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Sample records for adapter protein myd88

  1. Characterization of a novel molluscan MyD88 family protein from manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Choi, Cheol Young; Park, Choul-Ji; Lee, Jehee

    2011-12-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a universal adaptor protein which is required for signal transduction of TLR/IL-1R family. In this study, a novel molluscan MyD88 family member protein (named as RpMyD88) was identified from manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. It was identified using BLAST algorithm from GS-FLX™ sequencing data. The cDNA of RpMyD88 consists of 1416 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 471 amino acid residues. The RpMyD88 contains death domain and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain which are typical features of MyD88 family proteins. The predicted amino acid sequence of RpMyD88 shares 27% identity with scallop MyD88. The expression level of RpMyD88 mRNA was investigated in healthy and challenged clams by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The RpMyD88 gene expression is ubiquitous in all selected tissues. The RpMyD88 mRNA was strongly expressed in hemocyte, gill and mantle. In contrast, it was weakly expressed in siphon, foot and adductor muscle. RpMyD88 was up-regulated in gill and hemocyte after immune challenge with both Vibrio tapetis and LPS challenge. All results considered, sequence characterization, comparison and gene expression data suggesting that MyD88-dependent signaling pathway is presence in manila clam and RpMyD88 plays an important role in innate immune response against bacteria. PMID:21846503

  2. Heat shock protein 60 activates B cells via the TLR4-MyD88 pathway.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Sfady, Michal; Nussbaum, Gabriel; Pevsner-Fischer, Meirav; Mor, Felix; Carmi, Pnina; Zanin-Zhorov, Alexandra; Lider, Ofer; Cohen, Irun R

    2005-09-15

    We recently reported that soluble 60-kDa heat shock protein (HSP60) can directly activate T cells via TLR2 signaling to enhance their Th2 response. In this study we investigated whether HSP60 might also activate B cells by an innate signaling pathway. We found that human HSP60 (but not the Escherichia coli GroEL or the Mycobacterial HSP65 molecules) induced naive mouse B cells to proliferate and to secrete IL-10 and IL-6. In addition, the HSP60-treated B cells up-regulated their expression of MHC class II and accessory molecules CD69, CD40, and B7-2. We tested the functional ability of HSP60-treated B cells to activate an allogeneic T cell response and found enhanced secretion of both IL-10 and IFN-gamma by the responding T cells. The effects of HSP60 were found to be largely dependent on TLR4 and MyD88 signaling; B cells from TLR4-mutant mice or from MyD88 knockout mice showed decreased responses to HSP60. Care was taken to rule out contamination of the HSP60 with LPS as a causative factor. These findings add B cells to the complex web of interactions by which HSP60 can regulate immune responses. PMID:16148103

  3. The Adaptor Protein Myd88 Is a Key Signaling Molecule in the Pathogenesis of Irinotecan-Induced Intestinal Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Deysi V T; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C P; Carvalho, Cibele B M; Borges, Vanessa F; Wanderley, Carlos W S; Bem, Amanda X C; Leite, Caio A V G; Teixeira, Maraiza A; Batista, Gabriela L P; Silva, Rangel L; Cunha, Thiago M; Brito, Gerly A C; Almeida, Paulo R C; Cunha, Fernando Q; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a common side effect of irinotecan-based anticancer regimens. Mucositis causes cell damage, bacterial/endotoxin translocation and production of cytokines including IL-1 and IL-18. These molecules and toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate a common signaling pathway that involves the Myeloid Differentiation adaptor protein, MyD88, whose role in intestinal mucositis is unknown. Then, we evaluated the involvement of TLRs and MyD88 in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. MyD88-, TLR2- or TLR9-knockout mice and C57BL/6 (WT) mice were given either saline or irinotecan (75 mg/kg, i.p. for 4 days). On day 7, animal survival, diarrhea and bacteremia were assessed, and following euthanasia, samples of the ileum were obtained for morphometric analysis, myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and measurement of pro-inflammatory markers. Irinotecan reduced the animal survival (50%) and induced a pronounced diarrhea, increased bacteremia, neutrophil accumulation in the intestinal tissue, intestinal damage and more than twofold increased expression of MyD88 (200%), TLR9 (400%), TRAF6 (236%), IL-1β (405%), IL-18 (365%), COX-2 (2,777%) and NF-κB (245%) in the WT animals when compared with saline-injected group (P<0.05). Genetic deletion of MyD88, TLR2 or TLR9 effectively controlled the signs of intestinal injury when compared with irinotecan-administered WT controls (P<0.05). In contrast to the MyD88-/- and TLR2-/- mice, the irinotecan-injected TLR9-/- mice showed a reduced survival, a marked diarrhea and an enhanced expression of IL-18 versus irinotecan-injected WT controls. Additionally, the expression of MyD88 was reduced in the TLR2-/- or TLR9-/- mice. This study shows a critical role of the MyD88-mediated TLR2 and TLR9 signaling in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis.

  4. The Adaptor Protein Myd88 Is a Key Signaling Molecule in the Pathogenesis of Irinotecan-Induced Intestinal Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Deysi V. T.; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C. P.; Carvalho, Cibele B. M.; Borges, Vanessa F.; Wanderley, Carlos W. S.; Bem, Amanda X. C.; Leite, Caio A. V. G.; Teixeira, Maraiza A.; Batista, Gabriela L. P.; Silva, Rangel L.; Cunha, Thiago M.; Brito, Gerly A. C.; Almeida, Paulo R. C.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a common side effect of irinotecan-based anticancer regimens. Mucositis causes cell damage, bacterial/endotoxin translocation and production of cytokines including IL–1 and IL–18. These molecules and toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate a common signaling pathway that involves the Myeloid Differentiation adaptor protein, MyD88, whose role in intestinal mucositis is unknown. Then, we evaluated the involvement of TLRs and MyD88 in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. MyD88-, TLR2- or TLR9-knockout mice and C57BL/6 (WT) mice were given either saline or irinotecan (75 mg/kg, i.p. for 4 days). On day 7, animal survival, diarrhea and bacteremia were assessed, and following euthanasia, samples of the ileum were obtained for morphometric analysis, myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and measurement of pro-inflammatory markers. Irinotecan reduced the animal survival (50%) and induced a pronounced diarrhea, increased bacteremia, neutrophil accumulation in the intestinal tissue, intestinal damage and more than twofold increased expression of MyD88 (200%), TLR9 (400%), TRAF6 (236%), IL–1β (405%), IL–18 (365%), COX–2 (2,777%) and NF-κB (245%) in the WT animals when compared with saline-injected group (P<0.05). Genetic deletion of MyD88, TLR2 or TLR9 effectively controlled the signs of intestinal injury when compared with irinotecan-administered WT controls (P<0.05). In contrast to the MyD88-/- and TLR2-/- mice, the irinotecan-injected TLR9-/- mice showed a reduced survival, a marked diarrhea and an enhanced expression of IL–18 versus irinotecan-injected WT controls. Additionally, the expression of MyD88 was reduced in the TLR2-/- or TLR9-/- mice. This study shows a critical role of the MyD88-mediated TLR2 and TLR9 signaling in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. PMID:26440613

  5. The crucial role of the MyD88 adaptor protein in the inflammatory response induced by Bothrops atrox venom.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Vanessa; Teixeira, Catarina; Borges da Silva, Henrique; D'Império Lima, Maria Regina; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Most snake accidents in North Brazil are attributed to Bothrops atrox, a snake species of the Viperidae family whose venom simultaneously induces local and systemic effects in the victims. The former are clinically more important than the latter, as they cause severe tissue lesions associated with strong inflammatory responses. Although several studies have shown that inflammatory mediators are produced in response to B. atrox venom (BaV), there is little information concerning the molecular pathways involved in innate immune system signaling. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adaptor molecule responsible for transmitting intracellular signals from most toll-like receptors (TLRs) after they interact with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or other stimuli such as endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The MyD88-dependent pathway leads to activation of transcription factors, which in turn induce synthesis of inflammatory mediators such as eicosanoids, cytokines and chemokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of MyD88 on the acute inflammatory response induced by BaV. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and MyD88 knockout (MyD88(-/-)) mice were intraperitoneally injected with BaV. Compared to WT mice, MyD88(-/-) animals showed an impaired inflammatory response to BaV, with lower influx of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells to the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, peritoneal leukocytes from BaV-injected MyD88(-/-) mice did not induce COX-2 or LTB4 protein expression and released low concentrations of PGE2. These mice also failed to produce Th1 and Th17 cytokines and CCL-2, but IL-10 levels were similar to those of BaV-injected WT mice. Our results indicate that MyD88 signaling is required for activation of the inflammatory response elicited by BaV, raising the possibility of developing new therapeutic targets to treat Bothrops sp. poisoning. PMID:23474268

  6. Molecular cloning and expression studies of the adapter molecule myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing-Yun; Hu, Guo-Bin; Yu, Chang-Hong; Li, Song; Liu, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2015-10-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adapter protein involved in the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). In this study, a full length cDNA of MyD88 was cloned from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. It is 1619 bp in length and contains an 858-bp open reading frame that encodes a peptide of 285 amino acid residues. The putative turbot (Sm)MyD88 protein possesses a N-terminal death domain and a C-terminal Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain known to be important for the functions of MyD88 in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis grouped SmMyD88 with other fish MyD88s. SmMyD88 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues of healthy turbots, with higher levels observed in immune-relevant organs. To explore the role of SmMyD88, its gene expression profile in response to stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) or turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV) was studied in the head kidney, spleen, gills and muscle over a 7-day time course. The results showed an up-regulation of SmMyD88 transcript levels by the three immunostimulants in all four examined tissues, with the induction by CpG-ODN strongest and initiated earliest and inducibility in the muscle very weak. Additionally, TRBIV challenge resulted in a quite high level of SmMyD88 expression in the spleen, whereas the two synthetic immunostimulants induced the higher levels in the head kidney. These data provide insights into the roles of SmMyD88 in the TLR/IL-1R signaling pathway of the innate immune system in turbot. PMID:26025195

  7. MyD88-Dependent Silencing of Transgene Expression During the Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Helper-Dependent Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masataka; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Bertin, Terry K.; Cela, Racel; Clarke, Christian; Guenther, Margaretha; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Activation of the host innate immune response after systemic administration of adenoviral vectors constitutes a principal impediment to successful clinical gene replacement therapies. Although helper-dependent adenoviruses (HDAds) lack all viral functional genes, systemic administration of a high dose of HDAd still elicits a potent innate immune response in host animals. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate receptors that sense microbial products and trigger the maturation of antigen-presenting cells and cytokine production via MyD88-dependent signaling (except TLR3). Here we show that mice lacking MyD88 exhibit a dramatic reduction in proinflammatory cytokines after intravenous injection of a high dose of HDAd, and show significantly reduced induction of the adaptive immune response when compared with wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice. Importantly, MyD88–/– mice also show significantly higher and longer sustained transgene expression than do wild-type mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies using wild-type and MyD88-deficient primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed significant MyD88-dependent transcriptional silencing of the HDAd-encoded transgenes. Our results demonstrate that MyD88 signaling, activated by systemic delivery of HDAd, initiates an innate immune response that suppresses transgene expression at the transcriptional level before initiation of the adaptive immune response. PMID:19824822

  8. Recipient Myd88 Deficiency Promotes Spontaneous Resolution of Kidney Allograft Rejection.

    PubMed

    Lerret, Nadine M; Li, Ting; Wang, Jiao-Jing; Kang, Hee-Kap; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Xueqiong; Jie, Chunfa; Kanwar, Yashpal S; Abecassis, Michael M; Luo, Xunrong; Zhang, Zheng

    2015-11-01

    The myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) adapter protein is an important mediator of kidney allograft rejection, yet the precise role of MyD88 signaling in directing the host immune response toward the development of kidney allograft rejection remains unclear. Using a stringent mouse model of allogeneic kidney transplantation, we demonstrated that acute allograft rejection occurred equally in MyD88-sufficient (wild-type [WT]) and MyD88(-/-) recipients. However, MyD88 deficiency resulted in spontaneous diminution of graft infiltrating effector cells, including CD11b(-)Gr-1(+) cells and activated CD8 T cells, as well as subsequent restoration of near-normal renal graft function, leading to long-term kidney allograft acceptance. Compared with T cells from WT recipients, T cells from MyD88(-/-) recipients failed to mount a robust recall response upon donor antigen restimulation in mixed lymphocyte cultures ex vivo. Notably, exogenous IL-6 restored the proliferation rate of T cells, particularly CD8 T cells, from MyD88(-/-) recipients to the proliferation rate of cells from WT recipients. Furthermore, MyD88(-/-) T cells exhibited diminished expression of chemokine receptors, specifically CCR4 and CXCR3, and the impaired ability to accumulate in the kidney allografts despite an otherwise MyD88-sufficient environment. These results provide a mechanism linking the lack of intrinsic MyD88 signaling in T cells to the effective control of the rejection response that results in spontaneous resolution of acute rejection and long-term graft protection.

  9. Inhibitory effect of miR-125b on hepatitis C virus core protein-induced TLR2/MyD88 signaling in THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Jie, Sheng-Hua; Tong, Qiao-Xia; Lu, Meng-Ji; Yang, Dong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of miR-125b in regulating monocyte immune responses induced by hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein. METHODS: Monocytic THP-1 cells were treated with various concentrations of recombinant HCV core protein, and cytokines and miR-125b expression in these cells were analyzed. The requirement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or MyD88 gene for HCV core protein-induced immune responses was determined by the transfection of THP-1 cells with gene knockdown vectors expressing either TLR2 siRNA or MyD88 siRNA. The effect of miR-125b overexpression on TLR2/MyD88 signaling was examined by transfecting THP-1 cells with miR-125b mimic RNA oligos. RESULTS: In response to HCV core protein stimulation, cytokine production was up-regulated and miR-125b expression was down-regulated in THP-1 cells. The modulatory effect of HCV core protein on cellular events was dose-dependent and required functional TLR2 or MyD88 gene. Forced miR-125b expression abolished the HCV core protein-induced enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 expression by 66%, 54%, and 66%, respectively (P < 0.001), by inhibiting MyD88-mediated signaling, including phosphorylation of NF-κBp65, ERK, and P38. CONCLUSION: The inverse correlation between miR-125b and cytokine expression after HCV core challenge suggests that miR-125b may negatively regulate HCV-induced immune responses by targeting TLR2/MyD88 signaling in monocytes. PMID:27158204

  10. Dual Activation of TRIF and MyD88 Adaptor Proteins by Angiotensin II Evokes Opposing Effects on Pressure, Cardiac Hypertrophy and Inflammatory Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Madhu V.; Cicha, Michael Z.; Meyerholz, David K.; Chapleau, Mark W.; Abboud, François M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is recognized as an immune disorder whereby immune cells play a defining role in the genesis and progression of the disease. The innate immune system and its component toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key determinants of the immunological outcome through their pro-inflammatory response. TLR activated signaling pathways utilize several adaptor proteins of which adaptor proteins MyD88 and TRIF define two major inflammatory pathways. In this study, we compared the contributions of MyD88 and TRIF adaptor proteins to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Deletion of MyD88 did not prevent cardiac hypertrophy and the pressor response to Ang II tended to increase. Moreover, the increase in inflammatory gene expression (Tnfa, Nox4 and Agtr1a) was significantly greater in the heart and kidney of MyD88-deficient mice compared with wild type mice. Thus, pathways involving MyD88 may actually restrain the inflammatory responses. On the other hand, in mice with non-functional TRIF (Trifmut mice), Ang II induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy were abrogated, and pro-inflammatory gene expression in heart and kidneys was unchanged or decreased. Our results indicate that Ang II induces activation of a pro-inflammatory innate immune response, causing hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy. These effects require functional adaptor protein TRIF-mediated pathways. However, the common MyD88 dependent signaling pathway, which is also activated simultaneously by Ang II, paradoxically exerts a negative regulatory influence on these responses. PMID:26195481

