Science.gov

Sample records for adapted shared reading

  1. Adapted Shared Reading at School for Minimally Verbal Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucchetti, Charlotte A

    2013-01-01

    Almost nothing is known about the capacity of minimally verbal students with autism to develop literacy skills. Shared reading is a regular practice in early education settings and is widely thought to encourage language and literacy development. There is some evidence that children with severe disabilities can be engaged in adapted shared reading…

  2. Shared Reading Goes High-Tech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Sharon Ruth; Islam, Chhanda

    2011-01-01

    Shared Reading is a powerful teaching technique for teaching beginning reading. Technologies such as Interactive Whiteboards now make Shared Reading much easier to do. Large texts are projected on the whiteboard for Choral reading, and interactive features allow students to learn about letter-sound correspondences, spelling patterns, punctuation,…

  3. Sharing a Reading Technique with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irish, Christy K.; Parsons, Seth A.

    2016-01-01

    Sharing reading techniques with families is an important responsibility of teachers. Dialogic reading is one way to improve young students' expressive vocabulary skills, which are important for later reading success. Dialogic reading also supports students' understanding of story structure and content. This well researched technique has not been…

  4. Do reading and spelling share a lexicon?

    PubMed

    Jones, Angela C; Rawson, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    In the reading and spelling literature, an ongoing debate concerns whether reading and spelling share a single orthographic lexicon or rely upon independent lexica. Available evidence tends to support a single lexicon account over an independent lexica account, but evidence is mixed and open to alternative explanation. In the current work, we propose another, largely ignored account--separate-but-shared lexica--according to which reading and spelling have separate orthographic lexica, but information can be shared between them. We report three experiments designed to competitively evaluate these three theoretical accounts. In each experiment, participants learned new words via reading training and/or spelling training. The key manipulation concerned the amount of reading versus spelling practice a given item received. Following training, we assessed both response time and accuracy on final outcome measures of reading and spelling. According to the independent lexica account, final performance in one modality will not be influenced by the level of practice in the other modality. According to the single lexicon account, final performance will depend on the overall amount of practice regardless of modality. According to the separate-but-shared account, final performance will be influenced by the level of practice in both modalities but will benefit more from same-modality practice. Results support the separate-but-shared account, indicating that reading and spelling rely upon separate lexica, but information can be shared between them. PMID:26999066

  5. Interactive Shared Book Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Interactive Shared Book Reading" is a general practice that adults may use when reading with children and is intended to enhance young children's language and literacy skills. Typically, "Interactive Shared Book Reading" involves an adult reading a book to a child or a small group of children and using a variety of techniques to engage the…

  6. Adaptive Assessment for Nonacademic Secondary Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hittleman, Daniel R.

    Adaptive assessment procedures are a means of determining the quality of a reader's performance in a variety of reading situations and on a variety of written materials. Such procedures are consistent with the idea that there are functional competencies which change with the reading task. Adaptive assessment takes into account that a lack of…

  7. Parents Sharing Books: Motivation and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shefelbine, John

    This booklet focuses on reading motivation, especially on specific steps to motivate the middle school child to learn. The main topics explored are: finding or making time for reading for pleasure; filling or flooding the house with interesting reading materials; and reading as a way of life. Practical questions from parents are answered and…

  8. Teacher Strategies in Shared Reading for Children with Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girgin, Ümit

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Utilization of shared reading practice in hearing impaired children's literacy instruction may yield quite beneficial. However an investigation of Turkish literature revealed no studies regarding application of shared reading within elementary settings for hearing or hearing-impaired children. Furthermore international…

  9. Myopes experience greater contrast adaptation during reading.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Colm; van der Linde, Ian; Pardhan, Shahina; Engel, Stephen A; Mallen, Edward A H; Allen, Peter M

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated whether reading influences contrast adaptation differently in young adult emmetropic and myopic participants at the spatial frequencies created by text rows and character strokes. Pre-adaptation contrast sensitivity was measured for test gratings with spatial frequencies of 1cdeg(-1) and 4cdeg(-1), presented horizontally and vertically. Participants then adapted to reading text corresponding to the horizontal "row frequency" of text (1cdeg(-1)), and vertical "stroke frequency" of the characters (4cdeg(-1)) for 180s. Following this, post-adaptation contrast sensitivity was measured. Twenty young adults (10 myopes, 10 emmetropes) optimally corrected for the viewing distance participated. There was a significant reduction in logCS post-text adaptation (relative to pre-adaptation logCS) at the row frequency (1cdeg(-1) horizontal) but not at the stroke frequency (4cdeg(-1) vertical). logCS changes due to adaptation at 1cdeg(-1) horizontal were significant in both emmetropes and myopes. Comparing the two refractive groups, myopic participants showed significantly greater adaptation compared to emmetropic participants. Reading text on a screen induces contrast adaptation in young adult observers. Myopic participants were found to exhibit greater contrast adaptation than emmetropes at the spatial frequency corresponding to the text row frequency. No contrast adaptation was observed at the text stroke frequency in either participant group. The greater contrast adaptation experienced by myopes after reading warrants further investigation to better understand the relationship between near work and myopia development. PMID:26804636

  10. Shared Reading, the Pupil, and the Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Pupil/teacher interaction provides opportunities for many kinds of learning experiences. Within the reading curriculum, there are a plethora of activities in oral communication and working together harmoniously. Thus from every day experiences, the teacher may communicate verbally what he/she has read in an interesting, informative manner on the…

  11. Idea Sharing: The Use of Read-Share-Act to Promote Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charumanee, Nisakorn

    2014-01-01

    Nisakorn Charumanee believes that a reading teacher has an active role in cultivating reading culture or reading habit and in activating students to "want" to read. One way to do this is to integrate extensive reading into the classroom (Day and Bamford, 1998; Bamford and Day, 2004) where extensive reading can be enhanced if the teacher…

  12. Using Shared Storybook Reading To Promote Emergent Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan

    2002-01-01

    This article describes several techniques for structuring storybook reading interactions to best promote emergent literacy development for young children with disabilities. Techniques are presented for increasing the appeal and interactive nature of shared storybook reading and ways to promote children's awareness of naturally occurring literacy…

  13. A Tension between Theory and Practice: Shared Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Justina

    2014-01-01

    This study had two main aims: first, to offer a descriptive account of shared reading program using an evaluative lens and second, to examine whether teachers' perceptions of the importance of phonological awareness, word decoding, and text comprehension in helping young learners develop their reading abilities were indeed emphasized during…

  14. Family Pedagogy: Parent-Child Interaction in Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Liang; Fleer, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    How parent-child interaction effectively supports children's bilingual heritage language development in a shared book-reading practice is an under-researched area. The in-depth study reported in this paper examined an episode of one child, a four-year-old girl and her father, reading an English story in Chinese. Approximately 70 hours of video…

  15. The Link between Text Difficulty, Reading Speed and Exploration of Printed Text during Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy-Charland, Annie; Perron, Melanie; Turgeon, Krystle-Lee; Hoffman, Nichola; Chamberland, Justin A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study the reading speed of the narration and the difficulty of the text was manipulated and links were explored with children's attention to the printed text in shared book reading. Thirty-nine children (24 grade 1 and 15 grade 2) were presented easy and difficult books at slow (syllable by syllable) or fast (adult reading speed)…

  16. Shared Book Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated April 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Shared book reading" (also known as "interactive shared book reading") encompasses practices that adults can use when reading with children, which are intended to enhance young children's language and literacy skills. During "shared book reading," an adult reads a book to an individual child or a group of children…

  17. Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions do…

  18. Shared Reading for Older Emergent Readers in Bilingual Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enguidanos, Tomas; Ruiz, Nadeen T.

    2008-01-01

    Historically, and continuing to the present, children in the primary grades receive the lion's share of attention and resources in learning to read. This makes sense: Young, early readers have a head start in achieving well not only in literacy skills, but in school in general. However, as inner-city, middle-grade teachers will readily attest,…

  19. Parent-Child Aesthetic Shared Reading with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The participation of parents-shared reading with children is a topic that has generated a lot of attention among many researchers in the world. For the use of picture story books, which have caused positive impact on the child's learning process, has also been recommended as the best strategies to develop children's aesthetic ability. The purpose…

  20. A Sharing Item Response Theory Model for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Daniel O.

    2004-01-01

    A new sharing item response theory (SIRT) model is presented that explicitly models the effects of sharing item content between informants and test takers. This model is used to construct adaptive item selection and scoring rules that provide increased precision and reduced score gains in instances where sharing occurs. The adaptive item selection…

  1. Mother-Child Shared Reading with Print and Digital Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji Eun; Anderson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) compare mother-child interactions in three contexts: shared reading with a book in a traditional print format, with an electronic book in a CD-ROM format, and with an electronic book in a video clip format; (2) compare mother-child interactions with a three-year-old and a seven-year-old; and (3) compare…

  2. A Standardized Tool for Assessing the Quality of Classroom-Based Shared Reading: Systematic Assessment of Book Reading (SABR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentimonti, Jill M.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Petscher, Yaacov; Piasta, Shayne B.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2012-01-01

    Participation in shared-reading experiences is associated with children's language and literacy outcomes, yet few standardized assessments of shared-reading quality exist. The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric characteristics of the Systematic Assessment of Book Reading (SABR), an observational tool designed to characterize…

  3. Shared Story Reading: Teaching Mathematics to Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtade, Ginevra R.; Lingo, Amy S.; Karp, Karen S.; Whitney, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Shared story reading is a practice that has been used successfully to promote literacy skills for all students. The benefits of shared story reading are not exclusive to literacy instruction and should carry into other disciplines such as mathematics. Using shared story reading to teach mathematics concepts can play an important role in…

  4. Complex Text or Frustration-Level Text: Using Shared Reading to Bridge the Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Katherine A. Dougherty

    2012-01-01

    Challenging texts can be made accessible to students by increasing the level of instructional scaffolding. This article describes evidence-based models of shared reading that support reading development across the elementary years. Shared Reading Experience (Holdaway, 1982), Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (Stahl & Heubach, 2005),…

  5. Shared-Reading versus Oral Storytelling: Associations with Preschoolers' Prosocial Skills and Problem Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curenton, Stephanie M.; Craig, Michelle Jones

    2011-01-01

    Dyadic shared-reading and oral storytelling practices and their association to American preschoolers' (N = 33) prosocial and problem behaviour was examined. The frequency (how often dyads read) and history (the child's age at first reading) were examined within shared-reading; emotion state talk and evaluative judgments were examined in both…

  6. Adaptive load sharing in heterogeneous distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirchandaney, Ravi; Towsley, Don; Stankovic, John A.

    1990-08-01

    In this paper, we study the performance characteristics of simple load sharing algorithms for heterogeneous distributed systems. We assume that nonnegligible delays are encountered in transferring jobs from one node to another. We analyze the effects of these delays on the performance of two threshold-based algorithms called Forward and Reverse. We formulate queuing theoretic models for each of the algorithms operating in heterogeneous systems under the assumption that the job arrival process at each node in Poisson and the service times and job transfer times are exponentially distributed. The models are solved using the Matrix-Geometric solution technique. These models are used to study the effects of different parameters and algorithm variations on the mean job response time: e.g., the effects of varying the thresholds, the impact of changing the probe limit, the impact of biasing the probing, and the optimal response times over a large range of loads and delays. Wherever relevant, the results of the models are compared with the M/M/ 1 model, representing no load balancing (hereafter referred to as NLB), and the M/M/K model, which is an achievable lower bound (hereafter referred to as LB).

  7. Compressive adaptive ghost imaging via sharing mechanism and fellow relationship.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yaoran; He, Hongjie; Chen, Fan

    2016-04-20

    For lower sampling rate and better imaging quality, a compressive adaptive ghost imaging is proposed by adopting the sharing mechanism and fellow relationship in the wavelet tree. The sharing mechanisms, including intrascale and interscale sharing mechanisms, and fellow relationship are excavated from the wavelet tree and utilized for sampling. The shared coefficients, which are part of the approximation subband, are localized according to the parent coefficients and sampled based on the interscale sharing mechanism and fellow relationship. The sampling rate can be reduced owing to the fact that some shared coefficients can be calculated by adopting the parent coefficients and the sampled sum of shared coefficients. According to the shared coefficients and parent coefficients, the proposed method predicts the positions of significant coefficients and samples them based on the intrascale sharing mechanism. The ghost image, reconstructed by the significant coefficients and the coarse image at the given largest scale, achieves better quality because the significant coefficients contain more detailed information. The simulations demonstrate that the proposed method improves the imaging quality at the same sampling rate and also achieves a lower sampling rate for the same imaging quality for different types of target object images in noise-free and noisy environments. PMID:27140111

  8. The Method and Significance of Secondary Preservice Teachers Sharing Reading with Individual Teenagers in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study was to describe how secondary preservice teachers of diverse subject areas shared their reading with an individual student in school. A second purpose was to describe the barriers (if any) that they faced sharing their reading. A third purpose was to report their beliefs about the positive aspects of sharing…

  9. Increasing Young Children's Contact with Print during Shared Reading: Longitudinal Effects on Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; McGinty, Anita S.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal results for a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) assessing the impact of increasing preschoolers' attention to print during reading are reported. Four-year-old children (N = 550) in 85 classrooms experienced a 30-week shared reading program implemented by their teachers. Children in experimental classrooms experienced shared-book…

  10. Embedding Mathematical Dialogue in Parent-Child Shared Book Reading: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojnoski, Robin L.; Columba, Helen Lynn; Polignano, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Shared book reading provides a meaningful context for rich conversations to occur between a child and an adult and offers opportunities for children to be exposed to a range of vocabulary and concepts that often extend beyond their everyday experiences. Few studies have examined parent-child shared book reading as a context for…

  11. Examining the Effects of Gender and Genre on Interactions in Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jim; Anderson, Ann; Lynch, Jacqueline; Shapiro, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether fathers and mothers read differently to their four-year-old sons and daughters and to examine the effect of genre on the interactions that occurred in parent-child, shared book reading. Twenty-five dyads shared two narrative texts and two non-narrative texts. Results indicated that overall,…

  12. An Examination of Preschool Teachers' Shared Book Reading Practices in Spanish: Before and after Instructional Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Simmons, Leslie; Nava-Walichowski, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Shared book reading is a prominent practice in preschools; however, limited research has examined this practice in classrooms with English language learners (ELLs). This study investigated the shared book reading practices of seven preschool teachers of Spanish-speaking ELLs to describe their vocabulary instructional practices before and after…

  13. Shared Book Reading: When and How Questions Affect Young Children's Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blewitt, Pamela; Rump, Keiran M.; Shealy, Stephanie E.; Cook, Samantha A.

    2009-01-01

    Shared book reading, and the conversation that accompanies it, can facilitate young children's vocabulary growth. To identify the features of extratextual questions that help 3-year-olds learn unfamiliar words during shared book reading, two experiments explored the impact of cognitive demand level, placement, and an approximation to scaffolding.…

  14. Shared-Reading Volume in Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes book reading practices occurring in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms in comparison to early childhood education (ECE) classrooms. Reading logs submitted by 19 ECSE teachers and 13 ECE teachers over one academic year included all books read in whole class settings; these logs were analyzed to assess the…

  15. Parents Sharing Books: Self-Esteem and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Michael, Ed.

    This booklet focuses on self-esteem, especially as to how reading at home can affect reading and school performance and how poor reading attainment can affect self-esteem. Specific steps to help middle school children gain self-esteem are discussed. Practical questions from parents are answered and activities are described which can be used at…

  16. A Shared Reading Intervention with Parents to Enhance Young Children's Early Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Susan S. H.; Berthelsen, Donna; Walker, Susan; Nicholson, Jan M.; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was used to investigate the effects of two forms of shared reading on children's language and literacy skills. Parents of 80 children in the preparatory year of school participated in an eight-week home reading intervention. Families were assigned to one of three groups: dialogic reading (DR), dialogic…

  17. Yellow Brick Roads: Shared and Guided Paths to Independent Reading 4-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Janet

    2000-01-01

    This book provides research, practical methods, detailed strategies, and resources for read-aloud, shared, guided, and independent reading. In addition, the author outlines solutions for many of the literacy dilemmas that teachers face every day: (1) understanding what gets in the way of reading; (2) rethinking and reorganizing time and resources;…

  18. Examining the Effects of Shared Book Reading across Age-Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Glen N.; Buyer, Linda S.

    A study investigated whether increasing the motivation/interest for children and their families to engage in more frequent and higher quality shared book reading interactions will significantly increase the vocabulary and reading/reading readiness abilities of school-aged and preschool children. Subjects were 30 preschool and 30 school-aged…

  19. Network Adaptive Deadband: NCS Data Flow Control for Shared Networks

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Cacho, Miguel; Delgado, Emma; Prieto, José A. G.; López, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new middleware solution called Network Adaptive Deadband (NAD) for long time operation of Networked Control Systems (NCS) through the Internet or any shared network based on IP technology. The proposed middleware takes into account the network status and the NCS status, to improve the global system performance and to share more effectively the network by several NCS and sensor/actuator data flows. Relationship between network status and NCS status is solved with a TCP-friendly transport flow control protocol and the deadband concept, relating deadband value and transmission throughput. This creates a deadband-based flow control solution. Simulation and experiments in shared networks show that the implemented network adaptive deadband has better performance than an optimal constant deadband solution in the same circumstances. PMID:23208556

  20. Reading Skills in Early Readers: Genetic and Shared Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee Anne; DeThorne, Laura S.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The present study combined parallel data from the Northeast-Northwest Collaborative Adoption Projects (N2CAP) and the Western Reserve Reading Project (WRRP) to examine sibling similarity and quantitative genetic model estimates for measures of reading skills in 272 school-age sibling pairs from three family types (monozygotic twins, dizygotic…

  1. Sharing Skills. Recipe for a Great Read Across America Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothberg, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    Read Across America Day was created by the National Education Association in 1998. This column presents suggestions for classroom activities that can be used to celebrate this day. Suggestions include: (1) Making a Read Across America flag; (2) Taking pictures of staff with their favorite books; and (3) Sending out ballots asking students and…

  2. Adapting Books: Ready, Set, Read!: EAT: Equipment, Adaptations, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonover, Judith; Norton-Darr, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Developing multimodal materials to introduce or extend literacy experiences sets the stage for literacy success. Alternative ways to organize, display and arrange, interact and respond to information produces greater understanding of concepts. Adaptations include making books easier to use (turning pages or holding), and text easier to read…

  3. Identifying Reading Problems with Computer-Adaptive Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, C.; Tymms, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an adaptive assessment called Interactive Computerised Assessment System (InCAS) that is aimed at children of a wide age and ability range to identify specific reading problems. Rasch measurement has been used to create the equal interval scales that form each part of the assessment. The rationale for the…

  4. Teaching Vocabulary During Shared Storybook Readings: An Examination of Differential Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Michael D.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Stoolmiller, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A storybook intervention for kindergarten children that integrates principles of explicit vocabulary instruction within the shared storybook reading experience is described with findings from an experimental study demonstrating the effects of this intervention on the vocabulary development of kindergarten students at risk of reading difficulty.…

  5. Prekindergarten Teachers' Verbal References to Print during Classroom-Based, Large-Group Shared Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The frequency with which adults reference print when reading with preschool-age children is associated with growth in children's print knowledge (e.g., L.M. Justice & H.K. Ezell, 2000, 2002). This study examined whether prekindergarten (pre-K) teachers naturally reference print during classroom shared reading and if verbal print…

  6. The Seuss Boost: Rhyme Helps Children Retain Words from Shared Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Kirsten; Macauley, Megan; Furay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the potential benefits of rhyme on young children's word retention during shared reading. In two experiments, 2- to 4-year-old children heard their parent read either a rhymed or non-rhymed version of the same animal story, and were then tested on how many animal names they subsequently recognized from the story in Experiment 1…

  7. Preschoolers' Communicative Functions during Shared Book Reading with Mothers and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barachetti, Chiara; Lavelli, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined whether the communicative behaviors of preschoolers during shared-reading interactions differ according to child age or parent gender. Twenty Italian preschoolers (from 3.1 to 5.11 years) were observed during book reading with each parent separately. Communicative behaviors were analyzed according to the…

  8. Untangling the Effects of Shared Book Reading: Multiple Factors and Their Associations with Preschool Literacy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Connor, Carol M.; Jewkes, Abigail M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence strongly suggests that shared book reading at home and in preschool is important for young children's development of the foundational skills required for the eventual mastery of decoding and comprehension. Yet the nuances of how learning from book reading might vary across these contexts and with children's skills are not well understood.…

  9. Pilot Study Evaluating the Impact of Dialogic Reading and Shared Reading at Transition to Primary School: Early Literacy Skills and Parental Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillinger, Claire; Wood, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the positive impact of shared reading (SR) and dialogic reading (DR) on young children's language and literacy development. This exploratory study compared the relative impact of parental DR and shared reading interventions on 4-year-old children's early literacy skills and parental attitudes to reading…

  10. Click, Swipe, and Read: Sharing e-Books with Toddlers and Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jessica L.; Paciga, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    e-Books share some key features with traditional printed picture books, but also include distinct features such as live animation, interactive components, and the operation of the technology that require new approaches to shared reading with young children. The purpose of this paper is to better inform adults working with young children (teachers,…

  11. Expanding the Boundaries of Shared Book Reading: E-Books and Printed Books in Parent-Child Reading as Support for Children's Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina; Heibal, Shani

    2013-01-01

    Early shared book reading activities are considered to be a promising context for supporting young children's language development. Ninety low socioeconomic status preschoolers and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) e-book reading; (2) printed book reading; (3) regular kindergarten literacy program (control). Mothers…

  12. Gesture and Speech during Shared Book Reading with Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelli, Manuela; Barachetti, Chiara; Florit, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This study examined (a) the relationship between gesture and speech produced by children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children, and their mothers, during shared book-reading, and (b) the potential effectiveness of gestures accompanying maternal speech on the conversational responsiveness of children.…

  13. Shared Book Reading and Children's Language Comprehension Skills: The Moderating Role of Parental Discipline Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Freeman, Nicole R.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2004-01-01

    Parental discipline practices, parent-child shared book reading and children's emergent literacy skills were assessed among 76 parents and their children in the summer before the children started Kindergarten. Parents provided narrative responses to open-ended questions about how they would handle common discipline challenges with children and…

  14. The Effects of a Responsive Parenting Intervention on Parent-Child Interactions during Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.; Zucker, Tricia; Crawford, April D.; Solari, Emily F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined mother-child shared book reading behaviors before and after participation in a random-assignment responsive parenting intervention called Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) that occurred during infancy (PALS I), the toddler-preschool (PALS II) period, or both as compared with a developmental assessment (DAS) intervention (DAS…

  15. Designing Caregiver-Implemented Shared-Reading Interventions to Overcome Implementation Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; Logan, Jessica R.; Damschroder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents an application of the theoretical domains framework (TDF; Michie et al., 2005), an integrative framework drawing on behavior-change theories, to speech-language pathology. Methods: A multistep procedure was used to identify barriers affecting caregivers' implementation of shared-reading interventions with their…

  16. Extra-Textual Talk in Shared Book Reading: A Focus on Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ann; Anderson, Jim; Lynch, Jacqueline; Shapiro, Jon; Kim, Ji Eun

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the frequency and types of questions asked when parents read with their four-year-old children, the relationship between the frequency and types of questions parents and children asked, and the relationship between these and the children's early literacy knowledge. Forty dyads shared two narrative texts and two…

  17. Children's Preliteracy Skills: Influence of Mothers' Education and Beliefs about Shared-Reading Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curenton, Stephanie M.; Justice, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: This research investigated the associations among children's preliteracy skills, mothers' education, and mothers' beliefs about shared-reading interactions for 45 Appalachian families. These variables were studied for lower income, primarily European American, families residing in a geographically isolated, small, rural…

  18. Pedagogical Knowledge and Elementary Reading Methodology Textbooks: In Search of a Shared Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Jay; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines a computer-based concordance of 5,760 references from 12 elementary reading methodology textbooks with copyrights ranging from 1985 to 1989. Suggests the existence of a shared example of pedagogical knowledge, which is composed of a complex amalgam of knowledge on philosophy, principles, and practices. (RS)

  19. Parents' Interactions with Preschoolers during Shared Book Reading: Three Strategies for Promoting Quality Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jisu; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that home environments play a critical role in developing children's early literacy skills. Given the importance of developing early literacy skills to bolster children's chances for subsequent academic success, this article highlights the role of parent-child shared book reading. Summarizing research on different types of…

  20. Preschool Teachers' Literal and Inferential Questions and Children's Responses during Whole-Class Shared Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which preschool teachers used literal and inferential questions during classroom-based shared reading. Specific foci included (a) investigating the association among the level of literal or inferential language in the text, teachers' text-related questions, and children's responses using sequential analysis, and…

  1. Academic Language in Shared Book Reading: Parent and Teacher Input to Mono- and Bilingual Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarts, Rian; Demir-Vegter, Serpil; Kurvers, Jeanne; Henrichs, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined academic language (AL) input of mothers and teachers to 15 monolingual Dutch and 15 bilingual Turkish-Dutch 4- to 6-year-old children and its relationships with the children's language development. At two times, shared book reading was videotaped and analyzed for academic features: lexical diversity, syntactic…

  2. Enhancing Vocabulary, Print Awareness and Phonological Awareness through Shared Storybook Reading with Low-Income Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebvre, Pascal; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of two shared storybook reading (SSR) interventions on language and emergent literacy skills of low-income preschoolers. The control intervention targeted language and print awareness, skills for which there is strong evidence of the effect of SSR. The experimental intervention added a focus on phonological…

  3. Secondary Preservice Teachers' Attitudes toward and Experiences with Sharing Their Reading with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore 72 preservice teachers' attitudes toward and experiences with sharing their content area as well as their recreational reading with teenager students. Methodology: Preservice teachers who were enrolled in a required secondary content area literacy course at a Midwest university, including 49 in a…

  4. Promoting Contextual Vocabulary Learning through an Adaptive Computer-Assisted EFL Reading System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Y.-H.

