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Sample records for adapter molecule myd88

  1. Targeting the TLR9-MyD88 pathway in the regulation of adaptive immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2010-01-01

    IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune receptors critical in the innate immune defense against invading pathogens. Recent advances also reveal a crucial role for TLRs in shaping adaptive immune responses, conferring a potential therapeutic value to their modulation in the treatment of diseases. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW The aim of this review is to discuss TLR9, the TLR9-MyD88 signaling pathway and its role in regulation of adaptive immune responses, as well as potential therapeutic implications by targeting this pathway. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN This review shows that the TLR9-MyD88 signaling pathway plays a critical role in promoting adaptive immune responses and that modulation of this pathway may have enormous therapeutic potential in enhancing vaccine potency, controlling autoimmunity, as well as improving the outcome of viral vector-mediated gene therapy. TAKE HOME MESSAGE Although TLR9 agonists have been used as adjuvants for enhancing vaccine potency, further exploitation of the TLR9-MyD88 pathway and its dynamic interaction with the immune system in vivo is needed to provide more effective therapeutic inventions in the design of vaccines for infectious diseases, allergies and cancer, in the control of autoimmunity, as well as in the improvement of viral vector-mediated gene therapy. PMID:20560798

  2. The toll-like receptor signaling molecule Myd88 contributes to pancreatic beta-cell homeostasis in response to injury.

    PubMed

    Bollyky, Paul L; Bice, Jeffrey B; Sweet, Ian R; Falk, Ben A; Gebe, John A; Clark, April E; Gersuk, Vivian H; Aderem, Alan; Hawn, Thomas R; Nepom, Gerald T

    2009-01-01

    Commensal flora and pathogenic microbes influence the incidence of diabetes in animal models yet little is known about the mechanistic basis of these interactions. We hypothesized that Myd88, an adaptor molecule in the Toll-like-receptor (TLR) pathway, regulates pancreatic beta-cell function and homeostasis. We first examined beta-cells histologically and found that Myd88-/- mice have smaller islets in comparison to C57Bl/6 controls. Myd88-/- mice were nonetheless normoglycemic both at rest and after an intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). In contrast, after low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) challenge, Myd88-/-mice had an abnormal IPGTT relative to WT controls. Furthermore, Myd88-/- mice suffer enhanced beta-cell apoptosis and have enhanced hepatic damage with delayed recovery upon low-dose STZ treatment. Finally, we treated WT mice with broad-spectrum oral antibiotics to deplete their commensal flora. In WT mice, low dose oral lipopolysaccharide, but not lipotichoic acid or antibiotics alone, strongly promoted enhanced glycemic control. These data suggest that Myd88 signaling and certain TLR ligands mediate a homeostatic effect on beta-cells primarily in the setting of injury.

  3. The Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Molecule Myd88 Contributes to Pancreatic Beta-Cell Homeostasis in Response to Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bollyky, Paul L.; Bice, Jeffrey B.; Sweet, Ian R.; Falk, Ben A.; Gebe, John A.; Clark, April E.; Gersuk, Vivian H.; Aderem, Alan; Hawn, Thomas R.; Nepom, Gerald T.

    2009-01-01

    Commensal flora and pathogenic microbes influence the incidence of diabetes in animal models yet little is known about the mechanistic basis of these interactions. We hypothesized that Myd88, an adaptor molecule in the Toll-like-receptor (TLR) pathway, regulates pancreatic β-cell function and homeostasis. We first examined β-cells histologically and found that Myd88−/− mice have smaller islets in comparison to C57Bl/6 controls. Myd88−/− mice were nonetheless normoglycemic both at rest and after an intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). In contrast, after low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) challenge, Myd88−/−mice had an abnormal IPGTT relative to WT controls. Furthermore, Myd88−/− mice suffer enhanced β-cell apoptosis and have enhanced hepatic damage with delayed recovery upon low-dose STZ treatment. Finally, we treated WT mice with broad-spectrum oral antibiotics to deplete their commensal flora. In WT mice, low dose oral lipopolysaccharide, but not lipotichoic acid or antibiotics alone, strongly promoted enhanced glycemic control. These data suggest that Myd88 signaling and certain TLR ligands mediate a homeostatic effect on β-cells primarily in the setting of injury. PMID:19357791

  4. The Adaptor Protein Myd88 Is a Key Signaling Molecule in the Pathogenesis of Irinotecan-Induced Intestinal Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Deysi V T; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C P; Carvalho, Cibele B M; Borges, Vanessa F; Wanderley, Carlos W S; Bem, Amanda X C; Leite, Caio A V G; Teixeira, Maraiza A; Batista, Gabriela L P; Silva, Rangel L; Cunha, Thiago M; Brito, Gerly A C; Almeida, Paulo R C; Cunha, Fernando Q; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a common side effect of irinotecan-based anticancer regimens. Mucositis causes cell damage, bacterial/endotoxin translocation and production of cytokines including IL-1 and IL-18. These molecules and toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate a common signaling pathway that involves the Myeloid Differentiation adaptor protein, MyD88, whose role in intestinal mucositis is unknown. Then, we evaluated the involvement of TLRs and MyD88 in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. MyD88-, TLR2- or TLR9-knockout mice and C57BL/6 (WT) mice were given either saline or irinotecan (75 mg/kg, i.p. for 4 days). On day 7, animal survival, diarrhea and bacteremia were assessed, and following euthanasia, samples of the ileum were obtained for morphometric analysis, myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and measurement of pro-inflammatory markers. Irinotecan reduced the animal survival (50%) and induced a pronounced diarrhea, increased bacteremia, neutrophil accumulation in the intestinal tissue, intestinal damage and more than twofold increased expression of MyD88 (200%), TLR9 (400%), TRAF6 (236%), IL-1β (405%), IL-18 (365%), COX-2 (2,777%) and NF-κB (245%) in the WT animals when compared with saline-injected group (P<0.05). Genetic deletion of MyD88, TLR2 or TLR9 effectively controlled the signs of intestinal injury when compared with irinotecan-administered WT controls (P<0.05). In contrast to the MyD88-/- and TLR2-/- mice, the irinotecan-injected TLR9-/- mice showed a reduced survival, a marked diarrhea and an enhanced expression of IL-18 versus irinotecan-injected WT controls. Additionally, the expression of MyD88 was reduced in the TLR2-/- or TLR9-/- mice. This study shows a critical role of the MyD88-mediated TLR2 and TLR9 signaling in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis.

  5. The Adaptor Protein Myd88 Is a Key Signaling Molecule in the Pathogenesis of Irinotecan-Induced Intestinal Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Deysi V. T.; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C. P.; Carvalho, Cibele B. M.; Borges, Vanessa F.; Wanderley, Carlos W. S.; Bem, Amanda X. C.; Leite, Caio A. V. G.; Teixeira, Maraiza A.; Batista, Gabriela L. P.; Silva, Rangel L.; Cunha, Thiago M.; Brito, Gerly A. C.; Almeida, Paulo R. C.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a common side effect of irinotecan-based anticancer regimens. Mucositis causes cell damage, bacterial/endotoxin translocation and production of cytokines including IL–1 and IL–18. These molecules and toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate a common signaling pathway that involves the Myeloid Differentiation adaptor protein, MyD88, whose role in intestinal mucositis is unknown. Then, we evaluated the involvement of TLRs and MyD88 in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. MyD88-, TLR2- or TLR9-knockout mice and C57BL/6 (WT) mice were given either saline or irinotecan (75 mg/kg, i.p. for 4 days). On day 7, animal survival, diarrhea and bacteremia were assessed, and following euthanasia, samples of the ileum were obtained for morphometric analysis, myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and measurement of pro-inflammatory markers. Irinotecan reduced the animal survival (50%) and induced a pronounced diarrhea, increased bacteremia, neutrophil accumulation in the intestinal tissue, intestinal damage and more than twofold increased expression of MyD88 (200%), TLR9 (400%), TRAF6 (236%), IL–1β (405%), IL–18 (365%), COX–2 (2,777%) and NF-κB (245%) in the WT animals when compared with saline-injected group (P<0.05). Genetic deletion of MyD88, TLR2 or TLR9 effectively controlled the signs of intestinal injury when compared with irinotecan-administered WT controls (P<0.05). In contrast to the MyD88-/- and TLR2-/- mice, the irinotecan-injected TLR9-/- mice showed a reduced survival, a marked diarrhea and an enhanced expression of IL–18 versus irinotecan-injected WT controls. Additionally, the expression of MyD88 was reduced in the TLR2-/- or TLR9-/- mice. This study shows a critical role of the MyD88-mediated TLR2 and TLR9 signaling in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. PMID:26440613

  6. Unique Roles of TLR9- and MyD88-Dependent and -Independent Pathways in Adaptive Immune Responses to AAV-Mediated Gene Transfer.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Geoffrey L; Suzuki, Masataka; Zolotukhin, Irene; Markusic, David M; Morel, Laurence M; Lee, Brendan; Ertl, Hildegund C J; Herzog, Roland W

    2015-01-01

    The immune system represents a significant barrier to successful gene therapy with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors. In particular, adaptive immune responses to the viral capsid or the transgene product are of concern. The sensing of AAV by toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR2 and TLR9 has been suggested to play a role in innate immunity to the virus and may also shape subsequent adaptive immune responses. Here, we investigated the functions of TLR2, TLR9 and the downstream signaling adaptor MyD88 in antibody and CD8+ T-cell responses. Antibody formation against the transgene product occurred largely independently of TLR signaling following gene transfer with AAV1 or AAV2 vectors, whereas loss of signaling through the TLR9-MyD88 pathway substantially reduced CD8+ T-cell responses. In contrast, MyD88 (but neither of the TLRs) regulated antibody responses to capsid. B cell-intrinsic MyD88 was required for the formation of anti-capsid IgG2c independently of vector serotype or route of administration. However, MyD88(-/-) mice instead produced anti-capsid IgG1 that emerged with delayed kinetics but nonetheless completely prevented in vivo readministration. We conclude that there are distinct roles for TLR9 and MyD88 in promoting adaptive immune responses to AAV-mediated gene transfer and that there are redundant MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent mechanisms that stimulate neutralizing antibody formation against AAV.

  7. MyD88-mediated instructive signals in dendritic cells regulate pulmonary immune responses during respiratory virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Brian D; Schaller, Matthew A; Smit, Joost J; Kunkel, Steven L; Neupane, Rupak; Kelley, Lara; Berlin, Aaron A; Lukacs, Nicholas W

    2007-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of respiratory disease in infants worldwide. The induction of innate immunity and the establishment of adaptive immune responses are influenced by the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by TLRs. One of the primary pathways for TLR activation is by MyD88 adapter protein signaling. The present studies indicate that MyD88 deficiency profoundly impacts the pulmonary environment in RSV-infected mice characterized by the accumulation of eosinophils and augmented mucus production. Although there was little difference in CD4 T cell accumulation, there was also a significant decrease in conventional dendritic cells recruitment to the lungs of MyD88(-/-) mice. The exacerbation of RSV pathophysiology in MyD88(-/-) mice was associated with an enhanced Th2 cytokine profile that contributed to an inappropriate immune response. Furthermore, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) isolated from MyD88(-/-) mice were incapable of producing two important Th1 instructive signals, IL-12 and delta-like4, upon RSV infection. Although MyD88(-/-) BMDCs infected with RSV did up-regulate costimulatory molecules, they did not up-regulate class II as efficiently and stimulated less IFN-gamma from CD4(+) T cells in vitro compared with wild-type BMDCs. Finally, adoptive transfer of C57BL/6 BMDCs into MyD88(-/-) mice reconstituted Th1 immune responses in vivo, whereas transfer of MyD88(-/-) BMDCs into wild-type mice skewed the RSV responses toward a Th2 phenotype. Taken together, our data indicate that MyD88-mediated pathways are essential for the least pathogenic responses to this viral pathogen through the regulation of important Th1-associated instructive signals.

  8. MyD88 Shapes Vaccine Immunity by Extrinsically Regulating Survival of CD4+ T Cells during the Contraction Phase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huafeng; Hung, Chiung Yu; Sinha, Meenal; Lee, Linda M.; Wiesner, Darin L.; LeBert, Vanessa; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Suresh, Marulasiddappa; DeFranco, Anthony L.; Lowell, Clifford A.; Klein, Bruce S.; Wüthrich, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Soaring rates of systemic fungal infections worldwide underscore the need for vaccine prevention. An understanding of the elements that promote vaccine immunity is essential. We previously reported that Th17 cells are required for vaccine immunity to the systemic dimorphic fungi of North America, and that Card9 and MyD88 signaling are required for the development of protective Th17 cells. Herein, we investigated where, when and how MyD88 regulates T cell development. We uncovered a novel mechanism in which MyD88 extrinsically regulates the survival of activated T cells during the contraction phase and in the absence of inflammation, but is dispensable for the expansion and differentiation of the cells. The poor survival of activated T cells in Myd88-/- mice is linked to increased caspase3-mediated apoptosis, but not to Fas- or Bim-dependent apoptotic pathways, nor to reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Moreover, TLR3, 7, and/or 9, but not TLR2 or 4, also were required extrinsically for MyD88-dependent Th17 cell responses and vaccine immunity. Similar MyD88 requirements governed the survival of virus primed T cells. Our data identify unappreciated new requirements for eliciting adaptive immunity and have implications for designing vaccines. PMID:27542117

  9. MyD88 Is a Critical Regulator of Hematopoietic Cell-Mediated Neuroprotection Seen after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Catherine E.; Wong, Connie H. Y.; Henley, Katya J.; Guio-Aguilar, Pedro L.; Zhang, Moses; Ates, Robert; Mansell, Ashley; Kile, Benjamin T.; Crack, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is critical in the neural cell death seen in stroke. It has been shown that CNS and peripheral responses drive this neuroinflammatory response in the brain. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important regulators of inflammation in response to both exogenous and endogenous stressors. Taking advantage of a downstream adapter molecule that controls the majority of TLR signalling, this study investigated the role of the TLR adaptor protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in the control of CNS and peripheral inflammation. Reversible middle-cerebral artery occlusion was used as the model of stroke in vivo; in vitro primary cultured neurons and glia were subject to four hours of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Both in vitro and in vivo Myd88−/− animals or cells were compared with wild type (WT). We found that after stroke Myd88−/− animals have a larger infarct volume compared to WT animals. Interestingly, in vitro there was no difference between the survival of Myd88−/− and WT cells following OGD, suggesting that peripheral responses were influencing stroke outcome. We therefore generated bone marrow chimeras and found that Myd88−/− animals have a smaller stroke infarct than their radiation naive counterparts if their hematopoietic cells are WT. Furthermore, WT animals have a larger stroke than their radiation naive counterparts if the hematopoietic cells are Myd88−/−. We have demonstrated that MyD88-dependent signalling in the hematopoietic cell lineage reduces infarct size following stroke and that infiltrating cells to the site of neuroinflammation are neuroprotective following stroke. PMID:23483951

  10. Goose Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and antiviral molecules involved in anti-H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus response.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangmeng; Jiao, Peirong; Yuan, Runyu; Song, Yafen; Cui, Pengfei; Guo, Xuchen; Zheng, Bofang; Jia, Weixin; Qi, Wenbao; Ren, Tao; Liao, Ming

    2013-05-15

    In mammals, Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is an important membrane-bound receptor triggered by antiviral compounds and single-stranded RNA. It is implicated in the immune response to viruses such as influenza virus. It was not known whether geese, a natural host for avian influenza viruses, possess a homologue of mammalian TLR7 for recognizing avian influenza virus. In this study, we cloned the full-length of goose TLR7 and partial sequences of its adaptor protein, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), some antiviral molecules such as RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS). Goose TLR7 has a protein secondary structure identical to that of mammals, consisting of several leucine-rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain. To further understand whether the MyD88-dependent pathway of TLR7 is involved in the antiviral innate immune response against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in geese, we inoculated geese with an H5N1 HPAIV isolated from ducks in 2004. The virus, A/Duck/Guangdong/212/2004, replicated in various tissues resulting in 40% mortality. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed upregulation of mRNA transcripts for TLR7, MyD88, PKR and OAS in the lungs of geese at 1, 2 and 3 days post-inoculation. Therefore, the MyD88-dependent pathway of TLR7 was involved in the early stage of antiviral innate immune response in geese during H5N1 HPAIV infection.

  11. Pyogenic bacterial infections in humans with MyD88 deficiency.

    PubMed

    von Bernuth, Horst; Picard, Capucine; Jin, Zhongbo; Pankla, Rungnapa; Xiao, Hui; Ku, Cheng-Lung; Chrabieh, Maya; Mustapha, Imen Ben; Ghandil, Pegah; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Vasconcelos, Júlia; Sirvent, Nicolas; Guedes, Margarida; Vitor, Artur Bonito; Herrero-Mata, María José; Aróstegui, Juan Ignacio; Rodrigo, Carlos; Alsina, Laia; Ruiz-Ortiz, Estibaliz; Juan, Manel; Fortuny, Claudia; Yagüe, Jordi; Antón, Jordi; Pascal, Mariona; Chang, Huey-Hsuan; Janniere, Lucile; Rose, Yoann; Garty, Ben-Zion; Chapel, Helen; Issekutz, Andrew; Maródi, László; Rodriguez-Gallego, Carlos; Banchereau, Jacques; Abel, Laurent; Li, Xiaoxia; Chaussabel, Damien; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2008-08-01

    MyD88 is a key downstream adapter for most Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs). MyD88 deficiency in mice leads to susceptibility to a broad range of pathogens in experimental settings of infection. We describe a distinct situation in a natural setting of human infection. Nine children with autosomal recessive MyD88 deficiency suffered from life-threatening, often recurrent pyogenic bacterial infections, including invasive pneumococcal disease. However, these patients were otherwise healthy, with normal resistance to other microbes. Their clinical status improved with age, but not due to any cellular leakiness in MyD88 deficiency. The MyD88-dependent TLRs and IL-1Rs are therefore essential for protective immunity to a small number of pyogenic bacteria, but redundant for host defense to most natural infections.

  12. DAMP Molecule S100A9 Acts as a Molecular Pattern to Enhance Inflammation during Influenza A Virus Infection: Role of DDX21-TRIF-TLR4-MyD88 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Su-Yu; Segovia, Jesus A.; Chang, Te-Hung; Morris, Ian R.; Berton, Michael T.; Tessier, Philippe A.; Tardif, Mélanie R.; Cesaro, Annabelle; Bose, Santanu

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) trigger host immune response by activating pattern recognition receptors like toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, the mechanism whereby several pathogens, including viruses, activate TLRs via a non-PAMP mechanism is unclear. Endogenous “inflammatory mediators” called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) have been implicated in regulating immune response and inflammation. However, the role of DAMPs in inflammation/immunity during virus infection has not been studied. We have identified a DAMP molecule, S100A9 (also known as Calgranulin B or MRP-14), as an endogenous non-PAMP activator of TLR signaling during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. S100A9 was released from undamaged IAV-infected cells and extracellular S100A9 acted as a critical host-derived molecular pattern to regulate inflammatory response outcome and disease during infection by exaggerating pro-inflammatory response, cell-death and virus pathogenesis. Genetic studies showed that the DDX21-TRIF signaling pathway is required for S100A9 gene expression/production during infection. Furthermore, the inflammatory activity of extracellular S100A9 was mediated by activation of the TLR4-MyD88 pathway. Our studies have thus, underscored the role of a DAMP molecule (i.e. extracellular S100A9) in regulating virus-associated inflammation and uncovered a previously unknown function of the DDX21-TRIF-S100A9-TLR4-MyD88 signaling network in regulating inflammation during infection. PMID:24391503

  13. Atg5 regulates formation of MyD88 condensed structures and MyD88-dependent signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Megumi; Into, Takeshi; Niida, Shumpei; Murakami, Yukitaka

    2013-08-09

    MyD88 is known as an essential adaptor protein for Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Previous studies have shown that transfected MyD88 forms condensed structures in the cytoplasm. However, upon TLR stimulation, there is little formation of endogenous MyD88 condensed structures. Thus, the formation of MyD88 condensed structures is tightly suppressed, but the mechanism and significance of this suppression are currently unknown. Here we show that Atg5, a key regulatory protein of autophagy, inhibits the formation of MyD88 condensed structures. We found that endogenous MyD88 had already formed condensed structures in Atg5-deficient cells and that the formation of condensed structures was further enhanced by TLR stimulation. This suppressive effect of Atg5 may not be associated with autophagic processes because MyD88 itself was not degraded and because TLR stimulation did not induce LC3 punctate formation and LC3 conversion. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Atg5 could interact with MyD88. Furthermore, Atg5 deficiency increased formation of the MyD88-TRAF6 signaling complex induced by TLR stimulation, and it enhanced activation of NF-κB signaling but not MAPKs and Akt. These findings indicate that Atg5 regulates the formation of MyD88 condensed structures through association with MyD88 and eventually exerts a modulatory effect on MyD88-dependent signaling.

  14. CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 is essential for normal resolution of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection1

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Mintus, Margaret; Tomasak, Tammy E.; Prantner, Daniel; Nagarajan, Uma M.; Darville, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Resolution of Chlamydia genital tract infection is delayed in the absence of MyD88. In these studies, we first used bone marrow chimeras to demonstrate a requirement for MyD88 expression by hematopoietic cells in the presence of a wild-type epithelium. Using mixed bone marrow chimeras we then determined that MyD88 expression was specifically required in the adaptive immune compartment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments revealed that CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 was necessary for normal resolution of genital tract infection. This requirement was associated with a reduced ability of MyD88−/− CD4+ T cells to accumulate in the draining lymph nodes and genital tract when exposed to the same inflammatory milieu as wild-type CD4+ T cells. We also demonstrated that the impaired infection control we observed in the absence of MyD88 could not be recapitulated by deficiencies in TLR or IL-1R signaling. In vitro, we detected an increased frequency of apoptotic MyD88−/− CD4+ T cells upon activation in the absence of exogenous ligands for receptors upstream of MyD88. These data reveal an intrinsic requirement for MyD88 in CD4+ T cells during Chlamydia infection and indicate that the importance of MyD88 extends beyond innate immune responses by directly influencing adaptive immunity. PMID:24038087

  15. CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 is essential for normal resolution of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Lauren C; Sullivan, Jeanne E; Zurenski, Matthew A; Mintus, Margaret; Tomasak, Tammy E; Prantner, Daniel; Nagarajan, Uma M; Darville, Toni

    2013-10-15

    Resolution of Chlamydia genital tract infection is delayed in the absence of MyD88. In these studies, we first used bone marrow chimeras to demonstrate a requirement for MyD88 expression by hematopoietic cells in the presence of a wild-type epithelium. Using mixed bone marrow chimeras we then determined that MyD88 expression was specifically required in the adaptive immune compartment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments revealed that CD4(+) T cell expression of MyD88 was necessary for normal resolution of genital tract infection. This requirement was associated with a reduced ability of MyD88(-/-)CD4(+) T cells to accumulate in the draining lymph nodes and genital tract when exposed to the same inflammatory milieu as wild-type CD4(+) T cells. We also demonstrated that the impaired infection control we observed in the absence of MyD88 could not be recapitulated by deficiencies in TLR or IL-1R signaling. In vitro, we detected an increased frequency of apoptotic MyD88(-/-)CD4(+) T cells upon activation in the absence of exogenous ligands for receptors upstream of MyD88. These data reveal an intrinsic requirement for MyD88 in CD4(+) T cells during Chlamydia infection and indicate that the importance of MyD88 extends beyond innate immune responses by directly influencing adaptive immunity.

  16. Myd88 Initiates Early Innate Immune Responses and Promotes CD4 T Cells during Coronavirus Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Butchi, Niranjan; Kapil, Parul; Puntambekar, Shweta; Stohlman, Stephen A.; Hinton, David R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Myd88 signaling is critical to the control of numerous central nervous system (CNS) infections by promoting both innate and adaptive immune responses. Nevertheless, the extent to which Myd88 regulates type I interferon (IFN) versus proinflammatory factors and T cell function, as well as the anatomical site of action, varies extensively with the pathogen. CNS infection by neurotropic coronavirus with replication confined to the brain and spinal cord induces protective IFN-α/β via Myd88-independent activation of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). However, a contribution of Myd88-dependent signals to CNS pathogenesis has not been assessed. Infected Myd88−/− mice failed to control virus, exhibited enhanced clinical disease coincident with increased demyelination, and succumbed to infection within 3 weeks. The induction of IFN-α/β, as well as of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, was impaired early during infection. However, defects in both IFN-α/β and select proinflammatory factors were rapidly overcome prior to T cell recruitment. Myd88 deficiency also specifically blunted myeloid and CD4 T cell recruitment into the CNS without affecting CD8 T cells. Moreover, CD4 T cells but not CD8 T cells were impaired in IFN-γ production. Ineffective virus control indeed correlated most prominently with reduced antiviral IFN-γ in the CNS of Myd88−/− mice. The results demonstrate a crucial role for Myd88 both in early induction of innate immune responses during coronavirus-induced encephalomyelitis and in specifically promoting protective CD4 T cell activation. In the absence of these responses, functional CD8 T cells are insufficient to control viral spread within the CNS, resulting in severe demyelination. IMPORTANCE During central nervous system (CNS) infections, signaling through the adaptor protein Myd88 promotes both innate and adaptive immune responses. The extent to which Myd88 regulates antiviral type I IFN, proinflammatory

  17. Acute Brain Injury Triggers MyD88-Dependent, TLR2/4-Independent Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Koedel, Uwe; Merbt, Ulrike Michaela; Schmidt, Caroline; Angele, Barbara; Popp, Bernadette; Wagner, Hermann; Pfister, Hans-Walter; Kirschning, Carsten J.

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous molecules released from disrupted cells and extracellular matrix degradation products activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and, thus, might contribute to immune activation after tissue injury. Here, we show that aseptic, cold-induced cortical injury triggered an acute immune response that involves increased production of multiple cytokines/chemokines accompanied by neutrophil recruitment to the lesion site. We observed selective reductions in injury-induced cytokine/chemokine expression as well as in neutrophil accumulation in mice lacking the common TLR signaling adaptor MyD88 compared with wild-type mice. Notably, attenuation of the immune response was paralleled by a reduction in lesion size. Neutrophil depletion of wild-type mice and transplantation of MyD88-deficient bone marrow into lethally irradiated wild-type recipients had no substantial impact on injury-induced expression of cytokines/chemokines and on lesion development. In contrast to MyD88 deficiency, double deficiency of TLR2 and TLR4—despite the two receptors being activated by specific endogenous molecules associated to danger and signal through MyD88—altered neither immune response nor extent of tissue lesion size on injury. Our data indicate modulation of the neuroinflammatory response and lesion development after aseptic cortical injury through MyD88-dependent but TLR2/4-independent signaling by central nervous system resident nonmyeloid cells. PMID:17591966

  18. Intrinsic MyD88-Akt1-mTOR Signaling Coordinates Disparate Tc17 and Tc1 Responses during Vaccine Immunity against Fungal Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Nanjappa, Som Gowda; Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Galles, Kevin; Wüthrich, Marcel; Suresh, M; Klein, Bruce S

    2015-09-01

    Fungal infections have skyrocketed in immune-compromised patients lacking CD4+ T cells, underscoring the need for vaccine prevention. An understanding of the elements that promote vaccine immunity in this setting is essential. We previously demonstrated that vaccine-induced IL-17A+ CD8+ T cells (Tc17) are required for resistance against lethal fungal pneumonia in CD4+ T cell-deficient hosts, whereas the individual type I cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and GM-CSF, are dispensable. Here, we report that T cell-intrinsic MyD88 signals are crucial for these Tc17 cell responses and vaccine immunity against lethal fungal pneumonia in mice. In contrast, IFN-γ+ CD8+ cell (Tc1) responses are largely normal in the absence of intrinsic MyD88 signaling in CD8+ T cells. The poor accumulation of MyD88-deficient Tc17 cells was not linked to an early onset of contraction, nor to accelerated cell death or diminished expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Instead, intrinsic MyD88 was required to sustain the proliferation of Tc17 cells through the activation of mTOR via Akt1. Moreover, intrinsic IL-1R and TLR2, but not IL-18R, were required for MyD88 dependent Tc17 responses. Our data identify unappreciated targets for augmenting adaptive immunity against fungi. Our findings have implications for designing fungal vaccines and immune-based therapies in immune-compromised patients.

  19. Dissecting a Hub for Immune Response: Modeling the Structure of MyD88.

    PubMed

    Naro, Chiara; Sette, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    Immune cells sense foreign organisms through the evolutionarily conserved family of Toll-like receptors. Signaling from these receptors relies on oligomerization of adaptor molecules. In this issue of Structure, Vynke et al. (2016) shed light on the dynamical structure of the homo- and hetero-dimerization domain of MyD88, the main adaptor utilized by Toll-like receptors.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: MyD88 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 link) MYD88 DEFICIENCY Sources for This Page Maglione PJ, Simchoni N, Black S, Radigan L, Overbey JR, ... Picard C, von Bernuth H, Ghandil P, Chrabieh M, Levy O, Arkwright PD, McDonald D, Geha RS, ...

  1. MyD88-Dependent Immunity to a Natural Model of Vaccinia Virus Infection Does Not Involve Toll-Like Receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael L.; Sei, Janet J.; Siciliano, Nicholas A.; Xu, Ren-Huan; Roscoe, Felicia; Sigal, Luis J.; Eisenlohr, Laurence C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is typically thought to recognize bacterial components, it has been described to alter the induction of both innate and adaptive immunity to a number of viruses, including vaccinia virus (VACV). However, many pathogens that reportedly encode TLR2 agonists may actually be artifactually contaminated during preparation, possibly with cellular debris or merely with molecules that sensitize cells to be activated by authentic TLR2 agonists. In both humans and mice, the most relevant natural route of infection with VACV is through intradermal infection of the skin. Therefore, we examined the requirement for TLR2 and its signaling adaptor MyD88 in protective immunity to VACV after intradermal infection. We find that although TLR2 may recognize virus preparations in vitro and have a minor role in preventing dissemination of VACV following systemic infection with large doses of virus, it is wholly disposable in both control of virus replication and induction of adaptive immunity following intradermal infection. In contrast, MyD88 is required for efficient induction of CD4 T cell and B cell responses and for local control of virus replication following intradermal infection. However, even MyD88 is not required to induce local inflammation, inflammatory cytokine production, or recruitment of cells that restrict virus from spreading systemically after peripheral infection. Thus, an effective antiviral response does require MyD88, but TLR2 is not required for control of a peripheral VACV infection. These findings emphasize the importance of studying relevant routes of infection when examining innate sensing mechanisms. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia virus (VACV) provides the backbone for some of the most widely used and successful viral vaccine vectors and is also related to the human pathogens Cantagalo virus and molluscum contagiosum virus that infect the skin of patients. Therefore, it is vital to understand

  2. Absence of MyD88 results in enhanced TLR3-dependent phosphorylation of IRF3 and increased IFN-β and RANTES production.

    PubMed

    Siednienko, Jakub; Gajanayake, Thusitha; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Moynagh, Paul; Miggin, Sinéad M

    2011-02-15

    Toll-like receptors are a group of pattern-recognition receptors that play a crucial role in "danger" recognition and induction of the innate immune response against bacterial and viral infections. TLR3 has emerged as a key sensor of viral dsRNA, resulting in the induction of the anti-viral molecule, IFN-β. Thus, a clearer understanding of the biological processes that modulate TLR3 signaling is essential. Previous studies have shown that the TLR adaptor, Mal/TIRAP, an activator of TLR4, inhibits TLR3-mediated IFN-β induction through a mechanism involving IRF7. In this study, we sought to investigate whether the TLR adaptor, MyD88, an activator of all TLRs except TLR3, has the ability to modulate TLR3 signaling. Although MyD88 does not significantly affect TLR3 ligand-induced TNF-α induction, MyD88 negatively regulates TLR3-, but not TLR4-, mediated IFN-β and RANTES production; this process is mechanistically distinct from that employed by Mal/TIRAP. We show that MyD88 inhibits IKKε-, but not TBK1-, induced activation of IRF3. In doing so, MyD88 curtails TLR3 ligand-induced IFN-β induction. The present study shows that while MyD88 activates all TLRs except TLR3, MyD88 also functions as a negative regulator of TLR3. Thus, MyD88 is essential in restricting TLR3 signaling, thereby protecting the host from unwanted immunopathologies associated with the excessive production of IFN-β. Our study offers a new role for MyD88 in restricting TLR3 signaling through a hitherto unknown mechanism whereby MyD88 specifically impairs IKKε-mediated induction of IRF3 and concomitant IFN-β and RANTES production.

  3. MyD88 Mediates Instructive Signaling in Dendritic Cells and Protective Inflammatory Response during Rickettsial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bechelli, Jeremy; Smalley, Claire; Zhao, Xuemei; Judy, Barbara; Valdes, Patricia; Walker, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Spotted fever group rickettsiae cause potentially life-threatening infections throughout the world. Several members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family are involved in host response to rickettsiae, and yet the mechanisms by which these TLRs mediate host immunity remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we found that host susceptibility of MyD88−/− mice to infection with Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia australis was significantly greater than in wild-type (WT) mice, in association with severely impaired bacterial clearance in vivo. R. australis-infected MyD88−/− mice showed significantly lower expression levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1β, accompanied by significantly fewer inflammatory infiltrates of macrophages and neutrophils in infected tissues, than WT mice. The serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-6, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were significantly reduced, while monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and RANTES were significantly increased in infected MyD88−/− mice compared to WT mice. Strikingly, R. australis infection was incapable of promoting increased expression of MHC-IIhigh and production of IL-12p40 in MyD88−/− bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) compared to WT BMDCs, although costimulatory molecules were upregulated in both types of BMDCs. Furthermore, the secretion levels of IL-1β by Rickettsia-infected BMDCs and in the sera of infected mice were significantly reduced in MyD88−/− mice compared to WT controls, suggesting that in vitro and in vivo production of IL-1β is MyD88 dependent. Taken together, our results suggest that MyD88 signaling mediates instructive signals in DCs and secretion of IL-1β and type 1 immune cytokines, which may account for the protective inflammatory response during rickettsial infection. PMID:26755162

  4. Transforming growth factor-beta differentially inhibits MyD88-dependent, but not TRAM- and TRIF-dependent, lipopolysaccharide-induced TLR4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Naiki, Yoshikazu; Michelsen, Kathrin S; Zhang, Wenxuang; Chen, Shuang; Doherty, Terence M; Arditi, Moshe

    2005-02-18

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a multifunctional, potent anti-inflammatory cytokine produced by many cell types that regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize various pathogen-associated molecular patterns and are therefore a pivotal component of the innate immune system. In this study we show that TGF-beta1 blocks the NF-kappaB activation and cytokine release that is stimulated by ligands for TLRs 2, 4, and 5. We further show that TGF-beta1 can specifically interfere with TLR2, -4, or -5 ligand-induced responses involving the adaptor molecule MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88) but not the TRAM/TRIF signaling pathway by decreasing MyD88 protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner without altering its mRNA expression. The proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin abolished the MyD88 degradation induced by TGF-beta1. Furthermore, TGF-beta1 resulted in ubiquitination of MyD88 protein, suggesting that TGF-beta1 facilitates ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of MyD88 and thereby attenuates MyD88-dependent signaling by decreasing cellular levels of MyD88 protein. These findings importantly contribute to our understanding of molecular mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory modulation of immune responses by TGF-beta1.

  5. Pathogenic and protective roles of MyD88 in leukocytes and epithelial cells in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Asquith, Mark J.; Boulard, Olivier; Powrie, Fiona; Maloy, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Toll-Like Receptors (TLR) are innate immune receptors involved in recognition of the intestinal micro-flora; they are expressed by numerous cell types in the intestine, including epithelial cells, myeloid cells and lymphocytes. Little is known about the relative contributions of TLR signaling in distinct cellular compartments to intestinal homeostasis. We aimed to define the roles of TLR signals in distinct cell types in the induction and regulation of chronic intestinal inflammation. Methods We assessed the roles of the shared TLR signaling adaptor protein, MyD88, in several complementary mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), mediated by either innate or adaptive immune activation. MyD88-deficient mice and bone marrow chimeras were used to selectively disrupt TLR signals in distinct cellular compartments in the intestine. Results MyD88-dependent activation of myeloid cells was required for development of chronic intestinal inflammation. By contrast, although epithelial cell MyD88 signals were required for host survival, they were insufficient to induce intestinal inflammation in the absence of a MyD88-competent myeloid compartment. MyD88 expression by T cells was not required for their pathogenic and regulatory functions in the intestine. Conclusions Cellular compartmentalization of MyD88 signals in the intestine allow the maintenance of host defense and prevent deleterious inflammatory responses. PMID:20433840

  6. Dendritic cell specific targeting of MyD88 signalling pathways in vivo.

    PubMed

    Arnold-Schrauf, Catharina; Berod, Luciana; Sparwasser, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity. During infection, DCs recognise pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. TLRs mainly signal via the adaptor protein MyD88. This signalling pathway is required for immune protection during many infections, which are lethal in the absence of MyD88. However, the cell type specific importance of this pathway during both innate and adaptive immune responses against pathogens in vivo remains ill-defined. We discuss recent findings from conditional KO or gain-of-function mouse models targeting TLR/MyD88 signalling pathways in DCs and other myeloid cells during infection. While the general assumption that MyD88-dependent recognition by DCs is essential for inducing protective immunity holds true in some instances, the results surprisingly indicate a much more complex context-dependent requirement for this pathway in DCs and other myeloid or lymphoid cell-types in vivo. Furthermore, we highlight the advantages of Cre-mediated DC targeting approaches and their possible limitations. We also present future perspectives on the development of new genetic mouse models to target distinct DC subsets in vivo. Such models will serve to understand the functional heterogeneity of DCs in vivo.

  7. Microglial activation by Citrobacter koseri is mediated by TLR4- and MyD88-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuliang; Kielian, Tammy

    2009-11-01

    Citrobacter koseri is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause a highly aggressive form of neonatal meningitis, which often progresses to establish multifocal brain abscesses. Despite its tropism for the brain parenchyma, microglial responses to C. koseri have not yet been examined. Microglia use TLRs to recognize invading pathogens and elicit proinflammatory mediator expression important for infection containment. In this study, we investigated the importance of the LPS receptor TLR4 and MyD88, an adaptor molecule involved in the activation of the majority of TLRs in addition to the IL-1 and IL-18 receptors, for their roles in regulating microglial activation in response to C. koseri. Proinflammatory mediator release was significantly reduced in TLR4 mutant and MyD88 knockout microglia compared with wild-type cells following exposure to either live or heat-killed C. koseri, indicating a critical role for both TLR4- and MyD88-dependent pathways in microglial responses to this pathogen. However, residual proinflammatory mediator expression was still observed in TLR4 mutant and MyD88 KO microglia following C. koseri exposure, indicating a contribution of TLR4- and MyD88-independent pathway(s) for maximal pathogen recognition. Interestingly, C. koseri was capable of surviving intracellularly in both primary microglia and macrophages, suggesting that these cells may serve as a reservoir for the pathogen during CNS infections. These results demonstrate that microglia respond to C. koseri with the robust expression of proinflammatory molecules, which is dictated, in part, by TLR4- and MyD88-dependent signals.

  8. Shrimp MyD88 responsive to bacteria and white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rong; Li, Fuhua; Sun, Zheng; Li, Shihao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-02-01

    The myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an important adapter protein which links members of the toll-like receptor (TLR) to the downstream components to activate related signaling pathways. In the present study, a MyD88 homolog (FcMyD88) was cloned from penaeid shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The ORF of FcMyD88 consisted of 1434 bp encoding a polypeptide of 477 amino acids which contains a death domain (DD) and a typical TLR and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-related (TIR) domain. Homology analysis revealed that the predicted amino acid (aa) sequence of FcMyD88 shared high similarities with a variety of previously reported MyD88s. The time-dependent expression patterns of FcMyD88 in cephalothoraxes of shrimp injected with Vibrio anguillarum (Gram-negative bacteria, G(-)), Micrococcus lysodeikticu (Gram-positive bacteria, G(+)) and white syndrome spot virus (WSSV) were analyzed at transcription and protein level by real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The expression level of FcMyD88 mRNA was significantly up-regulated at one hour (h), 12 h and 24 h after stimulation with both V. anguillarum and M. lysodeikticu. The expression level of FcMyD88 protein was 2-fold up-regulated at 12 h post injection (hpi) of inactivated V. anguillarum while it didn't change after M. lysodeikticu injection during this period. After WSSV injection, the expression level of FcMyD88 mRNA remained relatively constant, while the FcMyD88 protein was significantly up-regulated at 12 and 24 hpi. These results suggested that the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway could be involved in the defense of both bacteria and WSSV infection.

  9. MyD88 deficiency markedly worsens tissue inflammation and bacterial clearance in mice infected with Treponema pallidum, the agent of syphilis.

    PubMed

    Silver, Adam C; Dunne, Dana W; Zeiss, Caroline J; Bockenstedt, Linda K; Radolf, Justin D; Salazar, Juan C; Fikrig, Erol

    2013-01-01

    Research on syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the non-cultivatable spirochete Treponema pallidum, has been hampered by the lack of an inbred animal model. We hypothesized that Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent responses are essential for clearance of T. pallidum and, consequently, compared infection in wild-type (WT) mice and animals lacking MyD88, the adaptor molecule required for signaling by most TLRs. MyD88-deficient mice had significantly higher pathogen burdens and more extensive inflammation than control animals. Whereas tissue infiltrates in WT mice consisted of mixed mononuclear and plasma cells, infiltrates in MyD88-deficient animals were predominantly neutrophilic. Although both WT and MyD88-deficient mice produced antibodies that promoted uptake of treponemes by WT macrophages, MyD88-deficient macrophages were deficient in opsonophagocytosis of treponemes. Our results demonstrate that TLR-mediated responses are major contributors to the resistance of mice to syphilitic disease and that MyD88 signaling and FcR-mediated opsonophagocytosis are linked to the macrophage-mediated clearance of treponemes.

  10. MyD88 is pivotal for the early inflammatory response and subsequent bacterial clearance and survival in a mouse model of Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Naiki, Yoshikazu; Michelsen, Kathrin S; Schröder, Nicolas W J; Alsabeh, Randa; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Zhang, Wenxuan; Chen, Shuang; Wei, Bo; Bulut, Yonca; Wong, Michelle H; Peterson, Ellena M; Arditi, Moshe

    2005-08-12

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is the causative agent of respiratory tract infections and a number of chronic diseases. Here we investigated the involvement of the common TLR adaptor molecule MyD88 in host responses to C. pneumoniae-induced pneumonia in mice. MyD88-deficient mice were severely impaired in their ability to mount an acute early inflammatory response toward C. pneumoniae. Although the bacterial burden in the lungs was comparable 5 days after infection, MyD88-deficient mice exhibited only minor signs of pneumonia and reduced expression of inflammatory mediators. MyD88-deficient mice were unable to up-regulate proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, demonstrated delayed recruitment of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to the lungs, and were unable to clear the pathogen from their lungs at day 14. At day 14 the MyD88-deficent mice developed a severe, chronic lung inflammation with elevated IL-1beta and IFN-gamma leading to increased mortality, whereas wild-type mice as well as TLR2- or TLR4-deficient mice recovered from acute pneumonia and did not show delayed bacterial clearance. Thus, MyD88 is essential to recognize C. pneumoniae infection and initiate a prompt and effective immune host response against this organism leading to clearance of bacteria from infected lungs.

  11. Toll-like receptor 4 signalling through MyD88 is essential to control Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infection, but not for the initiation of bacterial clearance.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Suzanne; Tötemeyer, Sabine; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Akira, Shizuo; Hughes, Katherine; Gray, David; Barr, Tom; Mastroeni, Pietro; Maskell, Duncan J; Bryant, Clare E

    2009-12-01

    Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is important in protection against lethal Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) infection. Control of the early stages of sublethal S. Typhimurium infection in mice depends on TLR4-dependent activation of macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells to drive an inflammatory response. TLR4 signals through the adapter proteins Mal/MyD88 and TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM)/TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-b (TRIF). In the mouse typhoid model we showed that TLR4 and MyD88, but not Mal or TRIF, are essential for the control of exponential S. Typhimurium growth. TRIF(-/-) mice have a higher bacterial load in comparison with wild-type mice during a sublethal infection because TRIF is important for bacterial killing during the first day of systemic disease. Minimal pro-inflammatory responses were induced by S. Typhimurium infection of macrophages from TLR4(-/-), MyD88(-/-) and TRIF(-/-) mice in vitro. Pro-inflammatory responses from Mal(-/-) macrophages were similar to those from wild-type cells. The pro-inflammatory responses of TRIF(-/-) macrophages were partially restored by the addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and TRIF(-/-) mice produced markedly enhanced IFN-gamma levels, in comparison to wild-type mice, probably explaining why bacterial growth can be controlled in these mice. TLR4(-/-), MyD88(-/-), TRIF(-/-) and Mal(-/-) mice all initiated clearance of S. Typhimurium, suggesting that TLR4 signalling is not important in driving bacterial clearance in comparison to its critical role in controlling early bacterial growth in mouse typhoid.

  12. MyD88-dependent IL-1 receptor signaling is essential for gouty inflammation stimulated by monosodium urate crystals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Jen; Shi, Yan; Hearn, Arron; Fitzgerald, Kate; Golenbock, Douglas; Reed, George; Akira, Shizuo; Rock, Kenneth L.

    2006-01-01

    While it is known that monosodium urate (MSU) crystals cause the disease gout, the mechanism by which these crystals stimulate this inflammatory condition has not been clear. Here we find that the Toll/IL-1R (TIR) signal transduction adaptor myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) is required for acute gouty inflammation. In contrast, other TIR adaptor molecules, TIRAP/Mal, TRIF, and TRAM, are not required for this process. The MyD88-dependent TLR1, -2, -4, -6, -7, -9, and -11 and IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) are not essential for MSU-induced inflammation. Moreover, MSU does not stimulate HEK cells expressing TLR1–11 to activate NF-κB. In contrast, mice deficient in the MyD88-dependent IL-1R showed reduced inflammatory responses, similar to those observed in MyD88-deficient mice. Similarly, mice treated with IL-1 neutralizing antibodies also showed reduced MSU-induced inflammation, demonstrating that IL-1 production and IL-1R activation play essential roles in MSU-triggered inflammation. IL-1R deficiency in bone marrow–derived cells did not affect the inflammatory response; however, it was required in non–bone marrow–derived cells. These results indicate that IL-1 is essential for the MSU-induced inflammatory response and that the requirement of MyD88 in this process is primarily through its function as an adaptor molecule in the IL-1R signaling pathway. PMID:16886064

  13. Andrographolide alleviates imiquimod-induced psoriasis in mice via inducing autophagic proteolysis of MyD88.

    PubMed

    Shao, Fenli; Tan, Tao; Tan, Yang; Sun, Yang; Wu, Xingxin; Xu, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with excessive activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play important roles in developing psoriasis. Targeting TLR signaling remains a challenge for treating psoriasis. Here, we found that andrographolide (Andro), a small-molecule natural product, alleviated imiquimod- but not interleukin 23 (IL-23)-induced psoriasis in mice with reducing expressions of IL-23 and IL-1β in the skin. The improvement in imiquimod-induced psoriasis by Andro was not observed in microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (MAP1LC3B) knockout mice. Furthermore, Andro inhibited mRNA expressions of IL-23, IL-6 and IL-1β but not CD80 and CD86 in bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a MAP1LC3B-dependent manner. In addition, Andro inhibited imiquimod-induced mRNA expressions of IL-23, IL-6, IL-1β, CD80 and CD86 in BMDCs from mice. Interestingly, Andro induced a degradation of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and blocked the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to MyD88 upon LPS stimulation in BMDCs from mice. Blockade of autophagic proteolysis using NH4Cl or MAP1LC3B(-/-) BMDCs abolished the Andro-induced MyD88 degradation. In conclusion, Andro controls activation of MyD88-dependent cytokines and alleviates psoriasis in mice via inducing autophagic proteolysis of MyD88, which could be a novel strategy to treat psoriasis.

  14. Deletion of the gene encoding MyD88 protects from anorexia in a mouse tumor model.

    PubMed

    Ruud, Johan; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Engblom, David; Blomqvist, Anders

    2010-05-01

    The anorexia-cachexia syndrome, characterized by a rise in energy expenditure and loss of body weight that paradoxically are associated with loss of appetite and decreased food intake, contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality in cancer. While the pathophysiology of cancer anorexia-cachexia is poorly understood, evidence indicates that pro-inflammatory cytokines are key mediators of this response. Although inflammation hence is recognized as an important component of cancer anorexia-cachexia, the molecular pathways involved are largely unknown. We addressed this issue in mice carrying a deletion of the gene encoding MyD88, the key intracellular adaptor molecule in Toll-like and interleukin-1 family receptor signaling. Wild-type and MyD88-deficient mice were transplanted subcutaneously with a syngenic methylcholanthrene-induced tumor (MCG 101) and daily food intake and body weight were recorded. Wild-type mice showed progressively reduced food intake from about 5days after tumor transplantation and displayed a slight body weight loss after 10days when the experiment was terminated. In contrast, MyD88-deficient mice did not develop anorexia, and displayed a positive body weight development during the observation period. While the MyD88-deficient mice on average developed somewhat smaller tumors than wild-type mice, this did not explain the absence of anorexia, because anorexia was seen in wild-type mice with similar tumor mass as non-anorexic knock-out mice. These data suggest that MyD88-dependent mechanisms are involved in the metabolic derangement during cancer anorexia-cachexia and that innate immune signaling is important for the development of this syndrome.

  15. MyD88 signaling in the CNS is required for development of fatty acid induced leptin resistance and diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kleinridders, André; Schenten, Dominik; Könner, A. Christine; Belgardt, Bengt F.; Mauer, Jan; Okamura, Tomoo; Wunderlich, F. Thomas; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Brüning, Jens C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Obesity-associated activation of inflammatory pathways represents a key step in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral organs, partially via activation of TLR-4 signaling by fatty acids. Here we demonstrate that palmitate acting in the central nervous system (CNS) inhibits leptin-induced anorexia and Stat-3 activation. To determine the functional significance of TLR signaling in the CNS in the development of leptin resistance and diet-induced obesity in vivo, we have characterized mice deficient for the TLR adaptor molecule MyD88 in the CNS (MyD88ΔCNS). Compared to control mice, MyD88ΔCNS mice are protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain, from the development of HFD-induced leptin resistance and from the induction of leptin resistance by acute central application of palmitate. Moreover, CNS-restricted MyD88 deletion protects from HFD- and icv palmitate-induced impairment of peripheral glucose metabolism. Thus, we define neuronal MyD88-dependent signaling as a key regulator of diet-induced leptin and insulin resistance in vivo. PMID:19808018

  16. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Limits Escherichia coli-Induced Inflammatory Responses via Attenuating MyD88-Dependent and MyD88-Independent Pathway Activation in Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingchao; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Mengling; Fu, Yunhe; Wang, Jiufeng

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine Escherichia coli infection after calving reduces fertility and causes major economic losses in the dairy industry. We investigated the protective effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 on E. coli-induced cell damage and inflammation in primary bovine endometrial epithelial cells (BEECs). L. rhamnosus GR-1 reduced ultrastructure alterations and the percentage of BEECs apoptosis after E. coli challenge. Increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of immune response indicators, including pattern recognition receptors (toll-like receptor [TLR]2, TLR4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [NOD]1, and NOD2), inflammasome proteins (NOD-like receptor family member pyrin domain-containing protein 3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and caspase-1), TLR4 downstream adaptor molecules (myeloid differentiation antigen 88 [MyD88], toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 2 [TICAM2]), nuclear transcription factor kB (NF-kB), and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, and interferon (IFN)-β, was observed following E. coli challenge. However, these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Our data indicate that L. rhamnosus GR-1 ameliorates the E. coli-induced disruption of cellular ultrastructure, subsequently reducing the percentage of BEECs apoptosis and limiting inflammatory responses, partly via attenuation of MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent pathway activation. Certain probiotics could potentially prevent postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows, ultimately reducing the use of antibiotics.

  17. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a novel isoform of chicken myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yafeng; Shen, Yang; Li, Xiangdong; Ding, Chan; Ma, Zhiyong

    2008-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adaptor protein involved in the interleukin-1 receptor- and Toll-like receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). A novel isoform of chicken MyD88, designated chicken MyD88-2, has been cloned and functionally characterized. Its open reading frame is of length 900bp, and it encodes a predicted 299 residue protein, similar in length to its mammalian orthologues, but, respectively, 77 and 69 amino acids shorter than the previously described chicken MyD88-1 and -3. The amino acid sequence of chicken MyD88-2 displays 96.9%, 96.9%, 70.4% and 70.2% identity with, respectively, chicken MyD88-1, -3, human and mouse MyD88. Chicken MyD88-2 expression was detected in a range of tissues tested, but no expression of either chicken MyD88-1 or -3 was observed. The over-expression of chicken MyD88-2 significantly induced the activation of NF-kappaB in vitro, suggesting that chicken MyD88-2 plays an important role in the innate immune responses of chicken.

  18. CpG-ODN Shapes Alum Adjuvant Activity Signaling via MyD88 and IL-10.

    PubMed

    Mirotti, Luciana; Alberca Custódio, Ricardo Wesley; Gomes, Eliane; Rammauro, Florencia; de Araujo, Eliseu Frank; Garcia Calich, Vera Lucia; Russo, Momtchilo

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum-containing adjuvants usually referred as Alum are considered as T helper type-2 (Th2) adjuvants, while agonists of toll-like receptors (TLRs) are viewed as adjuvants that favor Th1/Th17 immunity. Alum has been used in numerous vaccine formulations; however, its undesired pro-Th2 adjuvant activity constitutes a caveat for Alum-based vaccines. Combining Alum with TLR-dependent, pro-Th1/Th17 adjuvants might dampen the pro-Th2 activity and improve the effectiveness of vaccine formulations. Here, using the ovalbumin (OVA) model of allergic lung inflammation, we found that sensitization with the synthetic TLR9 agonist, which is composed of oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs adsorbed to Alum, inhibited the development of OVA-induced lung allergic Th2 responses without shifting toward a Th1 pattern. The conversion of T cell immunity from the polarized allergic Th2 response to a non-polarized form by sensitization with OVA/Alum/CpG was dependent on MyD88 signaling in myeloid cells. Notably, sensitization of IL-10-deficient mice with OVA/Alum/CpG resulted in the development of neutrophilic lung inflammation associated with IFNγ production. However, in IL-10/IL-12-deficient mice, it resulted in neutrophilic inflammation dominated by IL-17 production. We conclude that OVA/Alum/CpG sensitization signaling via MyD88 and IL-10 molecules results in non-polarized immunity. Conversely, OVA/Alum/CpG sensitization in presence of MyD88 but absence of IL-10 or IL-10/IL-12 molecules results, respectively, in neutrophilic inflammation associated with IFNγ or IL-17 production. Our work provides novel OVA models of lung inflammation and suggests that Alum/CpG-based formulations might be of potential use in anti-allergic or anti-infectious processes.

  19. CpG-ODN Shapes Alum Adjuvant Activity Signaling via MyD88 and IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Mirotti, Luciana; Alberca Custódio, Ricardo Wesley; Gomes, Eliane; Rammauro, Florencia; de Araujo, Eliseu Frank; Garcia Calich, Vera Lucia; Russo, Momtchilo

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum-containing adjuvants usually referred as Alum are considered as T helper type-2 (Th2) adjuvants, while agonists of toll-like receptors (TLRs) are viewed as adjuvants that favor Th1/Th17 immunity. Alum has been used in numerous vaccine formulations; however, its undesired pro-Th2 adjuvant activity constitutes a caveat for Alum-based vaccines. Combining Alum with TLR-dependent, pro-Th1/Th17 adjuvants might dampen the pro-Th2 activity and improve the effectiveness of vaccine formulations. Here, using the ovalbumin (OVA) model of allergic lung inflammation, we found that sensitization with the synthetic TLR9 agonist, which is composed of oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs adsorbed to Alum, inhibited the development of OVA-induced lung allergic Th2 responses without shifting toward a Th1 pattern. The conversion of T cell immunity from the polarized allergic Th2 response to a non-polarized form by sensitization with OVA/Alum/CpG was dependent on MyD88 signaling in myeloid cells. Notably, sensitization of IL-10-deficient mice with OVA/Alum/CpG resulted in the development of neutrophilic lung inflammation associated with IFNγ production. However, in IL-10/IL-12-deficient mice, it resulted in neutrophilic inflammation dominated by IL-17 production. We conclude that OVA/Alum/CpG sensitization signaling via MyD88 and IL-10 molecules results in non-polarized immunity. Conversely, OVA/Alum/CpG sensitization in presence of MyD88 but absence of IL-10 or IL-10/IL-12 molecules results, respectively, in neutrophilic inflammation associated with IFNγ or IL-17 production. Our work provides novel OVA models of lung inflammation and suggests that Alum/CpG-based formulations might be of potential use in anti-allergic or anti-infectious processes. PMID:28220116

  20. Effects of porcine MyD88 knockdown on the expression of TLR4 pathway-related genes and proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chaohui; Sun, Li; Yu, Lihuai; Zhu, Guoqiang; Wu, Shenglong; Bao, Wenbin

    2016-12-01

    As a critical adapter protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR)/Interleukin (IL)-1R signalling pathway, myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) plays an important role in immune responses and host defence against pathogens. The present study was designed to provide a foundation and an important reagent for the mechanistic study of MyD88 and its role TLR/IL-1R signalling pathways in porcine immunity. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi was used to generate a porcine PK15 cell line with a silenced MyD88 gene and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting were used to detect changes in the expression of critical genes in the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling pathway. ELISA was used to measure the levels of seven proinflammatory cytokines-interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β-in cell culture supernatants after MyD88 silencing. We successfully obtained a PK15 cell line with 61% MyD88 mRNA transcript down-regulated. In PK15 cells with MyD88 silencing, the transcript levels of TLR4 and IL-1β were significantly reduced, whereas there were no significant changes in the expression levels of cluster of differentiation antigen 14 (CD14), interferon-α (IFN-α) or TNF-α The ELISA results showed that the levels of most cytokines were not significantly changed apart from IL-8 without stimulation, which was significantly up-regulated. When cells were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.1 μg/ml) for 6 h, the global level of seven proinflammatory cytokines up-regulated and the level of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 of Blank and negative control (NC) group up-regulated more significantly than RNAi group (P<0.05), which revealed that the MyD88 silencing could reduce the TLR4 signal transduction which inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines and finally leaded to immunosuppression.

  1. Deficiency in MyD88 Signaling Results in Decreased Antibody Responses to an Adeno-Associated Virus Vector in Murine Pompe Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Luo, Xiaoyan; Bird, Andrew; Li, Songtao

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We have previously shown that antibody and T cell responses limit the efficacy of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) pseudotype 8 (2/8) vector containing the universally active cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken β-actin regulatory cassette (AAV2/8-CBhGAA) in treating murine Pompe disease. However, the innate immune responses to AAV2/8-CBhGAA are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated acute immune responses to AAV2/8-CBhGAA and the role of MyD88/TRIF signaling pathway in shaping adaptive immune responses to this vector. We showed here that a small and transient increase in CXCL-1 and IL-1β expression in livers of acid-α-glucosidase knockout (GAAKO) mice 6 h following injection with AAV2/8-CBhGAA. There was a robust antibody response to GAA in wild-type mice injected with this vector. In contrast, the anti-GAA IgG1 response was diminished in MyD88KO mice, and showed a trend toward a decrease in TRIFKO mice. In addition, the vector genome and GAA activity were significantly higher in MyD88KO livers compared with wild-type livers, suggesting reduced cytotoxic T cell responses. Importantly, elevated CD4+ T cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in MyD88KO livers. When adoptively transferred to wild-type mice, these CD4+ T cells have an ability to suppress antibody responses against AAV2/8-CBhGAA and to prevent further immunization against rhGAA. Our study suggests that the MyD88 deficiency leads to the suppression of deleterious immune responses to AAV2/8-CBhGAA, which has implications for gene therapy in Pompe disease. PMID:23514839

  2. Deficiency in MyD88 Signaling Results in Decreased Antibody Responses to an Adeno-Associated Virus Vector in Murine Pompe Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Luo, Xiaoyan; Bird, Andrew; Li, Songtao; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2012-06-01

    We have previously shown that antibody and T cell responses limit the efficacy of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) pseudotype 8 (2/8) vector containing the universally active cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken β-actin regulatory cassette (AAV2/8-CBhGAA) in treating murine Pompe disease. However, the innate immune responses to AAV2/8-CBhGAA are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated acute immune responses to AAV2/8-CBhGAA and the role of MyD88/TRIF signaling pathway in shaping adaptive immune responses to this vector. We showed here that a small and transient increase in CXCL-1 and IL-1β expression in livers of acid-α-glucosidase knockout (GAAKO) mice 6 h following injection with AAV2/8-CBhGAA. There was a robust antibody response to GAA in wild-type mice injected with this vector. In contrast, the anti-GAA IgG1 response was diminished in MyD88KO mice, and showed a trend toward a decrease in TRIFKO mice. In addition, the vector genome and GAA activity were significantly higher in MyD88KO livers compared with wild-type livers, suggesting reduced cytotoxic T cell responses. Importantly, elevated CD4(+) T cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in MyD88KO livers. When adoptively transferred to wild-type mice, these CD4(+) T cells have an ability to suppress antibody responses against AAV2/8-CBhGAA and to prevent further immunization against rhGAA. Our study suggests that the MyD88 deficiency leads to the suppression of deleterious immune responses to AAV2/8-CBhGAA, which has implications for gene therapy in Pompe disease.

  3. Mutations in TLR/MYD88 pathway identify a subset of young chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with favorable outcome.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Pinyol, Magda; Navarro, Alba; Aymerich, Marta; Jares, Pedro; Juan, Manel; Rozman, María; Colomer, Dolors; Delgado, Julio; Giné, Eva; González-Díaz, Marcos; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M; Colado, Enrique; Rayón, Consolación; Payer, Angel R; Terol, Maria José; Navarro, Blanca; Quesada, Victor; Puente, Xosé S; Rozman, Ciril; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías; López-Guillermo, Armando; Villamor, Neus

    2014-06-12

    Mutations in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88) genes have been found in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) at low frequency. We analyzed the incidence, clinicobiological characteristics, and outcome of patients with TLR/MYD88 mutations in 587 CLL patients. Twenty-three patients (3.9%) had mutations, 19 in MYD88 (one with concurrent IRAK1 mutation), 2 TLR2 (one with concomitant TLR6 mutation), 1 IRAK1, and 1 TLR5. No mutations were found in IRAK2 and IRAK4. TLR/MYD88-mutated CLL overexpressed genes of the nuclear factor κB pathway. Patients with TLR/MYD88 mutations were significantly younger (83% age ≤50 years) than those with no mutations. TLR/MYD88 mutations were the most frequent in young patients. Patients with mutated TLR/MYD88 CLL had a higher frequency of mutated IGHV and low expression of CD38 and ZAP-70. Overall survival (OS) was better in TLR/MYD88-mutated than unmutated patients in the whole series (10-year OS, 100% vs 62%; P = .002), and in the subset of patients age ≤50 years (100% vs 70%; P = .02). In addition, relative OS of TLR/MYD88-mutated patients was similar to that in the age- and gender-matched population. In summary, TLR/MYD88 mutations identify a population of young CLL patients with favorable outcome.

  4. The Brucella TIR-like protein TcpB interacts with the death domain of MyD88.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Anu; Ganguly, Kumkum; Cabantous, Stéphanie; Waldo, Geoffrey S; Micheva-Viteva, Sofiya N; Nag, Kamalika; Hlavacek, William S; Tung, Chang-Shung

    2012-01-06

    The pathogen Brucella melitensis secretes a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain containing protein that abrogates host innate immune responses. In this study, we have characterized the biochemical interactions of Brucella TIR-like protein TcpB with host innate immune adaptor proteins. Using protein-fragment complementation assays based on Gaussia luciferase and green fluorescent protein, we find that TcpB interacts directly with MyD88 and that this interaction is significantly stronger than the interaction of TcpB with TIRAP, the only other adaptor protein that detectably interacts with TcpB. Surprisingly, the TcpB-MyD88 interaction depends on the death domain (DD) of MyD88, and TcpB does not interact with the isolated TIR domain of MyD88. TcpB disrupts MyD88(DD)-MyD88(DD), MyD88(DD)-MyD88(TIR) and MyD88(DD)-MyD88 interactions but not MyD88-MyD88 or MyD88(TIR)-MyD88(TIR) interactions. Structural models consistent with these results suggest how TcpB might inhibit TLR signaling by targeting MyD88 via a DD-TIR domain interface.

  5. Protective role of MyD88-independent innate immune responses against prion infection

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Daisuke; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent progress in the understanding of prion diseases, little is known about the host-defense mechanisms against prion. Although it has long been thought that type I interferon (IFN-I) has no protective effect on prion infection, certain key molecules in innate immunity such as toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 seemed to be involved in the host response. For this reason we decided to focus on TLRs and investigate the role of a transcription factor, interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), because the absence of MyD88, a major adaptor signaling molecule of TLRs, has no effect on the survival of prion infected mice. Intriguingly, survival periods of prion inoculated IRF3-knockout mice became significantly shorter than those of wild-type mice. In addition, IRF3 stimulation inhibited PrPSc replication in prion persistently-infected cells, and a de novo prion infection assay revealed that IRF3-overexpression could make host cells resistant to prion infection. Our work suggests that IRF3 may play a key role in innate immune responses against invasion of prion pathogens. Activated IRF3 could upregulate several anti-pathogen factors, including IFN-I, and induce sequential responses. Although the mechanism for the anti-prion effects mediated by IRF3 has yet to be clarified, certain interferon responsive genes might be involved in the anti-prion host-defense mechanism. PMID:23093799

  6. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of MyD88 in Rana dybowskii.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shudong; Shi, Xuecan; Zhang, Jingyu; Chai, Longhui; Xiao, Xianghong

    2016-05-01

    immunity in R. dybowskii. This report firstly characterized one adaptor molecule of the TLR signaling pathways in R. dybowskii, thereby providing reference for further researches on the amphibian innate immune system.