  11. A TIR Domain Protein from E. faecalis Attenuates MyD88-Mediated Signaling and NF-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Baghdayan, Arto S.; Payne, Sarah J.; Shankar, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor signaling, mediated by functional Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains, plays a critical role in activating the innate immune response responsible for controlling and clearing infection. Bacterial protein mimics of components of this signaling pathway have been identified and function through inhibition of interactions between Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their adaptor proteins, mediated by TIR domains. A previously uncharacterized gene, which we have named tcpF (for TIR domain-containing protein in E. faecalis) was identified in the genome of Enterococcus faecalis V583, and predicted to encode a protein resembling mammalian and bacterial TIR proteins. We overexpressed and purified TcpF from E. coli and found that the recombinant protein could bind to phosphatidylinositol phosphates in vitro, suggesting a mechanism by which TcpF may be anchored to the plasma membrane in close proximity to TIR domains of TLRs and adaptor proteins. Purified TcpF was also found to interact specifically with the TIR adaptor protein MyD88, and this interaction was dependent on the BB loop domain in the Box 2 region of TcpF. Despite no evidence of TcpF being a secreted protein, recombinant TcpF was effectively able to enter RAW264.7 cells in vitro although the mechanism by which this occurs remains to be determined. Overexpression of TcpF in mammalian cells suppressed the NF-κB activation induced by bacterial lipoteichoic acid. A mutant lacking the tcpF gene was attenuated for survival in macrophages, with increased ability to activate NF-κB compared to the wild type strain. Complementation in trans restored growth, and inhibition of NF-κB, to that of wild type levels. No appreciable difference in bacterial persistence, dissemination or pathogenesis was observed between the wild type and mutant in a mouse peritonitis model however, which suggested either a subtle role for TcpF or functional overlap with other redundant factor(s) in this virulence model. PMID

  12. Myd88 Initiates Early Innate Immune Responses and Promotes CD4 T Cells during Coronavirus Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Butchi, Niranjan; Kapil, Parul; Puntambekar, Shweta; Stohlman, Stephen A.; Hinton, David R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Myd88 signaling is critical to the control of numerous central nervous system (CNS) infections by promoting both innate and adaptive immune responses. Nevertheless, the extent to which Myd88 regulates type I interferon (IFN) versus proinflammatory factors and T cell function, as well as the anatomical site of action, varies extensively with the pathogen. CNS infection by neurotropic coronavirus with replication confined to the brain and spinal cord induces protective IFN-α/β via Myd88-independent activation of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). However, a contribution of Myd88-dependent signals to CNS pathogenesis has not been assessed. Infected Myd88−/− mice failed to control virus, exhibited enhanced clinical disease coincident with increased demyelination, and succumbed to infection within 3 weeks. The induction of IFN-α/β, as well as of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, was impaired early during infection. However, defects in both IFN-α/β and select proinflammatory factors were rapidly overcome prior to T cell recruitment. Myd88 deficiency also specifically blunted myeloid and CD4 T cell recruitment into the CNS without affecting CD8 T cells. Moreover, CD4 T cells but not CD8 T cells were impaired in IFN-γ production. Ineffective virus control indeed correlated most prominently with reduced antiviral IFN-γ in the CNS of Myd88−/− mice. The results demonstrate a crucial role for Myd88 both in early induction of innate immune responses during coronavirus-induced encephalomyelitis and in specifically promoting protective CD4 T cell activation. In the absence of these responses, functional CD8 T cells are insufficient to control viral spread within the CNS, resulting in severe demyelination. IMPORTANCE During central nervous system (CNS) infections, signaling through the adaptor protein Myd88 promotes both innate and adaptive immune responses. The extent to which Myd88 regulates antiviral type I IFN, proinflammatory

  13. A unique feature of Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein is partially responsible for lipopolysaccharide insensitivity in zebrafish with a highly conserved function of MyD88.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhui; Li, Mengzhen; Fan, Shan; Lin, Yiqun; Lin, Bin; Luo, Fang; Zhang, Chenxu; Chen, Shangwu; Li, Yingqiu; Xu, Anlong

    2010-09-15

    MyD88 and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) are required for the TLR4 response to LPS stimulation in mammals, but the functions of the two adaptors and their involvement in zebrafish insensitivity to LPS remains unknown. We present a functional analysis of zebrafish Myd88 and Tirap and suggest that Myd88 is more important than Tirap for the activation of Tlr-mediated NF-kappaB, which may be a novel mechanism of Myd88-dependent TLR signaling in teleosts. Zebrafish Tirap lacks the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding motif required for human TIRAP location and has leucine at position 233 rather than the conserved proline of human TIRAP, as well as 105 additional aa at the N terminus. Overexpression of zebrafish Tirap in HEK293T cells did not activate NF-kappaB and IFN-beta, but slightly activated NF-kappaB in carp leukocyte cells. Zebrafish Myd88 alone strongly induced the activation of NF-kappaB and IFN-beta both in HEK293T and carp leukocyte cells. The function of Myd88 was dependent on its cellular location and the proline in the Toll/IL-1R domain. Although zebrafish Tirap was distributed throughout the cell rather than localized to the cytoplasmic membrane, its impaired ability to activate downstream Tlr molecules was unlikely to be related to its location because chimera TIRAP with a human TIRAP N terminus and membrane-binding domain also did not activate NF-kappaB. However, the mutation of leucine to proline increased the ability of Tirap to activate NF-kappaB. We suggest that the zebrafish Tirap needs a longer N terminus to perform its function and could be partially responsible for the resistance to LPS in zebrafish.

  14. A West Nile virus NS4B-P38G mutant strain induces adaptive immunity via TLR7-MyD88-dependent and independent signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guorui; Welte, Thomas; Wang, Jia; Whiteman, Melissa C; Wicker, Jason A; Saxena, Vandana; Cong, Yingzi; Barrett, Alan D T; Wang, Tian

    2013-08-28

    Prior work shows that an attenuated West Nile virus (WNV), the nonstructural (NS)4B-P38G mutant infection in mice induced strong immune responses and protected host from subsequent lethal wild-type WNV infection. Here, we investigated NS4B-P38G mutant infection in myeloid differentiation factor 88-deficient (MyD88(-/-)) and Toll-like receptor 7-deficient (TLR7(-/-)) mice and found they had enhanced susceptibility compared to wild-type mice. Both groups had lower WNV-specific IgM response and reduced effector T cell functions. Dendritic cells (DCs) also exhibited a reduced maturation and impaired antigen-presenting functions compared to wild-type DCs. Moreover, infection with NS4B-P38G mutant in TLR7(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice provided full and partial protection respectively from subsequent challenge with lethal wild-type WNV. There were reduced T cell responses in MyD88(-/-) and interleukin-1 receptor deficient (IL-1R(-/-)) mice during secondary challenge with wild-type WNV. In contrast, TLR7(-/-) mice displayed normal T cell functions. Collectively, these results suggest that TLR7-dependent MyD88 signaling is required for T cell priming during NS4B-P38G mutant infection, whereas the TLR7-independent MyD88 signaling pathways are involved in memory T cell development, which may contribute to host protection during secondary challenge with wild-type WNV. PMID:23845800

  15. TLR signaling adaptor protein MyD88 in primary sensory neurons contributes to persistent inflammatory and neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing-Jun; Liu, Tong; Chen, Gang; Wang, Bing; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Yin, Cui; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that neuro-immune and neuro-glial interactions are critically involved in chronic pain sensitization. It is well studied how immune/glial mediators sensitize pain, but how sensory neurons control neuroinflammation remains unclear. We employed Myd88 conditional knockout (CKO) mice, in which Myd88 was deleted in sodium channel subunit Nav1.8-expressing primary sensory neurons, to examine the unique role of neuronal MyD88 in regulating acute and chronic pain, and possible underlying mechanisms. We found that baseline pain and the formalin induced acute inflammatory pain were intact in CKO mice. However, the late phase inflammatory pain following complete Freund’s adjuvant injection and the late phase neuropathic pain following chronic constriction injury (CCI), were reduced in CKO mice. CCI induced up-regulation of MyD88 and chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 expression in DRG neurons and macrophage infiltration into DRGs, and microglia activation in spinal dorsal horns in wild-type mice, but all these changes were compromised in CKO mice. Finally, the pain hypersensitivity induced by intraplantar IL-1β was reduced in CKO mice. Our findings suggest that MyD88 in primary sensory neurons plays an active role in regulating IL-1β signaling and neuroinflammation in the peripheral and the central nervous systems, and contributes to the maintenance of persistent pain. PMID:27312666

  16. Oncogenically active MYD88 mutations in human lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Vu N.; Young, Ryan M.; Schmitz, Roland; Jhavar, Sameer; Xiao, Wenming; Lim, Kian-Huat; Kohlhammer, Holger; Xu, Weihong; Yang, Yandan; Zhao, Hong; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Romesser, Paul; Wright, George; Powell, John; Rosenwald, Andreas; Muller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad; Ott, German; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Campo, Elias; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Delabie, Jan; Smeland, Erlend B.; Fisher, Richard I.; Braziel, Rita M.; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Cook, J. R.; Weisenburger, Denny D.; Chan, Wing C.; Staudt, Louis M.

    2016-01-01

    The activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains the least curable form of this malignancy despite recent advances in therapy1. Constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-κB and JAK kinase signalling promotes malignant cell survival in these lymphomas, but the genetic basis for this signalling is incompletely understood. Here we describe the dependence of ABC DLBCLs on MYD88, an adaptor protein that mediates toll and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor signalling2,3, and the discovery of highly recurrent oncogenic mutations affecting MYD88 in ABC DLBCL tumours. RNA interference screening revealed that MYD88 and the associated kinases IRAK1 and IRAK4 are essential for ABC DLBCL survival. High-throughput RNA resequencing uncovered MYD88 mutations in ABC DLBCL lines. Notably, 29% of ABC DLBCL tumours harboured the same amino acid substitution, L265P, in the MYD88 Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain at an evolutionarily invariant residue in its hydrophobic core. This mutation was rare or absent in other DLBCL subtypes and Burkitt’s lymphoma, but was observed in 9% of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. At a lower frequency, additional mutations were observed in the MYD88 TIR domain, occurring in both the ABC and germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL subtypes. Survival of ABC DLBCL cells bearing the L265P mutation was sustained by the mutant but not the wild-type MYD88 isoform, demonstrating that L265P is a gain-of-function driver mutation. The L265P mutant promoted cell survival by spontaneously assembling a protein complex containing IRAK1 and IRAK4, leading to IRAK4 kinase activity, IRAK1 phosphorylation, NF-κB signalling, JAK kinase activation of STAT3, and secretion of IL-6, IL-10 and interferon-β. Hence, theMYD88 signalling pathway is integral to the pathogenesis of ABC DLBCL, supporting the development of inhibitors of IRAK4 kinase and other components of this pathway for the treatment of tumours bearing oncogenic MYD88 mutations

  17. Early MyD88-dependent induction of interleukin-17A expression during Salmonella colitis.

    PubMed

    Keestra, A Marijke; Godinez, Ivan; Xavier, Mariana N; Winter, Maria G; Winter, Sebastian E; Tsolis, Renée M; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-08-01

    The development of T helper 17 (T(H)17) cells is a well-established adaptive mechanism for the production of interleukin-17A (IL-17A), a cytokine involved in neutrophil recruitment. However, pathways contributing to mucosal expression of IL-17A during the initial phase of a bacterial infection have received less attention. Here we used the mouse colitis model of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infection to investigate the contribution of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) to inflammation and mucosal IL-17A expression. Expression of IL-23 in the cecal mucosa during S. Typhimurium colitis was dependent on the presence of MyD88. Furthermore, initial expression of IL-17A at 24 h after S. Typhimurium infection was dependent on MyD88 and the receptor for IL-1β. IL-23 and IL-1β synergized in inducing expression of IL-17A in splenic T cells in vitro. In the intestinal mucosa, IL-17A was produced by three distinct T cell populations, including δγ T cells, T(H)17 cells, and CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells. The absence of IL-1β signaling or IL-17 signaling reduced CXC chemokine expression but did not alter the overall severity of pathological lesions in the cecal mucosa. In contrast, cecal pathology and neutrophil recruitment were markedly reduced in Myd88-deficient mice during the initial phases of S. Typhimurium infection. Collectively, these data demonstrate that MyD88-dependent mechanisms, including an initial expression of IL-17A, are important for orchestrating early inflammatory responses during S. Typhimurium colitis. PMID:21576324

  18. Aberrant TIRAP and MyD88 expression in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Antosz, Halina; Sajewicz, Joanna; Marzec-Kotarska, Barbara; Dmoszyńska, Anna; Baszak, Jacek; Jargiełło-Baszak, Małgorzata

    2013-06-01

    TIRAP and Myd88 are adaptor proteins for Toll-like receptors-2 and -4 (TLR2/4) which are engaged in transducing the signal to downstream molecules. Several studies have shown the increased role of infection factors in pathogenesis of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). This prompted us to test whether there is a correlation between MyD88-TIRAP dynamics before and after inflammatory stimuli. We determined the mRNA and protein expression of TIRAP and MyD88 in CD5(+)CD19(+) B-CLL cells and in a subpopulation of normal B CD19(+) lymphocytes. Additionally we determined the influence of lipopolysaccharide Escherichia coli - TLR4-ligand (LPS) and Staphylococcus aureus strain Cowan I - TLR2-ligand (SAC) on TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein, also called MyD88 adaptor-like (TIRAP) and myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) expression. We have found that the mRNA and protein expression of TIRAP and MyD88 in B-CLL lymphocytes is lower compared with that in normal B lymphocytes. LPS and SAC stimulation in normal lymphocytes significantly altered neither TIRAP nor MyD88 mRNA expression, whereas TIRAP protein level substantially decreased after TLR agonist treatment. We did not observe any changes in MyD88 protein level after B lymphocyte stimulation. There was a significant increase in TIRAP mRNA expression after LPS and SAC stimulation of B-CLL cells. MyD88 mRNA expression levels in B-CLL lymphocytes slightly decreased upon treatment with either stimulator. Stimulation with TLR agonists did not cause changes in TIRAP and MyD88 expression at the protein level in B-CLL lymphocytes. The results of our study suggest that there may exist a, yet unknown, defect of TIRAP and MyD88 proteins in B-CLL lymphocytes. PMID:23419703

  19. Mycoplasma bovis-derived lipid-associated membrane proteins activate IL-1β production through the NF-κB pathway via toll-like receptor 2 and MyD88.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Suli; Li, Yuan; Wang, Qi; Shao, Jiari; Chen, Ying; Xin, Jiuqing

    2016-02-01

    Mycoplasma bovis causes pneumonia, otitis media, and arthritis in young calves, resulting in economic losses to the cattle industry worldwide. M. bovis pathogenesis results in part from excessive immune responses. Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) can potently induce host innate immunity. However, interactions between M. bovis-derived LAMPs and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), or signaling pathways eliciting active inflammation and NF-κB activation, are incompletely understood. Here, we found that IL-1β expression was induced in embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells stimulated with M. bovis-derived LAMPs. Subcellular-localization analysis revealed nuclear p65 translocation following EBL cell stimulation with M. bovis-derived LAMPs. An NF-κB inhibitor reversed M. bovis-derived LAMP-induced IL-1β expression. TLR2 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) overexpression increased LAMP-dependent IL-1β induction. TLR2-neutralizing antibodies reduced IL-1β expression during LAMP stimulation. LAMPs also inhibited IL-1β expression following overexpression of a dominant-negative MyD88 protein. These results suggested that M. bovis-derived LAMPs activate IL-1β production through the NF-κB pathway via TLR2 and MyD88. PMID:26499291

  20. Mycoplasma bovis-derived lipid-associated membrane proteins activate IL-1β production through the NF-κB pathway via toll-like receptor 2 and MyD88.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Suli; Li, Yuan; Wang, Qi; Shao, Jiari; Chen, Ying; Xin, Jiuqing

    2016-02-01

    Mycoplasma bovis causes pneumonia, otitis media, and arthritis in young calves, resulting in economic losses to the cattle industry worldwide. M. bovis pathogenesis results in part from excessive immune responses. Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) can potently induce host innate immunity. However, interactions between M. bovis-derived LAMPs and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), or signaling pathways eliciting active inflammation and NF-κB activation, are incompletely understood. Here, we found that IL-1β expression was induced in embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells stimulated with M. bovis-derived LAMPs. Subcellular-localization analysis revealed nuclear p65 translocation following EBL cell stimulation with M. bovis-derived LAMPs. An NF-κB inhibitor reversed M. bovis-derived LAMP-induced IL-1β expression. TLR2 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) overexpression increased LAMP-dependent IL-1β induction. TLR2-neutralizing antibodies reduced IL-1β expression during LAMP stimulation. LAMPs also inhibited IL-1β expression following overexpression of a dominant-negative MyD88 protein. These results suggested that M. bovis-derived LAMPs activate IL-1β production through the NF-κB pathway via TLR2 and MyD88.