    2016-01-01

    The study developed an adaptive computer-assisted reading system and investigated its effect on promoting English as a foreign language learner-readers' contextual vocabulary learning performance. Seventy Taiwanese college students were assigned to two reading groups. Participants in the customised reading group read online English texts, each of…

  5. Effectiveness of Parent Training on Shared Reading Practices in Families with Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Jessica Page

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of parent training on shared reading practices in families of children with hearing loss. This intervention augmented a multifaceted school program in emergent literacy. In a community based format, parents were explicitly taught three shared reading strategies that have evidence to support the…

  6. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of…

  7. Shared vs. specific brain activation changes in dyslexia after training of phonology, attention, or reading.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Brinkhaus, Moti; Grande, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Whereas the neurobiological basis of developmental dyslexia has received substantial attention, only little is known about the processes in the brain during remediation. This holds in particular in light of recent findings on cognitive subtypes of dyslexia which suggest interactions between individual profiles, training methods, and also the task in the scanner. Therefore, we trained three groups of German dyslexic primary school children in the domains of phonology, attention, or visual word recognition. We compared neurofunctional changes after 4 weeks of training in these groups to those in untrained normal readers in a reading task and in a task of visual attention. The overall reading improvement in the dyslexic children was comparable over groups. It was accompanied by substantial increase of the activation level in the visual word form area (VWFA) during a reading task inside the scanner. Moreover, there were activation increases that were unique for each training group in the reading task. In contrast, when children performed the visual attention task, shared training effects were found in the left inferior frontal sulcus and gyrus, which varied in amplitude between the groups. Overall, the data reveal that different remediation programmes matched to individual profiles of dyslexia may improve reading ability and commonly affect the VWFA in dyslexia as a shared part of otherwise distinct networks. PMID:24802381

  8. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Legrand, Lisa N; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2011-08-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4,886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of considerable heritability for both reading achievement and reading disability. A simple biometric model adequately described parent and offspring data (combined N = 9,430 parents and offspring) across differing types of families present in the sample Analyses yielded a high heritability estimate (around 0.70) and a negligible shared-environmentality estimate for both reading achievement and reading disability. No evidence of gene × environment interaction was found for parental reading ability and parental educational attainment, the two moderators analyzed. PMID:21743785

  9. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4,886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of considerable heritability for both reading achievement and reading disability. A simple biometric model adequately described parent and offspring data (combined N = 9,430 parents and offspring) across differing types of families present in the sample Analyses yielded a high heritability estimate (around 0.70) and a negligible shared-environmentality estimate for both reading achievement and reading disability. No evidence of gene × environment interaction was found for parental reading ability and parental educational attainment, the two moderators analyzed. PMID:21743785

  10. Adaptative Peer to Peer Data Sharing for Technology Enhanced Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelaccio, Michele; Buttarazzi, Berta

    Starting from the hypothesis that P2P Data Sharing in a direct teaching scenario (e.g.: a classroom lesson) may lead to relevant benefits, this paper explores the features of EduSHARE a Collaborative Learning System useful for Enhanced Learning Process.

  11. Designing Caregiver-Implemented Shared-Reading Interventions to Overcome Implementation Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Jessica R.; Damschroder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study presents an application of the theoretical domains framework (TDF; Michie et al., 2005), an integrative framework drawing on behavior-change theories, to speech-language pathology. Methods A multistep procedure was used to identify barriers affecting caregivers' implementation of shared-reading interventions with their children with language impairment (LI). The authors examined caregiver-level data corresponding to implementation issues from two randomized controlled trials and mapped these to domains in the TDF as well as empirically validated behavior-change techniques. Results Four barriers to implementation were identified as potentially affecting caregivers' implementation: time pressures, reading difficulties, discomfort with reading, and lack of awareness of benefits. These were mapped to 3 TDF domains: intentions, beliefs about capabilities, and skills. In turn, 4 behavior-change techniques were identified as potential vehicles for affecting these domains: reward, feedback, model, and encourage. An ongoing study is described that is determining the effects of these techniques for improving caregivers' implementation of a shared-reading intervention. Conclusions A description of the steps to identifying barriers to implementation, in conjunction with an ongoing experiment that will explicitly determine whether behavior-change techniques affect these barriers, provides a model for how implementation science can be used to identify and overcome implementation barriers in the treatment of communication disorders. PMID:26262941

  12. Parent Education for Dialogic Reading during Shared Storybook Reading: Multiple Case Study of Online and Face-to-Face Delivery Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beschorner, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a parent education program on the frequency of shared storybook reading and dialogic reading techniques. Additionally, the contextual factors that influenced the outcomes of the program were explored. Seventeen parents completed a nine-week face-to-face parent education program and fifteen parents completed a…

  13. The effects of a responsive parenting intervention on parent-child interactions during shared book reading.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Smith, Karen E; Swank, Paul R; Zucker, Tricia; Crawford, April D; Solari, Emily F

    2012-07-01

    This study examined mother-child shared book reading behaviors before and after participation in a random-assignment responsive parenting intervention called Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) that occurred during infancy (PALS I), the toddler-preschool (PALS II) period, or both as compared with a developmental assessment (DAS) intervention (DAS I and/or II). The efficacy of PALS was previously demonstrated for improving mother and child behaviors within play contexts, everyday activities, and standardized measures of child language. We hypothesized that PALS effects would generalize to influence maternal and child behaviors during a shared reading task even though this situation was not a specific focus of the intervention and that this would be similar for children who varied in biological risk. Participation in at least PALS II was expected to have a positive effect due to children's increased capacity to engage in book reading at this age. Four groups of randomized mothers and their children (PALS I-II, PALS I-DAS II, DAS I-PALS II, DAS I-II) were observed in shared reading interactions during the toddler-preschool period and coded for (a) mother's affective and cognitive-linguistic supports and (b) child's responses to maternal requests and initiations. Support was found for significant changes in observed maternal and child behaviors, and evidence of mediation was found for the intervention to affect children's behaviors through change in maternal responsiveness behaviors. These results add to other studies supporting the importance of targeting a broad range of responsive behaviors across theoretical frameworks in interventions to facilitate children's development. PMID:22122475

  14. Modeling bee swarming behavior through diffusion adaptation with asymmetric information sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinchao; Sayed, Ali H.

    2012-12-01

    Honeybees swarm when they move to a new site for their hive. During the process of swarming, their behavior can be analyzed by classifying them as informed bees or uninformed bees, where the informed bees have some information about the destination while the uninformed bees follow the informed bees. The swarm's movement can be viewed as a network of mobile nodes with asymmetric information exchange about their destination. In these networks, adaptive and mobile agents share information on the fly and adapt their estimates in response to local measurements and data shared with neighbors. Diffusion adaptation is used to model the adaptation process in the presence of asymmetric nodes and noisy data. The simulations indicate that the models are able to emulate the swarming behavior of bees under varied conditions such as a small number of informed bees, sharing of target location, sharing of target direction, and noisy measurements.

  15. Learning words during shared book reading: The role of extratextual talk designed to increase child engagement.

    PubMed

    Blewitt, Pamela; Langan, Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Shared book reading (SBR) is a valuable context for word learning during early childhood, and adults' extratextual talk boosts the vocabulary building potential of SBR. We propose that the benefits of such talk depend largely on a reader's success in promoting children's active engagement (attention and interest) during SBR. When readers ask children questions about new words, especially if they respond to children in a prompt, contingent, and appropriate (positive) manner, this verbal responsiveness functions as an effective engagement strategy. We randomly assigned 3- and 4-year-olds to three reading conditions (low, moderate, and high) distinguished by the degree to which the reader used extratextual engagement strategies, including verbal responsiveness. Despite equal exposure to unfamiliar target words, children's performance improved on two measures of word learning across the three conditions, demonstrating the value of engagement strategies in extratextual talk. This study provides a strong experimental demonstration that adult verbal responsiveness directly benefits preschoolers' word learning. PMID:27378488

  16. Impact of Professional Development on Preschool Teachers' Print References during Shared Read Alouds: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This large-scale, experimental study aimed to (a) describe the extent to which teachers of preschool children at risk for reading difficulties make references to print during whole-class, shared-book read alouds and (b) empirically test the extent to which participation in professional development influences teachers' frequency of references to…

  17. The Role of Frequent, Interactive Prekindergarten Shared Reading in the Longitudinal Development of Language and Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Justice, Laura M.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the longitudinal relations between frequency and features of reading experiences within the preschool classroom to children's language and literacy outcomes in kindergarten and 1st grade. "Frequency" refers to the number of shared reading sessions conducted each week as measured by teachers' written…

  18. Enhancing Parent-Child Shared Book Reading Interactions: Promoting References to the Book's Plot and Socio-Cognitive Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Fine, Yaara; Ziv, Margalit

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the efficacy of an intervention designed to promote parents' and preschoolers' references to storybooks' plot and socio-cognitive themes during shared reading within a sample of 58 families from low-SES background. All parents were given four books, one new book weekly, and were instructed to read each book four times per week…

  19. Developing Low-Income Preschoolers' Social Studies and Science Vocabulary Knowledge through Content-Focused Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Kim, Minjun; Simmons, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of integrating science and social studies vocabulary instruction into shared book reading with low-income preschool children. Twenty-one preschool teachers and 148 children from their classrooms were randomly assigned at the class level to either the Words of Oral Reading and Language Development (WORLD)…

  20. Fuzzy-rule-based Adaptive Resource Control for Information Sharing in P2P Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhengping; Wu, Hao

    With more and more peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies available for online collaboration and information sharing, people can launch more and more collaborative work in online social networks with friends, colleagues, and even strangers. Without face-to-face interactions, the question of who can be trusted and then share information with becomes a big concern of a user in these online social networks. This paper introduces an adaptive control service using fuzzy logic in preference definition for P2P information sharing control, and designs a novel decision-making mechanism using formal fuzzy rules and reasoning mechanisms adjusting P2P information sharing status following individual users' preferences. Applications of this adaptive control service into different information sharing environments show that this service can provide a convenient and accurate P2P information sharing control for individual users in P2P networks.

  1. The role of frequent, interactive prekindergarten shared reading in the longitudinal development of language and literacy skills.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Tricia A; Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M; Pentimonti, Jill M; Kaderavek, Joan N

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we examined the longitudinal relations between frequency and features of reading experiences within the preschool classroom to children's language and literacy outcomes in kindergarten and 1st grade. Frequency refers to the number of shared reading sessions conducted each week as measured by teachers' written reading logs recorded across the academic year. Features refers to teachers' extratextual talk about literal, inferential, or print or phonological topics as assessed by analysis of 6 videotaped readings of narrative and informational texts collected across the preschool year. Participants were 28 preschool teachers and 178 children. The children were largely at risk and randomly selected from among those in each classroom to complete longitudinal assessments. In preschool, results showed that the frequency of classroom shared reading was positively and significantly related to children's receptive vocabulary growth, as was the inclusion of extratextual conversations around the text; only extratextual conversations related to children's preschool literacy growth. There was no evidence of differential influences of these experiences for children; that is, the relationship between frequency or features and children's language and literacy development was not moderated by children's initial skill level. Longitudinally, extratextual talk during preschool shared reading remained associated with children's vocabulary skills through kindergarten, with trends toward significance extending to 1st grade literacy skills. The frequency of preschool shared reading was not a significant predictor of longitudinal outcomes. PMID:23066674

  2. Enhancing topology adaptation in information-sharing social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimini, Giulio; Chen, Duanbing; Medo, Matúš; Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2012-04-01

    The advent of the Internet and World Wide Web has led to unprecedent growth of the information available. People usually face the information overload by following a limited number of sources which best fit their interests. It has thus become important to address issues like who gets followed and how to allow people to discover new and better information sources. In this paper we conduct an empirical analysis of different online social networking sites and draw inspiration from its results to present different source selection strategies in an adaptive model for social recommendation. We show that local search rules which enhance the typical topological features of real social communities give rise to network configurations that are globally optimal. These rules create networks which are effective in information diffusion and resemble structures resulting from real social systems.

  3. Shared and Unique Risk Factors Underlying Mathematical Disability and Reading and Spelling Disability.

    PubMed

    Slot, Esther M; van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates have been reported between mathematical learning disabilities (MD) and reading and spelling disabilities (RSD). Research has identified skills related to math, such as number sense (NS) and visuospatial working memory (visuospatial WM), as well as to literacy, such as phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN) and verbal short-term memory (Verbal STM). In order to explain the high comorbidity rates between MD and RSD, 7-11-year-old children were assessed on a range of cognitive abilities related to literacy (PA, RAN, Verbal STM) and mathematical ability (visuospatial WM, NS). The group of children consisted of typically developing (TD) children (n = 32), children with MD (n = 26), children with RSD (n = 29), and combined MD and RSD (n = 43). It was hypothesized that, in line with the multiple deficit view on learning disorders, at least one unique predictor for both MD and RSD and a possible shared cognitive risk factor would be found to account for the comorbidity between the symptom dimensions literacy and math. Secondly, our hypotheses were that (a) a probabilistic multi-factorial risk factor model would provide a better fit to the data than a deterministic single risk factor model and (b) that a shared risk factor model would provide a better fit than the specific multi-factorial model. All our hypotheses were confirmed. NS and visuospatial WM were identified as unique cognitive predictors for MD, whereas PA and RAN were both associated with RSD. Also, a shared risk factor model with PA as a cognitive predictor for both RSD and MD fitted the data best, indicating that MD and RSD might co-occur due to a shared underlying deficit in phonological processing. Possible explanations are discussed in the context of sample selection and composition. This study shows that different cognitive factors play a role in mathematics and literacy, and that a phonological processing deficit might play a role in the occurrence of MD and RSD

  4. Shared and Unique Risk Factors Underlying Mathematical Disability and Reading and Spelling Disability

    PubMed Central

    Slot, Esther M.; van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates have been reported between mathematical learning disabilities (MD) and reading and spelling disabilities (RSD). Research has identified skills related to math, such as number sense (NS) and visuospatial working memory (visuospatial WM), as well as to literacy, such as phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatized naming (RAN) and verbal short-term memory (Verbal STM). In order to explain the high comorbidity rates between MD and RSD, 7–11-year-old children were assessed on a range of cognitive abilities related to literacy (PA, RAN, Verbal STM) and mathematical ability (visuospatial WM, NS). The group of children consisted of typically developing (TD) children (n = 32), children with MD (n = 26), children with RSD (n = 29), and combined MD and RSD (n = 43). It was hypothesized that, in line with the multiple deficit view on learning disorders, at least one unique predictor for both MD and RSD and a possible shared cognitive risk factor would be found to account for the comorbidity between the symptom dimensions literacy and math. Secondly, our hypotheses were that (a) a probabilistic multi-factorial risk factor model would provide a better fit to the data than a deterministic single risk factor model and (b) that a shared risk factor model would provide a better fit than the specific multi-factorial model. All our hypotheses were confirmed. NS and visuospatial WM were identified as unique cognitive predictors for MD, whereas PA and RAN were both associated with RSD. Also, a shared risk factor model with PA as a cognitive predictor for both RSD and MD fitted the data best, indicating that MD and RSD might co-occur due to a shared underlying deficit in phonological processing. Possible explanations are discussed in the context of sample selection and composition. This study shows that different cognitive factors play a role in mathematics and literacy, and that a phonological processing deficit might play a role in the occurrence of MD and

  5. A Theory of Secondary Teachers' Adaptations When Implementing a Reading Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leko, Melinda M.; Roberts, Carly A.; Pek, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the causes and consequences of secondary teachers' adaptations when implementing a research-based reading intervention program. Interview, observation, and artifact data were collected on five middle school intervention teachers, leading to a grounded theory composed of the core component, reconciliation through adaptation, and…

  6. Adaptation of the Wilson Reading System for Braille Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Roz; McCarthy, Mary; Rines, Justine Carlone

    2014-01-01

    Teachers at Perkins School for the Blind have been teaching braille to students of all ages for many years. As part of this experience, the teachers at Perkins have seen many capable students of different ages struggle to learn to read and write braille. In particular, they observed students who were unable to sound out or decode words because of…

  7. Read It Aloud! A Parent's Guide to Sharing Books with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Monty; Haas, Laurie Joy

    By blending reading aloud, in particular "performance reading," with follow-up discussion, related activities, and plenty of wordplay, parents can prepare their children to think, communicate, and succeed in the adult world. Performance reading helps parents learn to read wordless books to relate to infants/toddlers; explore sounds of words to…

  8. Evidence-Based and Child-Friendly: Shared Book Reading with Chants Support Young Children's Language and Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Janet C.

    2010-01-01

    Studies indicate thoughtfully planned chants integrated with shared book reading help young children remember concepts and vocabulary they hear in literature, capture children's imagination, develop their rhyming acuity, and background knowledge, and increase their sense of story structure, understanding of story sequence, phonological awareness,…

  9. Shared-Reading Dynamics: Mothers' Question Use and the Verbal Participation of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinty, Anita S.; Justice, Laura M.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Gosse, Carolyn; Skibbe, Lori E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors used sequential analysis to explore bidirectional and dynamic dependencies between mothers' question use and children's verbal participation during shared reading. Method: The sample was composed of mothers and their preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI; n = 14). Each mother and child…

  10. Providing Preschool Foundations for Later Reading Comprehension: The Importance of and Ideas for Targeting Inferencing in Storybook-Sharing Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kleeck, Anne

    2008-01-01

    A significant gap in emerging literacy intervention with preschoolers relates to a skill that is crucial to later reading comprehension-the ability to engage in inferencing. This article presents a theoretical rationale for fostering inferential language during book sharing with preschool children, and provides research-based ideas for how this…

  11. Parents' Responses to a Kindergarten-Classroom Lending-Library Component Designed to Support Shared Reading at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Lori E.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Yu, SeonYeong; Favazza, Paddy C.; Mouzourou, Chryso; van Luling, Lisa; Park, Hyejin

    2016-01-01

    Teachers often recommend that families engage their children in shared book reading to support literacy learning at home. When teachers purposefully provide families with home literacy activities there are benefits for everyone involved. The purpose of this article is to report the findings of a study that examined parental participation and…

  12. Teaching Adolescents EFL by Integrating Think-Pair-Share and Reading Strategy Instruction: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ying-Chun; Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2015-01-01

    Think-Pair-Share, a cooperative discussion strategy developed by Frank Lyman and colleagues (1981), is often utilized in first language contexts but rarely in second language (L2) contexts. To investigate its usefulness in the L2 context, a traditional English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading class was transformed by integrating…

  13. A Rationale and Strategy for Adapting Dialogic Reading for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: RECALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalon, Kelly; Delano, Monica; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    As the number of children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) continues to rise, more children with ASD are accessing early childhood services. Early childhood educators need strategies that benefit a variety of learners served in these settings including those diagnosed with ASD. Shared reading is one routine that is typically used…

  14. Hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pan, Lei; Pieprzyk, Josef; Xiao, Fuyuan; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2016-01-01

    With prevalent attacks in communication, sharing a secret between communicating parties is an ongoing challenge. Moreover, it is important to integrate quantum solutions with classical secret sharing schemes with low computational cost for the real world use. This paper proposes a novel hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme, using an m-bonacci orbital angular momentum (OAM) pump, Lagrange interpolation polynomials, and reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. To be exact, we employ entangled states prepared by m-bonacci sequences to detect eavesdropping. Meanwhile, we encode m-bonacci sequences in Lagrange interpolation polynomials to generate the shares of a secret with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. The advantages of the proposed scheme is that it can detect eavesdropping without joint quantum operations, and permits secret sharing for an arbitrary but no less than threshold-value number of classical participants with much lower bandwidth. Also, in comparison with existing quantum secret sharing schemes, it still works when there are dynamic changes, such as the unavailability of some quantum channel, the arrival of new participants and the departure of participants. Finally, we provide security analysis of the new hybrid quantum secret sharing scheme and discuss its useful features for modern applications. PMID:27515908

  15. Hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pan, Lei; Pieprzyk, Josef; Xiao, Fuyuan; Orgun, Mehmet A.

    2016-01-01

    With prevalent attacks in communication, sharing a secret between communicating parties is an ongoing challenge. Moreover, it is important to integrate quantum solutions with classical secret sharing schemes with low computational cost for the real world use. This paper proposes a novel hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme, using an m-bonacci orbital angular momentum (OAM) pump, Lagrange interpolation polynomials, and reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. To be exact, we employ entangled states prepared by m-bonacci sequences to detect eavesdropping. Meanwhile, we encode m-bonacci sequences in Lagrange interpolation polynomials to generate the shares of a secret with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. The advantages of the proposed scheme is that it can detect eavesdropping without joint quantum operations, and permits secret sharing for an arbitrary but no less than threshold-value number of classical participants with much lower bandwidth. Also, in comparison with existing quantum secret sharing schemes, it still works when there are dynamic changes, such as the unavailability of some quantum channel, the arrival of new participants and the departure of participants. Finally, we provide security analysis of the new hybrid quantum secret sharing scheme and discuss its useful features for modern applications. PMID:27515908

  16. Children with Communication Impairments: Caregivers' and Teachers' Shared Book-Reading Quality and Children's Level of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Justice, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed two aims: First, to examine the quality of adult shared book-reading behaviors for teachers and caregivers of children with communication impairments (CI) and, second, to compare the level of child literacy engagement during the teacher-led (group) and caregiver-led (one-on-one) shared book-reading sessions. Sixteen children…

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship between Parenting, Parent-Child Shared Reading Practices, and Child Development in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Casey A.; Stacks, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between parenting, shared reading practices, and child development. Participants included 28 children (M = 24.66 months, SD = 8.41 months) and their parents. Measures included naturalistic observations of parenting and shared reading quality, assessments of child cognitive and language development, and home reading…

  18. Novel Word Learning of Preschoolers Enrolled in Head Start Regular and Bilingual Classrooms: Impact of Adult Vocabulary Noneliciting Questions during Shared Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study employed quantitative methods to investigate the impact of adult questioning styles on children's novel vocabulary acquisition during shared storybook reading. In an effort to examine adult qualitative variations in shared storybook readings, two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of noneliciting questions…

  19. For the Love of a Book: Wendy Fenner Shares Her Passion for Reading with Her Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Judy

    1998-01-01

    Describes the creative instructional techniques used to teach and encourage reading at Clackamas Elementary School, Oregon: reading-ability grouping across grades two through six; child-generated vocabulary; peer-to-peer reading; self-esteem reinforcement; and combined use of whole-language, phonics, and cueing strategies. Emphasizes use of…

  20. A Small-Scale Comparison of the Relative Impact of Dialogic and Shared Book Reading with an Adult Male on Boys' Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillinger, Claire; Wood, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Dialogic Reading (DR) is a form of interactive shared book reading which promotes children's active participation in reading. Previous studies have demonstrated that DR positively affects young children's literacy development. This small-scale study extends existing DR research to all-male dyads to examine whether DR has a greater impact…

  1. Adaptive Changes in Early and Late Blind: A fMRI Study of Braille Reading

    PubMed Central

    SNYDER, A. Z.; CONTURO, T. E.; AKBUDAK, E.; OLLINGER, J. M.; RAICHLE, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Braille reading depends on remarkable adaptations that connect the somatosensory system to language. We hypothesized that the pattern of cortical activations in blind individuals reading Braille would reflect these adaptations. Activations in visual (occipital-temporal), frontal-language, and somatosensory cortex in blind individuals reading Braille were examined for evidence of differences relative to previously reported studies of sighted subjects reading print or receiving tactile stimulation. Nine congenitally blind and seven late-onset blind subjects were studied with fMRI as they covertly performed verb generation in response to reading Braille embossed nouns. The control task was reading the nonlexical Braille string “######”. This study emphasized image analysis in individual subjects rather than pooled data. Group differences were examined by comparing magnitudes and spatial extent of activated regions first determined to be significant using the general linear model. The major adaptive change was robust activation of visual cortex despite the complete absence of vision in all subjects. This included foci in peri-calcarine, lingual, cuneus and fusiform cortex, and in the lateral and superior occipital gyri encompassing primary (V1), secondary (V2), and higher tier (VP, V4v, LO and possibly V3A) visual areas previously identified in sighted subjects. Subjects who never had vision differed from late blind subjects in showing even greater activity in occipital-temporal cortex, provisionally corresponding to V5/MT and V8. In addition, the early blind had stronger activation of occipital cortex located contralateral to the hand used for reading Braille. Responses in frontal and parietal cortex were nearly identical in both subject groups. There was no evidence of modifications in frontal cortex language areas (inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Surprisingly, there was also no evidence of an adaptive expansion of the somatosensory or

  2. Differential Effects of Two Spelling Procedures on Acquisition, Maintenance and Adaption to Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Gary L.; Dunne, Megan; Erkfritz, Karyn N.; Kivisto, Aaron; Lee, Nicole; Wierzbicki, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    An alternating treatments design was used to assess the effects of a constant time delay (CTD) procedure and a cover-copy-compare (CCC) procedure on three students' acquisition, subsequent maintenance, and adaptation (i.e., application) of acquired spelling words to reading passages. Students were randomly presented two trials of word lists from…

  3. An Adapted Dialogic Reading Program for Turkish Kindergarteners from Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergül, Cevriye; Akoglu, Gözde; Sarica, Ayse D.; Karaman, Gökçe; Tufan, Mümin; Bahap-Kudret, Zeynep; Zülfikar, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the Adapted Dialogic Reading Program (ADR) on the language and early literacy skills of Turkish kindergarteners from low socio-economic (SES) backgrounds. The effectiveness of ADR was investigated across six different treatment conditions including classroom and home based implementations in various…

  4. Genome-wide association study of shared components of reading disability and language impairment.

    PubMed

    Eicher, J D; Powers, N R; Miller, L L; Akshoomoff, N; Amaral, D G; Bloss, C S; Libiger, O; Schork, N J; Darst, B F; Casey, B J; Chang, L; Ernst, T; Frazier, J; Kaufmann, W E; Keating, B; Kenet, T; Kennedy, D; Mostofsky, S; Murray, S S; Sowell, E R; Bartsch, H; Kuperman, J M; Brown, T T; Hagler, D J; Dale, A M; Jernigan, T L; St Pourcain, B; Davey Smith, G; Ring, S M; Gruen, J R

