genetic influences involved in general cognitive processing are also important for reading ability. Skill-specific genetic variance in working memory and processing speed also predicted components of reading ability. Taken together, the present study supports a genetic association between children's cognitive ability and reading ability.

  9. Authentic Reading Assessment. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutcher, Peggy

    Authentic reading assessment is examined, focusing on its implementation within the Michigan Essential Skills Reading Test (MESRT). Authentic reading assessment emerged as a response to research that indicates that reading is not a particular skill but an interaction among reader, text, and the context of the reading situation. Unlike formal…

  10. Reading with a Special Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCool, Mary

    Disadvantaged secondary school students with special reading needs can be motivated in the reading room. The school year can start with "popcorn" reading involving materials that are funny, interesting, and exciting. The teacher reads to the students or the students read silently, using materials on the students' independent rather than…

  11. Title I Reading Center Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broward County Schools, Fort Lauderdale, FL.

    One of the twelve exemplary reading programs summarized in the Introduction to Right to Read's "Effective Reading Programs: Summaries of 222 Selected Programs" (CS001934), this program uses a variety of cross-referenced materials and small group instruction to develop students' reading skills, vocabulary, and reading comprehension.…

  12. Visual Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems continuously mold themselves to the widely varying contexts in which they must operate. Studies of these adaptations have played a long and central role in vision science. In part this is because the specific adaptations remain a powerful tool for dissecting vision, by exposing the mechanisms that are adapting. That is, “if it adapts, it's there.” Many insights about vision have come from using adaptation in this way, as a method. A second important trend has been the realization that the processes of adaptation are themselves essential to how vision works, and thus are likely to operate at all levels. That is, “if it's there, it adapts.” This has focused interest on the mechanisms of adaptation as the target rather than the probe. Together both approaches have led to an emerging insight of adaptation as a fundamental and ubiquitous coding strategy impacting all aspects of how we see. PMID:26858985

  13. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases.

  14. Never Too Late: Approaches to Reading Instruction for Secondary Students with Disabilities. Research to Practice Brief: Improving Secondary Education and Transition Services through Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapper, Ann T.; Bremer, Christine D.; Kachgal, Mera M.

    This research brief discusses two reading instruction models for teaching secondary school students with disabilities. The first, Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR), is designed specifically for students with learning disabilities and students who are at risk of reading failure. This strategy adapts reciprocal reading and incorporates…

  15. Does early reading failure decrease children's reading motivation?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Cordray, David S; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment to evaluate whether early reading failure decreases children's motivation to practice reading. First, they investigated whether 60 first-grade children would report substantially different levels of interest in reading as a function of their relative success or failure in learning to read. Second, they evaluated whether increasing the word reading ability of 15 at-risk children would lead to gains in their motivation to read. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest marked differences in both motivation and reading practice between skilled and unskilled readers. However, bolstering at-risk children's word reading ability did not yield evidence of a causal relationship between early reading failure and decreased motivation to engage in reading activities. Instead, hierarchical regression analyses indicate a covarying relationship among early reading failure, poor motivation, and avoidance of reading.

  16. Adaptive approaches to biosecurity governance.

    PubMed

    Cook, David C; Liu, Shuang; Murphy, Brendan; Lonsdale, W Mark

    2010-09-01

    This article discusses institutional changes that may facilitate an adaptive approach to biosecurity risk management where governance is viewed as a multidisciplinary, interactive experiment acknowledging uncertainty. Using the principles of adaptive governance, evolved from institutional theory, we explore how the concepts of lateral information flows, incentive alignment, and policy experimentation might shape Australia's invasive species defense mechanisms. We suggest design principles for biosecurity policies emphasizing overlapping complementary response capabilities and the sharing of invasive species risks via a polycentric system of governance.

  17. Toddler Reading Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... mother's lap and moves over to her stuffed animals. Her mom knows better than to try to finish the book. For Gabrielle and lots of other toddlers, these little bits of reading are just right. Reasons to Read to Toddlers Studies show that ...