  7. Experimental and natural infections in MyD88- and IRAK-4-deficient mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    von Bernuth, Horst; Picard, Capucine; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Most Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) signal via myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4). The combined roles of these two receptor families in the course of experimental infections have been assessed in MyD88- and IRAK-4-deficient mice for almost fifteen years. These animals have been shown to be susceptible to 46 pathogens: 27 bacteria, 8 viruses, 7 parasites, and 4 fungi. Humans with inborn MyD88 or IRAK-4 deficiency were first identified in 2003. They suffer from naturally occurring life-threatening infections caused by a small number of bacterial species, although the incidence and severity of these infections decrease with age. Mouse TLR- and IL-1R-dependent immunity mediated by MyD88 and IRAK-4 seems to be vital to combat a wide array of experimentally administered pathogens at most ages. By contrast, human TLR- and IL-1R-dependent immunity mediated by MyD88 and IRAK-4 seems to be effective in the natural setting against only a few bacteria and is most important in infancy and early childhood. The roles of TLRs and IL-1Rs in protective immunity deduced from studies in mutant mice subjected to experimental infections should therefore be reconsidered in the light of findings for natural infections in humans carrying mutations as discussed in this review. PMID:23255009

  8. A Multifaceted Role for Myd88-Dependent Signaling in Progression of Murine Mammary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Mary J.; Serrano, Antonio; Boateng, Kofi Y.; Parsons, Victoria A.; Phuong, Tiffany; Seifert, Alyssa; Ricca, Jacob M.; Tucker, Kyle C.; Eidelman, Alec S.; Carey, Maureen A.; Kurt, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous data obtained in our laboratory suggested that there may be constitutive signaling through the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88)-dependent signaling cascade in murine mammary carcinoma. Here, we extended these findings by showing that, in the absence of an added Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, the myddosome complex was preformed in 4T1 tumor cells, and that Myd88 influenced cytoplasmic extracellular signal–regulated kinase (Erk)1/Erk2 levels, nuclear levels of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), tumor-derived chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) expression, and in vitro and in vivo tumor growth. In addition, RNA-sequencing revealed that Myd88-dependent signaling enhanced the expression of genes that could contribute to breast cancer progression and genes previously associated with poor outcome for patients with breast cancer, in addition to suppressing the expression of genes capable of inhibiting breast cancer progression. Yet, Myd88-dependent signaling in tumor cells also suppressed expression of genes that could contribute to tumor progression. Collectively, these data revealed a multifaceted role for Myd88-dependent signaling in murine mammary carcinoma. PMID:27812285

  9. Panobinostat acts synergistically with ibrutinib in diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells with MyD88 L265 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Mondello, Patrizia; Brea, Elliott J.; De Stanchina, Elisa; Toska, Eneda; Chang, Aaron Y.; Fennell, Myles; Seshan, Venkatraman; Garippa, Ralph; Scheinberg, David A.; Baselga, José; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) frequently harbors genetic alterations that activate the B cell receptor (BCR) and TLR pathways, which converge to activate NF-κB. While selective inhibition of BTK with ibrutinib causes clinical responses in relapsed DLBCL patients, most responses are partial and of a short duration. Here, we demonstrated that MyD88 silencing enhanced ibrutinib efficacy in DLBCL cells harboring MyD88 L265P mutations. Chemical downregulation of MyD88 expression with HDAC inhibitors also synergized with ibrutinib. We demonstrate that HDAC inhibitor regulation of MyD88 expression is mediated by STAT3. In turn, STAT3 silencing caused a decrease in MyD88 mRNA and protein levels, and enhanced the ibrutinib antilymphoma effect in MyD88 mutant DLBCL cells. Induced mutations in the STAT3 binding site in the MyD88 promotor region was associated with a decrease in MyD88 transcriptional activity. We also demonstrate that treatment with the HDAC inhibitor panobinostat decreased phosphorylated STAT3 binding to the MyD88 promotor. Accordingly, combined treatment with panobinostat and ibrutinib resulted in enhanced inhibition of NF-κB activity and caused regression of DLBCL xenografts. Our data provide a mechanistic rationale for combining HDAC inhibitors and ibrutinib for the treatment of DLBCL. PMID:28352655

  10. The role of the MYD88-dependent pathway in MPTP-induced brain dopaminergic degeneration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mounting evidence supports a significant role of inflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology, with several inflammatory pathways being suggested as playing a role in the dopaminergic degeneration seen in humans and animal models of the disease. These include tumor necrosis factor, prostaglandins and oxidative-related stress components. However, the role of innate immunity has not been established in PD. Methods Based on the fact that the myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) is the most common adaptor protein implicated in toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, critical in the innate immune response, we undertook a study to investigate the potential contribution of this specific pathway to MPTP-induced brain dopaminergic degeneration using MyD88 knock out mice (MyD88-/-), following our observations that the MyD88-dependent pathway was critical for MPTP dopaminergic toxicity in the enteric nervous system. Post-mortem analyses assessing nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration and inflammation were performed using HPLC, western blots, autoradiography and immunofluorescence. Results Our results demonstrate that MyD88-/- mice are as vulnerable to MPTP-induced dopamine and DOPAC striatal depletion as wild type mice. Furthermore, MyD88-/- mice show similar striatal dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase loss, as well as dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta in response to MPTP. To evaluate the extent of the inflammatory response created by the MPTP regimen utilized, we further performed bioluminescence imaging using TLR2-luc/gfp transgenic mice and microglial density analysis, which revealed a modest brain microglial response following MPTP. This was accompanied by a significant astrocytic reaction in the striatum, which was of similar magnitude both in wild type and MyD88-/- mice. Conclusions Our results suggest that subacute MPTP-induced dopaminergic degeneration observed in the central nervous system is MyD88-independent, in contrast to our recent observations that this pathway, in the same cohort of animals, is critical in the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the enteric nervous system. PMID:21989292

  11. Chlamydial heat shock protein 60 induces acute pulmonary inflammation in mice via the Toll-like receptor 4- and MyD88-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Yonca; Shimada, Kenichi; Wong, Michelle H; Chen, Shuang; Gray, Pearl; Alsabeh, Randa; Doherty, Terence M; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2009-07-01

    Heat shock protein 60 derived from Chlamydia pneumoniae (cHSP60) activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling through the MyD88 pathway in vitro, but it is not known how cHSP60 contributes to C. pneumoniae-induced lung inflammation. We treated wild-type (WT), TLR2(-/-), TLR4(-/-), or MyD88(-/-) mice intratracheally (i.t.) with recombinant cHSP60 (50 microg), UV-killed C. pneumoniae (UVCP; 5 x 10(6) inclusion-forming units/mouse), lipopolysaccharide (2 microg), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and sacrificed mice 24 h later. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained to measure cell counts and cytokine levels, lungs were analyzed for histopathology, and lung homogenate chemokine concentrations were determined. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDDCs) were generated and stimulated with live C. pneumoniae (multiplicity of infection [MOI], 5), UVCP (MOI, 5), or cHSP60 for 24 h, and the expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) was measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. cHSP60 induced acute lung inflammation with the same intensity as that of UVCP-induced inflammation in WT mice but not in TLR4(-/-) or MyD88(-/-) mice. cHSP60- and UVCP-induced lung inflammation was associated with increased numbers of cells in BAL, increased neutrophil recruitment, and elevated BAL interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Both cHSP60 and UVCP induced IL-6 release and CD80 and CD86 expression in WT cells but not in MyD88(-/-) BMDDCs. cHSP60 stimulated DC activation in a TLR4- and MyD88-dependent manner with an intensity similar to that induced by UVCP. These data suggest that cHSP60 promotes lung inflammation and DC activation via TLR4 and MyD88 and therefore may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of C. pneumoniae-induced chronic inflammatory lung diseases.

  12. S100A8/MYD88/NF-қB: a novel pathway involved in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy driven by thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Takano, Ana Paula Cremasco; Munhoz, Carolina Demarchi; Moriscot, Anselmo Sigari; Gupta, Sudhiranjan; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza Morais

    2017-02-04

    Recent studies have evidenced the involvement of inflammation-related pathways to the development of cardiac hypertrophy and other consequences on the cardiovascular system, including the calcium-binding protein S100A8. However, this has never been investigated in the thyroid hormone (TH)-prompted cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, we aimed to test whether S100A8 and related signaling molecules, myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-қB), could be associated with the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by TH. Our results demonstrate that the S100A8/MyD88/NF-қB signaling pathway is activated in cardiomyocytes following TH stimulation. The knockdown of S100A8 and MyD88 indicates the contribution of those molecules to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in response to TH, as evaluated by cell surface area, leucine incorporation assay, and gene expression. Furthermore, S100A8 and MyD88 are crucial mediators of NF-қB activation, which is also involved in the hypertrophic growth of TH-treated cardiomyocytes. Supporting the in vitro data, the contribution of NF-қB for TH-induced cardiac hypertrophy is confirmed in vivo, by using transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific suppression of NF-қB. These data identify a novel pathway regulated by TH that mediates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. However, the potential role of this new pathway in short and long-term cardiac effects of TH remains to be further investigated.

  13. Characterization of bbtTICAM from amphioxus suggests the emergence of a MyD88-independent pathway in basal chordates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Manyi; Yuan, Shaochun; Huang, Shengfeng; Li, Jun; Xu, Liqun; Huang, Huiqing; Tao, Xin; Peng, Jian; Xu, Anlong

    2011-10-01

    The MyD88-independent pathway, one of the two crucial TLR signaling routes, is thought to be a vertebrate innovation. However, a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) adaptor, designated bbtTICAM, which was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus, links this pathway to invertebrates. The protein architecture of bbtTICAM is similar to that of vertebrate TICAM1 (TIR-containing adaptor molecule-1, also known as TRIF), while phylogenetic analysis based on the TIR domain indicated that bbtTICAM is the oldest ortholog of vertebrate TICAM1 and TICAM2 (TIR-containing adaptor molecule-2, also known as TRAM). Similar to human TICAM1, bbtTICAM activates NF-κB in a MyD88-independent manner by interacting with receptor interacting protein (RIP) via its RHIM motif. Such activation requires bbtTICAM to form homodimers in endosomes, and it may be negatively regulated by amphioxus SARM (sterile α and armadillo motif-containing protein) and TRAF2. However, bbtTICAM did not induce the production of type I interferon. Thus, our study not only presents the ancestral features of vertebrate TICAM1 and TICAM2, but also reveals the evolutionary origin of the MyD88-independent pathway from basal chordates, which will aid in understanding the development of the vertebrate TLR network.

  14. Characterization of bbtTICAM from amphioxus suggests the emergence of a MyD88-independent pathway in basal chordates

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Manyi; Yuan, Shaochun; Huang, Shengfeng; Li, Jun; Xu, Liqun; Huang, Huiqing; Tao, Xin; Peng, Jian; Xu, Anlong

    2011-01-01

    The MyD88-independent pathway, one of the two crucial TLR signaling routes, is thought to be a vertebrate innovation. However, a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) adaptor, designated bbtTICAM, which was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus, links this pathway to invertebrates. The protein architecture of bbtTICAM is similar to that of vertebrate TICAM1 (TIR-containing adaptor molecule-1, also known as TRIF), while phylogenetic analysis based on the TIR domain indicated that bbtTICAM is the oldest ortholog of vertebrate TICAM1 and TICAM2 (TIR-containing adaptor molecule-2, also known as TRAM). Similar to human TICAM1, bbtTICAM activates NF-κB in a MyD88-independent manner by interacting with receptor interacting protein (RIP) via its RHIM motif. Such activation requires bbtTICAM to form homodimers in endosomes, and it may be negatively regulated by amphioxus SARM (sterile α and armadillo motif-containing protein) and TRAF2. However, bbtTICAM did not induce the production of type I interferon. Thus, our study not only presents the ancestral features of vertebrate TICAM1 and TICAM2, but also reveals the evolutionary origin of the MyD88-independent pathway from basal chordates, which will aid in understanding the development of the vertebrate TLR network. PMID:21931360

  15. VSV oncolytic virotherapy in the B16 model depends upon intact MyD88 signaling.

    PubMed

    Wongthida, Phonphimon; Diaz, Rosa M; Galivo, Feorillo; Kottke, Timothy; Thompson, Jill; Melcher, Alan; Vile, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We show here, for the first time to our knowledge, that the antitumor therapy of oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in the B16ova model depends upon signaling through myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in host cells. VSV-mediated therapy of B16ova tumors was abolished in MyD88(-/-) mice despite generation of antigen-specific T cell responses similar to those in immune-competent mice. Mice defective in only toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR7, or interleukin 1 (IL-1) signaling retained VSV-induced therapy, suggesting that multiple, redundant pathways of innate immune activation by the virus contribute to antitumor immune reactivity. Lack of MyD88 signaling was associated with decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil infiltration in response to intratumoral virus, as well as decreased infiltration of draining lymph nodes (LN) with plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) (CD11b(-)GR1(+)B220(+)) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (CD11b(+)GR1(+)F4/80(+)). MyD88 signaling in response to VSV was also closely associated with a type I interferon (IFN) response. This inhibited virus replication within the tumor but also protected the host from viral dissemination from the tumor. Therefore, the innate immune response to oncolytic viruses can be, simultaneously, protherapeutic, antioncolytic, and systemically protective. These paradoxically conflicting roles need to be carefully considered in future strategies designed to improve the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy.

  16. Signaling via MYD88 in the pancreatic tumor microenvironment: A double-edged sword.

    PubMed

    Zambirinis, Constantinos P; Miller, George

    2013-01-01

    We have recently shown that Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling exacerbates pancreatic fibro-inflammation and promotes carcinogenesis in mice. Paradoxically, inhibition of the TLR-MYD88 signaling pathway is pro-tumorigenic owing to the dendritic cell-mediated TH2-polarization of CD4(+) T cells. TLR signaling appears to be central in pancreatic cancer-associated inflammation.

  17. Treg-mediated suppression of atherosclerosis requires MYD88 signaling in DCs

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manikandan; Thorp, Edward; Hansson, Goran K.; Tabas, Ira

    2012-01-01

    TLR activation on CD11c+ DCs triggers DC maturation, which is critical for T cell activation. Given the expansion of CD11c+ DCs during the progression of atherosclerosis and the key role of T cell activation in atherogenesis, we sought to understand the role of TLR signaling in CD11c+ DCs in atherosclerosis. To this end, we used a mouse model in which a key TLR adaptor involved in DC maturation, MYD88, is deleted in CD11c+ DCs. We transplanted bone marrow containing Myd88-deficient CD11c+ DCs into Western diet–fed LDL receptor knockout mice and found that the transplanted mice had decreased activation of effector T cells in the periphery as well as decreased infiltration of both effector T cells and Tregs in atherosclerotic lesions. Surprisingly, the net effect was an increase in atherosclerotic lesion size due to an increase in the content of myeloid-derived inflammatory cells. The mechanism involves increased lesional monocyte recruitment associated with loss of Treg-mediated suppression of MCP-1. Thus, the dominant effect of MYD88 signaling in CD11c+ DCs in the setting of atherosclerosis is to promote the development of atheroprotective Tregs. In the absence of MYD88 signaling in CD11c+ DCs, the loss of this protective Treg response trumps the loss of proatherogenic T effector cell activation. PMID:23257360

  18. MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor 4 signal pathway in intervertebral disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chuqiang; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Le; Tang, Long; Li, Shuangqing; Yang, Yixi; Yang, Fuguo; Zhang, Ping; Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Lower back pain (LBP) is a common and remitting problem. One of the primary causes of LBP is thought to be degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88)-dependent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal pathway in the mechanism of IVD degeneration. IVD nucleus pulposus cells isolated and cultured from the lumbar vertebrae of Wistar rats were stimulated by various doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml) to simulate IVD degeneration. Cells were rinsed and cultured in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the levels of TLR4, MyD88, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h of incubation. Additionally, western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses were used to determine the levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα, and IL-1β protein expression after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. The levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα and IL-1β mRNA all increased in the cells stimulated by 10 µg/ml LPS at 3, 6 and 9 h (all P<0.001). Furthermore, the levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα and IL-1β protein all increased at 24, 48 and 72 h (all P<0.001). Additionally, the mRNA and protein levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα and IL-1β increased significantly in the cells stimulated by 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml LPS compared with the control group, and reached a peak in the 10 µg/ml LPS group (all P<0.001). These results suggest that the MyD88-dependent TLR4 signal pathway is a target pathway in IVD degeneration. This pathway is time phase- and dose-dependent, and when activated can lead to the release of inflammatory factors that participate in IVD degeneration. PMID:27446251

  19. Alcohol-induced sedation and synergistic interactions between alcohol and morphine: A key mechanistic role for Toll-Like Receptors and MyD88-dependent signalling

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Frances; Wu, Yue; Tuke, Jonathan; Coller, Janet K.; Rice, Kenner C.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Hayball, John D.; Watkins, Linda R.; Somogyi, Andrew A.; Hutchinson, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates induction of proinflammatory Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 signaling by morphine and, TLR4 signaling by alcohol; thus indicating a common site of drug action and a potential novel innate immune-dependent hypothesis for opioid and alcohol drug interactions. Hence, the current study aimed to assess the role of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88 (as a critical TLR-signalling participant), NF-κB, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β; as a downstream proinflammatory effector molecule) and the µ opioid receptor (MOR; as a classical site for morphine action) in acute alcohol-induced sedation (4.5 g/kg) and alcohol (2.5 g/kg) interaction with morphine (5 mg/kg) by assessing the loss of righting reflex (LORR) as a measure of sedation. Wild-type male Balb/c mice and matched genetically-deficient TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 strains were utilized, together with pharmacological manipulation of MOR, NF-κB, TLR4 and Interleukin-1β. Alcohol induced significant LORR in wild-type mice; this was halved by MyD88 and TLR4 deficiency, and surprisingly nearly completely eliminated by TLR2 deficiency. In contrast, the interaction between morphine and alcohol was found to be MOR-, NF-κB-, TLR2- and MyD88-dependent, but did not involve TLR4 or Interleukin-1β. Morphine-alcohol interactions caused acute elevations in microglial cell counts and NF-κB-p65 positive cells in the motor cortex in concordance with wild-type and TLR2 deficient mouse behavioral data, implicating neuroimmunopharmacological signaling as a pivotal mechanism in this clinically problematic drug-drug interaction. PMID:25542736

  20. Contribution of TLR4 and MyD88 for adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) activity in a DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pouliot, Kimberly; Buglione-Corbett, Rachel; Marty-Roix, Robyn; Montminy-Paquette, Sara; West, Kim; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan; Lien, Egil

    2014-09-03

    Recombinant protein vaccines are commonly formulated with an immune-stimulatory compound, or adjuvant, to boost immune responses to a particular antigen. Recent studies have shown that, through recognition of molecular motifs, receptors of the innate immune system are involved in the functions of adjuvants to generate and direct adaptive immune responses. However, it is not clear to which degree those receptors are also important when the adjuvant is used as part of a novel heterologous prime-boost immunization process in which the priming and boosting components are not the same type of vaccines. In the current study, we compared the immune responses elicited by a pentavalent HIV-1 DNA prime-protein boost vaccine in mice deficient in either Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) or myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) to wildtype mice. HIV gp120 protein administered in the boost phase was formulated with either monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), QS-21, or Al(OH)3. Endpoint antibody titer, serum cytokine response and T-cell memory response were assessed. Neither TLR4 nor MyD88 deficiency had a significant effect on the immune response of mice given vaccine formulated with QS-21 or Al(OH)3. However, TLR4- and MyD88-deficiency decreased both the antibody and T-cell responses in mice administered HIV gp120 formulated with MPLA. These results further our understanding of the activation of TLR4 and MyD88 by MPLA in the context of a DNA prime/protein boost immunization strategy.

  1. Susceptibility of prostate epithelial cells to Chlamydia muridarum infection and their role in innate immunity by recruitment of intracellular Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 and MyD88 to the inclusion.

    PubMed

    Mackern-Oberti, Juan Pablo; Maccioni, Mariana; Cuffini, Cecilia; Gatti, Gerardo; Rivero, Virginia E

    2006-12-01

    Although Chlamydia infections are widespread throughout the world, data about immunopathogenesis of genitourinary tract infections in males are very limited. In the present work we present an in vitro model of male genital tract-derived epithelial cells, more precisely prostate epithelial cells (PEC), to analyze if they are susceptible and able to respond to Chlamydia muridarum infection. Our results demonstrate that rat PEC are susceptible to C. muridarum infection and respond to this pathogen by up-regulating different proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine genes that could participate in the recruitment and local activation of immune cells, therefore influencing innate and adaptive immune responses during Chlamydia infection. Moreover, we analyzed the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR2, and related molecules on PEC and the effect of C. muridarum infection on their expression. Our results demonstrate that PEC express significant levels of TLR4, CD14, TLR2, and the adaptor molecule MyD88 and up-regulate these proteins in response to C. muridarum infection. Indeed, TLR4, CD14, TLR2, and the adaptor MyD88 are specifically recruited to the vicinity of the bacterial inclusion, suggesting that these TLRs are actively engaged in signaling from this intracellular location in these cells. This is, to our knowledge, the first time that an in vitro model of infection with Chlamydia of male tract-derived epithelial cells has been achieved, and it provides the opportunity to determine how these cells respond and participate in modulating innate and adaptive immune response during Chlamydia infections.

  2. Gene expression profiles identify both MyD88-independent and MyD88-dependent pathways involved in the maturation of dendritic cells mediated by heparan sulfate: A novel adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meini; Wang, Haixuan; Shi, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Duan, Zhiqing; Li, Yanhan; Li, Jianfang; Hu, Ningzhu; Wei, Yiju; Chen, Yang; Hu, Yunzhang

    2015-01-01

    The traditional vaccine adjuvant research is mainly based on the trial and error method, and the mechanisms underlying the immune system stimulation remaining largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that heparan sulfate (HS), a TLR-4 ligand and endogenous danger signal, effectively enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses in mice immunized by HBsAg. This study aimed to evaluate whether HS induces better humoral immune responses against inactivated Hepatitis A or Rabies Vaccines, respectively, compared with traditional adjuvants (e.g. Alum and complete Freund's adjuvant). In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms of its adjuvanticity, the gene expression pattern of peripheral blood monocytes derived DCs (dendritic cells) stimulated with HS was analyzed at different times points. Total RNA was hybridized to Agilent SurePrint G3 Human Gene Expression 8 × 60 K one-color oligo-microarray. Through intersection analysis of the microarray results, we found that the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway was significantly activated, and NF-kB, TRAF3 and IRF7 were activated as early as 12 h, and MyD88 was activated at 48 h post-stimulation. Furthermore, the expression of the surface marker CD83 and the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 was up-regulated as early as 24 h. Therefore, we speculated that HS-induced human monocyte-derived DC maturation may occur through both MyD88-independent and dependent pathways, but primarily through the former (TRIF pathway). These data provide an important basis for understanding the mechanisms underlying HS enhancement of the immune response. PMID:25668674

  3. HLA class I-restricted MYD88 L265P-derived peptides as specific targets for lymphoma immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nelde, Annika; Walz, Juliane Sarah; Kowalewski, Daniel Johannes; Schuster, Heiko; Wolz, Olaf-Oliver; Peper, Janet Kerstin; Cardona Gloria, Yamel; Langerak, Anton W.; Muggen, Alice F.; Claus, Rainer; Bonzheim, Irina; Fend, Falko; Salih, Helmut Rainer; Kanz, Lothar; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Stevanović, Stefan; Weber, Alexander N. R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome sequencing has uncovered an array of recurring somatic mutations in different non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. If affecting protein-coding regions, such mutations may yield mutation-derived peptides that may be presented by HLA class I proteins and recognized by cytotoxic T cells. A recurring somatic and oncogenic driver mutation of the Toll-like receptor adaptor protein MYD88, Leu265Pro (L265P) was identified in up to 90% of different NHL subtype patients. We therefore screened the potential of MYD88L265P-derived peptides to elicit cytotoxic T cell responses as tumor-specific neoantigens. Based on in silico predictions, we identified potential MYD88L265P-containing HLA ligands for several HLA class I restrictions. A set of HLA class I MYD88L265P-derived ligands elicited specific cytotoxic T cell responses for HLA-B*07 and -B*15. These data highlight the potential of MYD88L265P mutation-specific peptide-based immunotherapy as a novel personalized treatment approach for patients with MYD88L265P+ NHLs that may complement pharmacological approaches targeting oncogenic MyD88 L265P signaling.

  4. Attenuation of Hepatic Graft-versus-host Disease in Allogeneic Recipients of MyD88-deficient Donor Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Young; Lee, Young-Kwan; Lee, Sung-Eun; Ju, Ji-Min; Park, Gyeongsin; Choi, Eun Young; Min, Chang-Ki

    2015-06-01

    Acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) is characterized by selective damage to the liver, the skin, and the gastrointestinal tract. Following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor bone marrow (BM) cells repopulate the immune system of the recipient. We previously demonstrated that the acute intestinal GVHD (iGVHD) mortality rate was higher in MyD88-deficient BM recipients than that in the control BM recipients. In the present study, the role of MyD88 (expressed by donor BM) in the pathophysiology of hepatic GVHD (hGVHD) was examined. Unlike iGVHD, transplantation with MyD88-deficient T-cell depleted (TCD) BM attenuated hGVHD severity and was associated with low infiltration of T cells into the liver of the recipients. Moreover, GVHD hosts, transplanted with MyD88-deficient TCD BM, exhibited markedly reduced expansion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in the liver. Adoptive injection of the MDSC from wild type mice, but not MyD88-deficient mice, enhanced hepatic T cell infiltration in the MyD88-deficient TCD BM recipients. Pre-treatment of BM donors with LPS increased MDSC levels in the liver of allogeneic wild type BM recipients. In conclusion, hGVHD and iGVHD may occur through various mechanisms based on the presence of MyD88 in the non-T cell compartment of the allograft.

  5. MyD88 is pivotal for immune recognition of Citrobacter koseri and astrocyte activation during CNS infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuliang; Kielian, Tammy

    2011-04-16

    Citrobacter koseri (C. koseri) is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause a highly aggressive form of neonatal meningitis, which often progresses to establish multi-focal brain abscesses. The roles of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its signaling adaptor MyD88 during CNS C. koseri infection have not yet been examined, which is important since recent evidence indicates that innate immune responses are tailored towards specific pathogen classes. Here TLR4 WT (C3H/FeJ) and TLR4 mutant (C3H/HeJ) mice as well as MyD88 KO animals were infected intracerebrally with live C. koseri, resulting in meningitis and ventriculitis with accompanying brain abscess formation. MyD88 KO mice were exquisitely sensitive to C. koseri, demonstrating enhanced mortality rates and significantly elevated bacterial burdens compared to WT animals. Interestingly, although early proinflammatory mediator release (i.e. 12 h) was MyD88-dependent, a role for MyD88-independent signaling was evident at 24 h, revealing a compensatory response to CNS C. koseri infection. In contrast, TLR4 did not significantly impact bacterial burdens or proinflammatory mediator production in response to C. koseri. Similar findings were obtained with primary astrocytes, where MyD88-dependent pathways were essential for chemokine release in response to intact C. koseri, whereas TLR4 was dispensable; implicating the involvement of alternative TLRs since highly enriched astrocytes did not produce IL-1 upon bacterial exposure, which also signals via MyD88. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the importance of MyD88-dependent mechanisms in eliciting maximal proinflammatory responses, astrocyte activation, and bacterial containment during CNS C. koseri infection, as well as a late-phase MyD88-independent signaling pathway for cytokine/chemokine production.

  6. MyD88 in macrophages is critical for abscess resolution in staphylococcal skin infection.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Reinhild; Seidl, Maximilian; Prinz, Marco; Henneke, Philipp

    2015-03-15

    When Staphylococcus aureus penetrates the epidermis and reaches the dermis, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMLs) accumulate and an abscess is formed. However, the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate initiation and termination of inflammation in skin infection are incompletely understood. In human myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) deficiency, staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections are a leading and potentially life-threatening problem. In this study, we found that MyD88-dependent sensing of S. aureus by dermal macrophages (Mϕ) contributes to both timely escalation and termination of PML-mediated inflammation in a mouse model of staphylococcal skin infection. Mϕs were key to recruit PML within hours in response to staphylococci, irrespective of bacterial viability. In contrast with bone marrow-derived Mϕs, dermal Mϕs did not require UNC-93B or TLR2 for activation. Moreover, PMLs, once recruited, were highly activated in an MyD88-independent fashion, yet failed to clear the infection if Mϕs were missing or functionally impaired. In normal mice, clearance of the infection and contraction of the PML infiltrate were accompanied by expansion of resident Mϕs in a CCR2-dependent fashion. Thus, whereas monocytes were dispensable for the early immune response to staphylococci, they contributed to Mϕ renewal after the infection was overcome. Taken together, MyD88-dependent sensing of staphylococci by resident dermal Mϕs is key for a rapid and balanced immune response, and PMLs are dependent on intact Mϕ for full function. Renewal of resident Mϕs requires both local control of bacteria and inflammatory monocytes entering the skin.

  7. Penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose ameliorates inflammation by inhibiting MyD88/NF-κB and MyD88/MAPK signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Se-Eun; Hyam, Supriya R; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The gallnut of Rhus chinensis MILL and its main constituent penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (PGG) inhibited NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated peritoneal and colonic macrophages. Here we have investigated PGG mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of PGG in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Approach Male C57BL/6 mice (18–22 g, 6 weeks old) were used to prepare peritoneal and colonic macrophages and for the induction of colitis by intrarectal administration of 2,3,4-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS). A range of inflammatory markers and transcription factors were evaluated by elisa, immunoblotting, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Key Results Expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 or Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding to TLR-4 in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages was not affected by PGG. However PGG inhibited binding of an anti-MyD88 antibody to peritoneal macrophages, but did not reduce binding of anti–IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK1) and IRAK4 antibodies to the macrophages with or without transfection with MyD88 siRNA. PGG potently reduced the activation of IRAK1, NF-κB, and MAPKs in LPS- or pepetidoglycan-stimulated peritoneal and colonic macrophages. PGG suppressed IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, while increasing expression of the anti-inflammatorycytokine IL-10. Oral administration of PGG inhibited colon shortening and myeloperoxidase activity in mice with TNBS-induced colitis, along with reducing NF-κB activation and IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, whereas it increased IL-10. Conclusions and Implications PGG reduced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways by directly interacting with the MyD88 adaptor protein. PGG may ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as colitis. PMID:23941302

  8. The -938C>A Polymorphism in MYD88 Is Associated with Susceptibility to Tuberculosis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Aggelou, Kalliopi; Siapati, Elena Konstantina; Gerogianni, Irini; Daniil, Zoe; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Ntanos, Ioannis; Simantirakis, Emmanouel; Zintzaras, Elias; Mollaki, Vassiliki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major disease worldwide, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. The Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) pathway plays a crucial role in the recognition of MTB. Aim. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MYD88) gene polymorphisms in TB. Materials and Methods. A total of 103 TB cases and 92 control subjects were genotyped for the MYD88 -938C>A (rs4988453) and 1944C>G (rs4988457) polymorphisms. Results. The MYD88 -938CA and -938AA genotypes were associated with an increased risk for tuberculosis with odds ratio (OR) of 5.71 (95% confidence intervals [CIs] 2.89–11.28, p = 0.01). Conclusions. The MYD88 -938C>A genetic polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to TB and may serve as a marker to screen individuals who are at risk. PMID:28127112

  9. Differential requirements of MyD88 and TRIF pathways in TLR4-mediated immune responses in murine B cells.

    PubMed

    Yanagibashi, Tsutomu; Nagai, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yasuharu; Ikutani, Masashi; Hirai, Yoshikatsu; Takatsu, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    LPS stimulates the TLR4/Myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) complex and promotes a variety of immune responses in B cells. TLR4 has two main signaling pathways, MyD88 and Toll/IL-1R (TIR)-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) pathways, but relatively few studies have examined these pathways in B cells. In this study, we investigated MyD88- or TRIF-dependent LPS responses in B cells by utilizing their knockout mice. Compared with wild-type (WT) B cells, MyD88(-/-) B cells were markedly impaired in up-regulation of CD86 and proliferation induced by lipid A moiety of LPS. TRIF(-/-) B cells were also impaired in these responses compared with WT B cells, but showed better responses than MyD88(-/-) B cells. Regarding class switch recombination (CSR) elicited by lipid A plus IL-4, MyD88(-/-) B cells showed similar patterns of CSR to WT B cells. However, TRIF(-/-) B cells showed the impaired in the CSR. Compared with WT and MyD88(-/-) B cells, TRIF(-/-) B cells exhibited reduced cell division, fewer IgG1(+) cells per division, and decreased activation-induced cytidine deaminase (Aicda) mRNA expression in response to lipid A plus IL-4. Finally, IgG1 production to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-LPS immunization was impaired in TRIF(-/-) mice, while MyD88(-/-) mice exhibited increased IgG1 production. Thus, MyD88 and TRIF pathways differently regulate TLR4-induced immune responses in B cells.

  10. MyD88-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine response contributes to lethal toxicity of staphylococcal enterotoxin B in mice.

    PubMed

    Kissner, Teri L; Ruthel, Gordon; Cisney, Emily D; Ulrich, Robert G; Fernandez, Stefan; Saikh, Kamal U

    2011-10-01

    An elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine response is the primary cause of death by toxic shock after exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Identifying an intracellular signal mediator that predominantly controls the pro-inflammatory response is important for developing a therapeutic strategy. We examined the role of the signaling adaptor MyD88 in cell culture and in a mouse model of toxic shock. Our results indicated that elevated tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1α/β and IL-6 production from mouse spleen cells treated with SEB alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was regulated by MyD88. Elevated levels of MyD88 protein in spleen cells, as well as in CD11c(+) or Mac3(+) cells, and activation of nuclear factor-κB in spleen cells were observed in mice treated with SEB. An SEB-dose dependent lethality was observed in LPS-potentiated and in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice. D-Galactosamine treatment of spleen cells had no effect in cytokine induction but rather increased the sensitivity to toxic shock in mice. Our results demonstrated an impaired pro-inflammatory cytokine production by spleen cells of MyD88(-/-) mice in response to SEB or SEB plus LPS. Most importantly, MyD88(-/-) mice were resistant to SEB-induced death. These results demonstrate that MyD88-dependent pro-inflammatory signaling is responsible for SEB intoxication. In addition, our studies also demonstrated that LPS potentiation, in comparison to D-galactosamine sensitization, contributes to a stronger SEB-induced lethality. This is due to the pro-inflammatory cytokine response elicited by MyD88 after exposure to SEB and LPS. These findings offer an important insight upon SEB intoxication and subsequent therapy targeting MyD88.

  11. Lipid IVa incompletely activates MyD88-independent Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in mouse macrophage cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Norihiko; Muroi, Masashi; Sugiura, Yuka; Tanamoto, Ken-ichi

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the difference in the effect of synthetic lipid A compounds on MyD88-dependent and -independent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in mouse macrophage cells. At higher concentrations, Escherichia coli-type hexa-acylated lipid A 506, Salmonella-type hepta-acylated lipid A 516, the lipid A precursor lipid IVa and monophosphoryl lipid A induced similar levels of production of the MyD88-dependent cytokine IL-1β although their potencies varied, whereas the maximum production of the MyD88-independent cytokine RANTES induced by lipid IVa was less than 50% that of other lipid A compounds. A maximum level of NF-κB activation, which is involved in IL-1β gene transcription, was also induced to a similar level by these four lipid A compounds, while the maximum level of IFN-β promoter activity induced during MyD88-independent signaling was also less than 50% for lipid IVa stimulation compared with other lipid A compounds. Early IκBα phosphorylation activated by MyD88-dependent signaling was similarly induced by 506 and lipid IVa, whereas lipid IVa barely stimulated the phosphorylation of IRF3, a MyD88-independent transcription factor, although efficient phosphorylation was observed with 506 stimulation. These results indicate that lipid IVa has limited activity toward MyD88-independent signaling of TLR4, in macrophage cell lines, despite having efficient activity in the MyD88-dependent pathway.

  12. MyD88 expression by CNS-resident cells is pivotal for eliciting protective immunity in brain abscesses.

    PubMed

    Garg, Sarita; Nichols, Jessica R; Esen, Nilufer; Liu, Shuliang; Phulwani, Nirmal K; Syed, Mohsin Md; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Aldrich, Amy; Kielian, Tammy

    2009-05-05

    MyD88 KO (knockout) mice are exquisitely sensitive to CNS (central nervous system) infection with Staphylococcus aureus, a common aetiological agent of brain abscess, exhibiting global defects in innate immunity and exacerbated tissue damage. However, since brain abscesses are typified by the involvement of both activated CNS-resident and infiltrating immune cells, in our previous studies it has been impossible to determine the relative contribution of MyD88-dependent signalling in the CNS compared with the peripheral immune cell compartments. In the present study we addressed this by examining the course of S. aureus infection in MyD88 bone marrow chimaera mice. Interestingly, chimaeras where MyD88 was present in the CNS, but not bone marrow-derived cells, mounted pro-inflammatory mediator expression profiles and neutrophil recruitment equivalent to or exceeding that detected in WT (wild-type) mice. These results implicate CNS MyD88 as essential in eliciting the initial wave of inflammation during the acute response to parenchymal infection. Microarray analysis of infected MyD88 KO compared with WT mice revealed a preponderance of differentially regulated genes involved in apoptotic pathways, suggesting that the extensive tissue damage characteristic of brain abscesses from MyD88 KO mice could result from dysregulated apoptosis. Collectively, the findings of the present study highlight a novel mechanism for CNS-resident cells in initiating a protective innate immune response in the infected brain and, in the absence of MyD88 in this compartment, immunity is compromised.

  13. Helical assembly in the MyD88-IRAK4-IRAK2 complex in TLR/IL-1R signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Su-Chang; Lo, Yu-Chih; Wu, Hao

    2010-08-23

    MyD88, IRAK4 and IRAK2 are critical signalling mediators of the TLR/IL1-R superfamily. Here we report the crystal structure of the MyD88-IRAK4-IRAK2 death domain (DD) complex, which surprisingly reveals a left-handed helical oligomer that consists of 6 MyD88, 4 IRAK4 and 4 IRAK2 DDs. Assembly of this helical signalling tower is hierarchical, in which MyD88 recruits IRAK4 and the MyD88-IRAK4 complex recruits the IRAK4 substrates IRAK2 or the related IRAK1. Formation of these Myddosome complexes brings the kinase domains of IRAKs into proximity for phosphorylation and activation. Composite binding sites are required for recruitment of the individual DDs in the complex, which are confirmed by mutagenesis and previously identified signalling mutations. Specificities in Myddosome formation are dictated by both molecular complementarity and correspondence of surface electrostatics. The MyD88-IRAK4-IRAK2 complex provides a template for Toll signalling in Drosophila and an elegant mechanism for versatile assembly and regulation of DD complexes in signal transduction.

  14. Ultrastructural distribution of the death-domain-containing MyD88 protein in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Jaunin, F; Burns, K; Tschopp, J; Martin, T E; Fakan, S

    1998-08-25

    MyD88, a protein implicated in interleukin-1 signaling, was localized in HeLa cells transiently transfected with an epitope-tagged (flag) version of MyD88. Overexpression of MyD88 can induce apoptosis. We have analyzed the fine structural intracellular distribution of MyD88 using immunoelectron microscopy. MyD88 is localized to the nucleus and to the cytoplasm as revealed by immunofluorescence visualization. Ultrastructural immunocytochemistry shows that, in the cytoplasm, this protein is associated with fibrillar aggregates containing beta-actin. In the nucleus, MyD88 was found in fibrillar domains present only in cells not yet displaying morphological signs of apoptosis. These domains are not derived from nucleoli and do not constitute an accumulation site of splicing factors. We suggest that such structures could be involved in the formation of the apoptotic bodies and/or in the modification of the nuclear structure and of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking during apoptosis.

  15. The polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumonia partially impedes MyD88-mediated immunity during pneumonia in mice.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Alex F; Dessing, Mark C; Lammers, Adriana J J; de Porto, Alexander P N A; Florquin, Sandrine; de Boer, Onno J; de Beer, Regina; Terpstra, Sanne; Bootsma, Hester J; Hermans, Peter W; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) and the downstream adaptor protein MyD88 are considered crucial for protective immunity during bacterial infections. Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae is a human respiratory pathogen and a large majority of clinical pneumococcal isolates expresses an external polysaccharide capsule. We here sought to determine the role of pneumococcal capsule in MyD88-mediated antibacterial defense during S. pneumonia pneumonia. Wild type (WT) and Myd88(-/-) mice were inoculated intranasally with serotype 2 S. pneumoniae D39 or with an isogenic capsule locus deletion mutant (D39∆cps), and analysed for bacterial outgrowth and inflammatory responses in the lung. As compared to WT mice, Myd88(-/-) mice infected with D39 demonstrated a modestly impaired bacterial clearance accompanied by decreased inflammatory responses in the lung. Strikingly, while WT mice rapidly cleared D39∆cps, Myd88(-/-) mice showed 105-fold higher bacterial burdens in their lungs and dissemination to blood 24 hours after infection. These data suggest that the pneumococcal capsule impairs recognition of TLR ligands expressed by S. pneumoniae and thereby partially impedes MyD88-mediated antibacterial defense.

  16. Phylogeny of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling: Adapting the Innate Response

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Jeffrey M.; Racioppi, Luigi; Jones, Corbin D.; Masci, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    The Toll-like receptors represent a largely evolutionarily conserved pathogen recognition machinery responsible for recognition of bacterial, fungal, protozoan, and viral pathogen associated microbial patterns and initiation of inflammatory response. Structurally the Toll-like receptors are comprised of an extracellular leucine rich repeat domain and a cytoplasmic Toll/Interleukin 1 receptor domain. Recognition takes place in the extracellular domain where as the cytoplasmic domain triggers a complex signal network required to sustain appropriate immune response. Signal transduction is regulated by the recruitment of different intracellular adaptors. The Toll-like receptors can be grouped depending on the usage of the adaptor, MyD88, into MyD88-dependent and MyD88 independent subsets. Herein, we present a unique phylogenetic analysis of domain regions of these receptors and their cognate signaling adaptor molecules. Although previously unclear from the phylogeny of full length receptors, these analyses indicate a separate evolutionary origin for the MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signaling pathway and provide evidence of a common ancestor for the vertebrate and invertebrate orthologs of the adaptor molecule MyD88. Together these observations suggest a very ancient origin of the MyD88-dependent pathway Additionally we show that early duplications gave rise to several adaptor molecule families. In some cases there is also strong pattern of parallel duplication between adaptor molecules and their corresponding TLR. Our results further support the hypothesis that phylogeny of specific domains involved in signaling pathway can shed light on key processes that link innate to adaptive immune response. PMID:23326591

  17. MyD88-Dependent Signaling Influences Fibrosis and Alternative Macrophage Activation during Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Mark L.; Angle, Amanda; Kielian, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms represent a significant therapeutic challenge based on their ability to evade host immune and antibiotic-mediated clearance. Recent studies have implicated IL-1β in biofilm containment, whereas Toll-like receptors (TLRs) had no effect. This is intriguing, since both the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) and most TLRs impinge on MyD88-dependent signaling pathways, yet the role of this key adaptor in modulating the host response to biofilm growth is unknown. Therefore, we examined the course of S. aureus catheter-associated biofilm infection in MyD88 knockout (KO) mice. MyD88 KO animals displayed significantly increased bacterial burdens on catheters and surrounding tissues during early infection, which coincided with enhanced dissemination to the heart and kidney compared to wild type (WT) mice. The expression of several proinflammatory mediators, including IL-6, IFN-γ, and CXCL1 was significantly reduced in MyD88 KO mice, primarily at the later stages of infection. Interestingly, immunofluorescence staining of biofilm-infected tissues revealed increased fibrosis in MyD88 KO mice concomitant with enhanced recruitment of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. Taken in the context of previous studies with IL-1β, TLR2, and TLR9 KO mice, the current report reveals that MyD88 signaling is a major effector pathway regulating fibrosis and macrophage polarization during biofilm formation. Together these findings represent a novel example of the divergence between TLR and MyD88 action in the context of S. aureus biofilm infection. PMID:22879997

  18. SARM inhibits both TRIF- and MyD88-mediated AP-1 activation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Yuan, Quan; Lin, Bin; Panneerselvam, Porkodi; Wang, Xiaowei; Luan, Xiao Lei; Lim, Soon Kok; Leung, Bernard P; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2010-06-01

    SARM (sterile alpha- and armadillo-motif-containing protein), the fifth identified TIR (Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R)) domain-containing adaptors in humans, downregulates NF-kappaB and IRF3 (interferon-regulatory factor 3)-mediated TLR3 and TLR4 signaling. SARM was characterized as a negative regulator of the TRIF (TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing IFN-beta)-dependent pathway via its interaction with TRIF. However, the precise mechanism of action of SARM remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SARM inhibits MAPK activation in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, and U937 cells. Both the TRIF- and MyD88-mediated, as well as basal MAPK activity, were repressed, indicating that SARM-mediated inhibition may not be exclusively directed at TRIF or MyD88, but that SARM may also directly inhibit MAPK phosphorylation. The MAPK inhibition effect was verified by RNAi, which increased the basal level of AP-1. Furthermore, LPS challenge upregulated SARM at both the mRNA and protein levels. Finally, we provide evidence to show that truncated SARM changes its subcellular localization, suggesting the importance of the N-terminal and sterile alpha motif domains in the autoregulation of SARM activity.

  19. Giardia lamblia binding immunoglobulin protein triggers maturation of dendritic cells via activation of TLR4-MyD88-p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs.

    PubMed

    Lee, H-Y; Kim, J; Noh, H J; Kim, H-P; Park, S-J

    2014-12-01

    Much remains unknown about the mammalian immune response to Giardia lamblia, a protozoan pathogen that causes diarrhoeal outbreaks. We fractionated protein extracts of G. lamblia trophozoites by Viva-spin centrifugation, DEAE ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Resultant fractions were screened for antigenic molecules by western blots analysis using anti-G. lamblia antibodies (Abs), resulting in identification of G. lamblia binding immunoglobulin protein (GlBiP). Maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in response to recombinant GlBiP (rGlBiP) was detected by increased expression of surface molecules such as CD80, CD86 and MHC class II; these mature DCs, produced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-6). Especially, the truncated rGlBiP containing the heat-shock protein 70 domain-induced cytokine production from mouse DCs. rGlBiP-induced DC activation was initiated by TLR4 in a MyD88-dependent way and occurred through activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs as well as increased activity of NF-κB and AP-1. Moreover, CD4(+) T cells stimulated with rGlBiP-treated DCs produced high levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ. Together, our results suggest that GlBiP contributes to maturation of DCs via activation of TLR4-MyD88-p38, ERK1/2 MAPK, NF-κB and AP-1.

  20. Synergy between CD40 and MyD88 Does Not Influence Host Survival to Salmonella Infection.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Ulf Alexander; Fernandez-Santoscoy, Maria; Tam, Miguel A; Tegtmeyer, Pia; Wick, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies using purified toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands plus agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies showed that TLRs and CD40 can act synergistically on dendritic cells (DCs) to optimize T cell activation and Th1 differentiation. However, a synergistic effect of TLRs and CD40 during bacterial infection is not known. Here, we show that mice lacking the TLR adaptor MyD88 alone, or lacking both MyD88 and CD40 [double knockout (DKO) mice], are compromised in survival to Salmonella infection but have intact recruitment of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes as well as unaltered abundance of DC subsets and DC activation in infected tissues. In contrast to infected wildtype and CD40(-/-) mice, both MyD88(-/-) mice and DKO mice lack detectable serum IFN-γ and have elevated IL-10. A synergistic effect of TLRs and CD40 was revealed in co-culture experiments where OT-II T cell proliferation was compromised when DKO DCs were pulsed with OVA protein and OVA323-339 peptide, but not with heat-killed Salmonella expressing OVA (HKSOVA), relative to MyD88(-/-) DCs. By contrast, MyD88(-/-) or DKO DCs pulsed with any of the antigens had a similar ability to induce IFN-γ that was lower than WT or CD40(-/-) DCs. DKO DCs pulsed with HKSOVA, but not with OVA or OVA323-339, had increased IL-10 relative to MyD88(-/-) DCs. Finally, HKSOVA-pulsed MyD88(-/-) and DKO DCs had similar and low induction of NFκB-dependent and -independent genes upon co-culture with OT-II cells. Overall, our data revealed that synergistic effects of CD40 and MyD88 do not influence host survival to Salmonella infection or serum levels of IFN-γ or IL-10. However, synergistic effects of MyD88 and CD40 may be apparent on some (IL-10 production) but not all (OT-II proliferation and IFN-γ production) DC functions and depend on the complexity of the antigen. Indeed, synergistic effects observed using purified ligands and well-defined antigens may not necessarily apply when complex antigens, such as live bacteria, challenge the immune system.

  1. SARM1, not MyD88, mediates TLR7/TLR9-induced apoptosis in neurons1

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Piyali; Winkler, Clayton W.; Taylor, Katherine G.; Woods, Tyson A.; Nair, Vinod; Khan, Burhan A.; Peterson, Karin E.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal apoptosis is a key aspect of many different neurological diseases, but the mechanisms remain unresolved. Recent studies have suggested a mechanism of innate immune-induced neuronal apoptosis that may act through the stimulation of toll-like receptors (TLR) in neurons. TLRs are stimulated both by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as by damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), including micro-RNAs released by damaged neurons. In the current study, we identified the mechanism responsible for TLR7/TLR9-mediated neuronal apoptosis. TLR-induced apoptosis required endosomal localization of TLRs but was independent of MyD88 signaling. Instead, apoptosis required the TLR adaptor molecule, sterile alpha armadillo motif (SARM1), which localized to the mitochondria following TLR activation and was associated with mitochondrial accumulation in neurites. Deficiency in SARM1 inhibited both mitochondrial accumulation in neurites and TLR-induced apoptosis. These studies identify a non-MyD88 pathway of TLR7/TLR9 signaling in neurons and provide a mechanism for how innate immune responses in the CNS directly induce neuronal damage. PMID:26423149

  2. TLR4-MyD88/Mal-NF-kB axis is involved in infection of HSV-2 in human cervical epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongya; Chen, Kai; Feng, Wenqiang; Wu, Xinxing; Li, Hui

    2013-01-01

    We have established an in vitro HSV-2 acute infection model with Human cervical epithelial (HCE cells, the primary target and natural host cells for HSV-2) to investigate the role of TLRs-mediated innate immune response to HSV-2. In current study, we found that HSV-2 infection induced activity of NF-kB reporter and expression of cytokines are TLR4-dependent using approaches with shRNA and TLR4 antagonist. Knockdown experiments demonstrated that the adaptor molecules MyD88 and Mal of the TLRs signaling pathway are required in the HSV-2 induced TLR4-dependent NF-kB activation in HCE cells. Western blot assay suggested that knockdown of TLR4 decreased the phosphorylation of IRAK1 and inhibitor of NF-kB (IkB-α) upon HSV-2 infection. Finally, decreased expression of either TLR4 or MyD88/Mal alone or both significantly abolished productions of IL-6 and IFN-β by ELISA analysis. Taken together, our results from the in vitro infection model reveal for the first time that there exists the pathway via TLR4-Mal/MyD88-IRAK1-NF-kB axis in human cervical epithelial cells in response to HSV-2 infection.

  3. MyD88 is essential for alveolar bone loss induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide in mice.

    PubMed

    Madeira, M F M; Queiroz-Junior, C M; Cisalpino, D; Werneck, S M C; Kikuchi, H; Fujise, O; Ryffel, B; Silva, T A; Teixeira, M M; Souza, D G

    2013-12-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative bacteria highly associated with localized aggressive periodontitis. The recognition of microbial factors, such as lipopolysaccharide from A. actinomycetemcomitans ((Aa)LPS), in the oral environment is made mainly by surface receptors known as Toll-like receptors (TLR). TLR4 is the major LPS receptor. This interaction leads to the production of inflammatory cytokines by myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88) -dependent and -independent pathways, which may involve the adaptor Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-β (TRIF). The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of MyD88 in alveolar bone loss induced by (Aa)LPS in mice. C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice, MyD88, TRIF or TRIF/MyD88 knockout mice received 10 injections of Aa LPS strain FDC Y4 (5 μg in 3 μl), in the palatal gingival tissue of the right first molar, every 48 h. Phosphate-buffered saline was injected in the opposite side and used as control. Animals were sacrificed 24 h after the 10th injection and the maxillae were removed for macroscopic and biochemical analyses. The injections of Aa LPS induced significant alveolar bone loss in WT mice. In the absence of MyD88 or TRIF/MyD88 no bone loss induced by (Aa)LPS was observed. In contrast, responses in TRIF(-/-) mice were similar to those in WT mice. Diminished bone loss in the absence of MyD88 was associated with fewer TRAP-positive cells and increased expression of osteoblast markers, RUNX2 and osteopontin. There was also reduced tumor necrosis factor-α production in MyD88(-/-) mice. There was less osteoclast differentiation of hematopoietic bone marrow cells from MyD88(-/-) mice after (Aa)LPS stimulation. Hence, the signaling through MyD88 is pivotal for (Aa)LPS-induced osteoclast formation and alveolar bone loss.

  4. Recurrent candidiasis and early-onset gastric cancer in a patient with a genetically defined partial MYD88 defect.

    PubMed

    Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; van der Post, Rachel S; de Voer, Richarda M; Kets, C Marleen; Jansen, Trees J G; Jacobs, Liesbeth; Schreibelt, Gerty; de Vries, I Jolanda M; Netea, Mihai G; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer is caused by both genetic and environmental factors. A woman who suffered from recurrent candidiasis throughout her life developed diffuse-type gastric cancer at the age of 23 years. Using whole-exome sequencing we identified a germline homozygous missense variant in MYD88. Immunological assays on peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed an impaired immune response upon stimulation with Candida albicans, characterized by a defective production of the cytokine interleukin-17. Our data suggest that a genetic defect in MYD88 results in an impaired immune response and may increase gastric cancer risk.

  5. MyD88 is a key mediator of anorexia, but not weight loss, induced by lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-1 beta.

    PubMed

    Ogimoto, Kayoko; Harris, Marvin K; Wisse, Brent E

    2006-09-01

    Systemic inflammatory signals can disrupt the physiological regulation of energy balance, causing anorexia and weight loss. In the current studies, we investigated whether MyD88, the primary, but not exclusive, intracellular signal transduction pathway for Toll-like receptor 4 and IL-1 receptor I, is necessary for anorexia and weight loss to occur in response to stimuli that activate these key innate immune receptors. Our findings demonstrate that the absence of MyD88 signaling confers complete protection against anorexia induced by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (20 h food intake in MyD88-/- mice 5.4 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.3 +/- 0.4 g in MyD88+/+ control mice, P < 0.001) or IL-1 beta (20 h food intake in MyD88-/- mice 4.9 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.3 g in MyD88+/+ control mice, P < 0.001). However, absent MyD88 signaling does not prevent these inflammatory mediators from causing weight loss (LPS, -0.4 +/- 0.1 g; IL1 beta, -0.1 +/- 0.1 g, both P < 0.01 vs. vehicle-injected MyD88-/- mice, +0.4 +/- 0.2 g). Furthermore, LPS-induced weight loss occurs in the absence of adipsia, fever, or hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation in MyD88-deficient mice. In addition, the peripheral inflammatory response to LPS is surprisingly intact in mice lacking MyD88. Together, these observations indicate that LPS reduces food intake via a mechanism that is dissociated from its effect on peripheral cytokine production, and whereas the presence of circulating proinflammatory cytokines per se is insufficient to cause anorexia in the absence of MyD88 signaling, it may contribute to LPS-induced weight loss.

  6. MyD88 regulates physical inactivity-induced skeletal muscle inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Tanner, Ruth E; Barrows, Katherine M; Runtsch, Marah; Symons, J David; Jalili, Thunder; Bikman, Benjamin T; McClain, Donald A; O'Connell, Ryan M; Drummond, Micah J

    2015-07-01

    Physical inactivity in older adults is a risk factor for developing glucose intolerance and impaired skeletal muscle function. Elevated inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis have been implicated in metabolic disruption and are linked to Toll-like receptor (TLR)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling. We hypothesize that a physical inactivity stimulus, capable of inducing glucose intolerance, would increase skeletal muscle inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis signaling and that this response would be regulated by the TLR/MyD88 pathway. Therefore, we subjected wild-type (WT) and MyD88(-/-) mice to hindlimb unloading (HU) for 14 days or an ambulatory control period. We observed impaired glucose uptake, muscle insulin signaling (p-Akt), and increased markers of NF-κB signaling (p-IκBα), inflammation (p-JNK, IL-6), TLR4, and the rate-limiting enzyme of ceramide biosynthesis, SPT2, with HU WT (P < 0.05), but not in HU MyD88(-/-) mice. Concurrently, we found that 5 days of bed rest in older adults resulted in whole body glucose dysregulation, impaired skeletal muscle insulin signaling, and upregulation of muscle IL-6 and SPT2 (P < 0.05). Post-bed rest TLR4 abundance was tightly correlated with impaired postprandial insulin and glucose levels. In conclusion, MyD88 signaling is necessary for the increased inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and compromised metabolic function that accompanies physical inactivity.

  7. MyD88 regulates physical inactivity-induced skeletal muscle inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and glucose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Tanner, Ruth E.; Barrows, Katherine M.; Runtsch, Marah; Symons, J. David; Jalili, Thunder; Bikman, Benjamin T.; McClain, Donald A.; O'Connell, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity in older adults is a risk factor for developing glucose intolerance and impaired skeletal muscle function. Elevated inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis have been implicated in metabolic disruption and are linked to Toll-like receptor (TLR)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling. We hypothesize that a physical inactivity stimulus, capable of inducing glucose intolerance, would increase skeletal muscle inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis signaling and that this response would be regulated by the TLR/MyD88 pathway. Therefore, we subjected wild-type (WT) and MyD88−/− mice to hindlimb unloading (HU) for 14 days or an ambulatory control period. We observed impaired glucose uptake, muscle insulin signaling (p-Akt), and increased markers of NF-κB signaling (p-IκBα), inflammation (p-JNK, IL-6), TLR4, and the rate-limiting enzyme of ceramide biosynthesis, SPT2, with HU WT (P < 0.05), but not in HU MyD88−/− mice. Concurrently, we found that 5 days of bed rest in older adults resulted in whole body glucose dysregulation, impaired skeletal muscle insulin signaling, and upregulation of muscle IL-6 and SPT2 (P < 0.05). Post-bed rest TLR4 abundance was tightly correlated with impaired postprandial insulin and glucose levels. In conclusion, MyD88 signaling is necessary for the increased inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and compromised metabolic function that accompanies physical inactivity. PMID:25968578

  8. SARM modulates MyD88-mediated TLR activation through BB-loop dependent TIR-TIR interactions.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Emil; Ding, Jeak Ling; Byrne, Bernadette

    2016-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise invading pathogens and initiate an innate immune response by recruiting intracellular adaptor proteins via heterotypic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain interactions. Of the five TIR domain-containing adaptor proteins identified, Sterile α- and armadillo-motif-containing protein (SARM) is functionally unique; suppressing immune signalling instead of promoting it. Here we demonstrate that the recombinantly expressed and purified SARM TIR domain interacts with both the major human TLR adaptors, MyD88 and TRIF. A single glycine residue located in the BB-loop of the SARM TIR domain, G601, was identified as essential for interaction. A short peptide derived from this motif was also found to interact with MyD88 in vitro. SARM expression in HEK293 cells was found to significantly suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, IL-8 and TNF-α, an effect lost in the G601A mutant. The same result was observed with cytokine activation initiated by MyD88 expression and stimulation of TLR2 with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), suggesting that SARM is capable of suppressing both TRIF- and MyD88- dependent TLR signalling. Our findings indicate that SARM acts on a broader set of target proteins than previously thought, and that the BB-loop motif is functionally important, giving further insight into the endogenous mechanisms used to suppress inflammation in immune cells.

  9. Lung epithelial MyD88 drives early pulmonary clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by a flagellin dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Anas, Adam A; van Lieshout, Miriam H P; Claushuis, Theodora A M; de Vos, Alex F; Florquin, Sandrine; de Boer, Onno J; Hou, Baidong; Van't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a flagellated pathogen frequently causing pneumonia in hospitalized patients and sufferers of chronic lung disease. Here we investigated the role of the common Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor myeloid differentiation factor (MyD)88 in myeloid vs. lung epithelial cells in clearance of P. aeruginosa from the airways. Mice deficient for MyD88 in lung epithelial cells (Sftpccre-MyD88-lox mice) or myeloid cells (LysMcre-MyD88-lox mice) and bone marrow chimeric mice deficient for TLR5 (the receptor recognizing Pseudomonas flagellin) in either parenchymal or hematopoietic cells were infected with P. aeruginosa via the airways. Sftpccre-MyD88-lox mice demonstrated a reduced influx of neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar space and an impaired early antibacterial defense after infection with P. aeruginosa, whereas the response of LysMcre-MyD88-lox mice did not differ from control mice. The immune-enhancing role of epithelial MyD88 was dependent on recognition of pathogen-derived flagellin by epithelial TLR5, as demonstrated by an unaltered clearance of mutant P. aeruginosa lacking flagellin from the lungs of Sftpccre-MyD88-lox mice and an impaired bacterial clearance in bone marrow chimeric mice lacking TLR5 in parenchymal cells. These data indicate that early clearance of P. aeruginosa from the airways is dependent on flagellin-TLR5-MyD88-dependent signaling in respiratory epithelial cells.

  10. Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Replication by MyD88 Involves Accelerated Degradation of Pregenomic RNA and Nuclear Retention of Pre-S/S RNAs▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhua; Lin, Shanshan; Chen, Qiying; Peng, Lu; Zhai, Jianwei; Liu, Yinghui; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2010-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88), which can be induced by alpha interferon (IFN-α), has an antiviral activity against the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The mechanism of this antiviral activity remains poorly understood. Here, we report that MyD88 inhibited HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells and in a mouse model. The knockdown of MyD88 expression weakened the IFN-α-induced inhibition of HBV replication. Furthermore, MyD88 posttranscriptionally reduced the levels of viral RNA. Remarkably, MyD88 accelerated the decay of viral pregenomic RNA in the cytoplasm. Mapping analysis showed that the RNA sequence located in the 5′-proximal region of the pregenomic RNA was critical for the decay. In addition, MyD88 inhibited the nuclear export of pre-S/S RNAs via the posttranscriptional regulatory element (PRE). The retained pre-S/S RNAs were shown to degrade in the nucleus. Finally, we found that MyD88 inhibited the expression of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), a key nuclear export factor for PRE-containing RNA. Taken together, our results define a novel antiviral mechanism against HBV mediated by MyD88. PMID:20410269

  11. Inflammation- and tumor-induced anorexia and weight loss require MyD88 in hematopoietic/myeloid cells but not in brain endothelial or neural cells.

    PubMed

    Ruud, Johan; Wilhelms, Daniel Björk; Nilsson, Anna; Eskilsson, Anna; Tang, Yan-Juan; Ströhle, Peter; Caesar, Robert; Schwaninger, Markus; Wunderlich, Thomas; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Engblom, David; Blomqvist, Anders

    2013-05-01

    Loss of appetite is a hallmark of inflammatory diseases. The underlying mechanisms remain undefined, but it is known that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), an adaptor protein critical for Toll-like and IL-1 receptor family signaling, is involved. Here we addressed the question of determining in which cells the MyD88 signaling that results in anorexia development occurs by using chimeric mice and animals with cell-specific deletions. We found that MyD88-knockout mice, which are resistant to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anorexia, displayed anorexia when transplanted with wild-type bone marrow cells. Furthermore, mice with a targeted deletion of MyD88 in hematopoietic or myeloid cells were largely protected against LPS-induced anorexia and displayed attenuated weight loss, whereas mice with MyD88 deletion in hepatocytes or in neural cells or the cerebrovascular endothelium developed anorexia and weight loss of similar magnitude as wild-type mice. Furthermore, in a model for cancer-induced anorexia-cachexia, deletion of MyD88 in hematopoietic cells attenuated the anorexia and protected against body weight loss. These findings demonstrate that MyD88-dependent signaling within the brain is not required for eliciting inflammation-induced anorexia. Instead, we identify MyD88 signaling in hematopoietic/myeloid cells as a critical component for acute inflammatory-driven anorexia, as well as for chronic anorexia and weight loss associated with malignant disease.

  12. Utility of MYD88 in the Differential Diagnosis and Choice of Second-Line Therapy in a Case of Nonsecretory Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma versus Free Light Chain Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierski, D.; Palomba, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    The MYD88 L265P somatic variant (MYD88) has a high prevalence in Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia (WM), a form of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) associated with monoclonal IgM. Although the role of MYD88 in WM was initially reported in 2012, it was not until 2016 that MYD88 testing was included in the National Cancer Care Network (NCCN) Guidelines. We present a case illustrating the utility of MYD88 status in distinguishing atypical forms of WM from marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) and in selecting second-line therapy with ibrutinib. In 2012, a 64-year-old male presented with dyspnea on exertion, a hemoglobin of 5.6 g/dL, a platelet count of 86,000, and monoclonal IgM kappa on serum immunofixation but no detectable M-spike. Bone marrow biopsy revealed 95% monoclonal B-lymphocytes with lymphoplasmacytic differentiation favoring a diagnosis of LPL/WM over MZL, with a favorable response to chemotherapy. This diagnosis was called into question 3 years later following relapse, and MZL was favored based on the lack of MYD88 mutation. One year later, however, repeat bone marrow biopsy detected the MYD88 mutation and therapy with ibrutinib yielded a favorable response. The distinction between certain lymphomas can be problematic and in this case MYD88 was helpful in clarifying a diagnosis of atypical LPL/WM from MZL and in selecting effective second-line therapy. PMID:28286680

  13. Impaired Innate Immunity in Tlr4−/− Mice but Preserved CD8+ T Cell Responses against Trypanosoma cruzi in Tlr4-, Tlr2-, Tlr9- or Myd88-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tzelepis, Fanny; Klezewsky, Weberton; da Silva, Raquel N.; Neves, Fabieni S.; Cavalcanti, Gisele S.; Boscardin, Silvia; Nunes, Marise P.; Santiago, Marcelo F.; Nóbrega, Alberto; Rodrigues, Maurício M.; Bellio, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The murine model of T. cruzi infection has provided compelling evidence that development of host resistance against intracellular protozoans critically depends on the activation of members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family via the MyD88 adaptor molecule. However, the possibility that TLR/MyD88 signaling pathways also control the induction of immunoprotective CD8+ T cell-mediated effector functions has not been investigated to date. We addressed this question by measuring the frequencies of IFN-γ secreting CD8+ T cells specific for H-2Kb-restricted immunodominant peptides as well as the in vivo Ag-specific cytotoxic response in infected animals that are deficient either in TLR2, TLR4, TLR9 or MyD88 signaling pathways. Strikingly, we found that T. cruzi-infected Tlr2−/−, Tlr4−/−, Tlr9−/− or Myd88−/− mice generated both specific cytotoxic responses and IFN-γ secreting CD8+ T cells at levels comparable to WT mice, although the frequency of IFN-γ+CD4+ cells was diminished in infected Myd88−/− mice. We also analyzed the efficiency of TLR4-driven immune responses against T. cruzi using TLR4-deficient mice on the C57BL genetic background (B6 and B10). Our studies demonstrated that TLR4 signaling is required for optimal production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) in the spleen of infected animals and, as a consequence, Tlr4−/− mice display higher parasitemia levels. Collectively, our results indicate that TLR4, as well as previously shown for TLR2, TLR9 and MyD88, contributes to the innate immune response and, consequently, resistance in the acute phase of infection, although each of these pathways is not individually essential for the generation of class I-restricted responses against T. cruzi. PMID:20442858

  14. Measurement of TLR-Induced Macrophage Spreading by Automated Image Analysis: Differential Role of Myd88 and MAPK in Early and Late Responses.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Jens; Held, Christian; Palmisano, Ralf; Teufel, Stefan; David, Jean-Pierre; Wittenberg, Thomas; Lang, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Sensing of infectious danger by toll-like receptors (TLRs) on macrophages causes not only a reprogramming of the transcriptome but also changes in the cytoskeleton important for cell spreading and motility. Since manual determination of cell contact areas from fluorescence micrographs is very time-consuming and prone to bias, we have developed and tested algorithms for automated measurement of macrophage spreading. The two-step method combines identification of cells by nuclear staining with DAPI and cell surface staining of the integrin CD11b. Automated image analysis correlated very well with manual annotation in resting macrophages and early after stimulation, whereas at later time points the automated cell segmentation algorithm and manual annotation showed slightly larger variation. The method was applied to investigate the impact of genetic or pharmacological inhibition of known TLR signaling components. Deficiency in the adapter protein Myd88 strongly reduced spreading activity at the late time points, but had no impact early after LPS-stimulation. A similar effect was observed upon pharmacological inhibition of MEK1, the kinase activating the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK1/2, indicating that ERK1/2 mediates Myd88-dependent macrophages spreading. In contrast, macrophages lacking the MAPK p38 were impaired in the initial spreading response but responded normally 8-24 h after stimulation. The dichotomy of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK effects on early and late macrophage spreading raises the question which of the respective substrate proteins mediate(s) cytoskeletal remodeling and spreading. The automated measurement of cell spreading described here increases the objectivity and greatly reduces the time required for such investigations and is therefore expected to facilitate larger throughput analysis of macrophage spreading, e.g., in siRNA knockdown screens.

  15. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair IgM responses against T-independent bacterial antigens

    PubMed Central

    Maglione, Paul J.; Simchoni, Noa; Black, Samuel; Radigan, Lin; Overbey, Jessica R.; Bagiella, Emilia; Bussel, James B.; Bossuyt, Xavier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Meyts, Isabelle; Cerutti, Andrea; Picard, Capucine

    2014-01-01

    IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and lead to heightened susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections. Individuals with these primary immunodeficiencies have fewer immunoglobulin M (IgM)+IgD+CD27+ B cells, a population that resembles murine splenic marginal zone B cells that mount T-independent antibody responses against bacterial antigens. However, the significance of this B-cell subset in humans is poorly understood. Using both a 610 carbohydrate array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that patients with IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies have reduced serum IgM, but not IgG antibody, recognizing T-independent bacterial antigens. Moreover, the quantity of specific IgM correlated with IgM+IgD+CD27+ B-cell frequencies. As with mouse marginal zone B cells, human IgM+CD27+ B cells activated by TLR7 or TLR9 agonists produced phosphorylcholine-specific IgM. Further linking splenic IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells with production of T-independent IgM, serum from splenectomized subjects, who also have few IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells, had reduced antibacterial IgM. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impaired TLR-induced proliferation of this B-cell subset, suggesting a means by which loss of this activation pathway leads to reduced cell numbers. Thus, by bolstering the IgM+IgD+CD27+ B-cell subset, IRAK-4 and MyD88 promote optimal T-independent IgM antibody responses against bacteria in humans. PMID:25320238

  16. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair IgM responses against T-independent bacterial antigens.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Paul J; Simchoni, Noa; Black, Samuel; Radigan, Lin; Overbey, Jessica R; Bagiella, Emilia; Bussel, James B; Bossuyt, Xavier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Meyts, Isabelle; Cerutti, Andrea; Picard, Capucine; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2014-12-04

    IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impair interleukin 1 receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and lead to heightened susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections. Individuals with these primary immunodeficiencies have fewer immunoglobulin M (IgM)(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells, a population that resembles murine splenic marginal zone B cells that mount T-independent antibody responses against bacterial antigens. However, the significance of this B-cell subset in humans is poorly understood. Using both a 610 carbohydrate array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that patients with IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies have reduced serum IgM, but not IgG antibody, recognizing T-independent bacterial antigens. Moreover, the quantity of specific IgM correlated with IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B-cell frequencies. As with mouse marginal zone B cells, human IgM(+)CD27(+) B cells activated by TLR7 or TLR9 agonists produced phosphorylcholine-specific IgM. Further linking splenic IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells with production of T-independent IgM, serum from splenectomized subjects, who also have few IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells, had reduced antibacterial IgM. IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies impaired TLR-induced proliferation of this B-cell subset, suggesting a means by which loss of this activation pathway leads to reduced cell numbers. Thus, by bolstering the IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B-cell subset, IRAK-4 and MyD88 promote optimal T-independent IgM antibody responses against bacteria in humans.

  17. MyD88 Adaptor-Dependent Microbial Sensing by Regulatory T Cells Promotes Mucosal Tolerance and Enforces Commensalism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Charbonnier, Louis-Marie; Noval Rivas, Magali; Georgiev, Peter; Li, Ning; Gerber, Georg; Bry, Lynn; Chatila, Talal A

    2015-08-18

    Commensal microbiota promote mucosal tolerance in part by engaging regulatory T (Treg) cells via Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We report that Treg-cell-specific deletion of the TLR adaptor MyD88 resulted in deficiency of intestinal Treg cells, a reciprocal increase in T helper 17 (Th17) cells and heightened interleukin-17 (IL-17)-dependent inflammation in experimental colitis. It also precipitated dysbiosis with overgrowth of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) and increased microbial loads in deep tissues. The Th17 cell dysregulation and bacterial dysbiosis were linked to impaired anti-microbial intestinal IgA responses, related to defective MyD88 adaptor- and Stat3 transcription factor-dependent T follicular regulatory and helper cell differentiation in the Peyer's patches. These findings establish an essential role for MyD88-dependent microbial sensing by Treg cells in enforcing mucosal tolerance and maintaining commensalism by promoting intestinal Treg cell formation and anti-commensal IgA responses.