    2013-11-01

    Written and verbal languages are neurobehavioral traits vital to the development of communication skills. Unfortunately, disorders involving these traits-specifically reading disability (RD) and language impairment (LI)-are common and prevent affected individuals from developing adequate communication skills, leaving them at risk for adverse academic, socioeconomic and psychiatric outcomes. Both RD and LI are complex traits that frequently co-occur, leading us to hypothesize that these disorders share genetic etiologies. To test this, we performed a genome-wide association study on individuals affected with both RD and LI in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The strongest associations were seen with markers in ZNF385D (OR = 1.81, P = 5.45 × 10(-7) ) and COL4A2 (OR = 1.71, P = 7.59 × 10(-7) ). Markers within NDST4 showed the strongest associations with LI individually (OR = 1.827, P = 1.40 × 10(-7) ). We replicated association of ZNF385D using receptive vocabulary measures in the Pediatric Imaging Neurocognitive Genetics study (P = 0.00245). We then used diffusion tensor imaging fiber tract volume data on 16 fiber tracts to examine the implications of replicated markers. ZNF385D was a predictor of overall fiber tract volumes in both hemispheres, as well as global brain volume. Here, we present evidence for ZNF385D as a candidate gene for RD and LI. The implication of transcription factor ZNF385D in RD and LI underscores the importance of transcriptional regulation in the development of higher order neurocognitive traits. Further study is necessary to discern target genes of ZNF385D and how it functions within neural development of fluent language. PMID:24024963

  5. The Relationship between Parent Report of Adaptive Behavior and Direct Assessment of Reading Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli. Joanne; Stevens, Kirsten; Trembath, David; Simpson, Ian Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to shed light on the profile of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A key aim was to examine the relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in these children. Method: The authors investigated children's reading ability using the…

  6. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  7. Experimental Evaluation of a Braille-Reading-Inspired Finger Motion Adaptive Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Braille reading is a complex process involving intricate finger-motion patterns and finger-rubbing actions across Braille letters for the stimulation of appropriate nerves. Although Braille reading is performed by smoothly moving the finger from left-to-right, research shows that even fluent reading requires right-to-left movements of the finger, known as “reversal”. Reversals are crucial as they not only enhance stimulation of nerves for correctly reading the letters, but they also show one to re-read the letters that were missed in the first pass. Moreover, it is known that reversals can be performed as often as in every sentence and can start at any location in a sentence. Here, we report experimental results on the feasibility of an algorithm that can render a machine to automatically adapt to reversal gestures of one’s finger. Through Braille-reading-analogous tasks, the algorithm is tested with thirty sighted subjects that volunteered in the study. We find that the finger motion adaptive algorithm (FMAA) is useful in achieving cooperation between human finger and the machine. In the presence of FMAA, subjects’ performance metrics associated with the tasks have significantly improved as supported by statistical analysis. In light of these encouraging results, preliminary experiments are carried out with five blind subjects with the aim to put the algorithm to test. Results obtained from carefully designed experiments showed that subjects’ Braille reading accuracy in the presence of FMAA was more favorable then when FMAA was turned off. Utilization of FMAA in future generation Braille reading devices thus holds strong promise. PMID:26849058

  8. Reading Test-Sentence Comprehension: An Adapted Version of Lobrot's Lecture 3 Test for Brazilian Portuguese.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Vilhena, Douglas; Sucena, Ana; Castro, São Luís; Pinheiro, Ângela Maria Vieira

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to analyse the linguistic structure of the Lobrot's Lecture 3 (L3) reading test and to describe the procedure for its adaptation to a Brazilian cultural-linguistic context. The resulting adapted version is called the Reading Test-Sentence Comprehension [Teste de Leitura: Compreensão de Sentenças (TELCS)] and was developed using the European Portuguese adaptation of L3 as a reference. The present study was conducted in seven steps: (1) classification of the response alternatives of L3 test; (2) adaptation of the original sentences into Brazilian Portuguese; (3) back-translation; (4) adaptation of the distractors from TELCS; (5) configuration of TELCS; (6) pilot study; and (7) validation and standardization. In comparison with L3, TELCS included new linguistic and structural variables, such as frequency of occurrence of the distractors, gender neutrality and position of the target words. The instrument can be used for a collective screening or individual clinical administration purposes to evaluate the reading ability of second-to-fifth-grade and 7-to-11-year-old students. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26767907

  9. Engaging Children with Autism in Shared Book Reading: Strategies for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury, Veronica P.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a developmental disability has been associated with failures in learning to read (Landgren, Kjellman, & Gillberg, 2003). Given that children with disabilities are at higher risk for reading difficulties, it is especially important that they receive repeated opportunities to develop emergent skills--particularly oral language,…

  10. Component Processes in Reading: Shared and Unique Variance in Serial and Isolated Naming Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica A. R.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Reading ability is comprised of several component processes. In particular, the connection between the visual and verbal systems has been demonstrated to play an important role in the reading process. The present study provides a review of the existing literature on the visual verbal connection as measured by two tasks, rapid serial naming and…

  11. Extending the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways for sub-national impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Absar, Syeda Mariya; Preston, Benjamin L.

    2015-05-25

    The exploration of alternative socioeconomic futures is an important aspect of understanding the potential consequences of climate change. While socioeconomic scenarios are common and, at times essential, tools for the impact, adaptation and vulnerability and integrated assessment modeling research communities, their approaches to scenario development have historically been quite distinct. However, increasing convergence of impact, adaptation and vulnerability and integrated assessment modeling research in terms of scales of analysis suggests there may be value in the development of a common framework for socioeconomic scenarios. The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways represents an opportunity for the development of such a common framework. However, the scales at which these global storylines have been developed are largely incommensurate with the sub-national scales at which impact, adaptation and vulnerability, and increasingly integrated assessment modeling, studies are conducted. Our objective for this study was to develop sub-national and sectoral extensions of the global SSP storylines in order to identify future socioeconomic challenges for adaptation for the U.S. Southeast. A set of nested qualitative socioeconomic storyline elements, integrated storylines, and accompanying quantitative indicators were developed through an application of the Factor-Actor-Sector framework. Finally, in addition to revealing challenges and opportunities associated with the use of the SSPs as a basis for more refined scenario development, this study generated sub-national storyline elements and storylines that can subsequently be used to explore the implications of alternative subnational socioeconomic futures for the assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation.

  12. [Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms shared between modern humans and neanderthals: adaptive convergence or evidence for interspecific hybridization?].

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    An analysis of the variability of the nucleotide sequences in the mitochondrial genome of modern humans, neanderthals, Denisovans, and other primates has shown that there are shared polymorphisms at positions 2758 and 7146 between modern Homo sapiens (in phylogenetic cluster L2'3'4'5'6) and Homo neanderthalensis (in the group of European neanderthals younger than 48000 years). It is suggested that the convergence may be due to adaptive changes in the mitochondrial genomes of modern humans and neanderthals or interspecific hybridization associated with mtDNA recombination. PMID:25508911

  13. [Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms shared between modern humans and neanderthals: adaptive convergence or evidence for interspecific hybridization?].

    PubMed

    Maliarchuk, B A

    2013-09-01

    An analysis of the variability of the nucleotide sequences in the mitochondrial genome of modern humans, neanderthals, Denisovans, and other primates has shown that there are shared polymorphisms at positions 2758 and 7146 between modern Homo sapiens (in phylogenetic cluster L2'3'4'5'6) and Homo neanderthalensis (in the group of European neanderthals younger than 48000 years). It is suggested that the convergence may be due to adaptive changes in the mitochondrial genomes of modern humans and neanderthals or interspecific hybridization associated with mtDNA recombination. PMID:25486780

  14. Persian adaptation of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale: a psychometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Baghaei, Purya; Hohensinn, Christine; Kubinger, Klaus D

    2014-04-01

    The validity and psychometric properties of a new Persian adaptation of the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale were investigated. The scale was translated into Persian and administered to 160 undergraduate students (131 women, 29 men; M age = 23.4 yr., SD = 4.3). Rasch model analysis on the scale's original 20 items revealed that the data do not fit the partial credit model. Principal components analysis identified three factors: one related to feelings of anxiety about reading, the second reflected the reverse-worded items, and the third related to general ideas about reading in a foreign language. In a re-analysis, the 12 items that loaded on the first factor showed a good fit with the partial credit model. PMID:24897892

  15. Adaptive working-memory training benefits reading, but not mathematics in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Karbach, Julia; Strobach, Tilo; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) capacity is highly correlated with general cognitive ability and has proven to be an excellent predictor for academic success. Given that WM can be improved by training, our aim was to test whether WM training benefited academic abilities in elementary-school children. We examined 28 participants (mean age = 8.3 years, SD = 0.4) in a pretest-training-posttest-follow-up design. Over 14 training sessions, children either performed adaptive WM training (training group, n = 14) or nonadaptive low-level training (active control group, n = 14) on the same tasks. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up at 3 months after posttest included a neurocognitive test battery (WM, task switching, inhibition) and standardized tests for math and reading abilities. Adaptive WM training resulted in larger training gains than nonadaptive low-level training. The benefits induced by the adaptive training transferred to an untrained WM task and a standardized test for reading ability, but not to task switching, inhibition, or performance on a standardized math test. Transfer to the untrained WM task was maintained over 3 months. The analysis of individual differences revealed compensatory effects with larger gains in children with lower WM and reading scores at pretest. These training and transfer effects are discussed against the background of cognitive processing resulting from WM span training and the nature of the intervention. PMID:24697256

  16. Effects of a Pre-Recorded Parent-Child Shared Reading Intervention on At-Risk Preschool Children's Phonological Awareness Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of an embedded parent-child shared reading intervention on children's phonological awareness skills. Seven children considered at-risk for reading difficulty listened to 6 pre-recorded children's books with embedded early literacy activities three times each with a parent. Children's…

  17. Meaning-Related and Print-Related Interactions between Preschoolers and Parents during Shared Book Reading and Their Associations with Emergent Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jisu; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    This study examined interactions between preschool children and parents during shared book reading by analyzing parental self-report data. Using confirmatory factor analytic procedures and structural equation modeling, this study developed a scale measuring meaning-related and print-related reading interactions and examined their associations with…

  18. Extending the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways for sub-national impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability studies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Absar, Syeda Mariya; Preston, Benjamin L.

    2015-05-25

    The exploration of alternative socioeconomic futures is an important aspect of understanding the potential consequences of climate change. While socioeconomic scenarios are common and, at times essential, tools for the impact, adaptation and vulnerability and integrated assessment modeling research communities, their approaches to scenario development have historically been quite distinct. However, increasing convergence of impact, adaptation and vulnerability and integrated assessment modeling research in terms of scales of analysis suggests there may be value in the development of a common framework for socioeconomic scenarios. The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways represents an opportunity for the development of such a common framework. However,more » the scales at which these global storylines have been developed are largely incommensurate with the sub-national scales at which impact, adaptation and vulnerability, and increasingly integrated assessment modeling, studies are conducted. Our objective for this study was to develop sub-national and sectoral extensions of the global SSP storylines in order to identify future socioeconomic challenges for adaptation for the U.S. Southeast. A set of nested qualitative socioeconomic storyline elements, integrated storylines, and accompanying quantitative indicators were developed through an application of the Factor-Actor-Sector framework. Finally, in addition to revealing challenges and opportunities associated with the use of the SSPs as a basis for more refined scenario development, this study generated sub-national storyline elements and storylines that can subsequently be used to explore the implications of alternative subnational socioeconomic futures for the assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation.« less

  19. Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Jeremy, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    A collection of articles reflecting the underlying concern of British contributors with continuity--conceiving reading and learning as a whole throughout the school years--comprises this special issue of "English in Education." Specific topics treated are: "What Children Learn in Learning to Read" by R. Morris; "Reading without Primers" by W.…

  20. AAC Modeling with the iPad during Shared Storybook Reading Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Mason, Linda H.

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study describes an intervention package, MODELER for Read and Talk, designed to provide enriched language interaction for children with complex communication needs who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). MODELER (Model, Encourage, Respond) includes (a) modeling AAC as you speak, (b) encouraging communication…

  1. An Interview with Cathy Fowler about Sharing a Love of Reading through Book Raps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strangman, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    Includes an interview with Cathy Fowler, a Year 7 teacher at Kawungan State School in Queensland, Australia. Explains that Cathy is a participant and coordinator of the extremely popular Harry Potter Book Rap, a guided Internet book discussion among students all over the world. Discusses how this activity fueled her students' love for reading. (PM)

  2. Vocabulary Acquisition without Adult Explanations in Repeated Shared Book Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…

  3. Comprehension Strategy Instruction during Parent-Child Shared Reading: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a series of workshops and at-home activities designed to teach parents to integrate comprehension strategy instruction into read-alouds with their pre-kindergarten-aged children. Twenty parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to condition and parents in the experimental (workshop) condition were taught to…

  4. As Stories Become Familiar: Mother-Child Conversations during Shared Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Duncan; Adamson, Lauren B.; Deckner, Deborah F.

    2005-01-01

    The interactions of 24-, 30-, and 36-month-old children and their mothers reading two initially unfamiliar books were observed three times over a 2-week period. Coding characterized both the content and the role of their utterances as they discussed the stories. Utterance content depended on child age but changed little with increasing story…

  5. Child Miscues and Parental Feedback during Shared Alphabet Book Reading and Relations with Child Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bronwen J.; Evans, Mary Ann; Reynolds, Kailey Pearl

    2010-01-01

    We studied 52 parent-child dyads reading an alphabet book to examine the nature of children's miscues and parents' feedback, and whether miscues and feedback were related to each other and to preliteracy skills. Letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and expressive vocabulary were assessed in 5-year-old nonreaders who were also audiotaped…

  6. Adapting federated cyberinfrastructure for shared data collection facilities in structural biology

    PubMed Central

    Stokes-Rees, Ian; Levesque, Ian; Murphy, Frank V.; Yang, Wei; Deacon, Ashley; Sliz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Early stage experimental data in structural biology is generally unmaintained and inaccessible to the public. It is increasingly believed that this data, which forms the basis for each macromolecular structure discovered by this field, must be archived and, in due course, published. Furthermore, the widespread use of shared scientific facilities such as synchrotron beamlines complicates the issue of data storage, access and movement, as does the increase of remote users. This work describes a prototype system that adapts existing federated cyberinfra­structure technology and techniques to significantly improve the operational environment for users and administrators of synchrotron data collection facilities used in structural biology. This is achieved through software from the Virtual Data Toolkit and Globus, bringing together federated users and facilities from the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, the Advanced Photon Source, the Open Science Grid, the SBGrid Consortium and Harvard Medical School. The performance and experience with the prototype provide a model for data management at shared scientific facilities. PMID:22514186

  7. Ambient illumination revisited: A new adaptation-based approach for optimizing medical imaging reading environments

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, Amarpreet S.; Samei, Ehsan

    2007-01-15

    Ambient lighting in soft-copy reading rooms is currently kept at low values to preserve contrast rendition in the dark regions of a medical image. Low illuminance levels, however, create inadequate viewing conditions and may also cause eye strain. This eye strain may be potentially attributed to notable variations in the luminance adaptation state of the reader's eyes when moving the gaze intermittently between the brighter display and darker surrounding surfaces. This paper presents a methodology to minimize this variation and optimize the lighting conditions of reading rooms by exploiting the properties of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with low diffuse reflection coefficients and high luminance ratio. First, a computational model was developed to determine a global luminance adaptation value, L{sub adp}, when viewing a medical image on display. The model is based on the diameter of the pupil size, which depends on the luminance of the observed object. Second, this value was compared with the luminance reflected off surrounding surfaces, L{sub s}, under various conditions of room illuminance, E, different values of diffuse reflection coefficients of surrounding surfaces, R{sub s}, and calibration settings of a typical LCD. The results suggest that for typical luminance settings of current LCDs, it is possible to raise ambient illumination to minimize differences in eye adaptation, potentially reducing visual fatigue while also complying with the TG18 specifications for controlled contrast rendition. Specifically, room illumination in the 75-150 lux range and surface diffuse reflection coefficients in the practical range of 0.13-0.22 sr{sup -1} provide an ideal setup for typical LCDs. Future LCDs with lower diffuse reflectivity and with higher inherent luminance ratios can provide further improvement of ergonomic viewing conditions in reading rooms.

  8. Reducing False Negative Reads in RFID Data Streams Using an Adaptive Sliding-Window Approach

    PubMed Central

    Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D. M.; Vermaak, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:22666027

  9. Fractional water allocation and reservoir capacity sharing concepts: An adaptation for the Komati Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlamini, Enoch M.; Dhlamini, Sidney; Mthimkhulu, Sindy

    This paper presents an adaptation of fractional water allocation and reservoir capacity sharing (FWARCS) concepts for application in the Komati Basin, a river system shared between South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. Many traditional methods for allocating water are based on volume-per-unit-time allocation that is supplied at some level of assurance and managed using priority-based reservoir and river system operating rules, as well as on the “use it or lose it” principle, which is considered exclusive by water users as it leaves them out of the management of their water allocations. In the Komati Basin, these traditional methods of water allocation led to frequent conflicts among users and with water managers. However, the introduction of the modified FWARCS, which assigns available water in the system to water users according to the proportions of their water entitlements and allows water to be banked in reservoirs, appears to be a solution to some of these problems. This method allows water users to decide when and how much of that entitlement they may use. Since the implementation of the modified FWARCS technique in the Komati Basin in 2002, the regulation, transparency and efficiency of operating the system improved and subsequently the number of disputes over water has declined. South Africa improved from an overuse of 8.2 Mm 3 in 2002/03 water year to realize a saving of 29.5 Mm 3 in 2005/06. Similarly, Swaziland improved from an overuse of 3.9 Mm 3 in 2002/03 to achieve a saving of 14.6 Mm 3 in 2005/06. Users have recognised and embraced the transparency and flexibility of the modified FWARCS. They choose, as the need and opportunity arise, when and how much water they utilise, whether to “bank” and/or “trade” the water they save subject to the conditions of their entitlements. The implementation of the modified FWARCS was also made successful by the existence of proper institutional structures, appropriate decision support tools, good water

  10. The Interaction of Child-Parent Shared Reading with an Augmented Reality (AR) Picture Book and Parents' Conceptions of AR Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Following a previous study (Cheng & Tsai, 2014. "Computers & Education"), this study aimed to probe the interaction of child-parent shared reading with the augmented reality (AR) picture book in more depth. A series of sequential analyses were thus conducted to infer the behavioral transition diagrams and visualize the continuity…

  11. Relations among the Frequency of Shared Reading and 4-Year-Old Children's Vocabulary, Morphological and Syntax Comprehension, and Narrative Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senechal, Monique; Pagan, Stephanie; Lever, Rosemary; Ouellette, Gene P.

    2008-01-01

    Books can be a rich source of learning for children and adults alike. In the present study, the contribution of shared reading and parent literacy to a variety of child outcomes was tested. Child outcomes included measures of expressive vocabulary, morphological and syntax comprehension, and narrative ability (story grammar, cohesion, and language…

  12. Bridging Academic Discourse for Emergent Bilingual Preschoolers: A Spanish-English Dual Language Teacher's Instructional Practices and Extratextual Talk during Shared Readings across Two Different Genres and Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sembiante, Sabrina F.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines the nature of a dual language preschool teacher's instructional practices and extratextual talk during shared-book reading practices with two different genres of books in Spanish and English. Specifically, I explore the interpersonal, ideational, and textual features of one teacher's talk in English- and…

  13. Coordinated Translanguaging Pedagogy as Distributed Cognition: A Case Study of Two Dual Language Bilingual Education Preschool Coteachers' Languaging Practices during Shared Book Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontier, Ryan; Gort, Mileidis

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how a pair of Spanish/English dual language bilingual education (DLBE) preschool teachers enacted their bilingualism while working cohesively and simultaneously toward common instructional goals. We drew on classroom video data, field notes, and other relevant artifacts collected weekly during shared readings of English- and…

  14. Decision support for hospital bed management using adaptable individual length of stay estimations and shared resources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Elective patient admission and assignment planning is an important task of the strategic and operational management of a hospital and early on became a central topic of clinical operations research. The management of hospital beds is an important subtask. Various approaches have been proposed, involving the computation of efficient assignments with regard to the patients’ condition, the necessity of the treatment, and the patients’ preferences. However, these approaches are mostly based on static, unadaptable estimates of the length of stay and, thus, do not take into account the uncertainty of the patient’s recovery. Furthermore, the effect of aggregated bed capacities have not been investigated in this context. Computer supported bed management, combining an adaptable length of stay estimation with the treatment of shared resources (aggregated bed capacities) has not yet been sufficiently investigated. The aim of our work is: 1) to define a cost function for patient admission taking into account adaptable length of stay estimations and aggregated resources, 2) to define a mathematical program formally modeling the assignment problem and an architecture for decision support, 3) to investigate four algorithmic methodologies addressing the assignment problem and one base-line approach, and 4) to evaluate these methodologies w.r.t. cost outcome, performance, and dismissal ratio. Methods The expected free ward capacity is calculated based on individual length of stay estimates, introducing Bernoulli distributed random variables for the ward occupation states and approximating the probability densities. The assignment problem is represented as a binary integer program. Four strategies for solving the problem are applied and compared: an exact approach, using the mixed integer programming solver SCIP; and three heuristic strategies, namely the longest expected processing time, the shortest expected processing time, and random choice. A baseline approach

  15. Teaching College Level Content and Reading Comprehension Skills Simultaneously via an Artificially Intelligent Adaptive Computerized Instructional System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Roger D.; Belden, Noelle

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a behavioral model for conceptualizing advanced reading comprehension as a "higher order" behavior class. Also discussed are strategies and tactics utilized by an artificially intelligent adaptive tutoring and testing software system designed to shape such comprehension skills while also teaching subject-specific "content" to…

  16. Enhancing children's vegetable consumption using vegetable-promoting picture books. The impact of interactive shared reading and character-product congruence.

    PubMed

    de Droog, Simone M; Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated whether and how a picture book promoting carrots can increase young children's carrot consumption. One hundred and four children (aged 4-6years) participated in shared reading sessions using the book on five consecutive days in school. These children were assigned randomly to one of four experimental conditions. In a 2×2 between-subjects design, the reading style and character in the book were manipulated. The reading style was either passive (listening to the story) or interactive (also answering questions about the story). The character in the book fitted either conceptually well with carrots (a rabbit) or not (a turtle). Compared to a baseline group of 56 children who were not exposed to the book, the children in the experimental groups consumed almost twice as much carrots (in proportion to other foods consumed), F(1,159)=7.08, p<.01. Results suggest that picture books are particularly effective when children are actively involved, answering questions about the story. Young children seem to enjoy this interactive shared reading style, triggering positive feelings that increase children's liking and consumption of the healthy food promoted in the book. PMID:24216486

  17. Shared Book Reading and Head Start Preschoolers' Vocabulary Learning: The Role of Book-Related Discussion and Curricular Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.; Erhart, Amber C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the ways in which the language that Head Start teachers used during book reading, as well as the extent to which they made explicit connections between book reading and other instructional activities, were linked to preschoolers' vocabulary development. Participants included 10 Head Start teachers and 153 children in their…

  18. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Increasing Young Children's Contact with Print during Shared Reading--Longitudinal Effects on Literacy Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the impact of Project STAR (Sit Together and Read) on literacy skills of preschool students. Project STAR is a program in which teachers read books aloud to their students and use instructional techniques designed to encourage children to pay attention to print within storybooks. Eighty-five preschool classrooms were randomly…

  19. WWC Review of the Report "Increasing Young Children's Contact with Print during Shared Reading: Longitudinal Effects on Literacy Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the impact of the "Project STAR" ("Sit Together and Read") reading program on the literacy skills of preschool students. Researchers randomly assigned 85 preschool classrooms in Ohio to one of three study groups at the start of the 2004-05 or 2005-06 school years: (1) A high-dose intervention group, in which teachers used…

  20. Selecting Learning Tasks: Effects of Adaptation and Shared Control on Learning Efficiency and Task Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Complex skill acquisition by performing authentic learning tasks is constrained by limited working memory capacity [Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. "Science, 255", 556-559]. To prevent cognitive overload, task difficulty and support of each newly selected learning task can be adapted to the learner's competence level and perceived task…

  1. Good/Bad Girls Read Together: Pre-Adolescent Girls' Co-Authorship of Feminine Subject Positions during a Shared Reading Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enciso, Patricia E.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses reading with pre-teens Francine Pascal's "Sweet Valley Twins: Best Friends," one of a series of pre-romance novels featuring identical twin sisters. Interviews six girls using the Symbolic Representation Interview (SRI) about the good girl/bad girl dichotomy in novels and other media. Provides comments by Tom Romano and Diana Mitchell.…

  2. The Impact of Reading to Engage Children with Autism in Language and Learning (RECALL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalon, Kelly; Martinez, Jose R.; Shannon, Darbianne; Butcher, Colleen; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    A multiple baseline across participants design was used to investigate the impact of RECALL (Reading to Engage Children With Autism in Language and Learning) on the correct, unprompted responding and initiations of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). RECALL is an adapted shared reading intervention based on dialogic reading. RECALL…

  3. Effects of a Peer-Delivered System of Least Prompts Intervention and Adapted Science Read-Alouds on Listening Comprehension for Participants with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Melissa E.; Browder, Diane M.; Jimenez, Bree A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a peer-delivered system of least prompts intervention and adapted grade-level science read-alouds on correct listening comprehension responses for participants with moderate intellectual disability. The intervention package included prompts in which selected text was read again. Participants directed the…

  4. Effect of the Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend Intervention on the Reading Achievement of Middle and High School Readers Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirmer, Barbara R.; Schaffer, Laura; Therrien, William J.; Schirmer, Todd N.