  18. Reading Where It Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teachers are reminded that their content subject areas require acquainting children with special words or symbols related to that subject area (e.g. mathematics or social studies). Because children can read well does not mean they would be understanding of any special reading skill required in a content subject area; that the…

  19. Reading and Postmodernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, James C.

    One of the main differences between the whole language position and the more traditional views lies in the epistemological base upon which whole language is rooted. Although whole language proponents may not have clearly put forth an epistemology upon which their views of reading acquisition and the reading process are based, still a careful…

  20. Philosophy of Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Reading teachers need to provide for individual differences so that each pupil might attain optimally. Methods of teaching reading should be varied and thus reflect diverse philosophies of instruction. These philosophies should be analyzed and used to guide optimal pupil achievement. A philosophy of phoneme/grapheme relationships should be…

  1. Anything but Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Both the popular media and professional literature are filled with suggestions on how to improve reading, but the one approach that always works is rarely mentioned: provide readers with a supply of interesting and comprehensible books. Instead, people are given advice that is dead wrong as a means of improving reading (e.g., roller skating and…

  2. Improving Students' Reading Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Amy

    This report describes a program for improving students' reading fluency in order to become more proficient readers. The targeted population consists of first and second grade students in a growing middle class community located in the Midwest. The lack of fluent reading was documented through teacher observation and the calculation of how many…

  3. Supporting Older Students' Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutchewsky, Kim; Curran, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    According to a 2010 report by ACT, "Only 31 percent of students are performing at a college-and-career reading level with respect to successfully understanding complex text" (p. 5). This statistic demonstrates what educators know: Middle and high school students face numerous challenges in reading, understanding, connecting to, and…

  4. Reading with an Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes that parents' reading to infants fosters interest in literature and provides foundation for basic reading skills. Titles of musical books, point-and-say books, touch and smell books, cardboard books, cloth books, plastic books, and early stories are provided. (Author/DB)

  5. Reading, Writing, and Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dennis M.; And Others

    Reading, writing, and computing, which are interrelated and can thrive on each other for literacy and intellectual growth, are in the process of becoming linked in instructional practice. As reading and writing become more demanding, their task is eased with computer use. The computer seems to provide the connection between composing,…

  6. The Roots of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Colleen, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This newsletter covers educational issues affecting schools in the Western Regional Educational Laboratory's 4-state region (Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah) and nationwide. The following articles appear in the Volume 4, Number 1 issue: (1) "The Roots of Reading"; (2) "Breaking the Code: Reading Literacy in K-3"; (3)…

  7. An Individualized Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nancy B.

    The operating procedures of a university reading and study skills center for completely individualized reading instruction are described. The program is offered as a student service (no fee) on a voluntary, noncredit basis. A prepared set of instructional tapes is used whereby students can largely serve themselves, proceeding at their own rates,…

  8. Superheroes and Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ron; Buckner, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    To combat summer learning loss among remedial readers, teachers and consultants in the Omaha, Nebraska, Title I program designed a series of comic-book reading units and mailed them to students' homes. Parents were pleased with the project and it appeared that less reading skill had been lost by September. (SJL)

  9. Beginning Reading in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutolo, Daniel

    Teaching practices in Italy, where teachers combine three different methods for teaching reading, may provide insight into ways to improve methodologies in the United States. The first method is the natural method, which, unlike American methods, teaches reading and writing simultaneously with the emphasis on writing. The teacher writes as…

  10. Measuring Reading Performance Informally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, William R.

    To improve the accuracy of the informal reading inventory (IRI), a differential set of criteria is necessary for both word recognition and comprehension scores for different levels and reading conditions. In initial evaluation, word recognition scores should reflect only errors of insertions, omissions, mispronunciations, substitiutions, unkown…