  18. Inhibition of IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling promotes mesenchymal stem cell-driven tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Martino, Mikaël M; Maruyama, Kenta; Kuhn, Gisela A; Satoh, Takashi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Müller, Ralph; Akira, Shizuo

    2016-03-22

    Tissue injury and the healing response lead to the release of endogenous danger signals including Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor, type 1 (IL-1R1) ligands, which modulate the immune microenvironment. Because TLRs and IL-1R1 have been shown to influence the repair process of various tissues, we explored their role during bone regeneration, seeking to design regenerative strategies integrating a control of their signalling. Here we show that IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling negatively regulates bone regeneration, in the mouse. Furthermore, IL-1β which is released at the bone injury site, inhibits the regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Mechanistically, IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling impairs MSC proliferation, migration and differentiation by inhibiting the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. Lastly, as a proof of concept, we engineer a MSC delivery system integrating inhibitors of IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling. Using this strategy, we considerably improve MSC-based bone regeneration in the mouse, demonstrating that this approach may be useful in regenerative medicine applications.

  19. Overexpression of FOXO3, MYD88, and GAPDH Identified by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization in Esophageal Cancer Is Associated with Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Soltany-Rezaee-Rad, Mohammad; Mottaghi-Dastjerdi, Negar; Setayesh, Neda; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Ebrahimifard, Farzaneh; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham

    2014-01-01

    To find genes involved in tumorigenesis and the development of esophageal cancer, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used to identify genes that are overexpressed in esophageal cancer tissues compared to normal esophageal tissues. In our SSH library, the forkhead box O3 (FOXO3), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88) genes were the most highly upregulated genes, and they were selected for further studies because of their potential role in the induction of autophagy. Upregulation of these genes was also observed in clinical samples using qRT-PCR. In addition, coexpression analysis of the autophagy-related genes Beclin1, ATG12, Gabarapl, PIK3C3, and LC3 demonstrated a significant correlation between the differentially overexpressed genes and autophagy. Autophagy is an important mechanism in tumorigenesis and the development of chemoresistance in cancer cells. The upregulation of FOXO3, GAPDH, and MYD88 variants in esophageal cancer suggests a role for autophagy and provides new insight into the biology of esophageal cancer. We propose that FOXO3, GAPDH, and MYD88 are novel targets for combating autophagy in esophageal cancer.

  20. Baicalin inhibits TLR7/MYD88 signaling pathway activation to suppress lung inflammation in mice infected with influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    WAN, QIAOFENG; WANG, HAO; HAN, XUEBO; LIN, YUAN; YANG, YANHUI; GU, LIGANG; ZHAO, JIAQING; WANG, LI; HUANG, LING; LI, YANBIN; YANG, YURONG

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of baicalin on imprinting control region mice infected with influenza A/FM/1/47 (H1N1) virus. Oral administration of baicalin into mice infected with H1N1 prevented death, increased the mean time to death and inhibited lung index and lung consolidation. Subsequently, fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88), and western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-P65 and c-jun/activator protein 1 (AP-1). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to test for the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, in the lung tissue. The findings indicated that baicalin downregulated the mRNA expression of TLR7 and MYD88, significantly downregulated the protein expression of NF-κB-P65 and AP-1 and also inhibited the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In conclusion, baicalin effectively reduced the pathological damage and inflammation of the lungs by downregulating the TLR7/MYD88-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:24748990

  1. PPAR-γ/IL-10 axis inhibits MyD88 expression and ameliorates murine polymicrobial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana Elisa; Sisti, Flavia; Sônego, Fabiane; Wang, Suojuan; Filgueiras, Luciano Ribeiro; Brandt, Stephanie; Serezani, Ana Paula Moreira; Du, Hong; Cunha, Fernando Q; Alves-Filho, Jose Carlos; Serezani, Carlos Henrique

    2014-03-01

    Polymicrobial sepsis induces organ failure and is accompanied by overwhelming inflammatory response and impairment of microbial killing. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ is a nuclear receptor with pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism, inflammation, and cell proliferation. The insulin-sensitizing drugs thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are specific PPAR-γ agonists. TZDs exert anti-inflammatory actions in different disease models, including polymicrobial sepsis. The TZD pioglitazone, which has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, improves sepsis outcome; however, the molecular programs that mediate its effect have not been determined. In a murine model of sepsis, we now show that pioglitazone treatment improves microbial clearance and enhances neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection. We also observed reduced proinflammatory cytokine production and high IL-10 levels in pioglitazone-treated mice. These effects were associated with a decrease in STAT-1-dependent expression of MyD88 in vivo and in vitro. IL-10R blockage abolished PPAR-γ-mediated inhibition of MyD88 expression. These data demonstrate that the primary mechanism by which pioglitazone protects against polymicrobial sepsis is through the impairment of MyD88 responses. This appears to represent a novel regulatory program. In this regard, pioglitazone provides advantages as a therapeutic tool, because it improves different aspects of host defense during sepsis, ultimately enhancing survival.

  2. Activation of MyD88 Signaling upon Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Binding to MHC Class II Molecules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-20

    with magnetic beads were obtained from Miltenyi Biotech Inc. (Auburn, CA). The FITC-conjugated mAbs anti- CD14 , anti- CD3, and Ig isotype control...and Maloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase was purchased from Perkin Elmer (Waltham, MA). Mouse anti-human CD14 and CD3 mAbs conjugated...harvested from the interface, washed, and suspended in RPMI 1640 medium. Monocytes ( CD14 +) were purified as previously described [33]. Briefly, total

  3. Interleukin 1 receptor-driven neutrophil recruitment accounts to MyD88-dependent pulmonary clearance of legionella pneumophila infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Danielle P A; Pereira, Marcelo S F; Manin, Graziele Z; Hori, Juliana I; Zamboni, Dario S

    2015-01-15

    Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaires' disease, triggers activation of multiple innate immune pathways that lead to the restriction of bacterial replication in vivo. Despite the critical role for MyD88 in infection clearance, the receptors and mechanisms responsible for MyD88-mediated pulmonary bacterial clearance are still unclear. Here, we used flagellin mutants of L. pneumophila, which bypass the NAIP5/NLRC4-mediated restriction of bacterial replication, to assess the receptors involved in MyD88-mediated pulmonary bacterial clearance. By systematically comparing pulmonary clearance of L. pneumophila in C57BL/6 MyD88(-/-), TLR2(-/-), TLR3(-/-), TLR4(-/-), TLR9(-/-), IL-1R(-/-), and IL-18(-/-) mice, we found that, while the knockout of a single Toll-like receptor or interleukin 18 resulted only in minor impairment of bacterial clearance, deficiency in the interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor led to a significant impairment. IL-1/MyD88-mediated pulmonary bacterial clearance occurs via processes involving the recruitment of neutrophils. Collectively, our data contribute to the understanding of the effector mechanisms involved in MyD88-mediated pulmonary bacterial clearance.

  4. Sinomenine decreases MyD88 expression and improves inflammation-induced joint damage progression and symptoms in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mu, Hui; Yao, Ru-Bing; Zhao, Ling-Jie; Shen, Si-Yu; Zhao, Zhi-Ming; Cai, Hui

    2013-10-01

    Sinomenine (SIN) is the active principle of the Chinese medical plant Sinomenium acutum which is widely used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China. Recently, several groups indicated that myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) might be associated with disease progression of RA. Here, we observed the effect of SIN on MyD88 expression and showed its therapeutic role in RA. First, immunohistochemical staining in clinical specimens showed that MyD88 was mainly located in characteristic pathological structures of RA synovial tissues. Second, we found that MyD88 was overexpressed in the synovial tissues of the rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Treatment with SIN markedly decreased the expression of MyD88 in AIA rats. Finally, we provided evidences that SIN suppressed inflammation response and inflammation-induced joint destructive progression and arthritis symptoms in AIA rats. Therefore, SIN is an effective therapeutic agent for RA. Targeting MyD88 signaling may provide new methods for the treatment of RA.

  5. Natural Killer Cell Sensing of Infected Cells Compensates for MyD88 Deficiency but Not IFN-I Activity in Resistance to Mouse Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Cocita, Clément; Guiton, Rachel; Bessou, Gilles; Chasson, Lionel; Boyron, Marilyn; Crozat, Karine; Dalod, Marc

    2015-05-01

    In mice, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and natural killer (NK) cells both contribute to resistance to systemic infections with herpes viruses including mouse Cytomegalovirus (MCMV). pDCs are the major source of type I IFN (IFN-I) during MCMV infection. This response requires pDC-intrinsic MyD88-dependent signaling by Toll-Like Receptors 7 and 9. Provided that they express appropriate recognition receptors such as Ly49H, NK cells can directly sense and kill MCMV-infected cells. The loss of any one of these responses increases susceptibility to infection. However, the relative importance of these antiviral immune responses and how they are related remain unclear. In humans, while IFN-I responses are essential, MyD88 is dispensable for antiviral immunity. Hence, a higher redundancy has been proposed in the mechanisms promoting protective immune responses against systemic infections by herpes viruses during natural infections in humans. It has been assumed, but not proven, that mice fail to mount protective MyD88-independent IFN-I responses. In humans, the mechanism that compensates MyD88 deficiency has not been elucidated. To address these issues, we compared resistance to MCMV infection and immune responses between mouse strains deficient for MyD88, the IFN-I receptor and/or Ly49H. We show that selective depletion of pDC or genetic deficiencies for MyD88 or TLR9 drastically decreased production of IFN-I, but not the protective antiviral responses. Moreover, MyD88, but not IFN-I receptor, deficiency could largely be compensated by Ly49H-mediated antiviral NK cell responses. Thus, contrary to the current dogma but consistent with the situation in humans, we conclude that, in mice, in our experimental settings, MyD88 is redundant for IFN-I responses and overall defense against a systemic herpes virus infection. Moreover, we identified direct NK cell sensing of infected cells as one mechanism able to compensate for MyD88 deficiency in mice. Similar mechanisms likely contribute to protect MyD88- or IRAK4-deficient patients from viral infections.

  6. Detection of MYD88 L265P in peripheral blood of patients with Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia and IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Hunter, Z R; Yang, G; Cao, Y; Liu, X; Manning, R; Tripsas, C; Chen, J; Patterson, C J; Kluk, M; Kanan, S; Castillo, J; Lindeman, N; Treon, S P

    2014-08-01

    MYD88 L265P is highly prevalent in Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia (WM) and IgM monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS). We investigated whether MYD88 L265P could be identified by peripheral blood (PB) allele-specific PCR. MYD88 L265P was detected in untreated WM (114/118; 96.6%); previously treated WM (63/102; 61.8%); and IgM MGUS (5/12; 41.7%) but in none of 3 hyper-IgM or 40 healthy individuals. Median PB MYD88 L265P ΔCt was 3.77, 7.24, 10.89, 12.33 and 14.07 for untreated WM, previously treated WM, IgM MGUS, hyper-IgM and healthy individuals, respectively (P<0.0001). For the 232 IgM MGUS and WM patients, PB MYD88 L265P ΔCt moderately correlated to bone marrow (BM) disease (r=-0.3553; P<0.0001), serum IgM (r=-0.3262; P<0.0001) and hemoglobin (r=0.3005; P<0.0001) levels. PB MYD88 L265P ΔCt and serum IgM correlated similarly with BM disease burden. For positive patients, PB MYD88 L265P ΔCt was <6.5 in 100/114 (88%) untreated WM, and >6.5 in 4/5 (80%) IgM MGUS patients (P=0.0034). Attainment of a negative PB MYD88 L265P mutation status was associated with lower BM disease (P=0.001), serum IgM (P=0.019) and higher hemoglobin (P=0.004) levels in treated patients. These studies show the feasibility for detecting MYD88 L265P by PB examination, and the potential for PB MYD88 L265P ΔCt use in the diagnosis and management of WM patients.

  7. Participation of MyD88 and Interleukin-33 as Innate Drivers of Th2 Immunity to Trichinella spiralis

    PubMed Central

    Scalfone, Lisa K.; Nel, Hendrik J.; Gagliardo, Lucille F.; Cameron, Jody L.; Al-Shokri, Shaikha; Leifer, Cynthia A.; Fallon, Padraic G.

    2013-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis is a highly destructive parasitic nematode that invades and destroys intestinal epithelial cells, injures many different tissues during its migratory phase, and occupies and transforms myotubes during the final phase of its life cycle. We set out to investigate the role in immunity of innate receptors for potential pathogen- or danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or DAMPs). Focusing on the MyD88-dependent receptors, which include Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) family members, we found that MyD88-deficient mice expelled worms normally, while TLR2/4-deficient mice showed accelerated worm expulsion, suggesting that MyD88 was active in signaling pathways for more than one receptor during intestinal immunity. A direct role for PAMPs in TLR activation was not supported in a transactivation assay involving a panel of murine and human TLRs. Mice deficient in the IL-1 family receptor for the DAMP, IL-33 (called ST2), displayed reduced intestinal Th2 responses and impaired mast cell activation. IL-33 was constitutively expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, where it became concentrated in nuclei within 2 days of infection. Nuclear localization was an innate response to infection that occurred in intestinal regions where worms were actively migrating. Th2 responses were also compromised in the lymph nodes draining the skeletal muscles of ST2-deficient mice, and this correlated with increased larval burdens in muscle. Our results support a mechanism in which the immune system recognizes and responds to tissue injury in a way that promotes Th2 responses. PMID:23403558

  8. Molecular cloning, structural modeling, and expression analysis of MyD88 and IRAK4 of golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus).

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhitao; Sun, Baobao; Zhang, Qihuan; Meng, Fancui; Xu, Qiaoqing; Wei, Youchuan; Gao, Qian

    2017-04-10

    MyD88 and IRAK4 are important components of TLR signaling pathways. However, information about MyD88 and IRAK4 is vacant in golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus), a marine teleost with great commercial value. Thus, in this study the full lengths of trMyD88 and trIRAK4 were cloned from golden pompano using RT-PCR and RACE-PCR methods. trMyD88 was 1213 bp in length, encoding a putative protein of 288 amino acids (aa), consisting of a 99 aa of death domain at its N-terminal and a 137 aa of the TIR domain at its C-terminal. trIRAK4 was 1606 bp in length, encoding a putative protein of 469 aa, including an N-terminal death domain and a central kinase domain, connected by a ProST domain. Other domains or aa residues needed for their functions were also identified in trMyD88 and trIRAK4. Physicochemical features and 3-D structures of trMyD88 and trIRAK4 were also analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the 2 genes were ubiquitously expressed in tissues from healthy pompano, especially highly in the spleen and head kidney, indicating their roles in the immune response. Further, trMyD88 and trIRAK4 were up-regulated at 12 h after the Vibrio alginilyticus and polyI:C challenge and continued to 48 h post challenge. Our results demonstrated that MyD88 and IRAK4 played important roles in the golden pompano innate immune system, providing the basis for further study of the signaling pathways that these 2 genes are involved in.

  9. MYD88 and functionally related genes are associated with multiple infections in a model population of Kenyan village dogs.

    PubMed

    Necesankova, Michaela; Vychodilova, Leona; Albrechtova, Katerina; Kennedy, Lorna J; Hlavac, Jan; Sedlak, Kamil; Modry, David; Janova, Eva; Vyskocil, Mirko; Horin, Petr

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to seek associations between immunity-related molecular markers and endemic infections in a model population of African village dogs from Northern Kenya with no veterinary care and no selective breeding. A population of village dogs from Northern Kenya composed of three sub-populations from three different areas (84, 50 and 55 dogs) was studied. Canine distemper virus (CDV), Hepatozoon canis, Microfilariae (Acantocheilonema dracunculoides, Acantocheilonema reconditum) and Neospora caninum were the pathogens studied. The presence of antibodies (CDV, Neospora), light microscopy (Hepatozoon) and diagnostic PCR (Microfilariae) were the methods used for diagnosing infection. Genes involved in innate immune mechanisms, NOS3, IL6, TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR7, TLR9, LY96, MYD88, and three major histocompatibility genes class II genes were selected as candidates. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were detected by Sanger sequencing, next generation sequencing and PCR-RFLP. The Fisher´s exact test for additive and non-additive models was used for association analyses. Three SNPs within the MYD88 gene and one TLR4 SNP marker were associated with more than one infection. Combined genotypes and further markers identified by next generation sequencing confirmed associations observed for individual genes. The genes associated with infection and their combinations in specific genotypes match well our knowledge on their biological role and on the role of the relevant biological pathways, respectively. Associations with multiple infections observed between the MYD88 and TLR4 genes suggest their involvement in the mechanisms of anti-infectious defenses in dogs.

  10. Early alpha/beta interferon production by myeloid dendritic cells in response to UV-inactivated virus requires viral entry and interferon regulatory factor 3 but not MyD88.

    PubMed

    Hidmark, Asa S; McInerney, Gerald M; Nordström, Eva K L; Douagi, Iyadh; Werner, Kristen M; Liljeström, Peter; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B

    2005-08-01

    Alpha/beta interferons (IFN-alpha/beta) are key mediators of innate immunity and important modulators of adaptive immunity. The mechanisms by which IFN-alpha/beta are induced are becoming increasingly well understood. Recent studies showed that Toll-like receptors 7 and 8 expressed by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) mediate the endosomal recognition of incoming viral RNA genomes, a process which requires myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Here we investigate the requirements for virus-induced IFN-alpha/beta production in cultures of bone marrow-derived murine myeloid DCs (mDCs). Using recombinant Semliki Forest virus blocked at different steps in the viral life cycle, we show that replication-defective virus induced IFN-alpha/beta in mDCs while fusion-defective virus did not induce IFN-alpha/beta. The response to replication-defective virus was largely intact in MyD88-/- mDC cultures but was severely reduced in mDC cultures from mice lacking IFN regulatory factor 3. Our observations suggest that mDCs respond to incoming virus via a pathway that differs from the fusion-independent, MyD88-mediated endosomal pathway described for the induction of IFN-alpha/beta in pDCs. We propose that events during or downstream of viral fusion, but prior to replication, can activate IFN-alpha/beta in mDCs. Thus, mDCs may contribute to the antiviral response activated by the immune system at early time points after infection.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus recognition by hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells via TLR2/MyD88/PGE2 stimulates granulopoiesis in wounds.

    PubMed

    Granick, Jennifer L; Falahee, Patrick C; Dahmubed, Delsheen; Borjesson, Dori L; Miller, Lloyd S; Simon, Scott I

    2013-09-05

    During bacterial infection, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) differentiate into polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the bone marrow. We reported that HSPCs recruited to Staphylococcus aureus-infected skin wounds in mice undergo granulopoiesis, whereas other authors have demonstrated their differentiation in vitro after Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/MyD88 stimulation. Here, we examined this pathway in HSPC trafficking and granulopoiesis within S aureus-infected wounds. Lineage- HSPCs from TLR2- or MyD88-deficient mice injected into infected wounds of wild-type (WT) mice exhibited impaired granulopoiesis. However, HSPCs from WT mice produced similar numbers of PMNs whether transferred into wounds of TLR2-, MyD88-deficient, or WT mice. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which stimulates HSPC survival and proliferation, was produced by HSPCs after TLR2 stimulation, suggesting that TLR2/MyD88 activation promotes granulopoiesis in part by production and autocrine activity of PGE2. Pretreatment of TLR2- or MyD88-deficient HSPCs with PGE2 rescued granulocytic differentiation in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that bone marrow-derived lin-/Sca-1+/c-kit+ cells produced PGE2 and underwent granulopoiesis after TLR2 stimulation. lin-/Sca-1+/c-kit+ cells deficient in TLR2 or MyD88 produced PMNs after PGE2 treatment when transferred into uninfected wounds. We conclude that granulopoiesis in S aureus-infected wounds is induced by TLR2/MyD88 activation of HSPCs through a mechanism that involves autocrine production and activity of PGE2.

  12. Involvement of the MyD88-independent pathway in controlling the intracellular fate of Burkholderia pseudomallei infection in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.

    PubMed

    Tangsudjai, S; Pudla, M; Limposuwan, K; Woods, D E; Sirisinha, S; Utaisincharoen, P

    2010-05-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium which is capable of surviving and multiplying inside macrophages. B. pseudomallei strain SRM117, a LPS mutant which lacks the O-antigenic polysaccharide moiety, is more susceptible to macrophage killing during the early phase of infection than is its parental wild type strain (1026b). In this study, it was shown that the wild type is able to induce expression of genes downstream of the MyD88-dependent (ikappabzeta, il-6 and tnf-alpha), but not of the MyD88-independent (inos, ifn-beta and irg-1), pathways in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. In contrast, LPS mutant-infected macrophages were able to express genes downstream of both pathways. To elucidate the significance of activation of the MyD88-independent pathway in B. pseudomallei-infected macrophages, the expression of TBK1, an essential protein in the MyD88-independent pathway, was silenced prior to the infection. The results showed that silencing the tbk1 expression interferes with the gene expression profile in LPS mutant-infected macrophages and allows the bacteria to replicate intracellularly, thus suggesting that the MyD88-independent pathway plays an essential role in controlling intracellular survival of the LPS mutant. Moreover, exogenous IFN-gamma upregulated gene expression downstream of the MyD88-independent pathway, and interfered with intracellular survival in both wild type and tbk1-knockdown macrophages infected with either the wild type or the LPS mutant. These results suggest that gene expression downstream of the MyD88-independent pathway is essential in regulating the intracellular fate of B. pseudomallei, and that IFN-gamma regulates gene expression through the TBK1-independent pathway.

  13. Astragalus polysaccharides exerts immunomodulatory effects via TLR4-mediated MyD88-dependent signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lijing; Liu, Zijing; Wang, Zhixue; Yu, Shuang; Long, Tingting; Zhou, Xing; Bao, Yixi

    2017-01-01

    Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), which is widely used as a remedy to promote immunity of breast cancer patients, can enhance immune responses and exert anti-tumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of APS on macrophage RAW 264.7 and EAC tumor-bearing mice. Griess reaction and ELISA assays revealed that the concentrations of nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were increased by APS. However, this effect was diminished in the presence of TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) or ST-2825(MyD88 inhibitor). In C57BL/10J (TLR4+/+wild-type) and C57BL/6J (MyD88+/+wild-type) tumor-bearing mice, the tumor apoptosis rate, immune organ indexes and the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in blood increased and the tumor weight decreased by oral administration of APS for 25 days. APS had no obvious effects on IL-12p70. However, these effects were not significant in C57BL/10ScNJ (TLR4-deficient) and C57BL/B6.129P2(SJL)-Myd88m1.1Defr/J (MyD88-deficient) tumor-bearing mice. qRT-PCR and Western blot indicated that APS stimulated the key nodes in the TLR4-MyD88 dependent signaling pathway, including TLR4, MyD88, TRAF-6, NF-κB and AP-1, both in vitro and in vivo. However, TRAM was an exception. Moreover, TRAF-6 and NF-κB were not triggered by APS in gene-deficient tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, APS may modulate immunity of host organism through activation of TLR4-mediated MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:28303957

  14. Release of IL-12 by dendritic cells activated by TLR ligation is dependent on MyD88 signaling, whereas TRIF signaling is indispensable for TLR synergy.

    PubMed

    Krummen, Mathias; Balkow, Sandra; Shen, Limei; Heinz, Stefanie; Loquai, Carmen; Probst, Hans-Christian; Grabbe, Stephan

    2010-07-01

    Recently, it has been shown that certain combinations of TLR ligands act in synergy to induce the release of IL-12 by DCs. In this study, we sought to define the critical parameters underlying TLR synergy. Our data show that TLR ligands act synergistically if MyD88- and TRIF-dependent ligands are combined. TLR4 uses both of these adaptor molecules, thus activation via TLR4 proved to be a synergistic event on its own. TLR synergy did not affect all aspects of DC activation but enhanced primarily the release of certain cytokines, particularly IL-12, whereas the expression of costimulatory molecules remained unchanged. Consequently, synergistic activation of DC did not affect their ability to induce T cell proliferation but resulted in T(H)1-biased responses in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined the impact of TLR ligand combinations on primary DC in vitro but observed only modest effects with a combination of CpG + Poly (I:C). However, noticeable synergy in terms of IL-12 production by DCs was detectable in vivo after systemic administration of CpG + Poly (I:C). Finally, we show that synergy is partially dependent on IFNAR signaling but does not require the release of IFNs to the enviroment, suggesting an autocrine action of type I IFNs.

  15. Molecular characterization of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) IRAK4 gene and its role in MyD88-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xueying; Huang, Baoyu; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2017-02-13

    Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) play important roles in MyD88-dependent TLR signaling, the crucial innate immune pathway in molluscs. In this study, we examined the full-length IRAK4 genetic sequence in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) by molecular cloning. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CgIRAK4 is most closely related to Mytilus edulis, and forms a clade with other molluscs. CgIRAK4 transcripts are widely expressed in all tissues, with the highest expression observed in the hemocytes and gill. Moreover, CgIRAK4 is significantly upregulated after Oyster herpesvirus-1 microvariant (OsHV-1 μvar), Vibrio alginolyticus, and poly I:C challenge. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays reveal that the CgIRAK4 death domain is necessary to mediate interaction between CgIRAK4 and two CgMyD88 isoforms. In addition, CgIRAK4 overexpression cannot induce NF-κB transcriptional activity, but blocks that induced by CgMyD88 in HEK293T cells. These findings elucidate the mechanisms of MyD88-dependent TLR signaling in molluscs, and the differences in IRAK-mediated pathway activation between invertebrates and vertebrates.

  16. Resveratrol suppresses NTHi-induced inflammation via up-regulation of the negative regulator MyD88 short

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Carla S.; Matsuyama, Shingo; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Li, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract inflammatory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) affect more than one-half billion people globally and are characterized by chronic inflammation that is often exacerbated by respiratory pathogens such as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and the limited success of currently available pharmaceuticals used to manage the symptoms of these diseases present an urgent need for the development of novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents. Resveratrol has long been thought as an interesting therapeutic agent for various diseases including inflammatory diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory properties remain largely unknown. Here we show for the first time that resveratrol decreases expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in airway epithelial cells and in the lung of mice by enhancing NTHi-induced MyD88 short, a negative regulator of inflammation, via inhibition of ERK1/2 activation. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibits NTHi-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation by increasing MKP-1 expression via a cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling pathway. Finally, we show that resveratrol has anti-inflammatory effects post NTHi infection, thereby demonstrating its therapeutic potential. Together these data reveal a novel mechanism by which resveratrol alleviates NTHi-induced inflammation in airway disease by up-regulating the negative regulator of inflammation MyD88s. PMID:27677845

  17. Taurine Attenuates Hepatic Inflammation in Chronic Alcohol-Fed Rats Through Inhibition of TLR4/MyD88 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao-Jen; Chiu, Chun-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chen; Chen, Mu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Accumulating evidence indicates that overconsumption of ethanol contributes in many ways to the pathogenesis of hepatic injury. Although studies indicate that taurine decreases lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines, the protective effect of taurine against alcohol-induced liver injury is still unclear. To clarify the precise signaling involved in the beneficial effect of taurine on alcohol-induced liver injury, rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: (1) control (Ctl), (2) alcohol (Alc), (3) Alc+taurine (Tau), and (4) Alc+silymarin (Sil). The Tau and Sil groups had lower lymphocyte infiltration and significantly lower TLR-4/MyD88 and IκB/NFκB compared to the Alc group. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factors (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β were also significantly lower in the Tau and Sil groups than in the Alc group. The experimental results indicated that hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced inflammation may be mediated by decreased TLR-4/MyD88 signaling. PMID:26090712

  18. Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory products protect against polymicrobial sepsis by suppressing MyD88 via mannose receptor.

    PubMed

    Du, Linlin; Liu, Lihua; Yu, Yang; Shan, Hui; Li, Leiqing

    2014-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) or its excretory-secretory products (TsES) protect hosts from autoimmune diseases, which depend on inducing host T helper (Th) 2 immune response and inhibiting inflammatory factors. Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) evoked by infection. Little is known about the effects of helminths or their excretory-secretory products on sepsis. Here, we investigated the effects of TsES in a mice model of polymicrobial sepsis. TsES improved survival, reduced organ injury, and enhanced bacterial clearance in septic mice. To investigate the molecular mechanism, macrophages from septic patients or the control group were incubated with TsES. TsES reduced sepsis-inducing inflammatory cytokines mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) in vitro by suppressing TLR adaptor-transducer myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor- (NF-)-κB. Furthermore, TsES upregulated mannose receptor (MR) expression during sepsis. MR blocking attenuated the effects of TsES on MyD88 and NF-κB expression. In vivo, MR RNAi reduced the survival rate of septic mice treated with TsES, suggesting that TsES-mediated protection against polymicrobial sepsis is dependent on MR. Thus, TsES administration might be a potential therapeutic strategy for treating sepsis.

  19. Nonredundant roles of TIRAP and MyD88 in airway response to endotoxin, independent of TRIF, IL-1 and IL-18 pathways.

    PubMed

    Togbe, Dieudonnée; Aurore, Gorse; Noulin, Nicolas; Quesniaux, Valérie F J; Schnyder-Candrian, Silvia; Schnyder, Bruno; Vasseur, Virginie; Akira, Shizuo; Hoebe, Kasper; Beutler, Bruce; Ryffel, Bernhard; Couillin, Isabelle

    2006-11-01

    Inhaled endotoxins induce an acute inflammatory response in the airways mediated through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). However, the relative roles of the TLR4 adaptor proteins TIRAP and TRIF and of the MyD88-dependent IL-1 and IL-18 receptor pathways in this response are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that endotoxin-induced acute bronchoconstriction, vascular damage resulting in protein leak, Th1 cytokine and chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in the airways are abrogated in mice deficient for either TIRAP or MyD88, but not in TRIF deficient mice. The contribution of other TLR-independent, MyD88-dependent signaling pathways was investigated in IL-1R1, IL-18R and caspase-1 (ICE)-deficient mice, which displayed normal airway responses to endotoxin. In conclusion, the TLR4-mediated, bronchoconstriction and acute inflammatory lung pathology to inhaled endotoxin critically depend on the expression of both adaptor proteins, TIRAP and MyD88, suggesting cooperative roles, while TRIF, IL-1R1, IL-18R signaling pathways are dispensable.

  20. Rare Circulating Cells in Familial Waldenström Macroglobulinemia Displaying the MYD88 L265P Mutation Are Enriched by Epstein-Barr Virus Immortalization

    PubMed Central

    Pertesi, Maroulio; Galia, Perrine; Nazaret, Nicolas; Vallée, Maxime; Garderet, Laurent; Leleu, Xavier; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Foll, Matthieu; Byrnes, Graham; Lachuer, Joel; McKay, James D.; Dumontet, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The MYD88 L265P is a recurrent somatic mutation in neoplastic cells from patients with Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (WM). We identified the MYD88 L265P mutation in three individuals from unrelated families, but its presence did not explain the disease segregation within these WM pedigrees. We observed the mutation in these three individuals at high allele fractions in DNA extracted from EBV-immortalized Lymphoblastoid cell lines established from peripheral blood (LCL), but at much lower allele fractions in DNA extracted directly from peripheral blood, suggesting that this mutation is present in a clonal cell subpopulation rather than of germ-line origin. Furthermore, we observed that the MYD88 L265P mutation is enriched in WM families, detected in 40.5% of patients with familial WM or MGUS (10/22 WM, 5/15 MGUS), compared to 3.5% of patients with familial MM or MGUS (0/72 MM, 4/41 MGUS) (p = 10−7). The mutant allele frequency increased with passages in vitro after immortalization with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) consistent with the MYD88 L265P described gain-of-function proposed for this mutation. The MYD88 L265P mutation appears to be frequently present in circulating cells in patients with WM, and MGUS, and these cells are amenable to immortalization by EBV. PMID:26352266

  1. TLR signaling adaptor protein MyD88 in primary sensory neurons contributes to persistent inflammatory and neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing-Jun; Liu, Tong; Chen, Gang; Wang, Bing; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Yin, Cui; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that neuro-immune and neuro-glial interactions are critically involved in chronic pain sensitization. It is well studied how immune/glial mediators sensitize pain, but how sensory neurons control neuroinflammation remains unclear. We employed Myd88 conditional knockout (CKO) mice, in which Myd88 was deleted in sodium channel subunit Nav1.8-expressing primary sensory neurons, to examine the unique role of neuronal MyD88 in regulating acute and chronic pain, and possible underlying mechanisms. We found that baseline pain and the formalin induced acute inflammatory pain were intact in CKO mice. However, the late phase inflammatory pain following complete Freund’s adjuvant injection and the late phase neuropathic pain following chronic constriction injury (CCI), were reduced in CKO mice. CCI induced up-regulation of MyD88 and chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 expression in DRG neurons and macrophage infiltration into DRGs, and microglia activation in spinal dorsal horns in wild-type mice, but all these changes were compromised in CKO mice. Finally, the pain hypersensitivity induced by intraplantar IL-1β was reduced in CKO mice. Our findings suggest that MyD88 in primary sensory neurons plays an active role in regulating IL-1β signaling and neuroinflammation in the peripheral and the central nervous systems, and contributes to the maintenance of persistent pain. PMID:27312666

  2. Detection of MYD88 L265P in patients with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia and other B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sang-Yong; Kim, Hyun-Young; Park, Chang-Hun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Seok Jin; Kim, Won Seog

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have identified a high prevalence of the MYD88 L265P mutation in lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) cases, whereas low frequencies have been observed in other B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs). Methods We evaluated the sensitivity of the mutant enrichment 3'-modified oligonucleotide (MEMO)-PCR technique, a new detection method. We examined the MYD88 L265P mutation in a series of Korean patients with LPL/WM and other B cell NHLs in bone marrow aspirates, using the MEMO-PCR technique. Results The sensitivity of MEMO-PCR was estimated to be approximately 10-16.7%. MYD88 L265P was detected in 21 of 28 LPL cases (75%) and only three of 69 B cell NHL cases (4.3%). Conclusion Although MEMO-PCR had relatively low sensitivity, we confirmed the high prevalence of the MYD88 L265P mutation in Korean LPL patients. Our study suggests the diagnostic value of MYD88 L265P for differentiating B-cell NHLs. PMID:27722129

  3. [The set-up of an in vitro model for stable knockdown of MyD88 by lentivirus-based RNAi in IEC-6 cell line and the study on its early apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Bao, Pingqian; Li, Yang; Chen, Keling; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Bin; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Zongguang

    2012-12-01

    Intestinal inflammatory disease is a kind of non-specific disease with morbidity increasing yearly. It has been proved that the Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways are closely related to intestinal inflammatory diseases. Myeloid differentiation protein 88 (Myd88) is a critical adaptor protein of TLR4 signaling and critical for the study of intestinal inflammatory disease, but stable Myd88 knockdown in vitro models of cell line are still very few. In the present study, an HIV-1-based lentivirus three-plamid packaging system was used for the construction of a lentivirual vector mediating RNA interference (RNAi) against Myd88 in intestinal fossae epithelial cell line-6 (IEC-6). Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect Myd88 expression. Annexin V staining and flowcytometry (FLM) were applied to detect and evaluate the early apoptosis. The results showed that lentiviral vectors containing the shRNA expression cassette specifically targeting Myd88 were constructed and efficiently stably knocked down Myd88 expression in IEC-6 cell line. Early apoptosis was significantly decreased after Myd88 knockdown. This study successfully constructed a lentivirus-based RNAi for Myd88 and detailed the key technique combined with characteristics of the early apoptosis after the Myd88 knockdown, provided a novel, stable and repeatable in vitro model for the pathogenesis, targeting therapeutic study for the intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  4. Case-control study and mRNA expression analysis reveal the MyD88 gene is associated with digestive disorders in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi-Yi; Zhang, Wen-Xiu; Zhang, Gong-Wei; Peng, Jin; Zhao, Xiao-Bing; Lai, Song-Jia

    2013-12-01

    As in humans, significant associations between Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and digestive disorders have been identified in rabbit and dog. However, as an essential adaptor downstream of TLR4, the genetic variation of myeloid differentiating factor 88 (MyD88) and its association with digestive disorders have remained unknown. In this study, we detected 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the entire genomic region of rabbit MyD88. The genetic variation in susceptibility to digestive disorders for the only coding SNP (synonymous c.699T>C) was studied in Yaan (183 cases and 142 controls) and Chengdu populations (145 cases and 140 controls). A case-control association study revealed that individuals with the C allele had significant protection against digestive disorders in the Yaan population (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.99; P < 0.05), the Chengdu population (OR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.39-0.78; P < 0.01) and for joint analysis (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.49-0.79; P < 0.01). We also experimentally induced digestive disorders by feeding a fiber-deficient diet and found that increased susceptibility was significantly associated with higher MyD88 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). The lowest MyD88 mRNA expression was observed in individuals carrying the protective CC genotype. These results suggest that MyD88 is one of the most plausible candidate genes in relation to digestive disorders in rabbit. Further studies are required to explore the biological implications of MyD88 in the pathogenesis of digestive disorders.

  5. Dual Activation of TRIF and MyD88 Adaptor Proteins by Angiotensin II Evokes Opposing Effects on Pressure, Cardiac Hypertrophy and Inflammatory Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Madhu V.; Cicha, Michael Z.; Meyerholz, David K.; Chapleau, Mark W.; Abboud, François M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is recognized as an immune disorder whereby immune cells play a defining role in the genesis and progression of the disease. The innate immune system and its component toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key determinants of the immunological outcome through their pro-inflammatory response. TLR activated signaling pathways utilize several adaptor proteins of which adaptor proteins MyD88 and TRIF define two major inflammatory pathways. In this study, we compared the contributions of MyD88 and TRIF adaptor proteins to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Deletion of MyD88 did not prevent cardiac hypertrophy and the pressor response to Ang II tended to increase. Moreover, the increase in inflammatory gene expression (Tnfa, Nox4 and Agtr1a) was significantly greater in the heart and kidney of MyD88-deficient mice compared with wild type mice. Thus, pathways involving MyD88 may actually restrain the inflammatory responses. On the other hand, in mice with non-functional TRIF (Trifmut mice), Ang II induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy were abrogated, and pro-inflammatory gene expression in heart and kidneys was unchanged or decreased. Our results indicate that Ang II induces activation of a pro-inflammatory innate immune response, causing hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy. These effects require functional adaptor protein TRIF-mediated pathways. However, the common MyD88 dependent signaling pathway, which is also activated simultaneously by Ang II, paradoxically exerts a negative regulatory influence on these responses. PMID:26195481

  6. Interleukin-1 receptor but not Toll-like receptor 2 is essential for MyD88-dependent Th17 immunity to Coccidioides infection.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chiung-Yu; Jiménez-Alzate, María del Pilar; Gonzalez, Angel; Wüthrich, Marcel; Klein, Bruce S; Cole, Garry T

    2014-05-01

    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A)-producing CD4(+) T helper (Th17) cells have been shown to be essential for defense against pulmonary infection with Coccidioides species. However, we have just begun to identify the required pattern recognition receptors and understand the signal pathways that lead to Th17 cell activation after fungal infection. We previously reported that Card9(-/-) mice vaccinated with formalin-killed spherules failed to acquire resistance to Coccidioides infection. Here, we report that both MyD88(-/-) and Card9(-/-) mice immunized with a live, attenuated vaccine also fail to acquire protective immunity to this respiratory disease. Like Card9(-/-) mice, vaccinated MyD88(-/-) mice revealed a significant reduction in numbers of both Th17 and Th1 cells in their lungs after Coccidioides infection. Both Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1r1) upstream of MyD88 have been implicated in Th17 cell differentiation. Surprisingly, vaccinated TLR2(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice showed similar outcomes after pulmonary infection with Coccidioides, while vaccinated IL-1r1(-/-) mice revealed a significant reduction in the number of Th17 cells in their infected lungs compared to WT mice. Thus, activation of both IL-1r1/MyD88- and Card9-mediated Th17 immunity is essential for protection against Coccidioides infection. Our data also reveal that the numbers of Th17 cells were reduced in IL-1r1(-/-) mice to a lesser extent than in MyD88(-/-) mice, raising the possibility that other TLRs are involved in MyD88-dependent Th17 immunity to coccidioidomycosis. An antimicrobial action of Th17 cells is to promote early recruitment of neutrophils to infection sites. Our data revealed that neutrophils are required for vaccine immunity to this respiratory disease.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide regulation of intestinal tight junction permeability is mediated by TLR-4 signal transduction pathway activation of FAK and MyD88

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuhong; Nighot, Meghali; Al-Sadi, Rana; Alhmoud, Tarik; Nighot, Prashant; Ma, Thomas Y.

    2015-01-01

    Gut-derived bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play an essential role in inducing intestinal and systemic inflammatory responses and have been implicated as a pathogenic factor of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The defective intestinal tight junction (TJ) barrier has been shown to be an important factor contributing to the development of intestinal inflammation. LPS, at physiological concentrations, cause an increase in intestinal tight junction permeability (TJP) via a TLR-4 dependent process; however the intracellular mechanisms that mediate LPS regulation of intestinal TJP remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptor proteins and the signaling interactions that mediate LPS modulation of intestinal TJ barrier using an in-vitro and in-vivo model system. LPS caused a TLR-4 dependent activation of membrane-associated adaptor protein FAK in Caco-2 monolayers. LPS caused an activation of both MyD88-dependent and –independent pathways. SiRNA silencing of MyD88 prevented LPS-induced increase in TJP. LPS caused a MyD88-dependent activation of IRAK4. TLR-4, FAK and MyD88 were co-localized. SiRNA silencing of TLR-4 inhibited TLR-4 associated FAK activation; and FAK knockdown prevented MyD88 activation. In-vivo studies also confirmed that LPS-induced increase in mouse intestinal permeability was associated with FAK and MyD88 activation; knockdown of intestinal epithelial FAK prevented LPS-induced increase in intestinal permeability. Additionally, high dose LPS-induced intestinal inflammation was also dependent on TLR-4/FAK/MyD88 signal-transduction axis. Our data show for the first time that LPS-induced increase in intestinal TJP and intestinal inflammation was regulated by TLR-4 dependent activation of FAK-MyD88-IRAK4 signaling pathway. PMID:26466961

  8. Inhibitory effect of miR-125b on hepatitis C virus core protein-induced TLR2/MyD88 signaling in THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Jie, Sheng-Hua; Tong, Qiao-Xia; Lu, Meng-Ji; Yang, Dong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of miR-125b in regulating monocyte immune responses induced by hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein. METHODS: Monocytic THP-1 cells were treated with various concentrations of recombinant HCV core protein, and cytokines and miR-125b expression in these cells were analyzed. The requirement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or MyD88 gene for HCV core protein-induced immune responses was determined by the transfection of THP-1 cells with gene knockdown vectors expressing either TLR2 siRNA or MyD88 siRNA. The effect of miR-125b overexpression on TLR2/MyD88 signaling was examined by transfecting THP-1 cells with miR-125b mimic RNA oligos. RESULTS: In response to HCV core protein stimulation, cytokine production was up-regulated and miR-125b expression was down-regulated in THP-1 cells. The modulatory effect of HCV core protein on cellular events was dose-dependent and required functional TLR2 or MyD88 gene. Forced miR-125b expression abolished the HCV core protein-induced enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 expression by 66%, 54%, and 66%, respectively (P < 0.001), by inhibiting MyD88-mediated signaling, including phosphorylation of NF-κBp65, ERK, and P38. CONCLUSION: The inverse correlation between miR-125b and cytokine expression after HCV core challenge suggests that miR-125b may negatively regulate HCV-induced immune responses by targeting TLR2/MyD88 signaling in monocytes. PMID:27158204

  9. Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma Presenting with Diarrhea and Joint Pain Which was Successfully Diagnosed by an MYD88 Mutation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Masaya; Okoshi, Yasushi; Fukazawa, Keiko; Koshino, Mayuko; Ishiguro, Shingo; Mitsuhashi, Shoichi; Saitoh, Hitoaki; Iijima, Tatsuo; Kojima, Hiroshi; Hori, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old man presented to our department with diarrhea, weight loss, fatigability, and polyarthralgia. Blood tests revealed elevated soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels and IgG-type M protein positivity, without any findings that were suggestive of collagen disease. After computed tomography (CT) detected enlarged lymph nodes in the abdominal para-aortic region, lymphoma was suspected. CT-guided needle biopsy of the lymph node did not help to achieve a definitive diagnosis; however, a bone marrow test showed the pathological features of B-cell lymphoma. A genetic examination detected a MYD88 L265P mutation; the mutation analysis was valuable in diagnosing lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma in a IgM-type M protein-negative patient.

  10. Bifidobacterium breve reduces apoptotic epithelial cell shedding in an exopolysaccharide and MyD88-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, K. R.; Harnisch, L. C.; Alcon-Giner, C.; Mitra, S.; Wright, C. J.; Ketskemety, J.

    2017-01-01

    Certain members of the microbiota genus Bifidobacterium are known to positively influence host well-being. Importantly, reduced bifidobacterial levels are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, who also have impaired epithelial barrier function, including elevated rates of apoptotic extrusion of small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from villi—a process termed ‘cell shedding’. Using a mouse model of pathological cell shedding, we show that mice receiving Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 exhibit significantly reduced rates of small IEC shedding. Bifidobacterial-induced protection appears to be mediated by a specific bifidobacterial surface exopolysaccharide and interactions with host MyD88 resulting in downregulation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic responses to protect epithelial cells under highly inflammatory conditions. Our results reveal an important and previously undescribed role for B. breve, in positively modulating epithelial cell shedding outcomes via bacterial- and host-dependent factors, supporting the notion that manipulation of the microbiota affects intestinal disease outcomes. PMID:28123052

  11. Bifidobacterium breve reduces apoptotic epithelial cell shedding in an exopolysaccharide and MyD88-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K R; Harnisch, L C; Alcon-Giner, C; Mitra, S; Wright, C J; Ketskemety, J; van Sinderen, D; Watson, A J M; Hall, L J

    2017-01-01

    Certain members of the microbiota genus Bifidobacterium are known to positively influence host well-being. Importantly, reduced bifidobacterial levels are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, who also have impaired epithelial barrier function, including elevated rates of apoptotic extrusion of small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from villi-a process termed 'cell shedding'. Using a mouse model of pathological cell shedding, we show that mice receiving Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 exhibit significantly reduced rates of small IEC shedding. Bifidobacterial-induced protection appears to be mediated by a specific bifidobacterial surface exopolysaccharide and interactions with host MyD88 resulting in downregulation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic responses to protect epithelial cells under highly inflammatory conditions. Our results reveal an important and previously undescribed role for B. breve, in positively modulating epithelial cell shedding outcomes via bacterial- and host-dependent factors, supporting the notion that manipulation of the microbiota affects intestinal disease outcomes.

  12. Toll-like receptor 5 agonist inhibition of growth of A549 lung cancer cells in vivo in a Myd88 dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shi-Xiang; Li, Feng-Sheng; Qiao, Yu-Lei; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Wang, Zhi-Dong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist, CBLB502, on the growth and radiosensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells in vivo. Expression of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) or TLR5 was stably knocked down in human lung cancer cells (A549) using lentivirus expressing short hairpin RNA targeting human MyD88 or TLR5. Lack of MyD88 or TLR5 expression enhanced tumor growth in mouse xenografts of A549 lung cancer cells. CBLB502 inhibited the growth of A549 lung cancer cells, not A549-MyD88-KD cells in vivo in the murine xenograft model. Our results showed that the inhibition of A549 by CBLB502 in vivo was realized through regulating the expression of neutrophil recruiting cytokines and neutrophil infiltration. Finally, we found that activation of TLR5 signaling did not affect the radiosensitivity of tumors in vivo.

  13. MyD88/CD40 Genetic Adjuvant Function in Cutaneous Atypical Antigen-Presenting Cells Contributes to DNA Vaccine Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Slawin, Kevin M.; Levitt, Jonathan M.; Spencer, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic DNA-based vaccines aim to prime an adaptive host immune response against tumor-associated antigens, eliminating cancer cells primarily through CD8+ cytotoxic T cell-mediated destruction. To be optimally effective, immunological adjuvants are required for the activation of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells responses by DNA vaccination. Here, we describe enhanced anti-tumor efficacy of an in vivo electroporation-delivered DNA vaccine by inclusion of a genetically encoded chimeric MyD88/CD40 (MC) adjuvant, which integrates both innate and adaptive immune signaling pathways. When incorporated into a DNA vaccine, signaling by the MC adjuvant increased antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and promoted elimination of pre-established tumors. Interestingly, MC-enhanced vaccine efficacy did not require direct-expression of either antigen or adjuvant by local antigen-presenting cells, but rather our data supports a key role for MC function in “atypical” antigen-presenting cells of skin. In particular, MC adjuvant-modified keratinocytes increased inflammatory cytokine secretion, upregulated surface MHC class I, and were able to increase in vitro and in vivo priming of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, in the absence of critical CD8α+/CD103+ cross-priming dendritic cells, MC was still able to promote immune priming in vivo, albeit at a reduced level. Altogether, our data support a mechanism by which MC signaling activates an inflammatory phenotype in atypical antigen-presenting cells within the cutaneous vaccination site, leading to an enhanced CD8+ T cell response against DNA vaccine-encoded antigens, through both CD8α+/CD103+ dendritic cell-dependent and independent pathways. PMID:27741278

  14. Invasive group A Streptococcus disease in French-Canadian children is not associated with a defect in MyD88/IRAK4-pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Beta-hemolytic Group A Streptococcus invasive disease (iGASd) has been subject to intense research since its re-emergence in the late 1980s. In Quebec, an increase in the number of severe iGASd cases has recently been observed. Because of the inter-individual variability in the severity of iGASd, a hereditary predisposition to invasive disease can be suspected. Given that iGASd occurs in MyD88- and IRAK4-deficient patients, although rarely, the increasing frequency of iGASd in the population of French-Canadian children may be associated with a deficiency in the host’s innate immune response. Methods In this report, we assessed the influence of: (i) bacterial genotype and virulence factors, (ii) immune-cellular features, and (iii) Myd88/IRAK4-dependent response to GAS in vitro on the susceptibility to iGASd in a paediatric cohort of 16 children: 11 French-Canadian and 5 from diverse origin. Findings GAS virulence factors and genotype are not implicated in the susceptibility toward iGASd, and cellular and MyD88/IRAK4 deficiencies are excluded in our patients. Conclusions Although it has been shown that the MyD88/IRAK4-dependent signal is involved in the response to invasive GAS, our data indicates that a MyD88/IRAK4-mediated signalling defect is not the main factor responsible for the susceptibility to severe iGASd in a paediatric population from the province of Quebec. PMID:24499202

  15. Chlamydia pneumoniae-induced foam cell formation requires MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling and is reciprocally modulated by liver X receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Shimada, Kenichi; Bulut, Yonca; Doherty, Terence M; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2008-11-15

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is detected by macrophages and other APCs via TLRs and can exacerbate developing atherosclerotic lesions, but how that occurs is not known. Liver X receptors (LXRs) centrally control reverse cholesterol transport, but also negatively modulate TLR-mediated inflammatory pathways. We isolated peritoneal macrophages from wild-type, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR2/4, MyD88, TRIF, MyD88/TRIF, and IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) KO mice, treated them with live or UV-killed C. pneumoniae in the presence or absence of oxidized LDL, then measured foam cell formation. In some experiments, the synthetic LXR agonist GW3965 was added to macrophages infected with C. pneumoniae in the presence of oxidized LDL. Both live and UV-killed C. pneumoniae induced IRF3 activation and promoted foam cell formation in wild-type macrophages, whereas the genetic absence of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, TRIF, or IRF3, but not TLR3, significantly reduced foam cell formation. C. pneumoniae-induced foam cell formation was significantly reduced by the LXR agonist GW3965, which in turn inhibited C. pneumoniae-induced IRF3 activation, suggesting a bidirectional cross-talk. We conclude that C. pneumoniae facilitates foam cell formation via activation of both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent (i.e., TRIF-dependent and IRF3-dependent) pathways downstream of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling and that TLR3 is not involved in this process. This mechanism could at least partly explain why infection with C. pneumoniae accelerates the development of atherosclerotic plaque and lends support to the proposal that LXR agonists might prove clinically useful in suppressing atherogenesis.

  16. Toll-Like Receptor Ligand-Based Vaccine Adjuvants Require Intact MyD88 Signaling in Antigen-Presenting Cells for Germinal Center Formation and Antibody Production

    PubMed Central

    Mosaheb, Munir M.; Reiser, Michael L.; Wetzler, Lee M.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccines are critical in the fight against infectious diseases, and immune-stimulating adjuvants are essential for enhancing vaccine efficacy. However, the precise mechanisms of action of most adjuvants are unknown. There is an urgent need for customized and adjuvant formulated vaccines against immune evading pathogens that remain a risk today. Understanding the specific role of various cell types in adjuvant-induced protective immune responses is vital for an effective vaccine design. We have investigated the role of cell-specific MyD88 signaling in vaccine adjuvant activity in vivo, using Neisserial porin B (PorB), a TLR2 ligand-based adjuvant, compared with an endosomal TLR9 ligand (CpG) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-independent (alum, MF59) adjuvants. We found that intact MyD88 signaling is essential, separately, in all three antigen-presenting cell types [B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs)] for optimal TLR ligand-based adjuvant activity. The role of MyD88 signaling in B cell and DC in vaccine adjuvant has been previously investigated. In this study, we now demonstrate that the immune response was also reduced in mice with macrophage-specific MyD88 deletion (Mac-MyD88−/−). We demonstrate that TLR-dependent adjuvants are potent inducers of germinal center (GC) responses, but GCs are nearly absent in Mac-MyD88−/− mice following immunization with TLR-dependent adjuvants PorB or CpG, but not with TLR-independent adjuvants MF59 or alum. Our findings reveal a unique and here-to-for unrecognized importance of intact MyD88 signaling in macrophages, to allow for a robust vaccine-induced immune responses when TLR ligand-based adjuvants are used. PMID:28316602

  17. The effects of MyD88 deficiency on exploratory activity, anxiety, motor coordination, and spatial learning in C57BL/6 and APPswe/PS1dE9 mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong-Eun; Song, Min; Jin, Jingji; Kou, Jinghong; Pattanayak, Abhinandan; Lalonde, Robert; Fukuchi, Ken-Ichiro

    2012-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity and provide a first line defense against pathogens and tissue injuries. In addition to important roles in infection, inflammation, and immune diseases, recent studies show that TLR signaling is involved in modulation of learning, memory, mood, and neurogenesis. Because MyD88 is essential for the downstream signaling of all TLRs, except TLR3, we investigated the effects of MyD88 deficiency (MyD88-/-) on behavioral functions in mice. Additionally, we recently demonstrated that a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) deficient for MyD88 had decreases in Aβ deposits and soluble Aβ in the brain as compared with MyD88 sufficient AD mouse models. Because accumulation of Aβ in the brain is postulated to be a causal event leading to cognitive deficits in AD, we investigated the effects of MyD88 deficiency on behavioral functions in the AD mouse model at 10 months of age. MyD88 deficient mice showed more anxiety in the elevated plus-maze. In the motor coordination tests, MyD88 deficient mice remained on a beam and a bar for a longer time, but with slower initial movement on the bar. In the Morris water maze test, MyD88 deficiency appeared to improve spatial learning irrespective of the transgene. Our findings suggest that the MyD88-dependent pathway contributes to behavioral functions in an AD mouse model and its control group.

  18. MyD88 deficiency leads to decreased NK cell gamma interferon production and T cell recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection, but a predominant Th1 response and enhanced monocytic inflammation are associated with infection resolution.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Uma M; Sikes, James; Prantner, Daniel; Andrews, Charles W; Frazer, Lauren; Goodwin, Anna; Snowden, Jessica N; Darville, Toni

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that MyD88 knockout (KO) mice exhibit delayed clearance of Chlamydia muridarum genital infection compared to wild-type (WT) mice. A blunted Th1 response and ineffective suppression of the Th2 response were also observed in MyD88 KO mice. The goal of the present study was to investigate specific mechanisms whereby absence of MyD88 leads to these effects and address the compensatory mechanisms in the genital tract that ultimately clear infection in the absence of MyD88. It was observed that NK cells recruited to the genital tract in MyD88 KO mice failed to produce gamma interferon (IFN-γ) mRNA and protein. This defect was associated with decreased local production of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) but normal levels of IL-12p70. Additionally, recruitment of CD4 T cells to the genital tract was reduced in MyD88 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. Although chronic infection in MyD88 KO mice resulted in oviduct pathology comparable to that of WT mice, increased histiocytic inflammation was observed in the uterine horns. This was associated with increased CCL2 levels and recruitment of macrophages as a potential compensatory mechanism. Further deletion of TLR4-TRIF signaling in MyD88 KO mice, using TLR4/MyD88 double-KO mice, did not further compromise host defense against chlamydiae, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms are Toll-like receptor (TLR) independent. Despite some polarization toward a Th2 response, a Th1 response remained predominant in the absence of MyD88, and it provided equivalent protection against a secondary infection as observed in WT mice.

  19. Detection of MYD88 L265P and WHIM-like CXCR4 mutation in patients with IgM monoclonal gammopathy related disease.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xin-Xin; Meng, Qi; Cai, Hao; He, Tian-Hua; Zhang, Cong-Li; Su, Wei; Sun, Jian; Li, Yue; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Dao-Bin; Li, Jian

    2017-03-09

    A broad spectrum of diseases are associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy, including Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM), various types of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), primary amyloidosis (AL), and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); these are called IgM monoclonal gammopathy related diseases (IgM-RD). We investigated MYD88 L265P and WHIM-like CXCR4 mutations in various IgM-RD. Patients with serum immunofixation electrophoresis confirmed IgM monoclonal gammopathy who had enough material for DNA extraction and presented between January 2008 and October 2016 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled in this cohort. We performed real-time allele-specific-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing to explore the presence of MYD88 L265P and WHIM-like CXCR4 mutations. One hundred and twelve patients (64 male and 48 female patients) were included in this retrospective study. The median age at diagnosis was 62 years (range, 30-84 years). In total, 64 patients (57.1%) carried the MYD88 L265P mutation and 14 patients (12.5%) carried the CXCR4 WHIM-like mutation. We identified the MYD88 L265P somatic variant in cases with WM (39/42), MGUS (8/18), NHL (14/41, including 4/13 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 1/8 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, 3/6 splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), 1/4 chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 2/3 nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL), 1/2 mantle cell lymphoma, 1 Burkitt lymphoma, and 1 B cell NHL that could not be classified), primary AL (2/2), and IgM-PN (1/1). The mutation was absent in five patients with Cryoglobulinemia, two with primary cold agglutinin disease and one with MM. The CXCR4 WHIM-like mutation was present in 10/42 patients with WM, 3/41 with NHL (1 DLBCL, 1 SMZL, and 1 NMZL), and 1/18 patients with IgM MGUS. Among the patients with NHL, those with the mutated MYD88 L265P genotype were younger and had lower level of IgG and IgA than the patients with the

  20. Immunological basis of M13 phage vaccine: Regulation under MyD88 and TLR9 signaling.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Shuhei; Yamaguchi, Yuya; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo; Sugimura, Kazuhisa

    2010-11-05

    Peptide-displaying bacteriophages induce mimotope-specific antibody responses, suggesting a novel application of phage-display library as bacteriophage vaccine. We examined the antibody response against M13 phage in mice induced by an i.p. administration of M13 phage in phosphate-buffered saline. We showed here that firstly, mice showed strong IgG antibody responses, particularly, in IgG2b, IgG2c, and IgG3 subclasses even in primary responses. Secondly, IgG production in primary response is totally dependent on MyD88 signaling. These responses were almost comparable, but slightly weaker, in TLR2-, TLR4- and TLR7-deficient mice relative to wild-type mice, suggesting that this enhancing effect is not due to plausible LPS contamination. Thirdly, although primary IgG1 response was not detected in wild-type mice, remarkable IgG1 response was induced in TLR9-deficient mice, suggesting that TLR9 pathway functions as regulatory, but not a simple augmenting signaling cascade, and furthermore, the enhanced IgG1 response was not due to adjuvant effect of single-stranded DNA derived from M13 phage. Thus, innate immunity including TLR regulation is crucial for M13 phage vaccine design.

  1. Heart-resident CCR2(+) macrophages promote neutrophil extravasation through TLR9/MyD88/CXCL5 signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjun; Hsiao, Hsi-Min; Higashikubo, Ryuji; Saunders, Brian T; Bharat, Ankit; Goldstein, Daniel R; Krupnick, Alexander S; Gelman, Andrew E; Lavine, Kory J; Kreisel, Daniel

    2016-08-04

    It is well established that maladaptive innate immune responses to sterile tissue injury represent a fundamental mechanism of disease pathogenesis. In the context of cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury, neutrophils enter inflamed heart tissue, where they play an important role in potentiating tissue damage and contributing to contractile dysfunction. The precise mechanisms that govern how neutrophils are recruited to and enter the injured heart are incompletely understood. Using a model of cardiac transplant-mediated ischemia reperfusion injury and intravital 2-photon imaging of beating mouse hearts, we determined that tissue-resident CCR2(+) monocyte-derived macrophages are essential mediators of neutrophil recruitment into ischemic myocardial tissue. Our studies revealed that neutrophil extravasation is mediated by a TLR9/MyD88/CXCL5 pathway. Intravital 2-photon imaging demonstrated that CXCL2 and CXCL5 play critical and nonredundant roles in guiding neutrophil adhesion and crawling, respectively. Together, these findings uncover a specific role for a tissue-resident monocyte-derived macrophage subset in sterile tissue inflammation and support the evolving concept that macrophage ontogeny is an important determinant of function. Furthermore, our results provide the framework for targeting of cell-specific signaling pathways in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.

  2. Heart-resident CCR2+ macrophages promote neutrophil extravasation through TLR9/MyD88/CXCL5 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Higashikubo, Ryuji; Saunders, Brian T.; Bharat, Ankit; Goldstein, Daniel R.; Krupnick, Alexander S.; Gelman, Andrew E.; Lavine, Kory J.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that maladaptive innate immune responses to sterile tissue injury represent a fundamental mechanism of disease pathogenesis. In the context of cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury, neutrophils enter inflamed heart tissue, where they play an important role in potentiating tissue damage and contributing to contractile dysfunction. The precise mechanisms that govern how neutrophils are recruited to and enter the injured heart are incompletely understood. Using a model of cardiac transplant–mediated ischemia reperfusion injury and intravital 2-photon imaging of beating mouse hearts, we determined that tissue-resident CCR2+ monocyte–derived macrophages are essential mediators of neutrophil recruitment into ischemic myocardial tissue. Our studies revealed that neutrophil extravasation is mediated by a TLR9/MyD88/CXCL5 pathway. Intravital 2-photon imaging demonstrated that CXCL2 and CXCL5 play critical and nonredundant roles in guiding neutrophil adhesion and crawling, respectively. Together, these findings uncover a specific role for a tissue-resident monocyte-derived macrophage subset in sterile tissue inflammation and support the evolving concept that macrophage ontogeny is an important determinant of function. Furthermore, our results provide the framework for targeting of cell-specific signaling pathways in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:27536731

  3. Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Through Inhibiting TLR4/MyD88 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujue; Chen, Guang; Yu, Xiangdong; Li, Yunchao; Zhang, Li; He, Zongze; Zhang, Nannan; Yang, Xiuping; Zhao, Yansheng; Li, Na; Qiu, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Ischemic stroke can activate multiple transcription factors and cause inflammatory reactions, which involve pattern recognition receptors with immunostimulatory effects. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one of the receptors related to innate immunity and several inflammatory reactions. The promising anti- inflammatory activity of salvianolic acid B (SAB) had been previously reported, but its effect on ischemic stroke remains unknown. An oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model in vitro and a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in vivo were used in this paper, and the results showned that SAB remarkably increased the viabilities of PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons after OGD/R injury and notably prevented cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. SAB also significantly ameliorated NeuN release from primary cortical neurons. Further research indicated that the neuroprotection of SAB was completed through inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/TRAF6 signaling pathway. The blocking of TLR4 by SAB also restrained NF-kB transcriptional activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α). These findings supply a new insight that will aid in clarifying the effect of SAB against cerebral I/R injury and provide the development of SAB as a potential candidate for treating ischemic stroke.

  4. Chlamydial Lipoproteins Stimulate Toll-Like Receptors 1/2 Mediated Inflammatory Responses through MyD88-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Qiong; Chen, Ding; Guan, Jie; Ma, Linghui; Zhong, Guangming; Shu, Hengping; Wu, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydiae are very important pathogens which could cause several types of diseases in human, but little is known about its pathogenic mechanism. In order to elucidate host inflammatory response and the signal pathway induced by Chlamydial lipoproteins, the predicted lipoproteins of Chlamydia trachomatis were tested for their ability to induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines by mouse macrophages or human TLR (Toll-Like Receptor) expressing cell lines. The results showed that recombinant proteins of C. trachomatis D381, D541, D067, and D775 displayed a strong ability to induce the release of IL-8 in TLR expressing cell line. The signal pathways involved TLR1/2 and TLR2/CD14 but not TLR4. Moreover, except D067, the proinflammatory cytokine induction by D381, D541, and D775 required the thioacylation site (cysteine) for lipid modification and the induction was through MyD88-mediated pathway. Our data supported that lipoproteins played a vital role in pathogenesis of C. trachomatis-induced inflammatory responses via TLR pathway. It was the first study to characterize other chlamydial lipoproteins after identifying the role of MIP (D541) on pathogenesis of Chlamydial diseases. PMID:28184217

  5. Targeting the genital tract mucosa with a lipopeptide/recombinant adenovirus prime/boost vaccine induces potent and long-lasting CD8+ T cell immunity against herpes: importance of MyD88.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuli; Dervillez, Xavier; Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Badakhshan, Tina; Bettahi, Ilham; Benmohamed, Lbachir

    2012-11-01

    Targeting of the mucosal immune system of the genital tract with subunit vaccines has failed to induce potent and durable local CD8(+) T cell immunity, which is crucial for protection against many sexually transmitted viral pathogens, including HSV type 2 (HSV-2), which causes genital herpes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a novel lipopeptide/adenovirus type 5 (Lipo/rAdv5) prime/boost mucosal vaccine for induction of CD8(+) T cell immunity to protect the female genital tract from herpes. The lipopeptide vaccine and the rAdv5 vaccine express the immunodominant HSV-2 CD8(+) T cell epitope (gB(498-505)), and both were delivered intravaginally in the progesterone-induced B6 mouse model of genital herpes. Compared with mice immunized with the homologous lipopeptide/lipopeptide (Lipo/Lipo) vaccine, the Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost immunized mice 1) developed potent and sustained HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells, detected in both the genital tract draining nodes and in the vaginal mucosa; 2) had significantly lower virus titers; 3) had decreased overt signs of genital herpes disease; and 4) did not succumb to lethal infection (p < 0.005) after intravaginal HSV-2 challenge. Polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells, producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 and exhibiting cytotoxic activity, were associated with protection (p < 0.005). The protective CD8(+) T cell response was significantly compromised in the absence of the adapter MyD88 (p = 0.0001). Taken together, these findings indicate that targeting of the vaginal mucosa with a Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost vaccine elicits a potent, MyD88-dependent, and long-lasting mucosal CD8(+) T cell protective immunity against sexually transmitted herpes infection and disease.

  6. MyD88-dependent pro-inflammatory activity in Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid promotes Ab switching to IgG.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rohini; Akhade, Ajay Suresh; Yadav, Jitender; Qadri, Ayub

    2015-10-01

    Vi capsular polysaccharide is currently in use as a vaccine against human typhoid caused by Salmonella Typhi. The vaccine efficacy correlates with IgG anti-Vi Abs. We have recently reported that Vi can generate inflammatory responses through activation of the TLR2/TLR1 complex. In the present study, we show that immunization with Vi produces IgM as well as IgG Abs in wild type mice. This ability is not compromised in mice deficient in T cells. However, immunization of mice lacking the TLR adaptor protein, MyD88, with Vi elicits only IgM Abs. These results suggest that MyD88-dependent pro-inflammatory ability of the Vi vaccine might be vital in generating IgG Abs with this T-independent Ag.

  7. TIFA upregulation after hypoxia-reoxygenation is TLR4- and MyD88-dependent and associated with HMGB1 upregulation and release.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ning; Zhang, Yong; Loughran, Patricia A; Wang, Qingde; Tsung, Allan; Billiar, Timothy R

    2013-10-01

    TRAF-interacting protein with a forkhead-associated domain (TIFA) is a tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) binding protein that mediates IL-1 signaling. We recently reported that TIFA mRNA is significantly upregulated early in the liver after trauma and hemorrhagic shock. In this study, we sought to characterize the upregulation of TIFA by hypoxia-reoxygenation and investigate its role in hypoxia-induced signaling. TIFA expression was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting in both mouse hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation (HS-R) and hepatocytes exposed to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Involvement of TLR4 and MyD88 was assessed using cells from TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice. The interaction of TIFA with TRAF6 and IRAK-1 was investigated using coimmunoprecipitation in vitro. RNAi was performed to knock down the endogenous expression of the TIFA gene in hepatocytes. High-mobility-group box 1 protein (HMGB1) expression was detected by Western blotting and ELISA, and the activation of NF-κB and MAPK was measured with EMSA and Western blotting. The results showed that TIFA expression was upregulated after HS-R in vivo and hypoxia-reoxygenation in vitro. Further analysis revealed that hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced upregulation of TIFA was TLR4- and MyD88-dependent. Moreover, TIFA was found to associate with TRAF6 constitutively, whereas its association with IRAK-1 was seen only after hypoxia-reoxygenation. Suppression of TIFA by siRNA reduced NF-κB activation and HMGB1 upregulation and release after hypoxia-reoxygenation. Taken together, these data suggest that TIFA is involved in the regulation of cell signaling in hypoxia-reoxygenation. The increase in TIFA level appears to be a feed-forward mechanism involved in TLR4/MyD88-dependent signaling, leading to NF-κB activation and HMGB1 release.