    2016-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine if the Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (RAAC) repeated reading fluency intervention is effective in improving the reading achievement of deaf middle school and high school students. Participants included six middle school students and eight high school students. We found consistently good comprehension…

  5. Shared Genetic Signals of Hypoxia Adaptation in Drosophila and in High-Altitude Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Aashish R.; Zhou, Dan; Brown, Christopher D.; Kreitman, Martin; Haddad, Gabriel G.; White, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to withstand low oxygen (hypoxia tolerance) is a polygenic and mechanistically conserved trait that has important implications for both human health and evolution. However, little is known about the diversity of genetic mechanisms involved in hypoxia adaptation in evolving populations. We used experimental evolution and whole-genome sequencing in Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of natural variation in adaptation to hypoxia. Using a generalized linear mixed model we identified significant allele frequency differences between three independently evolved hypoxia-tolerant populations and normoxic control populations for approximately 3,800 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Around 50% of these variants are clustered in 66 distinct genomic regions. These regions contain genes that are differentially expressed between hypoxia-tolerant and normoxic populations and several of the differentially expressed genes are associated with metabolic processes. Additional genes associated with respiratory and open tracheal system development also show evidence of directional selection. RNAi-mediated knockdown of several candidate genes’ expression significantly enhanced survival in severe hypoxia. Using genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism data from four high-altitude human populations—Sherpas, Tibetans, Ethiopians, and Andeans, we found that several human orthologs of the genes under selection in flies are also likely under positive selection in all four high-altitude human populations. Thus, our results indicate that selection for hypoxia tolerance can act on standing genetic variation in similar genes and pathways present in organisms diverged by hundreds of millions of years. PMID:26576852

  6. What Are Reading Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are reading disorders? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... for more information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of ...

  7. The change probability effect: incidental learning, adaptability, and shared visual working memory resources.

    PubMed

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2011-12-01

    Statistical properties in the visual environment can be used to improve performance on visual working memory (VWM) tasks. The current study examined the ability to incidentally learn that a change is more likely to occur to a particular feature dimension (shape, color, or location) and use this information to improve change detection performance for that dimension (the change probability effect). Participants completed a change detection task in which one change type was more probable than others. Change probability effects were found for color and shape changes, but not location changes, and intentional strategies did not improve the effect. Furthermore, the change probability effect developed and adapted to new probability information quickly. Finally, in some conditions, an improvement in change detection performance for a probable change led to an impairment in change detection for improbable changes. PMID:21963330

  8. A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique…

  9. "If I Point, Do They Look?": The Impact of Attention-Orientation Strategies on Text Exploration during Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy-Charland, Annie; Perron, Melanie; Boulard, Jessica; Chamberland, Justin; Hoffman, Nichola

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of pointing to the words and using highlighted text by examining eye movements when children in preschool, Grade 1 and 2 were read storybooks of two levels of difficulty. For all children, pointing to and highlighting the text was observed to increase the amount of time and number of fixations on the printed…

  10. Adapting the human-computer interface for reading literacy and computer skill to facilitate collection of information directly from patients.

    PubMed

    Lobach, David F; Arbanas, Jennifer M; Mishra, Dharani D; Campbell, Marci; Wildemuth, Barbara M

    2004-01-01

    Clinical information collected directly from patients is critical to the practice of medicine. Past efforts to collect this information using computers have had limited utility because these efforts required users to be facile with the computerized information collecting system. In this paper we describe the design, development, and function of a computer system that uses recent technology to overcome the limitations of previous computer-based data collection tools by adapting the human-computer interface to the native language, reading literacy, and computer skills of the user. Specifically, our system uses a numerical representation of question content, multimedia, and touch screen technology to adapt the computer interface to the native language, reading literacy, and computer literacy of the user. In addition, the system supports health literacy needs throughout the data collection session and provides contextually relevant disease-specific education to users based on their responses to the questions. The system has been successfully used in an academically affiliated family medicine clinic and in an indigent adult medicine clinic. PMID:15360991

  11. Integrating Functional and Academic Goals into Literacy Instruction for Adolescents with Significant Cognitive Disabilities through Shared Story Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Carly A.; Leko, Melinda M.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple baseline single-case study examined the integration of functional and academic goals in an individualized story-based lesson plan incorporating an adapted text on grade level content for adolescent students with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities across three staff--student dyads. The research team collected data on teacher…

  12. Read Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This manual, designed to help public libraries in Arizona to plan their summer reading programs for children, celebrates the 25th anniversary of the Arizona Reading Program. The material in the manual is prepared for libraries to adapt for their own uses. Chapters of the manual include: (1) Introductory Materials; (2) Goals, Objectives and…

  13. Re-Fitting for a Different Purpose: A Case Study of Item Writer Practices in Adapting Source Texts for a Test of Academic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anthony; Hawkey, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The important yet under-researched role of item writers in the selection and adaptation of texts for high-stakes reading tests is investigated through a case study involving a group of trained item writers working on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS). In the first phase of the study, participants were invited to reflect in…

  14. Preschool Children's Use of Thematic Vocabulary during Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Storie, Sloan

    2016-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the expressive use of thematic vocabulary by three preschool children with developmental delays during Dialogic Reading, a shared book reading intervention, and Activity-Based Intervention, a naturalistic play-based teaching method. The design was replicated across two early childhood…

  15. "Este Libro Es Mi Historia": Mother-Child Interactions during Storybook Reading in a Mexican-American Household.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyak, Patrick

    A study explored the storybook reading experiences between Ms. Garza and her children. A broad conception of the zone of proximal development, involving use, adaptation, and transformation of culturally shaped tools in the process of shared activity, provides the framework for examining this particular Mexican-American family's reading behavior.…

  16. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  17. Cosmetology Reading Strategies. 1980 Vocational Reading Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, L. Jay; And Others

    Cosmetology Reading Strategies is one of five instructional guides in the Reading Strategies in Vocational Education Series. Developed to assist teachers working with students considered disadvantaged because of reading deficiency, the guide contains several strategies, suitable for adaptation, specifically related to cosmetology instruction. Each…

  18. Reading Games: Close Viewing and Guided Playing of Multimedia Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozdras, Deborah; Joseph, Christine; Schneider, Jenifer Jasinski

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe how literacy strategies can be adapted for playing (and reading) video games--games that embed disciplinary content in multimedia texts. Using close viewing and guided playing strategies with online games and simulations, we share ideas for helping students navigate and comprehend multimedia texts in order to learn…

  19. Determinants of Reading Achievement of Immigrant Adolescents: The Role of Demographic and Psycho-Cultural Factors in School Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Pedro R.; Zady, Madelon F.

    Following a previous study's finding that demographic and psychosocial factors mediated the effect of ethnicity in predicting standardized reading performance, this study examined the effects of these predictors on immigrant adolescents' reading achievement. It investigated the extent to which Asian-origin and Spanish-speaking groups differed in…

  20. Reading Text While Driving

    PubMed Central

    Horrey, William J.; Hoffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we investigated how drivers adapt secondary-task initiation and time-sharing behavior when faced with fluctuating driving demands. Background Reading text while driving is particularly detrimental; however, in real-world driving, drivers actively decide when to perform the task. Method In a test track experiment, participants were free to decide when to read messages while driving along a straight road consisting of an area with increased driving demands (demand zone) followed by an area with low demands. A message was made available shortly before the vehicle entered the demand zone. We manipulated the type of driving demands (baseline, narrow lane, pace clock, combined), message format (no message, paragraph, parsed), and the distance from the demand zone when the message was available (near, far). Results In all conditions, drivers started reading messages (drivers’ first glance to the display) before entering or before leaving the demand zone but tended to wait longer when faced with increased driving demands. While reading messages, drivers looked more or less off road, depending on types of driving demands. Conclusions For task initiation, drivers avoid transitions from low to high demands; however, they are not discouraged when driving demands are already elevated. Drivers adjust time-sharing behavior according to driving demands while performing secondary tasks. Nonetheless, such adjustment may be less effective when total demands are high. Application This study helps us to understand a driver’s role as an active controller in the context of distracted driving and provides insights for developing distraction interventions. PMID:25850162

  1. Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for Homeless Women: Engaging the Community in Shared Decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Cederbaum, Julie A.; Song, Ahyoung; Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    As interest grows in the diffusion of evidence-based interventions (EBIs), there is increasing concern about how to mitigate implementation challenges; this paper concerns adapting an EBI for homeless women. Complementing earlier focus groups with homeless women, homeless service providers (n = 32) were engaged in focus groups to assess capacity, needs, and barriers with implementation of EBIs. Deductive analyses of data led to the selection of four EBIs. Six consensus groups were then undertaken; three each with homeless women (n = 24) and homeless service providers (n = 21). The selected EBI was adapted and pretested with homeless women (n = 9) and service providers (n = 6). The structured consensus group process provided great utility and affirmed the expertise of homeless women and service providers as experts in their domain. Engaging providers in the selection process reduced the structural barriers within agencies as obstacles to diffusion. PMID:25418227

  2. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  3. The Potency of "READS" to Inform Students' Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik

    2012-01-01

    This paper shares an initiative conducted in Malaysia in terms of knowledge to gauge students' Reading Age and to inform teachers of their students' reading progress and learning. Ensuring teachers understand the needs of students' reading ability and preparing students to read and comprehend texts are the two most fundamental parallel tasks in…

  4. Creating an Adaptive Technology Using a Cheminformatics System to Read Aloud Chemical Compound Names for People with Visual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamijo, Haruo; Morii, Shingo; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Toyooka, Naoki; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Hirobayashi, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Various tactile methods, such as Braille, have been employed to enhance the recognition ability of chemical structures by individuals with visual disabilities. However, it is unknown whether reading aloud the names of chemical compounds would be effective in this regard. There are no systems currently available using an audio component to assist…

  5. READING MANUAL, A GUIDEBOOK FOR ILLINOIS WORKSHOPS IN READING REMEDIATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COVEY, CATHERINE

    THE IMPORTANCE OF ADAPTING READING INSTRUCTION TO EACH CHILD'S NEEDS IS STRESSED IN THIS HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS OF REMEDIAL READING. INFORMATION IS ORGANIZED AROUND SIX TOPICS--(1) THE NATURE OF THE READING PROCESS, (2) CRITERIA FOR A GOOD ELEMENTARY READING PROGRAM, (3) REMEDIAL READERS, THE SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES (PHYSICAL, INTELLECTUAL,…

  6. Now Johnny CAN Learn To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsted, Joy

    "Now Johnny CAN Learn to Read" is an easy-to-read book intended for anyone involved in helping others learn to read. An initial section of the book focuses on how to make reading a socially stimulating, successful activity. In this section, viewpoints are shared from a child and a parent, and a reading specialist tells of the successes which…

  7. Teaching Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

  8. Celebrate Summer with Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    School is out and the summer is full of both official and unofficial holidays that prompt us to enjoy science and the profession of sharing it. As in past years, the reviewers and editors of "NSTA Recommends"--ready and willing to share their enthusiasm for reading with you--have been gathering suggestions for the summer. So along with your beach…

  9. Hints on Sharing Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Mary E., Comp.; Horne, Ulysses G., Comp.

    Based on the realization that each child must be given the opportunity to develop as a unique individual and that exposure to books expands a child's world, stimulating his creative thinking and his desire for new experiences, this booklet presents in outline form a variety of suggestions for encouraging children to share the books they have read.…

  10. Genes for Reading and Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Timothy C.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews research on the behavioral and molecular genetics of reading and, where available, spelling. Recent research is summarized, suggesting that reading and spelling appear to share a common genetic basis, and that dyslexia lies on a genetic continuum with normal variance in reading skill. Research also suggests that while many of…

  11. Can the computer replace the adult for storybook reading? A meta-analysis on the effects of multimedia stories as compared to sharing print stories with an adult

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Zsofia K.; Swart, Elise K.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2014-01-01

    The present meta-analysis challenges the notion that young children necessarily need adult scaffolding in order to understand a narrative story and learn words as long as they encounter optimally designed multimedia stories. Including 29 studies and 1272 children, multimedia stories were found more beneficial than encounters with traditional story materials that did not include the help of an adult for story comprehension (g+ = 0.40, k = 18) as well as vocabulary (g+ = 0.30, k = 11). However, no significant differences were found between the learning outcomes of multimedia stories and sharing traditional print-like stories with an adult. It is concluded that multimedia features like animated illustrations, background music and sound effects provide similar scaffolding of story comprehension and word learning as an adult. PMID:25520684

  12. Can the computer replace the adult for storybook reading? A meta-analysis on the effects of multimedia stories as compared to sharing print stories with an adult.

    PubMed

    Takacs, Zsofia K; Swart, Elise K; Bus, Adriana G

    2014-01-01

    The present meta-analysis challenges the notion that young children necessarily need adult scaffolding in order to understand a narrative story and learn words as long as they encounter optimally designed multimedia stories. Including 29 studies and 1272 children, multimedia stories were found more beneficial than encounters with traditional story materials that did not include the help of an adult for story comprehension (g+ = 0.40, k = 18) as well as vocabulary (g+ = 0.30, k = 11). However, no significant differences were found between the learning outcomes of multimedia stories and sharing traditional print-like stories with an adult. It is concluded that multimedia features like animated illustrations, background music and sound effects provide similar scaffolding of story comprehension and word learning as an adult. PMID:25520684

  13. Education: Is Reading Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes arguments in favor of teaching people to read. Arguments include that television and radio cannot help individuals adapt and retrain quickly in their jobs; promotion in the armed services and elsewhere depends upon a certain degree of reading expertise; and people are unable to fill out income tax and other forms if they do not possess…

  14. Book Clubs in Developmental Reading: Building Reading Comprehension, Fostering Reading Enjoyment, and Engaging Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The use of book clubs in college developmental reading classes is an effective way to encourage reluctant readers to build and strengthen reading skills, foster reading enjoyment, and engage students. In addition, book clubs build a sense of community within the classroom as the students converse and share their interpretations of the reading…

  15. Dialogic Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Dialogic reading is an interactive shared picture-book reading practice designed to enhance young children's language and literacy skills. During the shared reading practice, the adult and the child switch roles so that the child learns to become the storyteller with the assistance of the adult, who functions as an active listener and questioner.…

  16. Dialogic Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Dialogic Reading" is an interactive shared picture book reading practice designed to enhance young children's language and literacy skills. During the shared reading practice, the adult and the child switch roles so that the child learns to become the storyteller with the assistance of the adult, who functions as an active listener and…

  17. Developing Reading Skills: A Practical Guide to Reading Comprehension Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grellet, Francoise

    This book is presented for teachers who do not use a reading course and who wish to produce their own material as well as for individuals developing materials for tailor-made courses. Various types of reading comprehension exercises are described and classified. The exercise-types suggested can be adapted for all reading levels. The book begins…

  18. Desire-state attribution: Benefits of a novel paradigm using the food-sharing behavior of Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius).

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Cheke, Lucy G; Shaw, Rachael C; Legg, Edward W; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have investigated the possibility that Eurasian jay food sharing might rely on desire-state attribution. The female's desire for a particular type of food can be decreased by sating her on it (specific satiety) and the food sharing paradigm can be used to test whether the male's sharing pattern reflects the female's current desire. Our previous findings show that the male shares the food that the female currently wants. Here, we consider 3 simpler mechanisms that might explain the male's behavior: behavior reading, lack of self-other differentiation and behavioral rules. We illustrate how we have already addressed these issues and how our food sharing paradigm can be further adapted to answer outstanding questions. The flexibility with which the food sharing paradigm can be applied to rule out alternative mechanisms makes it a useful tool to study desire-state attribution in jays and other species that share food. PMID:27195059

  19. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  20. Reading(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Geoffrey; Summerfield, Judith

    Developed for college English courses, this book presents selections of poetry, short stories, and commentary intended to invite different ways of reading and interpreting literature. An introduction provides an overview of the book's content, as well as a discussion of how to read. The first section, "Entering a Language," considers the…

  1. Making Reading Important in Kids' Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Kristine E.

    1984-01-01

    Students' personal responses to literature provide the focus that makes a reading curriculum effective. Teachers can create a classroom that instills positive attitudes towards reading by providing a variety of reading materials, encouraging students to share responses, and by not using literature as a camouflage for teaching reading skills. (DF)

  2. Reading Strategies to Improve Writing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulakowski, Carole

    Reading instructors have valuable expertise to share with writing instructors to improve the writing ability of students. Writing instructors often give reading assignments to provide topics for students' essays or discussion, without understanding the reading process. A reading teacher can (1) show the writing instructor how to determine the…

  3. MedlinePlus FAQ: Easy-to-Read Documents

    MedlinePlus

    ... are easy to read and what is their reading level? To use the sharing features on this ... all materials on MedlinePlus are at the same reading level. MedlinePlus does not decide the literacy level ...

  4. Concurrent reading while writing

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of asynchronous processes reading shared data while the data are being modified by another process is considered. This problem differs from the standard readers/writers problem in that concurrent reading while writing is allowed. The model used here strongly limits the use and size of the shared variables. If multiple copies of the shared data are allowed, then simple, efficient solutions are found. In general, solutions which are more time efficient because they avoid waiting are seen to require more copies of the shared data. The number of copies used by all algorithms is shown to be the best possible. The main solution demonstrates that any system of processes which uses large distributed variables can be strongly simulated by a system which uses only binary distributed variables. 9 references.

  5. Reading Faster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

  6. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A. Compton); "Reading Recovery in Arizona--A…

  7. The Style of Reading and Reading in Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeece, Pauline Davey

    2007-01-01

    Adult read aloud book activities, including literature selections, have significant impact on children's language learning opportunities. The style in which books are orally shared with children is also important. Detailed examination of adult-child book reading conversations has demonstrated a variety of teaching and learning approaches in the…

  8. Shared Intentionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael; Carpenter, Malinda

    2007-01-01

    We argue for the importance of processes of shared intentionality in children's early cognitive development. We look briefly at four important social-cognitive skills and how they are transformed by shared intentionality. In each case, we look first at a kind of individualistic version of the skill--as exemplified most clearly in the behavior of…

  9. Reading and Writing Literary Genres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Kathleen; Karnowski, Lee

    This book presents an interactive model using quality children's literature as the foundation for teaching reading and writing in grades 3 through 6, based on the premise that reading and writing are complementary processes through the shared goal of constructing meaning. Four main genres (fiction, traditional literature, fantasy, and non-fiction)…

  10. The Joy of Reading Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwood, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Reading groups or book clubs have become increasingly popular in recent years, with many libraries, bookshops and workplaces hosting meetings, while a wealth of support is available online. They provide a chance to read, share opinions, chat and have fun--each one will be unique in how it works. Discussing books can help to reinforce, change or…

  11. Shared Attention.

    PubMed

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world. PMID:26385997

  12. Reading Comics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  13. Reading Rituals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    The Ogden, Utah schools have used the mandates of the federal Reading First grant program to transform reading instruction and student achievement in low-performing schools. Reading First was approved by Congress in 2001 under the No Child Left Behind Act to bring scientifically based reading methods and materials to struggling schools. The $1…

  14. Home Book Reading and Reading Achievement in EU Countries: The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2011 (PIRLS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araújo, Luisa; Costa, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Home shared book reading during the preschool years is a strong predictor of students' reading achievement in primary school, and, according to Sénéchal (2012), it can benefit more children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. This study examines the association between frequency of book reading before the start of compulsory education…

  15. A Pleiotropy-Informed Bayesian False Discovery Rate Adapted to a Shared Control Design Finds New Disease Associations From GWAS Summary Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Liley, James; Wallace, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with many traits and diseases. However, at existing sample sizes, these variants explain only part of the estimated heritability. Leverage of GWAS results from related phenotypes may improve detection without the need for larger datasets. The Bayesian conditional false discovery rate (cFDR) constitutes an upper bound on the expected false discovery rate (FDR) across a set of SNPs whose p values for two diseases are both less than two disease-specific thresholds. Calculation of the cFDR requires only summary statistics and have several advantages over traditional GWAS analysis. However, existing methods require distinct control samples between studies. Here, we extend the technique to allow for some or all controls to be shared, increasing applicability. Several different SNP sets can be defined with the same cFDR value, and we show that the expected FDR across the union of these sets may exceed expected FDR in any single set. We describe a procedure to establish an upper bound for the expected FDR among the union of such sets of SNPs. We apply our technique to pairwise analysis of p values from ten autoimmune diseases with variable sharing of controls, enabling discovery of 59 SNP-disease associations which do not reach GWAS significance after genomic control in individual datasets. Most of the SNPs we highlight have previously been confirmed using replication studies or larger GWAS, a useful validation of our technique; we report eight SNP-disease associations across five diseases not previously declared. Our technique extends and strengthens the previous algorithm, and establishes robust limits on the expected FDR. This approach can improve SNP detection in GWAS, and give insight into shared aetiology between phenotypically related conditions. PMID:25658688

  16. Student Academic Reading Preferences: A Study of Online Reading Habits and Inclinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolsky, Tim; Soiferman, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore student preferences regarding reading print materials or online reading materials for academic purposes, as well as to examine how students adapt traditional reading strategies such as underlining, highlighting, and taking marginal notes when reading electronic texts. A total of 61 participants (32…

  17. Comparison of a Reading Fluency Intervention with and without Passage Repetition on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrien, William J.; Kirk, James F.; Woods-Groves, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a repeated reading and question generation intervention entitled Re-read-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (RAAC) with a modified RAAC intervention without the repeated reading component. The sample included 30 students in Grades 3 through 5. The students received services in reading within a…

  18. Facilitating Engagement by Differentiating Independent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle J.; Clausen-Grace, Nicki

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide teachers with a rationale for engaging students in independent reading using a differentiated approach. By profiling types of readers, sharing observational tools, and offering teaching suggestions for each type of reader the authors give practical suggestions to facilitate reading engagement and make independent reading more…

  19. Reading for Pleasure? What a Concept!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Ann

    2009-01-01

    As a high school English teacher of 26 years, the author has become increasingly disheartened by the steady decline in the number of students who read for enjoyment. To reverse this trend, she has instituted a program entitled the Reading Round Table. Repeated monthly, the benefits of the Reading Round Table are many. Students enjoy sharing with…

  20. Scaffolding Instruction for Reading the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Denise E.; McPherson, Pam

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that text reading and Web reading, while sharing some similarities, require a different balance of strategies. Adult language learners, especially those with limited previous experience with the Web, may therefore need explicit, scaffolded instruction in order to read the Web. This article reports on teacher action research and…

  1. Effectiveness of CompassLearning's Odyssey Reading for Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empirical Education Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Odyssey Reading, published by CompassLearning, is a comprehensive reading/language arts program using adaptive software for core instruction. This is the first study of CompassLearning's Odyssey Reading (CLO) in PUSD and was based on data from the school years 2006-2008. For this study, Odyssey Reading was implemented in reading classes in grades…

  2. Assessing Adolescents' Motivation to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Sharon M.; Albright, Lettie K.; DeLaney, Carol J.; Walker, Nancy T.; Seunarinesingh, Krishna; Mogge, Stephen; Headley, Kathy N.; Ridgeway, Victoria Gentry; Peck, Sharon; Hunt, Rebecca; Dunston, Pamela J.

    2007-01-01

    A team of researchers revised the Motivation to Read Profile for use with adolescents. Instruments to assess adolescents' in- and out-of-school reading motivations were administered. A survey adapted for adolescents was administered to 384 teens at eight sites throughout the United States and Trinidad, and 100 students were interviewed using a…

  3. Reading as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Using an adapted version of a recently published scientific article, a group of sixth graders worked together identifying conclusions, deciding on appropriate evidence, suggesting improvements for the study, and recommending further investigations for scientists. This experience provided opportunities for these students to use reading to decide on…

  4. Construction Print Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on construction print reading is designed to provide Marines of all ranks and Military Occupation Specialities with the basic information to recognize the terms and symbols used in construction prints; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction.…

  5. Dialogic Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Dialogic Reading" is an interactive shared picture book reading practice designed to enhance young children's language and literacy skills. During the shared reading practice, the adult and the child switch roles so that the child learns to become the storyteller with the assistance of the adult who functions as an active listener and questioner.…

  6. Shared Cataloguing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westby, Barbara M.

    The National Program for Acquisition and Cataloging (NPAC) authorized under Title IIC of the Higher Education Act of 1965 is called the Shared Cataloging Program. Under this Act the Library of Congress is authorized to: (1) acquire for its own collections all materials currently published throughout the world that are of value to scholarship and…

  7. Multicultural Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltze, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…

  8. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  9. Readings in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uberto, Jeffrey A.