  11. Reading Is Fundamental, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

    Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) is a national, nonprofit organization designed to motivate children to read by making a wide variety of inexpensive books available to them and allowing the children to choose and keep books that interest them. This annual report for 1977 contains the following information on the RIF project: an account of the…

  12. Why I Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Kyoko

    2002-01-01

    Notes that the author was struck by the "self-centered" readers she encountered in her classroom and at professional conferences--readers who respond to reading by thinking of their own life and experiences. Argues that reading is so much more than a trip into the self. Presents two brief responses, by Lauren L. Wohl and Daniel Hade. (RS)

  13. Keep Them Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanneman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The relentless quest of the school librarian is finding the right book for each student, searching for the home-run book for every child, and keeping students reading book after book after book. A considerable amount of the school librarian's time, effort, and creativity are devoted not only to motivating students to read, but to keeping them…

  14. [Reading Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Epistle," the publication forum of Professors of Reading Teacher Educators, contains three papers as well as the regular features on job openings and on miscellaneous facts. Titles and authors of the articles are: "Doctoral Education in Reading: The State of the Art," by Richard Allington; "The Virtues of Being a Toad and What That…

  15. Using Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    Describes collaborative strategic reading (CSR), a technique for teaching students, such as those with learning disabilities, reading comprehension and vocabulary skills in a cooperative setting. Covers teaching the four strategies of CSR (preview, click and clunk, get the gist, and wrap up), as well as teaching students cooperative learning group…

  16. Appalachian Reading Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.

    The impact of ESEA Title I programs on reading competencies of elementary and secondary students in Northern Appalachia was examined. Fourth- and seventh-grade reading programs were assessed through samples taken from 74 different schools involving 1,429 students in 16 school districts within the Northern Appalachia area of Maryland, Ohio,…

  17. Entrepreneurship Education: Supplementary Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Thomas J.; And Others

    This third volume in the Entrepreneurship Education curriculum materials includes readings and suggested additional resources which complement the instructional strategies contained in the first two volumes. Three sections are included in the guide: critical incidents, readings in entrepreneurial skills, and management skill area resources.…

  18. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  19. Reading: Process and Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth S.; Niles, Olive S.

    Broad and major concerns dealing with reading are set forth in this monograph to provoke discussion and examination by both researchers and practitioners. In Part 1, Kenneth S. Goodman presents a psycholinguistic view of language and reading (within a transformational-generative framework) as essentially a set of processes of recoding, decoding,…

  20. Reading and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anna; And Others

    This publication contains materials used in the three phases of the reading and mathematics components of work-specific classes. Each section begins with an overview of developments in that phase. Section 1 focuses on Phase 1 during which math and reading were taught as separate components. It contains a math placement appraisal, worksheets and…

  1. Against Reading Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lennard J.

    2012-01-01

    A course's reading list is the skeleton of a semester's body of thought, the inventory that a professor writes up for the departmental Web site and the schedule of courses that lists the goods. Despite the obvious utility of fixed reading lists, one should jettison them when possible. The author has been conducting an informal experiment using a…

  2. Reading Rate and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jodai, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    Reading fluency is one of the most important signs of language proficiency both for native and foreign language speakers (Grabe, 2010; Macalister, 2010; Winston, 2010; Hasbrouck, 2008; Rasinski, 2004; Oakley, 2003; Waldman, 1985; Cited in: Sayenko, 2010, Introduction Para 1). This paper is in the area of reading fluency and tries to investigate…

  3. Basic Blueprint Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deieso, Angie; Meier, Jean

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a basic course in blueprint reading. The course provides a review of mathematics, information about using measuring tools to read blueprints, an explanation of the principles of blueprint drawing, and instructions on interpreting blueprint specifications. Introductory…

  4. Bridging and Reading Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbin, Margaret M.; Rubenstein, Herbert

    A study was conducted for additional support of the view that bridging--drawing inferences to relate a sentence to a preceding sentence--occurs during reading rather than at the time of testing. Subjects were 88 third and 67 fifth grade students whose reading proficiency was measured by performance on the Metropolitan Achievement Test. The…