  8. Dioscin alleviates alcoholic liver fibrosis by attenuating hepatic stellate cell activation via the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Xu, Youwei; Han, Xu; Yin, Lianhong; Xu, Lina; Qi, Yan; Zhao, Yanyan; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Jinyong

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the activities and underlying mechanisms of dioscin against alcoholic liver fibrosis (ALF). In vivo liver fibrosis in mice was induced by an alcoholic liquid diet, and in vitro studies were performed on activated HSC-T6 and LX2 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide. Our results showed that dioscin significantly attenuated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, improved collagen accumulation, and attenuated inflammation through down-regulating the levels of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α by decreasing Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 expression both in vivo and in vitro. TLR4 overexpression was also decreased by dioscin, leading to the markedly down-regulated levels of MyD88, NF-κB, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type I collagen (COL1A1) in cultured HSCs. Suppression of cellular MyD88 by ST2825 or abrogation of NF-κB by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate eliminated the inhibitory effects of dioscin on the levels of TGF-β1, α-SMA and COL1A1. In a word, dioscin exhibited potent effects against ALF via altering TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway, which provided novel insights into the mechanisms of this compound as an antifibrogenic candidate for the treatment of ALF in the future. PMID:26655640

  9. Blood-Brain Barrier Deterioration and Hippocampal Gene Expression in Polymicrobial Sepsis: An Evaluation of Endothelial MyD88 and the Vagus Nerve.

    PubMed

    Honig, Gerard; Mader, Simone; Chen, Huiyi; Porat, Amit; Ochani, Mahendar; Wang, Ping; Volpe, Bruce T; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Systemic infection can initiate or exacerbate central nervous system (CNS) pathology, even in the absence of overt invasion of bacteria into the CNS. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that human survivors of sepsis have an increased risk of long-term neurocognitive decline. There is thus a need for improved understanding of the physiological mechanisms whereby acute sepsis affects the CNS. In particular, MyD88-dependent activation of brain microvascular endothelial cells and a resulting loss of blood-brain barrier integrity have been proposed to play an important role in the effects of systemic inflammation on the CNS. Signaling through the vagus nerve has also been considered to be an important component of CNS responses to systemic infection. Here, we demonstrate that blood-brain barrier permeabilization and hippocampal transcriptional responses during polymicrobial sepsis occur even in the absence of MyD88-dependent signaling in cerebrovascular endothelial cells. We further demonstrate that these transcriptional responses can occur without vagus nerve input. These results suggest that redundant signals mediate CNS responses in sepsis. Either endothelial or vagus nerve activation may be individually sufficient to transmit systemic inflammation to the central nervous system. Transcriptional activation in the forebrain in sepsis may be mediated by MyD88-independent endothelial mechanisms or by non-vagal neuronal pathways.

  10. Fish IRF6 is a positive regulator of IFN expression and involved in both of the MyD88 and TBK1 pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun; Lu, Long-Feng; Wang, Zhao-Xi; Chen, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Yong-An

    2016-10-01

    Interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRF) are the crucial transcription factors for IFN expression, leading host cell response to viral infection. In mammals, only IRF6 is unaffected by IFN expression in the IRF family; however, in fish, a lower vertebrate, whether IRF6 is related to IFN regulation is unclear. In this study, we identified that zebrafish IRF6 was a positive regulator of IFN transcription and could be phosphorylated by both MyD88 and TBK1. First, the transcript level of cellular irf6 was upregulated by treatment with poly I:C (a mimic of viral RNAs), indicating IRF6 might be involved in the process of host cell response to viruses. Overexpression of IRF6 could upregulate IFN promoter activity significantly, meaning IRF6 is a positive regulator of IFN transcription. Subsequently, at the protein regulation level and in the interaction relationship, IRF6 was phosphorylated by and associated with both MyD88 and TBK1. In addition, overexpression of IRF6 activated the transcription of isg15, rig-i and mavs of host cells; meanwhile, the transcripts of p, m and n genes of SVCV were significantly declined in IRF6-overexpressing cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate that fish IRF6 is distinguished from the homolog of mammals by being a positive regulator of IFN transcription and phosphorylated by MyD88 and TBK1, suggesting that differences in the IRF6 regulation pattern exist between lower and higher vertebrates.

  11. MyD88 and TLR9 Dependent Immune Responses Mediate Resistance to Leishmania guyanensis Infections, Irrespective of Leishmania RNA Virus Burden

    PubMed Central

    Ives, Annette; Masina, Slavica; Castiglioni, Patrik; Prével, Florence; Revaz-Breton, Mélanie; Hartley, Mary-Anne; Launois, Pascal; Fasel, Nicolas; Ronet, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Infections with Leishmania parasites of the Leishmania Viannia subgenus give rise to both localized cutaneous (CL), and metastatic leishmaniasis. Metastasizing disease forms including disseminated (DCL) and mutocutaneous (MCL) leishmaniasis result from parasitic dissemination and lesion formation at sites distal to infection and have increased inflammatory responses. The presence of Leishmania RNA virus (LRV) in L. guyanensis parasites contributes to the exacerbation of disease and impacts inflammatory responses via activation of TLR3 by the viral dsRNA. In this study we investigated other innate immune response adaptor protein modulators and demonstrated that both MyD88 and TLR9 played a crucial role in the development of Th1-dependent healing responses against L. guyanensis parasites regardless of their LRV status. The absence of MyD88- or TLR9-dependent signaling pathways resulted in increased Th2 associated cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13), which was correlated with low transcript levels of IL-12p40. The reliance of IL-12 was further confirmed in IL12AB−/− mice, which were completely susceptible to infection. Protection to L. guyanensis infection driven by MyD88- and TLR9-dependent immune responses arises independently to those induced due to high LRV burden within the parasites. PMID:24801628

  12. miR-489 inhibits silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis by targeting MyD88 and Smad3 and is negatively regulated by lncRNA CHRF

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiuyun; Han, Lei; Yan, Weiwen; Ji, Xiaoming; Han, Ruhui; Yang, Jingjin; Yuan, Jiali; Ni, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is an incurable occupational disease associated with inflammation, fibroblast proliferation and the accumulation of extracellular matrix in lung tissues. The dysregulation of lncRNAs and miRNAs has been implicated in many complex diseases; however, the current understanding of their roles in fibrotic lung diseases, especially silicosis, remains limited. Our previous microRNA (miRNA, miR) microarray data have indicated decreased expression levels of miR-489 in lung tissues of silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we further explored the role of miR-489 in a mouse model of silicosis. Interestingly, miR-489 levels were reduced in both macrophages that were exposed to silica and fibroblasts that were exposed to TGF-β1. Additionally, the overexpressed miR-489 carried out its anti-fibrotic role by attenuating inflammation and fibrotic progression in vivo. Our molecular study further demonstrated that miR-489 inhibited silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis primarily by repressing its target genes MyD88 and Smad3. Moreover, the up-regulated lncRNA cardiac hypertrophy-related factor (CHRF) reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-489 on MyD88 and Smad3 and then triggered the inflammation and fibrotic signaling pathways. Overall, our data indicate that the CHRF-miR-489-MyD88 Smad3 signaling axis exerts key functions in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis and may represent a therapeutic target for silicosis. PMID:27506999

  13. Dexmedetomidine preconditioning may attenuate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the HMGB1-TLR4-MyD88-NF-кB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Meng, Xiao-wen; Ji, Fu-hai

    2017-01-01

    Aims To investigate whether dexmedetomidine (DEX) preconditioning could alleviate the inflammation caused by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by reducing HMGB1-TLR4-MyD88-NF-кB signaling. Methods Seventy rats were randomly assigned into five groups: sham group, myocardial I/R group (I/R), DEX+I/R group (DEX), DEX+yohimbine+I/R group (DEX/YOH), and yohimbine+I/R group (YOH). Animals were subjected to 30 min of ischemia induced by occluding the left anterior descending artery followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size and histological scores were evaluated. The levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in serum and myocardium were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and expression of HMGB1, TLR4, MyD88, IκB and NF-κB in the myocardial I/R area were determined with Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Results Myocardial infarct sizes, histological scores, levels of circulating and myocardial IL-6 and TNF-α, the expression of HMGB1, TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB, and the degradation of IκB were significantly increased in the I/R group compared with the sham group (P<0.01). DEX preconditioning significantly reduced the myocardial infarct size and histological scores (P<0.01 vs. I/R group). Similarly, the serum and myocardial levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, the expression of HMGB1, TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB, and the degradation of IκB were significantly reduced in the DEX group (P<0.01 vs. I/R group). These effects were partly reversed by yohimbine, a selective α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, while yohimbine alone had no significant effect on any of the above indicators. Conclusion DEX preconditioning reduces myocardial I/R injury in part by attenuating inflammation, which may be attributed to the downregulation of the HMGB1-TLR4-MyD88-NF-кB signaling pathway mediated by the α2-adrenergic receptor activation. PMID:28222157

  14. Multiple roles of Myd88 in the immune response to the plague F1-V vaccine and in protection against an aerosol challenge of Yersinia pestis CO92 in mice.

    PubMed

    Dankmeyer, Jennifer L; Fast, Randy L; Cote, Christopher K; Worsham, Patricia L; Fritz, David; Fisher, Diana; Kern, Steven J; Merkel, Tod; Kirschning, Carsten J; Amemiya, Kei

    2014-01-01

    The current candidate vaccine against Yersinia pestis infection consists of two subunit proteins: the capsule protein or F1 protein and the low calcium response V protein or V-antigen. Little is known of the recognition of the vaccine by the host's innate immune system and how it affects the acquired immune response to the vaccine. Thus, we vaccinated Toll-like receptor (Tlr) 2, 4, and 2/4-double deficient, as well as signal adaptor protein Myd88-deficient mice. We found that Tlr4 and Myd88 appeared to be required for an optimal immune response to the F1-V vaccine but not Tlr2 when compared to wild-type mice. However, there was a difference between the requirement for Tlr4 and MyD88 in vaccinated animals. When F1-V vaccinated Tlr4 mutant (lipopolysaccharide tolerant) and Myd88-deficient mice were challenged by aerosol with Y. pestis CO92, all but one Tlr4 mutant mice survived the challenge, but no vaccinated Myd88-deficient mice survived the challenge. Spleens from these latter nonsurviving mice showed that Y. pestis was not cleared from the infected mice. Our results suggest that MyD88 appears to be important for both an optimal immune response to F1-V and in protection against a lethal challenge of Y. pestis CO92 in F1-V vaccinated mice.

  15. Card9- and MyD88-Mediated Gamma Interferon and Nitric Oxide Production Is Essential for Resistance to Subcutaneous Coccidioides posadasii Infection.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chiung-Yu; Castro-Lopez, Natalia; Cole, Garry T

    2016-04-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a potentially life-threatening respiratory disease which is endemic to the southwestern United States and arid regions of Central and South America. It is responsible for approximately 150,000 infections annually in the United States alone. Almost every human organ has been reported to harbor parasitic cells of Coccidioides spp. in collective cases of the disseminated form of this mycosis. Current understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity against lung infection has been largely derived from murine models of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. However, little is known about the nature of the host response to Coccidioides in extrapulmonary tissue. Primary subcutaneous coccidioidal infection is rare but has been reported to result in disseminated disease. Here, we show that activation of MyD88 and Card9 signal pathways are required for resistance to Coccidioides infection following subcutaneous challenge of C57BL/6 mice, which correlates with earlier findings of the protective response to pulmonary infection. MyD88(-/-) andCard9(-/-) mice recruited reduced numbers of T cells, B cells, and neutrophils to the Coccidioides-infected hypodermis com pared to wild-type mice; however, neutrophils were dispensable for resistance to skin infection. Further studies have shown that gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production and activation of Th1 cells characterize resistance to subcutaneous infection. Furthermore, activation of a phagosomal enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase, which is necessary for NO production, is a requisite for fungal clearance in the hypodermis. Collectively, our data demonstrate that MyD88- and Card9-mediated IFN-γ and nitric oxide production is essential for protection against subcutaneous Coccidioides infection.

  16. Salmonid Tollip and MyD88 factors can functionally replace their mammalian orthologues in TLR-mediated trout SAA promoter activation.

    PubMed

    Rebl, Alexander; Rebl, Henrike; Liu, Shuzhen; Goldammer, Tom; Seyfert, Hans-Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many functional details of the piscine Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal-mediated activation of immune defense are still elusive. We used an established reconstitution system of mammalian TLR signaling to examine if this system would allow for pathogen-dependent promoter activation of the serum amyloid A (SAA)-encoding gene from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and if the key mediators MyD88 and Tollip from trout can functionally substitute for their mammalian orthologues. Cells of the established human embryonic kidney line HEK-293 were transiently co-transfected with vectors expressing bovine TLR2 or TLR4 factors and a reporter gene driven by the promoter of the trout SAA gene. Escherichia coli stimulation increased reporter gene expression more than 3-fold. Deletion series and point mutations identified in the proximal SAA promoter a composite overlapping binding site for NF-κB and CEBP factors as crucial for promoter activation. Overexpression of NF-κB p65, but not of p50 or different members of the CEBP factor family proved this factor as an essential driver for SAA expression. Overexpression of a transdominant-negative mutant of the trout MyD88 factor reduced TLR-mediated SAA promoter activation confirming functional conservation of its TIR domain. Overexpression of the Tollip factor from trout also quenched TLR-mediated NF-κB and TLR4-mediated SAA promoter activation. The MyD88 mutant and Tollip expression studies confirm the functional homology of both piscine factors and their mammalian counterparts. We provide for the first time evidence that also the Tollip-mediated negative loop of TLR signaling may be conserved in non-mammalian organisms.

  17. Lipopolysaccharide induced LOX-1 expression via TLR4/MyD88/ROS activated p38MAPK-NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenwen; Ma, Guixin; Chen, Xiuping

    2014-12-01

    Lectin-like receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (LOX-1) plays a key role in endothelial ox-LDL endocytosis, endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis. In the present study, the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on LOX-1 expression and the underlying molecular pathways were investigated. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with LPS and the protein expressions of LOX-1, TLR4, TLR2, MyD88, Nox4, Nox2, PI3K, p38MAPK, JNK, ERK, Nrf1, Nrf2 and p65 were examined by Western blotting. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was examined by flow cytometry with fluorescence probe DCFH2-DA. The role of TLR4, MyD88 and Nox4 were determined with specific siRNA. The endothelial ox-LDL uptake and the endothelial-monocyte adhesion were evaluated with DiI-ox-LDL and Hoechst 33342 respectively. The effect of LPS on LOX-1 expression in aorta tissue was also studied with male C57/BL6 mice by intraperitoneal injection of LPS. The results showed that LPS induced LOX-1 protein expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The mRNA expression of LOX-1 was also upregulated. The protein expression of LOX-1 and phosphorylated p38MAPK, p65 was significantly enhanced by LPS both in vitro and in vivo. LPS induced LOX-1 expression was blocked by siRNA for TLR4, MyD88, and Nox4 and inhibitors for p38MAPK, NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, and NADPH oxidase. Both LPS induced ox-LDL uptake and endothelial-monocyte adhesion were significantly inhibited by anti-LOX-1 antibody. LPS dramatically induced LOX-1 protein expression in aorta tissues. In conclusion, our data suggested that LPS induces LOX-1 expression via TLR4/MyD88/ROS activated p38MAPK/NF-κB pathway in endothelial cells, which provides new regulatory mechanisms for LOX-1 expression.

  18. Positive Correlation between Enhanced Expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB with Insulin Resistance in Placentae of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hui; Su, Rina; Song, Yilin; Wang, Chen; Lin, Li; Ma, Jingmei; Yang, Huixia

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a critical factor of the pathophysiology of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies on key organs involved in IR, such as livers and adipose tissues, showed that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can regulate insulin sensitivity. As a maternal-fetal interface with multi-functions, placentae could contribute to the development of IR for GDM. Thus, we investigated the expressions of TLR4/Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) in term placentae from 33 GDM women and 36 healthy pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance, evaluated local and systemic IR and furthermore identified the association between placental TLR4 and IR. TLR4 protein was expressed in various cells of term placenta, particularly in syncytiotrophoblast of villi. Compared with normal pregnancy, the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway increased in the placenta of GDM (p<0.05), and these differences were more pronounced in the maternal section of the placenta and the syncytiotrophoblast of villi. In addition, more severe IR was observed in the placenta of GDM patients than the control group, evidenced with higher pIRS-1(ser312) (p<0.001) and lower IRS-1 (p<0.05) as well as pAkt proteins (p<0.01). The expression of TLR4 in placentae is positively correlated with local IR (pIRS-1: r = 0.76, p <0.001 and pAkt: r = -0.47, p <0.001) and maternal fasting (r = 0.42, p <0.01), one-hour (r = 0.52, p <0.01) and two-hour glucose (r = 0.54, p <0.01) at OGTT. We found an that enhanced expression of the TLR4-MyD88-NF-kB pathway occurs in GDM placentae, which positively correlates with heightened local IR in placentae and higher maternal hyperglycemia. The TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway may play a potential role in the development of IR in placentae of GDM.

  19. Positive Correlation between Enhanced Expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB with Insulin Resistance in Placentae of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hui; Wang, Chen; Lin, Li; Ma, Jingmei; Yang, Huixia

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a critical factor of the pathophysiology of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies on key organs involved in IR, such as livers and adipose tissues, showed that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can regulate insulin sensitivity. As a maternal-fetal interface with multi-functions, placentae could contribute to the development of IR for GDM. Thus, we investigated the expressions of TLR4/Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) in term placentae from 33 GDM women and 36 healthy pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance, evaluated local and systemic IR and furthermore identified the association between placental TLR4 and IR. TLR4 protein was expressed in various cells of term placenta, particularly in syncytiotrophoblast of villi. Compared with normal pregnancy, the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway increased in the placenta of GDM (p<0.05), and these differences were more pronounced in the maternal section of the placenta and the syncytiotrophoblast of villi. In addition, more severe IR was observed in the placenta of GDM patients than the control group, evidenced with higher pIRS-1(ser312) (p<0.001) and lower IRS-1 (p<0.05) as well as pAkt proteins (p<0.01). The expression of TLR4 in placentae is positively correlated with local IR (pIRS-1: r = 0.76, p <0.001 and pAkt: r = -0.47, p <0.001) and maternal fasting (r = 0.42, p <0.01), one-hour (r = 0.52, p <0.01) and two-hour glucose (r = 0.54, p <0.01) at OGTT. We found an that enhanced expression of the TLR4-MyD88-NF-kB pathway occurs in GDM placentae, which positively correlates with heightened local IR in placentae and higher maternal hyperglycemia. The TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway may play a potential role in the development of IR in placentae of GDM. PMID:27340831

  20. TIFA Upregulation after Hypoxia-Reoxygenation is TLR4 and MyD88-Dependent and Associated with HMGB1 Upregulation and Release

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ning; Zhang, Yong; Loughran, Patricia A.; Wang, Qingde; Billiar, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    TRAF-interacting protein with a forkhead-associated domain (TIFA) is a tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) binding protein that mediates IL-1 signaling. We recently reported that TIFA mRNA is significantly upregulated early in the liver following trauma and hemorrhagic shock. In the present study, we sought to characterize the upregulation of TIFA by hypoxia-reoxygenation and investigate its role in hypoxia-induced signaling. TIFA expression was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting in both mouse hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation (HS-R) and hepatocytes exposed to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Involvement of TLR4 and MyD88 was assessed using cells from TLR4−/− and MyD88−/− mice. The interaction of TIFA with TRAF6 and IRAK-1 was investigated using co-immunoprecipitation in vitro. RNAi was performed to knock down the endogenous expression of the TIFA gene in hepatocytes. High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) expression was detected by Western blotting and ELISA, and the activation of NF-κB and MAPK was measured with EMSA and Western blotting. The results showed that TIFA expression was upregulated following HS-R in vivo and hypoxia-reoxygenation in vitro. Further analysis revealed that hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced upregulation of TIFA was TLR4 and MyD88-dependent. Moreover, TIFA was found to associate with TRAF6 constitutively, whereas its association with IRAK-1 was seen only after hypoxia-reoxygenation. Suppression of TIFA by siRNA reduced NF-κB activation and HMGB1 upregulation and release following hypoxia-reoxygenation. Taken together, these data suggest that TIFA is involved in the regulation of cell signaling in hypoxia-reoxygenation. The increase in TIFA level appears to be a feed-forward mechanism involved in TLR4/MyD88-dependent signaling, leading to NF-κB activation and HMGB1 release. PMID:23722163

  1. MYD88 L265P in Waldenström macroglobulinemia, immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathy, and other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders using conventional and quantitative allele-specific polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lian; Hunter, Zachary R.; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Yangsheng; Cao, Yang; Liu, Xia; Morra, Enrica; Trojani, Alessandra; Greco, Antonino; Arcaini, Luca; Varettoni, Maria; Brown, Jennifer R.; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Patterson, Christopher J.; Manning, Robert J.; Tripsas, Christina K.; Lindeman, Neal I.

    2013-01-01

    By whole-genome and/or Sanger sequencing, we recently identified a somatic mutation (MYD88 L265P) that stimulates nuclear factor κB activity and is present in >90% of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) patients. MYD88 L265P was absent in 90% of immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) patients. We therefore developed conventional and real-time allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) assays for more sensitive detection and quantification of MYD88 L265P. Using either assay, MYD88 L265P was detected in 97 of 104 (93%) WM and 13 of 24 (54%) IgM MGUS patients and was either absent or rarely expressed in samples from splenic marginal zone lymphoma (2/20; 10%), CLL (1/26; 4%), multiple myeloma (including IgM cases, 0/14), and immunoglobulin G MGUS (0/9) patients as well as healthy donors (0/40; P < 1.5 × 10−5 for WM vs other cohorts). Real-time AS-PCR identified IgM MGUS patients progressing to WM and showed a high rate of concordance between MYD88 L265P ΔCT and BM disease involvement (r = 0.89, P = .008) in WM patients undergoing treatment. These studies identify MYD88 L265P as a widely present mutation in WM and IgM MGUS patients using highly sensitive and specific AS-PCR assays with potential use in diagnostic discrimination and/or response assessment. The finding of this mutation in many IgM MGUS patients suggests that MYD88 L265P may be an early oncogenic event in WM pathogenesis. PMID:23321251

  2. Toll-pathway in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) responds to white spot syndrome virus infection: evidence through molecular characterisation and expression profiles of MyD88, TRAF6 and TLR genes.

    PubMed

    Deepika, A; Sreedharan, K; Paria, Anutosh; Makesh, M; Rajendran, K V

    2014-12-01

    The Toll-pathway plays key roles in regulating the innate immune response in invertebrates. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) are key molecules in this signalling pathway. To investigate the role of Toll-pathway in innate immune response of shrimp, Penaeus monodon, MyD88 (PmMyD88) and TRAF6 (PmTRAF6) were identified and characterised. PmMyD88 cDNA is 1716 bp long with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1449 bp encoding a putative protein of 482 amino acids, with a death domain, a TIR domain and C-terminal extension domain. PmTRAF6 cDNA is 2563 bp long with an ORF of 1785 bp (594 amino acids) with an N-terminal RING-type zinc finger domain, two TRAF-type zinc finger domains, a coiled region and a MATH domain. In healthy shrimp, PmMyD88, PmTRAF6 and PmToll were detected in 15 tissues with the highest expression in midgut, eyestalk and lymphoid organ, respectively. Responses of these genes to WSSV in experimentally-infected P. monodon as well as in cultured haemocytes and also effect of poly I:C on the gene expression in vitro was investigated at six time-points in seven tissues. PmToll showed significant up-regulation at all time-points of infection in six tissues and until 24 h post-infection in vitro. However, poly I:C-induced haemocytes showed up-regulation of the gene until 48 h post-exposure. WSSV caused significant up-regulation of PmMyD88 in most of the tissues tested. The virus challenge as well as poly I:C induction in vitro also resulted in significant up-regulation of the gene. Up-regulated expression of PmTRAF6 was detected in haemocytes and lymphoid organ at late stage of infection. In vitro virus challenge showed significant up-regulation of PmTRAF6 at almost all time-points whereas no significant change in the expression was observed on poly I:C induction. The responses of these key genes, observed in the present study, suggest that Toll-pathway as a whole may play a crucial

  3. Upregulation of chicken TLR4, TLR15 and MyD88 in heterophils and monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with Eimeria tenella in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zuoyong; Wang, Zhiying; Cao, Liting; Hu, Shijun; Zhang, Ze; Qin, Bo; Guo, Zhili; Nie, Kui

    2013-04-01

    Coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria parasites, is a major parasitic disease responsible for great economic losses in the poultry industry. Toll-like receptor (TLR) family is one of the most important innate immune receptors, which involved in pathogen detection by initiating host responses, and it plays important roles in the reduction and clearance of pathogens. Very little information is available about the roles of chicken TLRs (ChTLRs) during Eimeria tenella infection. In the current study, mRNA expression of ChTLRs and associated signal adaptors in heterophils and monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with E. tenella in vitro were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ChTLR4 and ChTLR15 expression were increased significantly in heterophils and monocyte-derived macrophages following live E. tenella sporozoites stimulation. The heat-killed E. tenella sporozoites stimulated higher expression of ChTLRs and signal adaptors than live sporozoites, the expression of ChTLR4, ChTLR15 and MyD88 in heterophils and monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with heat-killed E. tenella sporozoites were up-regulated significantly than unstimulated cells. The results suggest that ChTLR4 and ChTLR15 are involved in response to E. tenella infection, and may operate in a MyD88-dependent manner for host defense.

  4. Protective Effects of Celastrol on Diabetic Liver Injury via TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Li-ping; Li, Chun-jun; Sun, Bei; Xie, Yun; Guan, Yue; Ma, Ze-jun; Chen, Li-ming

    2016-01-01

    Immune and inflammatory pathways play a central role in the pathogenesis of diabetic liver injury. Celastrol is a potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agent. So far, there is no evidence regarding the mechanism of innate immune alterations of celastrol on diabetic liver injury in type 2 diabetic animal models. The present study was aimed at investigating protective effects of celastrol on the liver injury in diabetic rats and at elucidating the possible involved mechanisms. We analyzed the liver histopathological and biochemical changes and the expressions of TLR4 mediated signaling pathway. Compared to the normal control group, diabetic rats were found to have obvious steatohepatitis and proinflammatory cytokine activities were significantly upregulated. Celastrol-treated diabetic rats show reduced hepatic inflammation and macrophages infiltration. The expressions of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, and downstream inflammatory factors IL-1β and TNFα in the hepatic tissue of treated rats were downregulated in a dose-dependent manner. We firstly found that celastrol treatment could delay the progression of diabetic liver disease in type 2 diabetic rats via inhibition of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling cascade pathways and its downstream inflammatory effectors. PMID:27057550

  5. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in vivo infection modulates TLR4 responsiveness in differentiated myeloid cells which is associated with decreased MyD88 expression.

    PubMed

    Schaut, Robert G; McGill, Jodi L; Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F; Sacco, Randy E

    2015-10-02

    Symptoms of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence. Several in vitro studies showed BVDV infection impaired leukocyte function. Fewer studies have examined the effects of in vivo BVDV infection on monocyte/macrophage function, especially with strains of differing virulence. We characterized cytokine production by bovine myeloid cells isolated early or late in high (HV) or low virulence (LV) BVDV2 infection. Given BVDV infection may enhance susceptibility to secondary bacterial infection, LPS responses were examined as well. Monocytes from HV and LV infected calves produced higher levels of cytokines compared to cells from controls. In contrast, monocyte-derived macrophage cytokine levels were generally reduced. Modulated cytokine expression in HV BVDV2 macrophages was associated with decreased MyD88 expression, likely due to its interaction with viral NS5A. These data and those of others, suggest that certain Flaviviridae may have evolved strategies for subverting receptor signaling pathways involving MyD88.

  6. MyD88 mediates the protective effects of probiotics against the arteriolar thrombosis and leukocyte recruitment associated with experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Daniele G; Senchenkova, Elena Y; Russell, Janice; Granger, D Neil

    2015-04-01

    Several studies in patients with IBD and in animal models of IBD have revealed a protective effect of probiotics in reducing clinical symptoms of disease and in blunting the gut inflammation that accompanies this condition. However, the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of probiotics is currently unknown. Furthermore, the ability of probiotics to influence the enhanced thrombus development that accompanies IBD has not been studied. This study addresses whether the enhanced extraintestinal thrombosis (induced by light/dye injury) associated with experimental colitis is altered by oral treatment with the probiotic preparation VSL#3 or by the absence of microbiota. Colitis was induced by DSS 3% in Swiss Webster mice, germ-free mice, C57BL/6 WT, or Myd88 mice. In some experiments, mice received VSL#3 for 8 days before and during DSS feeding. Swiss Webster mice were also subjected to a chronic model of DSS colitis, and the effect of VSL#3 was evaluated. VSL#3 treatment significantly attenuated the accelerated thrombus formation observed in both acute and chronic models of colitis. VSL#3-treated mice also exhibited attenuated inflammatory response and injury in the colon. The protective effects of VSL#3 on colitis-associated thrombogenesis and inflammation were not evident in MyD88-deficient mice. Our results suggest that improved control of the enteric microflora in IBD may afford protection against the hypercoagulable prothrombotic state that follows this condition.

  7. IMQ-induced skin inflammation in mice is dependent on IL-1R1 and MyD88 signaling but independent of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Rabeony, Hanitriniaina; Pohin, Mathilde; Vasseur, Philippe; Petit-Paris, Isabelle; Jégou, Jean-François; Favot, Laure; Frouin, Eric; Boutet, Marie-Astrid; Blanchard, Frédéric; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Ryffel, Bernhard; Bernard, François-Xavier; Lecron, Jean-Claude; Morel, Franck

    2015-10-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis involves the release of numerous proinflammatory cytokines, including members of the IL-1 family. Here we report overexpression of IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist mRNA, associated to expression of IL-23p19, IL-17A, and IL-22 in skin cells, upon topical application of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod (IMQ) in C57BL/6J mice. IMQ-induced skin inflammation was partially reduced in mice deficient for both IL-1α/IL-1β or for IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1), but not in IL-1α- or IL-1β-deficient mice, demonstrating the redundant activity of IL-1α and IL-1β for skin inflammation. NLRP3 or apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a Caspase recruitment domain-deficient mice had no significant reduction of skin inflammation in response to IMQ treatment, mainly due to the redundancy of IL-1α. However, IMQ-induced skin inflammation was abolished in the absence of MyD88, the adaptor protein shared by IL-1R and TLR signaling pathways. These results are consistent with the TLR7 dependence of IMQ-induced skin inflammation. Thus, IL-1R1 contributes to the IMQ-induced skin inflammation, and disruption of MyD88 signaling completely abrogates this response.

  8. MyD88 mediates the protective effects of probiotics against the arteriolar thrombosis and leukocyte recruitment associated with experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Daniele G.; Senchenkova, Elena Y.; Russell, Janice; Granger, D. Neil

    2014-01-01

    Several studies in IBD patients and in animal models of IBD have revealed a protective effect of probiotics in reducing clinical symptoms of disease and in blunting the gut inflammation that accompanies this condition. However, the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of probiotics is currently unknown. Furthermore, the ability of probiotics to influence the enhanced thrombus development that accompanies IBD has not been studied. This study addresses whether the enhanced extra-intestinal thrombosis (induced by light/dye injury) associated with experimental colitis is altered by oral treatment with the probiotic preparation VSL#3 or by the absence of microbiota. Colitis was induced by DSS 3% in Swiss Webster mice, germ free mice, C57BL/6 WT or Myd88−/− mice. In some experiments, mice received VSL#3 for 8 days before and during DSS feeding. Swiss Webster mice were also subjected to a chronic model of DSS colitis and the effect of VSL#3 was evaluated. VSL#3 treatment significantly attenuated the accelerated thrombus formation observed in both acute and chronic models of colitis. VSL#3-treated mice also exhibited attenuated inflammatory response and injury in the colon. The protective effects of VSL#3 on colitis-associated thrombogenesis and inflammation were not evident in MyD88-deficient mice. Our results suggest that improved control of the enteric microflora in IBD may afford protection against the hypercoagulable, prothrombotic state that follows this condition. PMID:25738377

  9. Salmonella inhibits monocyte differentiation into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells in a MyD88-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Rydström, Anna; Wick, Mary Jo

    2010-05-01

    Monocytes and DCs originate from a shared precursor in the bone marrow, and steady-state DCs in lymphoid organs develop directly from the precursor rather than via a monocyte intermediate. However, monocytes can differentiate into DCs in tissues such as the lung and gut mucosa and into macrophages in most tissues. As Ly6C hi monocytes accumulate in lymphoid organs during oral Salmonella infection, we investigated their ability to develop into potential DCs, identified as CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells, in infected hosts. Ly6C hi monocytes, isolated from the blood of Salmonella-infected mice, developed into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells after culture with GM-CSF or Flt3L. In contrast, the same monocytes cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and heat-killed Salmonella did not differentiate into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells. The bacteria-induced differentiation block was dependent on TLRs, as monocytes from MyD88-/- mice converted into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells even in the presence of bacteria. We hypothesized that Salmonella-activated wild-type monocytes secreted mediators that inhibited differentiation of MyD88-/--derived monocytes. However, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, or IL-12p70 did not account for the inhibition. Finally, monocyte-derived CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells pulsed with OVA peptide or protein did not induce proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells but rather, suppressed the ability of DCs to activate CD4+ T cells. Overall, the data show that Ly6C hi monocytes from Salmonella-infected mice develop into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells with poor antigen-presentation capacity when cultured ex vivo, and that monocyte exposure to Salmonella inhibits their differentiation into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells in a MyD88-dependent fashion.

  10. Telmisartan mediates anti-inflammatory and not cognitive function through PPAR-γ agonism via SARM and MyD88 signaling.

    PubMed

    Prathab Balaji, S; Vijay Chand, C; Justin, A; Ramanathan, M

    2015-10-01

    Telmisartan (TM), an angiotensin II receptor I (AT1) blocker, has been reported to have agonist property with respect to PPAR-γ. Activation of PPAR-γ receptor by TM attenuated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated TLR4 central downstream inflammatory responses. However, the missing link between PPAR-γ and TLR4 signaling with TM stimulation has not been clarified. Hence, the present study has been designed to evaluate the molecular mechanism involving PPARγ-TLR4 signaling with TM stimulation in LPS induced inflammatory model. LPS was administered in rats through ICV and the rats were treated with either PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (GW) or TM or both. After 14days of LPS administration, the rats were subjected to behavioral tests and their brains were isolated for blotting techniques. The protein study includes NF-κB, PPAR-γ receptors, and their downstream proteins (MyD88 & SARM). The pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) levels were measured by ELISA and cresyl violet staining in the hippocampus region to measure the neuroprotective activity. Results have shown that TM significantly increased the motor co-ordination, cognitive functions, and activated SARM and PPAR-γ protein levels. Also, TM treatment decreased the NF-κB, MyD88 activation, and cytokines release in LPS rats. The co-administration of GW attenuated the TM responses in the parameters studied except cognitive functions. TM (10mg/kg) has significantly reduced the LPS mediated inflammatory responses. This resulted in effective regeneration of hippocampal neurons as observed by cresyl violet staining. It can be concluded that the activation of PPAR-γ receptors may increase the SARM and decrease the MyD88 and NF-κB expression. This negative regulation of SARM dependent inflammation control could be a possible mechanism for TM anti-neuroinflammatory activity. This study of TM in neuro-inflammatory model may further confirm the dual activities of TM that controls hypertension and cognition through AT1 blockade and also attenuates neuro-inflammation via PPAR-γ agonistic property.

  11. Natural killer cell intrinsic toll-like receptor MyD88 signaling contributes to IL-12-dependent IFN-γ production by mice during infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yiyue; Chen, Jinling; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Lunbiao; Qi, Yuhua; Liu, Xinjian; Qiu, Jingfan; Shi, Zhiyang; Lun, Zhaorong; Shen, Jilong; Wang, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent IL-12 secretion by dendritic cells is critical for natural killer cell-mediated IFN-γ production and innate resistance to Toxoplasma gondii. Although MyD88(-/-) mice challenged with T. gondii have defective IL-12 responses and succumb to infection, administration of IL-12 to MyD88(-/-) mice fails to prevent acute mortality, suggesting that MyD88 may mediate signals within natural killer cells important for IL-12-dependent IFN-γ production and innate resistance to this parasite. In this study, we found that T. gondii antigens and IL-12 could synergistically trigger IFN-γ secretion by natural killer cells, which was dependent on toll-like receptor-MyD88 signaling. Further analysis showed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and NF-κB multiple pathways downstream of MyD88 contributed to IFN-γ production by natural killer cells. Moreover, the well-established toll-like receptor agonists, T. gondii profilin (Tgprofilin) and T. gondii heat shock protein 70 (TgHSP70) could evoke a similar IFN-γ secretory response in natural killer cells to that evoked by T. gondii antigens. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments showed that, upon challenge with T. gondii, NOD/SCID-β2 microglobulin null (NOD/SCID-β2m(-/-)) mice injected i.v. with MyD88(-/-) natural killer cells had reduced serum IFN-γ levels and increased splenic tachyzoite burdens compared with those injected i.v. with wild-type natural killer cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a critical role for natural killer cell intrinsic toll-like receptor-MyD88 signaling in IL-12-dependent early IFN-γ production and innate resistance to T. gondii.

  12. MyD88 dependence of beryllium-induced dendritic cell trafficking and CD4⁺ T-cell priming.

    PubMed

    McKee, A S; Mack, D G; Crawford, F; Fontenot, A P

    2015-11-01

    Beryllium exposure results in beryllium hypersensitivity in a subset of exposed individuals, leading to granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis in the lung. In addition to its antigenic properties, beryllium has potent adjuvant activity that contributes to sensitization via unknown pathways. Here we show that beryllium induces cellular death and release of interleukin (IL)-1α and DNA into the lung. Release of IL-1α was inflammasome independent and required for beryllium-induced neutrophil recruitment into the lung. Beryllium enhanced classical dendritic cell (cDC) migration from the lung to draining lymph nodes (LNs) in an IL-1R-independent manner, and the accumulation of activated cDCs in the LN was associated with increased priming of CD4(+) T cells. DC migration was reduced in Toll-like receptor 9 knockout (TLR9KO) mice; however, cDCs in the LNs of TLR9-deficient mice were highly activated, suggesting a role for more than one innate receptor in the effects on DCs. The adjuvant effects of beryllium on CD4(+) T-cell priming were similar in wild-type, IL-1R-, caspase-1-, TLR2-, TLR4-, TLR7-, and TLR9-deficient mice. In contrast, DC migration, activation, and the adjuvant effects of beryllium were significantly reduced in myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 knockout (MyD88KO) mice. Collectively, these data suggest that beryllium exposure results in the release of damage-associated molecular patterns that engage MyD88-dependent receptors to enhance pulmonary DC function.

  13. HMGB1 translocation and release mediate cigarette smoke–induced pulmonary inflammation in mice through a TLR4/MyD88-dependent signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yao; Wang, Dan; Wang, Bin; Li, Huanan; Xiong, Junjie; Xu, Shuyun; Chen, Quan; Tao, Kun; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Yu; He, Sirong

    2017-01-01

    We performed studies to determine the role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in cigarette smoke (CS)–induced pulmonary inflammation. After mice were exposed to five cigarettes four times a day for 3 d, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and TLR4-mediated signaling were significantly up-regulated, and HMGB1 had translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in lung epithelial cells and then been released into the extracellular lung space. On CS exposure, inflammatory cell recruitment and proinflammatory cytokine production were significantly increased in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage, and these effects depended on the TLR4 signaling pathway. HMGB1 inhibition decreased the CS-induced inflammatory response, whereas treatment with exogenous HMGB1 aggravated the damage and increased the phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and IκBα in the lungs of wild-type mice but not in TLR4-knockout mice. Blockade of TLR4 action or TLR4 knockout significantly inhibited HMGB1-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE) cells and lung tissues. In addition, a MyD88 deficiency inhibited JNK, p38, and IκBα phosphorylation, and this effect was associated with the suppressed production of TNF-α and IL-1β in MTE cells and lung tissues in response to CS stimulation. Thus HMGB1 activates the NF-κB and JNK/p38 pathways through TLR4/MyD88-dependent signaling and induces an inflammatory response in lungs exposed to CS. PMID:27807045

  14. HCV-Induced miR-21 Contributes to Evasion of Host Immune System by Targeting MyD88 and IRAK1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanni; Chen, Junbo; Wang, Hui; Shi, Jingjing; Wu, Kailang; Liu, Shi; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    Upon recognition of viral components by pattern recognition receptors, such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases, cells are activated to produce type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines. These pathways are tightly regulated by the host to prevent an inappropriate cellular response, but viruses can modulate these pathways to proliferate and spread. In this study, we revealed a novel mechanism in which hepatitis C virus (HCV) evades the immune surveillance system to proliferate by activating microRNA-21 (miR-21). We demonstrated that HCV infection upregulates miR-21, which in turn suppresses HCV-triggered type I IFN production, thus promoting HCV replication. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-21 targets two important factors in the TLR signaling pathway, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1), which are involved in HCV-induced type I IFN production. HCV-mediated activation of miR-21 expression requires viral proteins and several signaling components. Moreover, we identified a transcription factor, activating protein-1 (AP-1), which is partly responsible for miR-21 induction in response to HCV infection through PKCε/JNK/c-Jun and PKCα/ERK/c-Fos cascades. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-21 is upregulated during HCV infection and negatively regulates IFN-α signaling through MyD88 and IRAK1 and may be a potential therapeutic target for antiviral intervention. PMID:23633945

  15. Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells Induce a MyD88-Dependent Stromal Response to Promote a Tumor-Tolerant Immune Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Delitto, Daniel; Delitto, Andrea E; DiVita, Bayli B; Pham, Kien; Han, Song; Hartlage, Emily R; Newby, Brittney N; Gerber, Michael H; Behrns, Kevin E; Moldawer, Lyle L; Thomas, Ryan M; George, Thomas J; Brusko, Todd M; Mathews, Clayton E; Liu, Chen; Trevino, Jose G; Hughes, Steven J; Wallet, Shannon M

    2017-02-01

    Cancer cells exert mastery over the local tumor-associated stroma (TAS) to configure protective immunity within the tumor microenvironment. The immunomodulatory character of pancreatic lysates of patients with cancer differs from those with pancreatitis. In this study, we evaluated the cross-talk between pancreatic cancer and its TAS in primary human cell culture models. Upon exposure of TAS to pancreatic cancer cell-conditioned media, we documented robust secretion of IL6 and IL8. This TAS response was MyD88-dependent and sufficient to directly suppress both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation, inducing Th17 polarization at the expense of Th1. We found that patients possessed a similar shift in circulating effector memory Th17:Th1 ratios compared with healthy controls. The TAS response also directly suppressed CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Overall, our results demonstrate how TAS contributes to the production of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res; 77(3); 672-83. ©2016 AACR.

  16. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses of osteoblasts through TLR4-MyD88 dissociation.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Juna; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Kusuyama, Joji; Bandow, Kenjiro; Kakimoto, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Tomokazu; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that osteoblasts are mechano-sensitive. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) induces osteoblast differentiation and is an established therapy for bone fracture. Here we have examined how LIPUS affects inflammatory responses of osteoblasts to LPS. LPS rapidly induced mRNA expression of several chemokines including CCL2, CXCL1, and CXCL10 in both mouse osteoblast cell line and calvaria-derived osteoblasts. Simultaneous treatment by LIPUS significantly inhibited mRNA induction of CXCL1 and CXCL10 by LPS. LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERKs, p38 kinases, MEK1/2, MKK3/6, IKKs, TBK1, and Akt was decreased in LIPUS-treated osteoblasts. Furthermore, LIPUS inhibited the transcriptional activation of NF-κB responsive element and Interferon-sensitive response element (ISRE) by LPS. In a transient transfection experiment, LIPUS significantly inhibited TLR4-MyD88 complex formation. Thus LIPUS exerts anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated osteoblasts by inhibiting TLR4 signal transduction.

  17. The frustrated host response to Legionella pneumophila is bypassed by MyD88-dependent translation of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Asrat, Seblewongel; Dugan, Aisling S; Isberg, Ralph R

    2014-07-01

    Many pathogens, particularly those that require their host for survival, have devised mechanisms to subvert the host immune response in order to survive and replicate intracellularly. Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, promotes intracellular growth by translocating proteins into its host cytosol through its type IV protein secretion machinery. At least 5 of the bacterial translocated effectors interfere with the function of host cell elongation factors, blocking translation and causing the induction of a unique host cell transcriptional profile. In addition, L. pneumophila also interferes with translation initiation, by preventing cap-dependent translation in host cells. We demonstrate here that protein translation inhibition by L. pneumophila leads to a frustrated host MAP kinase response, where genes involved in the pathway are transcribed but fail to be translated due to the bacterium-induced protein synthesis inhibition. Surprisingly, few pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α and IL-1β, bypass this inhibition and get synthesized in the presence of Legionella effectors. We show that the selective synthesis of these genes requires MyD88 signaling and takes place in both infected cells that harbor bacteria and neighboring bystander cells. Our findings offer a perspective of how host cells are able to cope with pathogen-encoded activities that disrupt normal cellular process and initiate a successful inflammatory response.

  18. Porcine circovirus type 2 induces type I interferon production via MyD88-IKKα-IRFs signaling rather than NF-κB in porcine alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengmeng; Han, Junyuan; Zhang, Yaqun; Duan, Dianning; Zhang, Shuxia

    2016-02-01

    Type I interferon (IFN-I) plays important roles in host antiviral responses. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and NF-κB transcription factors are thought to be important in the processes of viral secretion and triggering of interferon production. Recently, studies have shown that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) can induce IFN-I production in vivo and in vitro, but the mechanisms underlying the production of PAMs infected with PCV2 remains unknown. Treatment of these cells with BAY11-7082, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation, allowed us to study the secretion of IFN-α and IFN-β in PAMs infected with PCV2. We found that IFN-α expression was induced following virus infection of PAMs. Notably, even after inhibitor treatment of PAMs infected with PCV2, secretion of IFN-α was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared with the PCV2 infection alone group. Our findings suggest that NF-κB plays a minor role in PCV2-induced type I interferon responses. To further characterize the signaling pathway that drives IFN-I expression in PAMs in response to PCV2, we used siRNA to silence the expression of Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and study the role of MyD88-IKKα-IRF signaling in IFN-I production in PAMs induced by PCV2. Our findings show that PCV2 induced IFN-α mRNA transcription, which is associated with the activities of MyD88, IRF7, and IRF3. Thus, PCV2 can induce IFN-I transcription via the MyD88-IKKα-IRF signaling axis.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis induces expression of IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 and IFN-beta independent of TLR2 and TLR4, but largely dependent on MyD88.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Uma M; Ojcius, David M; Stahl, Lynn; Rank, Roger G; Darville, Toni

    2005-07-01

    IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) is a chemokine important in the attraction of T cells, which are essential for resolution of chlamydial genital tract infection. During infections with Gram-negative bacteria, the IP-10 response mediated through type I IFNs usually occurs as a result of TLR4 stimulation by bacterial LPS. However, we found that levels of IP-10 in genital tract secretions of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected female wild-type mice were similar to those of infected TLR2- and TLR4-deficient mice but significantly greater than those of infected MyD88-deficient mice. We investigated the mechanism of IP-10 and IFN-beta induction during chlamydial infection using mouse macrophages and fibroblasts infected ex vivo. The induction of IP-10 and IFN-beta was unchanged in Chlamydia-infected TLR2- and TLR4-deficient cells compared with wild-type cells. However, infection of MyD88-deficient cells resulted in significantly decreased responses. These results suggest a role for MyD88-dependent pathways in induction of IP-10 and IFN-beta during chlamydial infection. Furthermore, treatment of infected macrophages with an endosomal maturation inhibitor significantly reduced chlamydial-induced IFN-beta. Because endosomal maturation is required for MyD88-dependent intracellular pathogen recognition receptors to function, our data suggest a role for the intracellular pathogen recognition receptor(s) in induction of IFN-beta and IP-10 during chlamydial infection. Furthermore, the intracellular pathways that lead to chlamydial-induced IFN-beta function through TANK-binding kinase mediated phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IFN regulatory factor-3.

  20. Elucidation of Novel Structural Scaffold in Rohu TLR2 and Its Binding Site Analysis with Peptidoglycan, Lipoteichoic Acid and Zymosan Ligands, and Downstream MyD88 Adaptor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Basu, Madhubanti; Swain, Banikalyan; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in sensing wide array of microbial signatures and induction of innate immunity. TLR2 in fish resembles higher eukaryotes by sensing peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of bacterial cell wall and zymosan of yeasts. However, in fish TLR2, no study yet describes the ligand binding motifs in the leucine rich repeat regions (LRRs) of the extracellular domain (ECD) and important amino acids in TLR2-TIR (toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain that could be engaged in transmitting downstream signaling. We predicted these in a commercially important freshwater fish species rohu (Labeo rohita) by constructing 3D models of TLR2-ECD, TLR2-TIR, and MyD88-TIR by comparative modeling followed by 40 ns (nanosecond) molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) for TLR2-ECD and 20 ns MDS for TLR2-TIR and MyD88-TIR. Protein (TLR2-ECD)–ligands (PGN, LTA, and zymosan) docking in rohu by AutoDock4.0, FlexX2.1, and GOLD4.1 anticipated LRR16–19, LRR12–14, and LRR20-CT as the most important ligand binding motifs. Protein (TLR2-TIR)—protein (MyD88-TIR) interaction by HADDOCK and ZDOCK predicted BB loop, αB-helix, αC-helix, and CD loop in TLR2-TIR and BB loop, αB-helix, and CD loop in MyD88-TIR as the critical binding domains. This study provides ligands recognition and downstream signaling. PMID:23956969

  1. TLR4-MyD88-TRAF6-TAK1 Complex-Mediated NF-κB Activation Contribute to the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of V8 in LPS-Induced Human Cervical Cancer SiHa Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Aiqin; Ji, Rui; Shao, Jia; He, Chenyun; Jin, Ming; Xu, Yunzhao

    2016-02-01

    The synthetic compound 7-4-[Bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-amino]-butoxy-5-hydroxy-8-methoxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one (V8) is a novel flavonoid-derived compound. In this study, we investigated the effects of V8 on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammatory reaction in human cervical cancer SiHa cells and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 activity in cervical cancer SiHa (HPV16+) cells, but not in HeLa (HPV18+) and C33A (HPV-) cells. In addition, V8 inhibited LPS-induced expression of TLR4, MyD88, TRAF6 and phosphorylation of TAK1, and their interaction with TLR4 in SiHa cells, resulting in an inhibition of TLR4-MyD88-TRAF6-TAK1 complex. Moreover, V8 blocked LPS-induced phosphorylation of IκB and IKK, resulting in inhibition of the nuclear translocation of P65-NF-κB in SiHa cells. We also found that V8 reduced the expression of NF-κB target genes, such as those for COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, IL-8, CCL-2, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated SiHa cells. These results suggested that V8 exerted an anti-inflammatory effect on SiHa cells by inhibiting the TLR4-MyD88-TRAF6-TAK1 complex-mediated NF-κB activation.

  2. The Type II Secretion System of Legionella pneumophila Dampens the MyD88 and Toll-Like Receptor 2 Signaling Pathway in Infected Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mallama, Celeste A; McCoy-Simandle, Kessler; Cianciotto, Nicholas P

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we reported that mutants of Legionella pneumophila lacking a type II secretion (T2S) system elicit higher levels of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6 [IL-6]) following infection of U937 cells, a human macrophage-like cell line. We now show that this effect of T2S is also manifest upon infection of human THP-1 macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes but does not occur during infection of murine macrophages. Supporting the hypothesis that T2S acts to dampen the triggering of an innate immune response, we observed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways are more highly stimulated upon infection with the T2S mutant than upon infection with the wild type. By using short hairpin RNA to deplete proteins involved in specific pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognition pathways, we determined that the dampening effect of the T2S system was not dependent on nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase receptor (PKR), or TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon beta (TRIF) signaling or an apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC)- or caspase-4-dependent inflammasome. However, the dampening effect of T2S on IL-6 production was significantly reduced upon gene knockdown of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1), or Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). These data indicate that the L. pneumophila T2S system dampens the signaling of the TLR2 pathway in infected human macrophages. We also document the importance of PKR, TRIF, and TBK1 in cytokine secretion during L. pneumophila infection of macrophages.

  3. CARMA1- and MyD88-dependent activation of Jun/ATF-type AP-1 complexes is a hallmark of ABC diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Juilland, Mélanie; Gonzalez, Montserrat; Erdmann, Tabea; Banz, Yara; Jevnikar, Zala; Hailfinger, Stephan; Tzankov, Alexandar; Grau, Michael; Lenz, Georg; Novak, Urban; Thome, Margot

    2016-04-07

    A hallmark of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the activated B-cell (ABC) type, a molecular subtype characterized by adverse outcome, is constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which controls expression of genes promoting cellular survival and proliferation. Much less, however, is known about the role of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) in ABC DLBCL. Here, we show that AP-1, like NF-κB, was controlled by constitutive activation of the B-cell receptor signaling component caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase 1 (CARMA1) and/or the Toll-like receptor signaling component myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in ABC DLBCL cell lines. In contrast to germinal center (GC) B-cell (GCB) DLBCL, ABC DLBCL cell lines expressed high levels of the AP-1 family members c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, which formed heterodimeric complexes with the AP-1 family members activating transcription factor (ATF) 2, ATF3, and ATF7. Inhibition of these complexes by a dominant-negative approach led to impaired growth of a majority of ABC DLBCL cell lines. Individual silencing of c-Jun, ATF2, or ATF3 decreased cellular survival and revealed c-Jun/ATF2-dependent control of ATF3 expression. As a consequence, ATF3 expression was much higher in ABC vs GCB DLBCL cell lines. Samples derived from DLBCL patients showed a clear trend toward high and nuclear ATF3 expression in nodal DLBCL of the non-GC or ABC subtype. These findings identify the activation of AP-1 complexes of the Jun/ATF-type as an important element controlling the growth of ABC DLBCL.

  4. CARMA1- and MyD88-dependent activation of Jun/ATF-type AP-1 complexes is a hallmark of ABC diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Juilland, Mélanie; Gonzalez, Montserrat; Erdmann, Tabea; Banz, Yara; Jevnikar, Zala; Hailfinger, Stephan; Tzankov, Alexandar; Grau, Michael; Lenz, Georg; Novak, Urban

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the activated B-cell (ABC) type, a molecular subtype characterized by adverse outcome, is constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor–κB (NF-κB), which controls expression of genes promoting cellular survival and proliferation. Much less, however, is known about the role of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) in ABC DLBCL. Here, we show that AP-1, like NF-κB, was controlled by constitutive activation of the B-cell receptor signaling component caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase 1 (CARMA1) and/or the Toll-like receptor signaling component myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in ABC DLBCL cell lines. In contrast to germinal center (GC) B-cell (GCB) DLBCL, ABC DLBCL cell lines expressed high levels of the AP-1 family members c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, which formed heterodimeric complexes with the AP-1 family members activating transcription factor (ATF) 2, ATF3, and ATF7. Inhibition of these complexes by a dominant-negative approach led to impaired growth of a majority of ABC DLBCL cell lines. Individual silencing of c-Jun, ATF2, or ATF3 decreased cellular survival and revealed c-Jun/ATF2-dependent control of ATF3 expression. As a consequence, ATF3 expression was much higher in ABC vs GCB DLBCL cell lines. Samples derived from DLBCL patients showed a clear trend toward high and nuclear ATF3 expression in nodal DLBCL of the non-GC or ABC subtype. These findings identify the activation of AP-1 complexes of the Jun/ATF-type as an important element controlling the growth of ABC DLBCL. PMID:26747248

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bee Venom in BV2 Microglial Cells: Mediation of MyD88-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jung; Hong, Seung Bok; Park, Jin-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used as a traditional folk medicine in Korea. It has been reportedly used for the treatment of arthritis, cancer, and inflammation. Although its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated inflammatory cells has been reported, the exact mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of bee venom in BV2 microglial cells. We first investigated whether NO production in LPS-activated BV2 cells was inhibited by bee venom, and further iNOS mRNA and protein expressions were determined. The mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were examined using semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Moreover, modulation of the transcription factor NF-κB by bee venom was also investigated using a luciferase assay. LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglial cells was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner upon pretreatment with bee venom. Bee venom markedly reduced the mRNA expression of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and suppressed LPS-induced activation of MyD88 and IRAK1 and phosphorylation of TAK1. Moreover, NF-κB translocation by IKKα/β phosphorylation and subsequent IκB-α degradation were also attenuated. Thus, collectively, these results indicate that bee venom exerts its anti-inflammatory activity via the IRAK1/TAK1/NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:27563334

  6. L265P Mutation of the MYD88 Gene Is Frequent in Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia and Its Absence in Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Naoki; Ohwashi, Mari; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Mitsuhashi, Kenjiro; Tanaka, Norina; Teramura, Masanao; Okada, Michiko; Shiseki, Masayuki; Tanaka, Junji; Motoji, Toshiko

    2013-01-01

    L265P mutation in the MYD88 gene has recently been reported in Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia; however the incidence has been different according to the methods used. To determine the relevance and compare the incidence by different methods, we analyzed the L265P mutation in bone marrow mononuclear cells from lymphoid neoplasms. We first performed cloning and sequencing in 10 patients: 8 Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia; 1 non-IgM-secreting lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma; and 1 low grade B-cell lymphoma with monoclonal IgG protein. The L265P mutation was detected in only 1/8 Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia patients (2 of 9 clones). To confirm these results, direct sequencing was performed in the 10 patients and an additional 17 Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia patients and 1 lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma patient. Nine of 28 patients (7/25 Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia, 1/2 lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, and B-cell lymphoma) harbored the mutation. We next tested for the mutation with BSiE1 digestion and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction in the 28 patients and 38 patients with myeloma. Aberrant bands corresponding to the mutation were detected by BSiE1 digestion in 19/25 patients with Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (76%), 1/2 lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma and B-cell lymphoma, but not in the 38 myeloma patients. The L265P mutation was more frequent in patients with Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia than in those with myeloma (p=1.3x10-10). The mutation was detected by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction in 18/25 Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia patients (72%). In the 25 Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia patients, the L265P was more frequently detected by BSiE1 digestion than by direct sequencing (p=5.3x10-4), and in males (15/16, 94%) than in females (4/9, 44%) (p=1.2x10-2). No siginificant difference was observed in the incidence of the L265P mutation between BSiE1 digestion and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (p=0.32). These

  7. Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Orbital and Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas Identifies Frequent Alterations in MYD88 and Chromatin Modifiers: New Routes to Targeted Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Cani, Andi K.; Soliman, Moaaz; Hovelson, Daniel H.; Liu, Chia-Jen; McDaniel, Andrew S.; Haller, Michaela J.; Bratley, Jarred; Rahrig, Samantha; Li, Qiang; Briceño, César A.; Tomlins, Scott A.; Rao, Rajesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the orbit and ocular adnexa is the most common primary orbital malignancy. Treatments for low- (extra-nodal marginal zone and follicular lymphomas) and high-grade (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) are associated with local and vision-threatening toxicities. High-grade lymphomas relapse frequently and exhibit poor survival rates. Despite advances in genomic profiling and precision-medicine, orbital and ocular adnexal lymphomas remain poorly characterized molecularly. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing profiling of 38 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, orbital and ocular adnexal lymphomas obtained from a single-center using a panel targeting near-term, clinically-relevant genes. Potentially actionable mutations and copy-number alterations were prioritized based on gain- and loss-of function analyses, catalogued approved and investigational therapies. Of 36 informative samples, including marginal zone lymphomas (n=20), follicular lymphomas (n=9), and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (n=7), 53% harbored a prioritized alteration (median=1, range 0–5/sample). MYD88 was the most frequently altered gene in our cohort, with potentially clinically-relevant hot-spot gain-of-function mutations identified in 71% of diffuse large B-cell and 25% of marginal zone lymphomas. Prioritized alterations in epigenetic modulators were common and included gain-of-function EZH2 and loss-of-function ARID1A mutations (14% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and 22% of follicular lymphomas contained alterations in each of these two genes). Single prioritized alterations were also identified in the histone methyltransferases KMT2B (follicular lymphoma) and KMT3B (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). Loss-of-function mutations and copy-number alterations in the tumor suppressors TP53 (diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphoma), CDKN2A (all subtypes), PTEN (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma), ATM (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) and NF1 (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

  8. The HIV Protease Inhibitor Saquinavir Inhibits HMGB1-Driven Inflammation by Targeting the Interaction of Cathepsin V with TLR4/MyD88

    PubMed Central

    Pribis, John P; Al-Abed, Yousef; Yang, Huan; Gero, Domokos; Xu, Hongbo; Montenegro, Marcelo F; Bauer, Eileen M; Kim, Sodam; Chavan, Sangeeta S; Cai, Changchun; Li, Tunliang; Szoleczky, Petra; Szabo, Csaba; Tracey, Kevin J; Billiar, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) (disulfide form), via activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent signaling, is a strong driver of pathologic inflammation in both acute and chronic conditions. Identification of selective inhibitors of HMGB1-TLR4 signaling could offer novel therapies that selectively target proximal endogenous activators of inflammation. A cell-based screening strategy led us to identify first generation HIV-protease inhibitors (PI) as potential inhibitors of HMGB1-TLR4 driven cytokine production. Here we report that the first-generation HIV-PI saquinavir (SQV), as well as a newly identified mammalian protease inhibitor STO33438 (334), potently block disulfide HMGB1-induced TLR4 activation, as assayed by the production of TNF-α by human monocyte-derived macrophages (THP-1). We further report on the identification of mammalian cathepsin V, a protease, as a novel target of these inhibitors. Cellular as well as recombinant protein studies show that the mechanism of action involves a direct interaction between cathepsin V with TLR4 and its adaptor protein MyD88. Treatment with SQV, 334 or the known cathepsin inhibitor SID26681509 (SID) significantly improved survival in murine models of sepsis and reduced liver damage following warm liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models, both characterized by strong HMGB1-TLR4 driven pathology. The current study demonstrates a novel role for cathepsin V in TLR4 signaling and implicates cathepsin V as a novel target for first-generation HIV-PI compounds. The identification of cathepsin V as a target to block HMGB1-TLR4-driven inflammation could allow for a rapid transition of the discovery from the bench to the bedside. Disulfide HMGB1 drives pathologic inflammation in many models by activating signaling through TLR4. Cell-based screening identified the mammalian protease cathepsin V as a novel therapeutic target to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammation induced by extracellular HMGB1 (disulfide form). We identified two protease inhibitors (PIs) that block cathepsin V and thereby inhibit disulfide HMGB1-induced TLR4 activation: saquinavir (SQV), a first-generation PI targeting viral HIV protease and STO33438 (334), targeting mammalian proteases. We discovered that cathepsin V binds TLR4 under basal and HMGB1-stimulated conditions, but dissociates in the presence of SQV over time. Thus cathepsin V is a novel target for first-generation HIV PIs and represents a potential therapeutic target of pathologic inflammation. PMID:26349060

  9. Myeloid-Specific Gene Deletion of Protein Phosphatase 2A Magnifies MyD88- and TRIF-Dependent Inflammation following Endotoxin Challenge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Pham, Tiffany T; Cornell, Timothy T; McDonough, Kelli L; McHugh, Walker M; Blatt, Neal B; Dahmer, Mary K; Shanley, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a member of the intracellular serine/threonine phosphatases. Innate immune cell activation triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns is mediated by various protein kinases, and PP2A plays a counter-regulatory role by deactivating these kinases. In this study, we generated a conditional knockout of the α isoform of the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2ACα). After crossing with myeloid-specific cre-expressing mice, effective gene knockout was achieved in various myeloid cells. The myeloid-specific knockout mice (lyM-PP2A(fl/fl)) showed higher mortality in response to endotoxin challenge and bacterial infection. Upon LPS challenge, serum levels of TNF-α, KC, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly increased in lyM-PP2A(fl/fl) mice, and increased phosphorylation was observed in MAPK pathways (p38, ERK, JNK) and the NF-κB pathway (IKKα/β, NF-κB p65) in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from knockout mice. Heightened NF-κB activation was not associated with degradation of IκBα; instead, enhanced phosphorylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and p38 phosphorylation-mediated TNF-α mRNA stabilization appear to contribute to the increased TNF-α expression. In addition, increased IL-10 expression appears to be due to PP2ACα-knockout-induced IKKα/β hyperactivation. Microarray experiments indicated that the Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β/ TNFR-associated factor 3 pathway was highly upregulated in LPS-treated PP2ACα-knockout BMDMs, and knockout BMDMs had elevated IFN-α/β production compared with control BMDMs. Serum IFN-β levels from PP2ACα-knockout mice treated with LPS were also greater than those in controls. Thus, we demonstrate that PP2A plays an important role in regulating inflammation and survival in the setting of septic insult by targeting MyD88- and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β-dependent pathways.

  10. Subversion of innate immune responses by Brucella through the targeted degradation of the TLR signaling adapter, MAL.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Dola; Koblansky, Alicia; Gaines, Jennifer; Brown, Tim; West, A Phillip; Zhang, Dekai; Nishikawa, Tak; Park, Sung-Gyoo; Roop, R Martin; Ghosh, Sankar

    2010-01-15

    Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the Brucella species cause chronic infections that can result in undulant fever, arthritis, and osteomyelitis in humans. Remarkably, Brucella sp. genomes encode a protein, named TcpB, that bears significant homology with mammalian Toll/IL-1 receptor domains and whose expression causes degradation of the phosphorylated, signal competent form of the adapter MyD88-adapter-like (MAL). This effect of TcpB is mediated through its box 1 region and has no effect on other TLR adapter proteins such as MyD88 or TIR-domain containing adapter protein-inducing IFNbeta. TcpB also does not affect a mutant, signal-incompetent form of MAL that cannot be phosphorylated. Interestingly, the presence of TcpB leads to enhanced polyubiquitination of MAL, which is likely responsible for its accelerated degradation. A Brucella abortus mutant lacking TcpB fails to reduce levels of MAL in infected macrophages. Therefore, TcpB represents a unique pathogen-derived molecule that suppresses host innate-immune responses by specifically targeting an individual adapter molecule in the TLR signaling pathway for degradation.

  11. Resveratrol inhibits the IL-1β-induced expression of MMP-13 and IL-6 in human articular chondrocytes via TLR4/MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hailun; Jiao, Yongliang; Yu, Xiaolu; Li, Xingyao; Wang, Wei; Ding, Lifeng; Liu, Li

    2017-03-01

    The natural polyphenolic compound, resveratrol, has been shown to exhibit anti-osteoarthritic activity. Therefore it is hypothesized that resveratrol may serve as a nutritional supplement to counteract osteoarthritis (OA). However, the mechanisms responsible for these anti-osteoarthritic effects have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine whether the biological effects of resveratrol against interleukin (IL)-1β‑induced inflammation in human articular chondrocytes involved both Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. Human articular chondrocytes derived from patients with OA were stimulated with IL-1β, and then co-treated with resveratrol. Cell viability was subsequently evaluated by MTS assays, and the concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and the pro-inflammatory factor, IL-6, were detected in culture supernatants using ELISA. The mRNA and protein levels of downstream mediators of TLR4/MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling pathways were also assayed by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Our results revealed that resveratrol prevented the IL-1β-induced reduction in cell viability. Furthermore, stimulation of the chondrocytes with IL-1β resulted in a significant upregulation of TLR4 and downstream targets of both TLR4/MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling pathways that are associated with the synthesis of MMP-13 and IL-6. Correspondingly, IL-1β-induced catabolic and inflammatory responses were effectively reversed by resveratrol. Taken together, these data suggest that resveratrol exerted protective effects against matrix degradation and inflammation in OA-affected chondrocytes by inhibiting both TLR4/MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. Thus, resveratrol represents a potential treatment for OA and warrants further investigation.

  12. IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells are markedly reduced in IRAK-4-, MyD88-, and TIRAP- but not UNC-93B-deficient patients.

    PubMed

    Weller, Sandra; Bonnet, Mélanie; Delagreverie, Héloïse; Israel, Laura; Chrabieh, Maya; Maródi, László; Rodriguez-Gallego, Carlos; Garty, Ben-Zion; Roifman, Chaim; Issekutz, Andrew C; Zitnik, Simona Eva; Hoarau, Cyrille; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Vasconcelos, Júlia; Rodrigo, Carlos; Arkwright, Peter D; Cerutti, Andrea; Meffre, Eric; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Alcais, Alexandre; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Picard, Capucine; Weill, Jean-Claude; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès

    2012-12-13

    We studied the distribution of peripheral B-cell subsets in patients deficient for key factors of the TLR-signaling pathways (MyD88, TIRAP/MAL, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 [IRAK-4], TLR3, UNC-93B, TRIF). All TLRs, except TLR3, which signals through the TRIF adaptor, require MyD88 and IRAK-4 to mediate their function. TLR4 and the TLR2 heterodimers (with TLR1, TLR6, and possibly TLR10) require in addition the adaptor TIRAP, whereas UNC-93B is needed for the proper localization of intracellular TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9. We found that IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) but not switched B cells were strongly reduced in MyD88-, IRAK-4-, and TIRAP-deficient patients. This defect did not appear to be compensated with age. However, somatic hypermutation of Ig genes and heavy-chain CDR3 size distribution of IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells were not affected in these patients. In contrast, the numbers of IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells were normal in the absence of TLR3, TRIF, and UNC-93B, suggesting that UNC-93B-dependent TLRs, and notably TLR9, are dispensable for the presence of this subset in peripheral blood. Interestingly, TLR10 was found to be expressed at greater levels in IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) compared with switched B cells in healthy patients. Hence, we propose a role for TIRAP-dependent TLRs, possibly TLR10 in particular, in the development and/or maintenance of IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells in humans.