    Designed to encourage vocational high school students to read by offering reading materials relevant to their vocational goals, this document contains thirty-seven articles related to air conditioning and refrigeration which have been selected from trade journals, magazines, and newspapers and adapted to the students' reading capabilities. A…

  10. Let's Read Together: Improving Literacy Outcomes with the Adult-Child Interactive Reading Inventory (ACIRI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin-Parecki, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Everyone knows how important it is to read to young children--but it is the "quality" of shared reading that really affects emergent literacy. How well are adults engaging and teaching children as they read together? How well are children listening and responding? The first and only tool to measure the quality of adult and child interactions…

  11. Read Naturally[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Read Naturally"[R] program is a supplemental reading program that aims to improve reading fluency, accuracy, and comprehension of elementary and middle school students using a combination of texts, audio CDs, and computer software. The program uses one of four products that share a common fluency-building strategy: "Read Naturally[R] Masters…

  12. Man's Best Friend as a Reading Facilitator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donita Massengill

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript was to describe information about an animal-assisted therapy, specifically the Reading Education Assistance Dog (R.E.A.D.) program. In this manuscript I provide information about R.E.A.D. programs in general. Next, I share perspectives solicited from R.E.A.D. participants, specifically teachers, parents, students and…

  13. Read Naturally [R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The “Read Naturally[R]” program is a supplemental reading program that aims to improve reading fluency, accuracy, and comprehension of elementary and middle school students using a combination of texts, audio CDs, and computer software. The program uses one of four products that share a common fluency-building strategy: “Read Naturally[R] Masters…

  14. Responding to the Rhetoric: Perspectives on Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ann M.; Anderson, Jill; Durham, Cheri M.; Erickson, Amy; Guion, Casey; Ingram, Michelle H.; Kirkpatrick, Mary; Kreger, Kathy; Lloyd, Mollie; Reeder, Heather L.; Sink, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    Provides perspectives on reading instruction of experienced, grades K-12 educators who were enrolled in a graduate school class on reading research, programs, and models, and their teacher. Shares some of the misconceptions or overgeneralizations that they have heard or read about reading instruction, as well as their reaction to these ideas. (SG)

  15. Discussing Stories: On How a Dialogic Reading Intervention Improves Kindergartners' Oral Narrative Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, Rosemary; Senechal, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Oral narrative skills are assumed to develop through parent-child interactive routines. One such routine is shared reading. A causal link between shared reading and narrative knowledge, however, has not been clearly established. The current research tested whether an 8-week shared reading intervention enhanced the fictional narrative skills of…

  16. Data Sharing.

    PubMed

    Longo, Dan L; Drazen, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-21

    The aerial view of the concept of data sharing is beautiful. What could be better than having high-quality information carefully reexamined for the possibility that new nuggets of useful data are lying there, previously unseen? The potential for leveraging existing results for even more benefit pays appropriate increased tribute to the patients who put themselves at risk to generate the data. The moral imperative to honor their collective sacrifice is the trump card that takes this trick. However, many of us who have actually conducted clinical research, managed clinical studies and data collection and analysis, and curated data sets have . . . PMID:26789876

  17. Promoting Active Participation in Book Reading for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury, Veronica P.; Miramontez, Shane Herriott; Hudson, Roxanne F.; Schwartz, Ilene S.

    2014-01-01

    A common literacy practice in early childhood classrooms is reading aloud to children. Little is known, however, about the quality of engagement in shared reading activities for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Dialogic reading is one method of shared reading in which adults encourage children to actively participate in the…

  18. Required Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janko, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author insists that those seeking public office prove their literary mettle. As an English teacher, he does have a litmus test for all public officials, judges and senators included--a reading litmus test. He would require that all candidates and nominees have read and reflected on a nucleus of works whose ideas and insights…

  19. Reading Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna

    This guide is intended for use in conducting a reading lab for a broad group of workers ranging from nonreaders to persons reading at a fifth-grade level. Presented first is a course overview that includes the following: information on the course's targeted population, student selection process, and demographics; strategies for adult remediation;…

  20. Repeated Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Sandra B.

    1982-01-01

    The article reviews research on the use of multiple oral rereading (MOR) with reading disabled students. MOR uses daily practice on a selection of little difficulty. Its effectiveness in increasing fluency (accuracy and speed) is examined, and the role of redundancy in three types of reading models is analyzed. (CL)

  1. Against Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Edmundson states that if he could make one wish for the members of his profession, college and university professors of literature, he would wish that for one year, two, three, or five, they would give up readings. By "a reading," he means the application of an analytical vocabulary to describe and (usually) to judge a work of literary art.…

  2. Reading Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delo, Lynda

    2008-01-01

    Many resources are available to elementary teachers who wish to support science learning with literature. Unfortunately, somewhere between middle school and high school, the emphasis on using literature to teach science content--particularly the exercise of reading aloud--has all but disappeared. However, the practice of reading aloud is helpful…

  3. Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Notes that a major issue in literacy instruction today is whether commercial reading programs emphasizing phonemic awareness and phonics are more effective than teacher-designed programs that focus on literature-based reading and process writing with integrated skill instruction. Reviews two books that address this controversy. Presents seven…

  4. Reading Remixed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

  5. Teaching Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Described are five approaches to teaching reading: Language Experience, Modified Alphabet, Linguistic, Programmed, and Basal. It is suggested that a good teacher, well trained, certified in his or her profession, an active participant in professional organizations, can teach reading successfully using almost any approach. (KC)

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIFFICULTY OF READING MATERIAL AND ATTITUDE TOWARD READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHOTANUS, HELEN D.

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DIFFICULTY OF READING MATERIAL CHOSEN AND ATTITUDE TOWARD READING WAS EXAMINED. SUBJECTS WERE 40 SECOND GRADERS. ONE-HALF OF THE SUBJECTS EXHIBTED A FAVORABLE ATTITUDE TOWARD READING, AND ONE-HALF EXHIBITED AN UNFAVORABLE ATTITUDE. THE ACTIVITY PREFERENCE TEST WAS ADAPTED FOR THE STUDY AND ADMINISTERED. AN INTERVIEW,…

  7. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  8. Memory During Oral and Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfetti, Charles A.; And Others

    Following reading and listening tasks, adult long-term memory is high in semantic information and low in syntactic and lexical information. Comprehension during reading and listening must depend to some extent, however, on short term retention of linguistic information that is less abstract and shares more features of the input than the semantic…

  9. How Comics Made Me Love Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberkleit, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    The co-CEO of Archie Comics, a former elementary school art teacher, knows from personal experience that comics should be a tool in a teacher's toolbox. Comics can hook students on the love of reading. The author shares her experience of not enjoying to read, and even struggling with reading, to becoming the co-CEO of Archie Comics, which has…

  10. Does E-Reading Enhance Reading Fluency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbar, Rahima S.; Taqi, Hanan A.; Dashti, Abdulmohsin A.; Sadeq, Taiba M.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is reading as much as possible, for one's own pleasure, at a difficulty level at which one can read smoothly and quickly. In the domain of reading, this paper investigates the effect of extensive reading from e-books, through utilizing a number of downloadable reading application programs on the students' e-devices, as opposed to…

  11. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

  12. Nonlinear Secret Image Sharing Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2⁡m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

  13. Reading Research in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamaras, Istvan; Nagy, Attila

    1981-01-01

    Notes that most recent reading research conducted in Hungary has focused on the formation of readers' attitudes and value judgments. Discusses studies conducted in the areas of reading psychology, children's reading, reading habits, reading motivation, and readers' responses. (FL)

  14. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  15. Read Together, Talk Together: The Acceptability of Teaching Parents to Use Dialogic Reading Strategies via Videotaped Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom-Hoffman, Jessica; O'Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M.; Cutting, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    Dialogic reading (DR) is a set of book-sharing strategies that caregivers can use with preliterate children. The strategies involve actively engaging young children and encouraging them to verbalize during shared book reading. There is a substantial research base that describes the benefits of using DR strategies with toddlers and preschool-age…

  16. Social Reading: Promoting Reading in the Millennial Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preddy, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    Students' minds today are attracted to entertainment and all things social. To engage the reading attitudes of this generation, educators need to adapt some old tricks and add new tricks to their bag to meet these Digital Natives where they live--the world of social interaction and social technology. This article discusses the three R's necessary…

  17. The Role of Reading in Fostering Transcultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koda, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    This response was constructed based on the author's experience as a language program coordinator and her expertise in second language (L2) reading development. Because "transcultural competence," as defined in the MLA Report (2007), shares much of its underlying capacities with "reading ability," in principle, reading instruction could play a…

  18. "Oya?"--O, Ja! Reading "Jugendliteratur" in the German Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffit, Gisela

    1998-01-01

    Makes a plea for reading authentic "Jugendliteratur" in the foreign-language classroom. Focuses on the reasons for inclusions of this literature, discusses some of the reasons for its omission, and offers solutions to the problems perceived. Strategies for reading whole texts are shared and applied to the reading of "Oya" by Karin Konig, Hanne…

  19. Technical Reading in the Middle School. Fastback 456.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Rosemary Lee

    The world of the 21st century demands relevance in learning, consumer wisdom, technological skills, and, above all, the ability to read precisely and well. A new course of reading instruction--matched to the goals, needs, and interests of the middle school learner--is "technical reading." This fastback shares 3 years' experience of preparing for…

  20. Independent Activities for Accelerated Students: Individualized Reading Instruction for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapides Parish School Board, Alexandria, LAa.

    The teaching guide for use with accelerated elementary school students contains suggestions for independent reading activities, a list of independent reading books for beginning readers, and suggestions for creative activities. Stressed is the value of sharing enthusiasm about books to spur independent reading. Suggestions are given for talking…

  1. Electronic Thermometer Readings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Stennis' adaptive predictive algorithm for electronic thermometers uses sample readings during the initial rise in temperature and applies an algorithm that accurately and rapidly predicts the steady state temperature. The final steady state temperature of an object can be calculated based on the second-order logarithm of the temperature signals acquired by the sensor and predetermined variables from the sensor characteristics. These variables are calculated during tests of the sensor. Once the variables are determined, relatively little data acquisition and data processing time by the algorithm is required to provide a near-accurate approximation of the final temperature. This reduces the delay in the steady state response time of a temperature sensor. This advanced algorithm can be implemented in existing software or hardware with an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM). The capability for easy integration eliminates the expense of developing a whole new system that offers the benefits provided by NASA Stennis' technology.

  2. Learning Partners: Reading and Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    The bulletin contains suggestions for secondary level social studies teachers to improve students' reading skills in social studies while at the same time enhancing the learning of social studies content. The materials can be easily adapted for elementary grades. Chapter one describes specific procedures for determining student reading levels.…

  3. Not Since Gutenberg: Microcomputers and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Cecelia

    Designed to promote the use of microcomputers in reading instruction, this paper attempts to dispell apprehensions that the errors made when adapting television to the classroom may occur again with microcomputers. Examples of the failure of television to teach reading in the 1960s and 1970s are presented, and it is pointed out that television, a…

  4. Raising the Bar in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Taryn; Naicker, Roshilla

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to present strategies and discussion about how teachers can adapt the curriculum in order to provide authentic needs-based programmes. Identifying students' strengths and needs gave us clear directions as to what we needed to teach. In this article, the research team discuss how they successfully raised the reading achievement of…

  5. Computerized Placement Tests: Background Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    This document is a compilation of background readings for the user of Computerized Placement Tests (CPTs) developed by the College Board for student placement purposes. CPTs are computerized adaptive tests that test the individual abilities and backgrounds of examinees. CPTs are part of the ACCUPLACER student information management system. The…

  6. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed…

  7. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  8. Reading Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    The parents of students who attend Decatur High School thought that there was little hope of their kids going on to college. After a year or so in Decatur's reading program, their sons and daughters were both transformed and college bound. In this article, the author describes how Decatur was able to successfully transform their students. Seven…

  9. Reading Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    The central purpose of this book is to challenge current social constructions of poverty, reading education, and the putative relationship between the two. It explores how official and popular representations of poverty are bound to specific historical, social, and economic conditions of their own production. The book offers four stances of…

  10. Meeting the Needs of Struggling Readers: Using Reading Assessments in a Graduate-Level Reading Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslick, Mary Ellen; Lane, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to share the reading assessments that graduate students selected for their clinical practice with struggling readers. After a careful look at assessments, their place in the recent shift to Response to Intervention (RTI), specifically regarding reading instruction and the preparation of reading…

  11. Reading, Readin', and Skimming: Preadolescent Girls Navigate the Sociocultural Landscapes of Books and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    This article shares the voices of preadolescent girls as they participated in an eight-month book selection study which enabled them to be active agents in their book and reading experiences. The girls, school-identified as struggling readers and self-identified as resistant readers, complicate current notions of reading, as influenced by…

  12. Expand Children's Limits in Reading, Integrate REAP: Reading Experiences Associated with Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSibio, Robert A.; Parla, JoAnn

    The Reading Experiences Associated with Partners (REAP) approach to science combines reading process and product. Students work together sharing their ideas, interests, and knowledge. Results are recorded, and every effort is made to arrange the classrom so that it will aid students in meeting the task objectives. Children can be paired with a…

  13. The Practice of Sharing a Historical Muse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Sharing an imaginative energy for the storied landscape is one kind of pedagogical passion. The author had taken on the challenge of offering this particular passion to his fellow travellers. With students, the practice of peppering a trip with a historical muse involves focussed readings, in the moment stories, planned ceremonies and rituals and,…

  14. Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study

    PubMed Central

    Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension was primarily due to genetic influences. Shared environmental influences accounted for associations among word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Independent of phonological decoding and word recognition, there was a separate genetic link between listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and a specific shared environmental link between vocabulary and reading comprehension. There were no residual genetic or environmental influences on reading comprehension. The findings provide evidence for a genetic basis to the “Simple View” of reading. PMID:20814768

  15. Infants and Toddlers: Sharing Stories with Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2004-01-01

    New brain research reveals that synapses, the connections between neurons, are twice as plentiful at 24 months as in adulthood. Reading to babies helps "wire in" those synapses so that babies get an early intellectual boost. This article discusses early reading for babies as it promotes early literacy. Sharing picture books is a wonderful way to…

  16. To Share or Not to Share: When Do Toddlers Respond to Another's Needs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Celia A.; Svetlova, Margarita; Nichols, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The developmental origins of sharing remain little understood. Using procedures adapted from research on prosocial behavior in chimpanzees, we presented 18- and 25-month-old children with a sharing task in which they could choose to deliver food to themselves only, or to both themselves and another person, thereby making it possible for them to…

  17. Whole-genome re-sequencing of non-model organisms: lessons from unmapped reads.

    PubMed

    Gouin, A; Legeai, F; Nouhaud, P; Whibley, A; Simon, J-C; Lemaitre, C

    2015-05-01

    Unmapped reads are often discarded from the analysis of whole-genome re-sequencing, but new biological information and insights can be uncovered through their analysis. In this paper, we investigate unmapped reads from the re-sequencing data of 33 pea aphid genomes from individuals specialized on different host plants. The unmapped reads for each individual were retrieved following mapping to the Acyrthosiphon pisum reference genome and its mitochondrial and symbiont genomes. These sets of unmapped reads were then cross-compared, revealing that a significant number of these unmapped sequences were conserved across individuals. Interestingly, sequences were most commonly shared between individuals adapted to the same host plant, suggesting that these sequences may contribute to the divergence between host plant specialized biotypes. Analysis of the contigs obtained from assembling the unmapped reads pooled by biotype allowed us to recover some divergent genomic regions previously excluded from analysis and to discover putative novel sequences of A. pisum and its symbionts. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the interest of the unmapped component of re-sequencing data sets and the potential loss of important information. We here propose strategies to aid the capture and interpretation of this information. PMID:25269379

  18. Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Reading Retell as a Brief Measure of Reading Comprehension for Narrative Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Edward S.; Fritschmann, Nanette S.; Thomas, Lisa B.; Hughes, Cheyenne L.; McDougal, James

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent and predictive validity between the Retell Reading Rubric (RRR), Oral Reading Fluency (ORF), an adaptation of the DIBELS Retell Fluency (RTF-A), and a state assessment emphasizing reading comprehension were examined across students in grades 3 and 5. Results showed the RRR to have moderate and statistically significant relationships to…

  19. Reading and General Cognitive Ability: A Multivariate Analysis of 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association between reading and general cognitive ability (g) in a population-based sample of 6,476 pairs of 7-year-old twins. Additive genetic influences largely accounted for individual differences in reading and the covariation between reading and g. Furthermore, both genetic and shared environmental influences on reading and g…

  20. Added Value of Dialogic Parent-Child Book Readings: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mol, Suzanne E.; Bus, Adriana G.; de Jong, Maria T.; Smeets, Daisy J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Book reading has been demonstrated to promote vocabulary. The current study was conducted to examine the added value of an interactive shared book reading format that emphasizes active as opposed to noninteractive participation by the child. Studies that included a dialogic reading intervention group and a reading-as-usual control group, and that…

  1. fMRI-adaptation evidence of overlapping neural representations for objects related in function or manipulation.

    PubMed

    Yee, Eiling; Drucker, Daniel M; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2010-04-01

    Sensorimotor-based theories of semantic memory contend that semantic information about an object is represented in the neural substrate invoked when we perceive or interact with it. We used fMRI adaptation to test this prediction, measuring brain activation as participants read pairs of words. Pairs shared function (flashlight-lantern), shape (marble-grape), both (pencil-pen), were unrelated (saucer-needle), or were identical (drill-drill). We observed adaptation for pairs with both function and shape similarity in left premotor cortex. Further, degree of function similarity was correlated with adaptation in three regions: two in the left temporal lobe (left medial temporal lobe, left middle temporal gyrus), which has been hypothesized to play a role in mutimodal integration, and one in left superior frontal gyrus. We also found that degree of manipulation (i.e., action) and function similarity were both correlated with adaptation in two regions: left premotor cortex and left intraparietal sulcus (involved in guiding actions). Additional considerations suggest that the adaptation in these two regions was driven by manipulation similarity alone; thus, these results imply that manipulation information about objects is encoded in brain regions involved in performing or guiding actions. Unexpectedly, these same two regions showed increased activation (rather than adaptation) for objects similar in shape. Overall, we found evidence (in the form of adaptation) that objects that share semantic features have overlapping representations. Further, the particular regions of overlap provide support for the existence of both sensorimotor and amodal/multimodal representations. PMID:20034582

  2. fMRI-Adaptation Evidence of Overlapping Neural Representations for Objects Related in Function or Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Eiling; Drucker, Daniel M.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Sensorimotor-based theories of semantic memory contend that semantic information about an object is represented in the neural substrate invoked when we perceive or interact with it. We used fMRI adaptation to test this prediction, measuring brain activation as participants read pairs of words. Pairs shared function (flashlight–lantern), shape (marble–grape), both (pencil–pen), were unrelated (saucer–needle), or were identical (drill–drill). We observed adaptation for pairs with both function and shape similarity in left premotor cortex. Further, degree of function similarity was correlated with adaptation in three regions: two in the left temporal lobe (left medial temporal lobe, left middle temporal gyrus), which has been hypothesized to play a role in mutimodal integration, and one in left superior frontal gyrus. We also found that degree of manipulation (i.e., action) and function similarity were both correlated with adaptation in two regions: left premotor cortex and left intraparietal sulcus (involved in guiding actions). Additional considerations suggest that the adaptation in these two regions was driven by manipulation similarity alone; thus, these results imply that manipulation information about objects is encoded in brain regions involved in performing or guiding actions. Unexpectedly, these same two regions showed increased activation (rather than adaptation) for objects similar in shape. Overall, we found evidence (in the form of adaptation) that objects that share semantic features have overlapping representations. Further, the particular regions of overlap provide support for the existence of both sensorimotor and amodal/multimodal representations. PMID:20034582

  3. Linear combination reading program for capture gamma rays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Allan B.

    1971-01-01

    This program computes a weighting function, Qj, which gives a scalar output value of unity when applied to the spectrum of a desired element and a minimum value (considering statistics) when applied to spectra of materials not containing the desired element. Intermediate values are obtained for materials containing the desired element, in proportion to the amount of the element they contain. The program is written in the BASIC language in a format specific to the Hewlett-Packard 2000A Time-Sharing System, and is an adaptation of an earlier program for linear combination reading for X-ray fluorescence analysis (Tanner and Brinkerhoff, 1971). Following the program is a sample run from a study of the application of the linear combination technique to capture-gamma-ray analysis for calcium (report in preparation).

  4. SHARING EDUCATIONAL SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.

    SHARED SERVICES, A COOPERATIVE SCHOOL RESOURCE PROGRAM, IS DEFINED IN DETAIL. INCLUDED IS A DISCUSSION OF THEIR NEED, ADVANTAGES, GROWTH, DESIGN, AND OPERATION. SPECIFIC PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING STATE AID IN SHARED SERVICES, EFFECTS OF SHARED SERVICES ON THE SCHOOL, AND HINTS CONCERNING SHARED SERVICES ARE DESCRIBED. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL…

  5. The Sharing Circle: A Child-Centered Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Carol Baumback

    1997-01-01

    Discusses use of monthly themes to making "sharing time" a central part of the preschool and primary curriculum. Reading picture books, sharing songs, and planning classroom activities are used to integrate the themes into all curricular areas. Discusses the developmental appropriateness of this practice and presents two examples of themes,…

  6. How to Write Easy-to-Read Health Materials: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... etr.html How to Write Easy-to-Read Health Materials To use the sharing features on this ... such. Other Resources Sites with easy-to-read health materials National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases ...

  7. Taiwanese Mothers' Beliefs about Reading Aloud with Preschoolers: Findings from the Parent Reading Belief Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chu-Chu; Honig, Alice Sterling

    2010-01-01

    In this study we adapted DeBaryshe and Binder's Parent Reading Belief Inventory (PRBI) with middle-class, well-educated (M = 14-15 years of education) Taiwanese mothers to find what their beliefs were about reading aloud to young children. Parental reports of home literacy practices including children's emergent literacy behaviours were also…

  8. Developing Reading Comprehension Modules to Facilitate Reading Comprehension among Malaysian Secondary School ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to develop a set of 6 Reading Comprehension Modules (RCMs) for Malaysian ESL teachers to facilitate different reading abilities of ESL students effectively. Different skill categories were selected for developing the RCMs. This article describes how and why diverse texts of varying length were adopted and adapted from various…

  9. Reading Is Your Thing (Even if You're Not a Reading Teacher)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The activities described in this article, Prediction Path and Quotation Cafe, are adapted from the IRA book "Building Reading Comprehension Habits in Grades 6-12." They highlight the reading comprehension habit of making inferences and predictions, which can be used across content areas and grade levels. In creating this toolkit of activities, the…

  10. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  11. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  12. Pleasure Reading and Reading Rate Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beglar, David; Hunt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of (a) the amount of pleasure reading completed, (b) the type of texts read (i.e., simplified or unsimplified books), and (c) the level of simplified texts read by 14 Japanese university students who made the largest reading rate gains over one academic year. The findings indicated that the participants who made…

  13. Dialogic reading and morphology training in Chinese children: effects on language and literacy.

    PubMed

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Chow, Celia Sze-Lok

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of parent-child shared book reading and metalinguistic training on the language and literacy skills of 148 kindergartners in Hong Kong. Children were pretested on Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, morphological awareness, and reading interest and then assigned randomly to 1 of 4 conditions: the dialogic reading with morphology training (DR + MT), dialogic reading (DR), typical reading, or control condition. After a 12-week intervention period, the DR intervention yielded greater gains in vocabulary, and the DR + MT intervention yielded greater improvement in character recognition and morphological awareness. Both interventions enhanced children's reading interest. Results confirm that different home literacy approaches influence children's oral and written language skills differently: Shared book reading promotes language development, whereas parents' explicit metalinguistic training within a shared book reading context better prepares children for learning to read. PMID:18194022

  14. Do doctors, nurses, and midwives read?

    PubMed

    Zurbano-pardo, A

    1978-01-01

    Results and recommendations generated by a study of the effectiveness of various types of family planning publications directed at clinic personnel in the Philippines are outlined. Independent variables used in the study were readability and attention-attracting devices of scientific publications about family planning; dependent variables were the extent of reading, sharing of information, and recall among doctors, nurses, and midwives working in clinics. An additional project studying the use of the comic book form in communicating technical information is also reported. It was found that doctors read and remembered the most of all types of publications but did not share the information; nurses who read tended to share, but most did not read; midwives were more likely to read materials in comic book form; and greater readability fostered greater recall among nurses and midwives. Recommendations stemming from this study included stressing the importance of sharing information to clinic staff, presenting technical information in more readable forms, and targeting publications to different types of personnel, as well as conducting more research on how to more effectively disseminate information. PMID:12309987

  15. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    PubMed

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia. PMID:26077339

  16. Collaboratively Sharing Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal

    Scientific research becomes increasingly reliant on multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration through sharing experimental data. Indeed, data sharing is mandatory by government research agencies such as NIH. The major hurdles for data sharing come from: i) the lack of data sharing infrastructure to make data sharing convenient for users; ii) users’ fear of losing control of their data; iii) difficulty on sharing schemas and incompatible data from sharing partners; and iv) inconsistent data under schema evolution. In this paper, we develop a collaborative data sharing system SciPort, to support consistency preserved data sharing among multiple distributed organizations. The system first provides Central Server based lightweight data integration architecture, so data and schemas can be conveniently shared across multiple organizations. Through distributed schema management, schema sharing and evolution is made possible, while data consistency is maintained and data compatibility is enforced. With this data sharing system, distributed sites can now consistently share their research data and their associated schemas with much convenience and flexibility. SciPort has been successfully used for data sharing in biomedical research, clinical trials and large scale research collaboration.

  17. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on children’s reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children’s reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children’s reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers have identified in both laboratory and classroom-based research instructional practices that positively impact students’ reading motivation and ultimately their reading comprehension. There is a strong need for researchers to build on this work and develop and study in different age groups of children effective classroom-based reading motivation instructional programs for a variety of narrative and informational materials.

  18. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Motivation to Read and Reading Fluency Skill in Second Grade.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Matthew; Schwanenflugel, Paula J; Webb, Mi-Young

    2009-04-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigated the relationships between students' reading self-concept, goals for reading, and reading fluency skill over the course of the second grade year. Second grade children (N=185) were administered the Test of Word Reading Efficiency, the second grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills, and an adapted version of Motivation to Read Profile at the beginning, middle, and end of the school year. Results showed that students' goals for reading were related to reading self-concept, but unrelated to reading fluency. In addition, reading self-concept was significantly related to reading fluency at each time point. Latent-variable path analysis was used to test four potential relationships between students' reading self-concept and reading fluency skill: (a) an independence model; (b) a skill development model; (c) a self-enhancement model; and (d) a reciprocal effects model. Support for a reciprocal model was found between students' reading fluency skill and reading self-concept over the second grade year. This finding also indicated that students' reading self-concept begins to influence their reading achievement earlier than previous research had indicated. Implications for educational practice and future research will also be discussed. PMID:20300541

  19. Reading Recovery. [Fact Sheets].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This set of 10 fact sheets (each 2 to 4 pages long) addresses aspects of Reading Recovery, a program that helps children to be proficient readers and writers by the end of the first grade. It discusses the basic facts of Reading Recovery; Reading Recovery for Spanish literacy; Reading Recovery lessons; Reading Recovery professional development;…

  20. Reading Consultant's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Penny, Comp.; And Others

    This handbook contains brief essays concerning aspects of reading and reading skills, activities designed to promote those skills, and biographies of reading specialists. The first section of the handbook discusses reading readiness, word recognition, word analysis, word meaning, comprehension, and content area reading. After discussion of each…

  1. Describing functional requirements for knowledge sharing communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Sandra; Caldwell, Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Human collaboration in distributed knowledge sharing groups depends on the functionality of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support performance. Since many of these dynamic environments are constrained by time limits, knowledge must be shared efficiently by adapting the level of information detail to the specific situation. This paper focuses on the process of knowledge and context sharing with and without mediation by ICT, as well as issues to be resolved when determining appropriate ICT channels. Both technology-rich and non-technology examples are discussed.