  1. Pyogenic Bacterial Infections in Humans with MyD88 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    von Bernuth, Horst; Picard, Capucine; Jin, Zhongbo; Pankla, Rungnapa; Xiao, Hui; Ku, Cheng-Lung; Chrabieh, Maya; Mustapha, Imen Ben; Ghandil, Pegah; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Vasconcelos, Júlia; Sirvent, Nicolas; Guedes, Margarida; Vitor, Artur Bonito; Herrero-Mata, María José; Aróstegui, Juan Ignacio; Rodrigo, Carlos; Alsina, Laia; Ruiz-Ortiz, Estibaliz; Juan, Manel; Fortuny, Claudia; Yagüe, Jordi; Antón, Jordi; Pascal, Mariona; Chang, Huey-Hsuan; Janniere, Lucile; Rose, Yoann; Garty, Ben-Zion; Chapel, Helen; Issekutz, Andrew; Maródi, László; Rodriguez-Gallego, Carlos; Banchereau, Jacques; Abel, Laurent; Li, Xiaoxia; Chaussabel, Damien; Puel, Anne; Casanova1, Jean-Laurent

    2009-01-01

    MyD88 is a key downstream adapter for most Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs). MyD88 deficiency in mice leads to susceptibility to a broad range of pathogens in experimental settings of infection. We describe a distinct situation in a natural setting of human infection. Nine children with autosomal recessive MyD88 deficiency suffered from life-threatening, often recurrent pyogenic bacterial infections, including invasive pneumococcal disease. However, these patients were otherwise healthy, with normal resistance to other microbes. Their clinical status improved with age, but not due to any cellular leakiness in MyD88 deficiency. The MyD88-dependent TLRs and IL-1Rs are therefore essential for protective immunity to a small number of pyogenic bacteria, but redundant for host defense to most natural infections. PMID:18669862

  2. Dendritic cell specific targeting of MyD88 signalling pathways in vivo.

    PubMed

    Arnold-Schrauf, Catharina; Berod, Luciana; Sparwasser, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity. During infection, DCs recognise pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. TLRs mainly signal via the adaptor protein MyD88. This signalling pathway is required for immune protection during many infections, which are lethal in the absence of MyD88. However, the cell type specific importance of this pathway during both innate and adaptive immune responses against pathogens in vivo remains ill-defined. We discuss recent findings from conditional KO or gain-of-function mouse models targeting TLR/MyD88 signalling pathways in DCs and other myeloid cells during infection. While the general assumption that MyD88-dependent recognition by DCs is essential for inducing protective immunity holds true in some instances, the results surprisingly indicate a much more complex context-dependent requirement for this pathway in DCs and other myeloid or lymphoid cell-types in vivo. Furthermore, we highlight the advantages of Cre-mediated DC targeting approaches and their possible limitations. We also present future perspectives on the development of new genetic mouse models to target distinct DC subsets in vivo. Such models will serve to understand the functional heterogeneity of DCs in vivo.

  3. MyD88 deficiency results in both cognitive and motor impairments in mice.

    PubMed

    Drouin-Ouellet, J; LeBel, M; Filali, M; Cicchetti, F

    2012-08-01

    The myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) product is the most common adaptor protein implicated in Toll-like and interleukin receptor (TIR) domain signaling and thus plays an important role in the innate immune system. Despite the fact that the MyD88-dependent pathway has emerged as an important player in cell death processes described in several animal models of neurodegenerative disorders, the contribution of this pathway to specific behavioral phenotypes has been largely ignored. To understand the full implication of this pathway, we tested MyD88(-/-) mice for both motor and cognitive functions in normal conditions. MyD88(-/-) mice displayed impaired spatial and working memory as detected by the Barnes maze, the water T-maze and the passive avoidance tests. Furthermore, MyD88(-/-) mice demonstrated hypolocomotion in the open-field and wheel activity systems, as well as impairments in motor coordination and balance using the pole test and the rotarod. Our findings shed light on behavioral alterations that are associated with the deletion of the MyD88 protein in physiological conditions. These behavioral effects should be taken into consideration when assessing the role of the MyD88-dependent pathway in various infectious and non-infectious conditions.

  4. B cell-intrinsic MyD88 signaling prevents the lethal dissemination of commensal bacteria during colonic damage

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Donna; Benson, Alicia; Mirpuri, Julie; Pifer, Reed; Hou, Baidong; DeFranco, Anthony L.; Yarovinsky, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Summary The Toll-like receptor adaptor protein MyD88 is essential for the regulation of intestinal homeostasis in mammals. In this study, we determined that Myd88-deficient mice are susceptible to colonic damage that is induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration due to uncontrolled dissemination of intestinal commensal bacteria. The DSS-induced mortality of Myd88-deficient mice was completely prevented by antibiotic treatment to deplete commensal bacteria. By using cell type-specific Myd88-deficient mice, we established that B cell-intrinsic MyD88 signaling plays a central role in the resistance to DSS-induced colonic damage via the production of IgM and complement-mediated control of intestinal bacteria. Our results indicate that the lack of intact MyD88 signaling in B cells, coupled with impaired epithelial integrity, enables commensal bacteria to function as highly pathogenic organisms, causing rapid host death. PMID:22306056

  5. Early MyD88-Dependent Induction of Interleukin-17A Expression during Salmonella Colitis ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Keestra, A. Marijke; Godinez, Ivan; Xavier, Mariana N.; Winter, Maria G.; Winter, Sebastian E.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of T helper 17 (TH17) cells is a well-established adaptive mechanism for the production of interleukin-17A (IL-17A), a cytokine involved in neutrophil recruitment. However, pathways contributing to mucosal expression of IL-17A during the initial phase of a bacterial infection have received less attention. Here we used the mouse colitis model of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infection to investigate the contribution of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) to inflammation and mucosal IL-17A expression. Expression of IL-23 in the cecal mucosa during S. Typhimurium colitis was dependent on the presence of MyD88. Furthermore, initial expression of IL-17A at 24 h after S. Typhimurium infection was dependent on MyD88 and the receptor for IL-1β. IL-23 and IL-1β synergized in inducing expression of IL-17A in splenic T cells in vitro. In the intestinal mucosa, IL-17A was produced by three distinct T cell populations, including δγ T cells, TH17 cells, and CD4−CD8− T cells. The absence of IL-1β signaling or IL-17 signaling reduced CXC chemokine expression but did not alter the overall severity of pathological lesions in the cecal mucosa. In contrast, cecal pathology and neutrophil recruitment were markedly reduced in Myd88-deficient mice during the initial phases of S. Typhimurium infection. Collectively, these data demonstrate that MyD88-dependent mechanisms, including an initial expression of IL-17A, are important for orchestrating early inflammatory responses during S. Typhimurium colitis. PMID:21576324

  6. Myd88 deficiency influences murine tracheal epithelial metaplasia and submucosal gland abundance

    PubMed Central

    Giangreco, Adam; Lu, Liwen; Mazzatti, Dawn J; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Nye, Emma; Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Janes, Sam M

    2011-01-01

    Tracheal epithelial remodelling, excess mucus production, and submucosal gland hyperplasia are features of numerous lung diseases, yet their origins remain poorly understood. Previous studies have suggested that NF-κB signalling may regulate airway epithelial homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether deletion of the NF-κB signalling pathway protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) influenced tracheal epithelial cell phenotype. We compared wild-type and Myd88-deficient or pharmacologically inhibited adult mouse tracheas and determined that in vivo Myd88 deletion resulted in increased submucosal gland number, secretory cell metaplasia, and excess mucus cell abundance. We also found that Myd88 was required for normal resolution after acute tracheal epithelial injury. Microarray analysis revealed that uninjured Myd88-deficient tracheas contained 103 transcripts that were differentially expressed relative to wild-type and all injured whole tracheal samples. These clustered into several ontologies and networks that are known to functionally influence epithelial cell phenotype. Comparing these transcripts to those expressed in airway progenitor cells revealed only five common genes, suggesting that Myd88 influences tracheal epithelial homeostasis through an extrinsic mechanism. Overall, this study represents the first identification of Myd88 as a regulator of adult tracheal epithelial cell phenotype. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21557220

  7. Selective utilization of Toll-like receptor and MyD88 signaling in B cells for enhancement of the anti-viral germinal center response

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Baidong; Saudan, Philippe; Ott, Gary; Wheeler, Matthew L.; Ji, Ming; Kuzmich, Lili; Lee, Linda M.; Coffman, Robert L.; Bachmann, Martin F.; DeFranco, Anthony L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The contribution of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling to T cell-dependent (TD) antibody responses was assessed by using mice lacking the TLR signaling adaptor MyD88 in individual cell types. When a soluble TLR9 ligand was used as adjuvant for a protein antigen, MyD88 was required in dendritic cells but not in B cells to enhance the TD antibody response, regardless of the inherent immunogenicity of the antigen. In contrast, a TLR9 ligand contained within a virus-like particle substantially augmented the TD germinal center IgG antibody response, and this augmentation required B cell MyD88. The ability of B cells to discriminate between antigens based the physical form of a TLR ligand likely reflects an adaptation to facilitate strong anti-viral antibody responses. PMID:21353603

  8. MyD88 Signaling Is Directly Involved in the Development of Murine Placental Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Renato; Reis, Aramys Silva; da Silva, Leandro Gustavo; Hasenkamp, Lutero; Pereira, Keitty Raquel Benevides; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Costa, Fabio Trindade Maranhão; Lima, Maria Regina D'Império; Alvarez, José Maria; Boscardin, Silvia Beatriz; Epiphanio, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a widespread infectious disease caused by the parasite Plasmodium. During pregnancy, malaria infection leads to a range of complications that can affect both the mother and fetus, including stillbirth, infant mortality, and low birth weight. In this study, we utilized a mouse model of placental malaria (PM) infection to determine the importance of the protein MyD88 in the host immune response to Plasmodium during pregnancy. Initially, we demonstrated that Plasmodium berghei NK65GFP adhered to placental tissue via chondroitin sulfate A and induced PM in mice with a C57BL/6 genetic background. To evaluate the involvement of MyD88 in the pathology of PM, we performed a histopathological analysis of placentas obtained from MyD88−/− and wild-type (WT) mice following infection on the 19th gestational day. Our data demonstrated that the detrimental placental alterations observed in the infected mice were correlated with the expression of MyD88. Moreover, in the absence of this protein, production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was significantly reduced in the infected mice. More importantly, in contrast to fetuses from infected WT mice, which exhibited a reduction in body weight, the fetuses from infected MyD88−/− mice did not display significant weight loss compared to their noninfected littermates. In addition, we observed a decrement of maternal care associated with malaria infection, which was attenuated in the MyD88-deficient mice. Collectively, the results of this study illustrate the pivotal importance of the MyD88 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of placental malaria, thus presenting new possibilities for targeting MyD88 in therapeutic interventions. PMID:24478096

  9. Activation of MyD88-dependent TLR1/2 signaling by misfolded α-synuclein, a protein linked to neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Daniele, Stefano G.; Béraud, Dawn; Davenport, Connor; Cheng, Kui; Yin, Hang; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson’s disease and diffuse Lewy body disease, are progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterized by selective neuronal death, abnormal accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein, and sustained microglial activation. In addition to inducing neuronal toxicity, higher-ordered oligomeric α-synuclein causes proinflammatory responses in the brain parenchyma by triggering microglial activation, which may exacerbate pathogenic processes by establishing a chronic neuroinflammatory milieu. Here, we found that higher-ordered oligomeric α-synuclein induced a proinflammatory microglial phenotype by directly engaging the heterodimer TLR1/2 (Toll-like receptor 1 and 2) at the cell membrane, leading to the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) and the increased production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in a MyD88-dependent manner. Blocking signaling by the TLR1/2 heterodimer with the small molecule inhibitor, CU-CPT22, reduced the expression and secretion of these inflammatory cytokines from cultured primary mouse microglia. Candesartan cilexetil, a drug approved for treating hypertension and that inhibits the expression of TLR2, reversed the activated proinflammatory phenotype of primary microglia exposed to oligomeric α-synuclein, supporting the possibility of repurposing this drug for synucleinopathies. PMID:25969543

  10. CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 is essential for normal resolution of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection1

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Mintus, Margaret; Tomasak, Tammy E.; Prantner, Daniel; Nagarajan, Uma M.; Darville, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Resolution of Chlamydia genital tract infection is delayed in the absence of MyD88. In these studies, we first used bone marrow chimeras to demonstrate a requirement for MyD88 expression by hematopoietic cells in the presence of a wild-type epithelium. Using mixed bone marrow chimeras we then determined that MyD88 expression was specifically required in the adaptive immune compartment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments revealed that CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 was necessary for normal resolution of genital tract infection. This requirement was associated with a reduced ability of MyD88−/− CD4+ T cells to accumulate in the draining lymph nodes and genital tract when exposed to the same inflammatory milieu as wild-type CD4+ T cells. We also demonstrated that the impaired infection control we observed in the absence of MyD88 could not be recapitulated by deficiencies in TLR or IL-1R signaling. In vitro, we detected an increased frequency of apoptotic MyD88−/− CD4+ T cells upon activation in the absence of exogenous ligands for receptors upstream of MyD88. These data reveal an intrinsic requirement for MyD88 in CD4+ T cells during Chlamydia infection and indicate that the importance of MyD88 extends beyond innate immune responses by directly influencing adaptive immunity. PMID:24038087