  13. Rifaximin Improves Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Toxicity in Caco-2 Cells by the PXR-Dependent TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Nobile, Nicola; Gigli, Stefano; Seguella, Luisa; Pesce, Marcella; d’Alessandro, Alessandra; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Capoccia, Elena; Steardo, Luca; Cuomo, Rosario; Sarnelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) caused by Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) lead to severe ulceration, inflammation and bleeding of the colon, and are difficult to treat. Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of rifaximin on TcdA-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells and investigate the role of PXR in its mechanism of action. Methods: Caco-2 cells were incubated with TcdA and treated with rifaximin (0.1-10 μM) with or without ketoconazole (10 μM). The transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and viability of the treated cells was determined. Also, the expression of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) was determined. Results: Rifaximin treatment (0.1, 1.0, and 10 μM) caused a significant and concentration-dependent increase in the TEER of Caco-2 cells (360, 480, and 680% vs. TcdA treatment) 24 h after the treatment and improved their viability (61, 79, and 105%). Treatment also concentration-dependently decreased the expression of Bax protein (-29, -65, and -77%) and increased the expression of ZO-1 (25, 54, and 87%) and occludin (71, 114, and 262%) versus TcdA treatment. The expression of TLR4 (-33, -50, and -75%), MyD88 (-29, -60, and -81%) and TAK1 (-37, -63, and -79%) were also reduced with rifaximin versus TcdA treatment. Ketoconazole treatment inhibited these effects. Conclusion: Rifaximin improved TcdA-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells by the PXR-dependent TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway mechanism, and may be useful in the treatment of CDIs. PMID:27242527

  14. Burkholderia pseudomallei-induced expression of a negative regulator, sterile-alpha and Armadillo motif-containing protein, in mouse macrophages: a possible mechanism for suppression of the MyD88-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Pudla, M; Limposuwan, K; Utaisincharoen, P

    2011-07-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, a causative agent of melioidosis, is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can survive and multiply in macrophages. Previously, we demonstrated that B. pseudomallei failed to activate gene expression downstream of the MyD88-independent pathway, particularly the expression of beta interferon (IFN-β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), leading to the inability of macrophages to kill this bacterium. In the present report, we extended our study to show that B. pseudomallei was able to activate sterile-α and Armadillo motif (SARM)-containing protein, a known negative regulator of the MyD88-independent pathway. Both live B. pseudomallei and heat-killed B. pseudomallei were able to upregulate SARM expression in a time-dependent manner in mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The expression of SARM required bacterial internalization, as it could be inhibited by cytochalasin D. In addition, the intracellular survival of B. pseudomallei was suppressed in SARM-deficient macrophages. Increased expression of IFN-β and iNOS and degradation of IκBα correlated with enhanced macrophage killing capability. These results demonstrated that B. pseudomallei modulated macrophage defense mechanisms by upregulating SARM, thus leading to the suppression of IFN-β and iNOS needed for bacterial elimination.

  15. TLR4/MyD88-Induced CD11b+Gr-1intF4/80+ Non-Migratory Myeloid Cells Suppress Th2 Effector Function in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Meenakshi; Poe, Stephanie L.; Oriss, Timothy B.; Krishnamoorthy, Nandini; Yarlagadda, Manohar; Wenzel, Sally E.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Ray, Anuradha; Ray, Prabir

    2010-01-01

    In humans, environmental exposure to a high dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) protects from allergic asthma the immunological underpinnings of which are not well understood. In mice, exposure to a high LPS dose blunted house dust mite-induced airway eosinophilia and Th2 cytokine production. While adoptively transferred Th2 cells induced allergic airway inflammation in control mice, they were unable to do so in LPS-exposed mice. LPS promoted the development of a CD11b+Gr1intF4/80+ lung-resident cell resembling myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a TLR4- and MyD88-dependent fashion that suppressed lung dendritic cell (DC)-mediated reactivation of primed Th2 cells. LPS effects switched from suppressive to stimulatory in MyD88-/- mice. Suppression of Th2 effector function was reversed by anti-IL-10 or inhibition of Arginase 1. Lineageneg bone marrow progenitor cells could be induced by LPS to develop into CD11b+Gr1intF4/80+ cells both in vivo and in vitro which when adoptively transferred suppressed allergen-induced airway inflammation in recipient mice. These data suggest that CD11b+Gr1intF4/80+ cells contribute to the protective effects of LPS in allergic asthma by tempering Th2 effector function in the tissue. PMID:20664577

  16. Depurinized milk downregulates rat thymus MyD88/Akt/p38 function, NF-κB-mediated inflammation, caspase-1 activity but not the endonuclease pathway: in vitro/in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Kocic, Gordana; Veljkovic, Andrej; Kocic, Hristina; Colic, Miodrag; Mihajlovic, Dusan; Tomovic, Katarina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Smelcerovic, Andrija

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of 15 days dietary regimen of depurinized (DP) milk (obtained using our patented technological procedures) or 1.5% fat UHT milk instead of standard chow diet, on rat thymus and bone marrow MyD88/Akt/p38, NF-κB, caspase-1 and endonuclease pathways, in relation to peripheral blood cell composition. To determine whether the reduced mass of the thymus is a consequence of the direct effect of DP/UHT milk on apoptosis of thymocytes, in vitro Annexin-V-FITC/PI assay was performed. Significant decreases in the thymus wet weight, thymocyte MyD88, Akt-1/phospho-Akt-1 kinase, p38/phospho-p38, NF-κB, caspase-1 activity and CD4+/CD8+ antigen expression were obtained, especially in the DP milk group. The activity of thymocyte alkaline and acid DNase increased in the DP but not in the UHT milk group. The level of IL-6 significantly decreased in DP milk treated group, while the level of total TGF-β and IL-6 increased in UHT milk group. Significant differences in hematological parameters were obtained in commercial milk fed group. Observed results about prevention of experimental diabetes in DP pretreated groups may suggest that purine compounds, uric acid and other volatile toxic compounds of commercial milk may suppress oral tolerance, probably via IL-6 and TGF-β cytokine effects. PMID:28176796

  17. Suppression of OVA-alum induced allergy by Heligmosomoides polygyrus products is MyD88-, TRIF-, regulatory T- and B cell-independent, but is associated with reduced innate lymphoid cell activation.

    PubMed

    McSorley, Henry J; Blair, Natalie F; Robertson, Elaine; Maizels, Rick M

    2015-11-01

    The murine intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus exerts multiple immunomodulatory effects in the host, including the suppression of allergic inflammation in mice sensitized to allergen presented with alum adjuvant. Similar suppression is attained by co-administration of H. polygyrus excretory/secretory products (HES) with the sensitizing dose of ovalbumin (OVA) in alum. We investigated the mechanism of suppression by HES in this model, and found it was maintained in MyD88xTRIF-deficient mice, implying no role for helminth- or host-derived TLR ligands, or IL-1 family cytokines that signal in a MyD88- or TRIF-dependent manner. We also found suppression was unchanged in µMT mice, which lack B2 B cells, and that suppression was not abrogated when regulatory T cells were depleted in Foxp3.LuciDTR-4 mice. However, reduced IL-5 production was seen in the first 12 h after injection of OVA-alum when HES was co-administered, associated with reduced activation of IL-5(+) and IL-13(+) group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Thus, the suppressive effects of HES on alum-mediated OVA sensitization are reflected in the very earliest innate response to allergen exposure in vivo.

  18. Porcine circovirus type 2 increases IL-1β and IL-10 production via the MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway in porcine alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Han, Junyuan; Zhang, Shuxia; Zhang, Yaqun; Chen, Mengmeng; Lv, Yingjun

    2016-07-25

    Porcine alveolar macrophages represent the first line of defense in the porcine lung after infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) via the respiratory tract. However, PCV2 infection impairs the microbicidal capability of PAMs and alters cytokine production and/or secretion. Currently, the reason for the imbalance of cytokines has not been fully elucidated and the regulatory mechanisms involved are not clear. Here, we investigated the expression levels and regulation of IL-1β and IL-10 in PAMs following incubation with PCV2 in vitro. Both levels of IL-1β and IL-10 increased in PAM supernatants, and the distribution of NF-κB p65 staining in the nucleus, the expression of MyD88 and p-IκB in the cytoplasm and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB increased after incubation with PCV2, while the expression of p65 in the cytoplasm of PAMs decreased. However, when PAMs were co-incubated with PCV2 and small interfering RNA targeting MyD88, these effects were reversed. Additionally, mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, -3, -4, -7, -8 and -9 were increased when PAMs were incubated with PCV2. These findings showed that PCV2 induced increased IL-1β and IL-10 production in PAMs, and these changes in expression were relative to the TLR-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway.

  19. Monoclonal antibody against Toll-like receptor 4 attenuates ventilator-induced lung injury in rats by inhibiting MyD88- and NF-κB-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cuiyuan; Pan, Linghui; Lin, Fei; Dai, Huijun; Fu, Ruili

    2017-03-01

    The mechanisms through which mechanical ventilation causes non-infectious inflammatory diseases and lung injury are poorly understood. Animals models of this type of injury suggest that it involves signaling mediated by Toll‑like receptor (TLR)4 and 9. In this study, in order to gain further insight into the involvement of TLR4 in this type of injury, we performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to determine the mechanisms through which TLR4 triggers inflammation. We also examined whether the use of TLR4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) can alleviate this type of injury. For this purpose, rats were tracheotomized and administered intratracheal injections of anti‑TLR4 mAb or saline, and then ventilated for 4 h at a high tidal volume (HTV) of 40 ml/ kg or allowed to breathe spontaneously for the same period of time (controls). Alveolar macrophages (AMs) were isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of the rats and stimulated for 16 h with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α in the presence or absence of anti‑TLR4 mAb. Lung injury was assessed by examining lung histopathology, lung wet/dry weight ratio, BALF total protein and cytokine levels in BALF and plasma. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4, TLR9, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB were measured in cultured macrophages. Compared to the controls (spontaneous breathing), the ventilated rats exhibited greater pulmonary permeability, more severe inflammatory cell infiltration/lung edema, and higher levels of interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6 and TNF‑α in BALF and plasma. The AMs from the ventilated rats expressed higher mRNA and protein levels of TLR4, TLR9, Myd88 and NF‑κB compared with the macrophages from the spontaneously breathing rats. The ventilated rats pre‑treated with anti‑TLR4 mAb exhibited markedly attenuated signs of ventilation‑induced injury, such as less lung inflammation and pulmonary edema, fewer cells in BALF, and

  20. Curcumin Represses NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation via TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and P2X7R Signaling in PMA-Induced Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fanqi; Ye, Bozhi; Cao, Jiatian; Cai, Xueli; Lin, Lu; Huang, Shanjun; Huang, Weijian; Huang, Zhouqing

    2016-01-01

    Aims: In the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, the pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is closely related to the progression of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to assess the effects of curcumin on NLRP3 inflammasome in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced macrophages and explore its underlying mechanism. Methods: Human monocytic THP-1 cells were pretreated with curcumin for 1 h and subsequently induced with PMA for 48 h. Total protein was collected for Western blot analysis. Cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β release and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation were detected by ELISA assay and cellular NF-κB translocation kit, respectively. Results: Curcumin significantly reduced the expression of NLRP3 and cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β secretion in PMA-induced macrophages. Moreover, Bay (a NF-κB inhibitor) treatment considerably suppressed the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in PMA-induced THP-1 cells. Curcumin also markedly inhibited the upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphorylation level of IκB-α, and activation of NF-κB in PMA-induced macrophages. In addition, purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) siRNA was administered, and it significantly decreased NLRP3 inflammasome expression in PMA-induced macrophages. Furthermore, curcumin reversed PMA-stimulated P2X7R activation, which further reduced the expression of NLRP3 and cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β secretion. Silencing of P2X7R using siRNA also suppressed the activation of NF-κB pathway in PMA-induced macrophages, but P2X7R-silenced cells did not significantly decrease the expression of TLR4 and MyD88. Conclusion: Curcumin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome through suppressing TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and P2X7R pathways in PMA-induced macrophages. PMID:27777559

  1. LPS Up-Regulates ICAM-1 Expression in Breast Cancer Cells by Stimulating a MyD88-BLT2-ERK-Linked Cascade, Which Promotes Adhesion to Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geun-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes are the major inflammatory cells that infiltrate most solid tumors in humans. The interaction of tumor cells with infiltrating monocytes and their adhesion to these monocytes play a significant role in altering the tumor to become more aggressive. Recently, exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was suggested to promote cancer cell adhesion to monocytes; however, little is known about the details of the signaling mechanism involved in this process. In this study, we found that LPS up-regulates ICAM-1 expression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, which facilitates their adhesion to THP-1 monocytes. In addition, we analyzed the signaling mechanism underlying the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and found that the siRNA-mediated depletion of BLT2 markedly suppressed the LPS-induced expression of ICAM-1 in MDA-MB-231 cells and the subsequent adhesion of these cells to THP-1 monocytes. Moreover, we demonstrated that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) lies downstream of LPS/TLR4 and upstream of BLT2 and that this ‘MyD88-BLT2’ cascade mediates ERK activation and subsequent ICAM-1 expression, which is critical for the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to THP-1 monocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that LPS up-regulates ICAM-1 expression in breast cancer cells via a MyD88-BLT2-ERK-linked signaling cascade, leading to the increased adhesion of breast cancer cells to monocytes. PMID:26299331

  2. LPS-Stimulated Inflammatory Environment Inhibits BMP-2-Induced Osteoblastic Differentiation Through Crosstalk Between TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and BMP/Smad Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ru-Lin; Yuan, Yuwen; Zou, Gang-Ming; Liu, Guangwang; Tu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a novel differentiation factor that is capable of inducing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, making it an attractive option in treatment of bone defects, fractures, and spine fusions. Inflammation, which was a common situation during bone healing, is recognized to inhibit osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. However, the effect of inflammation on BMP-2-induced osteoblastic differentiation remains ambiguous. In this study, we showed that an inflammatory environment triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro would suppress BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which represented by decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity and down-regulated osteogenic genes. In addition, LPS activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) via a TLR4/MyD88-dependent manner and inhibited BMP-2-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad1/5/8. The blocking of NF-κB signaling by pretreatment with specific inhibitors such as BAY-11-7082, TPCK and PDTC, or by transfection with plasmids encoding p65 siRNA or IκBα siRNA could significantly reverse the inhibitory effect of LPS on BMP-2-induced BMP/Smad signaling and osteogenic differentiation. By contrast, even without stimulation of LPS, overexpression of p65 gene showed obvious inhibitory effects on BMP-2-induced BMP/Smad signaling and ALPase activity. These data indicate that the LPS-mediated inflammatory environment inhibits BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation, and that the crosstalk between TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and BMP/Smad signaling negatively modulates the osteoinductive capacity of BMP-2. PMID:24050190

  3. A liquid crystal of ascorbyl palmitate, used as vaccine platform, provides sustained release of antigen and has intrinsic pro-inflammatory and adjuvant activities which are dependent on MyD88 adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Vallecillo, María F; Minguito de la Escalera, María M; Aguirre, María V; Ullio Gamboa, Gabriela V; Palma, Santiago D; González-Cintado, Leticia; Chiodetti, Ana L; Soldano, Germán; Morón, Gabriel; Allemandi, Daniel A; Ardavín, Carlos; Pistoresi-Palencia, María C; Maletto, Belkys A

    2015-09-28

    Modern subunit vaccines require the development of new adjuvant strategies. Recently, we showed that CpG-ODN formulated with a liquid crystal nanostructure formed by self-assembly of 6-O-ascorbyl palmitate (Coa-ASC16) is an attractive system for promoting an antigen-specific immune response to weak antigens. Here, we showed that after subcutaneous injection of mice with near-infrared fluorescent dye-labeled OVA antigen formulated with Coa-ASC16, the dye-OVA was retained at the injection site for a longer period than when soluble dye-OVA was administered. Coa-ASC16 alone elicited a local inflammation, but how this material triggers this response has not been described yet. Although it is known that some materials used as a platform are not immunologically inert, very few studies have directly focused on this topic. In this study, we explored the underlying mechanisms concerning the interaction between Coa-ASC16 and the immune system and we found that the whole inflammatory response elicited by Coa-ASC16 (leukocyte recruitment and IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 production) was dependent on the MyD88 protein. TLR2, TLR4, TLR7 and NLRP3-inflammasome signaling were not required for induction of this inflammatory response. Coa-ASC16 induced local release of self-DNA, and in TLR9-deficient mice IL-6 production was absent. In addition, Coa-ASC16 revealed an intrinsic adjuvant activity which was affected by MyD88 and IL-6 absence. Taken together these results indicate that Coa-ASC16 used as a vaccine platform is effective due to the combination of the controlled release of antigen and its intrinsic pro-inflammatory activity. Understanding how Coa-ASC16 works might have significant implications for rational vaccine design.

  4. MiR-23a-5p modulates mycobacterial survival and autophagy during mycobacterium tuberculosis infection through TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB pathway by targeting TLR2.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xing; Gao, Yan; Mu, De-Guang; Fu, En-Qing

    2017-03-19

    Autophagy plays a pivotal role in activating the antimicrobial host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb.). The emerging roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating immune responses have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Appreciating the potential of host-directed therapies designed to control autophagy during mycobacterial infection, we focused on the influence of miR-23a-5p on the activation of macrophage autophagy during M.tb. infection in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and murine RAW264.7 cells. Here, we demonstrated that M.tb.-infection of macrophages lead to markedly enhanced expression of miR-23a-5p in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, forced expression of miR-23a-5p accelerated the survival rate of intracellular mycobacteria, while transfection with miR-23a-5p inhibitors attenuated mycobacterial survival. More importantly, overexpression of miR-23a-5p dramatically prevented M.tb.-induced activation of autophagy in macrophages, whereas inhibitors of miR-23a-5p remarkably accelerated M.tb.-induced autophagy. Mechanistically, miR-23a-5p is able to modulate TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB signaling activity by targeting TLR2 in RAW264.7 cells in response to M.tb.-infection. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that miR-23a-5p modulated the innate host defense by promoting mycobacteria survival and inhibiting the activation of autophagy against M.tb. through TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB pathway by targeting TLR2, which may provide a promising therapeutic target for tuberculosis.

  5. CXC195 suppresses proliferation and inflammatory response in LPS-induced human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via regulating TLR4-MyD88-TAK1-mediated NF-κB and MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yiting; Tu, Qunfei; Yan, Wei; Xiao, Dan; Zeng, Zhimin; Ouyang, Yuming; Huang, Long; Cai, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoli; Chen, Ya-Jie; Liu, Anwen

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • CXC195 exhibited significant anti-proliferative effect and induced cell cycle arrest in LPS-induced HepG2 cells. • CXC195 suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced HepG2 cells. • CXC195 regulated TLR4-MyD88-TAK1-mediated NF-κB and MAPK pathway in LPS-induced HepG2 cells. - Abstract: CXC195 showed strong protective effects in neuronal apoptosis by exerting its antioxidant activity. However, the anti-cancer effects of CXC195 is still with limited acquaintance. Here, we investigated the role of CXC195 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells lines (HepG2) and the possible signaling pathways. CXC195 exhibited significant anti-proliferative effect and induced cell cycle arrest in LPS-induced HepG2 cells. In addition, CXC195 suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced HepG2 cells, including TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, CC chemokine ligand (CCL)-2, CCL-22 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Moreover, CXC195 inhibited the expressions and interactions of TLR4, MyD88 and TAK1, NF-κB translocation to nucleus and its DNA binding activity, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. Our results suggested that treatment with CXC195 could attenuate the TLR4-mediated proliferation and inflammatory response in LPS-induced HepG2 cells, thus might be beneficial for the treatment of HCC.

  6. Kaempferol ameliorates H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury by inactivation of TLR4/MyD88-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruihua; Ai, Xia; Duan, Yongjie; Xue, Man; He, Wenxiao; Wang, Cunlian; Xu, Tong; Xu, Mingju; Liu, Baojian; Li, Chunhong; Wang, Zhijun; Zhang, Ruihong; Wang, Guohua; Tian, Shufei; Liu, Huifeng

    2017-03-02

    Kaempferol, a very common type of dietary flavonoids, has been found to exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of kaempferol on H9N2 influenza virus-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, BALB/C mice were infected intranasally with H9N2 influenza virus with or without kaempferol treatment to induce acute lung injury (ALI) model. In vitro, MH-S cells were infected with H9N2 influenza virus with or without kaempferol treatment. In vivo, kaempferol treatment attenuated pulmonary edema, the W/D mass ratio, pulmonary capillary permeability, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the numbers of inflammatory cells. Kaempferol reduced ROS and Malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Kaempferol also reduced overproduction of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In addition, kaempferol decreased the H9N2 viral titre. In vitro, ROS, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 was also reduced by kaempferol. Moreover, our data showed that kaempferol significantly inhibited the upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphorylation level of IκBα and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity, and phosphorylation level of MAPKs, both in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that kaempferol exhibits a protective effect on H9N2 virus-induced inflammation via suppression of TLR4/MyD88-mediated NF-κB and MAPKs pathways, and kaempferol may be considered as an effective drug for the potential treatment of influenza virus-induced ALI.

  7. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus microRNAs target IRAK1 and MYD88, two components of the toll-like receptor/interleukin-1R signaling cascade, to reduce inflammatory-cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Abend, Johanna R; Ramalingam, Dhivya; Kieffer-Kwon, Philippe; Uldrick, Thomas S; Yarchoan, Robert; Ziegelbauer, Joseph M

    2012-11-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of KS, an important AIDS-associated malignancy. KSHV expresses at least 18 different mature microRNAs (miRNAs). We identified interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) as a potential target of miR-K12-9 (miR-K9) in an array data set examining changes in cellular gene expression levels in the presence of KSHV miRNAs. Using 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) luciferase reporter assays, we confirmed that miR-K9 and other miRNAs inhibit IRAK1 expression. In addition, IRAK1 expression is downregulated in cells transfected with miR-K9 and during de novo KSHV infection. IRAK1 is an important component of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/IL-1R signaling cascade. The downregulation of IRAK1 by miR-K9 resulted in the decreased stimulation of NF-κB activity in endothelial cells treated with IL-1α and in B cells treated with a TLR7/8 agonist. Interestingly, miR-K9 had a greater effect on NF-κB activity than did a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting IRAK1 despite the more efficient downregulation of IRAK1 expression with the siRNA. We hypothesized that KSHV miRNAs may also be regulating a second component of the TLR/IL-1R signaling cascade, resulting in a stronger phenotype. Reanalysis of the array data set identified myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MYD88) as an additional potential target. 3'UTR luciferase reporter assays and Western blot analysis confirmed the targeting of MYD88 by miR-K5. The presence of miR-K9 and miR-K5 inhibited the production of IL-6 and IL-8 upon the IL-1α stimulation of endothelial cells. These results demonstrate KSHV-encoded miRNAs regulating the TLR/IL-1R signaling cascade at two distinct points and suggest the importance of these pathways during viral infection.

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of TLR9, MyD88 and TRAF6 genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induction of innate immune pathways is critical for early host defense but there is limited understanding of how teleost fish recognize pathogen molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, cells of the innate immune system detect pathogenic molecular structures using pattern recognition rece...

  9. Toll-like receptor 4 activation promotes cardiac arrhythmias by decreasing the transient outward potassium current (Ito) through an IRF3-dependent and MyD88-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Monnerat-Cahli, Gustavo; Alonso, Hiart; Gallego, Monica; Alarcón, Micaela Lopez; Bassani, Rosana A; Casis, Oscar; Medei, Emiliano

    2014-11-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are one of the main causes of death worldwide. Several studies have shown that inflammation plays a key role in different cardiac diseases and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) seem to be involved in cardiac complications. In the present study, we investigated whether the activation of TLR4 induces cardiac electrical remodeling and arrhythmias, and the signaling pathway involved in these effects. Membrane potential was recorded in Wistar rat ventricle. Ca(2+) transients, as well as the L-type Ca(2+) current (ICaL) and the transient outward K(+) current (Ito), were recorded in isolated myocytes after 24 h exposure to the TLR4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/ml). TLR4 stimulation in vitro promoted a cardiac electrical remodeling that leads to action potential prolongation associated with arrhythmic events, such as delayed afterdepolarization and triggered activity. After 24 h LPS incubation, Ito amplitude, as well as Kv4.3 and KChIP2 mRNA levels were reduced. The Ito decrease by LPS was prevented by inhibition of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), but not by inhibition of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) or nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Extrasystolic activity was present in 25% of the cells, but apart from that, Ca(2+) transients and ICaL were not affected by LPS; however, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) activity was apparently increased. We conclude that TLR4 activation decreased Ito, which increased AP duration via a MyD88-independent, IRF3-dependent pathway. The longer action potential, associated with enhanced Ca(2+) efflux via NCX, could explain the presence of arrhythmias in the LPS group.

  10. Determinants of Divergent Adaptive Immune Responses after Airway Sensitization with Ligands of Toll-Like Receptor 5 or Toll-Like Receptor 9

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda M.; Ji, Ming; Sinha, Meenal; Dong, Matthew B.; Ren, Xin; Wang, Yanli; Lowell, Clifford A.; Ghosh, Sankar; Locksley, Richard M.; DeFranco, Anthony L.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive type 2 helper T cell responses to environmental antigens can cause immunopathology such as asthma and allergy, but how such immune responses are induced remains unclear. We studied this process in the airways by immunizing mice intranasally with the antigen ovalbumin together with either of two Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. We found the TLR5 ligand flagellin promoted a type 2 helper T cell response, whereas, a TLR9 ligand CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) promoted a type 1 helper T cell response. CpG ODN induced mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-12 p40, whereas, flagellin caused IL-33 secretion and induced mRNAs encoding IL-1 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). By using mice deficient in the TLR and IL-1R signaling molecule, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), in conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and alveolar macrophages (AMs), and by cell sorting different lung populations after 2 hours of in vivo stimulation, we characterized the cell types that rapidly produced inflammatory cytokines in response to TLR stimulation. CpG ODN was likely recognized by TLR9 on cDCs and AMs, which made mRNA encoding IL-12. IL-12 was necessary for the subsequent innate and adaptive interferon-γ production. In contrast, flagellin stimulated multiple cells of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origin, including AMs, DCs, monocytes, and lung epithelial cells. AMs were largely responsible for IL-1α, whereas lung epithelial cells made TSLP. Multiple hematopoietic cells, including AMs, DCs, and monocytes contributed to other cytokines, including IL-1β and TNFα. MyD88-dependent signals, likely through IL-1R and IL-33R, and MyD88-independent signals, likely from TSLP, were necessary in cDCs for promotion of the early IL-4 response by CD4 T cells in the draining lymph node. Thus, the cell types that responded to TLR ligands were a critical determinant of the innate cytokines produced and the character of the resulting adaptive immune response in the

  11. A Small Molecule that Mimics the BB-Loop in the Toll/IL-1 Receptor Domain of MyD88 Attenuates Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Toxicity in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    to allow the cells to swell. 50 µl of 10% Nonidet P - 40 was added to the cells and briefly centrifuged. The nuclear pellet was resuspended in...protein 10 (IP-10). A conserved sequence, (F/Y)-(V/L/I)-( P /G), called the BB- loop appears in the TIR domain of most members of the TLR/IL-1R family...from 7 structural analogs based on the tripeptide sequence of the BB-loop [(F/Y)-(V/L/I)-( P /G)] of the Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain binding

  12. Laser Adaptive System for Measurement of Molecule Mass and Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romashko, R. V.; Kulchin, Y. N.; Efimov, T. A.; Sergeev, A. A.; Nepomnyashiy, A. V.

    A Laser adaptive microweighting system for measurement of molecules mass based on the principles of adaptive holog aphic interferometry is proposed and experimentally tested in task of gas concentration measurement. A sensitive element of the system is a microcantilever coated by a layer of chitosan, which can adsorb different molecules. Changes in gas concentration re ult in change in mass of molecules adsorbed in chitosan, and, as sequence, result in change in natural frequency of cantilever oscillations, which are measured by an adaptive holographic interferometer. The operation of the system has been experimentally demonstrated in measurement of water vapor concentration. The detected change in concentration of H2O molecules amounted to 125 ppm.

  13. Hydrogen Sulfide: A Signal Molecule in Plant Cross-Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Min, Xiong; Zhou, Zhi-Hao

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been considered as merely a toxic by product of cell metabolism, but nowadays is emerging as a novel gaseous signal molecule, which participates in seed germination, plant growth and development, as well as the acquisition of stress tolerance including cross-adaptation in plants. Cross-adaptation, widely existing in nature, is the phenomenon in which plants expose to a moderate stress can induce the resistance to other stresses. The mechanism of cross-adaptation is involved in a complex signal network consisting of many second messengers such as Ca2+, abscisic acid, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, as well as their crosstalk. The cross-adaptation signaling is commonly triggered by moderate environmental stress or exogenous application of signal molecules or their donors, which in turn induces cross-adaptation by enhancing antioxidant system activity, accumulating osmolytes, synthesizing heat shock proteins, as well as maintaining ion and nutrient balance. In this review, based on the current knowledge on H2S and cross-adaptation in plant biology, H2S homeostasis in plant cells under normal growth conditions; H2S signaling triggered by abiotic stress; and H2S-induced cross-adaptation to heavy metal, salt, drought, cold, heat, and flooding stress were summarized, and concluded that H2S might be a candidate signal molecule in plant cross-adaptation. In addition, future research direction also has been proposed. PMID:27833636

  14. Analyte sensing mediated by adapter/carrier molecules

    DOEpatents

    Bayley, Hagan; Braha, Orit; Gu, LiQun

    2002-07-30

    This invention relates to an improved method and system for sensing of one or more analytes. A host molecule, which serves as an adapter/carrier, is used to facilitate interaction between the analyte and the sensor element. A detectable signal is produced reflecting the identity and concentration of analyte present.

  15. Toll-like receptors are critical for clearance of Brucella and play different roles in development of adaptive immunity following aerosol challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jianwu; Ding, Xicheng; Fan, Yaping; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Ficht, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    Brucella spp. cause undulant fever in humans and brucellosis in variety of other animals. Both innate and adaptive immunity have been shown to be important in controlling Brucella infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent a group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that play critical roles in the host innate immune response, as well as development of adaptive immunity. In the current report, we investigated the role of TLR signaling in the clearance of Brucella and development of adaptive immunity in TLR2(-/-), TLR4(-/-), or MyD88(-/-) mice following aerosol exposure to B. melitensis 16 M. Consistent with previous reports, MyD88 is required for efficient clearance of Brucella from all three organs (lung, spleen, and liver). The results reveal Th2-skewed immune responses in TLR2(-/-) mice late in infection and support a TLR2 requirement for efficient clearance of Brucella from the lungs, but not from the spleen or liver. Similarly, TLR4 is required for efficient clearance of Brucella from the lung, but exhibits a minor contribution to clearance from the spleen and no demonstrable contribution to clearance from the liver. Lymphocyte proliferation assays suggest that the TLRs are not involved in the development of cell-mediated memory response to Brucella antigen. Antibody detection reveals that TLR2 and 4 are required to generate early antigen-specific IgG, but not during the late stages of infection. TLR2 and 4 are only transiently required for IgM production and not at all for IgA production. In contrast, MyD88 is essential for antigen specific IgG production late in infection, but is not required for IgM generation over the course of infection. Surprisingly, despite the prominent role for MyD88 in clearance from all tissues, MyD88-knockout mice express significantly higher levels of serum IgA. These results confirm the important role of MyD88 in controlling infection in the spleen while providing evidence of a prominent contribution to protection in

  16. Selective host molecules obtained by dynamic adaptive chemistry.

    PubMed

    Matache, Mihaela; Bogdan, Elena; Hădade, Niculina D

    2014-02-17

    Up till 20 years ago, in order to endow molecules with function there were two mainstream lines of thought. One was to rationally design the positioning of chemical functionalities within candidate molecules, followed by an iterative synthesis-optimization process. The second was the use of a "brutal force" approach of combinatorial chemistry coupled with advanced screening for function. Although both methods provided important results, "rational design" often resulted in time-consuming efforts of modeling and synthesis only to find that the candidate molecule was not performing the designed job. "Combinatorial chemistry" suffered from a fundamental limitation related to the focusing of the libraries employed, often using lead compounds that limit its scope. Dynamic constitutional chemistry has developed as a combination of the two approaches above. Through the rational use of reversible chemical bonds together with a large plethora of precursor libraries, one is now able to build functional structures, ranging from quite simple molecules up to large polymeric structures. Thus, by introduction of the dynamic component within the molecular recognition processes, a new perspective of deciphering the world of the molecular events has aroused together with a new field of chemistry. Since its birth dynamic constitutional chemistry has continuously gained attention, in particular due to its ability to easily create from scratch outstanding molecular structures as well as the addition of adaptive features. The fundamental concepts defining the dynamic constitutional chemistry have been continuously extended to currently place it at the intersection between the supramolecular chemistry and newly defined adaptive chemistry, a pivotal feature towards evolutive chemistry.

  17. Interleukin-33 and Mast Cells Bridge Innate and Adaptive Immunity: From the Allergologist’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Tae Young; Kim, Young Hyo

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL) 33, a member of the IL-1 superfamily, is an “alarmin” protein and is secreted in its active form from damaged cells undergoing necrotic cell death. Mast cells are one of the main effector cell types in allergic disorders. They secrete a variety of mediators, including T helper 2 cytokines. As mast cells have high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI) on their surface, they can capture circulating IgE. IgE-bound mast cells degranulate large amounts of histamine, heparin, and proteases when they encounter antigens. As IL-33 is an important mediator of innate immunity and mast cells play an important role in adaptive immune responses, interactions between the two could link innate and adaptive immunity. IL-33 promotes the adhesion of mast cells to laminin, fibronectin, and vitronectin. IL-33 increases the expression of adhesion molecules, such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, in endothelial cells, thus enhancing mast cell adhesion to blood vessel walls. IL-33 stimulates mast cell proliferation by activating the ST2/Myd88 pathway; increases mast cell survival by the activation of survival proteins such as Bcl-XL; and promotes the growth, development, and maturation of mast cell progenitors. IL-33 is also involved in the activation of mature mast cells and production of different proinflammatory cytokines. The interaction of IL-33 and mast cells could have important clinical implications in the field of clinical urology. Epithelial dysfunction and mast cells could play an important role in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis. Urinary levels of IL-33 significantly increase in patients with interstitial cystitis. In addition, the number of mast cells significantly increase in the urinary bladders of patients with interstitial cystitis. Therefore, inhibition of mast cell activation and degranulation in response to increase in IL-33 is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of interstitial cystitis

  18. Did the molecules of adaptive immunity evolve from the innate immune system?

    PubMed

    Bartl, Simona; Baish, Meredith; Weissman, Irving L; Diaz, Marilyn

    2003-04-01

    The antigen receptors on cells of innate immune systems recognize broadly expressed markers on non-host cells while the receptors on lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system display a higher level of specificity. Adaptive immunity, with its exquisite specificity and immunological memory, has only been found in the jawed vertebrates, which also display innate immunity. Jawless fishes and invertebrates only have innate immunity. In the adaptive immune response, T and B-lymphocytes detect foreign agents or antigens using T cell receptors (TCR) or immunoglobulins (Ig), respectively. While Ig can bind free intact antigens, TCR only binds processed antigenic fragments that are presented on molecules encoded in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). MHC molecules display variation through allelic polymorphism. A diverse repertoire of Ig and TCR molecules is generated by gene rearrangement and junctional diversity, processes carried out by the recombinase activating gene (RAG) products and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT). Thus, the molecules that define adaptive immunity are TCR, Ig, MHC molecules, RAG products and TdT. No direct predecessors of these molecules have been found in the jawless fishes or invertebrates. In contrast, the complement cascade can be activated by either adaptive or innate immune systems and contains examples of molecules that gradually evolved from non-immune functions to being part of the innate and then adaptive immune system. In this paper we examine the molecules of the adaptive immune system and speculate on the existence of direct predecessors that were part of innate immunity.

  19. Adaptive reorganization of 2D molecular nanoporous network induced by coadsorbed guest molecule.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qing-Na; Wang, Lei; Zhong, Yu-Wu; Liu, Xuan-He; Chen, Ting; Yan, Hui-Juan; Wang, Dong; Yao, Jian-Nian; Wan, Li-Jun

    2014-03-25

    The ordered array of nanovoids in nanoporous networks, such as honeycomb, Kagome, and square, provides a molecular template for the accommodation of "guest molecules". Compared with the commonly studied guest molecules featuring high symmetry evenly incorporated into the template, guest molecules featuring lower symmetry are rare to report. Herein, we report the formation of a distinct patterned superlattice of guest molecules by selective trapping of guest molecules into the honeycomb network of trimesic acid (TMA). Two distinct surface patterns have been achieved by the guest inclusion induced adaptive reconstruction of a 2D molecular nanoporous network. The honeycomb networks can synergetically tune the arrangement upon inclusion of the guest molecules with different core size but similar peripherals groups, resulting in a trihexagonal Kagome or triangular patterns.

  20. Differential involvement of IFN-beta in Toll-like receptor-stimulated dendritic cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Katsuaki; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Iwabe, Tomio; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo

    2002-10-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) can activate dendritic cells (DC) through common signaling pathways requiring a cytoplasmic adapter, MyD88. However, the signaling is differentially regulated among TLR family members. TLR4 can activate MyD88-deficient bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC), and lead to induction of IFN-inducible genes and up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules such as CD40, implying that the MyD88-independent signaling pathway functions downstream of TLR4. Because these effects can also be induced by type I IFN, we have analyzed whether type I IFN is involved in TLR4-induced responses. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IFN-beta gene expression was augmented in both wild-type and MyD88-deficient BMDC. Expression of all IFN-inducible genes except immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1) was abolished and CD40 up-regulation was decreased in LPS-stimulated BMDC lacking either IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFN-alpha/betaR) or signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1). Similar to the LPS response, TLR9 signaling can also induce expression of IFN-beta and IFN-inducible genes, and up-regulation of CD40. However, all these effects were MyD88 dependent. Thus, in TLR4 signaling, IFN-beta expression can be induced either by the MyD88-dependent or -independent pathway, whereas, in TLR9 signaling, it is dependent on MyD88. In CpG DNA-stimulated DC, expression of IFN-inducible genes except IRG1 was dependent on type I IFN signaling as in LPS-stimulated DC. However, in contrast to TLR4 signaling, TLR9 signaling requires type I IFN signaling for CD40 up-regulation. Taken together, this study demonstrates differential involvement of type I IFN in TLR4- and TLR9-induced effects on DC.

  1. Adaptive resolution simulation of an atomistic DNA molecule in MARTINI salt solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadlav, J.; Podgornik, R.; Melo, M. N.; Marrink, S. J.; Praprotnik, M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a dual-resolution model of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule in a bathing solution, where we concurrently couple atomistic bundled water and ions with the coarse-grained MARTINI model of the solvent. We use our fine-grained salt solution model as a solvent in the inner shell surrounding the DNA molecule, whereas the solvent in the outer shell is modeled by the coarse-grained model. The solvent entities can exchange between the two domains and adapt their resolution accordingly. We critically asses the performance of our multiscale model in adaptive resolution simulations of an infinitely long DNA molecule, focusing on the structural characteristics of the solvent around DNA. Our analysis shows that the adaptive resolution scheme does not produce any noticeable artifacts in comparison to a reference system simulated in full detail. The effect of using a bundled-SPC model, required for multiscaling, compared to the standard free SPC model is also evaluated. Our multiscale approach opens the way for large scale applications of DNA and other biomolecules which require a large solvent reservoir to avoid boundary effects.

  2. Lactate as a Signaling Molecule That Regulates Exercise-Induced Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Nalbandian, Minas; Takeda, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Lactate (or its protonated form: lactic acid) has been studied by many exercise scientists. The lactate paradigm has been in constant change since lactate was first discovered in 1780. For many years, it was unfairly seen as primarily responsible for muscular fatigue during exercise and a waste product of glycolysis. The status of lactate has slowly changed to an energy source, and in the last two decades new evidence suggests that lactate may play a much bigger role than was previously believed: many adaptations to exercise may be mediated in some way by lactate. The mechanisms behind these adaptations are yet to be understood. The aim of this review is to present the state of lactate science, focusing on how this molecule may mediate exercise-induced adaptations. PMID:27740597

  3. The Innate Immune Responses of Colonic Epithelial Cells to Trichuris muris Are Similar in Mouse Strains That Develop a Type 1 or Type 2 Adaptive Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    deSchoolmeester, Matthew L.; Manku, Harinder; Else, Kathryn J.

    2006-01-01

    Trichuris muris resides in intimate contact with its host, burrowing within cecal epithelial cells. However, whether the enterocyte itself responds innately to T. muris is unknown. This study investigated for the first time whether colonic intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) produce cytokines or chemokines following T. muris infection and whether divergence of the innate response could explain differentially polarized adaptive immune responses in resistant and susceptible mice. Increased expression of mRNA for the proinflammatory cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor and the chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1) were seen after infection of susceptible and resistant strains, with the only difference in expression being a delayed increase in CCL2 in BALB/c IEC. These increases were ablated in MyD88−/− mice, and NF-κB p65 was phosphorylated in response to T. muris excretory/secretory products in the epithelial cell line CMT-93, suggesting involvement of the MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway in IEC cytokine expression. These data reveal that IEC respond innately to T. muris. However, the minor differences identified between resistant and susceptible mice are unlikely to underlie the subsequent development of a susceptible type 1 (IFN-γ-dominated) or resistant type 2 (interleukin-4 [IL-4]/IL-13-dominated) adaptive immune response. PMID:17057095

  4. The innate immune responses of colonic epithelial cells to Trichuris muris are similar in mouse strains that develop a type 1 or type 2 adaptive immune response.

    PubMed

    deSchoolmeester, Matthew L; Manku, Harinder; Else, Kathryn J

    2006-11-01

    Trichuris muris resides in intimate contact with its host, burrowing within cecal epithelial cells. However, whether the enterocyte itself responds innately to T. muris is unknown. This study investigated for the first time whether colonic intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) produce cytokines or chemokines following T. muris infection and whether divergence of the innate response could explain differentially polarized adaptive immune responses in resistant and susceptible mice. Increased expression of mRNA for the proinflammatory cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor and the chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1) were seen after infection of susceptible and resistant strains, with the only difference in expression being a delayed increase in CCL2 in BALB/c IEC. These increases were ablated in MyD88-/- mice, and NF-kappaB p65 was phosphorylated in response to T. muris excretory/secretory products in the epithelial cell line CMT-93, suggesting involvement of the MyD88-NF-kappaB signaling pathway in IEC cytokine expression. These data reveal that IEC respond innately to T. muris. However, the minor differences identified between resistant and susceptible mice are unlikely to underlie the subsequent development of a susceptible type 1 (IFN-gamma-dominated) or resistant type 2 (interleukin-4 [IL-4]/IL-13-dominated) adaptive immune response.

  5. Conformational adaptation and manipulation of manganese tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin molecules on Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xianwen; Lei, Shulai; Lotze, Christian; Czekelius, Constantin; Paulus, Beate; Franke, Katharina J.

    2017-03-01

    Porphyrins are highly flexible molecules and well known to adapt to their local environment via conformational changes. We studied the self-assembly of manganese meso-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (Mn-TPyP) molecules on a Cu(111) surface by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (ATM). We observe molecular chains along the ⟨1 1 ¯ 0 ⟩ direction of the substrate. Within these chains, we identify two molecular conformations, which differ by the orientation of the upward bending of the macrocycle. Using density functional theory, we show that this saddle shape is a consequence of the rotation and inclination of the pyridyl groups towards Cu adatoms, which stabilize the metal-organic chains. The molecular conformations obey a strict alternation, reflecting the mutual enforcement of conformational adaptation in densely packed structures. Tunneling electrons from the STM tip can induce changes in the orientation of the pyridyl endgroups. The switching behaviour varies with the different adsorption configurations.

  6. Adaptive Control Model Reveals Systematic Feedback and Key Molecules in Metabolic Pathway Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Richard A.; Merrill, Alfred H.; Wang, May D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Robust behavior in metabolic pathways resembles stabilized performance in systems under autonomous control. This suggests we can apply control theory to study existing regulation in these cellular networks. Here, we use model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) to investigate the dynamics of de novo sphingolipid synthesis regulation in a combined theoretical and experimental case study. The effects of serine palmitoyltransferase over-expression on this pathway are studied in vitro using human embryonic kidney cells. We report two key results from comparing numerical simulations with observed data. First, MRAC simulations of pathway dynamics are comparable to simulations from a standard model using mass action kinetics. The root-sum-square (RSS) between data and simulations in both cases differ by less than 5%. Second, MRAC simulations suggest systematic pathway regulation in terms of adaptive feedback from individual molecules. In response to increased metabolite levels available for de novo sphingolipid synthesis, feedback from molecules along the main artery of the pathway is regulated more frequently and with greater amplitude than from other molecules along the branches. These biological insights are consistent with current knowledge while being new that they may guide future research in sphingolipid biology. In summary, we report a novel approach to study regulation in cellular networks by applying control theory in the context of robust metabolic pathways. We do this to uncover potential insight into the dynamics of regulation and the reverse engineering of cellular networks for systems biology. This new modeling approach and the implementation routines designed for this case study may be extended to other systems. Supplementary Material is available at www.liebertonline.com/cmb. PMID:21314456

  7. Madm (Mlf1 adapter molecule) cooperates with Bunched A to promote growth in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The TSC-22 domain family (TSC22DF) consists of putative transcription factors harboring a DNA-binding TSC-box and an adjacent leucine zipper at their carboxyl termini. Both short and long TSC22DF isoforms are conserved from flies to humans. Whereas the short isoforms include the tumor suppressor TSC-22 (Transforming growth factor-β1 stimulated clone-22), the long isoforms are largely uncharacterized. In Drosophila, the long isoform Bunched A (BunA) acts as a growth promoter, but how BunA controls growth has remained obscure. Results In order to test for functional conservation among TSC22DF members, we expressed the human TSC22DF proteins in the fly and found that all long isoforms can replace BunA function. Furthermore, we combined a proteomics-based approach with a genetic screen to identify proteins that interact with BunA. Madm (Mlf1 adapter molecule) physically associates with BunA via a conserved motif that is only contained in long TSC22DF proteins. Moreover, Drosophila Madm acts as a growth-promoting gene that displays growth phenotypes strikingly similar to bunA phenotypes. When overexpressed, Madm and BunA synergize to increase organ growth. Conclusions The growth-promoting potential of long TSC22DF proteins is evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, we provide biochemical and genetic evidence for a growth-regulating complex involving the long TSC22DF protein BunA and the adapter molecule Madm. See minireview at http://jbiol.com/content/9/1/8. PMID:20149264

  8. Adapting phase-switch Monte Carlo method for flexible organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgwater, Sally; Quigley, David

    2014-03-01

    The role of cholesterol in lipid bilayers has been widely studied via molecular simulation, however, there has been relatively little work on crystalline cholesterol in biological environments. Recent work has linked the crystallisation of cholesterol in the body with heart attacks and strokes. Any attempt to model this process will require new models and advanced sampling methods to capture and quantify the subtle polymorphism of solid cholesterol, in which two crystalline phases are separated by a phase transition close to body temperature. To this end, we have adapted phase-switch Monte Carlo for use with flexible molecules, to calculate the free energy between crystal polymorphs to a high degree of accuracy. The method samples an order parameter , which divides a displacement space for the N molecules, into regions energetically favourable for each polymorph; which is traversed using biased Monte Carlo. Results for a simple model of butane will be presented, demonstrating that conformational flexibility can be correctly incorporated within a phase-switching scheme. Extension to a coarse grained model of cholesterol and the resulting free energies will be discussed.

  9. A model of stereocilia adaptation based on single molecule mechanical studies of myosin I.

    PubMed Central

    Batters, Christopher; Wallace, Mark I; Coluccio, Lynne M; Molloy, Justin E

    2004-01-01

    We have used an optical tweezers-based apparatus to perform single molecule mechanical experiments using the unconventional myosins, Myo1b and Myo1c. The single-headed nature and slow ATPase kinetics of these myosins make them ideal for detailed studies of the molecular mechanism of force generation by acto-myosin. Myo1c exhibits several features that have not been seen using fast skeletal muscle myosin II. (i) The working stroke occurs in two, distinct phases, producing an initial 3 nm and then a further 1.5 nm of movement. (ii) Two types of binding interaction were observed: short-lived ATP-independent binding events that produced no movement and longer-lived, ATP-dependent events that produced a full working stroke. The stiffness of both types of interaction was similar. (iii) In a new type of experiment, using feedback to apply controlled displacements to a single acto-myosin cross-bridge, we found abrupt changes in force during attachment of the acto-Myo1b cross-bridge, a result that is consistent with the classical 'T2' behaviour of single muscle fibres. Given that these myosins might exhibit the classical T2 behaviour, we propose a new model to explain the slow phase of sensory adaptation of the hair cells of the inner ear. PMID:15647165

  10. The translocation of signaling molecules in dark adapting mammalian rod photoreceptor cells is dependent on the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Reidel, Boris; Goldmann, Tobias; Giessl, Andreas; Wolfrum, Uwe

    2008-10-01

    In vertebrate rod photoreceptor cells, arrestin and the visual G-protein transducin move between the inner segment and outer segment in response to changes in light. This stimulus dependent translocation of signalling molecules is assumed to participate in long term light adaptation of photoreceptors. So far the cellular basis for the transport mechanisms underlying these intracellular movements remains largely elusive. Here we investigated the dependency of these movements on actin filaments and the microtubule cytoskeleton of photoreceptor cells. Co-cultures of mouse retina and retinal pigment epithelium were incubated with drugs stabilizing and destabilizing the cytoskeleton. The actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and the light dependent distribution of signaling molecules were subsequently analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The application of cytoskeletal drugs differentially affected the cytoskeleton in photoreceptor compartments. During dark adaptation the depolymerization of microtubules as well as actin filaments disrupted the translocation of arrestin and transducin in rod photoreceptor cells. During light adaptation only the delivery of arrestin within the outer segment was impaired after destabilization of microtubules. Movements of transducin and arrestin required intact cytoskeletal elements in dark adapting cells. However, diffusion might be sufficient for the fast molecular movements observed as cells adapt to light. These findings indicate that different molecular translocation mechanisms are responsible for the dark and light associated translocations of arrestin and transducin in rod photoreceptor cells.

  11. TLR-independent anti-inflammatory function of intestinal epithelial TRAF6 signalling prevents DSS-induced colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Vlantis, Katerina; Polykratis, Apostolos; Welz, Patrick-Simon; van Loo, Geert; Pasparakis, Manolis; Wullaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Objective The gut microbiota modulates host susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, but the cell types and the signalling pathways orchestrating this bacterial regulation of intestinal homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the function of intestinal epithelial toll-like receptor (TLR) responses in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse model of colitis. Design We applied an in vivo genetic approach allowing intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of the critical TLR signalling adaptors, MyD88 and/or TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), as well as the downstream ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 in order to reveal the IEC-intrinsic function of these TLR signalling molecules during DSS colitis. Results Mice lacking TRAF6 in IECs showed exacerbated DSS-induced inflammatory responses that ensued in the development of chronic colon inflammation. Antibiotic pretreatment abolished the increased DSS susceptibility of these mice, showing that epithelial TRAF6 signalling pathways prevent the gut microbiota from driving excessive colitis. However, in contrast to epithelial TRAF6 deletion, blocking epithelial TLR signalling by simultaneous deletion of MyD88 and TRIF specifically in IECs did not affect DSS-induced colitis severity. This in vivo functional comparison between TRAF6 and MyD88/TRIF deletion in IECs shows that the colitis-protecting effects of epithelial TRAF6 signalling are not triggered by TLRs. Conclusions Intestinal epithelial TRAF6-dependent but MyD88/TRIF-independent and, thus, TLR-independent signalling pathways are critical for preventing propagation of DSS-induced colon inflammation by the gut microbiota. Moreover, our experiments using mice with dual MyD88/TRIF deletion in IECs unequivocally show that the gut microbiota trigger non-epithelial TLRs rather than epithelial TLRs to restrict DSS colitis severity. PMID:25761602

  12. Conformational adaptation and selective adatom capturing of tetrapyridyl-porphyrin molecules on a copper (111) surface.

    PubMed

    Auwärter, Willi; Klappenberger, Florian; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Schiffrin, Agustin; Strunskus, Thomas; Wöll, Christof; Pennec, Yan; Riemann, Andreas; Barth, Johannes V

    2007-09-12

    We present a combined low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and near-edge X-ray adsorption fine structure study on the interaction of tetrapyridyl-porphyrin (TPyP) molecules with a Cu(111) surface. A novel approach using data from complementary experimental techniques and charge density calculations allows us to determine the adsorption geometry of TPyP on Cu(111). The molecules are centered on "bridge" sites of the substrate lattice and exhibit a strong deformation involving a saddle-shaped macrocycle distortion as well as considerable rotation and tilting of the meso-substituents. We propose a bonding mechanism based on the pyridyl-surface interaction, which mediates the molecular deformation upon adsorption. Accordingly, a functionalization by pyridyl groups opens up pathways to control the anchoring of large organic molecules on metal surfaces and tune their conformational state. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the affinity of the terminal groups for metal centers permits the selective capture of individual iron atoms at low temperature.

  13. The Fungal Quorum-Sensing Molecule Farnesol Activates Innate Immune Cells but Suppresses Cellular Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Ines; Spielberg, Steffi; Weber, Michael; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Bläss, Markus; Claus, Ralf; Barz, Dagmar; Scherlach, Kirstin; Hertweck, Christian; Löffler, Jürgen; Hünniger, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Farnesol, produced by the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans, is the first quorum-sensing molecule discovered in eukaryotes. Its main function is control of C. albicans filamentation, a process closely linked to pathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the effects of farnesol on innate immune cells known to be important for fungal clearance and protective immunity. Farnesol enhanced the expression of activation markers on monocytes (CD86 and HLA-DR) and neutrophils (CD66b and CD11b) and promoted oxidative burst and the release of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP-1α]). However, this activation did not result in enhanced fungal uptake or killing. Furthermore, the differentiation of monocytes to immature dendritic cells (iDC) was significantly affected by farnesol. Several markers important for maturation and antigen presentation like CD1a, CD83, CD86, and CD80 were significantly reduced in the presence of farnesol. Furthermore, farnesol modulated migrational behavior and cytokine release and impaired the ability of DC to induce T cell proliferation. Of major importance was the absence of interleukin 12 (IL-12) induction in iDC generated in the presence of farnesol. Transcriptome analyses revealed a farnesol-induced shift in effector molecule expression and a down-regulation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor during monocytes to iDC differentiation. Taken together, our data unveil the ability of farnesol to act as a virulence factor of C. albicans by influencing innate immune cells to promote inflammation and mitigating the Th1 response, which is essential for fungal clearance. PMID:25784697

  14. Integrin Activation Through the Hematopoietic Adapter Molecule ADAP Regulates Dendritic Development of Hippocampal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Thiere, Marlen; Kliche, Stefanie; Müller, Bettina; Teuber, Jan; Nold, Isabell; Stork, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion and signaling is of critical importance for neuronal differentiation. Recent evidence suggests that an "inside-out" activation of β1-integrin, similar to that observed in hematopoietic cells, contributes to the growth and branching of dendrites. In this study, we investigated the role of the hematopoietic adaptor protein adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP) in these processes. We demonstrate the expression of ADAP in the developing and adult nervous hippocampus, and in outgrowing dendrites of primary hippocampal neurons. We further show that ADAP occurs in a complex with another adaptor protein signal-transducing kinase-associated phosphoprotein-homolog (SKAP-HOM), with the Rap1 effector protein RAPL and the Hippo kinase macrophage-stimulating 1 (MST1), resembling an ADAP/SKAP module that has been previously described in T-cells and is critically involved in "inside-out" activation of integrins. Knock down of ADAP resulted in reduced expression of activated β1-integrin on dendrites. It furthermore reduced the differentiation of developing neurons, as indicated by reduced dendrite growth and decreased expression of the dendritic marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2). Our data suggest that an ADAP-dependent integrin-activation similar to that described in hematopoietic cells contributes to the differentiation of neuronal cells.

  15. Integrin Activation Through the Hematopoietic Adapter Molecule ADAP Regulates Dendritic Development of Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Thiere, Marlen; Kliche, Stefanie; Müller, Bettina; Teuber, Jan; Nold, Isabell; Stork, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion and signaling is of critical importance for neuronal differentiation. Recent evidence suggests that an “inside-out” activation of β1-integrin, similar to that observed in hematopoietic cells, contributes to the growth and branching of dendrites. In this study, we investigated the role of the hematopoietic adaptor protein adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP) in these processes. We demonstrate the expression of ADAP in the developing and adult nervous hippocampus, and in outgrowing dendrites of primary hippocampal neurons. We further show that ADAP occurs in a complex with another adaptor protein signal-transducing kinase-associated phosphoprotein-homolog (SKAP-HOM), with the Rap1 effector protein RAPL and the Hippo kinase macrophage-stimulating 1 (MST1), resembling an ADAP/SKAP module that has been previously described in T-cells and is critically involved in “inside-out” activation of integrins. Knock down of ADAP resulted in reduced expression of activated β1-integrin on dendrites. It furthermore reduced the differentiation of developing neurons, as indicated by reduced dendrite growth and decreased expression of the dendritic marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2). Our data suggest that an ADAP-dependent integrin-activation similar to that described in hematopoietic cells contributes to the differentiation of neuronal cells. PMID:27746719

  16. Viruses roll the dice: the stochastic behavior of viral genome molecules accelerates viral adaptation at the cell and tissue levels.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Shuhei; Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Kishino, Hirohisa; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies on evolutionarily distant viral groups have shown that the number of viral genomes that establish cell infection after cell-to-cell transmission is unexpectedly small (1-20 genomes). This aspect of viral infection appears to be important for the adaptation and survival of viruses. To clarify how the number of viral genomes that establish cell infection is determined, we developed a simulation model of cell infection for tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), a positive-strand RNA virus. The model showed that stochastic processes that govern the replication or degradation of individual genomes result in the infection by a small number of genomes, while a large number of infectious genomes are introduced in the cell. It also predicted two interesting characteristics regarding cell infection patterns: stochastic variation among cells in the number of viral genomes that establish infection and stochastic inequality in the accumulation of their progenies in each cell. Both characteristics were validated experimentally by inoculating tobacco cells with a library of nucleotide sequence-tagged ToMV and analyzing the viral genomes that accumulated in each cell using a high-throughput sequencer. An additional simulation model revealed that these two characteristics enhance selection during tissue infection. The cell infection model also predicted a mechanism that enhances selection at the cellular level: a small difference in the replication abilities of coinfected variants results in a large difference in individual accumulation via the multiple-round formation of the replication complex (i.e., the replication machinery). Importantly, this predicted effect was observed in vivo. The cell infection model was robust to changes in the parameter values, suggesting that other viruses could adopt similar adaptation mechanisms. Taken together, these data reveal a comprehensive picture of viral infection processes including replication, cell-to-cell transmission, and evolution

  17. TNF-alpha blockade by a dimeric TNF type I receptor molecule selectively inhibits adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Colagiovanni, D B; Suniga, M A; Frazier, J L; Edwards, C K; Fleshner, M; McCay, J A; White, K L; Shopp, G M

    2000-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a mediator of severe inflammatory processes, including rheumatoid arthritis. Suppression of TNF with a soluble type I or type II receptor molecule (TNF-RI or TNF-RII) has the potential to decrease cytokine levels and modulate inflammatory diseases in humans. However, it has recently been reported that treatment of mice with a TNF-RI:Fc immunoadhesin protein augmented Gram positive infections and subsequent mortality. To determine if TNF-alpha blockade with soluble TNF-alpha receptors might alter immune system function, assays were assessed in rodents treated with a dimeric form of the p55 TNF-RI, Tumor Necrosis Factor-binding protein (TNFbp). Administration of TNFbp resulted in suppression of primary and secondary IgG antibody responses and cell-mediated immune function. No treatment-related differences were detected in immune-enhancing assays or non-specific immune function parameters. Bacterial host resistance assays with Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli showed an increase in tissue colony counts only with L. monocytogenes challenged animals following TNFbp administration. These results suggest that TNFbp has the capacity to inhibit adaptive immune function in experimental animal models. Studies suggest that while reducing TNF-alpha is important in controlling cytokine-dependent disease states, maintenance of a threshold level may be critical for normal immune function.

  18. Gain-of-Function Mutations in the Toll-Like Receptor Pathway: TPL2-Mediated ERK1/ERK2 MAPK Activation, a Path to Tumorigenesis in Lymphoid Neoplasms?

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Simon; Martel, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoid neoplasms form a family of cancers affecting B-cells, T-cells, and NK cells. The Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) signaling adapter molecule MYD88 is the most frequently mutated gene in these neoplasms. This signaling adaptor relays signals from TLRs to downstream effector pathways such as the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFκB) and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways to regulate innate immune responses. Gain-of-function mutations such as MYD88[L265P] activate downstream signaling pathways in absence of cognate ligands for TLRs, resulting in increased cellular proliferation and survival. This article reports an analysis of non-synonymous somatic mutations found in the TLR signaling network in lymphoid neoplasms. In accordance with previous reports, mutations map to MYD88 pro-inflammatory signaling and not TRIF-mediated Type I IFN production. Interestingly, the analysis of somatic mutations found downstream of the core TLR-signaling network uncovered a strong association with the ERK1/2 MAPK cascade. In support of this analysis, heterologous expression of MYD88[L265P] in HEK293 cells led to ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation in addition to NFκB activation. Moreover, this activation is dependent on the protein kinase Tumor Promoting Locus 2 (TPL2), activated downstream of the IKK complex. Activation of ERK1/2 would then lead to activation, amongst others, of MYC and hnRNPA1, two proteins previously shown to contribute to tumor formation in lymphoid neoplasms. Taken together, this analysis suggests that TLR-mediated ERK1/2 activation via TPL2 may be a novel path to tumorigenesis. Therefore, the hypothesis proposed is that inhibition of ERK1/2 MAPK activation would prevent tumor growth downstream of MYD88[L265]. It will be interesting to test whether pharmacological inhibitors of this pathway show efficacy in primary tumor cells derived from hematologic malignancies such as Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia, where the majority of the cells carry the MYD88[L265P

  19. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  20. The humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 is a key component of innate immunity against urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Jaillon, Sébastien; Moalli, Federica; Ragnarsdottir, Bryndis; Bonavita, Eduardo; Puthia, Manoj; Riva, Federica; Barbati, Elisa; Nebuloni, Manuela; Cvetko Krajinovic, Lidija; Markotic, Alemka; Valentino, Sonia; Doni, Andrea; Tartari, Silvia; Graziani, Giorgio; Montanelli, Alessandro; Delneste, Yves; Svanborg, Catharina; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2014-04-17

    Immunity in the urinary tract has distinct and poorly understood pathophysiological characteristics and urinary tract infections (UTIs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality. We investigated the role of the soluble pattern recognition molecule pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a key component of the humoral arm of innate immunity, in UTIs. PTX3-deficient mice showed defective control of UTIs and exacerbated inflammation. Expression of PTX3 was induced in uroepithelial cells by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and MyD88-dependent manner. PTX3 enhanced UPEC phagocytosis and phagosome maturation by neutrophils. PTX3 was detected in urine of UTI patients and amounts correlated with disease severity. In cohorts of UTI-prone patients, PTX3 gene polymorphisms correlated with susceptibility to acute pyelonephritis and cystitis. These results suggest that PTX3 is an essential component of innate resistance against UTIs. Thus, the cellular and humoral arms of innate immunity exert complementary functions in mediating resistance against UTIs.

  1. c-Jun kinase is a critical signaling molecule in a neonatal model of group B streptococcal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kenzel, Sybille; Mancuso, Guiseppe; Malley, Richard; Teti, Guiseppe; Golenbock, Douglas T; Henneke, Philipp

    2006-03-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the major cause of sepsis in newborn infants. In vitro, inactivated GBS stimulates macrophages to produce inflammatory proteins via the TLR adapter protein MyD88. Furthermore, inflammatory cytokine release in response to GBS greatly exceeds that following stimulation with pneumococci. In this study, we attempted to unravel signaling events that are involved in GBS-, but not Streptococcus pneumoniae-stimulated phagocytes to identify molecular targets for adjunctive sepsis therapy. We found that inactivated GBS and S. pneumoniae differed in the activation of the MAPK JNK, but not IkappaB kinase. Furthermore, JNK was essential for the transcriptional activation of inflammatory cytokine genes in response to GBS. Inhibition of JNK by the anthrapyrazolone SP600125 abrogated GBS-induced cytokine formation via an AP-1- and NF-kappaB-dependent mechanism without impairing antibacterial properties such as phagocytosis of GBS and the formation of intracellular oxidative species. In contrast, inhibition of the MAPK p38 impaired both antibacterial processes. In a neonatal mouse model of GBS sepsis SP600125 inhibited the inflammatory response and improved survival. In conclusion, JNK plays a major role in the inflammatory, but not in the direct antibacterial response to inactivated GBS, and may thus serve as a rational target for an adjunctive GBS sepsis therapy.

  2. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  3. TB, or not TB: that is the question – does TLR signaling hold the answer?

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Terence M.; Arditi, Moshe

    2004-01-01

    Innate immunity critically depends on signaling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that rely heavily on an intracellular adapter protein called myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Adaptive immune defenses are generally thought to be orchestrated by innate immune responses and so should require intact TLR-MyD88 signaling pathways. But a surprising new study in MyD88-null mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenges this view and instead suggests that MyD88 may not be absolutely required for a normal adaptive immune response. PMID:15599394

  4. TB, or not TB: that is the question -- does TLR signaling hold the answer?

    PubMed

    Doherty, Terence M; Arditi, Moshe

    2004-12-01

    Innate immunity critically depends on signaling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that rely heavily on an intracellular adapter protein called myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Adaptive immune defenses are generally thought to be orchestrated by innate immune responses and so should require intact TLR-MyD88 signaling pathways. But a surprising new study in MyD88-null mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenges this view and instead suggests that MyD88 may not be absolutely required for a normal adaptive immune response.

  5. [Role of brain 5-HT7 receptors as a functional molecule involved in the development of stress adaptation].

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Minoru; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the brain serotonin (5-HT) nervous system is an important component related to the etiology as well as the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Molecular cloning studies have revealed the existence of 14 different genes, each encoding a distinct 5-HT receptor subtype. The 5-HT7 receptor is the most recently identified member of the 5-HT receptor subtypes, and the physiological role of this receptor is still unknown. Recently, either selective agonists or antagonists for 5-HT7 receptors, as well as 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice, have been developed, and these have recently been used as the experimental tools for determining the actual function of 5-HT7 receptors. The first half of the present article introduces the reports that have examined the role of the 5-HT7 receptor on emotional regulation. On the other hand, it has been indicated that the ability to adapt to stress is an important defensive function of a living body, and impairment of this ability may contribute to some stress-related disorders. Thus, the examination of brain mechanisms involved in stress adaptation could help to pave the way for new therapeutic strategies for stress-related psychiatric disorders. The second half of the present article introduces our recent studies focusing on the relationship between brain 5-HT7 receptors and the mechanisms of stress adaptation.

  6. BDCA1-Positive Dendritic Cells (DCs) Represent a Unique Human Myeloid DC Subset That Induces Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-yuan; Yu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (bacteremia) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and places substantial cost burdens on health care systems. The role of peripheral blood dendritic cells (PBDCs) in the immune responses against S. aureus infection has not been well characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that BDCA1+ myeloid DCs (mDCs) represent a unique PBDC subset that can induce immune responses against S. aureus infection. BDCA1+ mDCs could engulf S. aureus and strongly upregulated the expression of costimulatory molecules and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, BDCA1+ mDCs expressed high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules in response to S. aureus and greatly promoted proliferation and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production in CD4 and CD8 T cells. Moreover, BDCA1+ mDCs expressed higher levels of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and scavenger receptor A (SR-A) than those on CD16+ and BDCA3+ mDCs, and these two receptors were both required for the recognition of S. aureus and the subsequent activation of BDCA1+ mDCs. Finally, BDCA1+ mDC-mediated immune responses against S. aureus were dependent on MyD88 signaling pathways. These results demonstrate that human BDCA1+ mDCs represent a unique subset of mDCs that can respond to S. aureus to undergo maturation and activation and to induce Th1 and Tc1 immune responses. PMID:25114114

  7. Innate Immune Sensing of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) Is Mediated by TLR2-TLR6, MDA-5 and the NALP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Delaloye, Julie; Roger, Thierry; Steiner-Tardivel, Quynh-Giao; Le Roy, Didier; Knaup Reymond, Marlies; Akira, Shizuo; Petrilli, Virginie; Gomez, Carmen E.; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Tschopp, Jürg; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Esteban, Mariano; Calandra, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated double-stranded DNA poxvirus currently developed as a vaccine vector against HIV/AIDS. Profiling of the innate immune responses induced by MVA is essential for the design of vaccine vectors and for anticipating potential adverse interactions between naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immune responses. Here we report on innate immune sensing of MVA and cytokine responses in human THP-1 cells, primary human macrophages and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). The innate immune responses elicited by MVA in human macrophages were characterized by a robust chemokine production and a fairly weak pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Analyses of the cytokine production profile of macrophages isolated from knockout mice deficient in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or in the adapter molecules MyD88 and TRIF revealed a critical role for TLR2, TLR6 and MyD88 in the production of IFNβ-independent chemokines. MVA induced a marked up-regulation of the expression of RIG-I like receptors (RLR) and the IPS-1 adapter (also known as Cardif, MAVS or VISA). Reduced expression of RIG-I, MDA-5 and IPS-1 by shRNAs indicated that sensing of MVA by RLR and production of IFNβ and IFNβ-dependent chemokines was controlled by the MDA-5 and IPS-1 pathway in the macrophage. Crosstalk between TLR2-MyD88 and the NALP3 inflammasome was essential for expression and processing of IL-1β. Transcription of the Il1b gene was markedly impaired in TLR2−/− and MyD88−/− BMDM, whereas mature and secreted IL-1β was massively reduced in NALP3−/− BMDMs or in human THP-1 macrophages with reduced expression of NALP3, ASC or caspase-1 by shRNAs. Innate immune sensing of MVA and production of chemokines, IFNβ and IL-1β by macrophages is mediated by the TLR2-TLR6-MyD88, MDA-5-IPS-1 and NALP3 inflammasome pathways. Delineation of the host response induced by MVA is critical for improving our understanding of poxvirus antiviral escape

  8. Expression of many immunologically important genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages is independent of both TLR2 and TLR4 but dependent on IFN-alphabeta receptor and STAT1.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuangping; Blumenthal, Antje; Hickey, Christopher M; Gandotra, Sheetal; Levy, David; Ehrt, Sabine

    2005-09-01

    Macrophages respond to several subcellular products of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) through TLR2 or TLR4. However, primary mouse macrophages respond to viable, virulent Mtb by pathways largely independent of MyD88, the common adaptor molecule for TLRs. Using microarrays, quantitative PCR, and ELISA with gene-disrupted macrophages and mice, we now show that viable Mtb elicits the expression of inducible NO synthase, RANTES, IFN-inducible protein 10, immune-responsive gene 1, and many other key genes in macrophages substantially independently of TLR2, TLR4, their combination, or the TLR adaptors Toll-IL-1R domain-containing adapter protein and Toll-IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-beta. Mice deficient in both TLR2 and TLR4 handle aerosol infection with viable Mtb as well as congenic controls. Viable Mtb also up-regulates inducible NO synthase, RANTES, IFN-inducible protein 10, and IRG1 in macrophages that lack mannose receptor, complement receptors 3 and 4, type A scavenger receptor, or CD40. These MyD88, TLR2/4-independent transcriptional responses require IFN-alphabetaR and STAT1, but not IFN-gamma. Conversely, those genes whose expression is MyD88 dependent do not depend on IFN-alphabetaR or STAT1. Transcriptional induction of TNF is TLR2/4, MyD88, STAT1, and IFN-alphabetaR independent, but TNF protein release requires the TLR2/4-MyD88 pathway. Thus, macrophages respond transcriptionally to viable Mtb through at least three pathways. TLR2 mediates the responses of a numerically minor set of genes that collectively do not appear to affect the course of infection in mice; regulation of TNF requires TLR2/4 for post-transcriptional control, but not for transcriptional induction; and many responding genes are regulated through an unknown, TLR2/4-independent pathway that may involve IFN-alphabetaR and STAT1.