  2. Sensorpedia: Information Sharing Across Autonomous Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Bryan L; Resseguie, David R; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher H

    2009-01-01

    The concept of adapting social media technologies is introduced as a means of achieving information sharing across autonomous sensor systems. Historical examples of interoperability as an underlying principle in loosely-coupled systems is compared and contrasted with corresponding tightly-coupled, integrated systems. Examples of ad hoc information sharing solutions based on Web 2.0 social networks, mashups, blogs, wikis, and data tags are presented and discussed. The underlying technologies of these solutions are isolated and defined, and Sensorpedia is presented as a formalized application for implementing sensor information sharing across large-scale enterprises with incompatible autonomous sensor systems.

  3. Using Technology to Support Expository Reading and Writing in Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montelongo, Jose A.; Herter, Roberta J.

    2010-01-01

    Students struggle with the transition from learning to read narrative text in the early grades to reading expository text in the science classroom in the upper grades as they begin reading and writing to gain information. Science teachers can adapt their teaching materials to develop students' reading comprehension and recall by writing summaries…

  4. The Effect of Syntactic Simplification on Reading EST Texts as L1 and L2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulijn, Jan M.; Strother, Judith B.

    1990-01-01

    Determines that the complexity of syntax does not significantly affect reading comprehension of native and non-native English speakers when reading technical writing. Finds no significant differences between subgroups reading an authentic computer science text and those reading a syntactically adapted text, either in comprehension or in speed. (MG)

  5. Socio-Cultural Variation in Reading Comprehension Development among Fifth Graders in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Silvia Morales; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over the course of fifth grade, were related to the…

  6. Colorado longitudinal twin study of reading disability.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Sally J; DeFries, John C; Olson, Richard K; Willcutt, Erik G

    2007-12-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive abilities in this sample. Preliminary examination of the test scores of 124 twins with a history of reading difficulties and 154 twins with no history of reading difficulties indicates that over the 5- to 6-year interval between assessments, cognitive and reading performance are highly stable. As a group, those subjects with a history of reading difficulties had substantial deficits relative to control subjects on all measures at initial assessment, and significant deficits remained at follow-up. The stability noted for all cognitive and achievement measures was highest for a composite measure of reading, whose average stability correlation across groups was 0.80. Results of preliminary behavior genetic analyses for this measure indicated that shared genetic influences accounted for 86% and 49% of the phenotypic correlations between the two assessments for twin pairs with and without reading difficulties, respectively. In addition, genetic correlations reached unity for both groups, suggesting that the same genetic influences are manifested at both time points. PMID:18060583

  7. Generalized quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srikanth, R.

    2005-01-01

    We explore a generalization of quantum secret sharing (QSS) in which classical shares play a complementary role to quantum shares, exploring further consequences of an idea first studied by Nascimento, Mueller-Quade, and Imai [Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)]. We examine three ways, termed inflation, compression, and twin thresholding, by which the proportion of classical shares can be augmented. This has the important application that it reduces quantum (information processing) players by replacing them with their classical counterparts, thereby making quantum secret sharing considerably easier and less expensive to implement in a practical setting. In compression, a QSS scheme is turned into an equivalent scheme with fewer quantum players, compensated for by suitable classical shares. In inflation, a QSS scheme is enlarged by adding only classical shares and players. In a twin-threshold scheme, we invoke two separate thresholds for classical and quantum shares based on the idea of information dilution.

  8. Share Your Values

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Share Your Values Page Content Article Body Today, teenagers are bombarded ... mid-twenties. The Most Effective Way to Instill Values? By Example Your words will carry more weight ...

  9. "It's Not Their Job to Share Content": A Case Study of the Role of Senior Students in Adapting Teaching Materials as Open Educational Resources at the University of Cape Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson-Williams, Cheryl; Paskevicius, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's landmark decision to make its teaching and learning materials freely available to the public as OpenCourseWare (OCW), many other higher education institutions have followed suit sharing resources now more generally referred to as Open Educational Resources (OER). The University of Cape…

  10. LACC Shared Governance Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Mary

    This document discusses Los Angeles City College's (LACC) (California) Shared Governance Model. In response to California Assembly Bill 1725, LACC set forth a plan to implement the statutory requirements of shared governance. Shared governance is a concept grounded in the idea that decision-making is a process that affects the entire campus…

  11. Children Can Love Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zibart, Rosemary

    1980-01-01

    Describes the Reading Is Fundamental Program (RIF), whose reading motivation concept is simple: young people who get the opportunity to freely choose and to own books may begin to experience reading as a pleasurable activity. (Author/LLS)

  12. Reading: The Human Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roswell, Florence G.

    1978-01-01

    Reading programs must be reassessed, and fragmented, isolated, and repetitive exercises must be eliminated. The goal of any reading program is to get the child to experience the joys of reading and learning. (Author/WI)

  13. Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro, Vera

    2013-01-01

    In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…

  14. Teaching Reading Comprehension through Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Klingner, Janette Kettman

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of collaborative strategic reading (CSR) as an approach to enhancing the reading-comprehension skills of students with learning disabilities. Procedures for implementing CSR with collaborative groups and techniques for teaching reading-comprehension skills are provided. The role of the teacher is described and sample teaching…

  15. Preparing Teachers of Reading and Reading Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Mary C.

    There is an immediate need for improving the training of reading teachers and specialists. A new program should provide additional instruction at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Preservice teachers whether elementary or secondary, need some formal education in the teaching of reading. Graduate reading specialists should have (1) a minimum…

  16. Extensive Reading Quizzes and Reading Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Tim; Reagan, Nevitt; Hann, Fergus

    2012-01-01

    Extensive reading (ER) has become a common feature of many English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) programs. There is evidence that reading large amounts of easy, interesting material may improve foreign language skills, most notably in vocabulary, reading rates, and overall proficiency. However, teacher evaluation of extensive reading…

  17. Learning from Picturebooks: Reading and Writing Multimodally in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Prisca; Martens, Ray; Doyle, Michelle Hassay; Loomis, Jenna; Aghalarov, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    This article shares the authors' work with first graders and how, through various reading, writing, and art experiences around picturebooks, the children learned to read and communicate through art along with written language. The work is grounded in multimodality theory and the belief that all modes (particularly art for the purposes of this…

  18. Faith, Phonics and Identity: Reading in Faith Complementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosowsky, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of UK school children spend considerable time during a lengthy period of their youth learning to read, or decode, a 'religious classical', the liturgical language connected to their faith. Drawing on recent theories of reading, identity and literacy practices, this paper briefly describes and seeks to share tentative thoughts…

  19. Interactive Reading in Preschool: Improving Practice through Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindle, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    Shared reading is a common practice in preschool classrooms and is purported to develop oral language, print concepts, and listening comprehension. The actual practice of reading aloud differed greatly among observed classrooms resulting in variations in potential positive effects. This study examines the potential effects of professional…

  20. Writing Poetry in the School Library (And Reading It Too!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendelin, Karla

    2013-01-01

    Although April is National Poetry Month, poems are for any time... and all the time... and sharing poetry should be part of the library experience. Before we ask students to write poetry, however, we need to read poetry to and with them. We also need to provide opportunities for them to browse the poetry section and select poems to read to each…

  1. Enhancements of Dialogic Reading for Young Children with Down's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Staci; Miller, Gloria L.; Riley, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Dialogic Reading (DR) is a highly developed and well-documented shared-reading approach designed specifically to increase adult and child verbal exchanges while promoting language development, early literacy skills, and long-term academic functioning in children with and without language delays. This article provides ideas and concrete strategies…

  2. Adapting Music Instruction for Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Kate O'Brien

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how several simple adaptations in the music classroom can greatly enhance dyslexic students' learning. The sections included in this article are: (1) What Is Dyslexia?; (2) Students with Dyslexia; (3) What to Look for; (4) Adapting Instruction; (5) Reading Notation; and (6) Motor Skills. A list of practical adaptations; and…

  3. Supporting ELLs before, during, and after Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelliCarpini, Margo

    2011-01-01

    Working with English language learners in mainstream ELA classrooms can provide rich rewards in terms of developing multiple perspectives, sharing diverse experiences, and developing understanding of different cultural practices. However, these students can also challenge mainstream teachers. Supporting ELLs throughout the reading process can…

  4. Authentic Assessment in Reading Education Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginson, Bonnie; Smith, Lynn C.

    Noting that many teachers and some states have abandoned traditional testing methods of public school students in favor of authentic and performance-based assessment, this paper shares alternative assessment methods used by two teacher educators. After a brief introduction to the issues of authentic assessment in reading education courses, the…

  5. Parent Scaffolding in Children's Oral Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Moretti, Shelley; Shaw, Deborah; Fox, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    Examined parental coaching strategies during shared book reading between parents and their first-grade children. Found that parents provided more feedback clues when their child was unsuccessful in rereading a word after initial feedback, causing children's success levels to rise. Children with weaker word recognition skill were offered feedback…

  6. Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

  7. Accelerating Reading Inequities in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    Souto-Manning shares her journey as a second-grade teacher-researcher, offering insights into the relationship between a reading program that is (over)determined by scores, multiple-choice questions, and book levels, and the ways children, parents, and teachers worked together to maintain their commitment to a more equitable community of learners.…

  8. Reading Coaching Discourse: Exploring Coaching Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineke, Sally Frances

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the discourse of elementary school reading coaches and teachers during coaching interactions in four Alabama schools. Coach/teacher dyads recorded naturally occurring coaching dialogue over periods of 3 to 6 weeks. Each participant shared her views on coaching and commented on the recorded discourse during post-interviews…

  9. The Story Project: An Online Site for Reading and Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett Wheeler, Sally

    This paper describes an online publishing site at Georgia Perimeter College called "The Story Project." The Web site contains more than 60 stories written by faculty members, students, administrators, staff, family, and friends, and serves to encourage student writing, create a community of writers, celebrate common and diverse past experiences,…

  10. Read with Me: A Children's Shared Literacy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Linda Z.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a program that distributed refurbished books to children who might not have a book of their own. Discusses collaboration among school library media specialists, administration, teachers, parents, and community agencies; information literacy standards; empowering elementary students to help less fortunate children; and multiple learning…

  11. Reading Parties: Helping Families Share the Joy of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Zulmara

    2001-01-01

    Recognizes the critical role parents play in helping young children become successful readers and writers. Describes how the Even Start program encourages families to host a party for a small group of friends and family in their home to help families gain access to the knowledge, skills, and resources they need to create a literate environment in…

  12. Proactive quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2015-11-01

    A proactive quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the participants can update their key shares periodically. In an updating period, one participant randomly generates the EPR pairs, and the other participants update their key shares and perform the corresponding unitary operations on the particles of the EPR pairs. Then, the participant who generated the EPR pairs performs the Bell-state measurement and updates his key share according to the result of the Bell-state measurement. After an updating period, each participant can change his key share, but the secret is changeless, and the old key shares will be useless even if they have been stolen by the attacker. The proactive property of our scheme is very useful to resist the mobile attacker.

  13. Focus on Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Harriet W., Ed.

    1972-01-01

    The theme of this issue of the "Minnesota English Journal" is reading. The contents include "Preamblings," which discusses some of the current concerns in reading instruction; "The State of Minnesota's Right to Read Program," which looks at the Minnesota plan for building the reading program in conjunction with inservice education, and for…

  14. What Should Students Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The reading students are required to do for school bears little semblance to the reading they do outside of school. Students today are reading the same texts in school that students read a generation ago, but the varieties of text used outside of school are much different. One result is that many students are unmotivated to become readers.…

  15. Designing the Reading Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The design of the reading curriculum presents a vision of what will be stressed in reading instruction. A first ingredient to discuss in developing the reading curriculum emphasizes the degree to which different curriculum areas should be related in teaching and learning. Reading then could be taught as a separate subject matter area from the…

  16. Failure Free Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of Failure Free Reading, a program with the primary goal of providing a basic understanding of the reading process to students in grades K-12 with pronounced reading difficulty and move them into traditional reading programs. The program is targeted to and most effective with at-risk and English as a Second Language…

  17. Big Read, Big ROI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Beth

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) released a grim report on the state of literary reading in America. "Reading at Risk" (www.nea.gov/pub/ReadingAtRisk.pdf) detailed a dramatic decline in recreational reading across all segments of the American population--young and old, black, brown, and white. It also included the projected…

  18. Narration in Reading Remediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersting, Frank; Ferguson, Janice

    A case study examined the whole-part application of the language experience approach to reading as used for students whose reading development is severely delayed. The subject, a third-grade female student reading on the first-grade level as determined by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised (Woodcock, 1987), participated in a reading…

  19. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  20. Reading and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Ruth L.

    For years, reading teachers in the schools have emphasized word identification skills and believed that reading is comprised of a set of subskills that a child must master before he or she can learn to read. To teach a child to read, however, instruction must focus on comprehension. Therefore, word attack skills should be taught in conjunction…

  1. Reading Therapy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Roxanne

    2002-01-01

    Examines the results of using the Phono-Graphix reading method, designed for students with reading disabilities, to teach nine prison inmates to read. Reports that inmates' average basic reading skills standard score gains were 17 points (more than one standard deviation) after 33 one-hour sessions, an average gain of 1.9 standard points per…

  2. Media Type Influences Preschooler's Literacy Development: E-Book versus Printed Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozminsky, Ely; Asher-Sadon, Revital

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, children's books are in a printed format and shared book reading is done with an adult. In recent years, interactive E-books have become a common medium for children's books and shared book reading is diminishing. This study compared the contribution of book format to the development of literacy in kindergarten children. We…

  3. The relations between reading and spelling: an examination of subtypes of reading disability.

    PubMed

    Bar-Kochva, Irit; Amiel, Meirav

    2016-07-01

    Three groups of reading-disabled children were found in studies of English, German, and French: a group with a double deficit in reading and spelling, a group with a single spelling deficit, and a more rarely reported group presenting a single reading deficit. This study set out to examine whether these groups can be found in adults, readers and spellers of Hebrew, which differs from the previously studied orthographies in many aspects. To this end, Hebrew-speaking adults with or without reading disability were administered various literacy and literacy-related tests. Results confirm the existence of the same three groups. While all shared a phonological deficit, subtle differences in phonological decoding ability and in speed of processing distinguished between the groups. The study therefore suggests that the previously reported associations and dissociations between reading and spelling are not restricted to English, German, or French and may not be only developmental in nature. PMID:26449477

  4. Into the Curriculum. Art/Social Studies: What Costume Can You Make?; Mathematics: Roman Numerals; Reading/Language Arts: The "Rumplestiltskin Problem" and Other Adapted Tales; Social Studies: What's the Truth about Gladiators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwick, Martha

    2002-01-01

    Provides four fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in art, social studies, reading, and language arts. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each activity. (LRW)

  5. How a Standardized Achievement Test Adapts to the Times: A Topical Comparison of Mathematics and Reading Tests on the 1973 and 1981 Forms of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Ann; And Others

    This document contains a detailed listing of topics covered in the mathematics and reading portions of the 1973 Form S and the 1981 Form U of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS). Chages in the overall structure of the CTBS, new topics included in Form U and old topics not covered, and changes in the arrangement of topics across the…

  6. Models, Norms and Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.

    To investigate the effect of modeling on altruism, 156 third and fifth grade children were exposed to a model who either shared with them, gave to a charity, or refused to share. The test apparatus, identified as a game, consisted of a box with signal lights and a chute through which marbles were dispensed. Subjects and the model played the game…

  7. Shared Parenting Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkat, Ira Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Joint custody of children is the most prevalent court ordered arrangement for families of divorce. A growing body of literature indicates that many parents engage in behaviors that are incompatible with shared parenting. This article provides specific criteria for a definition of the Shared Parenting Dysfunction. Clinical aspects of the phenomenon…

  8. Rethinking Resource Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaubien, Anne; Stevens, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the need for rethinking resource sharing to offer both library users and nonlibrary users options to obtain the material they seek from both libraries and commerical sources. The article discusses several programs that are emerging including the "GoGetter" function, the Rethinking Resource Sharing Manifesto, user needs, and…

  9. Book Reading Styles in Dual-Parent and Single-Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Joanna; Macdonald, Silvana; Bayrami, Lisa; Agosta, Vanessa; Milian, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Background: Whereas many studies have investigated quantitative aspects of book reading (frequency), few have examined qualitative aspects, especially in very young children and through direct observations of shared reading. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in book-reading styles between mothers and fathers and …

  10. Continued Focus on Families for Cultural Appreciation, Curriculum Planning, and Tutoring in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimberger, Mary J.

    There are a number of ways in which parents can serve as role models in helping children to value reading, including parent-child sharing of culture through family rituals, reading aloud to children or having the children read aloud, tutoring at home and in the schools, using home learning kits for skill development and to provide a carry-over of…

  11. Learning to Read in First Grade: Developing Effective Programs in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragler, Sherry; Martin, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the reading instructional program that first-graders in an urban school located in a large, Midwestern city received as a result of a grant initiative. Various assessments of the children's reading revealed some important areas for reading success were missing. As a result, suggestions were shared with the school staff to…

  12. Once upon a Time: Parent-Child Dialogue and Storybook Reading in the Electronic Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish-Morris, Julia; Mahajan, Neha; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Collins, Molly Fuller

    2013-01-01

    Early experiences with books predict later reading success, and an interactive shared reading style called "dialogic reading" is especially beneficial to emergent literacy. Electronic console (EC) books, CD-rom books, and e-book apps are designed to teach preschoolers preliteracy skills, but research has yet to systematically explore the…

  13. Visual-Temporal Processing in Reading-Disabled and Normal Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Richard; Datta, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Notes that a modest linear relation was found between visual contrast sensitivity across the broad range of word-reading skill in a population of children with higher word-reading tended to have higher contrast sensitivity. Suggests that the modest shared variance between word reading and contrast sensitivity may be due primarily to environmental…

  14. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  15. Chocolate: Reading across the Five C's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jody

    2007-01-01

    The reading and literacy focus of a unit that centers on chocolate can provide a context for using the interpretive mode of the communication standard from the "National Standards in Foreign Language Education." This article presents a thematic unit that is applicable to all languages and adaptable to any level. Inspired by Woodlands' all-school…

  16. Simplified Reading Materials for Language Handicapped Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, Pittsburgh.

    A library project designed to increase the independent reading of deaf children involved the initiation of a bookmobile program in the dormitories of a school for the deaf and the adaptation and creation of books that deaf children could use independently. Because it is difficult for deaf persons to grasp abstract concepts in print, high-interest…

  17. Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

    2010-01-01

    The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

  18. Share with thy neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Surendar; Yu, Xuwen

    2007-01-01

    Peer to peer (P2P) systems are traditionally designed to scale to a large number of nodes. However, we focus on scenarios where the sharing is effected only among neighbors. Localized sharing is particularly attractive in scenarios where wide area network connectivity is undesirable, expensive or unavailable. On the other hand, local neighbors may not offer the wide variety of objects possible in a much larger system. The goal of this paper is to investigate a P2P system that shares contents with its neighbors. We analyze the sharing behavior of Apple iTunes users in an University setting. iTunes restricts the sharing of audio and video objects to peers within the same LAN sub-network. We show that users are already making a significant amount of content available for local sharing. We show that these systems are not appropriate for applications that require access to a specific object. We argue that mechanisms that allow the user to specify classes of interesting objects are better suited for these systems. Mechanisms such as bloom filters can allow each peer to summarize the contents available in the neighborhood, reducing network search overhead. This research can form the basis for future storage systems that utilize the shared storage available in neighbors and build a probabilistic storage for local consumption.

  19. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit.

    PubMed

    Hockings, Kimberley J; Humle, Tatyana; Anderson, James R; Biro, Dora; Sousa, Claudia; Ohashi, Gaku; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa) very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events). Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on 'food-for-sex and -grooming' and 'showing-off' strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies. PMID:17849015

  20. Reading: Putting the Pieces Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bernard L., Ed.; Camperell, Kay, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The papers in this yearbook focus on the strategies, practices, and research related to elementary reading, secondary reading, adult reading, literature, philosophy of reading, psychology of reading, affective issues, administration, supervision, research, teacher training, assessment that affect reading and reading instruction. Papers in the book…

  1. Reading Scientifically: Practices Supporting Intertextual Reading Using Science Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enfield, Mark

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on a study of teachers' actions when reading informational and narrative texts in the context of elementary science learning experiences. Focusing on the development of fundamental and derived senses of science literacy through the integrated science lessons, the research further explores the affordances of different genres of text in science learning. The findings highlight that teacher actions can support students engaging in inquiry provoked during reading events. However, this was not easy to do and required more than providing students with opportunities to discuss and share their questions. Furthermore, the study revealed that purposes for reading and the notion of making predictions were contextualized activities that impact the nature of students' engagement with texts. Based on these findings it is possible to make inferences that raise questions for future research. The construct of fundamental and derived senses of science literacy revealed that most of the actions of teachers focused on fundamental senses. Yet, there were moments of derived senses of science literacy that offer glimpses of the usefulness of this construct for supporting integrated learning. Thus the outcome is to consider this framework when developing integrated learning experiences in science.

  2. Shadow-Reading: Guidelines for a Socially-Mediated Approach to Reading in the Second/Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commander, Millie; de Guerrero, María C. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes shadow-reading, a pedagogical technique aimed at fostering reading comprehension and retention in second (L2) or foreign language (FL) classrooms. The technique is an adaptation of "conversational shadowing," a procedure which requires listeners to repeat what their interlocutors say in an attempt to remember the…

  3. Effects of Explicit Instruction in Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategies on Iranian EFL Students' Reading Performance and Strategy Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghaie, Reza; Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of explicit teaching of reading strategies on English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students' reading performance in Iran. The study employed a questionnaire adapted from Chamot and O'Malley's (1994) cognitive and metacognitive strategies framework. To test the effects of explicit teaching of cognitive and…

  4. Tools for Providing Feedback in Reading: A Reading Assessment Handbook for All Teachers in Grades 3-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Jan; McMunn, Nancy; Reagan, Hope

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to assist teachers in assessing their students in reading, regardless of the grade level or subject they teach. It is intended as a starting point on the journey to helping students become effective readers, regardless of the material they are reading. SERVE, a Regional Educational Laboratories, has adapted this…

  5. Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome letters from…

  6. Beginning Readers' Reading Performance and Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Ulla; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective relationships between reading performance and reading habits among Finnish children during the first and second grades of primary school. One hundred and ninety-five children were examined twice during their first primary school year and once during the spring term of Grade 2. The results showed, first, that…

  7. Reading Disabilities and PASS Reading Enhancement Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    Children experience difficulties in reading either because they fail to decode the words and thus are unable to comprehend the text or simply fail to comprehend the text even if they are able to decode the words and read them out. Failure in word decoding results from a failure in phonological coding of written information, whereas reading…

  8. Teaching Vocabulary to Preschoolers with Disabilities Using Adult-Child Shared Bookreading: A Comparison of Traditional and Electronic Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodehouse, Sara Bernice

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to validate adult-child shared storybook reading as a method for teaching target vocabulary words to preschool children with disabilities. The Vocabulary Learning through Books (VLTB) instructional procedure incorporates, adult-child book reading, questioning during reading requiring the child to answer with a target word, and…

  9. SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Dennis C.

    2001-12-01

    The SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) Program is a United States Navy tactical reconnaissance program that culminates in the supply of visible and infrared imagery products to the fleet. The intent of the program is to provide the warfighter the most robust tactical reconnaissance capability possible in a timely manner. The SHARP concept is a multi-function reconnaissance pod, adaptable to several airborne platforms for tactical manned airborne reconnaissance. The genesis platform is the Navy F/A-18. With regard to multi-platform application, a smart pod approach has been pursued with most of the required functionality being incorporated into the pod. SHARP will replace the Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance Pod System (TARPS) flying on the Navy F-14. This paper outlines the SHARP Program requirements and acquisition approach, along with the SHARP system capabilities and operation.

  10. On Reading and Not Reading Today: A Commentary on L. Borusiak's Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Boris

    2012-01-01

    In this commentary, the author stresses that reading habits in Russia have changed since the Soviet era, and the more intellectual journals and magazines in particular have lost their importance. Audiences for books and magazines have fragmented, and there are fewer sources of commonly shared information and ideas than was true a few decades ago.…

  11. Shared decision making

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shared decision making to improve care and reduce costs. N Engl J Med . 2013 Jan 3;368(1):6-8. ... UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  12. Sharing a Faculty Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Kane, Patricia K.; Meyer, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Describes the experience of two nursing faculty members who shared an assistant professor of nursing position. Discusses positive and negative aspects of the experience and notes that a unified and creative approach must be taken for it to succeed. (JOW)

  13. A Sharing Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)

  14. Shared decision making

    MedlinePlus

    Shared decision making is when health care providers and patients work together to decide the best way to test ... you. The two of you will make a decision based on your provider's expertise and your values ...