  5. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests several novels for educators' summer reading enjoyment, including classics by Robert Pirsig, Robertson Davies, John Steinbeck, Albert Camus, and Charles Dickens. Educators might also read Alex Kotlowitz's "There Are No Children Here" (Doubleday, 1991) and Sharon Quint's "Schooling Homeless Children" (Teachers College Press, 1994) to gain…

  6. Reading Skill Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Robert L.

    There is mixed evidence regarding the ability of students to retain reading ability over long, non-instructional periods such as the summer recess. In some instances there are significant losses in reading ability, while in other cases the losses fail to reach significance. However, in some cases, such as with basic visual discrimination tasks,…

  7. Teaching Reading in Homeschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yambo, Idalia

    This paper discusses the home-schooling trend and identifies reading instructional methods used by home-schooling parents. Interviews were conducted with 5 home-schooling families of children ranging in age from 1 to 14 years. Parents reported that they began reading instruction with their child at about age 5 and agreed that instruction in…

  8. Reading Stars. 2013 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The National Literacy Trust's Premier League Reading Stars has now been running for 10 years. During this time, hundreds of thousands of children and families have been inspired by the power of football to develop a love of reading. Although the programme has grown and evolved over this period, the premise remains the same: harnessing the…

  9. TRENDS IN ADULT READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, JUSTIN H.

    TRENDS EVIDENT IN ADULT READING DURING THE 1960'S IN THE AREAS OF ADMINISTRATION, PROGRAMS, TEACHING, TECHNIQUES, RESEARCH PROJECTS, AND METHODS OF PROMOTION OF READING PROGRAMS ARE DISCUSSED. TWO INSTANCES OF COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION BASED ON INTENSE AND OFTEN FALLACIOUS ADVERTISING AND ON PUBLIC IGNORANCE ARE CITED. A POSITIVE TREND IN THE AREA…

  10. Processes in Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Grayce A.

    This examination of the processes in reading comprehension is divided into seven categories. "Theoretical Foundations" reviews some of the research conducted by Bruner, Piaget, and Bloom in the areas of cognition or comprehension processes of young children. "Development of a Spiraling Reading Curriculum" examines a spiraling taxonomy of reading…

  11. Motivation in Content Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutolo, Daniel

    Motivational devices are useful in content-area reading because the content load of most content textbooks is so extensive that few if any students can be expected to understand all that an author intends to communicate. Many students who are inexperienced with the subject matter are unable to read the assignments independently. The recognition of…

  12. How Knowledge Powers Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemov, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

  13. Model Sharing and Collaboration using HydroShare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodall, J. L.; Morsy, M. M.; Castronova, A. M.; Miles, B.; Merwade, V.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a web-based system funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) for sharing hydrologic data and models as resources. Resources in HydroShare can either be assigned a generic type, meaning the resource only has Dublin Core metadata properties, or one of a growing number of specific resource types with enhanced metadata profiles defined by the HydroShare development team. Examples of specific resource types in the current release of HydroShare (http://www.hydroshare.org) include time series, geographic raster, Multidimensional (NetCDF), model program, and model instance. Here we describe research and development efforts in HydroShare project for model-related resources types. This work has included efforts to define metadata profiles for common modeling resources, execute models directly through the HydroShare user interface using Docker containers, and interoperate with the 3rd party application SWATShare for model execution and visualization. These examples demonstrate the benefit of HydroShare to support model sharing and address collaborative problems involving modeling. The presentation will conclude with plans for future modeling-related development in HydroShare including supporting the publication of workflow resources, enhanced metadata for additional hydrologic models, and linking model resources with other resources in HydroShare to capture model provenance.