  11. A liquid crystal of ascorbyl palmitate, used as vaccine platform, provides sustained release of antigen and has intrinsic pro-inflammatory and adjuvant activities which are dependent on MyD88 adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Vallecillo, María F; Minguito de la Escalera, María M; Aguirre, María V; Ullio Gamboa, Gabriela V; Palma, Santiago D; González-Cintado, Leticia; Chiodetti, Ana L; Soldano, Germán; Morón, Gabriel; Allemandi, Daniel A; Ardavín, Carlos; Pistoresi-Palencia, María C; Maletto, Belkys A

    2015-09-28

    Modern subunit vaccines require the development of new adjuvant strategies. Recently, we showed that CpG-ODN formulated with a liquid crystal nanostructure formed by self-assembly of 6-O-ascorbyl palmitate (Coa-ASC16) is an attractive system for promoting an antigen-specific immune response to weak antigens. Here, we showed that after subcutaneous injection of mice with near-infrared fluorescent dye-labeled OVA antigen formulated with Coa-ASC16, the dye-OVA was retained at the injection site for a longer period than when soluble dye-OVA was administered. Coa-ASC16 alone elicited a local inflammation, but how this material triggers this response has not been described yet. Although it is known that some materials used as a platform are not immunologically inert, very few studies have directly focused on this topic. In this study, we explored the underlying mechanisms concerning the interaction between Coa-ASC16 and the immune system and we found that the whole inflammatory response elicited by Coa-ASC16 (leukocyte recruitment and IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 production) was dependent on the MyD88 protein. TLR2, TLR4, TLR7 and NLRP3-inflammasome signaling were not required for induction of this inflammatory response. Coa-ASC16 induced local release of self-DNA, and in TLR9-deficient mice IL-6 production was absent. In addition, Coa-ASC16 revealed an intrinsic adjuvant activity which was affected by MyD88 and IL-6 absence. Taken together these results indicate that Coa-ASC16 used as a vaccine platform is effective due to the combination of the controlled release of antigen and its intrinsic pro-inflammatory activity. Understanding how Coa-ASC16 works might have significant implications for rational vaccine design. PMID:26188153

  12. Requirement of MyD88 signaling in keratinocytes for Langerhans cell migration and initiation of atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in mice.

    PubMed

    Didovic, Sonja; Opitz, Friederike V; Holzmann, Bernhard; Förster, Irmgard; Weighardt, Heike

    2016-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease controlled by the innate and adaptive immune system. To elucidate the impact of innate immune signaling in AD, we analyzed MyD88-deficient mice in a murine model of AD-like dermatitis by epicutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA). Global MyD88 deficiency led to reduced epidermal thickening and diminished accumulation of macrophages within the inflamed skin. In addition, we observed impaired emigration of Langerhans cells (LCs) out of the epidermis of MyD88-deficient mice. These findings indicate that MyD88 deficiency affects various skin-resident cell types in the AD model. Moreover, production of IFN-g, IL-17, and CCL17 was reduced in skin draining lymph node cells and OVA-specific immunoglobulin levels were lower in MyD88-deficient mice. We further investigated the role of MyD88 in keratinocytes, as keratinocytes contribute to AD pathology. Exclusive expression of MyD88 in epidermal keratinocytes partially restored LC emigration after AD induction and expression of CCL17 in skin draining lymph nodes (LNs), but did not promote epidermal thickening nor production of IL-17. Altogether, these data demonstrate that MyD88 signaling in keratinocytes is able to restore LC migration in an otherwise MyD88-deficient background, and significantly contributes to the development of AD-like dermatitis.

  13. MyD88 Shapes Vaccine Immunity by Extrinsically Regulating Survival of CD4+ T Cells during the Contraction Phase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huafeng; Hung, Chiung Yu; Sinha, Meenal; Lee, Linda M.; Wiesner, Darin L.; LeBert, Vanessa; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Suresh, Marulasiddappa; DeFranco, Anthony L.; Lowell, Clifford A.; Klein, Bruce S.; Wüthrich, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Soaring rates of systemic fungal infections worldwide underscore the need for vaccine prevention. An understanding of the elements that promote vaccine immunity is essential. We previously reported that Th17 cells are required for vaccine immunity to the systemic dimorphic fungi of North America, and that Card9 and MyD88 signaling are required for the development of protective Th17 cells. Herein, we investigated where, when and how MyD88 regulates T cell development. We uncovered a novel mechanism in which MyD88 extrinsically regulates the survival of activated T cells during the contraction phase and in the absence of inflammation, but is dispensable for the expansion and differentiation of the cells. The poor survival of activated T cells in Myd88-/- mice is linked to increased caspase3-mediated apoptosis, but not to Fas- or Bim-dependent apoptotic pathways, nor to reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Moreover, TLR3, 7, and/or 9, but not TLR2 or 4, also were required extrinsically for MyD88-dependent Th17 cell responses and vaccine immunity. Similar MyD88 requirements governed the survival of virus primed T cells. Our data identify unappreciated new requirements for eliciting adaptive immunity and have implications for designing vaccines. PMID:27542117

  14. MyD88 Shapes Vaccine Immunity by Extrinsically Regulating Survival of CD4+ T Cells during the Contraction Phase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huafeng; Li, Mengyi; Hung, Chiung Yu; Sinha, Meenal; Lee, Linda M; Wiesner, Darin L; LeBert, Vanessa; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Galles, Kevin; Suresh, Marulasiddappa; DeFranco, Anthony L; Lowell, Clifford A; Klein, Bruce S; Wüthrich, Marcel

    2016-08-01

    Soaring rates of systemic fungal infections worldwide underscore the need for vaccine prevention. An understanding of the elements that promote vaccine immunity is essential. We previously reported that Th17 cells are required for vaccine immunity to the systemic dimorphic fungi of North America, and that Card9 and MyD88 signaling are required for the development of protective Th17 cells. Herein, we investigated where, when and how MyD88 regulates T cell development. We uncovered a novel mechanism in which MyD88 extrinsically regulates the survival of activated T cells during the contraction phase and in the absence of inflammation, but is dispensable for the expansion and differentiation of the cells. The poor survival of activated T cells in Myd88-/- mice is linked to increased caspase3-mediated apoptosis, but not to Fas- or Bim-dependent apoptotic pathways, nor to reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Moreover, TLR3, 7, and/or 9, but not TLR2 or 4, also were required extrinsically for MyD88-dependent Th17 cell responses and vaccine immunity. Similar MyD88 requirements governed the survival of virus primed T cells. Our data identify unappreciated new requirements for eliciting adaptive immunity and have implications for designing vaccines. PMID:27542117

  15. Genetics Home Reference: MyD88 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pus production (abscesses) on internal organs. In addition, affected individuals can have localized infections of the ears, nose, or throat. Although fever is a common reaction to bacterial infections, many people with MyD88 deficiency ...

  16. MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor 4 signal pathway in intervertebral disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chuqiang; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Le; Tang, Long; Li, Shuangqing; Yang, Yixi; Yang, Fuguo; Zhang, Ping; Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Lower back pain (LBP) is a common and remitting problem. One of the primary causes of LBP is thought to be degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88)-dependent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal pathway in the mechanism of IVD degeneration. IVD nucleus pulposus cells isolated and cultured from the lumbar vertebrae of Wistar rats were stimulated by various doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml) to simulate IVD degeneration. Cells were rinsed and cultured in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the levels of TLR4, MyD88, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h of incubation. Additionally, western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses were used to determine the levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα, and IL-1β protein expression after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. The levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα and IL-1β mRNA all increased in the cells stimulated by 10 µg/ml LPS at 3, 6 and 9 h (all P<0.001). Furthermore, the levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα and IL-1β protein all increased at 24, 48 and 72 h (all P<0.001). Additionally, the mRNA and protein levels of TLR4, MyD88, TNFα and IL-1β increased significantly in the cells stimulated by 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml LPS compared with the control group, and reached a peak in the 10 µg/ml LPS group (all P<0.001). These results suggest that the MyD88-dependent TLR4 signal pathway is a target pathway in IVD degeneration. This pathway is time phase- and dose-dependent, and when activated can lead to the release of inflammatory factors that participate in IVD degeneration. PMID:27446251

  17. Inflammation- and tumor-induced anorexia and weight loss require MyD88 in hematopoietic/myeloid cells but not in brain endothelial or neural cells.

    PubMed

    Ruud, Johan; Wilhelms, Daniel Björk; Nilsson, Anna; Eskilsson, Anna; Tang, Yan-Juan; Ströhle, Peter; Caesar, Robert; Schwaninger, Markus; Wunderlich, Thomas; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Engblom, David; Blomqvist, Anders

    2013-05-01

    Loss of appetite is a hallmark of inflammatory diseases. The underlying mechanisms remain undefined, but it is known that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), an adaptor protein critical for Toll-like and IL-1 receptor family signaling, is involved. Here we addressed the question of determining in which cells the MyD88 signaling that results in anorexia development occurs by using chimeric mice and animals with cell-specific deletions. We found that MyD88-knockout mice, which are resistant to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anorexia, displayed anorexia when transplanted with wild-type bone marrow cells. Furthermore, mice with a targeted deletion of MyD88 in hematopoietic or myeloid cells were largely protected against LPS-induced anorexia and displayed attenuated weight loss, whereas mice with MyD88 deletion in hepatocytes or in neural cells or the cerebrovascular endothelium developed anorexia and weight loss of similar magnitude as wild-type mice. Furthermore, in a model for cancer-induced anorexia-cachexia, deletion of MyD88 in hematopoietic cells attenuated the anorexia and protected against body weight loss. These findings demonstrate that MyD88-dependent signaling within the brain is not required for eliciting inflammation-induced anorexia. Instead, we identify MyD88 signaling in hematopoietic/myeloid cells as a critical component for acute inflammatory-driven anorexia, as well as for chronic anorexia and weight loss associated with malignant disease.

  18. Two myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) isoforms identified in ducks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuqiang; Wang, Hengan; Yan, Yaxian; Ding, Chan; Sun, Jianhe

    2015-10-01

    MyD88 is an adaptor protein involved in the interleukin-1 receptor-induced and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In this study, we identified two isoforms of MyD88 gene, designated DuMyD88-X1 and DuMyD88-X2, from duck cells. Both variants were determined to have a death domain at the N-terminal and a Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain at the C-terminal; however, the TIR domain of DuMyD88-X2 was incomplete and was 81 amino acids shorter than DuMyD88-X1. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed broad expression of both MyD88s. During Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenge experiments, expression of the two genes increased significantly, with DuMyD88-X1 having a larger amplitude and longer duration. Overexpression of DuMyD88-X1 and DuMyD88-X2 induced the activation of NF-κB and IL-6 in vitro, suggesting that DuMyD88-X1 and DuMyD88-X2 may be important in the innate immune response. The results verify the existence of a MyD88-dependent signaling pathway in ducks and contribute to understanding the potential role of MyD88s in the innate immune response.

  19. Simultaneous targeting of MyD88 and Nur77 as an effective approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Uzma, Saqib; Baig, Mirza S

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) has long been considered a central player in the inflammatory pathway. Recent studies clearly suggest that it is an important therapeutic target in inflammation. On the other hand, a recent study on the interaction between the orphan nuclear receptor (Nur77) and p38α, leading to increased lipopolysaccharide-induced hyperinflammatory response, suggests this binary complex as a therapeutic target. In this study, we have designed inhibitors that can inhibit both MyD88 and Nur77 at the same time. Since both MyD88 and Nur77 are an integral part of the pathways involving lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB-mediated inflammation, we tried to target both proteins with the same library in order to retrieve compounds having dual inhibitory properties. To perform this, we developed a homodimeric model of MyD88 and, along with the crystal structure of Nur77, screened a virtual library of compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine database containing ~61,000 compounds. We analyzed the resulting hits for their efficacy for dual binding and probed them for developing a common pharmacophore model that could be used as a prototype to screen compound libraries as well as to guide combinatorial library design to search for ideal dual-target inhibitors. Thus, our study explores the identification of novel leads having dual inhibiting effects due to binding to both MyD88 and Nur77 targets. PMID:27217723

  20. Simultaneous targeting of MyD88 and Nur77 as an effective approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Uzma, Saqib; Baig, Mirza S

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) has long been considered a central player in the inflammatory pathway. Recent studies clearly suggest that it is an important therapeutic target in inflammation. On the other hand, a recent study on the interaction between the orphan nuclear receptor (Nur77) and p38α, leading to increased lipopolysaccharide-induced hyperinflammatory response, suggests this binary complex as a therapeutic target. In this study, we have designed inhibitors that can inhibit both MyD88 and Nur77 at the same time. Since both MyD88 and Nur77 are an integral part of the pathways involving lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB-mediated inflammation, we tried to target both proteins with the same library in order to retrieve compounds having dual inhibitory properties. To perform this, we developed a homodimeric model of MyD88 and, along with the crystal structure of Nur77, screened a virtual library of compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine database containing ~61,000 compounds. We analyzed the resulting hits for their efficacy for dual binding and probed them for developing a common pharmacophore model that could be used as a prototype to screen compound libraries as well as to guide combinatorial library design to search for ideal dual-target inhibitors. Thus, our study explores the identification of novel leads having dual inhibiting effects due to binding to both MyD88 and Nur77 targets. PMID:27217723

  1. Critical Role of Macrophages and Their Activation via MyD88-NFκB Signaling in Lung Innate Immunity to Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jen-Feng; Zindl, Carlene L.; Duffy, Lynn B.; Atkinson, T. Prescott; Jung, Yong Woo; van Rooijen, Nico; Waites, Ken B.; Krause, Duncan C.; Chaplin, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp), a common cause of pneumonia, is associated with asthma; however, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We investigated the cellular immune response to Mp in mice. Intranasal inoculation with Mp elicited infiltration of the lungs with neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. Systemic depletion of macrophages, but not neutrophils, resulted in impaired clearance of Mp from the lungs. Accumulation and activation of macrophages were decreased in the lungs of MyD88−/− mice and clearance of Mp was impaired, indicating that MyD88 is a key signaling protein in the anti-Mp response. MyD88-dependent signaling was also required for the Mp-induced activation of NFκB, which was essential for macrophages to eliminate the microbe in vitro. Thus, MyD88-NFκB signaling in macrophages is essential for clearance of Mp from the lungs. PMID:21203444

  2. SARM modulates MyD88-mediated TLR activation through BB-loop dependent TIR-TIR interactions.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Emil; Ding, Jeak Ling; Byrne, Bernadette

    2016-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise invading pathogens and initiate an innate immune response by recruiting intracellular adaptor proteins via heterotypic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain interactions. Of the five TIR domain-containing adaptor proteins identified, Sterile α- and armadillo-motif-containing protein (SARM) is functionally unique; suppressing immune signalling instead of promoting it. Here we demonstrate that the recombinantly expressed and purified SARM TIR domain interacts with both the major human TLR adaptors, MyD88 and TRIF. A single glycine residue located in the BB-loop of the SARM TIR domain, G601, was identified as essential for interaction. A short peptide derived from this motif was also found to interact with MyD88 in vitro. SARM expression in HEK293 cells was found to significantly suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, IL-8 and TNF-α, an effect lost in the G601A mutant. The same result was observed with cytokine activation initiated by MyD88 expression and stimulation of TLR2 with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), suggesting that SARM is capable of suppressing both TRIF- and MyD88- dependent TLR signalling. Our findings indicate that SARM acts on a broader set of target proteins than previously thought, and that the BB-loop motif is functionally important, giving further insight into the endogenous mechanisms used to suppress inflammation in immune cells. PMID:26592460

  3. Expression and function analysis of two naturally truncated MyD88 variants in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fengjiao; Zhang, Yang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yuehuan; Xiang, Zhiming; Yu, Ziniu

    2015-08-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is the classic signaling adaptor that mediates Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR/IL-1R) dependent activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). In this study, two naturally truncated MyD88 members were identified from the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), namely CgMyD88-T1 and CgMyD88-T2. The full-length cDNA of CgMyD88-T1, CgMyD88-T2 are 976 bp and 1038 bp in length, containing an ORF of 552 bp and 555 bp, respectively. The two ORF encode a putative protein of 183 and 184 amino acids, respectively, with a calculated molecular weight of about 21 and 22 kDa. When compared to complete MyD88 paralogues, we found that both CgMyD88-T1 and CgMyD88-T2 contain only TIR domain but lack DD (Death Domain), which share 90.8% of similarity and 71.7% of identity with each other. Phylogenetic tree demonstrated that CgMyD88-T1 and CgMyD88-T2 clustered together and belonged to mollusk branch. Meanwhile, genomic arrangement analysis displayed that the two truncated MyD88s were distributed in tandem in one scaffold, revealing that they may originate from one truncated MyD88 ancestor recently. Expression profile showed that both of CgMyD88 variants were ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues with highest expression in the gills and hemocytes, respectively. Both truncated CgMyD88 mRNAs were significantly up-regulated in hemocytes under HKLM (heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes) and HKVA (heat-killed Vibrio alginolyticus) challenge. Moreover, either CgMyD88-T1 or CgMyD88-T2 were able to inhibit MyD88 activated Rel/NF-κB activity in HEK293 cell, demonstrating their negative role in regulating MyD88-mediated immune signaling.