  9. A DNA-binding Molecule Targeting the Adaptive Hypoxic Response in Multiple Myeloma has Potent Anti-tumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mysore, Veena S.; Szablowski, Jerzy; Dervan, Peter B.; Frost, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is incurable and invariably becomes resistant to chemotherapy. Although the mechanisms remain unclear, hypoxic conditions in the bone marrow have been implicated in contributing to MM progression, angiogenesis, and resistance to chemotherapy. These effects occur via adaptive cellular responses mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), and targeting HIFs can have anti-cancer effects in both solid and hematological malignancies. Here, it was found that in most myeloma cell lines tested, HIF1α, but not HIF2α expression was oxygen dependent and this could be explained by the differential expression of the regulatory prolyl-hydroxylase isoforms. The anti-MM effects of a sequence-specific DNA-binding pyrrole-imidazole polyamide (HIF-PA), that disrupts the HIF heterodimer from binding to its cognate DNA sequences, were also investigated. HIF-PA is cell permeable, localizes to the nuclei, and binds specific regions of DNA with an affinity comparable to that of HIF transcription factors. Most of the MM cells were resistant to hypoxia-mediated apoptosis, and HIF-PA treatment could overcome this resistance in vitro. Using xenograft models, it was determined that HIF-PA significantly decreased tumor volume and increased hypoxic and apoptotic regions within solid tumor nodules and the growth of myeloma cells engrafted in the bone marrow. This provides a rationale for targeting the adaptive cellular hypoxic response of the O2-dependent activation of HIFα using polyamides. PMID:26801054

  10. Crystal structures of the thi-box riboswitch bound to thiamine pyrophosphate analogs reveal adaptive RNA-small molecule recognition.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Thomas E; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2006-09-01

    Riboswitches are noncoding mRNA elements that bind small-molecule metabolites with high affinity and specificity, and they regulate the expression of associated genes. The thi-box riboswitch can exhibit a 1000-fold higher affinity for thiamine pyrophosphate over closely related noncognate compounds such as thiamine monophosphate. To understand the chemical basis of thi-box pyrophosphate specificity, we have determined crystal structures of an E. coli thi-box bound to thiamine pyrophosphate, thiamine monophosphate, and the structural analogs benfotiamine and pyrithiamine. When bound to monophosphorylated compounds, the RNA elements that recognize the thiamine and phosphate moieties of the ligand move closer together. This allows the riboswitch to recognize the monophosphate in a manner similar to how it recognizes the beta-phosphate of thiamine pyrophosphate. In the pyrithiamine complex, the pyrophosphate binding site is largely unstructured. These results show how the riboswitch can bind to various metabolites, and why the thi-box preferentially binds thiamine pyrophosphate.

  11. Electronic excitation of molecules in solution calculated using the symmetry-adapted cluster–configuration interaction method in the polarizable continuum model

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Ryoichi Ehara, Masahiro

    2015-12-31

    The effects from solvent environment are specific to the electronic states; therefore, a computational scheme for solvent effects consistent with the electronic states is necessary to discuss electronic excitation of molecules in solution. The PCM (polarizable continuum model) SAC (symmetry-adapted cluster) and SAC-CI (configuration interaction) methods are developed for such purposes. The PCM SAC-CI adopts the state-specific (SS) solvation scheme where solvent effects are self-consistently considered for every ground and excited states. For efficient computations of many excited states, we develop a perturbative approximation for the PCM SAC-CI method, which is called corrected linear response (cLR) scheme. Our test calculations show that the cLR PCM SAC-CI is a very good approximation of the SS PCM SAC-CI method for polar and nonpolar solvents.

  12. VEGF receptor-2 Y951 signaling and a role for the adapter molecule TSAd in tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Taro; Bohman, Svante; Dixelius, Johan; Berge, Tone; Dimberg, Anna; Magnusson, Peetra; Wang, Ling; Wikner, Charlotte; Qi, Jian Hua; Wernstedt, Christer; Wu, Jiong; Bruheim, Skjalg; Mugishima, Hideo; Mukhopadhyay, Debrabata; Spurkland, Anne; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2005-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) activation by VEGF-A is essential in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. We have generated a pan-phosphorylation site map of VEGFR-2 and identified one major tyrosine phosphorylation site in the kinase insert (Y951), in addition to two major sites in the C-terminal tail (Y1175 and Y1214). In developing vessels, phosphorylation of Y1175 and Y1214 was detected in all VEGFR-2-expressing endothelial cells, whereas phosphorylation of Y951 was identified in a subset of vessels. Phosphorylated Y951 bound the T-cell-specific adapter (TSAd), which was expressed in tumor vessels. Mutation of Y951 to F and introduction of phosphorylated Y951 peptide or TSAd siRNA into endothelial cells blocked VEGF-A-induced actin stress fibers and migration, but not mitogenesis. Tumor vascularization and growth was reduced in TSAd-deficient mice, indicating a critical role of Y951-TSAd signaling in pathological angiogenesis. PMID:15962004

  13. VEGF receptor-2 Y951 signaling and a role for the adapter molecule TSAd in tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Taro; Bohman, Svante; Dixelius, Johan; Berge, Tone; Dimberg, Anna; Magnusson, Peetra; Wang, Ling; Wikner, Charlotte; Qi, Jian Hua; Wernstedt, Christer; Wu, Jiong; Bruheim, Skjalg; Mugishima, Hideo; Mukhopadhyay, Debrabata; Spurkland, Anne; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2005-07-06

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) activation by VEGF-A is essential in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. We have generated a pan-phosphorylation site map of VEGFR-2 and identified one major tyrosine phosphorylation site in the kinase insert (Y951), in addition to two major sites in the C-terminal tail (Y1175 and Y1214). In developing vessels, phosphorylation of Y1175 and Y1214 was detected in all VEGFR-2-expressing endothelial cells, whereas phosphorylation of Y951 was identified in a subset of vessels. Phosphorylated Y951 bound the T-cell-specific adapter (TSAd), which was expressed in tumor vessels. Mutation of Y951 to F and introduction of phosphorylated Y951 peptide or TSAd siRNA into endothelial cells blocked VEGF-A-induced actin stress fibers and migration, but not mitogenesis. Tumor vascularization and growth was reduced in TSAd-deficient mice, indicating a critical role of Y951-TSAd signaling in pathological angiogenesis.

  14. Adapting SAFT-γ perturbation theory to site-based molecular dynamics simulation. III. Molecules with partial charges at bulk phases, confined geometries and interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard

    2014-09-01

    In Paper I [A. F. Ghobadi and J. R. Elliott, J. Chem. Phys. 139(23), 234104 (2013)], we showed that how a third-order Weeks-Chandler-Anderson (WCA) Thermodynamic Perturbation Theory and molecular simulation can be integrated to characterize the repulsive and dispersive contributions to the Helmholtz free energy for realistic molecular conformations. To this end, we focused on n-alkanes to develop a theory for fused and soft chains. In Paper II [A. F. Ghobadi and J. R. Elliott, J. Chem. Phys. 141(2), 024708 (2014)], we adapted the classical Density Functional Theory and studied the microstructure of the realistic molecular fluids in confined geometries and vapor-liquid interfaces. We demonstrated that a detailed consistency between molecular simulation and theory can be achieved for both bulk and inhomogeneous phases. In this paper, we extend the methodology to molecules with partial charges such as carbon dioxide, water, 1-alkanols, nitriles, and ethers. We show that the electrostatic interactions can be captured via an effective association potential in the framework of Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT). Implementation of the resulting association contribution in assessing the properties of these molecules at confined geometries and interfaces presents satisfactory agreement with molecular simulation and experimental data. For example, the predicted surface tension deviates less than 4% comparing to full potential simulations. Also, the theory, referred to as SAFT-γ WCA, is able to reproduce the specific orientation of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail of 1-alkanols at the vapor-liquid interface of water.

  15. Adapting SAFT-γ perturbation theory to site-based molecular dynamics simulation. III. Molecules with partial charges at bulk phases, confined geometries and interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F; Elliott, J Richard

    2014-09-07

    In Paper I [A. F. Ghobadi and J. R. Elliott, J. Chem. Phys. 139(23), 234104 (2013)], we showed that how a third-order Weeks-Chandler-Anderson (WCA) Thermodynamic Perturbation Theory and molecular simulation can be integrated to characterize the repulsive and dispersive contributions to the Helmholtz free energy for realistic molecular conformations. To this end, we focused on n-alkanes to develop a theory for fused and soft chains. In Paper II [A. F. Ghobadi and J. R. Elliott, J. Chem. Phys. 141(2), 024708 (2014)], we adapted the classical Density Functional Theory and studied the microstructure of the realistic molecular fluids in confined geometries and vapor-liquid interfaces. We demonstrated that a detailed consistency between molecular simulation and theory can be achieved for both bulk and inhomogeneous phases. In this paper, we extend the methodology to molecules with partial charges such as carbon dioxide, water, 1-alkanols, nitriles, and ethers. We show that the electrostatic interactions can be captured via an effective association potential in the framework of Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT). Implementation of the resulting association contribution in assessing the properties of these molecules at confined geometries and interfaces presents satisfactory agreement with molecular simulation and experimental data. For example, the predicted surface tension deviates less than 4% comparing to full potential simulations. Also, the theory, referred to as SAFT-γ WCA, is able to reproduce the specific orientation of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail of 1-alkanols at the vapor-liquid interface of water.

  16. Electronic excitation spectra of molecules in solution calculated using the symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction method in the polarizable continuum model with perturbative approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Ryoichi Ehara, Masahiro; Cammi, Roberto

    2014-02-14

    A perturbative approximation of the state specific polarizable continuum model (PCM) symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method is proposed for efficient calculations of the electronic excitations and absorption spectra of molecules in solutions. This first-order PCM SAC-CI method considers the solvent effects on the energies of excited states up to the first-order with using the zeroth-order wavefunctions. This method can avoid the costly iterative procedure of the self-consistent reaction field calculations. The first-order PCM SAC-CI calculations well reproduce the results obtained by the iterative method for various types of excitations of molecules in polar and nonpolar solvents. The first-order contribution is significant for the excitation energies. The results obtained by the zeroth-order PCM SAC-CI, which considers the fixed ground-state reaction field for the excited-state calculations, are deviated from the results by the iterative method about 0.1 eV, and the zeroth-order PCM SAC-CI cannot predict even the direction of solvent shifts in n-hexane for many cases. The first-order PCM SAC-CI is applied to studying the solvatochromisms of (2,2{sup ′}-bipyridine)tetracarbonyltungsten [W(CO){sub 4}(bpy), bpy = 2,2{sup ′}-bipyridine] and bis(pentacarbonyltungsten)pyrazine [(OC){sub 5}W(pyz)W(CO){sub 5}, pyz = pyrazine]. The SAC-CI calculations reveal the detailed character of the excited states and the mechanisms of solvent shifts. The energies of metal to ligand charge transfer states are significantly sensitive to solvents. The first-order PCM SAC-CI well reproduces the observed absorption spectra of the tungsten carbonyl complexes in several solvents.

  17. Evolutionary Adaptation of the Essential tRNA Methyltransferase TrmD to the Signaling Molecule 3′,5′-cAMP in Bacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Agrebi, Rym; Bellows, Lauren E.; Collet, Jean-François; Kaever, Volkhard

    2017-01-01

    The nucleotide signaling molecule 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (3′,5′-cAMP) plays important physiological roles, ranging from carbon catabolite repression in bacteria to mediating the action of hormones in higher eukaryotes, including human. However, it remains unclear whether 3′,5′-cAMP is universally present in the Firmicutes group of bacteria. We hypothesized that searching for proteins that bind 3′,5′-cAMP might provide new insight into this question. Accordingly, we performed a genome-wide screen and identified the essential Staphylococcus aureus tRNA m1G37 methyltransferase enzyme TrmD, which is conserved in all three domains of life as a tight 3′,5′-cAMP-binding protein. TrmD enzymes are known to use S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) as substrate; we have shown that 3′,5′-cAMP binds competitively with AdoMet to the S. aureus TrmD protein, indicating an overlapping binding site. However, the physiological relevance of this discovery remained unclear, as we were unable to identify a functional adenylate cyclase in S. aureus and only detected 2′,3′-cAMP but not 3′,5′-cAMP in cellular extracts. Interestingly, TrmD proteins from Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, organisms known to synthesize 3′,5′-cAMP, did not bind this signaling nucleotide. Comparative bioinformatics, mutagenesis, and biochemical analyses revealed that the highly conserved Tyr-86 residue in E. coli TrmD is essential to discriminate between 3′,5′-cAMP and the native substrate AdoMet. Combined with a phylogenetic analysis, these results suggest that amino acids in the substrate binding pocket of TrmD underwent an adaptive evolution to accommodate the emergence of adenylate cyclases and thus the signaling molecule 3′,5′-cAMP. Altogether this further indicates that S. aureus does not produce 3′,5′-cAMP, which would otherwise competitively inhibit an essential enzyme. PMID:27881678

  18. Selective interleukin-1 receptor–associated kinase 4 inhibitors for the treatment of autoimmune disorders and lymphoid malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Priscilla N.; Romero, Donna L.; Yang, Yibin; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Chaudhary, Divya; Robinson, Shaughnessy; Miao, Wenyan; Rui, Lixin; Westlin, William F.; Kapeller, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    Pathological activation of the Toll-like receptor signaling adaptor protein MYD88 underlies many autoimmune and inflammatory disease states. In the activated B cell–like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the oncogenic MYD88 L265P mutation occurs in 29% of cases, making it the most prevalent activating mutation in this malignancy. IRAK4 kinase accounts for almost all of the biological functions of MYD88, highlighting IRAK4 as a therapeutic target for diseases driven by aberrant MYD88 signaling. Using innovative structure-based drug design methodologies, we report the development of highly selective and bioavailable small molecule IRAK4 inhibitors, ND-2158 and ND-2110. These small molecules suppressed LPS-induced TNF production, alleviated collagen-induced arthritis, and blocked gout formation in mouse models. IRAK4 inhibition promoted killing of ABC DLBCL lines harboring MYD88 L265P, by down-modulating survival signals, including NF-κB and autocrine IL-6/IL-10 engagement of the JAK–STAT3 pathway. In ABC DLBCL xenograft models, IRAK4 inhibition suppressed tumor growth as a single agent, and in combination with the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib or the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-199. Our findings support pharmacological inhibition of IRAK4 as a therapeutic strategy in autoimmune disorders, in a genetically defined population of ABC DLBCL, and possibly other malignancies dependent on aberrant MYD88 signaling. PMID:26621451

  19. Excited states of large open-shell molecules: an efficient, general, and spin-adapted approach based on a restricted open-shell ground state wave function.

    PubMed

    Roemelt, Michael; Neese, Frank

    2013-04-11

    A spin-adapted configuration interaction with singles method that is based on a restricted open-shell reference function (ROCIS) with general total spin S is presented. All excited configuration state functions (CSFs) are generated with the aid of a spin-free second quantization formalism that only leads to CSFs within the first order interacting space. By virtue of the CSF construction, the formalism involves higher than singly excited determinants but not higher than singly excited configurations. Matrix elements between CSFs are evaluated on the basis of commutator relationships using a symbolic algebra program. The final equations were, however, hand-coded in order to maximize performance. The method can be applied to fairly large systems with more than 100 atoms in reasonable wall-clock times and also parallelizes well. Test calculations demonstrate that the approach is far superior to UHF-based configuration interaction with single excitations but necessarily falls somewhat short of quantitative accuracy due to the lack of dynamic correlation contributions. In order to implicitly account for dynamic correlation in a crude way, the program optionally allows for the use of Kohn-Sham orbitals in combination with a modest downscaling of two-electron integrals (DFT/ROCIS). All two-electron integrals of Kohn-Sham orbitals that appear in the Hamiltonian matrix are reduced by a total of three scaling parameters that are suitable for a wide range of molecules. Test calculations on open-shell organic radicals as well as transition metal complexes demonstrate the wide applicability of the method and its ability to calculate the electronic spectra of large molecular systems.

  20. Impaired Cd14 and Cd36 expression, bacterial clearance, and Toll-like receptor 4-Myd88 signaling in caveolin-1-deleted macrophages and mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Huang; Chen, Shu-Fen; Huang, Tai-Yu; Tzeng, Chun-Fu; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Kou, Yu Ru; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Shyue, Song-Kun

    2011-01-01

    An overwhelming immune response, particularly from macrophages, with gram-negative bacteria-induced sepsis plays a critical role in survival of and organ damage in infected patients. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a major structure protein of caveolae, regulates many cellular functions. We examined the vital role of Cav-1 in the response of macrophages and mice to bacteria or LPS exposure. Deletion of Cav-1 decreased the expression of CD14 and CD36 during macrophage differentiation and suppressed their phagocytotic ability. As well, the ability to kill bacteria was inhibited in Cav-1 macrophages and mice peritoneal cavity, tissue, and plasma, which was partly attributed to hindered expression of iNOS induced by bacteria or LPS. Furthermore, deletion of Cav-1 attenuated the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 and the activation of nuclear factor κB, all of which impeded the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial exposure in Cav-1 macrophages and mice. Thus, Cav-1 participates in the regulation of CD14, CD36, Toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 protein expression and is crucial for the immune response of macrophages to bacterial infection. Cav-1 may be a therapeutic target in the treatment of sepsis.

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in vivo infection modulates TLR4 responsiveness in differentiated Myeloid cells which is associated with decreased MyD88 expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes clinical signs in cattle ranging from mild to severe acute infection which can lead to increased susceptibility to secondary bacteria. In this study we examined the effects of BVDV genotype 2 (BVDV2) infection on the ability of myeloid lineage cells derived...

  2. IL-33-induced alterations in murine intestinal function and cytokine responses are MyD88, STAT6, and IL-13-dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-33 is a recently identified cytokine member of the IL-1 family. The biological activities of IL-33 are associated with promotion of Th2 and inhibition of Th1/Th17 immune responses. Exogenous IL-33 induces a typical “type 2” immune response in the gastrointestinal tract, yet the underlying mechani...

  3. Therapeutic Inhibition of Pro-Inflammatory Signaling and Toxicity to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B by a Synthetic Dimeric BB-Loop Mimetic of MyD88

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-27

    C57BL/6 mice were obtained from Charles River (NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD). Cell Isolation and Purification Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC...7]. Consequently, both super- antigenic exotoxins (SEs) and bacterial LPS ( endotoxin ) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of TSS, supported by...enterotoxin B (SEB) and SEA was purchased from Porton Down, Inc. (Salisbury, UK) and stored at 250uC. SEB or SEA was endotoxin free and prepared under GMP

  4. Integrin CD11b positively regulates TLR4-induced signalling pathways in dendritic cells but not in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Guang Sheng; Bennett, Jason; Woollard, Kevin J.; Szajna, Marta; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Taylor, Philip R.; Scott, Diane; Franzoso, Guido; Cook, H. Terence; Botto, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Tuned and distinct responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) underpin the balance between innate and adaptive immunity. However, the molecule(s) that confer these cell-type-specific LPS-induced effects remain poorly understood. Here we report that the integrin αM (CD11b) positively regulates LPS-induced signalling pathways selectively in myeloid dendritic cells but not in macrophages. In dendritic cells, which express lower levels of CD14 and TLR4 than macrophages, CD11b promotes MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signalling pathways. In particular, in dendritic cells CD11b facilitates LPS-induced TLR4 endocytosis and is required for the subsequent signalling in the endosomes. Consistent with this, CD11b deficiency dampens dendritic cell-mediated TLR4-triggered responses in vivo leading to impaired T-cell activation. Thus, by modulating the trafficking and signalling functions of TLR4 in a cell-type-specific manner CD11b fine tunes the balance between adaptive and innate immune responses initiated by LPS.

  5. CD14 dependence of TLR4 endocytosis and TRIF signaling displays ligand specificity and is dissociable in endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed

    Rajaiah, Rajesh; Perkins, Darren J; Ireland, Derek D C; Vogel, Stefanie N

    2015-07-07

    Dimerization of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) heterodimers is critical for both MyD88- and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β (TRIF)-mediated signaling pathways. Recently, Zanoni et al. [(2011) Cell 147(4):868-880] reported that cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) is required for LPS-/Escherichia coli- induced TLR4 internalization into endosomes and activation of TRIF-mediated signaling in macrophages. We confirmed their findings with LPS but report here that CD14 is not required for receptor endocytosis and downstream signaling mediated by TLR4/MD2 agonistic antibody (UT12) and synthetic small-molecule TLR4 ligands (1Z105) in murine macrophages. CD14 deficiency completely ablated the LPS-induced TBK1/IRF3 signaling axis that mediates production of IFN-β in murine macrophages without affecting MyD88-mediated signaling, including NF-κB, MAPK activation, and TNF-α and IL-6 production. However, neither the MyD88- nor TRIF-signaling pathways and their associated cytokine profiles were altered in the absence of CD14 in UT12- or 1Z105-treated murine macrophages. Eritoran (E5564), a lipid A antagonist that binds the MD2 "pocket," completely blocked LPS- and 1Z105-driven, but not UT12-induced, TLR4 dimerization and endocytosis. Furthermore, TLR4 endocytosis is induced in macrophages tolerized by exposure to either LPS or UT12 and is independent of CD14. These data indicate that TLR4 receptor endocytosis and the TRIF-signaling pathway are dissociable and that TLR4 internalization in macrophages can be induced by UT12, 1Z105, and during endotoxin tolerance in the absence of CD14.

  6. Caspase-9/-3 activation and apoptosis are induced in mouse macrophages upon ingestion and digestion of Escherichia coli bacteria.

    PubMed

    Häcker, Hans; Fürmann, Christine; Wagner, Hermann; Häcker, Georg

    2002-09-15

    A number of highly virulent, intracellular bacteria are known to induce cell death by apoptosis in infected host cells. In this work we demonstrate that phagocytosis of bacteria from the Escherichia coli laboratory strain K12 DH5alpha is a potent cell death stimulus for mouse macrophages. RAW264.7 mouse macrophages took up bacteria and digested them within 2-4 h as investigated with green fluorescent protein-expressing bacteria. No evidence of apoptosis was seen at 8 h postexposure, but at 24 h approximately 70% of macrophages displayed an apoptotic phenotype by a series of parameters. Apoptosis was blocked by inhibition of caspases or by forced expression of the apoptosis-inhibiting protein Bcl-2. Processing of caspase-3 and caspase-9 but not caspase-8 was seen suggesting that the mitochondrial branch of the apoptotic pathway was activated. Active effector caspases could be detected in two different assays. Because the adapter molecule myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) has been implicated in apoptosis, involvement of the Toll-like receptor pathway was investigated. In RAW264.7 cells, heat-treated bacteria were taken up poorly and failed to induce significant apoptosis. However, cell activation was almost identical between live and heat-inactivated bacteria as measured by extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, generation of free radicals, and TNF secretion. Furthermore, primary bone marrow-derived macrophages from wild-type as well as from MyD88-deficient mice underwent apoptosis upon phagocytosis of bacteria. These results show that uptake and digestion of bacteria leads to MyD88-independent apoptosis in mouse macrophages. This form of cell death might have implications for the generation of the immune response.

  7. Coinhibition of the deubiquitinating enzymes, USP14 and UCHL5, with VLX1570 is lethal to ibrutinib- or bortezomib-resistant Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, A; Akhtar, S; Caulfield, T R; Samuel, K; Yousaf, H; Bashir, Y; Paulus, S M; Tran, D; Hudec, R; Cogen, D; Jiang, J; Edenfield, B; Novak, A; Ansell, S M; Witzig, T; Martin, P; Coleman, M; Roy, V; Ailawadhi, S; Chitta, K; Linder, S; Chanan-Khan, A

    2016-01-01

    The survival of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) tumor cells hinges on aberrant B-cell receptor (BCR) and MYD88 signaling. WM cells upregulate the proteasome function to sustain the BCR-driven growth while maintaining homeostasis. Clinically, two treatment strategies are used to disrupt these complementary yet mutually exclusive WM survival pathways via ibrutinib (targets BTK/MYD88 node) and bortezomib (targets 20 S proteasome). Despite the success of both agents, WM patients eventually become refractory to treatment, highlighting the adaptive plasticity of WM cells and underscoring the need for development of new therapeutics. Here we provide a comprehensive preclinical report on the anti-WM activity of VLX1570, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L5 (UCHL5). Both DUBs reside in the 19 S proteasome cap and their inhibition by VLX1570 results in rapid and tumor-specific apoptosis in bortezomib- or ibrutinib-resistant WM cells. Notably, treatment of WM cells with VLX1570 downregulated BCR-associated elements BTK, MYD88, NFATC, NF-κB and CXCR4, the latter whose dysregulated function is linked to ibrutinib resistance. VLX1570 administered to WM-xenografted mice resulted in decreased tumor burden and prolonged survival (P=0.0008) compared with vehicle-treated mice. Overall, our report demonstrates significant value in targeting USP14/UCHL5 with VLX1570 in drug-resistant WM and carries a high potential for clinical translation. PMID:27813535

  8. Transgenic zebrafish reporter lines reveal conserved Toll-like receptor signaling potential in embryonic myeloid leukocytes and adult immune cell lineages.

    PubMed

    Hall, Chris; Flores, Maria Vega; Chien, Annie; Davidson, Alan; Crosier, Kathryn; Crosier, Phil

    2009-05-01

    The immune response of a host to an invading pathogen is dependent on the capacity of its immune cell compartment to recognize highly conserved pathogen components using an ancient class of pattern recognition receptors known as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Initiation of TLR-mediated signaling results in the induction of proinflammatory cytokines that help govern the scale and duration of any ensuing response. Specificity for TLR signaling is, in part, a result of the differential recruitment of intracellular adaptor molecules. Of these, MyD88 is required for the majority of TLR signaling. Zebrafish have been shown to possess TLRs and adaptor molecules throughout early development, including MyD88, strongly suggesting conservation of this ancient defense mechanism. However, information about which embryonic cells/tissues possess this conserved signaling potential is lacking. To help define which embryonic cells, in particular, those of the innate immune system, have the potential for MyD88-dependent, TLR-mediated signaling, we generated transgenic reporter lines using regulatory elements of the myd88 gene to drive the fluorescent reporters enhanced GFP and Discosoma red fluorescent protein 2 within live zebrafish. These lines possess fluorescently marked cells/tissues consistent with endogenous myd88 expression, including a subset of myeloid leukocytes. These innate immune cells were confirmed to express other TLR adaptors including Mal, trif, and Sarm. Live wound-healing and infection assays validated the potential of these myd88-expressing leukocytes to participate in immune responses. These lines will provide a valuable resource for further resolving the contribution of MyD88 to early vertebrate immunity.

  9. Molecule nanoweaver

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II; Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2009-03-10

    A method, apparatus, and system for constructing uniform macroscopic films with tailored geometric assemblies of molecules on the nanometer scale. The method, apparatus, and system include providing starting molecules of selected character, applying one or more force fields to the molecules to cause them to order and condense with NMR spectra and images being used to monitor progress in creating the desired geometrical assembly and functionality of molecules that comprise the films.

  10. Optimizing electrostatic field calculations with the Adaptive Poisson-Boltzmann Solver to predict electric fields at protein-protein interfaces II: explicit near-probe and hydrogen-bonding water molecules.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Andrew W; Webb, Lauren J

    2014-07-17

    We have examined the effects of including explicit, near-probe solvent molecules in a continuum electrostatics strategy using the linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation with the Adaptive Poisson-Boltzmann Solver (APBS) to calculate electric fields at the midpoint of a nitrile bond both at the surface of a monomeric protein and when docked at a protein-protein interface. Results were compared to experimental vibrational absorption energy measurements of the nitrile oscillator. We examined three methods for selecting explicit water molecules: (1) all water molecules within 5 Å of the nitrile nitrogen; (2) the water molecule closest to the nitrile nitrogen; and (3) any single water molecule hydrogen-bonding to the nitrile. The correlation between absolute field strengths with experimental absorption energies were calculated and it was observed that method 1 was only an improvement for the monomer calculations, while methods 2 and 3 were not significantly different from the purely implicit solvent calculations for all protein systems examined. Upon taking the difference in calculated electrostatic fields and comparing to the difference in absorption frequencies, we typically observed an increase in experimental correlation for all methods, with method 1 showing the largest gain, likely due to the improved absolute monomer correlations using that method. These results suggest that, unlike with quantum mechanical methods, when calculating absolute fields using entirely classical models, implicit solvent is typically sufficient and additional work to identify hydrogen-bonding or nearest waters does not significantly impact the results. Although we observed that a sphere of solvent near the field of interest improved results for relative field calculations, it should not be consider a panacea for all situations.

  11. The immunobiology of Campylobacter jejuni: Innate immunity and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Phongsisay, Vongsavanh

    2016-04-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni causes gastroenteritis and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Recent advances in the immunobiology of C. jejuni have been made. This review summarizes C. jejuni-binding innate receptors and highlights the role of innate immunity in autoimmune diseases. This human pathogen produces a variety of glycoconjugates, including human ganglioside-like determinants and multiple activators of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Furthermore, C. jejuni targets MyD88, NLRP3 inflammasome, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs), macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL), and immunoglobulin-like receptors (TREM2, LMIR5/CD300b). The roles of these innate receptors and signaling molecules have been extensively studied. MyD88-mediated TLR activation or inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion is essential for autoimmune induction. TRIF mediates the production of type I interferons that promote humoral immune responses and immunoglobulin class-switching. Siglec-1 and Siglec-7 interact directly with gangliosides. Siglec-1 activation enhances phagocytosis and inflammatory responses. MGL internalizes GalNAc-containing glycoconjugates. TREM2 is well-known for its role in phagocytosis. LMIR5 recognizes C. jejuni components and endogenous sulfoglycolipids. Several lines of evidence from animal models of autoimmune diseases suggest that simultaneous activation of innate immunity in the presence of autoreactive lymphocytes or antigen mimicry may link C. jejuni to immunopathology.

  12. The Troll in Toll: Mal and Tram as bridges for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, Frederick J; O'Neill, Luke A J

    2007-08-01

    Signaling by two of the most important bacteria-sensing TLRs, TLR2 and TLR4, involves two adaptor proteins, MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal) and Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-beta (Trif)-related adaptor molecule (TRAM). Recently, new insights into the functioning of these two adapters have emerged. Mal is required by both TLRs to act as a bridge to recruit the adaptor MyD88, leading ultimately to NF-kappaB activation. Similarly, TRAM acts as a bridge to recruit TRIF to the TLR4 complex, leading to activation of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3. Consistent with Mal and TRAM being key points of control, recent evidence suggests that they are subject to regulation by phosphorylation. Further, a variant in Mal in humans has been found to protect against multiple infectious diseases. Finally, another TIR domain-containing adaptor, sterile alpha and HEAT/armadillo motif protein (SARM), has been shown to act as an inhibitor of TRIF-dependent signaling. These recent discoveries add to the complexity of TLR signaling and highlight specific control mechanisms for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling.

  13. Induction of CXCL2 and CCL2 by pressure force requires IL-1β-MyD88 axis in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Aya; Bandow, Kenjiro; Kusuyama, Joji; Kakimoto, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Tomokazu; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical stresses including pressure force induce chemokine expressions in osteoblasts resulting in inflammatory reactions and bone remodeling. However, it has not been well elucidated how mechanical stresses induce inflammatory chemokine expressions in osteoblasts. IL-1β has been identified as an important pathogenic factor in bone loss diseases, such as inflammatory arthritis and periodontitis. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an essential downstream adaptor molecule of IL-1 receptor signaling. This study was to examine the gene expression profiles of inflammatory chemokines and the role of MyD88 in osteoblasts stimulated by pressure force. Pressure force (10g/cm(2)) induced significant mRNA increases of CXCL2, CCL2, and CCL5, as well as prompt phosphorylation of MAP kinases (ERK, p38 and JNK), in wild-type primary osteoblasts. The CXCL2 and CCL2 mRNA increases and MAP kinase phosphorylation were severely impaired in MyD88(-/-) osteoblasts. Constitutive low-level expression of IL-1β mRNA was similarly observed in both wild-type and MyD88(-/-) osteoblasts, which was not altered by pressure force stimulation. Notably, neutralization of IL-1β with a specific antibody significantly impaired pressure force-induced mRNA increases of CXCL2 and CCL2, as well as MAP kinase phosphorylation, in wild-type osteoblasts. Furthermore, pre-treatment with recombinant IL-1β significantly enhanced MAP kinase phosphorylation and mRNA increases of CXCL2 and CCL2 by pressure force in wild-type but not MyD88(-/-) osteoblasts. These results have suggested that the activation of MyD88 pathway by constitutive low-level IL-1β expression is essential for pressure force-induced CXCL2 and CCL2 expression in osteoblasts. Thus MyD88 signal in osteoblasts may be required for bone resorption by pressure force through chemokine induction.

  14. An efficient computational scheme for electronic excitation spectra of molecules in solution using the symmetry-adapted cluster–configuration interaction method: The accuracy of excitation energies and intuitive charge-transfer indices

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Ryoichi Ehara, Masahiro

    2014-10-21

    Solvent effects on electronic excitation spectra are considerable in many situations; therefore, we propose an efficient and reliable computational scheme that is based on the symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method and the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for describing electronic excitations in solution. The new scheme combines the recently proposed first-order PCM SAC-CI method with the PTE (perturbation theory at the energy level) PCM SAC scheme. This is essentially equivalent to the usual SAC and SAC-CI computations with using the PCM Hartree-Fock orbital and integrals, except for the additional correction terms that represent solute-solvent interactions. The test calculations demonstrate that the present method is a very good approximation of the more costly iterative PCM SAC-CI method for excitation energies of closed-shell molecules in their equilibrium geometry. This method provides very accurate values of electric dipole moments but is insufficient for describing the charge-transfer (CT) indices in polar solvent. The present method accurately reproduces the absorption spectra and their solvatochromism of push-pull type 2,2{sup ′}-bithiophene molecules. Significant solvent and substituent effects on these molecules are intuitively visualized using the CT indices. The present method is the simplest and theoretically consistent extension of SAC-CI method for including PCM environment, and therefore, it is useful for theoretical and computational spectroscopy.

  15. Small Molecule Inhibition of miR-544 Biogenesis Disrupts Adaptive Responses to Hypoxia by Modulating ATM-mTOR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Christopher L.; Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Strivelli, Jacqueline R.; Yang, Wang-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia induces a complex circuit of gene expression that drives tumor progression and increases drug resistance. Defining these changes allows for an understanding of how hypoxia alters tumor biology and informs design of lead therapeutics. We probed the role of microRNA-544 (miR-544), which silences mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), in a hypoxic breast cancer model by using a small molecule (1) that selectively impedes the microRNA's biogenesis. Application of 1 to hypoxic tumor cells selectively inhibited production of the mature microRNA, sensitized cells to 5-fluorouracil, and derepressed mRNAs affected by miR-544 in cellulo and in vivo, including boosting mTOR expression. Thus, small molecule inhibition of miR-544 reverses a tumor cell's physiological response to hypoxia. Importantly, 1 sensitized tumor cells to hypoxia-associated apoptosis at a 25-fold lower concentration than a 2′-O-methyl RNA antagomir and was as selective. Further, the apoptotic effect of 1 was suppressed by treatment of cell with rapamycin, a well-known inhibitor of the mTOR signaling pathway, illustrating the selectivity of the compound. Thus, RNA-directed chemical probes, which could also serve as lead therapeutics, enable interrogation of complex cellular networks in cells and animals. PMID:26181590

  16. Variational two-electron reduced density matrix theory for many-electron atoms and molecules: Implementation of the spin- and symmetry-adapted T{sub 2} condition through first-order semidefinite programming

    SciTech Connect

    Mazziotti, David A.

    2005-09-15

    The energy and properties of a many-electron atom or molecule may be directly computed from a variational optimization of a two-electron reduced density matrix (2RDM) that is constrained to represent many-electron quantum systems. In this paper we implement a variational 2RDM method with a representability constraint, known as the T{sub 2} condition. The optimization of the 2RDM is performed with a first-order algorithm for semidefinite programming [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213001 (2004)] which, because of its lower computational cost in comparison to second-order methods, allows the treatment of larger basis sets. We also derive and implement a spin- and symmetry-adapted formulation of the T{sub 2} condition that significantly decreases the size of the largest block in the T{sub 2} matrix. The T{sub 2} condition, originally derived by Erdahl [Int. J. Quantum Chem. 13, 697 (1978)], was recently applied via a second-order algorithm to atoms and molecules [Z. Zhao et al., J. Chem. Phys. 120, 2095 (2004)]. While these calculations were restricted to molecules at equilibrium geometries in minimal basis sets, we apply the 2RDM method with the T{sub 2} condition to compute the electronic energies of molecules in both minimal and nonminimal basis sets at equilibrium as well as nonequilibrium geometries. Accurate potential energies curves are produced for BH, HF, and N{sub 2}. Results are compared with the 2RDM method without the T{sub 2} condition as well as several wave-function methods.

  17. Lack of Toll-like receptor 4 or myeloid differentiation factor 88 reduces atherosclerosis and alters plaque phenotype in mice deficient in apolipoprotein E.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Kathrin S; Wong, Michelle H; Shah, Prediman K; Zhang, Wenxuan; Yano, Juliana; Doherty, Terence M; Akira, Shizuo; Rajavashisth, Tripathi B; Arditi, Moshe

    2004-07-20

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the downstream adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) play an essential role in the innate immune responses. Here, we demonstrate that genetic deficiency of TLR4 or MyD88 is associated with a significant reduction of aortic plaque areas in atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, despite persistent hypercholesterolemia, implying an important role for the innate immune system in atherogenesis. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice that also lacked TLR4 or MyD88 demonstrated reduced aortic atherosclerosis that was associated with reductions in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-12 or monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, plaque lipid content, numbers of macrophage, and cyclooxygenase 2 immunoreactivity in their plaques. Endothelial-leukocyte adhesion in response to minimally modified low-density lipoprotein was reduced in aortic endothelial cells derived from MyD88-deficient mice. Taken together, our results suggest an important role for TLR4 and MyD88 signaling in atherosclerosis in a hypercholesterolemic mouse model, providing a pathophysiologic link between innate immunity, inflammation, and atherogenesis.

  18. Excited-state geometries and vibrational frequencies studied using the analytical energy gradients of the direct symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction method. I. HAX-type molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehara, Masahiro; Oyagi, Fumito; Abe, Yoko; Fukuda, Ryoichi; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    In this series of studies, we systematically apply the analytical energy gradients of the direct symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction singles and doubles nonvariational method to calculate the equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies of excited and ionized states of molecules. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated using the second derivatives numerically computed from the analytical first derivatives and the anharmonicity was evaluated from the three-dimensional potential energy surfaces around the local minima. In this paper, the method is applied to the low-lying valence singlet and triplet excited states of HAX-type molecules, HCF, HCCl, HSiF, HSiCl, HNO, HPO, and their deuterium isotopomers. The vibrational level emission spectra of HSiF and DSiF and absorption spectra of HSiCl and DSiCl were also simulated within the Franck-Condon approximation and agree well with the experimental spectra. The results show that the present method is useful and reliable for calculating these quantities and spectra. The change in geometry in the excited states was qualitatively interpreted in the light of the electrostatic force theory. The effect of perturbation selection with the localized molecular orbitals on the geometrical parameters and harmonic vibrational frequencies is also discussed.

  19. Interplay between tetrel and triel bonds in RC6H4CN⋯MF3CN⋯BX3 complexes: A combined symmetry-adapted perturbation theory, Møller-Plesset, and quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules study.

    PubMed

    Yourdkhani, Sirous; Korona, Tatiana; Hadipour, Nasser L

    2015-12-15

    Intermolecular ternary complexes composed of: (1) the centrally placed trifluoroacetonitrile or its higher analogs with central carbon exchanged by silicon or germanium (M = C, Si, Ge), (2) the benzonitrile molecule or its para derivatives on one side, and (3) the boron trifluoride of trichloride molecule (X = F, Cl) on the opposite side as well as the corresponding intermolecular tetrel- and triel-bonded binary complexes, were investigated by symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) and the supermolecular Møller-Plesset method (MP2) at the complete basis set limit for optimized geometries. A character of interactions was studied by quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules (QTAIM). A comparison of interaction energies and QTAIM bond descriptors for dimers and trimers reveals that tetrel and triel bonds increase in their strength if present together in the trimer. For the triel-bonded complex, this growth leads to a change of the bond character from closed-shell to partly covalent for Si or Ge tetrel atoms, so the resulting bonding scheme corresponds to a preliminary stage of the SN2 reaction. Limitations of the Lewis theory of acids and bases were shown by its failure in predicting the stability order of the triel complexes. The necessity of including interaction energy terms beyond the electrostatic component for an elucidation of the nature of σ- and π-holes was presented by a SAPT energy decomposition and by a study of differences in monomer electrostatic potentials obtained either from isolated monomer densities, or from densities resulting from a perturbation with the effective field of another monomer.

  20. Identification, expression pattern and functional characterization of As-MyD88 in bacteria challenge and during different developmental stages of Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tong; Zhao, Xinxin; Luan, Hong; Ba, Huazhong; Yang, Lei; Li, Zhenegmin; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2015-05-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88), a key adapter protein in Toll-like receptor signaling, affects the immune response and the formation of the dorsal-ventral axis. Here, the 1555bp full-length cDNA of MyD88 from Artemia sinica (As-MyD88) was obtained. Molecular characterization revealed that the sequence includes an 1182bp open reading frame encoding a predicted protein of 393 amino acids. The predicted protein contains a death domain in the N-terminus, and box1 and 2 motifs of the TIR domain in the C-terminus. Real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression level, protein production and location of As-MYD88 during embryonic development and bacterial challenge. The highest expression level during embryonic development was at the 0h and 5h stages of A. sinica. As-MYD88 was remarkably upregulated after bacterial challenge. Our results suggested that As-MYD88 plays a vital role in response to bacterial challenge, and during post-diapause embryonic development of A. sinica.

  1. Interstellar Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Radioastronomy reveals that clouds between the stars, once believed to consist of simple atoms, contain molecules as complex as seven atoms and may be the most massive objects in our Galaxy. (Author/DF)

  2. Modeling Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The molecule modeling method known as Multibody Order (N) Dynamics, or MBO(N)D, was developed by Moldyn, Inc. at Goddard Space Flight Center through funding provided by the SBIR program. The software can model the dynamics of molecules through technology which stimulates low-frequency molecular motions and properties, such as movements among a molecule's constituent parts. With MBO(N)D, a molecule is substructured into a set of interconnected rigid and flexible bodies. These bodies replace the computation burden of mapping individual atoms. Moldyn's technology cuts computation time while increasing accuracy. The MBO(N)D technology is available as Insight II 97.0 from Molecular Simulations, Inc. Currently the technology is used to account for forces on spacecraft parts and to perform molecular analyses for pharmaceutical purposes. It permits the solution of molecular dynamics problems on a moderate workstation, as opposed to on a supercomputer.

  3. Mobius Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses formation of chemical molecules via Mobius strip intermediates, and concludes that many special physics-chemical properties of the fully closed circular form (1) of polyoma DNA are explainable by this topological feature. (CC)

  4. Enumerating molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr.; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Roe, Diana C.

    2004-04-01

    This report is a comprehensive review of the field of molecular enumeration from early isomer counting theories to evolutionary algorithms that design molecules in silico. The core of the review is a detail account on how molecules are counted, enumerated, and sampled. The practical applications of molecular enumeration are also reviewed for chemical information, structure elucidation, molecular design, and combinatorial library design purposes. This review is to appear as a chapter in Reviews in Computational Chemistry volume 21 edited by Kenny B. Lipkowitz.

  5. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  6. Human metapneumovirus M2-2 protein inhibits innate immune response in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Junping; Liu, Guangliang; Go, Jonathan; Kolli, Deepthi; Zhang, Guanping; Bao, Xiaoyong

    2014-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Repeated hMPV infections occur throughout life. However, immune evasion mechanisms of hMPV infection are largely unknown. Recently, our group has demonstrated that hMPV M2-2 protein, an important virulence factor, contributes to immune evasion in airway epithelial cells by targeting the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS). Whether M2-2 regulates the innate immunity in human dendritic cells (DC), an important family of immune cells controlling antigen presenting, is currently unknown. We found that human DC infected with a virus lacking M2-2 protein expression (rhMPV-ΔM2-2) produced higher levels of cytokines, chemokines and IFNs, compared to cells infected with wild-type virus (rhMPV-WT), suggesting that M2-2 protein inhibits innate immunity in human DC. In parallel, we found that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), an essential adaptor for Toll-like receptors (TLRs), plays a critical role in inducing immune response of human DC, as downregulation of MyD88 by siRNA blocked the induction of immune regulatory molecules by hMPV. Since M2-2 is a cytoplasmic protein, we investigated whether M2-2 interferes with MyD88-mediated antiviral signaling. We found that indeed M2-2 protein associated with MyD88 and inhibited MyD88-dependent gene transcription. In this study, we also identified the domains of M2-2 responsible for its immune inhibitory function in human DC. In summary, our results demonstrate that M2-2 contributes to hMPV immune evasion by inhibiting MyD88-dependent cellular responses in human DC.

  7. Mind Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Solomon H.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific styles vary tremendously. For me, research is largely about the unfettered pursuit of novel ideas and experiments that can test multiple ideas in a day, not a year, an approach that I learned from my mentor Julius “Julie” Axelrod. This focus on creative conceptualizations has been my métier since working in the summers during medical school at the National Institutes of Health, during my two years in the Axelrod laboratory, and throughout my forty-five years at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Equally important has been the “high” that emerges from brainstorming with my students. Nothing can compare with the eureka moments when, together, we sense new insights and, better yet, when high-risk, high-payoff experiments succeed. Although I have studied many different questions over the years, a common theme emerges: simple biochemical approaches to understanding molecular messengers, usually small molecules. Equally important has been identifying, purifying, and cloning the messengers' relevant biosynthetic, degradative, or target proteins, at all times seeking potential therapeutic relevance in the form of drugs. In the interests of brevity, this Reflections article is highly selective, and, with a few exceptions, literature citations are only of findings of our laboratory that illustrate notable themes. PMID:21543333

  8. Both Innate Immunity and Type 1 Humoral Immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae Are Mediated by MyD88 but Differ in Their Relative Levels of Dependence on Toll-Like Receptor 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    normal pathogen- specific IgG isotype response to Borrelia burgdorferi was ob- served in TLR2/ mice, although this was associated with a higher... Borrelia burgdorferi -infected mice. Infect. Immun. 72:3195–3203. 28. Lund, J., A. Sato, S. Akira, R. Medzhitov, and A. Iwasaki. 2003. Toll-like...Zachary, C. J. Kirschning, and J. J. Weis. 2002. Toll-like receptor 2 is required for innate, but not acquired, host defense to Borrelia burgdorferi

  9. Partial Dynamical Symmetry in Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Jia-Lun; Chen, Jin-Quan

    1997-03-01

    It is shown that any Hamiltonian involving only one- and two-bond interactions for a molecule withnbonds and having a point groupPas its symmetry group may have theSn⊃Ppartial dynamical symmetry, i.e., the Hamiltonian can be solved analytically for a part of the states, called the unique states. For example, theXY6molecule has theS6⊃Ohpartial dynamical symmetry. The model of Iachello and Oss forncoupled anharmonic oscillators is revisited in terms of the partial dynamical symmetry. The energies are obtained analytically for the nine unique levels of theXY6molecule and the structures of the eigenstates are disclosed for the first time, while for non-unique states they are obtained by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian in theS6⊃Ohsymmetry adapted basis with greatly reduced dimension.

  10. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1 'preferentially' promotes TLR-mediated production of type I interferon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Chen, Taoyong; Zhang, Jia; Yang, Mingjin; Li, Nan; Xu, Xiongfei; Cao, Xuetao

    2009-07-01

    E3 ubiquitin ligases are important in both innate and adaptive immunity. Here we report that Nrdp1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines but increased interferon-beta production in Toll-like receptor-triggered macrophages by suppressing adaptor MyD88-dependent activation of transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 while promoting activation of the kinase TBK1 and transcription factor IRF3. Nrdp1 directly bound and polyubiquitinated MyD88 and TBK1, which led to degradation of MyD88 and activation of TBK1. Knockdown of Nrdp1 inhibited the degradation of MyD88 and the activation of TBK1 and IRF3. Nrdp1-transgenic mice showed resistance to lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxin shock and to infection with vesicular stomatitis virus. Our data suggest that Nrdp1 functions as both an adaptor protein and an E3 unbiquitin ligase to regulate TLR responses in different ways.

  11. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 V protein inhibits TRAF6-mediated ubiquitination of IRF7 to prevent TLR7- and TLR9-dependent interferon induction.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Mayu; Zhou, Min; Nishio, Machiko; Itoh, Masae; Gotoh, Bin

    2013-07-01

    Paramyxovirus V proteins block Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)- and TLR9-dependent signaling leading to alpha interferon production. Our recent study has provided evidence that interaction of the V proteins with IRF7 is important for the blockade. However, the detailed mechanisms still remain unclear. Here we reexamined the interaction of the human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2) V protein with signaling molecules involved in TLR7/9-dependent signaling. Immunoprecipitation experiments in HEK293T cells transfected with V protein and one of the signaling molecules revealed that the V protein interacted with not only IRF7 but also TRAF6, IKKα, and MyD88. Whereas overexpression of TRAF6 markedly enhanced the level of V protein associating with IRF7, IKKα, and MyD88 in HEK293T cells, the level of V protein associating with TRAF6 was little affected by overexpression of IRF7, IKKα, and MyD88. Moreover, knockdown or knockout of endogenous TRAF6 in HEK293T or mouse embryonic fibroblast cells resulted in dissociation of the V protein from IRF7, IKKα, and MyD88. These results demonstrate that binding of the V protein to IRF7, IKKα, and MyD88 is largely indirect and mediated by endogenous TRAF6. It was found that the V protein inhibited TRAF6-mediated lysine 63 (K63)-linked polyubiquitination of IRF7, which is prerequisite for IRF7 activation. Disruption of the tryptophan-rich motif of the V protein significantly affected its TRAF6-binding efficiency, which correlated well with the magnitude of inhibition of K63-linked polyubiquitination and the resultant activation of IRF7. Taken together, these results suggest that the HPIV2 V protein prevents TLR7/9-dependent interferon induction by inhibiting TRAF6-mediated K63-linked polyubiquitination of IRF7.

  12. Physics of Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Many varieties of molecule have been detected in the Milky Way and in other galaxies. The processes by which these molecules are formed and destroyed are now broadly understood (see INTERSTELLAR CHEMISTRY). These molecules are important components of galaxies in two ways. Firstly, radiation emitted by molecules enables us to trace the presence of diffuse gas, to infer its physical properties and ...

  13. Unexpected Roles for Toll-Like Receptor 4 and TRIF in Intraocular Infection with Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Randall, C. Blake; Coburn, Phillip S.; Astley, Roger A.; Staats, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infection with Gram-positive bacteria is typically initiated by interactions with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Endophthalmitis, an infection and inflammation of the posterior segment of the eye, can lead to vision loss when initiated by a virulent microbial pathogen. Endophthalmitis caused by Bacillus cereus develops as acute inflammation with infiltrating neutrophils, and vision loss is potentially catastrophic. Residual inflammation observed during B. cereus endophthalmitis in TLR2−/− mice led us to investigate additional innate pathways that may trigger intraocular inflammation. We first hypothesized that intraocular inflammation during B. cereus endophthalmitis would be controlled by MyD88- and TRIF-mediated signaling, since MyD88 and TRIF are the major adaptor molecules for all bacterial TLRs. In MyD88−/− and TRIF−/− mice, we observed significantly less intraocular inflammation than in eyes from infected C57BL/6J mice, suggesting an important role for these TLR adaptors in B. cereus endophthalmitis. These results led to a second hypothesis, that TLR4, the only TLR that signals through both MyD88 and TRIF signaling pathways, contributed to inflammation during B. cereus endophthalmitis. Surprisingly, B. cereus-infected TLR4−/− eyes also had significantly less intraocular inflammation than infected C57BL/6J eyes, indicating an important role for TLR4 in B. cereus endophthalmitis. Taken together, our results suggest that TLR4, TRIF, and MyD88 are important components of the intraocular inflammatory response observed in experimental B. cereus endophthalmitis, identifying a novel innate immune interaction for B. cereus and for this disease. PMID:26195555

  14. Microbiota regulates type 1 diabetes through Toll-like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Michael P.; Volchkov, Pavel; Kobayashi, Koichi S.; Chervonsky, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Deletion of the innate immune adaptor myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D) results in microbiota-dependent protection from the disease: MyD88-negative mice in germ-free (GF), but not in specific pathogen-free conditions develop the disease. These results could be explained by expansion of particular protective bacteria (“specific lineage hypothesis”) or by dominance of negative (tolerizing) signaling over proinflammatory signaling (“balanced signal hypothesis”) in mutant mice. Here we found that colonization of GF mice with a variety of intestinal bacteria was capable of reducing T1D in MyD88-negative (but not wild-type NOD mice), favoring the balanced signal hypothesis. However, the receptors and signaling pathways involved in prevention or facilitation of the disease remained unknown. The protective signals triggered by the microbiota were revealed by testing NOD mice lacking MyD88 in combination with knockouts of several critical components of innate immune sensing for development of T1D. Only MyD88- and TIR-domain containing adapter inducing IFN β (TRIF) double deficient NOD mice developed the disease. Thus, TRIF signaling (likely downstream of Toll-like receptor 4, TLR4) serves as one of the microbiota-induced tolerizing pathways. At the same time another TLR (TLR2) provided prodiabetic signaling by controlling the microbiota, as reduction in T1D incidence caused by TLR2 deletion was reversed in GF TLR2-negative mice. Our results support the balanced signal hypothesis, in which microbes provide signals that both promote and inhibit autoimmunity by signaling through different receptors, including receptors of the TLR family. PMID:26216961

  15. Visual Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems continuously mold themselves to the widely varying contexts in which they must operate. Studies of these adaptations have played a long and central role in vision science. In part this is because the specific adaptations remain a powerful tool for dissecting vision, by exposing the mechanisms that are adapting. That is, “if it adapts, it's there.” Many insights about vision have come from using adaptation in this way, as a method. A second important trend has been the realization that the processes of adaptation are themselves essential to how vision works, and thus are likely to operate at all levels. That is, “if it's there, it adapts.” This has focused interest on the mechanisms of adaptation as the target rather than the probe. Together both approaches have led to an emerging insight of adaptation as a fundamental and ubiquitous coding strategy impacting all aspects of how we see. PMID:26858985

  16. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  17. Reversible Aptamer-Au Plasmon Rulers for Secreted Single Molecules

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Somin Eunice; Chen, Qian; Bhat, Ramray; ...

    2015-06-03

    Plasmon rulers, consisting of pairs of gold nanoparticles, allow single-molecule analysis without photobleaching or blinking; however, current plasmon rulers are irreversible, restricting detection to only single events. Here, we present a reversible plasmon ruler, comprised of coupled gold nanoparticles linked by a single aptamer, capable of binding individual secreted molecules with high specificity. We show that the binding of target secreted molecules to the reversible plasmon ruler is characterized by single-molecule sensitivity, high specificity, and reversibility. Lastly, such reversible plasmon rulers should enable dynamic and adaptive live-cell measurement of secreted single molecules in their local microenvironment.

  18. Formation of Ultracold Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, Robin

    2016-01-28

    Advances in our ability to slow down and cool atoms and molecules to ultracold temperatures have paved the way to a revolution in basic research on molecules. Ultracold molecules are sensitive of very weak interactions, even when separated by large distances, which allow studies of the effect of those interactions on the behavior of molecules. In this program, we have explored ways to form ultracold molecules starting from pairs of atoms that have already reached the ultracold regime. We devised methods that enhance the efficiency of ultracold molecule production, for example by tuning external magnetic fields and using appropriate laser excitations. We also investigates the properties of those ultracold molecules, especially their de-excitation into stable molecules. We studied the possibility of creating new classes of ultra-long range molecules, named macrodimers, thousand times more extended than regular molecules. Again, such objects are possible because ultra low temperatures prevent their breakup by collision. Finally, we carried out calculations on how chemical reactions are affected and modified at ultracold temperatures. Normally, reactions become less effective as the temperature decreases, but at ultracold temperatures, they can become very effective. We studied this counter-intuitive behavior for benchmark chemical reactions involving molecular hydrogen.

  19. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  20. Rapid CD4+ T-cell responses to bacterial flagellin require dendritic cell expression of Syk and CARD9

    PubMed Central

    Atif, Shaikh M; Lee, Seung-Joo; Li, Lin-Xi; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Gorjestani, Sara; Lin, Xin; Schweighoffer, Edina; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; McSorley, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can recognize microbial patterns and utilize adaptor molecules, such as-MyD88 or (TRIF TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β), to initiate downstream signaling that ultimately affects the initiation of adaptive immunity. In addition to this inflammatory role, TLR5 expression on dendritic cells can favor antigen presentation of flagellin peptides and thus increase the sensitivity of flagellin-specific T-cell responses in vitro and in vivo. Here, we examined the role of alternative signaling pathways that might regulate flagellin antigen presentation in addition to MyD88. These studies suggest a requirement for spleen tyrosine kinase, a noncanonical TLR-signaling adaptor molecule, and its downstream molecule CARD9 in regulating the sensitivity of flagellin-specific CD4+ T-cell responses in vitro and in vivo. Thus, a previously unappreciated signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating the dominance of flagellin-specific T-cell responses. PMID:25430631

  1. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  2. Enzymatic DNA molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor); Breaker, Ronald R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses deoxyribonucleic acid enzymes--catalytic or enzymatic DNA molecules--capable of cleaving nucleic acid sequences or molecules, particularly RNA, in a site-specific manner, as well as compositions including same. Methods of making and using the disclosed enzymes and compositions are also disclosed.

  3. Molecules between the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a listing of molecules discovered to date in the vast interstellar clouds of dust and gas. Emphasizes the recent discoveries of organic molecules. Discusses molecular spectral lines, MASERs (microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation), molecular clouds, and star birth. (TW)

  4. Single-Molecule Sequencing (PacBio) of the Staphylococcus capitis NRCS-A Clone Reveals the Basis of Multidrug Resistance and Adaptation to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Environment

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Patrícia Martins; Lemriss, Hajar; Dumont, Yann; Lemriss, Sanâa; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Assant-Trouillet, Sophie; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; El Kabbaj, Saâd; Butin, Marine; Laurent, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    -A strains during the early steps of gut colonization in neonates. This suggests that the striking adaptation of NRCS-A to the NICU environment might be related to its specific antimicrobial resistance and also to a possible enhanced ability to challenge competing bacteria in its ecological niche. PMID:28018320

  5. Porous organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, James R.; Trewin, Abbie; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2010-11-01

    Most synthetic materials that show molecular-scale porosity consist of one-, two- or three-dimensional networks. Porous metal-organic frameworks in particular have attracted a lot of recent attention. By contrast, discrete molecules tend to pack efficiently in the solid state, leaving as little empty space as possible, which leads to non-porous materials. This Perspective discusses recent developments with discrete organic molecules that are porous in the solid state. Such molecules, which may be either crystalline or amorphous, can be categorized as either intrinsically porous (containing permanent covalent cavities) or extrinsically porous (inefficiently packed). We focus on the possible advantages of organic molecules over inorganic or hybrid systems in terms of molecular solubility, choice of components and functionalities, and structural mobility and responsiveness in non-covalent extended solids. We also highlight the potential for 'undiscovered' porous systems among the large number of cage-like organic molecules that are already known.

  6. Dynamics of Activated Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, Amy S.

    2016-11-16

    Experimental studies have been performed to investigate the collisional energy transfer processes of gas-phase molecules that contain large amounts of internal energy. Such molecules are prototypes for molecules under high temperature conditions relevant in combustion and information about their energy transfer mechanisms is needed for a detailed understanding and modeling of the chemistry. We use high resolution transient IR absorption spectroscopy to measure the full, nascent product distributions for collisions of small bath molecules that relax highly vibrationally excited pyrazine molecules with E=38000 cm-1 of vibrational energy. To perform these studies, we developed new instrumentation based on modern IR light sources to expand our experimental capabilities to investigate new molecules as collision partners. This final report describes our research in four areas: the characterization of a new transient absorption spectrometer and the results of state-resolved collision studies of pyrazine(E) with HCl, methane and ammonia. Through this research we have gained fundamental new insights into the microscopic details of relatively large complex molecules at high energy as they undergo quenching collisions and redistribute their energy.

  7. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  8. Dual role for Fcγ receptors in host defense and disease in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Belperron, Alexia A; Liu, Nengyin; Booth, Carmen J; Bockenstedt, Linda K

    2014-01-01

    Arthritis in mice infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, results from the influx of innate immune cells responding to the pathogen in the joint and is influenced in part by mouse genetics. Production of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells in vitro is largely mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) interaction with Borrelia lipoproteins, yet surprisingly mice deficient in TLR2 or the TLR signaling molecule MyD88 still develop arthritis comparable to that seen in wild type mice after B. burgdorferi infection. These findings suggest that other, MyD88-independent inflammatory pathways can contribute to arthritis expression. Clearance of B. burgdorferi is dependent on the production of specific antibody and phagocytosis of the organism. As Fc receptors (FcγR) are important for IgG-mediated clearance of immune complexes and opsonized particles by phagocytes, we examined the role that FcγR play in host defense and disease in B. burgdorferi-infected mice. B. burgdorferi-infected mice deficient in the Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcεRγ(-/-) mice) harbored ~10 fold more spirochetes than similarly infected wild type mice, and this was associated with a transient increase in arthritis severity. While the elevated pathogen burdens seen in B. burgdorferi-infected MyD88(-/-) mice were not affected by concomitant deficiency in FcγR, arthritis was reduced in FcεRγ(-/-) MyD88(-/-) mice in comparison to wild type or single knockout mice. Gene expression analysis from infected joints demonstrated that absence of both MyD88 and FcγR lowers mRNA levels of proteins involved in inflammation, including Cxcl1 (KC), Xcr1 (Gpr5), IL-1beta, and C reactive protein. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for FcγR-mediated immunity in limiting pathogen burden and arthritis in mice during the acute phase of B. burgdorferi infection, and further suggest that this pathway contributes to the arthritis that develops in B. burgdorferi-infected MyD88

  9. Of Molecules and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinner, Bonnie

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which models help students visualize both the DNA process and transcription. After constructing DNA, RNA messenger, and RNA transfer molecules; students model cells, protein synthesis, codons, and RNA movement. (MDH)

  10. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  11. The human adaptor SARM negatively regulates adaptor protein TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Carty, Michael; Goodbody, Rory; Schröder, Martina; Stack, Julianne; Moynagh, Paul N; Bowie, Andrew G

    2006-10-01

    Toll-like receptors discriminate between different pathogen-associated molecules and activate signaling cascades that lead to immune responses. The specificity of Toll-like receptor signaling occurs by means of adaptor proteins containing Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domains. Activating functions have been assigned to four TIR adaptors: MyD88, Mal, TRIF and TRAM. Here we characterize a fifth TIR adaptor, SARM, as a negative regulator of TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling. Expression of SARM blocked gene induction 'downstream' of TRIF but not of MyD88. SARM associated with TRIF, and 'knockdown' of endogenous SARM expression by interfering RNA led to enhanced TRIF-dependent cytokine and chemokine induction. Thus, the fifth mammalian TIR adaptor SARM is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling.

  12. Toward a 2-D magneto-optical trap for polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummon, Matthew; Stuhl, Benjamin; Yeo, Mark; Collopy, Alejandra; Ye, Jun

    2012-06-01

    The additional structure that arises from the rotational degree of freedom in diatomic molecules makes difficult the adaptation of a traditional atomic magneto-optical trap (MOT) for use with molecules. We describe progress toward development of a 2-D MOT for laser cooled yttrium monoxide molecules based on a resonant LC baseball coil geometry.

  13. Positronium ions and molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Y. K.

    1990-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies on positronium ions and molecules are discussed. A positronium ion is a three particle system consisting of two electrons in singlet spin state, and a positron. Recent studies include calculations of its binding energy, positron annihilation rate, and investigations of its doubly excited resonant states. A positronium molecule is a four body system consisting of two positrons and two electrons in an overall singlet spin state. The recent calculations of its binding energy against the dissociation into two positronium atoms, and studies of auto-detaching states in positronium molecules are discussed. These auto-dissociating states, which are believed to be part of the Rydberg series as a result of a positron attaching to a negatively charged positronium ion, Ps-, would appear as resonances in Ps-Ps scattering.

  14. Single-Molecule Bioelectronics

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Jacob K.; Lemay, Serge G.; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental techniques which interface single biomolecules directly with microelectronic systems are increasingly being used in a wide range of powerful applications, from fundamental studies of biomolecules to ultra-sensitive assays. Here we review several technologies which can perform electronic measurements of single molecules in solution: ion channels, nanopore sensors, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors, electron tunneling gaps, and redox cycling. We discuss the shared features among these techniques that enable them to resolve individual molecules, and discuss their limitations. Recordings from each of these methods all rely on similar electronic instrumentation, and we discuss the relevant circuit implementations and potential for scaling these single-molecule bioelectronic interfaces to high-throughput arrayed sensing platforms. PMID:25529538

  15. MOLECULES IN {eta} CARINAE

    SciTech Connect

    Loinard, Laurent; Menten, Karl M.; Guesten, Rolf; Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F.

    2012-04-10

    We report the detection toward {eta} Carinae of six new molecules, CO, CN, HCO{sup +}, HCN, HNC, and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and of two of their less abundant isotopic counterparts, {sup 13}CO and H{sup 13}CN. The line profiles are moderately broad ({approx}100 km s{sup -1}), indicating that the emission originates in the dense, possibly clumpy, central arcsecond of the Homunculus Nebula. Contrary to previous claims, CO and HCO{sup +} do not appear to be underabundant in {eta} Carinae. On the other hand, molecules containing nitrogen or the {sup 13}C isotope of carbon are overabundant by about one order of magnitude. This demonstrates that, together with the dust responsible for the dimming of {eta} Carinae following the Great Eruption, the molecules detected here must have formed in situ out of CNO-processed stellar material.

  16. Polarization of deuterium molecules

    SciTech Connect

    J. F. J. van den Brand; H. J. Bulten; M. Ferro-Luzzi; Z.-L. Zhou; Ricardo Alarcon; T. Botto; M. Bouwhuis; Rolf Ent; Peter Heimberg; Douglas W. Higinbotham; Kees de Jager; J. Lang; D. J. de Lange; I. Passchier; H. R. Poolman; J. J. M. Steijger; O. Unal; H. de Vries

    1997-08-01

    For molecular systems, spin relaxation is expected to be suppressed compared to the case of atoms, since the paired electrons in a hydrogen or deuterium molecule are chemically stable, and only weakly interact with the spin of the nucleus. Such systems would be largely insensitive to polarization losses due to spin-exchange collisions, to the interaction of the electron spins with external fields (e.g. the RF-field of a bunched charged-particle beam), and/or to the presence of container walls. Here, we discuss the results of a recent experiment where we obtained evidence that nuclear polarization is maintained, when polarized atoms recombine to molecules on a copper surface (in a magnetic field of 23 mT and at a density of about 10{sup 12} molecules {center_dot} cm{sup -3}).