  14. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  15. School Nurses Share a Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merwin, Elizabeth G.; Voss, Sondra

    1981-01-01

    Job sharing is a relatively new idea in which two or more people share the hours, the work, and the responsibilities of one job. Advantages and disadvantages to this situation are discussed in relation to the experiences of two nurses who shared a position as district nurse. (JN)

  16. Sharing Educational Services. PREP-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongeward, Ray; Heesacker, Frank

    The focus of this report is on shared services in the rural setting. The kit contains three documents of useful information for any school planning a shared service activity to improve rural education. 13-A identifies 215 shared services in 50 states along with an indexing of each service by subject area and by state. 13-B is a series of 10…

  17. Fractions: How to Fair Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia P.; Nguyen, Kenny H.; Pescosolido, Ryan S.; Confrey, Jere

    2011-01-01

    Children learn from a very early age what it means to get their "fair share." Whether it is candy or birthday cake, many children successfully create equal-size groups or parts of a collection or whole but later struggle to create fair shares of multiple wholes, such as fairly sharing four pies among a family of seven. Recent research suggests…

  18. Shared Governance: Balancing the Euphoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guffey, J. Stephen; Rampp, Lary C.

    This paper presents an alternative view of shared governance within higher education institutions, examining the major problems encountered by institutions as they implement a shared governance model. Based on a review of the literature, it argues that shared governance, though increasingly popular in recent years, is an issue that should be…

  19. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  20. Integrating Reading and Writing through Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jeongyeon

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether an extensive reading (ER) approach can enhance L2 learners' writing performance in an English for Academic Purposes context. Two classes were compared in terms of writing improvement after one semester: a 'traditional' writing class primarily focused on writing practice and grammar instruction, and an ER class in which…

  1. Forecasting Reading Anxiety for Promoting English-Language Reading Performance Based on Reading Annotation Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao

    2016-01-01

    To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…

  2. Effects of Differentiated Reading on Elementary Students' Reading Comprehension and Attitudes toward Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Evans, Linda; Ferron, John; Lindo, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined the effects of a differentiated reading approach on fourth grade students' reading comprehension and attitudes toward reading. Eight Title I schools within one urban district were randomly assigned to treatment (Schoolwide Enrichment Model-Reading [SEM-R]) or control (district reading curriculum) conditions.…

  3. The Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Reading Achievement and Reading Attitudes of Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Holly Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…

  4. The Relationships between Korean University Students' Reading Attitude, Reading Strategy Use, and Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyangil

    2016-01-01

    This present study investigated the relationships among L2 readers' reading attitude, reading strategy use, and reading proficiency in order to identify patterns caused by individuals' differences. For this study, 153 Korean university students replied to a reading attitude and reading strategy questionnaire. An ANOVA and frequency analysis were…

  5. The Effects of Extensive Reading and Reading Strategies on Reading Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Lance

    2012-01-01

    This study is a quasi-experimental, longitudinal investigation into the role that extensive reading and reading strategies play in the cultivation of reading self-efficacy. Conducted over the course of one academic year, how changes in reading self-efficacy translate into changes in reading comprehension was examined. In addition, the…

  6. Role of Reading Engagement in Mediating Effects of Reading Comprehension Instruction on Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.; Perencevich, Kathleen C.; Taboada, Ana; Klauda, Susan Lutz; McRae, Angela; Barbosa, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' reading comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and motivational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for…

  7. Student-Centered Reading Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, James; Wagner, Betty Jane

    1991-01-01

    Offers student-centered reading activities designed to bring students to reading maturity and involvement in literature. Discusses partner reading, dramatizing and performing texts, transforming texts, journal writing, discussion, and writing. (PRA)

  8. SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

    2008-03-07

    The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

  9. Sharing a disparate landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2010-06-01

    Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, " Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged atmosphere of Israel. This forum article offers a response to their efforts. Writing from a framework of critical pedagogy, I use the concepts of space and time to anchor my analysis, as I examine the issue of power in this Jew/Arab collaborative environmental project. This response problematizes "sharing" in a landscape fraught with disparities. It also looks to further Tal and Alkaher's work by geographically and politically grounding it in the broader current conflict and by juxtaposing sustainability with equity.