  4. MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling by IL-1 in neurons probed by bifunctional Toll/IL-1 receptor domain/BB-loop mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Christopher N.; Mann, Enrique; Behrens, M. Margarita; Gaidarova, Svetlana; Rebek, Mitra; Rebek, Julius; Bartfai, Tamas

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β is a pluripotent proinflammatory cytokine that signals through the type-I IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI), a member of the Toll-like receptor family. In hypothalamic neurons, binding of IL-1β to IL-1RI mediates transcription-dependent changes that depend on the recruitment of the cytosolic adaptor protein myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88) to the IL-1RI/IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) complex through homomeric Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR)–TIR interactions. Through design and synthesis of bifunctional TIR mimetics that disrupt the interaction of MyD88 with the IL-1RI/IL-1RAcP complex, we analyzed the involvement of MyD88 in the signaling of IL-1β in anterior hypothalamic neurons. We show here that IL-1β-mediated activation of the protein tyrosine kinase Src depended on a MyD88 interaction with the IL-1RI/IL-1RAcP complex. The activation of the protein kinase Akt/PKB depended on the recruitment of the p85 subunit of PI3K to IL-1RI and independent of MyD88 association with the IL-1RI/IL-1RAcP complex. These bifunctional TIR–TIR mimetics represent a class of low-molecular-weight compounds with both an antiinflammatory and neuroprotective potential. These compounds have the potential to inhibit the MyD88-dependent proinflammatory actions of IL-1β, while permitting the potential neuronal survival supporting actions mediated by the MyD88-independent activation of the protein kinase Akt. PMID:16477040

  5. Regulatory T cell expressed MyD88 is critical for prolongation of allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Borges, Christopher M; Reichenbach, Dawn K; Kim, Beom Seok; Misra, Aditya; Blazar, Bruce R; Turka, Laurence A

    2016-08-01

    MyD88 signaling directly promotes T-cell survival and is required for optimal T-cell responses to pathogens. To examine the role of T-cell-intrinsic MyD88 signals in transplantation, we studied mice with targeted T-cell-specific MyD88 deletion. Contrary to expectations, we found that these mice were relatively resistant to prolongation of graft survival with anti-CD154 plus rapamycin in a class II-mismatched system. To specifically examine the role of MyD88 in Tregs, we created a Treg-specific MyD88-deficient mouse. Transplant studies in these animals replicated the findings observed with a global T-cell MyD88 knockout. Surprisingly, given the role of MyD88 in conventional T-cell survival, we found no defect in the survival of MyD88-deficient Tregs in vitro or in the transplant recipients and also observed intact cell homing and expression of Treg effector molecules. MyD88-deficient Tregs also fail to protect allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients from chronic graft-versus-host disease, confirming the observations of defective regulation seen in a solid organ transplant system. Together, our data define MyD88 as having a divergent requirement for cell survival in non-Tregs and Tregs, and a yet-to-be defined survival-independent requirement for Treg function during the response to alloantigen.

  6. Conformational dynamics of cancer-associated MyD88-TIR domain mutant L252P (L265P) allosterically tilts the landscape toward homo-dimerization.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Chendi; Qi, Ruxi; Wei, Guanghong; Guven-Maiorov, Emine; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2016-09-01

    MyD88 is an essential adaptor protein, which mediates the signaling of the toll-like and interleukin-1 receptors' superfamily. The MyD88 L252P (L265P) mutation has been identified in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The identification of this mutation has been a major advance in the diagnosis of patients with aldenstrom macroglobulinemia and related lymphoid neoplasms. Here we used computational methods to characterize the conformational effects of the mutation. Our molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the mutation allosterically quenched the global conformational dynamics of the toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain, and readjusted its salt bridges and dynamic community network. Specifically, the mutation changed the orientation and reduced the fluctuation of α-helix 3, possibly through eliminating/weakening ~8 salt bridges and enhancing the salt bridge D225-K258. Using the energy landscape of the TIR domains of MyD88, we identified two dynamic conformational basins, which correspond to the binding sites used in homo- and hetero-oligomerization, respectively. Our results indicate that the mutation stabilizes the core of the homo-dimer interface of the MyD88-TIR domain, and increases the population of homo-dimer-compatible conformational states in MyD88 family proteins. However, the dampened motion restricts its ability to heterodimerize with other TIR domains, thereby curtailing physiological signaling. In conclusion, the L252P both shifts the landscape toward homo-dimerization and restrains the dynamics of the MyD88-TIR domain, which disfavors its hetero-dimerization with other TIR domains. We further put these observations within the framework of MyD88-mediated cell signaling. PMID:27503954

  7. Clearance of Pneumocystis murina infection is not dependent on MyD88.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Chiara; Bishop, Lisa R; Yang, Jun; Lempicki, Richard A; Kovacs, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    To determine if myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), which is necessary for signaling by most TLRs and IL-1Rs, is necessary for control of Pneumocystis infection, MyD88-deficient and wild-type mice were infected with Pneumocystis by exposure to infected seeder mice and were followed for up to 106 days. MyD88-deficient mice showed clearance of Pneumocystis and development of anti-Pneumocystis antibody responses with kinetics similar to wild-type mice. Based on expression levels of select genes, MyD88-deficient mice developed immune responses similar to wild-type mice. Thus, MyD88 and the upstream pathways that rely on MyD88 signaling are not required for control of Pneumocystis infection. PMID:24680862

  8. Clearance of Pneumocystis murina infection is not dependent on MyD88

    PubMed Central

    Ripamonti, Chiara; Bishop, Lisa R.; Yang, Jun; Lempicki, Richard A.; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine if myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), which is necessary for signaling by most TLRs and IL-1Rs, is necessary for control of Pneumocystis infection, MyD88-deficient and wild-type mice were infected with Pneumocystis by exposure to infected seeder mice and were followed for up to 106 days. MyD88-deficient mice showed clearance of Pneumocystis and development of anti-Pneumocystis antibody responses with kinetics similar to wild-type mice. Based on expression levels of select genes, MyD88-deficient mice developed immune responses similar to wild-type mice. Thus, MyD88 and the upstream pathways that rely on MyD88 signaling are not required for control of Pneumocystis infection. PMID:24680862

  9. Critical role of TLR2 and MyD88 for functional response of macrophages to a group IIA-secreted phospholipase A2 from snake venom.

    PubMed

    Leiguez, Elbio; Giannotti, Karina Cristina; Moreira, Vanessa; Matsubara, Márcio Hideki; Gutiérrez, José María; Lomonte, Bruno; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Balsinde, Jesús; Teixeira, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    The snake venom MT-III is a group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzyme with functional and structural similarities with mammalian pro-inflammatory sPLA2s of the same group. Previously, we demonstrated that MT-III directly activates the innate inflammatory response of macrophages, including release of inflammatory mediators and formation of lipid droplets (LDs). However, the mechanisms coordinating these processes remain unclear. In the present study, by using TLR2-/- or MyD88-/- or C57BL/6 (WT) male mice, we report that TLR2 and MyD88 signaling have a critical role in MT-III-induced inflammatory response in macrophages. MT-III caused a marked release of PGE2, PGD2, PGJ2, IL-1β and IL-10 and increased the number of LDs in WT macrophages. In MT-III-stimulated TLR2-/- macrophages, formation of LDs and release of eicosanoids and cytokines were abrogated. In MyD88-/- macrophages, MT-III-induced release of PGE2, IL-1β and IL-10 was abrogated, but release of PGD2 and PGJ2 was maintained. In addition, COX-2 protein expression seen in MT-III-stimulated WT macrophages was abolished in both TLR2-/- and MyD88-/- cells, while perilipin 2 expression was abolished only in MyD88-/- cells. We further demonstrated a reduction of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and a release of the TLR2 agonists palmitic and oleic acid from MT-III-stimulated WT macrophages compared with WT control cells, thus suggesting these fatty acids as major messengers for MT-III-induced engagement of TLR2/MyD88 signaling. Collectively, our findings identify for the first time a TLR2 and MyD88-dependent mechanism that underlies group IIA sPLA2-induced inflammatory response in macrophages. PMID:24718259

  10. B-cell-specific conditional expression of Myd88p.L252P leads to the development of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Gero; Liedgens, Paul; Korovkina, Darya; Seeger, Jens M; Al-Baldawi, Yussor; Al-Maarri, Mona; Fritz, Christian; Vlantis, Katerina; Bezhanova, Svetlana; Scheel, Andreas H; Wolz, Olaf-Oliver; Reimann, Maurice; Möller, Peter; López, Cristina; Schlesner, Matthias; Lohneis, Philipp; Weber, Alexander N R; Trümper, Lorenz; Staudt, Louis M; Ortmann, Monika; Pasparakis, Manolis; Siebert, Reiner; Schmitt, Clemens A; Klatt, Andreas R; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Schäfer, Stephan C; Persigehl, Thorsten; Montesinos-Rongen, Manuel; Odenthal, Margarete; Büttner, Reinhard; Frenzel, Lukas P; Kashkar, Hamid; Reinhardt, H Christian

    2016-06-01

    The adaptor protein MYD88 is critical for relaying activation of Toll-like receptor signaling to NF-κB activation. MYD88 mutations, particularly the p.L265P mutation, have been described in numerous distinct B-cell malignancies, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Twenty-nine percent of activated B-cell-type DLBCL (ABC-DLBCL), which is characterized by constitutive activation of the NF-κB pathway, carry the p.L265P mutation. In addition, ABC-DLBCL frequently displays focal copy number gains affecting BCL2 Here, we generated a novel mouse model in which Cre-mediated recombination, specifically in B cells, leads to the conditional expression of Myd88(p.L252P) (the orthologous position of the human MYD88(p.L265P) mutation) from the endogenous locus. These mice develop a lymphoproliferative disease and occasional transformation into clonal lymphomas. The clonal disease displays the morphologic and immunophenotypical characteristics of ABC-DLBCL. Lymphomagenesis can be accelerated by crossing in a further novel allele, which mediates conditional overexpression of BCL2 Cross-validation experiments in human DLBCL samples revealed that both MYD88 and CD79B mutations are substantially enriched in ABC-DLBCL compared with germinal center B-cell DLBCL. Furthermore, analyses of human DLBCL genome sequencing data confirmed that BCL2 amplifications frequently co-occurred with MYD88 mutations, further validating our approach. Finally, in silico experiments revealed that MYD88-mutant ABC-DLBCL cells in particular display an actionable addiction to BCL2. Altogether, we generated a novel autochthonous mouse model of ABC-DLBCL that could be used as a preclinical platform for the development and validation of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of ABC-DLBCL. PMID:27048211

  11. Penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose ameliorates inflammation by inhibiting MyD88/NF-κB and MyD88/MAPK signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Se-Eun; Hyam, Supriya R; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The gallnut of Rhus chinensis MILL and its main constituent penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (PGG) inhibited NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated peritoneal and colonic macrophages. Here we have investigated PGG mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of PGG in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Approach Male C57BL/6 mice (18–22 g, 6 weeks old) were used to prepare peritoneal and colonic macrophages and for the induction of colitis by intrarectal administration of 2,3,4-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS). A range of inflammatory markers and transcription factors were evaluated by elisa, immunoblotting, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Key Results Expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 or Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding to TLR-4 in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages was not affected by PGG. However PGG inhibited binding of an anti-MyD88 antibody to peritoneal macrophages, but did not reduce binding of anti–IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK1) and IRAK4 antibodies to the macrophages with or without transfection with MyD88 siRNA. PGG potently reduced the activation of IRAK1, NF-κB, and MAPKs in LPS- or pepetidoglycan-stimulated peritoneal and colonic macrophages. PGG suppressed IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, while increasing expression of the anti-inflammatorycytokine IL-10. Oral administration of PGG inhibited colon shortening and myeloperoxidase activity in mice with TNBS-induced colitis, along with reducing NF-κB activation and IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, whereas it increased IL-10. Conclusions and Implications PGG reduced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways by directly interacting with the MyD88 adaptor protein. PGG may ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as colitis. PMID:23941302

  12. Discovery of small molecule inhibitors of MyD88-dependent signaling pathways using a computational screen

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Mark A.; Lee, Michael S.; Kissner, Teri L.; Alam, Shahabuddin; Waugh, David S.; Saikh, Kamal U.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used high-throughput computational screening to discover drug-like inhibitors of the host MyD88 protein-protein signaling interaction implicated in the potentially lethal immune response associated with Staphylococcal enterotoxins. We built a protein-protein dimeric docking model of the Toll-interleukin receptor (TIR)-domain of MyD88 and identified a binding site for docking small molecules. Computational screening of 5 million drug-like compounds led to testing of 30 small molecules; one of these molecules inhibits the TIR-TIR domain interaction and attenuates pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human primary cell cultures. Compounds chemically similar to this hit from the PubChem database were observed to be more potent with improved drug-like properties. Most of these 2nd generation compounds inhibit Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-induced TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-1β production at 2–10 μM in human primary cells. Biochemical analysis and a cell-based reporter assay revealed that the most promising compound, T6167923, disrupts MyD88 homodimeric formation, which is critical for its signaling function. Furthermore, we observed that administration of a single dose of T6167923 completely protects mice from lethal SEB-induced toxic shock. In summary, our in silico approach has identified anti-inflammatory inhibitors against in vitro and in vivo toxin exposure with promise to treat other MyD88-related pro-inflammatory diseases. PMID:26381092

  13. Multiple roles of Myd88 in the immune response to the plague F1-V vaccine and in protection against an aerosol challenge of Yersinia pestis CO92 in mice.