  15. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  16. Learning with sublexical information from emerging reading vocabularies in exceptionally early and normal reading development.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G Brian; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M; Wilson, Kathryn J; McKay, Michael F; Margrain, Valerie G

    2015-03-01

    Predictions from theories of the processes of word reading acquisition have rarely been tested against evidence from exceptionally early readers. The theories of Ehri, Share, and Byrne, and an alternative, Knowledge Sources theory, were so tested. The former three theories postulate that full development of context-free letter sounds and awareness of phonemes are required for normal acquisition, while the claim of the alternative is that with or without such, children can use sublexical information from their emerging reading vocabularies to acquire word reading. Results from two independent samples of children aged 3-5, and 5 years, with mean word reading levels of 7 and 9 years respectively, showed underdevelopment of their context-free letter sounds and phoneme awareness, relative to their word reading levels and normal comparison samples. Despite such underdevelopment, these exceptional readers engaged in a form of phonological recoding that enabled pseudoword reading, at the level of older-age normal controls matched on word reading level. Moreover, in the 5-year-old sample further experiments showed that, relative to normal controls, they had a bias toward use of sublexical information from their reading vocabularies for phonological recoding of heterophonic pseudowords with irregular consistent spelling, and were superior in accessing word meanings independently of phonology, although only if the readers were without exposure to explicit phonics. The three theories were less satisfactory than the alternative theory in accounting for the learning of the exceptionally early readers. PMID:25498743

  17. Toddler Reading Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... Studies show that kids with active exposure to language have social and educational advantages over their peers — ... reading is one of the best exposures to language. Reading to toddlers sets the foundation for later ...

  18. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Aug 17,2016 Blood pressure is typically ... Your doctor should evaluate unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare ...

  19. Assessing Motivation to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Motivation to Read Profile (MRP), which assesses children's self-concepts as readers and the value they see in reading. Discusses its development and offers suggestions for its use with elementary students. Includes the MRP. (SR)

  20. Adaptive EAGLE dynamic solution adaptation and grid quality enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luong, Phu Vinh; Thompson, J. F.; Gatlin, B.; Mastin, C. W.; Kim, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    In the effort described here, the elliptic grid generation procedure in the EAGLE grid code was separated from the main code into a subroutine, and a new subroutine which evaluates several grid quality measures at each grid point was added. The elliptic grid routine can now be called, either by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to generate a new adaptive grid based on flow variables and quality measures through multiple adaptation, or by the EAGLE main code to generate a grid based on quality measure variables through static adaptation. Arrays of flow variables can be read into the EAGLE grid code for use in static adaptation as well. These major changes in the EAGLE adaptive grid system make it easier to convert any CFD code that operates on a block-structured grid (or single-block grid) into a multiple adaptive code.

  1. Secure Information Sharing

    2005-09-09

    We are develoing a peer-to-peer system to support secure, location independent information sharing in the scientific community. Once complete, this system will allow seamless and secure sharing of information between multiple collaborators. The owners of information will be able to control how the information is stored, managed. ano shared. In addition, users will have faster access to information updates within a collaboration. Groups collaborating on scientific experiments have a need to share information and data.more » This information and data is often represented in the form of files and database entries. In a typical scientific collaboration, there are many different locations where data would naturally be stored. This makes It difficult for collaborators to find and access the information they need. Our goal is to create a lightweight file-sharing system that makes it’easy for collaborators to find and use the data they need. This system must be easy-to-use, easy-to-administer, and secure. Our information-sharing tool uses group communication, in particular the InterGroup protocols, to reliably deliver each query to all of the current participants in a scalable manner, without having to discover all of their identities. We will use the Secure Group Layer (SGL) and Akenti to provide security to the participants of our environment, SGL will provide confldentiality, integrity, authenticity, and authorization enforcement for the InterGroup protocols and Akenti will provide access control to other resources.« less

  2. Information partnerships--shared data, shared scale.

    PubMed

    Konsynski, B R; McFarlan, F W

    1990-01-01

    How can one company gain access to another's resources or customers without merging ownership, management, or plotting a takeover? The answer is found in new information partnerships, enabling diverse companies to develop strategic coalitions through the sharing of data. The key to cooperation is a quantum improvement in the hardware and software supporting relational databases: new computer speeds, cheaper mass-storage devices, the proliferation of fiber-optic networks, and networking architectures. Information partnerships mean that companies can distribute the technological and financial exposure that comes with huge investments. For the customer's part, partnerships inevitably lead to greater simplification on the desktop and more common standards around which vendors have to compete. The most common types of partnership are: joint marketing partnerships, such as American Airline's award of frequent flyer miles to customers who use Citibank's credit card; intraindustry partnerships, such as the insurance value-added network service (which links insurance and casualty companies to independent agents); customer-supplier partnerships, such as Baxter Healthcare's electronic channel to hospitals for medical and other equipment; and IT vendor-driven partnerships, exemplified by ESAB (a European welding supplies and equipment company), whose expansion strategy was premised on a technology platform offered by an IT vendor. Partnerships that succeed have shared vision at the top, reciprocal skills in information technology, concrete plans for an early success, persistence in the development of usable information for all partners, coordination on business policy, and a new and imaginative business architecture. PMID:10107083

  3. Learning to Read Again.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, O. F., McCreery, Liz

    1988-01-01

    A project was developed which successfully taught individuals with visual impairments to read commercial large-print books, with either their own reading spectacles or with lower levels of magnification than usually prescribed. Over the course of the project, print sizes were systematically reduced and healthy reading habits were re-taught. (JDD)

  4. Reading/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    These seven projects comprise the reading and language arts section of a report on Elementary Secondary Education Act Title IV programs for the state of Illinois. Complete descriptions are furnished for the following: a multi-text, individualized reading skills program for grades four through eight; a reading program which stresses phonetic and…

  5. Reading in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taschow, Horst G.

    Difficulties inherent in the reading of mathematics at secondary and college levels are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the reading of arithmetic numerals, literal numbers, operational symbols, and expressions of relationships, as well as the reading of technical vocabularies and specialized meanings of general words. While each…

  6. Family Reading Night

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  7. Monster Moose Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Frank

    Monster Moose (MM) Reading is a program specifically aimed at improving children's language, beginning reading, and self-concept development through the creation and utilization of student-authored reading materials which feature a series of wordless picture books about a magical moose. The MM Program is based on the following general principles…

  8. Supervising the Reading Clinician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridout, Susan Ramp; Bailey, Kevin Sue

    Designed for graduate students supervising undergraduate work in a reading clinic, this practicum manual provides guidelines and materials needed for the graduate section of the Reading Practicum (Methods of Teaching Reading II) at Indiana University Southeast. In addition to the syllabus, which includes course description and objectives, course…

  9. The Reading Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridout, Susan Ramp; Bailey, Kevin Sue

    Organized to allow undergraduate and graduate students to work together in helping children learn to read, this practicum manual provides guidelines and materials needed for the undergraduate section of the Methods of Teaching Reading II Reading Practicum at Indiana University Southeast. In addition to the syllabus, which includes a course…

  10. Reading and Writing Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jana M., Ed.

    This collection of papers, from a conference on reading and writing connections held at the University of Illinois in October 1986, reflects the value of demonstrating connections between reading instruction and writing. The book shows practitioners how writing can be blended with reading instruction and how writing activities can be used not just…

  11. Time for Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William R.

    1989-01-01

    Reading for pleasure and enlightenment is a critical, and endangered, element in a well-informed citizenry. As a basis for intellectual growth, reading is threatened by media misuse and lack of encouragement of recreational reading. Solutions include emphasis on integrated skills, improved time allocation, and cooperation among parents, teachers,…

  12. Guided Reading and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  13. ELLs' Perceptions of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rachael M.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated reading support and book preferences of fourth grade English language learners (ELLs) who were struggling readers. This qualitative research focused on three case studies. Interviews were conducted to explore ELLs' perceptions on reading motivation, reading programs, and types of support they received. Descriptions of…

  14. Reading, Language Arts & Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthew, Kathy, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on educational technology issues related to reading, language arts, and literacy: (1) "The Infusion of Technology into a Teacher Education Course: Issues and Strategies" (Mary Ann Kolloff); (2) "Project READ: Developing Online Course Materials for a Reading Methods Class" (Judith A. Crowe); (3) "Reading…

  15. Free Reading Is UTOPIA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCrone, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

  16. The Future of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The future of reading is very much in doubt. In this century, reading could soar to new heights or crash and burn. Some educators and librarians fear that sustained reading for learning, for work, and for pleasure may be slowly dying out as a widespread social practice. Several social and technological developments of the 20th century, such as…

  17. The Roots of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segel, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    School-community partnership programs can help teachers reach children in the crucial years from birth to 4, thereby preventing reading difficulties and raising future test scores. Many organizations help families in starting their children on the road to lifetime reading by distributing free books and pamphlets on reading aloud to children. (SM)

  18. Content Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belk, Elizabeth Joann; Seed, Allen H.; Abdi, Wali

    2005-01-01

    Reading comprehension skills promote achievement in science, so how can teachers help students to develop these skills? Research indicates that students who read well are more likely to be successful in school and in life (Belk 1999). Furthermore, there is a direct link between science skills and reading skills (Carter and Simpson 1978). There are…

  19. Summer Library Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Carole D.

    2007-01-01

    Virtually all public libraries in the United States provide some type of summer library reading program during the traditional summer vacation period. Summer library reading programs provide opportunities for students of many ages and abilities to practice their reading skills and maintain skills that are developed during the school year. Fiore…

  20. Developing a Reading Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, F. H. Th.; And Others

    A course for improving Dutch reading proficiency of entering university students was developed by the Linguistic and Literacy Studies department of the University of Tilburg in the Netherlands. Dutch secondary school students receive instruction in text-specific approaches to reading but no instruction in reading methodology. The course focuses on…

  1. The Reading Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrs, Myra, Ed.; Thomas, Anne, Ed.

    Noting the persistent tendency to polarize questions of reading instruction into diametrically opposed or simplified positions, this book (developed in the United Kingdom) is a teacher's guide to learning to read. The first part of the book surveys what is known about reading, in chapters corresponding to the four major partners in the reading…

  2. Reading difficulties in Albanian.

    PubMed

    Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years old were tested. They had to read 120 stimuli varied in lexicality, frequency, and length. The results in terms of reading accuracy as well as in reading times show that both groups were affected by lexicality and length effects. In both groups, length and lexicality effects were significantly modulated by school year being greater in early grades and later diminish in length and just the opposite in lexicality. However, the reading difficulties group was less accurate and slower than the control group across all school grades. Analyses of the error patterns showed that phonological errors, when the letter replacement leading to new nonwords, are the most common error type in both groups, although as grade rises, visual errors and lexicalizations increased more in the control group than the reading difficulties group. These findings suggest that Albanian normal children use both routes (lexical and sublexical) from the beginning of reading despite of the complete regularity of Albanian, while children with reading difficulties start using sublexical reading and the lexical reading takes more time to acquire, but finally both routes are functional. PMID:22739980

  3. Reading Difficulties in Albanian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years…

  4. Current Issues in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Michael P., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Articles in this journal issue focus on reading acquisition and instruction. The titles and authors are as follows: (1) "10 Good Ways to Involve Parents in the Reading Program," by Nickolas Criscuolo; (2) "A Parent Guide for Helping the Child with A Reading Disability," by Frederick Duffelmeyer and Dale Baum; (3) "Promoting a Good Attitude toward…

  5. Reading to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading…

  6. Psycholinguistics and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frank, (Ed.)

    Psycholinguistics has offered many new insights into the development of reading, e.g., only a small part of the information necessary for reading comprehension comes from the printed page, comprehension must precede the identification of individual words, and reading is not decoding to spoken language. These views are elaborated in this collection…

  7. Creative Reading: Other Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    1990-01-01

    Discusses subvocalization and other ways in which people read silently. Comments on authorial voice and offers ways to experiment with creative reading aloud. Notes how the proliferation of advertising, the media "explosion," and the influence of modernism in literature has changed the fundamental sense of what reading is and how to do it. (MG)

  8. Literature without Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knighten, Katherine W.

    During one term at a laboratory school, reading was systematically deleted from activites in one secondary level class and replaced with film, lecture, oral reading, slides, and other audiovisual aids. The Nelson-Denny Reading Test served as pretest-posttest for the twelve-week experiment, with 19 of 25 students completing both tests. The results…

  9. Issues in Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Presently, reading is much discussed by senators, representatives, and state legislatures--the debate is on the following issues in reading instruction: (1) having all students in public school achieve at grade level as a reading minimum; (2) accountability of teachers for student achievement; (3) teachers having high achievement expectations from…

  10. Sharing Responsibility for Results: Breakthrough to Literacy[R].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, NY. Educational and Professional Publishing Group.

    This report considers six schools in two urban districts that made deliberate commitments to improve student performance in early language and literacy--each story is different, yet they all share an important insight: that a school and a model provider can work together to help every child learn to read. As the stories in the report demonstrate,…

  11. Standardized Reading Tests and the Postsecondary Reading Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Nancy V.

    To help college reading teachers develop an awareness of what standardized reading tests do and do not reveal about students' reading abilities, a study examined the testing of reading and criticized four major standardized tests. Results indicated that reading is tested through (1) reading passages accompanied by multiple choice questions, (2)…

  12. On-Screen versus On-Paper Reading: Students' Strategy Usage and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Arden B.; McGrath, Jane L.

    2011-01-01

    Reading professionals at the college level have long taught their students multiple and varied strategies to master textbook reading and learning. Students are continuously encouraged to adapt their strategies to the discipline and the type of text they are reading. Now that students have the option to complete at least a portion of their academic…

  13. Effects on Science Summarization of a Reading Comprehension Intervention for Adolescents with Behavior and Attention Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogevich, Mary E.; Perin, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-three adolescent boys with behavioral disorders (BD), 31 of whom had comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), participated in a self-regulated strategy development intervention called Think Before Reading, Think While Reading, Think After Reading, With Written Summarization (TWA-WS). TWA-WS adapted Linda Mason's TWA…

  14. Rhymes: An Untapped Resource for Teaching Children to Read and Write.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partridge, Susan

    The use of rhymes in a reading program can result in improved listening skills, increased vocabulary, improved spelling, and greater proficiency in comprehension. A rhyme can be improvised and/or adapted for every skill in the reading hierarchy. In order to make knowledge about rhyming words useful for improving reading skills, the teacher must…

  15. A Review of the Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment, Second Edition (ERDA-2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Gina L.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment second edition (ERDA-2). The Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment, second edition (ERDA-2; The Psychological Corporation, 2003) assesses the acquisition of reading skills in children from kindergarten to Grade 3. The ERDA-2 is a collection of subtests adapted primarily from the Wechsler…

  16. The Current State of Motivation to Read among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle J.; Decker, Emmeline O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined middle school students' motivation to read using an adapted version of the Motivation to Read Profile (MRP) Survey. The MRP is comprised of items assessing students' self-concepts as readers and their value of reading. In total, 1080 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students responded. Descriptive and inferential statistics…

  17. How to Read Drug Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... and alternative medicine Healthy Aging How to read drug labels Printer-friendly version How to Read Drug ... read drug labels How to read a prescription drug label View a text version of this picture. ...

  18. Adapting to Sea Level Rise to the Year 2100 and Beyond in the State of Florida, USA: A Regional Approach Based upon Common Vulnerabilities and the Utility of Shared Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, R. W.; Harlem, P. W.; Meeder, J.

    2014-12-01

    We simulate the vulnerability of all 35 Florida coastal counties to the ongoing Anthropocene marine transgression unconstrained by the artificial end date of year 2100. Coastal submergence was emulated using a 'bathtub model' and rising sea level associated with an atmospheric temperature increase of +1 oC to +4 oC (see Levermann et al. [1]). Simulation results are organized into seven regions, each representing an area of common vulnerability characterized in this study as high (9% to 30% land loss), higher (16 to 68% land loss) and highest (48% to 97% land loss). This grouping provides a logical basis for establishing or re-enforcing collaboration based upon a common threat and the utility of shared technical and financial resources. Our bathtub model assumes Florida terrain is simply submerged as the shoreline migrates across a static landscape without change in the physical and biological materials subject to marine transgression. However, geologic studies of past and present Florida shorelines indicate the rate of rise is as important as the magnitude when predicting coastal response. To determine the utility of the bathtub model as a representative simulation of Florida's response to future sea level rise, we considered Florida's coastal response to varying rates of sea level rise over the last 14,000 years. Available data clearly demonstrate predicted rates of sea level rise will result in widespread submergence; the rate of rise will be too fast to be offset by the stabilizing forces of biogenic or physical sediment accumulation. Hence the magnitude of land loss and associated shoreline retreat in each of the seven Florida regions - and likely other coastal zones in the southeast U.S. - will be solely a function of topographic elevation and can therefore be reasonably forecast using a bathtub model. While our focus is on Florida's coastal counties, we recognize in some regions the effects of sea level rise will extend further inland. In these areas, the

  19. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    PubMed

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27198209

  20. The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) in Icelandic: Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Halldorsson, Jonas G.; Steinberg, Stacy; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-01

    This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the "Adult Reading History Questionnaire" (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability…

  1. Reading to Deaf Children Who Sign: A Response to Williams (2012) and Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jean F.

    2012-01-01

    A commentary on Williams's (2012) invited article on the use of adapted vocabulary learning interventions focuses on three areas: (a) Vocabulary interventions with storybook reading originally designed for hearing children can be adapted for deaf children. (b) Teachers are invited to reflect on how the read-aloud process in English differs from…

  2. A Machine that Reads (Reading Technology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickelman, Robert J.; Henk, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Xerox/Kurzweil Personal Reader which is an advanced optical scanner that reads a greater range of typeset or typewritten text than its predecessors, and converts it into highly naturalistic speech. (MG)

  3. Teachers Sourcebook for Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George; Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The best way for students to learn to read and to come to love reading is--surprise, surprise--by reading in quantity. Unfortunately, many of today's students read far too little. This lack of time spent reading is particularly unfortunate, as reading constitutes a bedrock skill, essential in all subject areas. Thus, we teachers need to devote…

  4. Multiparty quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhanjun; Li Yong; Man Zhongxiao

    2005-04-01

    Based on a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol [Phys. Rev. A 69 052319 (2004)], we propose a (n,n)-threshold scheme of multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical messages (QSSCM) using only single photons. We take advantage of this multiparty QSSCM scheme to establish a scheme of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information (SSQI), in which only all quantum information receivers collaborate can the original qubit be reconstructed. A general idea is also proposed for constructing multiparty SSQI schemes from any QSSCM scheme.

  5. Common Core State Standards and Adaptive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamil, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the issues of how Common Core State Standards (CCSS) will impact adaptive teaching. It focuses on 2 of the major differences between conventional standards and CCSS: the increased complexity of text and the addition of disciplinary literacy standards to reading instruction. The article argues that adaptive teaching under CCSS…

  6. Discussing stories: on how a dialogic reading intervention improves kindergartners' oral narrative construction.

    PubMed

    Lever, Rosemary; Sénéchal, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Oral narrative skills are assumed to develop through parent-child interactive routines. One such routine is shared reading. A causal link between shared reading and narrative knowledge, however, has not been clearly established. The current research tested whether an 8-week shared reading intervention enhanced the fictional narrative skills of children entering formal education. Dialogic reading, a shared reading activity that involves elaborative questioning techniques, was used to engage children in oral interaction during reading and to emphasize elements of story knowledge. Participants were 40 English-speaking 5- and 6-year-olds who were assigned to either the dialogic reading group or an alternative treatment group. Analysis of covariance results found that the dialogic reading children's posttest narratives were significantly better on structure and context measures than those for the alternative treatment children, but results differed for produced or retold narratives. The dialogic reading children also showed expressive vocabulary gains. Overall, this study concretely determined that aspects of fictional narrative construction knowledge can be learned from interactive book reading. PMID:20828708

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  8. The Sharing Tree: Preschool Children Learn to Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing activity.…

  9. Bidirectional Quantum States Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jia-Yin; Bai, Ming-qiang; Mo, Zhi-Wen

    2016-05-01

    With the help of the shared entanglement and LOCC, multidirectional quantum states sharing is considered. We first put forward a protocol for implementing four-party bidirectional states sharing (BQSS) by using eight-qubit cluster state as quantum channel. In order to extend BQSS, we generalize this protocol from four sharers to multi-sharers utilizing two multi-qubit GHZ-type states as channel, and propose two multi-party BQSS schemes. On the other hand, we generalize the three schemes from two senders to multi-senders with multi GHZ-type states of multi-qubit as quantum channel, and give a multidirectional quantum states sharing protocol. In our schemes, all receivers can reconstruct the original unknown single-qubit state if and only if all sharers can cooperate. Only Pauli operations, Bell-state measurement and single-qubit measurement are used in our schemes, so these schemes are easily realized in physical experiment and their successful probabilities are all one.

  10. Learning to Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2010-01-01

    In the tug-of-war between researchers and IT for supercomputing resources, a centralized approach can help both sides get more bang for their buck. As 2010 began, the University of Washington was preparing to launch its first shared high-performance computing cluster, a 1,500-node system called Hyak, dedicated to research activities. Like other…

  11. Illegal File Sharing 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

  12. Knowledge Sharing at Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vries, Bregje; Pieters, Jules

    2007-01-01

    To improve the quality in teaching and learning, opportunities need to be provided where practitioners and researchers meet and share visions, disseminate findings, co-construct ideas, and set research agendas together. Visiting a conference is one well-known and established way to do this. But are they effective? A survey was conducted among the…

  13. Sharing Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…

  14. Sharing Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Three ideas are shared: using geometric figures in motivational practice of order operations with prealgebra students; constructing a test with a holiday theme to increase student interest; and coding greeting cards for students that can be solved mathematically through the use of previously learned concepts. (MP)

  15. Home literacy predictors of early reading development in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan; van Balkom, Hans; van Leeuwe, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present 1-year long longitudinal study was to determine which home literacy variables were effective in stimulating early reading skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP) directly or indirectly via the reading precursors. Parents of 35 children with CP completed questionnaires regarding aspects of the home literacy environment (HLE). The reading precursors: Vocabulary, Syntactic skills and phonological awareness, i.e., Rhyme and Phonemic awareness, were assessed at the end of Kindergarten and the end of Grade 1, while the early reading skills Letter knowledge and Word recognition were assessed only at the end of Grade 1. Three HLE variables were found to be related to reading precursors and early reading skills: Parent literacy mediation, Word orientation and Story orientation activities during shared book reading. Path analyses showed that these three HLE variables were not directly related to early reading skills in Grade 1, but indirectly via the reading precursors, in particular phonological awareness. PMID:18541405

  16. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  17. Can Read, Can Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Linda Worden always loved books. She liked the way they felt in her hands and the way they smelled. The only problem was she could not read them--until she took part in Channel 4's "Can't Read, Can't Write". This article tells the story of Linda Worden and how learning to read changed her life. Her attempts to learn as an adult are a shocking…

  18. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  19. As Libraries Go Digital, Sharing of Data Is at Odds with Tradition of Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Colleges share many things on Twitter, but one topic can be risky to broach: the reading habits of library patrons. Patrons' privacy is precious to most librarians. Yet new Web services thrive on collecting and sharing the very information that has long been protected. This points to an emerging tension as libraries embrace digital services.…

  20. Using Poetry Writing and Sharing to Promote Student Empathy and Caring.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Mitzi M; Kowalski, Sonya L

    2015-01-01

    A poetry writing activity revealed both empathy and caring among nursing students. Using course readings to identify a topic, students created and shared their poems in an online format. The poems and students' reactions concur with existing literature that poetry writing and sharing reveals empathy and caring. Suggestions for using a poetry writing activity in nursing education are included. PMID:26465628

  1. Teaching Elementary Students with Multiple Disabilities to Participate in Shared Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Diane M.; Mims, Pamela J.; Spooner, Fred; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn; Lee, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Literacy may be one of the most important instructional areas for enhancing quality of life for all students. One way to promote literacy skills is through engaging students in the shared reading of a story. In this study, methods for planning and implementing shared stories for three students with multiple disabilities was evaluated via a…

  2. Effects of Home Literacy, Parents' Beliefs, and Children's Task-Focused Behavior on Emergent Literacy and Word Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kathy A.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Georgiou, George K.; Kirby, John R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of home literacy (shared book reading, teaching activities, and number of books), children's task-focused behavior, and parents' beliefs and expectations about their child's reading and academic ability on kindergarten children's (N = 61) phonological sensitivity and letter knowledge and on Grade 1 word reading. The results…

  3. Policy enabled information sharing system

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Craig R.; Nelson, Brian D.; Ratheal, Steve W.

    2014-09-02

    A technique for dynamically sharing information includes executing a sharing policy indicating when to share a data object responsive to the occurrence of an event. The data object is created by formatting a data file to be shared with a receiving entity. The data object includes a file data portion and a sharing metadata portion. The data object is encrypted and then automatically transmitted to the receiving entity upon occurrence of the event. The sharing metadata portion includes metadata characterizing the data file and referenced in connection with the sharing policy to determine when to automatically transmit the data object to the receiving entity.

  4. Read Hard, Play Later: Putting Summer Reading into Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wemett, Lisa C.; Bolan, Kimberly

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of "Read on the Wild Side," a summer reading program for young adults established by the Webster (New York) Public Library, and "Read Hard, Play Later," a young adult summer reading program of the Pioneer Library System (New York). Highlights include reading logs, T-shirts, publicity, program evaluation, benefits, summer…

  5. Invent the Future--READ! 2000 Texas Reading Club Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Martha; Davis, Robin Works; Harris, Marlive; Marcum, Paul

    The Texas Reading Club is designed to encourage youth to read for pleasure and to promote library usage.A statewide theme is selected each year that emphasizes ways in which reading expands young minds and encourages children to use their imaginations. The year 2000's theme, "Invent the future! READ!," emphasizes ways in which reading expands…

  6. Motivating Reading Comprehension: Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T., Ed.; Wigfield, Allan, Ed.; Perencevich, Kathleen C., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Concept Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) is a unique, classroom-tested model of reading instruction that breaks new ground by explicitly showing how content knowledge, reading strategies, and motivational support all merge in successful reading instruction. A theoretical perspective (engagement in reading) frames the book and provides a…

  7. The Effect of Guided Reading Instruction on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Vanda Lea

    2010-01-01

    Although reading achievement correlates highly with a student's ability to do well in school, not all children achieve in reading. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate whether reading instruction provided in small groups at the child's own reading level, known as "guided reading instruction," would result in significant…

  8. Assisted Reading with Digital Audiobooks for Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteves, Kelli J.; Whitten, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of assisted reading with digital audiobooks with the traditional practice of sustained silent reading (SSR) in terms of reading fluency and reading attitude with upper elementary students with reading disabilities. Treatment group participants selected authentic children's literature and engaged…

  9. Elastomeric load sharing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isabelle, Charles J. (Inventor); Kish, Jules G. (Inventor); Stone, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An elastomeric load sharing device, interposed in combination between a driven gear and a central drive shaft to facilitate balanced torque distribution in split power transmission systems, includes a cylindrical elastomeric bearing and a plurality of elastomeric bearing pads. The elastomeric bearing and bearing pads comprise one or more layers, each layer including an elastomer having a metal backing strip secured thereto. The elastomeric bearing is configured to have a high radial stiffness and a low torsional stiffness and is operative to radially center the driven gear and to minimize torque transfer through the elastomeric bearing. The bearing pads are configured to have a low radial and torsional stiffness and a high axial stiffness and are operative to compressively transmit torque from the driven gear to the drive shaft. The elastomeric load sharing device has spring rates that compensate for mechanical deviations in the gear train assembly to provide balanced torque distribution between complementary load paths of split power transmission systems.