  10. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    W.D. Reese

    2004-02-24

    Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.

  11. Adaptive shared control for an intelligent power wheelchair

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.C.; Levine, S.P.

    1996-12-31

    The NavChair Assistive Navigation System is being developed to increase the mobility of severely handicapped individuals by providing navigation assistance for a power wheelchair. While designing the NavChair it became clear that obtaining the full range of desired functionality required several different {open_quotes}operating modes,{close_quotes} each of which was appropriate in different contexts. This also necessarily created a need for a method of choosing between these modes. One solution is for the user to manage the task of mode determination, which may place unacceptable performance burdens on NavChair users with severe disabilities. Instead, a means for the NavChair to automatically choose the proper operating mode is being sought.

  12. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  13. Neural Systems for Rapid Automatized Naming in Skilled Readers: Unraveling the RAN-Reading Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Maya; Katzir, Tamar; Wolf, Maryanne; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of children and adults with reading disabilities exhibit pronounced difficulties on naming-speed measures such as tests of rapid automatized naming (RAN). RAN tasks require speeded naming of serially presented stimuli and share key characteristics with reading, but different versions of the RAN task vary in their sensitivity: The RAN…

  14. The Core Principles of Extensive Reading in an EAP Writing Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jeongyeon; Ro, Eunseok

    2015-01-01

    In the first part of the discussion forum on extensive reading (ER) in "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL") (April 2015 issue), many scholars in the field shared views regarding the core features to be considered when implementing ER, frequently referring to Day and Bamford's (1998, 2002) top 10 principles for teaching ER.…

  15. Understanding What Students Know: Evaluating Their Online Research and Reading Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castek, Jill; Coiro, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This piece is framed by questions we are often asked when we talk about online reading assessments and instruction with teachers. We begin with some of the lessons we have learned in our own experiences with designing measures of online reading comprehension. Then we share our thoughts about key design considerations as well as some of the biggest…

  16. Reading Culturally Relevant Literature Aloud to Urban Youths with Behavioral Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verden, Claire E.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the viability of reading culturally relevant literature aloud to urban middle school youth. The findings from a research study are shared and guidelines for implementing a culturally sensitive read aloud program in your own middle school or high school classroom are discussed. Anecdotes from students involved in the study…

  17. A Book Club for a Nation, Built Chapter by Chapter. The Big Read. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kay; Honeyford, Michelle; Bass, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    This report shares the findings from a nineteen-month study of The Big Read, an initiative of the National Endowment for the Arts, in partnership with the Institute of Museum and Library Services and Arts Midwest, designed to restore reading to the center of American culture. Piloted in early 2006 and launched nationwide later that year, The Big…

  18. The Hot Chocolate House: Reading and Writing on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Hot Chocolate House Web site that was created for elementary school students to engage in a variety of activities centered on reading and creative writing. Students can submit their own writing or book reviews, read other writing or book reviews, share authors' letters, and find recipes for snacks. (LRW)

  19. The Future of Reading: Don't Worry. It Might Be Better than You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, John

    2010-01-01

    It is a fun parlor game to speculate about what the future of books will look like. The author wonders whether stories will be read on screens and supplemented with gaming, illustration, video, and multimedia riddles. In this essay, the author shares his vision of the future of reading and describes what he learned from writing a story based on…

  20. The Contribution of Early Home Literacy Activities to First Grade Reading and Writing Achievements in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Korat, Ofra; Hassunah-Arafat, Safieh

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the literacy development of native Arabic-speaking children from kindergarten to the end of first grade, focusing on the role of home literacy activities (mother-child shared book reading and joint writing). The contribution of these activities in kindergarten to children's reading and writing at the end of…