    PubMed

    Dankmeyer, Jennifer L; Fast, Randy L; Cote, Christopher K; Worsham, Patricia L; Fritz, David; Fisher, Diana; Kern, Steven J; Merkel, Tod; Kirschning, Carsten J; Amemiya, Kei

    2014-01-01

    The current candidate vaccine against Yersinia pestis infection consists of two subunit proteins: the capsule protein or F1 protein and the low calcium response V protein or V-antigen. Little is known of the recognition of the vaccine by the host's innate immune system and how it affects the acquired immune response to the vaccine. Thus, we vaccinated Toll-like receptor (Tlr) 2, 4, and 2/4-double deficient, as well as signal adaptor protein Myd88-deficient mice. We found that Tlr4 and Myd88 appeared to be required for an optimal immune response to the F1-V vaccine but not Tlr2 when compared to wild-type mice. However, there was a difference between the requirement for Tlr4 and MyD88 in vaccinated animals. When F1-V vaccinated Tlr4 mutant (lipopolysaccharide tolerant) and Myd88-deficient mice were challenged by aerosol with Y. pestis CO92, all but one Tlr4 mutant mice survived the challenge, but no vaccinated Myd88-deficient mice survived the challenge. Spleens from these latter nonsurviving mice showed that Y. pestis was not cleared from the infected mice. Our results suggest that MyD88 appears to be important for both an optimal immune response to F1-V and in protection against a lethal challenge of Y. pestis CO92 in F1-V vaccinated mice.

  14. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Limits Escherichia coli-Induced Inflammatory Responses via Attenuating MyD88-Dependent and MyD88-Independent Pathway Activation in Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingchao; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Mengling; Fu, Yunhe; Wang, Jiufeng

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine Escherichia coli infection after calving reduces fertility and causes major economic losses in the dairy industry. We investigated the protective effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 on E. coli-induced cell damage and inflammation in primary bovine endometrial epithelial cells (BEECs). L. rhamnosus GR-1 reduced ultrastructure alterations and the percentage of BEECs apoptosis after E. coli challenge. Increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of immune response indicators, including pattern recognition receptors (toll-like receptor [TLR]2, TLR4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [NOD]1, and NOD2), inflammasome proteins (NOD-like receptor family member pyrin domain-containing protein 3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and caspase-1), TLR4 downstream adaptor molecules (myeloid differentiation antigen 88 [MyD88], toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 2 [TICAM2]), nuclear transcription factor kB (NF-kB), and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, and interferon (IFN)-β, was observed following E. coli challenge. However, these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Our data indicate that L. rhamnosus GR-1 ameliorates the E. coli-induced disruption of cellular ultrastructure, subsequently reducing the percentage of BEECs apoptosis and limiting inflammatory responses, partly via attenuation of MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent pathway activation. Certain probiotics could potentially prevent postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows, ultimately reducing the use of antibiotics. PMID:27236308

  15. Intrinsic MyD88-Akt1-mTOR Signaling Coordinates Disparate Tc17 and Tc1 Responses during Vaccine Immunity against Fungal Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Nanjappa, Som Gowda; Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Galles, Kevin; Wüthrich, Marcel; Suresh, M; Klein, Bruce S

    2015-09-01

    Fungal infections have skyrocketed in immune-compromised patients lacking CD4+ T cells, underscoring the need for vaccine prevention. An understanding of the elements that promote vaccine immunity in this setting is essential. We previously demonstrated that vaccine-induced IL-17A+ CD8+ T cells (Tc17) are required for resistance against lethal fungal pneumonia in CD4+ T cell-deficient hosts, whereas the individual type I cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and GM-CSF, are dispensable. Here, we report that T cell-intrinsic MyD88 signals are crucial for these Tc17 cell responses and vaccine immunity against lethal fungal pneumonia in mice. In contrast, IFN-γ+ CD8+ cell (Tc1) responses are largely normal in the absence of intrinsic MyD88 signaling in CD8+ T cells. The poor accumulation of MyD88-deficient Tc17 cells was not linked to an early onset of contraction, nor to accelerated cell death or diminished expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Instead, intrinsic MyD88 was required to sustain the proliferation of Tc17 cells through the activation of mTOR via Akt1. Moreover, intrinsic IL-1R and TLR2, but not IL-18R, were required for MyD88 dependent Tc17 responses. Our data identify unappreciated targets for augmenting adaptive immunity against fungi. Our findings have implications for designing fungal vaccines and immune-based therapies in immune-compromised patients.

  16. Critical Role of TLR2 and MyD88 for Functional Response of Macrophages to a Group IIA-Secreted Phospholipase A2 from Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Leiguez, Elbio; Giannotti, Karina Cristina; Moreira, Vanessa; Matsubara, Márcio Hideki; Gutiérrez, José María; Lomonte, Bruno; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Balsinde, Jesús; Teixeira, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    The snake venom MT-III is a group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzyme with functional and structural similarities with mammalian pro-inflammatory sPLA2s of the same group. Previously, we demonstrated that MT-III directly activates the innate inflammatory response of macrophages, including release of inflammatory mediators and formation of lipid droplets (LDs). However, the mechanisms coordinating these processes remain unclear. In the present study, by using TLR2−/− or MyD88−/− or C57BL/6 (WT) male mice, we report that TLR2 and MyD88 signaling have a critical role in MT-III-induced inflammatory response in macrophages. MT-III caused a marked release of PGE2, PGD2, PGJ2, IL-1β and IL-10 and increased the number of LDs in WT macrophages. In MT-III-stimulated TLR2−/− macrophages, formation of LDs and release of eicosanoids and cytokines were abrogated. In MyD88−/− macrophages, MT-III-induced release of PGE2, IL-1β and IL-10 was abrogated, but release of PGD2 and PGJ2 was maintained. In addition, COX-2 protein expression seen in MT-III-stimulated WT macrophages was abolished in both TLR2−/− and MyD88−/− cells, while perilipin 2 expression was abolished only in MyD88−/− cells. We further demonstrated a reduction of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and a release of the TLR2 agonists palmitic and oleic acid from MT-III-stimulated WT macrophages compared with WT control cells, thus suggesting these fatty acids as major messengers for MT-III-induced engagement of TLR2/MyD88 signaling. Collectively, our findings identify for the first time a TLR2 and MyD88-dependent mechanism that underlies group IIA sPLA2-induced inflammatory response in macrophages. PMID:24718259

  17. TLR2, TLR4 AND MyD88 Mediate Allergic Airway Disease (AAD) and Streptococcus pneumoniae-Induced Suppression of AAD

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, Alison N.; Tseng, Hsin-Yi; Donovan, Chantal; Hansbro, Nicole G.; Jarnicki, Andrew G.; Foster, Paul S.; Gibson, Peter G.; Hansbro, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to non-pathogenic Streptococcus pneumoniae and vaccination are inversely associated with asthma. Studies in animal models demonstrate that airway administration of S. pneumoniae (live or killed), or its vaccines or components, suppresses the characteristic features of asthma in mouse models of allergic airway disease (AAD). These components could be developed into immunoregulatory therapies. S. pneumoniae components are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and TLR4, and both induce inflammatory cell responses through the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). The involvement of TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 in the pathogenesis of AAD and asthma is incompletely understood, and has not been studied in S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD. We investigated the role of TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 in the development of AAD and S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD. Methods and Findings OVA-induced AAD and killed S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD were assessed in wild-type, TLR2-/-, TLR4-/-, TLR2/4-/- and MyD88-/- BALB/c mice. During OVA-induced AAD, TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 were variously involved in promoting eosinophil accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood, and T-helper type (Th)2 cytokine release from mediastinal lymph node T cells and splenocytes. However, all were required for the induction of airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD, TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 were variously involved in the suppression of eosinophilic and splenocyte Th2 responses but all were required for the reduction in AHR. Conclusions These results highlight important but complex roles for TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 in promoting the development of OVA-induced AAD, but conversely in the S. pneumoniae-mediated suppression of AAD, with consistent and major contributions in both the induction and suppression of AHR. Thus, TLR signaling is likely required for both the development of asthma and the

  18. Mutations in TLR/MYD88 pathway identify a subset of young chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with favorable outcome.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Pinyol, Magda; Navarro, Alba; Aymerich, Marta; Jares, Pedro; Juan, Manel; Rozman, María; Colomer, Dolors; Delgado, Julio; Giné, Eva; González-Díaz, Marcos; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M; Colado, Enrique; Rayón, Consolación; Payer, Angel R; Terol, Maria José; Navarro, Blanca; Quesada, Victor; Puente, Xosé S; Rozman, Ciril; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías; López-Guillermo, Armando; Villamor, Neus

    2014-06-12

    Mutations in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88) genes have been found in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) at low frequency. We analyzed the incidence, clinicobiological characteristics, and outcome of patients with TLR/MYD88 mutations in 587 CLL patients. Twenty-three patients (3.9%) had mutations, 19 in MYD88 (one with concurrent IRAK1 mutation), 2 TLR2 (one with concomitant TLR6 mutation), 1 IRAK1, and 1 TLR5. No mutations were found in IRAK2 and IRAK4. TLR/MYD88-mutated CLL overexpressed genes of the nuclear factor κB pathway. Patients with TLR/MYD88 mutations were significantly younger (83% age ≤50 years) than those with no mutations. TLR/MYD88 mutations were the most frequent in young patients. Patients with mutated TLR/MYD88 CLL had a higher frequency of mutated IGHV and low expression of CD38 and ZAP-70. Overall survival (OS) was better in TLR/MYD88-mutated than unmutated patients in the whole series (10-year OS, 100% vs 62%; P = .002), and in the subset of patients age ≤50 years (100% vs 70%; P = .02). In addition, relative OS of TLR/MYD88-mutated patients was similar to that in the age- and gender-matched population. In summary, TLR/MYD88 mutations identify a population of young CLL patients with favorable outcome. PMID:24782504

  19. Mutations in TLR/MYD88 pathway identify a subset of young chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with favorable outcome.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Pinyol, Magda; Navarro, Alba; Aymerich, Marta; Jares, Pedro; Juan, Manel; Rozman, María; Colomer, Dolors; Delgado, Julio; Giné, Eva; González-Díaz, Marcos; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M; Colado, Enrique; Rayón, Consolación; Payer, Angel R; Terol, Maria José; Navarro, Blanca; Quesada, Victor; Puente, Xosé S; Rozman, Ciril; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías; López-Guillermo, Armando; Villamor, Neus

    2014-06-12

    Mutations in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88) genes have been found in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) at low frequency. We analyzed the incidence, clinicobiological characteristics, and outcome of patients with TLR/MYD88 mutations in 587 CLL patients. Twenty-three patients (3.9%) had mutations, 19 in MYD88 (one with concurrent IRAK1 mutation), 2 TLR2 (one with concomitant TLR6 mutation), 1 IRAK1, and 1 TLR5. No mutations were found in IRAK2 and IRAK4. TLR/MYD88-mutated CLL overexpressed genes of the nuclear factor κB pathway. Patients with TLR/MYD88 mutations were significantly younger (83% age ≤50 years) than those with no mutations. TLR/MYD88 mutations were the most frequent in young patients. Patients with mutated TLR/MYD88 CLL had a higher frequency of mutated IGHV and low expression of CD38 and ZAP-70. Overall survival (OS) was better in TLR/MYD88-mutated than unmutated patients in the whole series (10-year OS, 100% vs 62%; P = .002), and in the subset of patients age ≤50 years (100% vs 70%; P = .02). In addition, relative OS of TLR/MYD88-mutated patients was similar to that in the age- and gender-matched population. In summary, TLR/MYD88 mutations identify a population of young CLL patients with favorable outcome.

  20. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of MyD88 in Rana dybowskii.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shudong; Shi, Xuecan; Zhang, Jingyu; Chai, Longhui; Xiao, Xianghong

    2016-05-01

    The myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is the most common adaptor protein in toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways and plays an important role in the innate immune system. In this report, we conducted rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends (RACE), multiple sequence alignment, conserved domain search, phylogenetic tree construction, and quantitative real-time PCR to obtain and analyze the full-length cDNA sequence, the amino acid sequential structures, and the expression patterns of Rana dybowskii (Rd) MyD88. The full-length cDNA of RdMyD88 is 1472 bp, with an open reading frame of 855 bp, encoding a protein of 285 amino acid residues. The RdMyD88 amino acid sequence contains a death domain (DD) and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. RdMyD88 was calculated as a hydrophilic protein with predicted molecular mass and pI of 32.79 kDa and 6.00, respectively. Eighteen possible phosphorylation sites including eight serine residues, six tyrosine residues, and four threonine residues are predicted. Analysis of multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree revealed that the predicted RdMyD88 protein is closest to its Xenopus counterparts. The PCR result showed that RdMyD88 is expressed in various tissues of R. dybowskii. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to examine the expression of RdMyD88 in the heart, liver, and kidney. After Rana grylio virus (RGV) exposure, the expression of RdMyD88 in the heart, liver, and kidney were significantly upregulated and reached peak levels at 48, 48, and 72 h post-infection (hpi), respectively. Meanwhile, in response to Aeromonas hydrophila (AH) infection, clear upregulation of RdMyD88 was observed in the heart, liver, and kidney and reached its peak at 48, 6, and 12 hpi, respectively. The highest levels of induction were found in the kidney after both RGV and AH infections. These findings indicate that RdMyD88 has a conserved structure and is probably an important component of the innate

  1. A Multifaceted Role for Myd88-Dependent Signaling in Progression of Murine Mammary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Mary J.; Serrano, Antonio; Boateng, Kofi Y.; Parsons, Victoria A.; Phuong, Tiffany; Seifert, Alyssa; Ricca, Jacob M.; Tucker, Kyle C.; Eidelman, Alec S.; Carey, Maureen A.; Kurt, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous data obtained in our laboratory suggested that there may be constitutive signaling through the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88)-dependent signaling cascade in murine mammary carcinoma. Here, we extended these findings by showing that, in the absence of an added Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, the myddosome complex was preformed in 4T1 tumor cells, and that Myd88 influenced cytoplasmic extracellular signal–regulated kinase (Erk)1/Erk2 levels, nuclear levels of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), tumor-derived chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) expression, and in vitro and in vivo tumor growth. In addition, RNA-sequencing revealed that Myd88-dependent signaling enhanced the expression of genes that could contribute to breast cancer progression and genes previously associated with poor outcome for patients with breast cancer, in addition to suppressing the expression of genes capable of inhibiting breast cancer progression. Yet, Myd88-dependent signaling in tumor cells also suppressed expression of genes that could contribute to tumor progression. Collectively, these data revealed a multifaceted role for Myd88-dependent signaling in murine mammary carcinoma. PMID:27812285