  17. Single molecule diffraction.

    PubMed

    Spence, J C H; Doak, R B

    2004-05-14

    For solving the atomic structure of organic molecules such as small proteins which are difficult to crystallize, the use of a jet of doped liquid helium droplets traversing a continuous high energy electron beam is proposed as a means of obtaining electron diffraction patterns (serial crystallography). Organic molecules (such as small proteins) within the droplet (and within a vitreous ice jacket) may be aligned by use of a polarized laser beam. Iterative methods for solving the phase problem are indicated. Comparisons with a related plan for pulsed x-ray diffraction from single proteins in a molecular beam are provided.

  18. Enzyme molecules as nanomotors.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Samudra; Dey, Krishna K; Muddana, Hari S; Tabouillot, Tristan; Ibele, Michael E; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman

    2013-01-30

    Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we show that the diffusive movements of catalase enzyme molecules increase in the presence of the substrate, hydrogen peroxide, in a concentration-dependent manner. Employing a microfluidic device to generate a substrate concentration gradient, we show that both catalase and urease enzyme molecules spread toward areas of higher substrate concentration, a form of chemotaxis at the molecular scale. Using glucose oxidase and glucose to generate a hydrogen peroxide gradient, we induce the migration of catalase toward glucose oxidase, thereby showing that chemically interconnected enzymes can be drawn together.

  19. Figuration and detection of single molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevels, R.; Welch, G. R.; Cremer, P. S.; Hemmer, P.; Phillips, T.; Scully, S.; Sokolov, A. V.; Svidzinsky, A. A.; Xia, H.; Zheltikov, A.; Scully, M. O.

    2012-08-01

    Recent advances in the description of atoms and molecules based on Dimensional scaling analysis, developed by Dudley Herschbach and co-workers, provided new insights into visualization of molecular structure and chemical bonding. Prof. Herschbach is also a giant in the field of single molecule scattering. We here report on the engineering of molecular detectors. Such systems have a wide range of application from medical diagnostics to the monitoring of chemical, biological and environmental hazards. We discuss ways to identify preselected molecules, in particular, mycotoxin contaminants using coherent laser spectroscopy. Mycotoxin contaminants, e.g. aflatoxin B1 which is present in corn and peanuts, are usually analysed by time-consuming microscopic, chemical and biological assays. We present a new approach that derives from recent experiments in which molecules are prepared by one (or more) femtosecond laser(s) and probed by another set. We call this technique FAST CARS (femto second adaptive spectroscopic technique for coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy). We propose and analyse ways in which FAST CARS can be used to identify preselected molecules, e.g. aflatoxin, rapidly and economically.

  20. Sweeping molecules with light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutzler, Nicholas R.

    2017-03-01

    Many areas of physics—precision measurements, quantum information, and physical chemistry, to name a few—are starting to benefit from the enormous advantages offered by cold and ultracold polar molecules. Molecules have more states, more interactions, and more chemical properties compared to atoms, which make them exciting to study but difficult to tame. In particular, the powerful techniques of atomic laser cooling cannot be naïvely applied to molecules due to their complicated structure. Developments over the past few years have made directly laser cooled and trapped molecules a reality, and now much effort is focused on making these samples larger, denser, and colder—an important step to realizing many of their exciting applications. A careful experimental and numerical study by Truppe et al (2017 New J. Phys. 19 022001) demonstrates a significant improvement and advance in understanding of one of the most limiting steps in laser cooling and trapping of molecules—slowing them from a molecular beam to a near-standstill, with small enough kinetic energy that they can be loaded into a trap.

  1. Disentangling DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The widespread circular form of DNA molecules inside cells creates very serious topological problems during replication. Due to the helical structure of the double helix the parental strands of circular DNA form a link of very high order, and yet they have to be unlinked before the cell division. DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes that catalyze passing of one DNA segment through another, solve this problem in principle. However, it is very difficult to remove all entanglements between the replicated DNA molecules due to huge length of DNA comparing to the cell size. One strategy that nature uses to overcome this problem is to create the topoisomerases that can dramatically reduce the fraction of linked circular DNA molecules relative to the corresponding fraction at thermodynamic equilibrium. This striking property of the enzymes means that the enzymes that interact with DNA only locally can access their topology, a global property of circular DNA molecules. This review considers the experimental studies of the phenomenon and analyzes the theoretical models that have been suggested in attempts to explain it. We describe here how various models of enzyme action can be investigated computationally. There is no doubt at the moment that we understand basic principles governing enzyme action. Still, there are essential quantitative discrepancies between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. We consider how these discrepancies can be overcome.

  2. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbury, H. John

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  3. Mighty Molecule Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Rushton, Greg; Bencomo, Marie

    2008-01-01

    As part of the SMATHematics Project: The Wonder of Science, The Power of Mathematics--a collaborative partnership between Kennesaw State University and two local school districts, fifth graders had the opportunity to puzzle out chemical formulas of propane, methanol, and other important molecules. In addition, they explored properties that…

  4. Algebraic theory of molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iachello, Franco

    1995-01-01

    An algebraic formulation of quantum mechanics is presented. In this formulation, operators of interest are expanded onto elements of an algebra, G. For bound state problems in nu dimensions the algebra G is taken to be U(nu + 1). Applications to the structure of molecules are presented.

  5. Single molecules: Thermodynamic limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liphardt, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Technologies aimed at single-molecule resolution of non-equilibrium systems increasingly require sophisticated new ways of thinking about thermodynamics. An elegant extension to standard fluctuation theory grants access to the kinetic intermediate states of these systems -- as DNA-pulling experiments now demonstrate.

  6. Disentangling DNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The widespread circular form of DNA molecules inside cells creates very serious topological problems during replication. Due to the helical structure of the double helix the parental strands of circular DNA form a link of very high order, and yet they have to be unlinked before the cell division. DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes that catalyze passing of one DNA segment through another, solve this problem in principle. However, it is very difficult to remove all entanglements between the replicated DNA molecules due to huge length of DNA comparing to the cell size. One strategy that nature uses to overcome this problem is to create the topoisomerases that can dramatically reduce the fraction of linked circular DNA molecules relative to the corresponding fraction at thermodynamic equilibrium. This striking property of the enzymes means that the enzymes that interact with DNA only locally can access their topology, a global property of circular DNA molecules. This review considers the experimental studies of the phenomenon and analyzes the theoretical models that have been suggested in attempts to explain it. We describe here how various models of enzyme action can be investigated computationally. There is no doubt at the moment that we understand basic principles governing enzyme action. Still, there are essential quantitative discrepancies between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. We consider how these discrepancies can be overcome.

  7. Three new 'nonterrestrial' molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.; Linke, R. A.

    1981-05-01

    Eight new interstellar lines have been detected from three molecules not previously observed spectroscopically in space or in the laboratory. One is a linear or nearly linear molecule with microwave constants B0 equals 21,337.15 plus or minus 0.06 MHz, D0 equals 21.4 plus or minus 1.5 kHz. This is the thioformyl ion HCS(plus), first identified because B0 and D0 are close to those calculated, and now confirmed by laboratory detection of one of the present lines (Gudeman et al.). The second molecule, also linear or nearly so, has microwave constants B0 equals 10,691,406 plus or minus 0.043 MHz, D0 equals 1.84 plus or minus 0.91 kHz close to those expected for the isoelectronic systems HOCO(plus) and HOCN; a choice between the two cannot be made on the basis of the available astronomical data. The existence of a third molecule is deduced from an unidentified line at 85,338 MHz that has been found in many sources, is fairly intense in several, and may be self-absorbed in Sgr B2.

  8. Adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  9. OMG: Open Molecule Generator.

    PubMed

    Peironcely, Julio E; Rojas-Chertó, Miguel; Fichera, Davide; Reijmers, Theo; Coulier, Leon; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2012-09-17

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck.

  10. Bacterial invasion reconstructed molecule by molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    We propose to visualize the initial stages of bacterial infection of a human host cell with unmatched spatial and temporal resolution. This work will develop a new capability for the laboratory (super-resolution optical imaging), will test unresolved scientific hypotheses regarding host-pathogen interaction dynamics, and leverages state of the art 3D molecular tracking instrumentation developed recently by our group. There is much to be gained by applying new single molecule tools to the important and familiar problem of pathogen entry into a host cell. For example, conventional fluorescence microscopy has identified key host receptors, such as CD44 and {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin, that aggregate near the site of Salmonella typhimurium infection of human cells. However, due to the small size of the bacteria ({approx} 2 {micro}m) and the diffraction of the emitted light, one just sees a fluorescent 'blob' of host receptors that aggregate at the site of attachment, making it difficult to determine the exact number of receptors present or whether there is any particular spatial arrangement of the receptors that facilitates bacterial adhesion/entry. Using newly developed single molecule based super-resolution imaging methods, we will visualize how host receptors are directed to the site of pathogen adhesion and whether host receptors adopt a specific spatial arrangement for successful infection. Furthermore, we will employ our 3D molecular tracking methods to follow the injection of virulence proteins, or effectors, into the host cell by the pathogen Type III secretion system (TTSS). We expect these studies to provide mechanistic insights into the early events of pathogen infection that have here-to-fore been technically beyond our reach. Our Research Goals are: Goal 1--Construct a super-resolution fluorescence microscope and use this new capability to image the spatial distribution of different host receptors (e.g. CD44, as {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin) at the point of

  11. Physiological roles of small RNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Michaux, Charlotte; Verneuil, Nicolas; Hartke, Axel; Giard, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Unlike proteins, RNA molecules have emerged lately as key players in regulation in bacteria. Most reviews hitherto focused on the experimental and/or in silico methods used to identify genes encoding small RNAs (sRNAs) or on the diverse mechanisms of these RNA regulators to modulate expression of their targets. However, less is known about their biological functions and their implications in various physiological responses. This review aims to compile what is known presently about the diverse roles of sRNA transcripts in the regulation of metabolic processes, in different growth conditions, in adaptation to stress and in microbial pathogenesis. Several recent studies revealed that sRNA molecules are implicated in carbon metabolism and transport, amino acid metabolism or metal sensing. Moreover, regulatory RNAs participate in cellular adaptation to environmental changes, e.g. through quorum sensing systems or development of biofilms, and analyses of several sRNAs under various physiological stresses and culture conditions have already been performed. In addition, recent experiments performed with Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens showed that regulatory RNAs play important roles in microbial virulence and during infection. The combined results show the diversity of regulation mechanisms and physiological processes in which sRNA molecules are key actors.

  12. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  13. Differential Expression of Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 in Tissues of the Human Female Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Pioli, Patricia A.; Amiel, Eyal; Schaefer, Todd M.; Connolly, John E.; Wira, Charles R.; Guyre, Paul M.

    2004-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal transduction is a central component of the innate immune response to pathogenic challenge. Although recent studies have begun to elucidate differences in acquired immunity in tissues of the human female reproductive tract, there is a relative paucity of work regarding innate defense mechanisms. We investigated TLR mRNA and protein expression in tissues of the human female reproductive tract. Constitutive mRNA expression of TLRs 1 to 6 was observed in fallopian tubes, uterine endometrium, cervix, and ectocervix. Furthermore, transcripts of the signaling adapter MyD88 and the accessory molecule CD14 were also detected in all tissues assayed. Quantitative analysis of TLR2 mRNA levels revealed highest expression of this molecule in fallopian tube and cervical tissues, followed by endometrium and ectocervix. In contrast to TLR2, TLR4 expression declined progressively along the tract, with highest expression in the upper tissues (fallopian tubes and endometrium), followed by cervix and ectocervix. In addition to mRNA, protein expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was also documented in these tissues. These data suggest that TLRs are differentially expressed in distinct compartments of the female reproductive tract and may provide insight regarding the regulation of inflammation and immunity within the tract. PMID:15385480

  14. Adaptation of adaptive optics systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yu; Zhao, Dazun; Li, Chen

    1997-10-01

    In the paper, a concept of an adaptation of adaptive optical system (AAOS) is proposed. The AAOS has certain real time optimization ability against the variation of the brightness of detected objects m, atmospheric coherence length rO and atmospheric time constant τ by means of changing subaperture number and diameter, dynamic range, and system's temporal response. The necessity of AAOS using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and some technical approaches are discussed. Scheme and simulation of an AAOS with variable subaperture ability by use of both hardware and software are presented as an example of the system.

  15. Molecules in Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana

    2015-08-01

    Molecules probe cool matter in the Universe and various astrophysical objects. Their ability to sense magnetic fields provides new insights into magnetic properties of these objects. During the past fifteen years we have carried out a theoretical study of molecular magnetic effects such as the Zeeman, Paschen-Back and Hanle effects and their applications for inferring magnetic structures and spatial inhomogeneities on the Sun, cool stars, brown dwarfs, and exoplanets from molecular spectro-polarimetry (e.g., Berdyugina 2011). Here, we present an overview of this study and compare our theoretical predictions with recent laboratory measurements of magnetic properties of some molecules. We present also a new web-based tool to compute molecular magnetic effects and polarized spectra which is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant HotMol.

  16. Strange skyrmion molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir B.; Stern, Boris E.

    1997-05-01

    Composed skyrmions with B=2, strangeness content close to 0.5 and the binding energy of several tens of Mev are described. These skyrmions are obtained starting from the system of two B=1 hedgehogs located in different SU(2) subgroups of SU(3) and have the mass and baryon number distribution of molecular (dipole) type. The quantization of zero modes of skyrmion molecules and physics consequences of their existence are discussed.

  17. Strange skyrmion molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir B.; Stern, Boris E.

    1997-05-20

    Composed skyrmions with B=2, strangeness content close to 0.5 and the binding energy of several tens of Mev are described. These skyrmions are obtained starting from the system of two B=1 hedgehogs located in different SU(2) subgroups of SU(3) and have the mass and baryon number distribution of molecular (dipole) type. The quantization of zero modes of skyrmion molecules and physics consequences of their existence are discussed.

  18. Model molecules mimicking asphaltenes.

    PubMed

    Sjöblom, Johan; Simon, Sébastien; Xu, Zhenghe

    2015-04-01

    Asphalthenes are typically defined as the fraction of petroleum insoluble in n-alkanes (typically heptane, but also hexane or pentane) but soluble in toluene. This fraction causes problems of emulsion formation and deposition/precipitation during crude oil production, processing and transport. From the definition it follows that asphaltenes are not a homogeneous fraction but is composed of molecules polydisperse in molecular weight, structure and functionalities. Their complexity makes the understanding of their properties difficult. Proper model molecules with well-defined structures which can resemble the properties of real asphaltenes can help to improve this understanding. Over the last ten years different research groups have proposed different asphaltene model molecules and studied them to determine how well they can mimic the properties of asphaltenes and determine the mechanisms behind the properties of asphaltenes. This article reviews the properties of the different classes of model compounds proposed and present their properties by comparison with fractionated asphaltenes. After presenting the interest of developing model asphaltenes, the composition and properties of asphaltenes are presented, followed by the presentation of approaches and accomplishments of different schools working on asphaltene model compounds. The presentation of bulk and interfacial properties of perylene-based model asphaltene compounds developed by Sjöblom et al. is the subject of the next part. Finally the emulsion-stabilization properties of fractionated asphaltenes and model asphaltene compounds is presented and discussed.

  19. Single Molecule Mechanochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaowei; Zhang, Yanxing; Ho, Wilson; Wu, Ruqian; Ruqian Wu, Yanxing Zhang Team; Wilson Ho, Shaowei Li Team

    Mechanical forces can be used to trigger chemical reactions through bending and stretching of chemical bonds. Using the reciprocating movement of the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), mechanical energy can be provided to a single molecule sandwiched between the tip and substrate. When the mechanical pulse center was moved to the outer ring feature of a CO molecule, the reaction rate was significantly increased compared with bare Cu surface and over Au atoms. First, DFT calculations show that the presence of CO makes the Cu cavity more attractive toward H2 Second, H2 prefers the horizontal adsorption geometry in the Cu-Cu and Au-Cu cavities and no hybridization occurs between the antibonding states of H2 and states of Cu atoms. While H2 loses electrons from its bonding state in all three cavities, the filling of its anti-bonding state only occurs in the CO-Cu cavity. Both make the CO-Cu cavity much more effectively to chop the H2 molecule. Work was supported by the National Science Foundation Center for Chemical Innovation on Chemistry at the Space-Time Limit (CaSTL) under Grant No. CHE-1414466.

  20. Photonic Molecule Lasers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Denis; Dumont, Joey; Déziel, Jean-Luc; Dubé, Louis J.

    2014-05-01

    Photonic molecules (PMs) formed by coupling two or more optical resonators are ideal candidates for the fabrication of integrated microlasers, photonic molecule lasers. Whereas most calculations on PM lasers have been based on cold-cavity (passive) modes, i.e. quasi-bound states, a recently formulated steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT) offers the possibility to take into account the spectral properties of the underlying gain transition, its position and linewidth, as well as incorporating an arbitrary pump profile. We will combine two theoretical approaches to characterize the lasing properties of PM lasers: for two-dimensional systems, the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory will obtain the resonant modes of the coupled molecules in an active medium described by SALT. Not only is then the theoretical description more complete, the use of an active medium provides additional parameters to control, engineer and harness the lasing properties of PM lasers for ultra-low threshold and directional single-mode emission. We will extend our recent study and present new results for a number of promising geometries. The authors acknowledge financial support from NSERC (Canada) and the CERC in Photonic Innovations of Y. Messaddeq.

  1. Sodium Methyldithiocarbamate Exerts Broad Inhibition of Cellular Signaling and Expression of Effector Molecules of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Sodium methyldithiocarbamate (SMD) is one of the most abundantly used conventional pesticides in the United States. At dosages relevant to occupational exposure, it causes major effects on the immune system in mice, including a decreased resistance to sepsis. This lab has identified some of the mechanisms of action of this compound and some of the immunological parameters affected, but the global effects have not previously been assessed. The purpose of the present study was to conduct transcriptomic analysis of the effects of SMD on lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of mediators important in innate immunity and inflammation. The results revealed broad effects on expression of transcription factors in both branches of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling (MyD88 and TRIF). However, TLR3 and interferon signaling pathways were decreased to a greater extent, and assessment of the effects of SMD on polyinosinic polycytidylic acid–induced cytokine and chemokine production revealed that these responses mediated by TLR3 were indeed sensitive to the effects of SMD, with inhibition occurring at lower dosages than required to inhibit responses to other immunological stimuli tested in our previous studies. In the downstream signaling pathways of these TLRs, functional analysis also revealed that NF-κB activation was inhibited by SMD, as indicated by gene expression analysis and a reporter construct in mice. A previously unreported effect on luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone pathways was also observed. PMID:24056979

  2. Human Adaptive Immunity Rescues an Inborn Error of Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Israel, Laura; Wang, Ying; Bulek, Katarzyna; Della Mina, Erika; Zhang, Zhao; Pedergnana, Vincent; Chrabieh, Maya; Lemmens, Nicole A; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Descatoire, Marc; Lasseau, Théo; Israelsson, Elisabeth; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Yun, Ling; Belkadi, Aziz; Moran, Andrew; Weisman, Leonard E; Vandenesch, François; Batteux, Frederic; Weller, Sandra; Levin, Michael; Herberg, Jethro; Abhyankar, Avinash; Prando, Carolina; Itan, Yuval; van Wamel, Willem J B; Picard, Capucine; Abel, Laurent; Chaussabel, Damien; Li, Xiaoxia; Beutler, Bruce; Arkwright, Peter D; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2017-02-23

    The molecular basis of the incomplete penetrance of monogenic disorders is unclear. We describe here eight related individuals with autosomal recessive TIRAP deficiency. Life-threatening staphylococcal disease occurred during childhood in the proband, but not in the other seven homozygotes. Responses to all Toll-like receptor 1/2 (TLR1/2), TLR2/6, and TLR4 agonists were impaired in the fibroblasts and leukocytes of all TIRAP-deficient individuals. However, the whole-blood response to the TLR2/6 agonist staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) was abolished only in the index case individual, the only family member lacking LTA-specific antibodies (Abs). This defective response was reversed in the patient, but not in interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4)-deficient individuals, by anti-LTA monoclonal antibody (mAb). Anti-LTA mAb also rescued the macrophage response in mice lacking TIRAP, but not TLR2 or MyD88. Thus, acquired anti-LTA Abs rescue TLR2-dependent immunity to staphylococcal LTA in individuals with inherited TIRAP deficiency, accounting for incomplete penetrance. Combined TIRAP and anti-LTA Ab deficiencies underlie staphylococcal disease in this patient.

  3. The N-terminal loop of IRAK-4 death domain regulates ordered assembly of the Myddosome signalling scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Dossang, Anthony C. G.; Motshwene, Precious G.; Yang, Yang; Symmons, Martyn F.; Bryant, Clare E.; Borman, Satty; George, Julie; Weber, Alexander N. R.; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of Toll-like receptors induces dimerization and the recruitment of the death domain (DD) adaptor protein MyD88 into an oligomeric post receptor complex termed the Myddosome. The Myddosome is a hub for inflammatory and oncogenic signaling and has a hierarchical arrangement with 6–8 MyD88 molecules assembling with exactly 4 of IRAK-4 and 4 of IRAK-2. Here we show that a conserved motif in IRAK-4 (Ser8-X-X-X-Arg12) is autophosphorylated and that the phosphorylated DD is unable to form Myddosomes. Furthermore a mutant DD with the phospho-mimetic residue Asp at this position is impaired in both signalling and Myddosome assembly. IRAK-4 Arg12 is also essential for Myddosome assembly and signalling and we propose that phosphorylated Ser8 induces the N-terminal loop to fold into an α-helix. This conformer is stabilised by an electrostatic interaction between phospho-Ser8 and Arg12 and would destabilise a critical interface between IRAK-4 and MyD88. Interestingly IRAK-2 does not conserve this motif and has an alternative interface in the Myddosome that requires Arg67, a residue conserved in paralogues, IRAK-1 and 3(M). PMID:27876844

  4. Auranofin, as an anti-rheumatic gold compound, suppresses LPS-induced homodimerization of TLR4.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hyung S; Lee, Joo Y; Saitoh, Shin I; Miyake, Kensuke; Hwang, Daniel H

    2006-12-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are activated by invading microorganisms or endogenous molecules, evoke immune and inflammatory responses. TLR activation is closely linked to the development of many chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. Auranofin, an Au(I) compound, is a well-known and long-used anti-rheumatic drug. However, the mechanism as to how auranofin relieves the symptom of rheumatoid arthritis has not been fully clarified. Our results demonstrated that auranofin suppressed TLR4-mediated activation of transcription factors, NF-kappaB and IRF3, and expression of COX-2, a pro-inflammatory enzyme. This suppression was well correlated with the inhibitory effect of auranofin on the homodimerization of TLR4 induced by an agonist. Furthermore, auranofin inhibited NF-kappaB activation induced by MyD88-dependent downstream signaling components of TLR4, MyD88, IKKbeta, and p65. IRF3 activation induced by MyD88-independent signaling components, TRIF and TBK1, was also downregulated by auranofin. Our results first demonstrate that auranofin suppresses the multiple steps in TLR4 signaling, especially the homodimerization of TLR4. The results suggest that the suppression of TLR4 activity by auranofin may be the molecular mechanism through which auranofin exerts anti-rheumatic activity.

  5. A Role for Innate Immunity in the Development of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gomolak, Jessica R.; Didion, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Clinically, Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in some forms of hypertension and linked to vascular injury. Experimentally, chronic Ang II infusion leads to an increase in blood pressure, resulting in impaired endothelial function and vascular hypertrophy. Ang II also upregulates the activity and expression of a number of inflammatory molecules, including nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). More recently, it has been reported that Ang II is associated with upregulation of toll-like receptor TLR expression, specifically TLR4. Classical TLR4 signaling is mediated in large part by the effector protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), with resultant activation of NFκB, a transcription factor that promotes expression of a number of inflammatory gene products, including IL-6. A role for IL-6 has been previously implicated in the vascular dysfunction associated with Ang II-dependent hypertension. It is not known whether the MyD88 signaling pathway represents a cellular mechanism by which Ang II promotes endothelial dysfunction via NFκB activation and increases in IL-6. Taken together, we propose to mechanistically elucidate the role of innate immune signaling in Ang II-dependent hypertension. We hypothesize MyD88-deficiency will prevent the activation and transcription of NFκB-related gene products, including IL-6, thereby limiting Ang II-dependent hypertension and vascular complications. PMID:25441337

  6. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) mediates intracellular signalling in human keratinocytes in response to Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Adone; Orlando, Manuela; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Farro, Pietro; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Buommino, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial players in the innate immune response to microbial invaders. The lipophilic yeast Malassezia furfur has been implicated in the triggering of scalp lesions in psoriasis. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of TLRs in the defence against M. furfur infection. The expression of the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) gene, which is involved in the signalling pathway of many TLRs, was also analysed. In addition, a possible correlation of antimicrobial peptides of the beta-defensin family to TLRs was tested. Human keratinocytes infected with M. furfur and a variety of M. furfur-positive psoriatic skin biopsies were analysed by RT-PCR, for TLRs, MyD88, human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2), HBD-3 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA expression. When keratinocytes were infected with M. furfur, an up-regulation for TLR2, MyD88, HBD-2, HBD-3 and IL-8 mRNA was demonstrated, compared to the untreated cells. The same results were obtained when psoriatic skin biopsies were analysed. The M. furfur-induced increase in HBD-2 and IL-8 gene expression is inhibited by anti-TLR2 neutralising antibodies, suggesting that TLR2 is involved in the M. furfur-induced expression of these molecules. These findings suggest the importance of TLRs in skin protection against fungi and the importance of keratinocytes as a component of innate immunity.

  7. Type I interferon production induced by Streptococcus pyogenes-derived nucleic acids is required for host protection.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Nina; Hartweger, Harald; Matt, Ulrich; Kratochvill, Franz; Janos, Marton; Sigel, Stefanie; Drobits, Barbara; Li, Xiao-Dong; Knapp, Sylvia; Kovarik, Pavel

    2011-05-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive human pathogen that is recognized by yet unknown pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Engagement of these receptor molecules during infection with S. pyogenes, a largely extracellular bacterium with limited capacity for intracellular survival, causes innate immune cells to produce inflammatory mediators such as TNF, but also type I interferon (IFN). Here we show that signaling elicited by type I IFNs is required for successful defense of mice against lethal subcutaneous cellulitis caused by S. pyogenes. Type I IFN signaling was accompanied with reduced neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection. Mechanistic analysis revealed that macrophages and conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) employ different signaling pathways leading to IFN-beta production. Macrophages required IRF3, STING, TBK1 and partially MyD88, whereas in cDCs the IFN-beta production was fully dependent on IRF5 and MyD88. Furthermore, IFN-beta production by macrophages was dependent on the endosomal delivery of streptococcal DNA, while in cDCs streptococcal RNA was identified as the IFN-beta inducer. Despite a role of MyD88 in both cell types, the known IFN-inducing TLRs were individually not required for generation of the IFN-beta response. These results demonstrate that the innate immune system employs several strategies to efficiently recognize S. pyogenes, a pathogenic bacterium that succeeded in avoiding recognition by the standard arsenal of TLRs.

  8. Adaptive equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, S. U. H.

    1985-09-01

    Theoretical work which has been effective in improving data transmission by telephone and radio links using adaptive equalization (AE) techniques is reviewed. AE has been applied to reducing the temporal dispersion effects, such as intersymbol interference, caused by the channel accessed. Attention is given to the Nyquist telegraph transmission theory, least mean square error adaptive filtering and the theory and structure of linear receive and transmit filters for reducing error. Optimum nonlinear receiver structures are discussed in terms of optimality criteria as a function of error probability. A suboptimum receiver structure is explored in the form of a decision-feedback equalizer. Consideration is also given to quadrature amplitude modulation and transversal equalization for receivers.

  9. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  10. T cell responses are elicited against Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the absence of signalling through TLRs, RLRs and IL-1R/IL-18R

    PubMed Central

    Goritzka, Michelle; Pereira, Catherine; Makris, Spyridon; Durant, Lydia R.; Johansson, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and cytokine receptors are key players in the initiation of immune responses to infection. PRRs detecting viral RNA, such as toll like receptor (TLR)-3, -7/8, and RIG-I like receptors (RLRs; RIG-I and MDA-5), as well as cytokine receptors such as interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R), have been implicated in responses to RNA viruses that infect the airways. The latter includes respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a human pathogen that can cause severe lower respiratory tract infections, especially in infants. To evaluate the collective contribution of PRRs and IL-1R signalling to RSV immunity, we generated Myd88/Trif/Mavs−/− mice that are deficient in signalling by all TLRs, RLRs and IL-1R, as well as other cytokine receptors such as IL-18 receptor. Early production of pro-inflammatory mediators and lung infiltration by immune cells were completely abrogated in infected Myd88/Trif/Mavs−/− mice. However, RSV-specific CD8+ T cells were elicited and recruited into the lungs and airways. Consistent with these findings, Myd88/Trif/Mavs−/− mice survived RSV infection but displayed higher viral load and weight loss. These data highlight an unappreciated level of redundancy in pathways that couple innate virus sensing to adaptive immunity, providing the host with remarkable resilience to infection. PMID:26688048

  11. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  12. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  13. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Christophorou, L G

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules area discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to "hot" molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules ("electron affinity"), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies. PMID:7428744

  14. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    Christophorou, L G

    1980-06-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules area discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to "hot" molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules ("electron affinity"), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies.

  15. Watching single molecules dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Amit Dinesh

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy, from ATP hydrolysis or ion flow, into mechanical motion. A variety of increasingly precise mechanical probes have been developed to monitor and perturb these motors at the single molecule level. Several outstanding questions can be best approached at the single molecule level. These include: how far does a motor progress per energy quanta consumed? how does its reaction cycle respond to load? how many productive catalytic cycles can it undergo per diffusional encounter with its track? and what is the mechanical stiffness of a single molecule connection? A dual beam optical trap, in conjunction with in vitro ensemble motility assays, has been used to characterize two members of the myosin superfamily: muscle myosin II and chick brain myosin V. Both move the helical polymer actin, but myosin II acts in large ensembles to drive muscle contraction or cytokinesis, while myosin V acts in small numbers to transport vesicles. An optical trapping apparatus was rendered sufficiently precise to identify a myosin working stroke with 1nm or so, barring systematic errors such as those perhaps due to random protein orientations. This and other light microscopic motility assays were used to characterize myosin V: unlike myosin II this vesicle transport protein moves through many increments of travel while remaining strongly bound to a single actin filament. The step size, stall force, and travel distance of myosin V reveal a remarkably efficient motor capable of moving along a helical track for over a micrometer without significantly spiraling around it. Such properties are fully consistent with the putative role of an organelle transport motor, present in small numbers to maintain movement over long ranges relative to cellular size scales. The contrast between myosin II and myosin V resembles that between a human running on the moon and one walking on earth, where the former allows for faster motion when in larger ensembles but for less

  16. Molecules in crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, Mark A.

    2013-04-01

    Hirshfeld surface analysis has developed from the serendipitous discovery of a novel partitioning of the crystal electron density into discrete molecular fragments, to a suite of computational tools used widely for the identification, analysis and discussion of intermolecular interactions in molecular crystals. The relationship between the Hirshfeld surface and very early ideas on the internal structure of crystals is outlined, and applications of Hirshfeld surface analysis are presented for three molecules of historical importance in the development of modern x-ray crystallography: hexamethylbenzene, hexamethylenetetramine and diketopiperazine.

  17. Ultra-cold molecule production.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jamie; Chandler, David W.; Strecker, Kevin; Rahn, Larry A.

    2005-12-01

    The production of Ultra-cold molecules is a goal of many laboratories through out the world. Here we are pursuing a unique technique that utilizes the kinematics of atomic and molecular collisions to achieve the goal of producing substantial numbers of sub Kelvin molecules confined in a trap. Here a trap is defined as an apparatus that spatially localizes, in a known location in the laboratory, a sample of molecules whose temperature is below one degree absolute Kelvin. Further, the storage time for the molecules must be sufficient to measure and possibly further cool the molecules. We utilize a technique unique to Sandia to form cold molecules from near mass degenerate collisions between atoms and molecules. This report describes the progress we have made using this novel technique and the further progress towards trapping molecules we have cooled.

  18. Covalent Chemistry beyond Molecules.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juncong; Zhao, Yingbo; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-03-16

    Linking molecular building units by covalent bonds to make crystalline extended structures has given rise to metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs), thus bringing the precision and versatility of covalent chemistry beyond discrete molecules to extended structures. The key advance in this regard has been the development of strategies to overcome the "crystallization problem", which is usually encountered when attempting to link molecular building units into covalent solids. Currently, numerous MOFs and COFs are made as crystalline materials in which the large size of the constituent units provides for open frameworks. The molecular units thus reticulated become part of a new environment where they have (a) lower degrees of freedom because they are fixed into position within the framework; (b) well-defined spatial arrangements where their properties are influenced by the intricacies of the pores; and (c) ordered patterns onto which functional groups can be covalently attached to produce chemical complexity. The notion of covalent chemistry beyond molecules is further strengthened by the fact that covalent reactions can be carried out on such frameworks, with full retention of their crystallinity and porosity. MOFs are exemplars of how this chemistry has led to porosity with designed metrics and functionality, chemically-rich sequences of information within their frameworks, and well-defined mesoscopic constructs in which nanoMOFs enclose inorganic nanocrystals and give them new levels of spatial definition, stability, and functionality.

  19. Dihydrino molecule identification

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, R.L.; Good, W.R. ); Shaubach, R.M. )

    1994-01-01

    Three sets of heat production and [open quotes]ash[close quotes] identification data are presented. An exothermic reaction is reported wherein the electrons of hydrogen and deuterium atoms are stimulated to relax to quantized potential energy levels below that of the [open quotes]ground state[close quotes] via electrochemical reactants K[sup +] and K[sup +]; Pd[sup 2+] and Li[sup +]; or Pd and O[sub 2] of redox energy resonant with the energy hole that stimulates this transition. Calorimetry of pulsed current and continuous electrolysis of aqueous potassium carbonate (K[sup +]/K[sup +] electrocatalytic couple) at a nickel cathode were performed. The excess output power of 41 W exceeded by a factor >8 the total input power given by the product of the electrolysis voltage and current. The product of the exothermic reaction is atoms having electrons of energy below the ground state, which are predicted to form molecules. The predicted molecules were identified by their lack of reactivity with oxygen, by separation from molecular deuterium by cryofiltration, and by mass spectroscopic analysis. 15 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Molecules Best Paper Award 2013.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Derek J

    2013-02-05

    Molecules has started to institute a "Best Paper" award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of natural products, medicinal chemistry and molecular diversity published in Molecules. We are pleased to announce the second "Molecules Best Paper Award" for 2013.

  1. Theoretical spectra of floppy molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua

    2000-09-01

    Detailed studies of the vibrational dynamics of floppy molecules are presented. Six-D bound-state calculations of the vibrations of rigid water dimer based on several anisotropic site potentials (ASP) are presented. A new sequential diagonalization truncation approach was used to diagonalize the angular part of the Hamiltonian. Symmetrized angular basis and a potential optimized discrete variable representation for intermonomer distance coordinate were used in the calculations. The converged results differ significantly from the results presented by Leforestier et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 106 , 8527 (1997)]. It was demonstrated that ASP-S potential yields more accurate tunneling splittings than other ASP potentials used. Fully coupled 4D quantum mechanical calculations were performed for carbon dioxide dimer using the potential energy surface given by Bukowski et al [J. Chem. Phys., 110, 3785 (1999)]. The intermolecular vibrational frequencies and symmetry adapted force constants were estimated and compared with experiments. The inter-conversion tunneling dynamics was studied using the calculated virtual tunneling splittings. Symmetrized Radau coordinates and the sequential diagonalization truncation approach were formulated for acetylene. A 6D calculation was performed with 5 DVR points for each stretch coordinate, and an angular basis that is capable of converging the angular part of the Hamiltonian to 30 cm-1 for internal energies up to 14000 cm-1. The probability at vinylidene configuration were evaluated. It was found that the eigenstates begin to extend to vinylidene configuration from about 10000 cm-1, and the ra, coordinate is closely related to the vibrational dynamics at high energy. Finally, a direct product DVR was defined for coupled angular momentum operators, and the SDT approach were formulated. They were applied in solving the angular part of the Hamiltonian for carbon dioxide dimer problem. The results show the method is capable of giving very accurate

  2. Biochips - Can molecules compute?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, J. B.

    1984-02-01

    In recent years the possibility has been considered to build 'biochip' computers, in which the silicon transistors of present machines would be replaced by large organic molecules or genetically engineered proteins. Two major advantages of such biochips over current devices would be related to vastly increased densities of computing elements, and entirely new styles of data processing, suited to such high-level tasks as pattern recognition and context-dependent analysis. The limitations of the semiconductor chip with respect to the density of elementary units due to size considerations and heat development could be overcome by making use of molecular switches. Attention is given to soliton switching, soliton logic, bulk molecular devices, analog biochips, 'intelligent' switches based on the employment of enzymes, robot vision, questions of biochip fabrication, protein engineering, and a strategy for the development of biochips.

  3. Molecules in the Spotlight

    SciTech Connect

    Cryan, James

    2010-01-26

    SLAC has just unveiled the world's first X-ray laser, the LCLS. This machine produces pulses of X-rays that are ten billion times brighter than those from conventional sources. One of the goals of this machine is to make movies of chemical reactions, including reactions necessary for life and reactions that might power new energy technologies. This public lecture will show the first results from the LCLS. As a first target, we have chosen nitrogen gas, the main component of the air we breathe. Using the unprecedented power of the LCLS X-rays as a blasting torch, we have created new forms of this molecule and with unique electronic arrangements. Please share with us the first insights from this new technology.

  4. Fiber-mesh photonic molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Subodha; Satpathy, Sashi

    2008-03-01

    Analogous to the photonic crystal, we introduce the concept of a fiber-mesh photonic molecule made up of optical fibers and study its transmission characteristics. We consider a specific example of a photonic molecule, inspired by the well-known C60 molecule, with the arms of the molecule formed out of single-moded optical fibers. The transmittance consists of sharp peaks determined by the pole structure of the scattering matrix in the complex energy plane. A molecule can be designed to control the positions and the widths of the transmission peaks, opening up the possibility of building new photonic devices such as high quality band-pass filters.

  5. Vaccine-induced protection against 3 systemic mycoses endemic to North America requires Th17 cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Gern, Benjamin; Hung, Chiung Yu; Ersland, Karen; Rocco, Nicole; Pick-Jacobs, John; Galles, Kevin; Filutowicz, Hanna; Warner, Thomas; Evans, Michael; Cole, Garry; Klein, Bruce

    2011-02-01

    Worldwide rates of systemic fungal infections, including three of the major pathogens responsible for such infections in North America (Coccidioides posadasii, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Blastomyces dermatitidis), have soared recently, spurring interest in developing vaccines. The development of Th1 cells is believed to be crucial for protective immunity against pathogenic fungi, whereas the role of Th17 cells is vigorously debated. In models of primary fungal infection, some studies have shown that Th17 cells mediate resistance, while others have shown that they promote disease pathology. Here, we have shown that Th1 immunity is dispensable and that fungus-specific Th17 cells are sufficient for vaccine-induced protection against lethal pulmonary infection with B. dermatitidis in mice. Further, vaccine-induced Th17 cells were necessary and sufficient to protect against the three major systemic mycoses in North America. Mechanistically, Th17 cells engendered protection by recruiting and activating neutrophils and macrophages to the alveolar space, while the induction of Th17 cells and acquisition of vaccine immunity unexpectedly required the adapter molecule Myd88 but not the fungal pathogen recognition receptor Dectin-1. These data suggest that human vaccines against systemic fungal infections should be designed to induce Th17 cells if they are to be effective.

  6. Geranyl diphosphate synthase molecules, and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Burke, Charles Cullen

    2008-06-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules that each encode a geranyl diphosphate synthase protein, wherein each isolated nucleic acid molecule hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule consisting of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 under conditions of 5.times.SSC at 45.degree. C. for one hour. The present invention also provides isolated geranyl diphosphate synthase proteins, and methods for altering the level of expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase protein in a host cell.

  7. Organic Molecules in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Zita

    2015-08-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are primitive samples from the asteroid belt, containing 3-5wt% organic carbon. The exogenous delivery of organic matter by carbonaceous meteorites may have contributed to the organic inventory of the early Earth. The majority (>70%) of the meteoritic organic material consist of insoluble organic matter (IOM) [1]. The remaining meteoritic organic material (<30%) consists of a rich organic inventory of soluble organic compounds, including key compounds important in terrestrial biochemistry [2-4]. Different carbonaceous meteorites contain soluble organic molecules with different abundances and distributions, which may reflect the extension of aqueous alteration or thermal metamorphism on the meteorite parent bodies. Extensive aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body may result on 1) the decomposition of α-amino acids [5, 6]; 2) synthesis of β- and γ-amino acids [2, 6-9]; 3) higher relative abundances of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [6, 10]; and 4) higher L-enantiomer excess (Lee) value of isovaline [6, 11, 12].The soluble organic content of carbonaceous meteorites may also have a contribution from Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions after the meteorite parent body cooled to lower temperatures [13, 14].The analysis of the abundances and distribution of the organic molecules present in meteorites helps to determine the physical and chemical conditions of the early solar system, and the prebiotic organic compounds available on the early Earth.[1] Cody and Alexander (2005) GCA 69, 1085. [2] Cronin and Chang (1993) in: The Chemistry of Life’s Origin. pp. 209-258. [3] Martins and Sephton (2009) in: Amino acids, peptides and proteins in organic chemistry. pp. 1-42. [4] Martins (2011) Elements 7, 35. [5] Botta et al. (2007) MAPS 42, 81. [6] Martins et al. (2015) MAPS, in press. [7] Cooper and Cronin (1995) GCA 59, 1003. [8] Glavin et al. (2006) MAPS. 41, 889. [9] Glavin et al. (2011) MAPS 45, 1948. [10

  8. Electron-excited molecule interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the limited but significant knowledge to date on electron scattering from vibrationally/rotationally excited molecules and electron scattering from and electron impact ionization of electronically excited molecules is briefly summarized and discussed. The profound effects of the internal energy content of a molecule on its electron attachment properties are highlighted focusing in particular on electron attachment to vibrationally/rotationally and to electronically excited molecules. The limited knowledge to date on electron-excited molecule interactions clearly shows that the cross sections for certain electron-molecule collision processes can be very different from those involving ground state molecules. For example, optically enhanced electron attachment studies have shown that electron attachment to electronically excited molecules can occur with cross sections 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} times larger compared to ground state molecules. The study of electron-excited molecule interactions offers many experimental and theoretical challenges and opportunities and is both of fundamental and technological significance. 54 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Electrochromic Graphene Molecules

    DOE PAGES

    Ji, Zhiqiang; Doorn, Stephen K.; Sykora, Milan

    2015-03-13

    Polyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, also called Graphene Molecules (GMs), with chemical composition C132H36(COOH)2 were synthesized in-situ on the surface of transparent nanocrystaline indium tin oxide (nc-ITO) electrodes. Their electronic structure was studied electrochemically and spectro-electrochemically. Variations in the potential applied onto the nc-ITO/GM electrodes induce only small changes in the observed current but they produce dramatic changes in the absorption of the GMs, which are associated with their oxidation and reduction. Analysis of the absorption changes using modified Nernst equation is used to determine standard potentials associated with the individual charge transfer processes. For the GMs prepared here these were foundmore » to be E1,ox 0 = 0.77± 0.01 V and E2,ox 0 = 1.24 ± 0.02 V vs. NHE for the first and second oxidation and E1,red 0 = -1.50 ± 0.04 V for the first reduction. The charge transfer processes are found to be non-ideal. The non-ideality factors associated with the oxidation and reduction processes suggest presence of strong interactions between the GM redox centers. Under the conditions of potential cycling GMs show rapid (seconds) color change with high contrast and stability. An electrochromic application is demonstrated wherein the GMs are used as the optically active component.« less

  10. Single molecule tracking

    DOEpatents

    Shera, E.B.

    1987-10-07

    A detection system is provided for identifying individual particles or molecules having characteristic emission in a flow train of the particles in a flow cell. A position sensitive sensor is located adjacent the flow cell in a position effective to detect the emissions from the particles within the flow cell and to assign spatial and temporal coordinates for the detected emissions. A computer is then enabled to predict spatial and temporal coordinates for the particle in the flow train as a function of a first detected emission. Comparison hardware or software then compares subsequent detected spatial and temporal coordinates with the predicted spatial and temporal coordinates to determine whether subsequently detected emissions originate from a particle in the train of particles. In one embodiment, the particles include fluorescent dyes which are excited to fluoresce a spectrum characteristic of the particular particle. Photons are emitted adjacent at least one microchannel plate sensor to enable spatial and temporal coordinates to be assigned. The effect of comparing detected coordinates with predicted coordinates is to define a moving sample volume which effectively precludes the effects of background emissions. 3 figs.

  11. Single molecule tracking

    DOEpatents

    Shera, E. Brooks

    1988-01-01

    A detection system is provided for identifying individual particles or molecules having characteristic emission in a flow train of the particles in a flow cell. A position sensitive sensor is located adjacent the flow cell in a position effective to detect the emissions from the particles within the flow cell and to assign spatial and temporal coordinates for the detected emissions. A computer is then enabled to predict spatial and temporal coordinates for the particle in the flow train as a function of a first detected emission. Comparison hardware or software then compares subsequent detected spatial and temporal coordinates with the predicted spatial and temporal coordinates to determine whether subsequently detected emissions originate from a particle in the train of particles. In one embodiment, the particles include fluorescent dyes which are excited to fluoresce a spectrum characteristic of the particular particle. Photones are emitted adjacent at least one microchannel plate sensor to enable spatial and temporal coordinates to be assigned. The effect of comparing detected coordinates with predicted coordinates is to define a moving sample volume which effectively precludes the effects of background emissions.

  12. Atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab investigation entitled Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) is designed to obtain fundamental information related to the chemistry and physics of the Earth's upper atmosphere using the techniques of infrared absorption spectroscopy. There are two principal objectives to be met. The first is the determination, on a global scale, of the compositional structure of the upper atmosphere and its spatial variability. The establishment of this variability represents the first step toward determining the characteristic residence times for the upper atmospheric constituents; the magnitudes of their sources and sinks; and, ultimately, an understanding of their effects on the stability of the stratosphere. The second objective is to provide the high-resolution, calibrated spectral information which is essential for the detailed design of advanced instrumentation for subsequent global monitoring of specific species found to be critical to atmospheric stability. This information will be disseminated in the form of a three dimensional atlas of solar absorption spectra obtained over a range of latitudes, longitudes, and altitudes.

  13. Vibrational autoionization in polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    Pratt, S T

    2005-01-01

    The vibrationally autoionizing Rydberg states of small polyatomic molecules provide a fascinating laboratory in which to study fundamental nonadiabatic processes. In this review, recent results on the vibrational mode dependence of vibrational autoionization are discussed. In general, autoionization rates depend strongly on the character of the normal mode driving the process and on the electronic character of the Rydberg electron. Although quantitative calculations based on multichannel quantum defect theory are available for some polyatomic molecules, including H3, only qualitative information exists for most molecules. This review shows how qualitative information, such as Walsh diagrams along different normal coordinates of the molecule, can provide insight into the vibrational autoionization rates.

  14. Electrical Transport through Organic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, C. N.; Chang, Shun-Chi; Williams, Stan

    2003-03-01

    We investigate electrical transport properties of single organic molecules using electromigration break junctions[1]. A self-assembled monolayer of various organic molecules such as 1,4-di(phenylethynyl-4'-methanethiol)benzene was grown on narrow metal wires, and single or a few molecules were incorporated into the junctions which were created by applying a large voltage and breaking the wires. The transport properties of these molecules were then measured at low temperatures. Latest experimental results will be discussed. [1] Park, J. et al, Nature, 417, 722 (2002); Liang W. et al, Nature, 417, 725 (2002).

  15. Electrochromic Graphene Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Zhiqiang; Doorn, Stephen K.; Sykora, Milan

    2015-03-13

    Polyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, also called Graphene Molecules (GMs), with chemical composition C132H36(COOH)2 were synthesized in-situ on the surface of transparent nanocrystaline indium tin oxide (nc-ITO) electrodes. Their electronic structure was studied electrochemically and spectro-electrochemically. Variations in the potential applied onto the nc-ITO/GM electrodes induce only small changes in the observed current but they produce dramatic changes in the absorption of the GMs, which are associated with their oxidation and reduction. Analysis of the absorption changes using modified Nernst equation is used to determine standard potentials associated with the individual charge transfer processes. For the GMs prepared here these were found to be E1,ox 0 = 0.77± 0.01 V and E2,ox 0 = 1.24 ± 0.02 V vs. NHE for the first and second oxidation and E1,red 0 = -1.50 ± 0.04 V for the first reduction. The charge transfer processes are found to be non-ideal. The non-ideality factors associated with the oxidation and reduction processes suggest presence of strong interactions between the GM redox centers. Under the conditions of potential cycling GMs show rapid (seconds) color change with high contrast and stability. An electrochromic application is demonstrated wherein the GMs are used as the optically active component.

  16. Loosely-Bound Diatomic Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfour, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses concept of covalent bonding as related to homonuclear diatomic molecules. Article draws attention to the existence of bound rare gas and alkaline earth diatomic molecules. Summarizes their molecular parameters and offers spectroscopic data. Strength and variation with distance of interatomic attractive forces is given. (Author/SA)

  17. Featured Molecules: Sucrose and Vanillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

    2003-04-01

    The WebWare molecules of the month for April relate to the sense of taste. Apple Fool, the JCE Classroom Activity, mentions sucrose and vanillin and their use as flavorings. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

  18. Micro-Kelvin cold molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2009-10-01

    We have developed a novel experimental technique for direct production of cold molecules using a combination of techniques from atomic optical and molecular physics and physical chemistry. The ability to produce samples of cold molecules has application in a broad spectrum of technical fields high-resolution spectroscopy, remote sensing, quantum computing, materials simulation, and understanding fundamental chemical dynamics. Researchers around the world are currently exploring many techniques for producing samples of cold molecules, but to-date these attempts have offered only limited success achieving milli-Kelvin temperatures with low densities. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development project is to develops a new experimental technique for producing micro-Kelvin temperature molecules via collisions with laser cooled samples of trapped atoms. The technique relies on near mass degenerate collisions between the molecule of interest and a laser cooled (micro-Kelvin) atom. A subset of collisions will transfer all (nearly all) of the kinetic energy from the 'hot' molecule, cooling the molecule at the expense of heating the atom. Further collisions with the remaining laser cooled atoms will thermally equilibrate the molecules to the micro-Kelvin temperature of the laser-cooled atoms.

  19. Detection of pathogenic DNA at the single-molecule level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiatène, Idir; Klamp, Tobias; Schüttpelz, Mark; Sauer, Markus

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate ultrasensitive detection of pathogenic DNA in a homogeneous assay at the single-molecule level applying two-color coincidence analysis. The target molecule we quantify is a 100 nucleotide long synthetic single-stranded oligonucleotide adapted from Streptococcus pneumoniae, a bacterium causing lower respiratory tract infections. Using spontaneous hybridization of two differently fluorescing Molecular Beacons we demonstrate a detection sensitivity of 100 fM (10-13M) in 30 seconds applying a simple microfluidic device with a 100 μm channel and confocal two-color fluorescence microscopy.

  20. Enzyme molecules in solitary confinement.

    PubMed

    Liebherr, Raphaela B; Gorris, Hans H

    2014-09-12

    Large arrays of homogeneous microwells each defining a femtoliter volume are a versatile platform for monitoring the substrate turnover of many individual enzyme molecules in parallel. The high degree of parallelization enables the analysis of a statistically representative enzyme population. Enclosing individual enzyme molecules in microwells does not require any surface immobilization step and enables the kinetic investigation of enzymes free in solution. This review describes various microwell array formats and explores their applications for the detection and investigation of single enzyme molecules. The development of new fabrication techniques and sensitive detection methods drives the field of single molecule enzymology. Here, we introduce recent progress in single enzyme molecule analysis in microwell arrays and discuss the challenges and opportunities.

  1. An optical conveyor for molecules.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Franz M; Braun, Dieter

    2009-12-01

    Trapping single ions under vacuum allows for precise spectroscopy in atomic physics. The confinement of biological molecules in bulk water is hindered by the lack of comparably strong forces. Molecules have been immobilized to surfaces, however often with detrimental effects on their function. Here, we optically trap molecules by creating the microscale analogue of a conveyor belt: a bidirectional flow is combined with a perpendicular thermophoretic molecule drift. Arranged in a toroidal geometry, the conveyor accumulates a hundredfold excess of 5-base DNA within seconds. The concentrations of the trapped DNA scale exponentially with length, reaching trapping potential depths of 14 kT for 50 bases. The mechanism does not require microfluidics, electrodes, or surface modifications. As a result, the trap can be dynamically relocated. The optical conveyor can be used to enhance diffusion-limited surface reactions, redirect cellular signaling, observe individual biomolecules over a prolonged time, or approach single-molecule chemistry in bulk water.

  2. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  3. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H.; Nguyen, Truong Q.

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the Expectation-Maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad-hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper: First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. Experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms.

  4. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the expectation-maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper. First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms.

  5. Adhesion molecules in vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    El-Asrar, A.; Geboes, K.; Al-Kharashi, S.; Tabbara, K.; Missotten, L.; Desmet, V.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Adhesion molecules play a key role in the selective recruitment of different leucocyte population to inflammatory sites. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of adhesion molecules in the conjunctiva of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC).
METHODS—The presence and distribution of adhesion molecules were studied in 14 conjunctival biopsy specimens from seven patients with active VKC and in four normal conjunctival biopsy specimens. We used a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3), lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1). In addition, a panel of mAbs were used to characterise the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate.
RESULTS—In the normal conjunctiva, ICAM-1 was expressed on the vascular endothelium only, LFA-1 and ICAM-3 on epithelial and stromal mononuclear cells , and VLA-4 on stromal mononuclear cells. The expression of VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 was absent. The number of cells expressing adhesion molecules was found to be markedly increased in all VKC specimens. This was concurrent with a heavy inflammatory infiltrate. Strong ICAM-1 expression was induced on the basal epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, ICAM-1 was expressed on stromal mononuclear cells. LFA-1 and ICAM-3 were expressed on the majority of epithelial and stromal infiltrating mononuclear cells. VLA-4 expression was noted on stromal mononuclear cells. Compared with controls, VKC specimens showed significantly more ICAM-3+, LFA-1+, and VLA-4+ cells. VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 were induced on the vascular endothelial cells.
CONCLUSIONS—Increased expression of adhesion molecules may play an important role in the pathogenesis of VKC.

 PMID

  6. Resolving metal-molecule interfaces at single-molecule junctions

    PubMed Central

    Komoto, Yuki; Fujii, Shintaro; Nakamura, Hisao; Tada, Tomofumi; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Electronic and structural detail at the electrode-molecule interface have a significant influence on charge transport across molecular junctions. Despite the decisive role of the metal-molecule interface, a complete electronic and structural characterization of the interface remains a challenge. This is in no small part due to current experimental limitations. Here, we present a comprehensive approach to obtain a detailed description of the metal-molecule interface in single-molecule junctions, based on current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Contrary to conventional conductance studies, this I-V approach provides a correlated statistical description of both, the degree of electronic coupling across the metal-molecule interface, and the energy alignment between the conduction orbital and the Fermi level of the electrode. This exhaustive statistical approach was employed to study single-molecule junctions of 1,4-benzenediamine (BDA), 1,4-butanediamine (C4DA), and 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT). A single interfacial configuration was observed for both BDA and C4DA junctions, while three different interfacial arrangements were resolved for BDT. This multiplicity is due to different molecular adsorption sites on the Au surface namely on-top, hollow, and bridge. Furthermore, C4DA junctions present a fluctuating I-V curve arising from the greater conformational freedom of the saturated alkyl chain, in sharp contrast with the rigid aromatic backbone of both BDA and BDT. PMID:27221947

  7. Relative Sizes of Organic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This computer graphic depicts the relative complexity of crystallizing large proteins in order to study their structures through x-ray crystallography. Insulin is a vital protein whose structure has several subtle points that scientists are still trying to determine. Large molecules such as insuline are complex with structures that are comparatively difficult to understand. For comparison, a sugar molecule (which many people have grown as hard crystals in science glass) and a water molecule are shown. These images were produced with the Macmolecule program. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  8. Light-assisted small molecule screening against protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Inglés-Prieto, Álvaro; Reichhart, Eva; Muellner, Markus K.; Nowak, Matthias; Nijman, Sebastian M.; Grusch, Michael; Janovjak, Harald

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput live-cell screens are intricate elements of systems biology studies and drug discovery pipelines. Here, we demonstrate an optogenetics-assisted method that obviates the addition of chemical activators and reporters, reduces the number of operational steps and increases information content in a cell-based small molecule screen against human protein kinases including an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase. This blueprint for all-optical screening can be adapted to many drug targets and cellular processes. PMID:26457372

  9. Indexing molecules with chemical graph identifiers.

    PubMed

    Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet; Garriga-Sust, Rut; Mestres, Jordi

    2011-09-01

    Fast and robust algorithms for indexing molecules have been historically considered strategic tools for the management and storage of large chemical libraries. This work introduces a modified and further extended version of the molecular equivalence number naming adaptation of the Morgan algorithm (J Chem Inf Comput Sci 2001, 41, 181-185) for the generation of a chemical graph identifier (CGI). This new version corrects for the collisions recognized in the original adaptation and includes the ability to deal with graph canonicalization, ensembles (salts), and isomerism (tautomerism, regioisomerism, optical isomerism, and geometrical isomerism) in a flexible manner. Validation of the current CGI implementation was performed on the open NCI database and the drug-like subset of the ZINC database containing 260,071 and 5,348,089 structures, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained with some of the most widely used indexing codes, such as the CACTVS hash code and the new InChIKey. The analyses emphasize the fact that compound management activities, like duplicate analysis of chemical libraries, are sensitive to the exact definition of compound uniqueness and thus still depend, to a minor extent, on the type and flexibility of the molecular index being used.

  10. Quantum Transport Through Heterocyclic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Santanu K.; Karmakar, S. N.

    We explore electron transport properties in molecular wires made of heterocyclic molecules (pyrrole, furan and thiophene) by using the Green's function technique. Parametric calculations are given based on the tight-binding model to describe the electron transport in these wires. It is observed that the transport properties are significantly influenced by (a) the heteroatoms in the heterocyclic molecules and (b) the molecule-to-electrodes coupling strength. Conductance (g) shows sharp resonance peaks associated with the molecular energy levels in the limit of weak molecular coupling, while they get broadened in the strong molecular coupling limit. These resonances get shifted with the change of the heteroatoms in these heterocyclic molecules. All the essential features of the electron transfer through these molecular wires become much more clearly visible from the study of our current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, and they provide several key information in the study of molecular transport.

  11. Molecule-hugging graphene nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Garaj, Slaven; Liu, Song; Golovchenko, Jene A.; Branton, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that solid-state nanopores in single-atomic-layer graphene membranes can be used to electronically detect and characterize single long charged polymer molecules. We have now fabricated nanopores in single-layer graphene that are closely matched to the diameter of a double-stranded DNA molecule. Ionic current signals during electrophoretically driven translocation of DNA through these nanopores were experimentally explored and theoretically modeled. Our experiments show that these nanopores have unusually high sensitivity (0.65 nA/Å) to extremely small changes in the translocating molecule’s outer diameter. Such atomically short graphene nanopores can also resolve nanoscale-spaced molecular structures along the length of a polymer, but do so with greatest sensitivity only when the pore and molecule diameters are closely matched. Modeling confirms that our most closely matched pores have an inherent resolution of ≤0.6 nm along the length of the molecule. PMID:23836648

  12. Fluorescence Microscopy of Single Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Jan; van Dorp, Arthur; Renn, Alois

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of photochemistry and photophysics of individual quantum systems is described with the help of a wide-field fluorescence microscopy approach. The fluorescence single molecules are observed in real time.

  13. Moving Molecules and Mothball Madness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, John

    1993-01-01

    Describes concrete demonstrations on the states of matter. In the first demonstration, students represent molecules; and, in the second demonstration, moth balls are heated to produce a change of state. (PR)

  14. [Adhesion molecules and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Urso, C; Hopps, E; Caimi, G

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion molecules play a significant role in leukocyte migration across the endothelium and are also involved in regulating immune system. It is shown that diabetic patients have an increase of soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sICAM-2, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, sL-selectin, sP-selectin) considered an integral part of inflammatory state. This inflammation is responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk of these patients. There is a close link between hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, coagulopathy and inflammation and between these factors and the vascular damage. Various studies have showed the potential role of adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of diabetic vasculopathy. They promote leukocyte recruitment, which is one of the initial steps in the genesis of atherosclerotic plaque. Adhesion molecules are also involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 1; sICAM-1 would have a particular immunomodulatory role in the process of destroying beta-cells and could be used as a subclinical marker of insulitis. Plasma levels of soluble adhesion molecules correlate with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity; they are associated with the development of nephropathy, retinopathy, myocardial infarction, stroke and obliterant peripheral arterial disease in diabetic type 1 and 2. Given the role of these molecules in endothelial dysfunction genesis and tissue damage associated with diabetes, they could constitute a therapeutic target for the prevention of genesis and progression of chronic complications of diabetic disease.

  15. General van der Waals potential for common organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Qi, Rui; Wang, Qiantao; Ren, Pengyu

    2016-10-15

    This work presents a systematic development of a new van der Waals potential (vdW2016) for common organic molecules based on symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) energy decomposition. The Buf-14-7 function, as well as Cubic-mean and Waldman-Hagler mixing rules were chosen given their best performance among other popular potentials. A database containing 39 organic molecules and 108 dimers was utilized to derive a general set of vdW parameters, which were further validated on nucleobase stacking systems and testing organic dimers. The vdW2016 potential is anticipated to significantly improve the accuracy and transferability of new generations of force fields for organic molecules.

  16. Habituation of visual adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  17. Raman Optical Activity Spectra for Large Molecules through Molecules-in-Molecules Fragment-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Jovan Jose, K V; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2016-02-09

    We present an efficient method for the calculation of the Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra for large molecules through the molecules-in-molecules (MIM) fragment-based method. The relevant higher energy derivatives from smaller fragments are used to build the property tensors of the parent molecule to enable the extension of the MIM method for evaluating ROA spectra (MIM-ROA). Two factors were found to be particularly important in yielding accurate results. First, the link-atom tensor components are projected back onto the corresponding host and supporting atoms through the Jacobian projection method, yielding a mathematically rigorous method. Second, the long-range interactions between fragments are taken into account by using a less computationally expensive lower level of theory. The performance of the MIM-ROA model is calibrated on the enantiomeric pairs of 10 carbohydrate benchmark molecules, with strong intramolecular interactions. The vibrational frequencies and ROA intensities are accurately reproduced relative to the full, unfragmented, results for these systems. In addition, the MIM-ROA method is employed to predict the ROA spectra of d-maltose, α-D-cyclodextrin, and cryptophane-A, yielding spectra in excellent agreement with experiment. The accuracy and performance of the benchmark systems validate the MIM-ROA model for exploring ROA spectra of large molecules.

  18. Exposure to stressful environments - Strategy of adaptive responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Stresses such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure can produce strains in more than a single organ system, in turn stimulating the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups: (1) conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, (2) stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products such as CO2 and heat, and (3) environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of microenvironment, is often favored by the animal.

  19. Electrical conduction through DNA molecule.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, S

    2011-09-01

    Several disorder parameters, inside the DNA molecule, lead to localization of charge carriers inside potential wells in the lowest unoccupied and highest occupied molecular orbits (LUMO and HOMO) which affects drastically the electrical conduction through the molecule, and demonstrates that the band carriers play an essential role in the conduction mechanism. So, a model is presented to shed light on the role of electrons of the LUMO in the electrical conduction through the DNA molecule. DC-, AC-conductivity and dielectric permittivity experimental data are well fitted with the presented model giving evidence that the free carriers in the LUMO and HOMO are responsible to make the DNA molecule conductor, insulator or semiconductor. The obtained results show that the localized charge carriers in the DNA molecule are characterized by four different types of relaxation phenomena which are thermally activated by corresponding four activation energies at 0.56 eV, 0.33 eV, 0.24 eV, and 0.05 eV respectively. Moreover, the calculations after the model, at room temperature, show that the time of the relaxation times of the current carriers are in the order of 5 × 10(-2)s, 1.74 × 10(-4)s, 5 × 10(-7)s, and 1.6 × 10(-10)s, respectively.

  20. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  1. Small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James W; Plummer, Mark S; Blount, Kenneth F; Ames, Tyler D; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-23

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here, we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride.

  2. Small Molecule Fluoride Toxicity Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Nelson1, James W.; Plummer, Mark S.; Blount, Kenneth F.; Ames, Tyler D.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch-reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. PMID:25910244

  3. Small Molecule CXCR3 Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Stephen P; Cox, Rhona J

    2016-04-14

    Chemokines and their receptors are known to play important roles in disease. More than 40 chemokine ligands and 20 chemokine receptors have been identified, but, to date, only two small molecule chemokine receptor antagonists have been approved by the FDA. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 was identified in 1996, and nearly 20 years later, new areas of CXCR3 disease biology continue to emerge. Several classes of small molecule CXCR3 antagonists have been developed, and two have shown efficacy in preclinical models of inflammatory disease. However, only one CXCR3 antagonist has been evaluated in clinical trials, and there remain many opportunities to further investigate known classes of CXCR3 antagonists and to identify new chemotypes. This Perspective reviews the known CXCR3 antagonists and considers future opportunities for the development of small molecules for clinical evaluation.

  4. Autonomous DNA-Molecule Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Ken; Rose, John A.; Yamamura, Masayuki

    DNA molecules autonomously change their forms from the single strand to the double helix by specific binding between complementary sequences according to the Watson-Crick base pairing rule. This paring rule allows us to control connections among molecules and to construct various structures by sequence design. Further, the motion of constructed structures can also be designed by considering sequential bindings. Recently, the feasibility to utilize the programmed DNA structural change for information processing was studied. In the present paper, we report an efficient synthetic chain reaction based on autonomous binding of DNA to realize a computing system, which enable us to implement computational intelligence in vitro.

  5. Piezoresistivity in single DNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Bruot, Christopher; Palma, Julio L.; Xiang, Limin; Mujica, Vladimiro; Ratner, Mark A.; Tao, Nongjian

    2015-01-01

    Piezoresistivity is a fundamental property of materials that has found many device applications. Here we report piezoresistivity in double helical DNA molecules. By studying the dependence of molecular conductance and piezoresistivity of single DNA molecules with different sequences and lengths, and performing molecular orbital calculations, we show that the piezoresistivity of DNA is caused by force-induced changes in the π–π electronic coupling between neighbouring bases, and in the activation energy of hole hopping. We describe the results in terms of thermal activated hopping model together with the ladder-based mechanical model for DNA proposed by de Gennes. PMID:26337293

  6. Phase structure of soliton molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Hause, A.; Hartwig, H.; Seifert, B.; Stolz, H.; Boehm, M.; Mitschke, F.

    2007-06-15

    Temporal optical soliton molecules were recently demonstrated; they potentially allow further increase of data rates in optical telecommunication. Their binding mechanism relies on the internal phases, but these have not been experimentally accessible so far. Conventional frequency-resolved optical gating techniques are not suited for measurement of their phase profile: Their algorithms fail to converge due to zeros both in their temporal and their spectral profile. We show that the VAMPIRE (very advanced method of phase and intensity retrieval of E-fields) method performs reliably. With VAMPIRE the phase profile of soliton molecules has been measured, and further insight into the mechanism is obtained.

  7. Alterations of Fc gamma receptor I and Toll-like receptor 4 mediate the antiinflammatory actions of microglia and astrocytes after adrenaline-induced blood-brain barrier opening in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Na; Qin, Xu-Jun; Kuang, Fang; Wu, Rui; Duan, Xiao-Li; Ju, Gong; Wang, Bai-Ren

    2008-12-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening occurs under many physiological and pathological conditions. BBB opening will lead to the leakage of large circulating molecules into the brain parenchyma. These invasive molecules will induce immune responses. Microglia and astrocytes are the two major cell types responsible for immune responses in the brain, and Fc gamma receptor I (FcgammaRI) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are the two important receptors mediating these processes. Data suggest that activation of the FcgammaRI pathway mediates antiinflammatory processes, whereas activation of TLR4 pathway leads to proinflammatory activities. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that BBB opening could lead to alterations in FcgammaRI and TLR4 pathways in microglia and astrocytes, thus limiting excessive inflammation in the brain. The transient BBB opening was induced by adrenaline injection through a caudal vein in Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that the FcgammaRI pathway was significantly activated in both microglia and astrocytes, as exhibited by the up-regulation of FcgammaRI and its key downstream molecule Syk, as well as the increased production of the effector cytokines, interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-4. Interestingly, after transient BBB opening, TLR4 expression was also increased. However, the expression of MyD88, the central adapter of the TLR4 pathway, was significantly inhibited, with decreased production of the effector cytokines IL-12a and IL-1beta. These results indicate that, after transient BBB opening, FcgammaRI-mediated antiinflammatory processes were activated, whereas TLR4-mediated proinflammatory activities were inhibited in microglia and astrocytes. This may represent an important neuroprotective mechanism of microglia and astrocytes that limits excessive inflammation after BBB opening.