  10. Shared health governance.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2011-07-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a ) developed the "health capability paradigm," a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called "shared health governance" (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  11. Shared Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  12. Efficient quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2016-05-01

    An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the dealer generates some single particles and then uses the operations of quantum-controlled-not and Hadamard gate to encode a determinate secret into these particles. The participants get their shadows by performing the single-particle measurements on their particles, and even the dealer cannot know their shadows. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more practical within the present technologies.

  13. Bonobos Share with Strangers

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jingzhi; Hare, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Humans are thought to possess a unique proclivity to share with others – including strangers. This puzzling phenomenon has led many to suggest that sharing with strangers originates from human-unique language, social norms, warfare and/or cooperative breeding. However, bonobos, our closest living relative, are highly tolerant and, in the wild, are capable of having affiliative interactions with strangers. In four experiments, we therefore examined whether bonobos will voluntarily donate food to strangers. We show that bonobos will forego their own food for the benefit of interacting with a stranger. Their prosociality is in part driven by unselfish motivation, because bonobos will even help strangers acquire out-of-reach food when no desirable social interaction is possible. However, this prosociality has its limitations because bonobos will not donate food in their possession when a social interaction is not possible. These results indicate that other-regarding preferences toward strangers are not uniquely human. Moreover, language, social norms, warfare and cooperative breeding are unnecessary for the evolution of xenophilic sharing. Instead, we propose that prosociality toward strangers initially evolves due to selection for social tolerance, allowing the expansion of individual social networks. Human social norms and language may subsequently extend this ape-like social preference to the most costly contexts. PMID:23300956

  14. Toward worldwide data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Raymond; Joy, Steven; King, Todd

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade the nature of space science research has changed dramatically. Earlier investigators could carry out meaningful research by looking at observations from a single instrument on a single spacecraft. Today that is rapidly changing and researchers regularly use data from multiple instruments on multiple spacecraft as well as observations from ground observatories. Increasingly those observations come from missions flown by many countries. Recent advances in distributed data management have made it possible for researchers located around the world to access and use data from multiple nations. By using virtual observatory technology it no longer matters where data are housed they can be freely accessed wherever they reside. In this presentation we will discuss two initiatives designed to make space science data access worldwide. One is the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) and the other is the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC). In both cases the key to worldwide data sharing is adopting common metadata standards. In this talk we will review how these two groups are addressing the worldwide data sharing and their progress in achieving their goals. IPDA and HDMC are two of several efforts to promote broad based data sharing. Talks in the remainder of the symposium will discuss this is more detail.

  15. Diver First Class Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, E. C., III; Berghage, T. E.

    The Nelson-Denny reading test was administered to thirty Navy first class diver candidates to evaluate the group's vocabulary, reading comprehension, reading rate and over-all reading ability. Reading rate and comprehension were at the twelfth grade level, while vocabulary ability was equal to the college freshman norm. (Author)

  16. SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGUIGAN, FRANK J.

    EFFORTS WERE MADE IN THIS STUDY TO (1) RELATE THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING TO LEVEL OF READING PROFICIENCY, INTELLIGENCE, AGE, AND GRADE PLACEMENT OF SUBJECTS, AND (2) DETERMINE WHETHER THE AMOUNT OF SILENT SPEECH DURING SILENT READING IS AFFECTED BY THE LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY OF PROSE READ AND BY THE READING OF A FOREIGN…

  17. The Beginning Stages of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Fiona, Comp.

    Noting that in the beginning stages of reading it is helpful for children to be surrounded by the written word and to be read to by adults, this article offers brief encapsulations of and responses to five articles about beginning reading and reading readiness. The five articles are as follows: (1) "Three-Year-Olds in Their Reading Corner" by…

  18. A School Policy for Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwell, Jane

    1992-01-01

    Offers a school policy for reading, arrived at as a product of a whole school inservice program. Discusses word recognition, sound-symbol correspondence, prediction, classroom environment, reading with an adult, parents and reading, assessment of reading, and reading material selection. (RS)

  19. Reading with a Special Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCool, Mary

    Disadvantaged secondary school students with special reading needs can be motivated in the reading room. The school year can start with "popcorn" reading involving materials that are funny, interesting, and exciting. The teacher reads to the students or the students read silently, using materials on the students' independent rather than…

  20. Reading Activities of American Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharon, Amiel T.

    A reading activities survey as part of the Targeted Research and Development Reading Program was done by interviewing 3,504 adults, aged 16 years or older, selected by area probability sampling. Among the preliminary findings was that the most frequent type of reading is newspaper reading. Seven out of 10 people read or look at a newspaper during…

  1. Paraprofessionals and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Marian L.

    This pamphlet suggests guidelines to follow for the selection, training, and supervision of paraprofessionals and volunteers in teaching reading and reading-related activities. The contents include: criteria by which paraprofessionals should be selected (emotional stability, ability to relate well to people, ethics, and formal and informal…

  2. Television and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…

  3. EXPERIMENTS IN KINDERGARTEN READING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAKER, EVA L.; AND OTHERS

    FOUR PAPERS GIVEN AT THE READING SYMPOSIUM OF THE 1968 AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATION PRESENT DISCUSSIONS OF THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL LABORATORY (SWRL) READING PROGRAM. THE FIRST PAPER DESCRIBES OBJECTIVES, CLASSROOM MATERIALS, AND PROCEDURES. OBJECTIVES FOR SIGHT-RECOGNITION, WORD-ATTACK SKILLS, AND COMPREHENSION SKILLS ARE EXPRESSED IN…

  4. Keep Them Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanneman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The relentless quest of the school librarian is finding the right book for each student, searching for the home-run book for every child, and keeping students reading book after book after book. A considerable amount of the school librarian's time, effort, and creativity are devoted not only to motivating students to read, but to keeping them…

  5. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests several novels for educators' summer reading enjoyment, including classics by Robert Pirsig, Robertson Davies, John Steinbeck, Albert Camus, and Charles Dickens. Educators might also read Alex Kotlowitz's "There Are No Children Here" (Doubleday, 1991) and Sharon Quint's "Schooling Homeless Children" (Teachers College Press, 1994) to gain…

  6. Philosophy of Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Reading teachers need to provide for individual differences so that each pupil might attain optimally. Methods of teaching reading should be varied and thus reflect diverse philosophies of instruction. These philosophies should be analyzed and used to guide optimal pupil achievement. A philosophy of phoneme/grapheme relationships should be…

  7. Reading: Process and Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth S.; Niles, Olive S.

    Broad and major concerns dealing with reading are set forth in this monograph to provoke discussion and examination by both researchers and practitioners. In Part 1, Kenneth S. Goodman presents a psycholinguistic view of language and reading (within a transformational-generative framework) as essentially a set of processes of recoding, decoding,…

  8. Visual Search and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calfee, Robert C.; Jameson, Penny

    The effect on reading speed of the number of target items being searched for and the number of target occurrences in the text was examined. The subjects, 24 college undergraduate volunteers, were presented with a list of target words, and then they read a passage for comprehension which contained occurrences of the target words (Experiment1) or…

  9. Maryland Reading First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    In years past, Maryland has provided little guidance toward adoption and implementation of Scientifically Based Reading Research (SBRR) programs. Only recently, with the implementation of the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration program and the Reading Excellence Act (REA) program, have schools or local education agencies been required to…

  10. Savoring Reading Schoolwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; Fogarty, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past four years, educators and researchers from the University of Connecticut have worked with urban high-poverty schools to implement an alternative reading instruction program called the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Reading (SEM-R). Based on Renzulli's Enrichment Triad Model, the SEM-R works through planned enrichment experiences to…

  11. INTERMEDIATE READINGS IN TAGALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOWEN, J. DONALD, ED.

    THE SECOND IN A SERIES OF TEXTS DESIGNED TO HELP THE STUDENT ACHIEVE AN UNDERSTANDING OF FILIPINO CULTURE AND ACQUIRE ENOUGH PROFICIENCY IN TAGALOG TO COMMUNICATE EASILY AND MEANINGFULLY, THESE INTERMEDIATE READINGS ARE COORDINATED WITH THE EDITOR'S "BEGINNING TAGALOG" (ED 014 696). INCLUDED IN PART I ARE READINGS WRITTEN ESPECIALLY FOR THIS TEXT…

  12. Reading Is Fundamental, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

    Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) is a national, nonprofit organization designed to motivate children to read by making a wide variety of inexpensive books available to them and allowing the children to choose and keep books that interest them. This annual report for 1977 contains the following information on the RIF project: an account of the…

  13. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  14. Summer Reading Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, Maryann; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2007-01-01

    Summer reading loss is a documented reality for many students. It is often of greatest concern for those who are already at risk, who typically have limited access to reading materials at home and whose parents or caregivers may be reluctant or unsure of how to help. By raising parents' awareness of the importance of supporting their children's…

  15. Reading and Postmodernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, James C.

    One of the main differences between the whole language position and the more traditional views lies in the epistemological base upon which whole language is rooted. Although whole language proponents may not have clearly put forth an epistemology upon which their views of reading acquisition and the reading process are based, still a careful…

  16. Reading for Meaning: Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkle, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

  17. [Reading Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmatier, Robert A., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Epistle," the publication forum of Professors of Reading Teacher Educators, contains three papers as well as the regular features on job openings and on miscellaneous facts. Titles and authors of the articles are: "Doctoral Education in Reading: The State of the Art," by Richard Allington; "The Virtues of Being a Toad and What That…

  18. Entrepreneurship Education: Supplementary Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Thomas J.; And Others

    This third volume in the Entrepreneurship Education curriculum materials includes readings and suggested additional resources which complement the instructional strategies contained in the first two volumes. Three sections are included in the guide: critical incidents, readings in entrepreneurial skills, and management skill area resources.…

  19. Using Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    Describes collaborative strategic reading (CSR), a technique for teaching students, such as those with learning disabilities, reading comprehension and vocabulary skills in a cooperative setting. Covers teaching the four strategies of CSR (preview, click and clunk, get the gist, and wrap up), as well as teaching students cooperative learning group…

  20. Making Textbook Reading Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz

    2012-01-01

    When students enter middle school, they are confronted with the necessity of learning from complex content-area textbooks. Many students find these texts boring, and they may lack the higher-order reading comprehension skills they need to tackle complex text. Yet the ability to read informational text is essential to success in middle school and…

  1. VISION AND READING ABILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

    SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

  2. CRITICAL READING DEVELOPS EARLY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, DORRIS; AND OTHERS

    THIS ISSUE OF THE READING AIDS SERIES PRESENTS A DISCUSSION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CRITICAL READING AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN AND HOW IT CAN BE DEVELOPED. IT OFFERS SUGGESTIONS FOR THE MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT OF THINKING SKILLS AND ATTITUDES OF INQUIRY AND EVALUATION. SOME OF THE TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE -- (1) THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERCEPTS, CONCEPTS, AND COMMON…

  3. American Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nila Banton

    A presentation of the history of reading instruction in the United States, this book is a special edition of Nila Banton Smith's original 1965 volume with the addition of a prologue on her life, and an epilogue which updates the history of reading instruction from 1965 to 1985. Chapter headings consist of: (1) The Beginnings of Reading…

  4. The Virtues of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    In Danny DeVito's film "Matilda," Harry Wormwood berates his young daughter, the title character, when she insists on reading. He tells her, "There's nothing you can get from a book that you can't get faster from television." Matilda's would-be visionary father, however, is blind to crucial habits of mind fostered by reading books that are not…

  5. An Individualized Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nancy B.

    The operating procedures of a university reading and study skills center for completely individualized reading instruction are described. The program is offered as a student service (no fee) on a voluntary, noncredit basis. A prepared set of instructional tapes is used whereby students can largely serve themselves, proceeding at their own rates,…

  6. Against Reading Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lennard J.

    2012-01-01

    A course's reading list is the skeleton of a semester's body of thought, the inventory that a professor writes up for the departmental Web site and the schedule of courses that lists the goods. Despite the obvious utility of fixed reading lists, one should jettison them when possible. The author has been conducting an informal experiment using a…

  7. Teaching Reading in Homeschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yambo, Idalia

    This paper discusses the home-schooling trend and identifies reading instructional methods used by home-schooling parents. Interviews were conducted with 5 home-schooling families of children ranging in age from 1 to 14 years. Parents reported that they began reading instruction with their child at about age 5 and agreed that instruction in…

  8. Reading in Kazakhstan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisembaeva, Zhanat Abaevna

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes sociological research conducted by Kazakhstan libraries between 1991 and 1994. Highlights include discussions on the sociology of reading, research results, and library facilities. It was found that reading is characterized by frequent changes in demands of readers caused by dramatic shifts in ideology, politics, and economics in the…

  9. Anything but Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Both the popular media and professional literature are filled with suggestions on how to improve reading, but the one approach that always works is rarely mentioned: provide readers with a supply of interesting and comprehensible books. Instead, people are given advice that is dead wrong as a means of improving reading (e.g., roller skating and…

  10. Reading Field Experience Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceaser, Lisbeth

    The lessons included in this collection were written by California Polytechnic State University Reading Specialist Credential candidates in the Salinas Cohort Project of 1992 as partial fulfillment for an education course titled "Bilingual Special Education Reading Problems." Each lesson is research-based. A rationale describes the reading…

  11. The Reading Tutor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosberg, Merilee A.

    As a direct result of the passage of the America Reads Challenge Act in 1997, Mt. Mercy College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, has developed a reading tutor program. The program includes a college credit course and on-site visits by college faculty supervising student tutors. This article includes the rationale for development of a credit course for reading…

  12. Reading with an Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes that parents' reading to infants fosters interest in literature and provides foundation for basic reading skills. Titles of musical books, point-and-say books, touch and smell books, cardboard books, cloth books, plastic books, and early stories are provided. (Author/DB)

  13. Connecting Males and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2011-01-01

    The problems facing males and reading continues to be a topic of concern and discussion in communities across the country. The author has interviewed school librarians and teachers, however, who are coordinating programs that are successfully connecting male students and reading. This article includes summaries of those interviews. The author has…

  14. Little Herder Reading Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The Little Herder Reading Series is comprised of 4 volumes based on the life of a Navajo Indian girl. The books are written in English blank verse and describe many facets of Indian life. The volumes contain illustrations by Hoke Denetsosie which give a pictorial representation of the printed verse. The reading level is for the middle and upper…

  15. Teaching Reading and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Maryann; Manning, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Introduces Earth Day. Encourages the use of reading, writing, and theme immersion to increase student participation in such activities. Provides information on several organizations which students can obtain concerning environmental awareness. Recommends reading materials that can be obtained in hard copy as well as on the Internet. (MOK)

  16. Reading and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anna; And Others

    This publication contains materials used in the three phases of the reading and mathematics components of work-specific classes. Each section begins with an overview of developments in that phase. Section 1 focuses on Phase 1 during which math and reading were taught as separate components. It contains a math placement appraisal, worksheets and…

  17. Motivating Students To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Roberta S.; Warner, Dori

    This action research project implemented a program for motivating students to read so that they would become enthusiastic, lifelong readers. The targeted population consisted of first- and second-grade students in a middle class community located in a western suburb of Chicago, Illinois. The problem of lack of motivation in reading was documented…

  18. Children's Reading Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexel E., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This issue of the "Journal of Children and Youth" focuses on children's strategies for decoding and comprehending written language and teacher's strategies for facilitating this process. The issue includes eleven papers by members of the Indiana Reading Professors division of the Indiana State Reading Council and several invited guests. Peggy…

  19. Reading and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikov, Sergei N.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a short historical and sociological analysis of reading in the Soviet Union from the beginning of the twentieth century to perestroika. Discusses some sociocultural problems associated with reading, including the prevailing social, economic and political crises in all spheres of life, particularly the cultural. (RS)

  20. Reading Where It Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teachers are reminded that their content subject areas require acquainting children with special words or symbols related to that subject area (e.g. mathematics or social studies). Because children can read well does not mean they would be understanding of any special reading skill required in a content subject area; that the…

  1. Reading Methods Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2008-01-01

    This working paper explores contemporary research related to methods for teaching reading in Spanish and English in bilingual, foreign language, and English as a second language (ESL) classrooms. Changes stemming from innovations in research and learning are identified and a table is provided to compare methods of teaching reading in Spanish and…

  2. Reading for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKearney, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The Reading Agency has been backing and building a movement in libraries called reader development. The movement is creating a livelier, more interventionist reading service that's both much more attractive and socially relevant. A focus on reader development is changing the way public libraries work, and transforming people's lives in the…

  3. Cerebral Laterality and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackworth, Jane F.

    Recent research has confirmed that hemispheric patterns of dominance are related to reading skills. Reading is more complex than speech because it includes a visuo-spatial element. In the great majority of people, the left hemisphere deals with speech and sequencing skills. Visual matching of printed words requires the spatial skills of the right…

  4. Reading Stars. 2013 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The National Literacy Trust's Premier League Reading Stars has now been running for 10 years. During this time, hundreds of thousands of children and families have been inspired by the power of football to develop a love of reading. Although the programme has grown and evolved over this period, the premise remains the same: harnessing the…

  5. Extending Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    The April 2015 issue of "Reading in a Foreign Language" featured a discussion forum on extensive reading (ER). Most of the authors, recognized authorities on ER, discussed their views of the principles of ER, particularly in establishing and conducting ER programs. The purpose of this discussion is to review developments in the practice…

  6. The Roots of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Colleen, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This newsletter covers educational issues affecting schools in the Western Regional Educational Laboratory's 4-state region (Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah) and nationwide. The following articles appear in the Volume 4, Number 1 issue: (1) "The Roots of Reading"; (2) "Breaking the Code: Reading Literacy in K-3"; (3) "Improving Secondary…

  7. Superheroes and Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ron; Buckner, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    To combat summer learning loss among remedial readers, teachers and consultants in the Omaha, Nebraska, Title I program designed a series of comic-book reading units and mailed them to students' homes. Parents were pleased with the project and it appeared that less reading skill had been lost by September. (SJL)

  8. Learn to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelson, Marilyn; And Others

    The Learn to Read project was designed to provide a supportive setting in which functionally illiterate adult students from suburban Cook County, Illinois, and surrounding areas could develop reading and writing skills. The target population included English-dominant adults with basic oral competency but no literacy skills, as well as…

  9. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  10. Measuring Reading Performance Informally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, William R.

    To improve the accuracy of the informal reading inventory (IRI), a differential set of criteria is necessary for both word recognition and comprehension scores for different levels and reading conditions. In initial evaluation, word recognition scores should reflect only errors of insertions, omissions, mispronunciations, substitiutions, unkown…

  11. The genetic and environmental etiologies of the relations between cognitive skills and components of reading ability.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Micaela E; Keenan, Janice M; Hulslander, Jacqueline; DeFries, John C; Miyake, Akira; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik; Pennington, Bruce; Olson, Richard K

    2016-04-01

    Although previous research has shown cognitive skills to be important predictors of reading ability in children, the respective roles for genetic and environmental influences on these relations is an open question. The present study explored the genetic and environmental etiologies underlying the relations between selected executive functions and cognitive abilities (working memory, inhibition, processing speed, and naming speed) with 3 components of reading ability (word reading, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension). Twin pairs drawn from the Colorado Front Range (n = 676; 224 monozygotic pairs; 452 dizygotic pairs) between the ages of 8 and 16 (M = 11.11) were assessed on multiple measures of each cognitive and reading-related skill. Each cognitive and reading-related skill was modeled as a latent variable, and behavioral genetic analyses estimated the portions of phenotypic variance on each latent variable due to genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental influences. The covariance between the cognitive skills and reading-related skills was driven primarily by genetic influences. The cognitive skills also shared large amounts of genetic variance, as did the reading-related skills. The common cognitive genetic variance was highly correlated with the common reading genetic variance, suggesting that genetic influences involved in general cognitive processing are also important for reading ability. Skill-specific genetic variance in working memory and processing speed also predicted components of reading ability. Taken together, the present study supports a genetic association between children's cognitive ability and reading ability. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26974208

  12. Never Too Late: Approaches to Reading Instruction for Secondary Students with Disabilities. Research to Practice Brief: Improving Secondary Education and Transition Services through Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapper, Ann T.; Bremer, Christine D.; Kachgal, Mera M.

    This research brief discusses two reading instruction models for teaching secondary school students with disabilities. The first, Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR), is designed specifically for students with learning disabilities and students who are at risk of reading failure. This strategy adapts reciprocal reading and incorporates…

  13. Readings in Reading: Practice, Theory, Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Delwyn G., Ed.; Torgerson, Theodore L., Ed.

    Designed to give teachers, specialists, and students insight into the historical development of trends, theory, research, and current practices in reading instruction, 82 selections written over a period of nearly 150 years have been compiled from books, monographs, pamphlets, yearbooks, conference proceedings, and education periodicals. The…

  14. Smartphone adapters for digital photomicrography

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Somak; Pantanowitz, Liron; Amin, Milon; Seethala, Raja R.; Ishtiaque, Ahmed; Yousem, Samuel A.; Parwani, Anil V.; Cucoranu, Ioan; Hartman, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Photomicrographs in Anatomic Pathology provide a means of quickly sharing information from a glass slide for consultation, education, documentation and publication. While static image acquisition historically involved the use of a permanently mounted camera unit on a microscope, such cameras may be expensive, need to be connected to a computer, and often require proprietary software to acquire and process images. Another novel approach for capturing digital microscopic images is to use smartphones coupled with the eyepiece of a microscope. Recently, several smartphone adapters have emerged that allow users to attach mobile phones to the microscope. The aim of this study was to test the utility of these various smartphone adapters. Materials and Methods: We surveyed the market for adapters to attach smartphones to the ocular lens of a conventional light microscope. Three adapters (Magnifi, Skylight and Snapzoom) were tested. We assessed the designs of these adapters and their effectiveness at acquiring static microscopic digital images. Results: All adapters facilitated the acquisition of digital microscopic images with a smartphone. The optimal adapter was dependent on the type of phone used. The Magnifi adapters for iPhone were incompatible when using a protective case. The Snapzoom adapter was easiest to use with iPhones and other smartphones even with protective cases. Conclusions: Smartphone adapters are inexpensive and easy to use for acquiring digital microscopic images. However, they require some adjustment by the user in order to optimize focus and obtain good quality images. Smartphone microscope adapters provide an economically feasible method of acquiring and sharing digital pathology photomicrographs. PMID:25191623

  15. Quantum secret sharing between multiparty and multiparty without entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Fengli; Gao Ting

    2005-07-15

    We propose a quantum secret sharing protocol between multiparty (m members in group 1) and multiparty (n members in group 2) using a sequence of single photons. These single photons are used directly to encode classical information in a quantum secret sharing process. In this protocol, all members in group 1 directly encode their respective keys on the states of single photons via unitary operations; then, the last one (the mth member of group 1) sends 1/n of the resulting qubits to each of group 2. Thus the secret message shared by all members of group 1 is shared by all members of group 2 in such a way that no subset of each group is efficient to read the secret message, but the entire set (not only group 1 but also group 2) is. We also show that it is unconditionally secure. This protocol is feasible with present-day techniques.

  16. Supporting multiple literacies: Parents' and children's mathematical talk within storybook reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ann; Anderson, Jim; Shapiro, Jon

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how parents and their young children attended to mathematical concepts as they engaged in shared book reading. Thirty-nine parents and their 4-year-old children from a culturally diverse metropolitan area were videotaped as they read Mr. McMouse (Lionni, 1992) and Swimmy (Lionni, 1963). Shared reading episodes were transcribed in their entirety and the data were coded according to a scheme developed by the authors (Anderson, Anderson, & Shapiro, 2004). All families except one engaged in mathematical talk although there was considerable diversity in terms of the amount of talk and the ways in which mathematical concepts were shared. The concept of size arose most frequently, next was different aspects of number, while shape occurred relatively infrequently. Results suggest that shared book reading holds considerable potential for parents to draw attention to mathematical vocabulary and concepts.

  17. Effects of Differentiated Reading on Elementary Students' Reading Comprehension and Attitudes toward Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Evans, Linda; Ferron, John; Lindo, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined the effects of a differentiated reading approach on fourth grade students' reading comprehension and attitudes toward reading. Eight Title I schools within one urban district were randomly assigned to treatment (Schoolwide Enrichment Model-Reading [SEM-R]) or control (district reading curriculum) conditions.…

  18. The Effects of Extensive Reading and Reading Strategies on Reading Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Lance

    2012-01-01

    This study is a quasi-experimental, longitudinal investigation into the role that extensive reading and reading strategies play in the cultivation of reading self-efficacy. Conducted over the course of one academic year, how changes in reading self-efficacy translate into changes in reading comprehension was examined. In addition, the…

  19. The Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Reading Achievement and Reading Attitudes of Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Holly Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…

  20. Role of Reading Engagement in Mediating Effects of Reading Comprehension Instruction on Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.; Perencevich, Kathleen C.; Taboada, Ana; Klauda, Susan Lutz; McRae, Angela; Barbosa, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' reading comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and motivational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for…