  2. MyD88 in lung resident cells governs airway inflammatory and pulmonary function responses to organic dust treatment.

    PubMed

    Poole, Jill A; Wyatt, Todd A; Romberger, Debra J; Staab, Elizabeth; Simet, Samantha; Reynolds, Stephen J; Sisson, Joseph H; Kielian, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of organic dusts within agriculture environments contributes to the development and/or severity of airway diseases, including asthma and chronic bronchitis. MyD88 KO (knockout) mice are nearly completely protected against the inflammatory and bronchoconstriction effects induced by acute organic dust extract (ODE) treatments. However, the contribution of MyD88 in lung epithelial cell responses remains unclear. In the present study, we first addressed whether ODE-induced changes in epithelial cell responses were MyD88-dependent by quantitating ciliary beat frequency and cell migration following wounding by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. We demonstrate that the normative ciliary beat slowing response to ODE is delayed in MyD88 KO tracheal epithelial cells as compared to wild type (WT) control. Similarly, the normative ODE-induced slowing of cell migration in response to wound repair was aberrant in MyD88 KO cells. Next, we created MyD88 bone marrow chimera mice to investigate the relative contribution of MyD88-dependent signaling in lung resident (predominately epithelial cells) versus hematopoietic cells. Importantly, we demonstrate that ODE-induced airway hyperresponsiveness is MyD88-dependent in lung resident cells, whereas MyD88 action in hematopoietic cells is mainly responsible for ODE-induced TNF-α release. MyD88 signaling in lung resident and hematopoietic cells are necessary for ODE-induced IL-6 and neutrophil chemoattractant (CXCL1 and CXCL2) release and neutrophil influx. Collectively, these findings underscore an important role for MyD88 in lung resident cells for regulating ciliary motility, wound repair and inflammatory responses to ODE, and moreover, show that airway hyperresponsiveness appears uncoupled from airway inflammatory consequences to organic dust challenge in terms of MyD88 involvement. PMID:26376975

  3. Antagonism between MyD88- and TRIF-dependent signals in B7RP-1 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zuping; Hoebe, Kasper; Du, Xin; Jiang, Zhengfan; Shamel, Louis; Beutler, Bruce

    2005-06-01

    Type I interferons (IFN) play a critical role in the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated expression of B7 costimulatory family members. For example, LPS-induced up-regulation of CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2) is abrogated in antigen-presenting cells (APC) deficient in TRIF or TRAM, two adaptors that are responsible for TLR4-mediated production of Type I IFN. In this report, we demonstrate that LPS-induced up-regulation of B7-related protein 1 (B7RP-1), a ligand for ICOS, is dependent primarily upon the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Signaling via the TRIF pathway sharply limits MyD88-dependent B7RP-1 up-regulation. Hence, LPS induces significantly higher B7RP-1 expression on TRIF- or TRAM-deficient mouse peritoneal macrophages and on TRIF-deficient mouse splenic B cells as compared to wild-type cells. Further studies reveal that Type I IFN are general suppressors of TLR-mediated up-regulation of B7RP-1. These data indicate that Type I IFN play a dual role in the TLR-mediated expression of B7 costimulatory family members and suggest that they may act to limit B7RP-1 expression and thus limit signals derived from B7RP-1-ICOS interaction.

  4. Genome-wide identification and characterization of five MyD88 duplication genes in Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) and expression changes in response to bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xianhui; Wang, Ruijia; Li, Xue; Wang, Shuyue; Zhang, Mengran; Xing, Qiang; Sun, Yan; Wang, Shi; Zhang, Lingling; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-10-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a pivotal adaptor in the TLR/IL-1R signaling pathway, which plays an important role in activating the innate immune system. Although MyD88 genes have been identified in a variety of species, they have not been systematically characterized in scallops. In this study, five MyD88 genes were identified in Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), PyMyD88-1, PyMyD88-2a, PyMyD88-2b, PyMyD88-3 and PyMyD88-4, which consisted of two pairs of tandem duplications located on the same chromosome. To our knowledge, this is the largest number of MyD88 genes found in an invertebrate. Phylogenetic and protein structural analyses were carried out to determine the identities and evolutionary relationships of these genes. PyMyD88s have highly conserved structures compared to MyD88 genes from other invertebrate species, except for PyMyD88-4, which contains only a DD domain, suggesting the evolutionarily conserved form of this particular gene member. We investigated the expression profiles of PyMyD88 genes at different developmental stages and in healthy adult tissues and hemocytes after Micrococcus luteus and Vibrio anguillarum infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression of most PyMyD88s was significantly induced in the acute phase (3-6 h) after infection with both gram-positive (M. luteus) and gram-negative (V. anguillarum) bacteria, with much more dramatic changes in PyMyD88 expression being observed after V. anguillarum challenge. Collectively, the abundance of MyD88s and their specific expression patterns provide insight into their versatile roles in the response of the bivalve innate immune system to gram-negative bacterial pathogens. PMID:26115632

  5. A narrow repertoire of transcriptional modules responsive to pyogenic bacteria is impaired in patients carrying loss-of-function mutations in MYD88 or IRAK4

    PubMed Central

    Alsina, L; Israelsson, E; Altman, MC; Dang, KK; Ghandil, P; Israel, L; von Bernuth, H; Baldwin, N; Qin, H; Jin, Z; Banchereau, R; Anguiano, E; Ionan, A; Abel, L; Puel, A; Picard, C; Pascual, V; Casanova, JL; Chaussabel, D

    2014-01-01

    Loss of function in the kinase IRAK-4 or the adapter MyD88 in humans interrupts a pathway critical for pathogen sensing and ignition of inflammation. Yet patients with loss of function mutations are surprisingly only susceptible to a limited range of pathogens. We employed a systems approach to investigate transcriptome responses following in vitro exposure of patients’ blood to Toll-like receptor and interleukin-1 receptor agonists, and whole pathogens. Responses to purified agonists were globally abolished but variable residual responses were present following exposure to whole pathogens. Further dissection of the latter responses identified a narrow repertoire of immune transcriptional programs affected by loss of MyD88 or IRAK-4 function. This work introduces the use of a systems approach for the global assessment of innate immune responses, and the characterization of human primary immunodeficiencies. PMID:25344726

  6. MyD88-dependent pro-inflammatory activity in Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid promotes Ab switching to IgG.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rohini; Akhade, Ajay Suresh; Yadav, Jitender; Qadri, Ayub

    2015-10-01

    Vi capsular polysaccharide is currently in use as a vaccine against human typhoid caused by Salmonella Typhi. The vaccine efficacy correlates with IgG anti-Vi Abs. We have recently reported that Vi can generate inflammatory responses through activation of the TLR2/TLR1 complex. In the present study, we show that immunization with Vi produces IgM as well as IgG Abs in wild type mice. This ability is not compromised in mice deficient in T cells. However, immunization of mice lacking the TLR adaptor protein, MyD88, with Vi elicits only IgM Abs. These results suggest that MyD88-dependent pro-inflammatory ability of the Vi vaccine might be vital in generating IgG Abs with this T-independent Ag.

  7. Dissecting a Hub for Immune Response: Modeling the Structure of MyD88.

    PubMed

    Naro, Chiara; Sette, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    Immune cells sense foreign organisms through the evolutionarily conserved family of Toll-like receptors. Signaling from these receptors relies on oligomerization of adaptor molecules. In this issue of Structure, Vynke et al. (2016) shed light on the dynamical structure of the homo- and hetero-dimerization domain of MyD88, the main adaptor utilized by Toll-like receptors.

  8. Characterization of bbtTICAM from amphioxus suggests the emergence of a MyD88-independent pathway in basal chordates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Manyi; Yuan, Shaochun; Huang, Shengfeng; Li, Jun; Xu, Liqun; Huang, Huiqing; Tao, Xin; Peng, Jian; Xu, Anlong

    2011-10-01

    The MyD88-independent pathway, one of the two crucial TLR signaling routes, is thought to be a vertebrate innovation. However, a novel Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) adaptor, designated bbtTICAM, which was identified in the basal chordate amphioxus, links this pathway to invertebrates. The protein architecture of bbtTICAM is similar to that of vertebrate TICAM1 (TIR-containing adaptor molecule-1, also known as TRIF), while phylogenetic analysis based on the TIR domain indicated that bbtTICAM is the oldest ortholog of vertebrate TICAM1 and TICAM2 (TIR-containing adaptor molecule-2, also known as TRAM). Similar to human TICAM1, bbtTICAM activates NF-κB in a MyD88-independent manner by interacting with receptor interacting protein (RIP) via its RHIM motif. Such activation requires bbtTICAM to form homodimers in endosomes, and it may be negatively regulated by amphioxus SARM (sterile α and armadillo motif-containing protein) and TRAF2. However, bbtTICAM did not induce the production of type I interferon. Thus, our study not only presents the ancestral features of vertebrate TICAM1 and TICAM2, but also reveals the evolutionary origin of the MyD88-independent pathway from basal chordates, which will aid in understanding the development of the vertebrate TLR network.

  9. MyD88 Signaling Regulates Steady-State Migration of Intestinal CD103+ Dendritic Cells Independently of TNF-α and the Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Hägerbrand, Karin; Westlund, Jessica; Yrlid, Ulf; Agace, William; Johansson-Lindbom, Bengt

    2015-09-15

    Intestinal homeostasis and induction of systemic tolerance to fed Ags (i.e., oral tolerance) rely on the steady-state migration of small intestinal lamina propria dendritic cells (DCs) into draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). The majority of these migratory DCs express the α integrin chain CD103, and in this study we demonstrate that the steady-state mobilization of CD103(+) DCs into the MLN is in part governed by the IL-1R family/TLR signaling adaptor molecule MyD88. Similar to mice with complete MyD88 deficiency, specific deletion of MyD88 in DCs resulted in a 50-60% reduction in short-term accumulation of both CD103(+)CD11b(+) and CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs in the MLN. DC migration was independent of caspase-1, which is responsible for the inflammasome-dependent proteolytic activation of IL-1 cytokine family members, and was not affected by treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Consistent with the latter finding, the proportion and phenotypic composition of DCs were similar in mesenteric lymph from germ-free and conventionally housed mice. Although TNF-α was required for CD103(+) DC migration to the MLN after oral administration of the TLR7 agonist R848, it was not required for the steady-state migration of these cells. Similarly, TLR signaling through the adaptor molecule Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β and downstream production of type I IFN were not required for steady-state CD103(+) DC migration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MyD88 signaling in DCs, independently of the microbiota and TNF-α, is required for optimal steady-state migration of small intestinal lamina propria CD103(+) DCs into the MLN.

  10. The Double-Stranded RNA Bluetongue Virus Induces Type I Interferon in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells via a MYD88-Dependent TLR7/8-Independent Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ruscanu, Suzana; Pascale, Florentina; Bourge, Mickael; Hemati, Behzad; Elhmouzi-Younes, Jamila; Urien, Céline; Bonneau, Michel; Takamatsu, Haru; Hope, Jayne; Mertens, Peter; Meyer, Gilles; Stewart, Meredith; Roy, Polly; Meurs, Eliane F.; Dabo, Stéphanie; Zientara, Stéphan; Breard, Emmanuel; Sailleau, Corinne; Chauveau, Emilie; Vitour, Damien; Charley, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), especially plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), produce large amounts of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) upon infection with DNA or RNA viruses, which has impacts on the physiopathology of the viral infections and on the quality of the adaptive immunity. However, little is known about the IFN-α/β production by DCs during infections by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. We present here novel information about the production of IFN-α/β induced by bluetongue virus (BTV), a vector-borne dsRNA Orbivirus of ruminants, in sheep primary DCs. We found that BTV induced IFN-α/β in skin lymph and in blood in vivo. Although BTV replicated in a substantial fraction of the conventional DCs (cDCs) and pDCs in vitro, only pDCs responded to BTV by producing a significant amount of IFN-α/β. BTV replication in pDCs was not mandatory for IFN-α/β production since it was still induced by UV-inactivated BTV (UV-BTV). Other inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-12p40, were also induced by UV-BTV in primary pDCs. The induction of IFN-α/β required endo-/lysosomal acidification and maturation. However, despite being an RNA virus, UV-BTV did not signal through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) for IFN-α/β induction. In contrast, pathways involving the MyD88 adaptor and kinases dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) were implicated. This work highlights the importance of pDCs for the production of innate immunity cytokines induced by a dsRNA virus, and it shows that a dsRNA virus can induce IFN-α/β in pDCs via a novel TLR-independent and Myd88-dependent pathway. These findings have implications for the design of efficient vaccines against dsRNA viruses. PMID:22438548

  11. Lipopolysaccharide- and Lipoteichoic Acid-mediated Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production and Modulation of TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 Expression in Human Endometrial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Nesa; Mirahmadian, Mahroo; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rezania, Simin; Ghasemi, Jamileh; Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Mirzadegan, Ebrahim; Vafaei, Sedigheh; Kashanian, Maryam; Rasoulzadeh, Zahra; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory processes are supposed to be involved in pathophysiology of spontaneous abortion and preterm labor. Here, we investigated functional responses of human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and whole endometrial cells (WECs) to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Methods Endometrial tissues were obtained from 15 cycling women who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation. Modulation of TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by WECs and ESCs in response to LPS and LTA were assessed. Results WECs and ESCs expressed significant levels of TLR4 and MyD88 transcripts but, unlike WECs, ESCs failed to express TLR2 gene. Regardless of positive results of Western blotting, ESCs did not express TLR4 at their surface as judged by flow cytometry. Immunofluorescent staining revealed intracellular localization of TLR4 with predominant perinuclear pattern. LPS stimulation marginally increased TLR4 gene expression in both cell types, whereas such treatment significantly upregulated MyD88 gene expression after 8 hr (p < 0.05). At the protein level, however, LPS activation significantly increased TLR4 expression by ESCs (p < 0.05). LTA stimulation of WECs was accompanied with non-significant increase of TLR2 and MyD88 transcripts. LPS and LTA stimulation of WECs caused significant production of IL-6 and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Similarly, ESCs produced significant amounts of IL-6, IL-8 and also TNF-α in response to LPS activation (p < 0.05). Conclusion Our results provided further evidence of initiation of inflammatory processes following endometrial TLR activation by bacterial components which could potentially be harmful to developing fetus. PMID:25927023

  12. Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) MyD88 and TRAF6: Characterisation, Comparative Homology Modelling and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Ngoc Tuan; Liu, Han; Jakovlić, Ivan; Wang, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    MyD88 and TRAF6 play an essential role in the innate immune response in most animals. This study reports the full-length MaMyD88 and MaTRAF6 genes identified from the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) transcriptome profile. MaMyD88 is 2501 base pairs (bp) long, encoding a putative protein of 284 amino acids (aa), including the N-terminal DEATH domain of 78 aa and the C-terminal TIR domain of 138 aa. MaTRAF6 is 2252 bp long, encoding a putative protein of 542 aa, including the N-terminal low-complexity region, RING domain (40 aa), a coiled-coil region (64 aa) and C-terminal MATH domain (147 aa). Coding regions of MaMyD88 and MaTRAF6 genomic sequences consisted of five and six exons, respectively. Physicochemical and functional characteristics of the proteins were analysed. Alpha helices were dominant in the secondary structure of the proteins. Homology models of the MaMyD88 and MaTRAF6 domains were constructed applying the comparative modelling method. RT-qPCR was used to analyse the expression of MaMyD88 and MaTRAF6 mRNA transcripts in response to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. Both genes were highly upregulated in the liver, spleen and kidney during the first 24 h after the challenge. While MyD88 and TRAF6 have been reported in various aquatic species, this is the first report and characterisation of these genes in blunt snout bream. This research also provides evidence of the important roles of these two genes in the blunt snout bream innate immune system. PMID:25830478