  8. Nucleic Acids as Information Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity that aims at enabling students to recognize that DNA and RNA are information molecules whose function is to store, copy, and make available the information in biological systems, without feeling overwhelmed by the specialized vocabulary and the minutia of the central dogma. (JRH)

  9. Small Molecules Target Carcinogenic Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradinaru, Claudiu

    2009-03-01

    An ingenious cellular mechanism of effecting protein localization is prenylation: the covalent attachment of a hydrophobic prenyl group to a protein that facilitates protein association with cell membranes. Fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate whether the oncogenic Stat3 protein can undergo artificial prenylation via high-affinity prenylated small-molecule binding agents and thus be rendered inactive by localization at the plasma membrane instead of nucleus. The measurements were performed on a home-built instrument capable of recording simultaneously several optical parameters (lifetime, polarization, color, etc) and with single-molecule sensitivity. A pH-invariant fluorescein derivative with double moiety was designed to bridge a prenyl group and a small peptide that binds Stat3 with high affinity. Confocal fluorescence images show effective localization of the ligand to the membrane of liposomes. Stat3 predominantly localizes at the membrane only in the presence of the prenylated ligand. Single-molecule FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) between donor-labeled prenylated agents and acceptor-labeled, surface tethered Stat3 protein is used to determine the dynamic heterogeneity of the protein-ligand interaction and follow individual binding-unbinding events in real time. The data indicates that molecules can effect protein localization, validating a therapeutic design that influences protein activity via induced localization.

  10. Nanodevices for Single Molecule Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craighead, H. G.; Stavis, S. M.; Samiee, K. T.

    During the last two decades, biotechnology research has resulted in progress in fields as diverse as the life sciences, agriculture and healthcare. While existing technology enables the analysis of a variety of biological systems, new tools are needed for increasing the efficiency of current methods, and for developing new ones altogether. Interest has grown in single molecule analysis for these reasons.

  11. Eckart frames for planar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hua

    2003-04-01

    Explicit analytic expressions of Eckart frames for planar molecules in Radau, Jacobi and bond coordinates have been presented. The orientation of the frame axis system with respect to the molecular plane at equilibrium is specified by an angle θ1e.

  12. Osteopontin Bridging Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raineri, Davide; Boggio, Elena; Favero, Francesco; Soluri, Maria Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) regulates the immune response at multiple levels. Physiologically, it regulates the host response to infections by driving T helper (Th) polarization and acting on both innate and adaptive immunity; pathologically, it contributes to the development of immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. In some cases, the mechanisms of these effects have been described, but many aspects of the OPN function remain elusive. This is in part ascribable to the fact that OPN is a complex molecule with several posttranslational modifications and it may act as either an immobilized protein of the extracellular matrix or a soluble cytokine or an intracytoplasmic molecule by binding to a wide variety of molecules including crystals of calcium phosphate, several cell surface receptors, and intracytoplasmic molecules. This review describes the OPN structure, isoforms, and functions and its role in regulating the crosstalk between innate and adaptive immunity in autoimmune diseases. PMID:28097158

  13. Phenotypic effect of mutations in evolving populations of RNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The secondary structure of folded RNA sequences is a good model to map phenotype onto genotype, as represented by the RNA sequence. Computational studies of the evolution of ensembles of RNA molecules towards target secondary structures yield valuable clues to the mechanisms behind adaptation of complex populations. The relationship between the space of sequences and structures, the organization of RNA ensembles at mutation-selection equilibrium, the time of adaptation as a function of the population parameters, the presence of collective effects in quasispecies, or the optimal mutation rates to promote adaptation all are issues that can be explored within this framework. Results We investigate the effect of microscopic mutations on the phenotype of RNA molecules during their in silico evolution and adaptation. We calculate the distribution of the effects of mutations on fitness, the relative fractions of beneficial and deleterious mutations and the corresponding selection coefficients for populations evolving under different mutation rates. Three different situations are explored: the mutation-selection equilibrium (optimized population) in three different fitness landscapes, the dynamics during adaptation towards a goal structure (adapting population), and the behavior under periodic population bottlenecks (perturbed population). Conclusions The ratio between the number of beneficial and deleterious mutations experienced by a population of RNA sequences increases with the value of the mutation rate μ at which evolution proceeds. In contrast, the selective value of mutations remains almost constant, independent of μ, indicating that adaptation occurs through an increase in the amount of beneficial mutations, with little variations in the average effect they have on fitness. Statistical analyses of the distribution of fitness effects reveal that small effects, either beneficial or deleterious, are well described by a Pareto distribution. These results

  14. Cinnamaldehyde suppresses toll-like receptor 4 activation mediated through the inhibition of receptor oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hyung S; Lee, Jun K; Choi, Yong J; Saitoh, Shin I; Miyake, Kensuke; Hwang, Daniel H; Lee, Joo Y

    2008-01-15

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in induction of innate immune and inflammatory responses by recognizing invading pathogens or non-microbial endogenous molecules. TLRs have two major downstream signaling pathways, MyD88- and TRIF-dependent pathways leading to the activation of NFkappaB and IRF3 and the expression of inflammatory mediators. Deregulation of TLR activation is known to be closely linked to the increased risk of many chronic diseases. Cinnamaldehyde (3-phenyl-2-propenal) has been reported to inhibit NFkappaB activation induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli and to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. However, the underlying mechanism has not been clearly identified. Our results showed that cinnamaldehyde suppressed the activation of NFkappaB and IRF3 induced by LPS, a TLR4 agonist, leading to the decreased expression of target genes such as COX-2 and IFNbeta in macrophages (RAW264.7). Cinnamaldehyde did not inhibit the activation of NFkappaB or IRF3 induced by MyD88-dependent (MyD88, IKKbeta) or TRIF-dependent (TRIF, TBK1) downstream signaling components. However, oligomerization of TLR4 induced by LPS was suppressed by cinnamaldehyde resulting in the downregulation of NFkappaB activation. Further, cinnamaldehyde inhibited ligand-independent NFkappaB activation induced by constitutively active TLR4 or wild-type TLR4. Our results demonstrated that the molecular target of cinnamaldehyde in TLR4 signaling is oligomerization process of receptor, but not downstream signaling molecules suggesting a novel mechanism for anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamaldehyde.

  15. The role of MicroRNAs miR-200b and miR-200c in TLR4 signaling and NF-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    Wendlandt, Erik B; Graff, Joel W; Gioannini, Theresa L; McCaffrey, Anton P; Wilson, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Recognition of microbial products by members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family initiates intracellular signaling cascades that result in NF-κB activation and subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines. We explored the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating TLR pathways. A target analysis approach to the TLR4 pathway adaptor molecules identified several putative targets of miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c. miRNA mimics were co-transfected with a NF-κB activity reporter plasmid into HEK293 cells stably expressing TLR4 (HEK293-TLR4). Mimics of both miR-200b and miR-200c, but not miR-200a, decreased NF-κB reporter activity in either untreated cells or in cells treated with endotoxin:MD2 as a TLR4 agonist. Transfection of HEK293-TLR4 cells with miR-200b or miR-200c significantly decreased expression of MyD88, whereas TLR4, IRAK-1 and TRAF-6 mRNAs were unaffected. When miR-200b or miR-200c mimics were transfected into the differentiated monocytic THP-1 cell line, the abundance of MyD88 transcripts, as well as LPS-induced expression of the pro-inflammatory molecules IL-6, CXCL9 and TNF-α were diminished. These data define miRNAs miR-200b and miR-200c as factors that modify the efficiency of TLR4 signaling through the MyD88-dependent pathway and can thus affect host innate defenses against microbial pathogens. PMID:22522429

  16. Resilience through adaptation

    PubMed Central

    van Voorn, George A. K.; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover’s distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system. PMID:28196372

  17. Effects of xenon insertion into hydrogen bromide. Comparison of the electronic structure of the HBr···CO2 and HXeBr···CO2 complexes using quantum chemical topology methods: electron localization function, atoms in molecules and symmetry adapted perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, Emilia; Gordon, Agnieszka J; Mierzwicki, Krzysztof; Latajka, Zdzislaw; Berski, Slawomir

    2014-06-05

    Quantum chemistry methods have been applied to study the influence of the Xe atom inserted into the hydrogen-bromine bond (HBr → HXeBr), particularly on the nature of atomic interactions in the HBr···CO2 and HXeBr···CO2 complexes. Detailed analysis of the nature of chemical bonds has been carried out using topological analysis of the electron localization function, while topological analysis of electron density was used to gain insight into the nature of weak nonbonding interactions. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory within the orbital approach was applied for greater understanding of the physical contributions to the total interaction energy.

  18. Dissociation energy of molecules in dense gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunc, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    A general approach is presented for calculating the reduction of the dissociation energy of diatomic molecules immersed in a dense (n = less than 10 exp 22/cu cm) gas of molecules and atoms. The dissociation energy of a molecule in a dense gas differs from that of the molecule in vacuum because the intermolecular forces change the intramolecular dynamics of the molecule, and, consequently, the energy of the molecular bond.

  19. Nano trap for polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümel, R.

    2012-07-01

    A new ac/dc monopole trap for neutral polar particles, introduced and explored by Blümel (2011 Phys. Rev. A 83 045402 and 2011 Eur. Phys. J. D 64 85-101), is significantly advanced in several directions. (1) Previously shown to work only for polar classical particles and polar macro-molecules, the trap is shown to work for polar diatomic molecules. (2) A homogeneous electric field, optionally switched on for improved stability in the angular direction, leads to stable trapping in higher order stability regions of the Mathieu equation. (3) Based on the Floquet formalism, analytical and numerical calculations are presented that show that the trap is quantum mechanically stable. (4) Definition and derivation of a quantum pseudo-potential allow a qualitative understanding of the quantum trapping mechanism. (5) It is shown that the proposed ac/dc trap may be realized experimentally using currently available scanning tunnelling microscopy technology.

  20. Optical highlighter molecules in neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sandeep Robert; Patterson, George H

    2012-02-01

    The development of advanced optical methods has played a key role in propelling progress in neurobiology. Genetically-encoded fluorescent molecules found in nature have enabled labeling of individual neurons to study their physiology and anatomy. Here we discuss the recent use of both native and synthetic optical highlighter proteins to address key problems in neurobiology, including questions relevant to synaptic function, neuroanatomy, and the organization of neural circuits.

  1. Racemic fluids of hard molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatamanu, J.; Cann, N. M.

    2001-05-01

    The structure in four racemic fluids is explored using two integral equation theories: the reference interaction site method (RISM) [D. Chandler and H. C. Andersen, J. Chem. Phys. 57, 1930 (1972)] and the diagrammatically correct theory of Chandler, Silbey, and Ladanyi (CSL) [D. Chandler, R. Silbey, and B. M. Ladanyi, Mol. Phys. 46, 1335 (1982)]. Discrimination is measured by comparison of site pair distributions for sites on identical molecules with the corresponding distributions for sites on mirror-image molecules. We find that discrimination is largest for distributions between the smallest sites in the molecules. Between racemates, those consisting of more asymmetrical chiral molecules (i.e., with a bigger range of site sizes and bond lengths) show the largest discrimination. The indirect correlation function is shown to be nondiscriminating in racemates. Further, exact relationships between like-like and like-unlike differences in the other pair functions have been obtained. From these, the importance of the bridge functions in discrimination is evident. The CSL theory always satisfies the exact relationships, even with approximate bridge diagrams. RISM theory cannot satisfy these exact limits regardless of density and closure relation. We have found that RISM theory predicts qualitatively incorrect pair distributions at low densities, but that the difference in the distributions is more accurate. All bridge diagrams which contribute to O(ρo) have been enumerated and evaluated. Inclusion of these diagrams into the CSL theory leads to exact results at low density. However, we find that the inclusion of the ρo diagrams has dramatically improved the quality of the CSL theory at all densities.

  2. Metagenomic small molecule discovery methods

    PubMed Central

    Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Milshteyn, Aleksandr; Brady, Sean F.

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic approaches to natural product discovery provide the means of harvesting bioactive small molecules synthesized by environmental bacteria without the requirement of first culturing these organisms. Advances in sequencing technologies and general metagenomic methods are beginning to provide the tools necessary to unlock the unexplored biosynthetic potential encoded by the genomes of uncultured environmental bacteria. Here, we highlight recent advances in sequence- and functional- based metagenomic approaches that promise to facilitate antibiotic discovery from diverse environmental microbiomes. PMID:25000402

  3. Intensity calculations of HCN molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasmin, Kausar

    2006-10-01

    Accurate spectroscopic data of HCN are required for many astronomical calculations and modeling. HCN molecules are present in the atmosphere of carbon stars and in galactic centers. Ro-vibrational energy levels and intensity calculations were carried out using the full coupled cluster model and radau coordinates. Accurate ab initio calculated potential energy surface^1 and dipole moment surface^2 were used for computation. The computed values were compared with Hitran^99.^

  4. Electron interactions with polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of a number of the features of discrete and continuous spectra of electrons interacting with polar molecules. Attention is focused on the extent to which theoretical predictions concerning cross sections, resonances, and bound states are strongly influenced by the various approximations that are so ubiquitous in the treatment of such problems. Similarly, threshold scattering and photodetachment processes are examined for the case of weakly bound dipole states whose higher members overlap the continuum.

  5. Small Molecules-Big Data.

    PubMed

    Császár, Attila G; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Árendás, Péter

    2016-11-17

    Quantum mechanics builds large-scale graphs (networks): the vertices are the discrete energy levels the quantum system possesses, and the edges are the (quantum-mechanically allowed) transitions. Parts of the complete quantum mechanical networks can be probed experimentally via high-resolution, energy-resolved spectroscopic techniques. The complete rovibronic line list information for a given molecule can only be obtained through sophisticated quantum-chemical computations. Experiments as well as computations yield what we call spectroscopic networks (SN). First-principles SNs of even small, three to five atomic molecules can be huge, qualifying for the big data description. Besides helping to interpret high-resolution spectra, the network-theoretical view offers several ideas for improving the accuracy and robustness of the increasingly important information systems containing line-by-line spectroscopic data. For example, the smallest number of measurements necessary to perform to obtain the complete list of energy levels is given by the minimum-weight spanning tree of the SN and network clustering studies may call attention to "weakest links" of a spectroscopic database. A present-day application of spectroscopic networks is within the MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) approach, whereby the transitions information on a measured SN is turned into experimental energy levels via a weighted linear least-squares refinement. MARVEL has been used successfully for 15 molecules and allowed to validate most of the transitions measured and come up with energy levels with well-defined and realistic uncertainties. Accurate knowledge of the energy levels with computed transition intensities allows the realistic prediction of spectra under many different circumstances, e.g., for widely different temperatures. Detailed knowledge of the energy level structure of a molecule coming from a MARVEL analysis is important for a considerable number of modeling

  6. Quantum simulation with cold molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Ana Maria

    2014-03-01

    Recent experimental developments on cooling, trapping, manipulating and loading ultra-cold ground state molecules in an optical lattice have opened the door for the exploration of quantum magnetism and the observation of complex quantum dynamics. In this talk I will discuss recent developments towards the implementation of controllable spin lattice models in polar molecules with the spin degrees of freedom encoded in rotational states. The spin-spin couplings are generated by direct dipolar interactions and can be fully controlled by dc electromagnetic fields and microwaves. The spin models realized in this way are long range, anisotropic and can even feature direction-dependent spin interactions. They can emulate Hamiltonians ranging from the Heisenberg spin model, to Hamiltonians with symmetry protected topological phases to Hamiltonians without solid state counterpart. At JILA we have been able to realize for the first time a lattice spin model with fermionic KRb molecules pinned in a 3D lattice. We observe clear manifestation of dipolar exchange interactions in Ramsey spectroscopy even at substantially less than unit lattice filling. I will describe the new theoretical methods that we developed to model the spin dynamics and show that those reproduce the experimental observations. Even though so far the spin dynamics has been restricted to pinned molecules, in part to prevent chemical reactions, I will finish by presenting theoretical calculations supported by experimental measurement at JILA that demonstrate that the continuous quantum Zeno mechanism can actually suppress loss in this highly reactive system. This finding opens the exciting possibility of observing itinerant quantum magnetism in near term experiments. This work is supported by ARO, ARO-DARPA-OLE, NSF-PFC and NSF-PIF

  7. Does helminth activation of toll-like receptors modulate immune response in multiple sclerosis patients?

    PubMed Central

    Correale, Jorge; Farez, Mauricio F.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating disease affecting the Central Nervous System (CNS), in which Th1 and Th17 cells appear to recognize and react against certain myelin sheath components. Epidemiological evidence has accumulated indicating steady increase in autoimmune disease incidence in developed countries. Reduced infectious disease prevalence in particular has been proposed as the cause. In agreement with this hypothesis, we recently demonstrated significantly better clinical and radiological outcome in helminth-infected MS patients, compared to uninfected ones. Parasite-driven protection was associated with regulatory T cell induction and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion, including increased TGF-β and IL-10 levels. Interestingly, surface expression of TLR2, on both B cells and dendritic cells (DC) was significantly higher in infected MS patients. Moreover, stimulation of myelin-specific T cell lines with a TLR2 agonist induced inhibition of T cell proliferation, suppression of IFN-γ, IL-12, and IL-17 secretion, as well as increase in IL-10 production, suggesting the functional responses observed correlate with TLR2 expression patterns. Furthermore, parasite antigens were able to induce TLR2 expression on both B cells and DCs. All functional effects mediated by TLR2 were abrogated when MyD88 gene expression was silenced; indicating helminth-mediated signaling induced changes in cytokine secretion in a MyD88-dependent manner. In addition, helminth antigens significantly enhanced co-stimulatory molecule expression, effects not mediated by MyD88. Parasite antigens acting on MyD88 induced significant ERK kinase phosphorylation in DC. Addition of the ERK inhibitor U0126 was associated with dose-dependent IL-10 inhibition and reciprocal enhancement in IL-12, both correlating with ERK inhibition. Finally, cytokine effects and changes observed in co-stimulatory DC molecules after helminth antigen exposure were lost when TLR2 was

  8. A single-molecule diode

    PubMed Central

    Elbing, Mark; Ochs, Rolf; Koentopp, Max; Fischer, Matthias; von Hänisch, Carsten; Weigend, Florian; Evers, Ferdinand; Weber, Heiko B.; Mayor, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    We have designed and synthesized a molecular rod that consists of two weakly coupled electronic π -systems with mutually shifted energy levels. The asymmetry thus implied manifests itself in a current–voltage characteristic with pronounced dependence on the sign of the bias voltage, which makes the molecule a prototype for a molecular diode. The individual molecules were immobilized by sulfur–gold bonds between both electrodes of a mechanically controlled break junction, and their electronic transport properties have been investigated. The results indeed show diode-like current–voltage characteristics. In contrast to that, control experiments with symmetric molecular rods consisting of two identical π -systems did not show significant asymmetries in the transport properties. To investigate the underlying transport mechanism, phenomenological arguments are combined with calculations based on density functional theory. The theoretical analysis suggests that the bias dependence of the polarizability of the molecule feeds back into the current leading to an asymmetric shape of the current–voltage characteristics, similar to the phenomena in a semiconductor diode. PMID:15956208

  9. A single-molecule diode.

    PubMed

    Elbing, Mark; Ochs, Rolf; Koentopp, Max; Fischer, Matthias; von Hänisch, Carsten; Weigend, Florian; Evers, Ferdinand; Weber, Heiko B; Mayor, Marcel

    2005-06-21

    We have designed and synthesized a molecular rod that consists of two weakly coupled electronic pi -systems with mutually shifted energy levels. The asymmetry thus implied manifests itself in a current-voltage characteristic with pronounced dependence on the sign of the bias voltage, which makes the molecule a prototype for a molecular diode. The individual molecules were immobilized by sulfur-gold bonds between both electrodes of a mechanically controlled break junction, and their electronic transport properties have been investigated. The results indeed show diode-like current-voltage characteristics. In contrast to that, control experiments with symmetric molecular rods consisting of two identical pi-systems did not show significant asymmetries in the transport properties. To investigate the underlying transport mechanism, phenomenological arguments are combined with calculations based on density functional theory. The theoretical analysis suggests that the bias dependence of the polarizability of the molecule feeds back into the current leading to an asymmetric shape of the current-voltage characteristics, similar to the phenomena in a semiconductor diode.

  10. Simple molecules as complex systems

    PubMed Central

    Furtenbacher, Tibor; Árendás, Péter; Mellau, Georg; Császár, Attila G.

    2014-01-01

    For individual molecules quantum mechanics (QM) offers a simple, natural and elegant way to build large-scale complex networks: quantized energy levels are the nodes, allowed transitions among the levels are the links, and transition intensities supply the weights. QM networks are intrinsic properties of molecules and they are characterized experimentally via spectroscopy; thus, realizations of QM networks are called spectroscopic networks (SN). As demonstrated for the rovibrational states of H216O, the molecule governing the greenhouse effect on earth through hundreds of millions of its spectroscopic transitions (links), both the measured and first-principles computed one-photon absorption SNs containing experimentally accessible transitions appear to have heavy-tailed degree distributions. The proposed novel view of high-resolution spectroscopy and the observed degree distributions have important implications: appearance of a core of highly interconnected hubs among the nodes, a generally disassortative connection preference, considerable robustness and error tolerance, and an “ultra-small-world” property. The network-theoretical view of spectroscopy offers a data reduction facility via a minimum-weight spanning tree approach, which can assist high-resolution spectroscopists to improve the efficiency of the assignment of their measured spectra. PMID:24722221

  11. Organizational Adaptation and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.

    1984-01-01

    Organizational adaptation and types of adaptation needed in academe in the future are reviewed and major conceptual approaches to organizational adaptation are presented. The probable environment that institutions will face in the future that will require adaptation is discussed. (MLW)

  12. Human heat adaptation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S

    2014-01-01

    In this overview, human morphological and functional adaptations during naturally and artificially induced heat adaptation are explored. Through discussions of adaptation theory and practice, a theoretical basis is constructed for evaluating heat adaptation. It will be argued that some adaptations are specific to the treatment used, while others are generalized. Regarding ethnic differences in heat tolerance, the case is put that reported differences in heat tolerance are not due to natural selection, but can be explained on the basis of variations in adaptation opportunity. These concepts are expanded to illustrate how traditional heat adaptation and acclimatization represent forms of habituation, and thermal clamping (controlled hyperthermia) is proposed as a superior model for mechanistic research. Indeed, this technique has led to questioning the perceived wisdom of body-fluid changes, such as the expansion and subsequent decay of plasma volume, and sudomotor function, including sweat habituation and redistribution. Throughout, this contribution was aimed at taking another step toward understanding the phenomenon of heat adaptation and stimulating future research. In this regard, research questions are posed concerning the influence that variations in morphological configuration may exert upon adaptation, the determinants of postexercise plasma volume recovery, and the physiological mechanisms that modify the cholinergic sensitivity of sweat glands, and changes in basal metabolic rate and body core temperature following adaptation.

  13. Nanopore Device for Reversible Ion and Molecule Sensing or Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pourmand, Nader (Inventor); Vilozny, Boaz (Inventor); Actis, Paolo (Inventor); Seger, R. Adam (Inventor); Singaram, Bakthan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and devices for detection of ion migration and binding, utilizing a nanopipette adapted for use in an electrochemical sensing circuit. The nanopipette may be functionalized on its interior bore with metal chelators for binding and sensing metal ions or other specific binding molecules such as boronic acid for binding and sensing glucose. Such a functionalized nanopipette is comprised in an electrical sensor that detects when the nanopipette selectively and reversibly binds ions or small molecules. Also disclosed is a nanoreactor, comprising a nanopipette, for controlling precipitation in aqueous solutions by voltage-directed ion migration, wherein ions may be directed out of the interior bore by a repulsing charge in the bore.

  14. Adhesion Molecules: Master Controllers of the Circulatory System.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eric P; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Lee, Warren L; Downey, Gregory P

    2016-03-15

    This manuscript will review our current understanding of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) relevant to the circulatory system, their physiological role in control of vascular homeostasis, innate and adaptive immune responses, and their importance in pathophysiological (disease) processes such as acute lung injury, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary hypertension. This is a complex and rapidly changing area of research that is incompletely understood. By design, we will begin with a brief overview of the structure and classification of the major groups of adhesion molecules and their physiological functions including cellular adhesion and signaling. The role of specific CAMs in the process of platelet aggregation and hemostasis and leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration will be reviewed as examples of the complex and cooperative interplay between CAMs during physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of the endothelial glycocalyx and the glycobiology of this complex system related to inflammatory states such as sepsis will be reviewed. We will then focus on the role of adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of specific disease processes involving the lungs and cardiovascular system. The potential of targeting adhesion molecules in the treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases will be highlighted in the relevant sections throughout the manuscript.

  15. Single molecule microscopy in 3D cell cultures and tissues.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Florian M; Kaemmerer, Elke; Meckel, Tobias

    2014-12-15

    From the onset of the first microscopic visualization of single fluorescent molecules in living cells at the beginning of this century, to the present, almost routine application of single molecule microscopy, the method has well-proven its ability to contribute unmatched detailed insight into the heterogeneous and dynamic molecular world life is composed of. Except for investigations on bacteria and yeast, almost the entire story of success is based on studies on adherent mammalian 2D cell cultures. However, despite this continuous progress, the technique was not able to keep pace with the move of the cell biology community to adapt 3D cell culture models for basic research, regenerative medicine, or drug development and screening. In this review, we will summarize the progress, which only recently allowed for the application of single molecule microscopy to 3D cell systems and give an overview of the technical advances that led to it. While initially posing a challenge, we finally conclude that relevant 3D cell models will become an integral part of the on-going success of single molecule microscopy.

  16. The contribution of transcriptomic and proteomic analysis in elucidating stress adaptation responses of Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foodborne transmission of Listeria monocytogenes requires physiological adaptation to various conditions, including the cold, osmotic, heat, acid, alkaline, and oxidative stresses, associated with food hygiene, processing, and preservation measures. We review the current knowledge on the molecul...

  17. More than a signal: non-signaling properties of quorum sensing molecules.

    PubMed

    Schertzer, Jeffrey W; Boulette, Megan L; Whiteley, Marvin

    2009-05-01

    Quorum sensing in bacteria serves as an example of the adaptation of single-celled organisms to engage in cooperative group behaviors. This phenomenon is much more widespread than originally thought, with many different species 'speaking' through various secreted small molecules. Despite some variation in signaling molecules, the principles of quorum sensing are conserved across a wide range of organisms. Small molecules, secreted into the environment, are detected by neighbors who respond by altering gene expression and, as a consequence, behavior. However, it is not known whether these systems evolved specifically for this purpose, or even if their role is exclusive to information trafficking. Rather, clues exist that many quorum sensing molecules function as more than just signals. Here, we discuss non-signaling roles for quorum sensing molecules in such important processes as nutrient scavenging, ultrastructure modification and competition.

  18. Gravitational adaptation of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Burton, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gravitational adaptation is studied in a group of five Leghorn cocks which had become physiologically adapted to 2 G after 162 days of centrifugation. After this period of adaptation, they are periodically exposed to a 2 G field, accompanied by five previously unexposed hatch-mates, and the degree of retained acceleration adaptation is estimated from the decrease in lymphocyte frequency after 24 hr at 2 G. Results show that the previously adapted birds exhibit an 84% greater lymphopenia than the unexposed birds, and that the lymphocyte frequency does not decrease to a level below that found at the end of 162 days at 2 G. In addition, the capacity for adaptation to chronic acceleration is found to be highly heritable. An acceleration tolerant strain of birds shows lesser mortality during chronic acceleration, particularly in intermediate fields, although the result of acceleration selection is largely quantitative (a greater number of survivors) rather than qualitative (behavioral or physiological changes).

  19. Technology transfer for adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  20. Parallel Anisotropic Tetrahedral Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid adaptation scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of adaptation is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify adaptation, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is adapted to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error adaptation is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.

  1. Finding small molecules for the ‘next Ebola’

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, Sean; Southan, Christopher; Coffee, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola virus epidemic may provide some suggestions of how we can better prepare for the next pathogen outbreak. We propose several cost effective steps that could be taken that would impact the discovery and use of small molecule therapeutics including: 1. text mine the literature, 2. patent assignees and/or inventors should openly declare their relevant filings, 3. reagents and assays could be commoditized, 4. using manual curation to enhance database links, 5. engage database and curation teams, 6. consider open science approaches, 7. adapt the “box” model for shareable reference compounds, and 8. involve the physician’s perspective. PMID:25949804

  2. The non-equilibrium and energetic cost of sensory adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, G.; Sartori, Pablo; Tu, Y.

    2011-03-24

    Biological sensory systems respond to external signals in short time and adapt to permanent environmental changes over a longer timescale to maintain high sensitivity in widely varying environments. In this work we have shown how all adaptation dynamics are intrinsically non-equilibrium and free energy is dissipated. We show that the dissipated energy is utilized to maintain adaptation accuracy. A universal relation between the energy dissipation and the optimum adaptation accuracy is established by both a general continuum model and a discrete model i n the specific case of the well-known E. coli chemo-sensory adaptation. Our study suggests that cellular level adaptations are fueled by hydrolysis of high energy biomolecules, such as ATP. The relevance of this work lies on linking the functionality of a biological system (sensory adaptation) with a concept rooted in statistical physics (energy dissipation), by a mathematical law. This has been made possible by identifying a general sensory system with a non-equilibrium steady state (a stationary state in which the probability current is not zero, but its divergence is, see figure), and then numerically and analytically solving the Fokker-Planck and Master Equations which describe the sensory adaptive system. The application of our general results to the case of E. Coli has shed light on why this system uses the high energy SAM molecule to perform adaptation, since using the more common ATP would not suffice to obtain the required adaptation accuracy.

  3. Mechanobiology of Short DNA Molecules: A Single Molecule Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Krishnan

    Mechanical properties of DNA are known to play a significant role in several biological processes like wrapping of DNA around histones and looping. Most of these cellular events occur on a DNA length scale of a few hundred basepairs. Single molecule methods have been highly successful in directly investigating heterogeneity in different biomolecular systems and serve as ideal tools to study the mechanical properties of DNA. However, their use in studying DNA of contour lengths less than a kilobase are fraught with experimental difficulties. The research presented in this thesis explores the behavior of short stretches of DNA (≤ 500bp) using existing and novel single molecule methods. We have quantified the variation in persistence lengths between sequences having different elasticity using a constant force axial optical tweezers. Our experiments have also revealed that this difference in persistence lengths manifests itself as a difference in looping lifetimes of lac repressor, in sequences having the aforementioned constructs as the intervening sequence between the operator sites. We have also developed a system to probe DNA dynamics in vivo. We have found that the active processes in the cell have distinct effects on dynamics of DNA and eliminating the active processes causes a 'phase transition' like behavior in the inside the cell. We are currently extending this technique to understand DNA dynamics inside bacterial systems. Our results provide vital insights into mechanical properties of DNA and the effect of athermal fluctuations on DNA dynamics.

  4. Water molecules orientation in surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingo, V. V.

    2000-08-01

    The water molecules orientation has been investigated theoretically in the water surface layer. The surface molecule orientation is determined by the direction of a molecule dipole moment in relation to outward normal to the water surface. Entropy expressions of the superficial molecules in statistical meaning and from thermodynamical approach to a liquid surface tension have been found. The molecules share directed opposite to the outward normal that is hydrogen protons inside is equal 51.6%. 48.4% water molecules are directed along to surface outward normal that is by oxygen inside. A potential jump at the water surface layer amounts about 0.2 volts.

  5. Quantifying the adaptive cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  6. Human adaptation to smog

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.W. Jacobs, S.V.; Frager, N.B.

    1982-10-01

    This study examined the health effects of human adaptation to photochemical smog. A group of recent arrivals to the Los Angeles air basin were compared to long-term residents of the basin. Evidence for adaptation included greater irritation and respiratory problems among the recent arrivals and desensitization among the long-term residents in their judgments of the severity of the smog problem to their health. There was no evidence for biochemical adaptation as measured by hemoglobin response to oxidant challenge. The results were discussed in terms of psychological adaption to chronic environmental stressors.

  7. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    PubMed

    Angeler, David G; Allen, Craig R; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Gunderson, Lance H; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  8. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.

  9. QPSO-based adaptive DNA computing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Karakose, Mehmet; Cigdem, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) computing that is a new computation model based on DNA molecules for information storage has been increasingly used for optimization and data analysis in recent years. However, DNA computing algorithm has some limitations in terms of convergence speed, adaptability, and effectiveness. In this paper, a new approach for improvement of DNA computing is proposed. This new approach aims to perform DNA computing algorithm with adaptive parameters towards the desired goal using quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO). Some contributions provided by the proposed QPSO based on adaptive DNA computing algorithm are as follows: (1) parameters of population size, crossover rate, maximum number of operations, enzyme and virus mutation rate, and fitness function of DNA computing algorithm are simultaneously tuned for adaptive process, (2) adaptive algorithm is performed using QPSO algorithm for goal-driven progress, faster operation, and flexibility in data, and (3) numerical realization of DNA computing algorithm with proposed approach is implemented in system identification. Two experiments with different systems were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach with comparative results. Experimental results obtained with Matlab and FPGA demonstrate ability to provide effective optimization, considerable convergence speed, and high accuracy according to DNA computing algorithm.

  10. Computational quantum chemistry and adaptive ligand modeling in mechanistic QSAR.

    PubMed

    De Benedetti, Pier G; Fanelli, Francesca

    2010-10-01

    Drugs are adaptive molecules. They realize this peculiarity by generating different ensembles of prototropic forms and conformers that depend on the environment. Among the impressive amount of available computational drug discovery technologies, quantitative structure-activity relationship approaches that rely on computational quantum chemistry descriptors are the most appropriate to model adaptive drugs. Indeed, computational quantum chemistry descriptors are able to account for the variation of the intramolecular interactions of the training compounds, which reflect their adaptive intermolecular interaction propensities. This enables the development of causative, interpretive and reasonably predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship models, and, hence, sound chemical information finalized to drug design and discovery.

  11. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  12. Distinct Pathways of Humoral and Cellular Immunity Induced with the Mucosal Administration of a Nanoemulsion Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Makidon, Paul E.; Janczak, Katarzyna W.; Blanco, Luz P.; Swanson, Benjamin; Smith, Douglas M.; Pham, Tiffany; Szabo, Zsuzsanna; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta F.; Baker, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Nasal administration of an oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE) adjuvant W805EC produces potent systemic and mucosal, Th-1– and Th-17–balanced cellular responses. However, its molecular mechanism of action has not been fully characterized and is of particular interest because NE does not contain specific ligands for innate immune receptors. In these studies, we demonstrate that W805EC NE adjuvant activates innate immunity, induces specific gene transcription, and modulates NF-κB activity via TLR2 and TLR4 by a mechanism that appears to be distinct from typical TLR agonists. Nasal immunization with NE-based vaccine showed that the TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 pathways and IL-12 and IL-12Rβ1 expression are not required for an Ab response, but they are essential for the induction of balanced Th-1 polarization and Th-17 cellular immunity. NE adjuvant induces MHC class II, CD80, and CD86 costimulatory molecule expression and dendritic cell maturation. Further, upon immunization with NE, adjuvant mice deficient in the CD86 receptor had normal Ab responses but significantly reduced Th-1 cellular responses, whereas animals deficient in both CD80 and CD86 or lacking CD40 failed to produce either humoral or cellular immunity. Overall, our data show that intranasal administration of Ag with NE induces TLR2 and TLR4 activation along with a MyD88-independent Ab response and a MyD88-dependent Th-1 and Th-17 cell–mediated immune response. These findings suggest that the unique properties of NE adjuvant may offer novel opportunities for understanding previously unrecognized mechanisms of immune activation important for generating effective mucosal and systemic immune responses. PMID:24532579

  13. Mycobacterium indicus pranii and Mycobacterium bovis BCG lead to differential macrophage activation in Toll-like receptor-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Tyagi, Rohit; Das, Gobardhan; Bhaskar, Sangeeta

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is an atypical mycobacterial species possessing strong immunomodulatory properties. It is a potent vaccine candidate against tuberculosis, promotes Th1 immune response and protects mice from tumours. In previous studies, we demonstrated higher protective efficacy of MIP against experimental tuberculosis as compared with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Since macrophages play an important role in the pathology of mycobacterial diseases and cancer, in the present study, we evaluated the MIP in live and killed form for macrophage activation potential, compared it with BCG and investigated the underlying mechanisms. High levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), IL-6 and nitric oxide were produced by MIP-stimulated macrophages as compared with BCG-stimulated macrophages. Prominent up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 was also observed in response to MIP. Loss of response in MyD88-deficient macrophages showed that both MIP and BCG activate the macrophages in a MyD88-dependent manner. MyD88 signalling pathway culminates in nuclear factor-κB/activator protein-1 (NF-κB/AP-1) activation and higher activation of NF-κB/AP-1 was observed in response to MIP. With the help of pharmacological inhibitors and Toll-like receptor (TLR) -deficient macrophages, we observed the role of TLR2, TLR4 and intracellular TLRs in MIP-mediated macrophage activation. Stimulation of HEK293 cells expressing TLR2 in homodimeric or heterodimeric form showed that MIP has a distinctly higher level of TLR2 agonist activity compared with BCG. Further experiments suggested that TLR2 ligands are well exposed in MIP whereas they are obscured in BCG. Our findings establish the higher macrophage activation potential of MIP compared with BCG and delineate the underlying mechanism.

  14. Molecules in Studio v. 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, La Tonya; Malczynski, Leonard

    2016-04-22

    A Powersim Studio implementation of the system dynamics’ ‘Molecules of Structure’. The original implementation was in Ventana’s Vensim language by James Hines. The molecules are fundamental constructs of the system dynamics simulation methodology.

  15. Cardioprotective effect of metformin in lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis via suppression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in heart.

    PubMed

    Vaez, Haleh; Rameshrad, Maryam; Najafi, Moslem; Barar, Jaleh; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Garjani, Alireza

    2016-02-05

    Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction is a serious organ complication. In the present study, we investigated the effect of metformin on myocardial dysfunction and TLR4 activity in LPS-induced sepsis. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=6): control received normal saline (0.5ml), LPS group received lipopolysaccharide (0.5mg/kg; i.p), and metformin treated group received LPS (0.5mg/kg)+metformin (100mg/kg; i.p). 9h later the hemodynamic parameters were recorded, blood samples were collected, and the hearts were removed and weighted. The concentration of TNF-α, content of MYD88, the phosphorylation of AMPK, and the rate of TLR4 expression in the heart were assessed. In the animals treated with metformin, the preservation of left ventricular function was associated with the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (31%, P<0.01) in the heart and decrease of TNF-α level both in the serum and heart tissue (20%, P<0.01 and 42%, P<0.05, respectively). It was found that the level of phosphorylated AMPK in heart was significantly upregulated by 43% (P<0.001) in the metformin group while the content of TLRs adapter protein of MyD88 was reduced by 45% (P<0.05). This was associated with a remarkable decrease in the expression of myocardial TLR4. Furthermore, in a mice model of sepsis, coadministration of compound C (20mg/kg) as an AMPK inhibitor reversed the suppressive effects of metformin on TLR4 expression and MYD88 protein level. These results suggest that metformin exhibits cardioprotective effects in sepsis by suppression of TLR4 activity, at least in part through pathways involving AMPK activation.

  16. Lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1)-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) interaction and autophagy in CATH.a differentiated cells exposed to angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zufeng; Liu, Shijie; Wang, Xianwei; Khaidakov, Magomed; Dai, Yao; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo; Xiang, David; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2015-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in innate immune response. Expression of TLRs has also been linked to autophagy. As the main receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) on the cell surface, lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines and has been linked to the development of autophagy. However, the relationship between LOX-1, autophagy, and TLR4 in neurons has not been defined. Here, we show that Angiotensin II (Ang II) treatment of CATH.a differentiated neuronal cells resulted in the expression of TLR4 (and associated signals MyD88 and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon (TRIF)), LOX-1 autophagy. LOX-1 knockdown (transfection with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA)) resulted in reduced expression of TLR4 (and associated signals MyD88 and TRIF) and P-P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and autophagy. TLR4 knockdown with siRNA resulted in reduced LOX-1 expression and autophagy, indicating a positive feedback between LOX-1 and TLR4. Knockdown of TRIF as well as MyD88 or inhibition of P38 MAPK also inhibited the expression of LOX-1 and TLR4 and autophagy. Importantly, pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (autophagy inhibitor) enhanced while rapamycin (autophagy inducer) decreased the expression of LOX-1, TLR4, and P-P38 MAPK. These studies suggest the presence of a bidirectional link between LOX-1and TLR4 in cultured CATH.a differentiated cells exposed to Ang II with an important role for autophagy in this link.

  17. A critical role for the TLR4/TRIF pathway in allogeneic hematopoietic cell rejection by innate immune cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Ziqiang; Hussain, Lala-Rukh; Huang, Yiming; Ding, Chuanlin; Bozulic, Larry D; Wen, Yujie; Ildstad, Suzanne T

    2013-01-01

    We show for the first time that signaling through the TLR4/TRIF pathway plays a critical role in allogeneic bone marrow cell (BMC) rejection. This appears to be unique to BMCs as organ allografts are rejected mainly via MyD88 signaling. Using T- or T-/B-cell-deficient mice, we found that BMC allorejection occurred early before T-cell activation and was T- and B-cell independent, suggesting an effector role for innate immune cells in BMC rejection. We further demonstrated the innate immune signaling in BMC allorejection by showing superior engraftment in mice deficient in TRIF or TLR4 but not in MyD88 or TLR3. The restored cytotoxicity in TRIF-deficient recipients transferred with wild-type F4/80(+) or NK1.1(+) cells suggests TRIF signaling dependence on macrophages or NK cells in early BMC rejection. Production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and TRIF relevant chemokine MCP-1 was significantly increased early after bone marrow transplantation. In vivo specific depletion of macrophages or NK innate immune cells in combination with anti-CD154/rapamycin resulted in additive-enhanced allogeneic engraftment. The requirement for irradiation was completely eliminated when both macrophages and NK cells were depleted in combination with anti-CD154/rapamycin to target T- and B-cells, supporting the hypothesis that two barriers involving innate and adaptive immunity exist in mediating the rejection of allogeneic BMCs. In summary, our results clearly demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for innate immunity in BMC allorejection via signaling through a unique MyD88-independent TLR4/TRIF mechanism. These findings may have direct clinical impact on strategies for conditioning recipients for stem cell transplantation.

  18. Characterization of Interstellar Organic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gençaǧa, Deniz; Carbon, Duane F.; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the origins of life has been one of the greatest dreams throughout history. It is now known that star-forming regions contain complex organic molecules, known as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), each of which has particular infrared spectral characteristics. By understanding which PAH species are found in specific star-forming regions, we can better understand the biochemistry that takes place in interstellar clouds. Identifying and classifying PAHs is not an easy task: we can only observe a single superposition of PAH spectra at any given astrophysical site, with the PAH species perhaps numbering in the hundreds or even thousands. This is a challenging source separation problem since we have only one observation composed of numerous mixed sources. However, it is made easier with the help of a library of hundreds of PAH spectra. In order to separate PAH molecules from their mixture, we need to identify the specific species and their unique concentrations that would provide the given mixture. We develop a Bayesian approach for this problem where sources are separated from their mixture by Metropolis Hastings algorithm. Separated PAH concentrations are provided with their error bars, illustrating the uncertainties involved in the estimation process. The approach is demonstrated on synthetic spectral mixtures using spectral resolutions from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Performance of the method is tested for different noise levels.

  19. Electronic spectroscopy of diatomic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the principal computational approaches and their accuracy for the study of electronic spectroscopy of diatomic molecules. We include a number of examples from our work that illustrate the range of application. We show how full configuration interaction benchmark calculations were instrumental in improving the understanding of the computational requirements for obtaining accurate results for diatomic spectroscopy. With this understanding it is now possible to compute radiative lifetimes accurate to within 10% for systems involving first- and second-row atoms. We consider the determination of the infrared vibrational transition probabilities for the ground states of SiO and NO, based on a globally accurate dipole moment function. We show how we were able to assign the a(sup "5)II state of CO as the upper state in the recently observed emission bands of CO in an Ar matrix. We next discuss the assignment of the photoelectron detachment spectra of NO and the alkali oxide negative ions. We then present several examples illustrating the state-of-the-art in determining radiative lifetimes for valence-valence and valence-Rydberg transitions. We next compare the molecular spectroscopy of the valence isoelectronic B2, Al2, and AlB molecules. The final examples consider systems involving transition metal atoms, which illustrate the difficulty in describing states with different numbers of d electrons.

  20. Organic Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Erika; Horne, David; Shenoy, Sachindev; Blake, Daniel; van Brunt, Kari; Brittain, Sean; Rettig, Terrence

    2008-08-01

    We propose to use NIRSPEC to search for organic molecules in circumstellar disks toward nearly edge-on T Tauri stars. The feasibility of this study has been recently illustrated by the NIRSPEC detection of HCN toward two edge-on T Tauri stars, GV Tau (Gibb et al. 2007) and IRS 46 (Lahuis et al. 2006), and Spitzer detections of C_2H_2, HCN, and CO_2 toward IRS 46 (Lahuis et al. 2006) and AA Tau (Carr & Najita 2008). We have selected 10 molecules that are predicted to be abundant based on chemical models, observations of high and low mass star forming regions, and comet comae. We will investigate compositional variations among the T Tauri population and compare that to comets and chemical models of disk chemistry. Through this, we can explore the chemistry occurring in the planet-forming regions of protoplanetary disks and investigate the evolution of organic volatiles, which can help establish the mechanism and timescale for planet formation.

  1. Exotic negative molecules in AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golser, Robin; Gnaser, Hubert; Kutschera, Walter; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Wallner, Anton

    2007-06-01

    "The techniques and equipment developed for AMS studies are well suited for identifying exotic negative ions". With this sentence begins a pioneering paper by Roy Middleton and Jeff Klein (M&K) on small doubly-charged negative carbon clusters [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 123 (1997) 532]. M&K were the first to utilize Accelerator Mass Spectrometry to prove the existence of these clusters and a number of other exotic molecules. We review M&K's efforts and show how their work is being continued at other laboratories. The latest developments are: (1) the discovery of long-lived molecular hydrogen anions H2-,D2-and (2) the unambiguous identification of the smallest doubly-charged negative molecule (LiF3)2-. In particular we show new experimental data for D3-, and for (LiF3)2-, and we try to answer the question why M&K's search for this di-anion was unsuccessful.

  2. Characterization of Interstellar Organic Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Gencaga, Deniz; Knuth, Kevin H.; Carbon, Duane F.

    2008-11-06

    Understanding the origins of life has been one of the greatest dreams throughout history. It is now known that star-forming regions contain complex organic molecules, known as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), each of which has particular infrared spectral characteristics. By understanding which PAH species are found in specific star-forming regions, we can better understand the biochemistry that takes place in interstellar clouds. Identifying and classifying PAHs is not an easy task: we can only observe a single superposition of PAH spectra at any given astrophysical site, with the PAH species perhaps numbering in the hundreds or even thousands. This is a challenging source separation problem since we have only one observation composed of numerous mixed sources. However, it is made easier with the help of a library of hundreds of PAH spectra. In order to separate PAH molecules from their mixture, we need to identify the specific species and their unique concentrations that would provide the given mixture. We develop a Bayesian approach for this problem where sources are separated from their mixture by Metropolis Hastings algorithm. Separated PAH concentrations are provided with their error bars, illustrating the uncertainties involved in the estimation process. The approach is demonstrated on synthetic spectral mixtures using spectral resolutions from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Performance of the method is tested for different noise levels.

  3. Is JPC = 3-+ molecule possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Liu, Yan-Rui; Yao, Tao

    2015-02-01

    The confirmation of charged charmonium-like states indicates that heavy quark molecules should exist. Here we discuss the possibility of a molecule state with JPC = 3-+. In a one-boson-exchange model investigation for the S wave C = + D*D¯2* states, one finds that the strongest attraction is in the case J = 3 and I = 0 for both π and σ exchanges. Numerical analysis indicates that this hadronic bound state might exist if a phenomenological cutoff parameter around 2.3 GeV (1.5 GeV) is reasonable with a dipole (monopole) type form factor in the one-pion-exchange model. The cutoff for binding solutions may be reduced to a smaller value once the σ exchange contribution is included. If a state around the D*D¯2* threshold (≈4472 MeV) in the channel J/ψω (P wave) is observed, the heavy quark spin symmetry implies that it is not a cc¯ meson and the JPC are likely to be 3-+. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275115), Shandong Province Natural Science Foundation (ZR2010AM023), SRF for ROCS, SEM, and Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University

  4. Adaptive resolution simulation of salt solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevc, Staš; Junghans, Christoph; Kremer, Kurt; Praprotnik, Matej

    2013-10-01

    We present an adaptive resolution simulation of aqueous salt (NaCl) solutions at ambient conditions using the adaptive resolution scheme. Our multiscale approach concurrently couples the atomistic and coarse-grained models of the aqueous NaCl, where water molecules and ions change their resolution while moving from one resolution domain to the other. We employ standard extended simple point charge (SPC/E) and simple point charge (SPC) water models in combination with AMBER and GROMOS force fields for ion interactions in the atomistic domain. Electrostatics in our model are described by the generalized reaction field method. The effective interactions for water-water and water-ion interactions in the coarse-grained model are derived using structure-based coarse-graining approach while the Coulomb interactions between ions are appropriately screened. To ensure an even distribution of water molecules and ions across the simulation box we employ thermodynamic forces. We demonstrate that the equilibrium structural, e.g. radial distribution functions and density distributions of all the species, and dynamical properties are correctly reproduced by our adaptive resolution method. Our multiscale approach, which is general and can be used for any classical non-polarizable force-field and/or types of ions, will significantly speed up biomolecular simulation involving aqueous salt.

  5. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roy E

    2007-09-30

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O(2) transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O(2) loading and unloading tensions and the O(2)-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin's intrinsic O(2)-affinity and its allosteric interaction with cellular effectors (organic phosphates, protons and chloride). Whereas short-term altitudinal adaptations predominantly involve adjustments in allosteric interactions, long-term, genetically-coded adaptations typically involve changes in the structure of the haemoglobin molecules. The latter commonly comprise substitutions of amino acid residues at the effector binding sites, the heme-protein contacts, or at intersubunit contacts that stabilize either the low-affinity ('Tense') or the high-affinity ('Relaxed') structures of the molecules. Molecular heterogeneity (multiple isoHbs with differentiated oxygenation properties) can further broaden the range of physico-chemical conditions where Hb functions under altitudinal hypoxia. This treatise reviews the molecular and cellular mechanisms that adapt haemoglobin-oxygen affinities in mammals, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude.

  6. Physiologic adaptation to space - Space adaptation syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderploeg, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The adaptive changes of the neurovestibular system to microgravity, which result in space motion sickness (SMS), are studied. A list of symptoms, which range from vomiting to drowsiness, is provided. The two patterns of symptom development, rapid and gradual, and the duration of the symptoms are described. The concept of sensory conflict and rearrangements to explain SMS is being investigated.

  7. Time scales for molecule formation by ion-molecule reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W. D.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical solutions are obtained for nonlinear differential equations governing the time-dependence of molecular abundances in interstellar clouds. Three gas-phase reaction schemes are considered separately for the regions where each dominates. The particular case of CO, and closely related members of the Oh and CH families of molecules, is studied for given values of temperature, density, and the radiation field. Nonlinear effects and couplings with particular ions are found to be important. The time scales for CO formation range from 100,000 to a few million years, depending on the chemistry and regime. The time required for essentially complete conversion of C(+) to CO in the region where the H3(+) chemistry dominates is several million years. Because this time is longer than or comparable to dynamical time scales for dense interstellar clouds, steady-state abundances may not be observed in such clouds.

  8. Hydrophobic Porous Material Adsorbs Small Organic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Hickey, Gregory S.

    1994-01-01

    Composite molecular-sieve material has pore structure designed specifically for preferential adsorption of organic molecules for sizes ranging from 3 to 6 angstrom. Design based on principle that contaminant molecules become strongly bound to surface of adsorbent when size of contaminant molecules is nearly same as that of pores in adsorbent. Material used to remove small organic contaminant molecules from vacuum systems or from enclosed gaseous environments like closed-loop life-support systems.

  9. Water Resource Adaptation Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

  10. On Teaching Adaptively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corno, Lyn

    2008-01-01

    New theory on adaptive teaching reflects the social dynamics of classrooms to explain what practicing teachers do to address student differences related to learning. In teaching adaptively, teachers respond to learners as they work. Teachers read student signals to diagnose needs on the fly and tap previous experience with similar learners to…

  11. Computerized Adaptive Ability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    The general objective of a research program on adaptive testing was to identify several sources of potential error in test scores, and to study adaptive testing as a means for reducing these errors. Errors can result from the mismatch of item difficulty to the individual's ability; the psychological effects of testing and the test environment; the…

  12. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adger, W. Neil; Vincent, Katharine

    2005-03-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. To cite this article: W.N. Adger, K. Vincent, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  13. Retinal Imaging: Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. S.; Iroshnikov, N. G.; Larichev, Andrey V.

    This chapter describes several factors influencing the performance of ophthalmic diagnostic systems with adaptive optics compensation of human eye aberration. Particular attention is paid to speckle modulation, temporal behavior of aberrations, and anisoplanatic effects. The implementation of a fundus camera with adaptive optics is considered.

  14. Research, Adaptation, & Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Lee A., Ed.; And Others

    Research adaptation is an endeavor that implies solid collaboration among school practitioners and university and college researchers. This volume addresses the broad issues of research as an educational endeavor, adaptation as a necessary function associated with applying research findings to school situations, and change as an inevitable…

  15. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C.

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  16. Adaptive resolution simulation of an atomistic protein in MARTINI water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadlav, Julija; Melo, Manuel Nuno; Marrink, Siewert J.; Praprotnik, Matej

    2014-02-01

    We present an adaptive resolution simulation of protein G in multiscale water. We couple atomistic water around the protein with mesoscopic water, where four water molecules are represented with one coarse-grained bead, farther away. We circumvent the difficulties that arise from coupling to the coarse-grained model via a 4-to-1 molecule coarse-grain mapping by using bundled water models, i.e., we restrict the relative movement of water molecules that are mapped to the same coarse-grained bead employing harmonic springs. The water molecules change their resolution from four molecules to one coarse-grained particle and vice versa adaptively on-the-fly. Having performed 15 ns long molecular dynamics simulations, we observe within our error bars no differences between structural (e.g., root-mean-squared deviation and fluctuations of backbone atoms, radius of gyration, the stability of native contacts and secondary structure, and the solvent accessible surface area) and dynamical properties of the protein in the adaptive resolution approach compared to the fully atomistically solvated model. Our multiscale model is compatible with the widely used MARTINI force field and will therefore significantly enhance the scope of biomolecular simulations.

  17. Visualization of large elongated DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinyong; Kim, Yongkyun; Lee, Seonghyun; Jo, Kyubong

    2015-09-01

    Long and linear DNA molecules are the mainstream single-molecule analytes for a variety of biochemical analysis within microfluidic devices, including functionalized surfaces and nanostructures. However, for biochemical analysis, large DNA molecules have to be unraveled, elongated, and visualized to obtain biochemical and genomic information. To date, elongated DNA molecules have been exploited in the development of a number of genome analysis systems as well as for the study of polymer physics due to the advantage of direct visualization of single DNA molecule. Moreover, each single DNA molecule provides individual information, which makes it useful for stochastic event analysis. Therefore, numerous studies of enzymatic random motions have been performed on a large elongated DNA molecule. In this review, we introduce mechanisms to elongate DNA molecules using microfluidics and nanostructures in the beginning. Secondly, we discuss how elongated DNA molecules have been utilized to obtain biochemical and genomic information by direct visualization of DNA molecules. Finally, we reviewed the approaches used to study the interaction of proteins and large DNA molecules. Although DNA-protein interactions have been investigated for many decades, it is noticeable that there have been significant achievements for the last five years. Therefore, we focus mainly on recent developments for monitoring enzymatic activity on large elongated DNA molecules.

  18. Ultrafast electron diffraction from aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Centurion, Martin

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this project was to record time-resolved electron diffraction patterns of aligned molecules and to reconstruct the 3D molecular structure. The molecules are aligned non-adiabatically using a femtosecond laser pulse. A femtosecond electron pulse then records a diffraction pattern while the molecules are aligned. The diffraction patterns are then be processed to obtain the molecular structure.

  19. 75 FR 57859 - Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN21 Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation AGENCY... housing and special home adaptation grants. This final rule incorporates certain provisions from the... adapted housing (SAH) grants and special home adaptation (SHA) grants. The public comment period ended...

  20. Financing climate change adaptation.

    PubMed

    Bouwer, Laurens M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines the topic of financing adaptation in future climate change policies. A major question is whether adaptation in developing countries should be financed under the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or whether funding should come from other sources. We present an overview of financial resources and propose the employment of a two-track approach: one track that attempts to secure climate change adaptation funding under the UNFCCC; and a second track that improves mainstreaming of climate risk management in development efforts. Developed countries would need to demonstrate much greater commitment to the funding of adaptation measures if the UNFCCC were to cover a substantial part of the costs. The mainstreaming of climate change adaptation could follow a risk management path, particularly in relation to disaster risk reduction. 'Climate-proofing' of development projects that currently do not consider climate and weather risks could improve their sustainability.

  1. Programmable colloidal molecules from sequential capillarity-assisted particle assembly.

    PubMed

    Ni, Songbo; Leemann, Jessica; Buttinoni, Ivo; Isa, Lucio; Wolf, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    The assembly of artificial nanostructured and microstructured materials which display structures and functionalities that mimic nature's complexity requires building blocks with specific and directional interactions, analogous to those displayed at the molecular level. Despite remarkable progress in synthesizing "patchy" particles encoding anisotropic interactions, most current methods are restricted to integrating up to two compositional patches on a single "molecule" and to objects with simple shapes. Currently, decoupling functionality and shape to achieve full compositional and geometrical programmability remains an elusive task. We use sequential capillarity-assisted particle assembly which uniquely fulfills the demands described above. This is a new method based on simple, yet essential, adaptations to the well-known capillary assembly of particles over topographical templates. Tuning the depth of the assembly sites (traps) and the surface tension of moving droplets of colloidal suspensions enables controlled stepwise filling of traps to "synthesize" colloidal molecules. After deposition and mechanical linkage, the colloidal molecules can be dispersed in a solvent. The template's shape solely controls the molecule's geometry, whereas the filling sequence independently determines its composition. No specific surface chemistry is required, and multifunctional molecules with organic and inorganic moieties can be fabricated. We demonstrate the "synthesis" of a library of structures, ranging from dumbbells and triangles to units resembling bar codes, block copolymers, surfactants, and three-dimensional chiral objects. The full programmability of our approach opens up new directions not only for assembling and studying complex materials with single-particle-level control but also for fabricating new microscale devices for sensing, patterning, and delivery applications.

  2. A single-molecule diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbing, Mark; Ochs, Rolf; Koentopp, Max; Fischer, Matthias; von Hänisch, Carsten; Weigend, Florian; Evers, Ferdinand; Weber, Heiko B.; Mayor, Marcel

    2005-06-01

    We have designed and synthesized a molecular rod that consists of two weakly coupled electronic π -systems with mutually shifted energy levels. The asymmetry thus implied manifests itself in a current-voltage characteristic with pronounced dependence on the sign of the bias voltage, which makes the molecule a prototype for a molecular diode. The individual molecules were immobilized by sulfur-gold bonds between both electrodes of a mechanically controlled break junction, and their electronic transport properties have been investigated. The results indeed show diode-like current-voltage characteristics. In contrast to that, control experiments with symmetric molecular rods consisting of two identical π -systems did not show significant asymmetries in the transport properties. To investigate the underlying transport mechanism, phenomenological arguments are combined with calculations based on density functional theory. The theoretical analysis suggests that the bias dependence of the polarizability of the molecule feeds back into the current leading to an asymmetric shape of the current-voltage characteristics, similar to the phenomena in a semiconductor diode. Author contributions: F.E., H.B.W., and M.M. designed research; M.E., R.O., M.K., M.F., F.E., H.B.W., and M.M. performed research; M.E., R.O., M.K., M.F., C.v.H., F.W., F.E., H.B.W., and M.M. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; M.E., R.O., M.K., C.v.H., F.E., H.B.W., and M.M. analyzed data; and F.E., H.B.W., and M.M. wrote the paper.This paper was submitted directly (Track II) to the PNAS office.Abbreviations: A, acceptor; D, donor; MCB, mechanically controlled break junction.Data deposition: The atomic coordinates have been deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database, Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre, Cambridge CB2 1EZ, United Kingdom (CSD reference no. 241632).

  3. Behavior of atypical amphiphilic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, John

    1997-08-01

    The physical behavior of several atypical amphiphilic molecules was studied in various environments including micelles, model bilayer membranes, and emulsions. The molecules under investigation were nor-chenodeoxycholic acid (nor-CDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), sphingosine (Sp), sphingosine hydrochloride (SpċHCl), and tetrahydrolipstatin (THL). The bile acids, nor-CDCA and UDCA, were studied using 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ([13C) -NMR) in micelles of taurocholate and in bilayers of phosphatidylcholine. The pK a values of the bile acids in each environment were determined by [13C) -NMR and are as follows: 6.08 ±.03 for nor-CDCA and 6.27 ±.01 for UDCA in micelles, and 7.04 ± 12 for nor-CDCA and 6.89 ±.05 for UDCA in vesicles. Using line shape analysis, the transbilayer movement rate at 36oC for nor-CDCA and UDCA was calculated to be 580 sec--1 and 409 sec-1, respectively. [13C) -NMR titration of Sp gave pK a values of 9.09 ±.02 in micelles and 9.69 ±.21 in bilayers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction were used to establish the Spċwater and SpċHClċwater phase diagrams. Anhydrous and hydrated samples ranging from 5- 90% water were analyzed. The DSC thermograms traced out the transition temperatures of each molecule while the X- ray diffraction patterns revealed their chain and crystalline lattice packing structures. In general, sphingosine exists as a hydrated crystal with β packing phase below 43oC and melts into an Lα phase. Sphingosine hydrochloride, however, exists as a gel phase (L_beta or /beta/sp') below 42oC that swells to 61% hydration. At low water concentrations (0-64%), a lamellar liquid crystal phase (L_alpha) is formed above the chain melting transition of 42oC. At medium concentration (65%), a Hexagonal I phase is present, and at high water concentrations (66-90%), a micellar phase is present. THL, a specific inhibitor of lipases, was analyzed with [ 13C) -NMR to study its behavior in various environments

  4. Small-molecule arginase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ivanenkov, Yan A; Chufarova, Nina V

    2014-01-01

    Arginase is an enzyme that metabolizes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. In addition to its fundamental role in the hepatic ornithine cycle, it also influences the immune systems in humans and mice. Arginase participates in many inflammatory disorders by decreasing the synthesis of nitric oxide and inducing fibrosis and tissue regeneration. L-arginine deficiency, which is modulated by myeloid cell arginase, suppresses T-cell immune response. This mechanism plays a fundamental role in inflammation-associated immunosuppression. Pathogens can synthesize their own arginase to elude immune reaction. Small-molecule arginase inhibitors are currently described as promising therapeutics for the treatment of several diseases, including allergic asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis and hypertension), diseases associated with pathogens (e.g., Helicobacter pylori, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Salmonella), cancer and induced or spontaneous immune disorders. This article summarizes recent patents in the area of arginase inhibitors and discusses their properties.

  5. Nonadiabatic calculations on hydrogen molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komasa, Jacek; Pachucki, Krzysztof

    Since its infancy quantum mechanics has treated hydrogen molecule as a test bed. Contemporary spectroscopy is able to supply the dissociation energy (D0) of H2 with the accuracy of 3 . 7 .10-4cm-1 , while current theoretical predictions are 10-3cm-1 in error. Both the uncertainties are already smaller than the quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects contributing to D0, which poses a particular challenge to theoreticians. Undoubtedly, in order to increase the predictive power of theory one has to not only account for the multitude of the tiny relativistic and QED effects but, especially, significantly increase precision of the largest component of D0--the nonrelativistic contribution. We approach the problem of solving the Schroedinger equation, equipped with new methodology, with the target precision of D0 set at the level of 10-7cm-1 .

  6. Electrokinetic concentration of charged molecules

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Anup K.; Neyer, David W.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Garguilo, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for separating and concentrating charged species from uncharged or neutral species regardless of size differential. The method uses reversible electric field induced retention of charged species, that can include molecules and molecular aggregates such as dimers, polymers, multimers, colloids, micelles, and liposomes, in volumes and on surfaces of porous materials. The retained charged species are subsequently quantitatively removed from the porous material by a pressure driven flow that passes through the retention volume and is independent of direction thus, a multi-directional flow field is not required. Uncharged species pass through the system unimpeded thus effecting a complete separation of charged and uncharged species and making possible concentration factors greater than 1000-fold.

  7. Special Issue: "Molecules against Alzheimer".

    PubMed

    Decker, Michael; Muñoz-Torrero, Diego

    2016-12-16

    This Special Issue, entitled "Molecules against Alzheimer", gathers a number of original articles, short communications, and review articles on recent research efforts toward the development of novel drug candidates, diagnostic agents and therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of death worldwide. This Special Issue contains many interesting examples describing the design, synthesis, and pharmacological profiling of novel compounds that hit one or several key biological targets, such as cholinesterases, β-amyloid formation or aggregation, monoamine oxidase B, oxidative stress, biometal dyshomeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, serotonin and/or melatonin systems, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, sigma receptors, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, or nuclear erythroid 2-related factor. The development of novel AD diagnostic agents based on tau protein imaging and the use of lithium or intranasal insulin for the prevention or the symptomatic treatment of AD is also covered in some articles of the Special Issue.

  8. Laser optogalvanic spectroscopy of molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, C. R.; Rettner, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    In laser optogalvanic (LOG) spectroscopy, a tunable laser is used to probe the spectral characteristics of atomic or molecular species within an electrical discharge in a low pressure gas. Optogalvanic signals arise when the impedance of the discharge changes in response to the absorption of laser radiation. The technique may, therefore, be referred to as impedance spectroscopy. This change in impedance may be monitored as a change in the voltage across the discharge tube. LOG spectra are recorded by scanning the wavelength of a chopped CW dye laser while monitoring the discharge voltage with a lock-in amplifier. LOG signals are obtained if the laser wavelength matches a transition in a species present in the discharge (or flame), and if the absorption of energy in the laser beam alters the impedance of the discharge. Infrared LOG spectroscopy of molecules has been demonstrated and may prove to be the most productive application in the field of optogalvanic techniques.

  9. The role of adapter proteins in T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Koretzky, G A; Boerth, N J

    1999-12-01

    Engagement of antigen receptors on lymphocytes leads to a myriad of complex signal transduction cascades. Recently, work from several laboratories has led to the identification and characterization of novel adapter molecules, proteins with no intrinsic enzymatic activity but which integrate signal transduction pathways by mediating protein-protein interactions. Interestingly, it appears that many of these adapter proteins play as critical a role as the effector enzymes themselves in both lymphocyte development and activation. This review describes some of the biochemical and molecular features of several of these newly identified hematopoietic cell-specific adapter molecules highlighting their importance in regulating (both positively and negatively) signal transduction mediated by the T cell antigen receptor.

  10. The adaptive immune response in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Iversen, Rasmus; Ráki, Melinda; Sollid, Ludvig M

    2012-07-01

    Compared to other human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-associated diseases such as type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, fundamental aspects of the pathogenesis in celiac disease are relatively well understood. This is mostly because the causative antigen in celiac disease-cereal gluten proteins-is known and the culprit HLA molecules are well defined. This has facilitated the dissection of the disease-relevant CD4+ T cells interacting with the disease-associated HLA molecules. In addition, celiac disease has distinct antibody responses to gluten and the autoantigen transglutaminase 2, which give strong handles to understand all sides of the adaptive immune response leading to disease. Here we review recent developments in the understanding of the role of T cells, B cells, and antigen-presenting cells in the pathogenic immune response of this instructive disorder.

  11. Production and application of translationally cold molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Meijer, Gerard

    Inspired by the spectacular successes in the field of cold atoms, there is currently great interest in cold molecules. Cooling molecules is useful for various fundamental physics studies and gives access to an exotic regime in chemistry where the wave property of the molecules becomes important. Although cooling molecules has turned out to be considerably more difficult than cooling atoms, a number of methods to produce samples of cold molecules have been demonstrated over the last few years. This paper aims to review the application of cold molecules and the methods to produce them. Emphasis is put on the deceleration of polar molecules using time-varying electric fields. The operation principle of the array of electrodes that is used to decelerate polar molecules is described in analogy with, and using terminology from, charged-particle accelerators. It is shown that, by applying an appropriately timed high voltage burst, molecules can be decelerated while the phase-space density, i.e. the number of molecules per position-velocity interval, remains constant. In this way the high density and low temperature in the moving frame of a pulsed molecular beam can be transferred to the laboratory frame. Experiments on metastable CO in states that are either repelled by or attracted to high electric fields are presented. Loading of slow molecules into traps and storage rings is discussed.

  12. Electrorheological crystallization of proteins and other molecules

    DOEpatents

    Craig, George D.; Rupp, Bernhard

    1996-01-01

    An electrorheological crystalline mass of a molecule is formed by dispersing the molecule in a dispersion fluid and subjecting the molecule dispersion to a uniform electrical field for a period of time during which time an electrorheological crystalline mass is formed. Molecules that may be used to form an electrorheological crystalline mass include any organic or inorganic molecule which has a permanent dipole and/or which is capable of becoming an induced dipole in the presence of an electric field. The molecules used to form the electrorheological crystalline mass are preferably macromolecules, such as biomolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipoproteins and viruses. Molecules are crystallized by a method in which an electric field is maintained for a period of time after the electrorheological crystalline mass has formed during which time at least some of the molecules making up the electrorheological crystalline mass form a crystal lattice. The three dimensional structure of a molecule is determined by a method in which an electrorheological crystalline mass of the molecule is formed, an x-ray diffraction pattern of the electrorheological crystalline mass is obtained and the three dimensional structure of the molecule is calculated from the x-ray diffraction pattern.

  13. Electrorheological crystallization of proteins and other molecules

    DOEpatents

    Craig, G.D.; Rupp, B.

    1996-06-11

    An electrorheological crystalline mass of a molecule is formed by dispersing the molecule in a dispersion fluid and subjecting the molecule