  13. Attenuation of Hepatic Graft-versus-host Disease in Allogeneic Recipients of MyD88-deficient Donor Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji-Young; Lee, Young-Kwan; Lee, Sung-Eun; Ju, Ji-Min; Park, Gyeongsin; Choi, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) is characterized by selective damage to the liver, the skin, and the gastrointestinal tract. Following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor bone marrow (BM) cells repopulate the immune system of the recipient. We previously demonstrated that the acute intestinal GVHD (iGVHD) mortality rate was higher in MyD88-deficient BM recipients than that in the control BM recipients. In the present study, the role of MyD88 (expressed by donor BM) in the pathophysiology of hepatic GVHD (hGVHD) was examined. Unlike iGVHD, transplantation with MyD88-deficient T-cell depleted (TCD) BM attenuated hGVHD severity and was associated with low infiltration of T cells into the liver of the recipients. Moreover, GVHD hosts, transplanted with MyD88-deficient TCD BM, exhibited markedly reduced expansion of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in the liver. Adoptive injection of the MDSC from wild type mice, but not MyD88-deficient mice, enhanced hepatic T cell infiltration in the MyD88-deficient TCD BM recipients. Pre-treatment of BM donors with LPS increased MDSC levels in the liver of allogeneic wild type BM recipients. In conclusion, hGVHD and iGVHD may occur through various mechanisms based on the presence of MyD88 in the non-T cell compartment of the allograft. PMID:26140044

  14. Antimony-Resistant Leishmania donovani Exploits miR-466i To Deactivate Host MyD88 for Regulating IL-10/IL-12 Levels during Early Hours of Infection.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Budhaditya; Paul, Joydeep; Mukherjee, Sandip; Mukhopadhyay, Rupkatha; Das, Shantanabha; Naskar, Kshudiram; Sundar, Shyam; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Saha, Bhaskar; Roy, Syamal

    2015-09-15

    Infection with antimony-resistant Leishmania donovani (Sb(R)LD) induces aggressive pathology in the mammalian hosts as compared with ones with antimony-sensitive L. donovani (Sb(S)LD) infection. Sb(R)LD, but not Sb(S)LD, interacts with TLR2/TLR6 to induce IL-10 by exploiting p50/c-Rel subunits of NF-κB in infected macrophages (Mϕs). Most of the TLRs exploit the universal adaptor protein MyD88 to activate NF-κB. We now show that infection of Mϕs from MyD88(-/-) mice with Sb(R)LD gave rise to significantly higher intracellular parasite number coupled with elevated IL-10/IL-12 ratio in the culture supernatant as compared with infection in wild type (WT) Mϕs. Τhese attributes were not seen with Sb(S)LD in similar experiments. Further, Sb(R)LD infection upregulated miR-466i, which binds with 3'-untranslated region, leading to the downregulation of MyD88. Infection of MyD88(-/-) Mϕ or IL-12(-/-) Mϕ with Sb(R)LD induced IL-10 surge at 4 h, whereas the same in WT Mϕ started from 12 h. Thus, absence of IL-12 in MyD88(-/-) mice favored early binding of NF-κB subunits to the IL-10 promoter, resulting in IL-10 surge. Infection of MyD88(-/-) mice with Sb(R)LD showed significantly higher organ parasites coupled with ill-defined and immature hepatic granulomas, whereas in WT mice there were less organ parasites and the granulomas were well defined. From the survival kinetics it was observed that Sb(R)LD-infected MyD88(-/-) mice died by 60 d postinfection, whereas the WT mice continued to survive. Our results demonstrate that Sb(R)LD has evolved a unique strategy to evade host antileishmanial immune repertoire by manipulating host MyD88 to its advantage.

  15. Ultraviolet radiation signaling through TLR4/MyD88 constrains DNA repair and plays a role in cutaneous immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Harberts, Erin; Zhou, Hua; Fishelevich, Rita; Liu, Juan; Gaspari, Anthony A

    2015-04-01

    UV radiation (UVR) induces DNA damage, leading to the accumulation of mutations in epidermal keratinocytes and immunosuppression, which contribute to the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer. We reported previously that the TLR4-MyD88 signaling axis is necessary for UV-induced apoptosis. In the dinitrofluorobenzene contact hypersensitivity model, UV-irradiated MyD88-deficient (MyD88(-/-)) C57BL/6 mice had intact ear swelling, exaggerated inflammation, and higher levels of dinitrofluorobenzene-specific IgG2a compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Even with normal UV-induced, dendritic cell migration, DNA damage in the local lymph nodes was less pronounced in MyD88(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. Cultured, UV-irradiated WT APCs showed cleavage (inactivation) of the DNA damage-recognition molecule PARP, whereas PARP persisted in MyD88(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) APCs. Epidermal DNA from in vivo UV-irradiated MyD88(-/-) mice had an increased resolution rate of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Both in vitro treatment of MyD88(-/-) APCs with and intradermal in vivo injections of PARP inhibitor, PJ-34, caused WT-level cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair. Lymphoblasts deficient in DNA repair (derived from a xeroderma pigmentosum group A patient) failed to augment DNA repair after MyD88 knockdown after UVR, in contrast to lymphoblasts from a healthy control. These data suggest that interference with the TLR4/MyD88 pathway may be a useful tool in promoting DNA repair and maintaining immune responses following UVR-induced damage. PMID:25716994

  16. Ultraviolet radiation signaling through TLR4/MyD88 constrains DNA repair and plays a role in cutaneous immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Harberts, Erin; Zhou, Hua; Fishelevich, Rita; Liu, Juan; Gaspari, Anthony A

    2015-04-01

    UV radiation (UVR) induces DNA damage, leading to the accumulation of mutations in epidermal keratinocytes and immunosuppression, which contribute to the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer. We reported previously that the TLR4-MyD88 signaling axis is necessary for UV-induced apoptosis. In the dinitrofluorobenzene contact hypersensitivity model, UV-irradiated MyD88-deficient (MyD88(-/-)) C57BL/6 mice had intact ear swelling, exaggerated inflammation, and higher levels of dinitrofluorobenzene-specific IgG2a compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Even with normal UV-induced, dendritic cell migration, DNA damage in the local lymph nodes was less pronounced in MyD88(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. Cultured, UV-irradiated WT APCs showed cleavage (inactivation) of the DNA damage-recognition molecule PARP, whereas PARP persisted in MyD88(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) APCs. Epidermal DNA from in vivo UV-irradiated MyD88(-/-) mice had an increased resolution rate of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Both in vitro treatment of MyD88(-/-) APCs with and intradermal in vivo injections of PARP inhibitor, PJ-34, caused WT-level cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair. Lymphoblasts deficient in DNA repair (derived from a xeroderma pigmentosum group A patient) failed to augment DNA repair after MyD88 knockdown after UVR, in contrast to lymphoblasts from a healthy control. These data suggest that interference with the TLR4/MyD88 pathway may be a useful tool in promoting DNA repair and maintaining immune responses following UVR-induced damage.

  17. Clinical Features and Outcome of Patients With IRAK-4 and MyD88 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Picard, Capucine; von Bernuth, Horst; Ghandil, Pegah; Chrabieh, Maya; Levy, Ofer; Arkwright, Peter D.; McDonald, Douglas; Geha, Raif S.; Takada, Hidetoshi; Krause, Jens C.; Creech, C. Buddy; Ku, Cheng-Lung; Ehl, Stephan; Maŕodi, Ĺaszĺo; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Al-Hajjar, Sami; Al-Ghonaium, Abdulaziz; Day-Good, Noorbibi K.; Holland, Steven M.; Gallin, John; Chapel, Helen; Speert, David P.; Rodriguez-Gallego, Carlos; Colino, Elena; Garty, Ben-Zion; Roifman, Chaim; Hara, Toshiro; Yoshikawa, Hideto; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Domachowske, Joseph; Issekutz, Andrew C.; Tang, Mimi; Smart, Joanne; Zitnik, Simona Eva; Hoarau, Cyrille; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Thrasher, Adrian; Davies, E. Graham; Bethune, Claire; Sirvent, Nicolas; de Ricaud, Dominique; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Vasconcelos, J́ulia; Guedes, Margarida; Vitor, Artur Bonito; Rodrigo, Carlos; AlmaŸan, Francisco; Ḿendez, Maria; Aŕostegui, Juan Ignacio; Alsina, Laia; Fortuny, Claudia; Reichenbach, Janine; Verbsky, James W; Bossuyt, Xavier; Doffinger, Rainer; Abel, Laurent; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal recessive interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-4 and myeloid differentiation factor (MyD)88 deficiencies impair Toll-like receptor (TLR)- and interleukin-1 receptor-mediated immunity. We documented the clinical features and outcome of 48 patients with IRAK-4 deficiency and 12 patients with MyD88 deficiency, from 37 kindreds in 15 countries. The clinical features of IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiency were indistinguishable. There were no severe viral, parasitic, and fungal diseases, and the range of bacterial infections was narrow. Noninvasive bacterial infections occurred in 52 patients, with a high incidence of infections of the upper respiratory tract and the skin, mostly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The leading threat was invasive pneumococcal disease, documented in 41 patients (68%) and causing 72 documented invasive infections (52.2%). P. aeruginosa and Staph. aureus documented invasive infections also occurred (16.7% and 16%, respectively, in 25% and 25% of patients). Systemic signs of inflammation were usually weak or delayed. The first invasive infection occurred before the age of 2 years in 53 (88.3%) and in the neonatal period in 19 (32.7%) patients. Multiple or recurrent invasive infections were observed in most survivors (n = 36/50, 72%). PMID:21057262

  18. Lipid IVa incompletely activates MyD88-independent Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in mouse macrophage cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Norihiko; Muroi, Masashi; Sugiura, Yuka; Tanamoto, Ken-ichi

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the difference in the effect of synthetic lipid A compounds on MyD88-dependent and -independent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in mouse macrophage cells. At higher concentrations, Escherichia coli-type hexa-acylated lipid A 506, Salmonella-type hepta-acylated lipid A 516, the lipid A precursor lipid IVa and monophosphoryl lipid A induced similar levels of production of the MyD88-dependent cytokine IL-1β although their potencies varied, whereas the maximum production of the MyD88-independent cytokine RANTES induced by lipid IVa was less than 50% that of other lipid A compounds. A maximum level of NF-κB activation, which is involved in IL-1β gene transcription, was also induced to a similar level by these four lipid A compounds, while the maximum level of IFN-β promoter activity induced during MyD88-independent signaling was also less than 50% for lipid IVa stimulation compared with other lipid A compounds. Early IκBα phosphorylation activated by MyD88-dependent signaling was similarly induced by 506 and lipid IVa, whereas lipid IVa barely stimulated the phosphorylation of IRF3, a MyD88-independent transcription factor, although efficient phosphorylation was observed with 506 stimulation. These results indicate that lipid IVa has limited activity toward MyD88-independent signaling of TLR4, in macrophage cell lines, despite having efficient activity in the MyD88-dependent pathway.

  19. Helical assembly in the MyD88-IRAK4-IRAK2 complex in TLR/IL-1R signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Su-Chang; Lo, Yu-Chih; Wu, Hao

    2010-08-23

    MyD88, IRAK4 and IRAK2 are critical signalling mediators of the TLR/IL1-R superfamily. Here we report the crystal structure of the MyD88-IRAK4-IRAK2 death domain (DD) complex, which surprisingly reveals a left-handed helical oligomer that consists of 6 MyD88, 4 IRAK4 and 4 IRAK2 DDs. Assembly of this helical signalling tower is hierarchical, in which MyD88 recruits IRAK4 and the MyD88-IRAK4 complex recruits the IRAK4 substrates IRAK2 or the related IRAK1. Formation of these Myddosome complexes brings the kinase domains of IRAKs into proximity for phosphorylation and activation. Composite binding sites are required for recruitment of the individual DDs in the complex, which are confirmed by mutagenesis and previously identified signalling mutations. Specificities in Myddosome formation are dictated by both molecular complementarity and correspondence of surface electrostatics. The MyD88-IRAK4-IRAK2 complex provides a template for Toll signalling in Drosophila and an elegant mechanism for versatile assembly and regulation of DD complexes in signal transduction.

  20. Unique properties of the chicken TLR4/MD-2 complex: selective lipopolysaccharide activation of the MyD88-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Keestra, A Marijke; van Putten, Jos P M

    2008-09-15

    During evolution, mammals have evolved a powerful innate immune response to LPS. Chickens are much more resistant to LPS-induced septic shock. Herein we report that chickens sense LPS via orthologs of mammalian TLR4 and myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) rather than the previously implicated chicken TLR2 isoform type 2 (chTLR2t2) receptor. Cloning and expression of recombinant chTLR4 and chMD-2 in HeLa 57A cells activated NF-kappaB at concentrations of LPS as low as 100 pg/ml. Differential pairing of chicken and mammalian TLR4 and MD-2 indicated that the protein interaction was species-specific in contrast to the formation of functional human and murine chimeric complexes. The chicken LPS receptor responded to a wide variety of LPS derivatives and to the synthetic lipid A compounds 406 and 506. The LPS specificity resembled the functionality of the murine rather than the human TLR4/MD-2 complex. Polymorphism in chTLR4 (Tyr(383)His and Gln(611)Arg) did not influence the LPS response. Interestingly, LPS consistently failed to activate the MyD88-independent induction of IFN-beta in chicken cells, in contrast to the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) that yielded a potent IFN-beta response. These results suggest that chicken lack a functional LPS-specific TRAM-TRIF (TRIF-related adapter molecule/TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-beta) signaling pathway, which may explain their aberrant response to LPS compared with the mammalian species. PMID:18768894

  1. In Vivo Role of TLR2 and MyD88 Signaling in Eliciting Innate Immune Responses in Staphylococcal Endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Talreja, Deepa; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective mechanisms evoked by TLR2 and MyD88 signaling in bacterial endophthalmitis in vivo. Methods. Endophthalmitis was induced in wild-type (WT), TLR2−/−, MyD88−/−, and Cnlp−/− mice by intravitreal injections of a laboratory strain (RN6390) and two endophthalmitis isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Disease progression was monitored by assessing corneal and vitreous haze, bacterial burden, and retinal tissue damage. Levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines were determined using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to assess neutrophil infiltration. Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) expression was determined by immunostaining and dot blot. Results. Eyes infected with either laboratory or clinical isolates exhibited higher levels of inflammatory mediators at the early stages of infection (≤24 hours) in WT mice than in TLR2−/− or MyD88−/− mice. However, their levels surpassed that of WT mice at the later stages of infection (>48 hours), coinciding with increased bacterial burden and retinal damage. Both TLR2−/− and MyD88−/− retinas produced reduced levels of CRAMP, and its deficiency (Cnlp−/−) rendered the mice susceptible to increased bacterial burden and retinal tissue damage as early as 1 day post infection. Analyses of inflammatory mediators and neutrophil levels in WT versus Cnlp−/− mice showed a trend similar to that observed in TLR2 and MyD88 KO mice. Furthermore, we observed that even a 10-fold lower infective dose of S. aureus was sufficient to cause endophthalmitis in TLR2−/− and MyD88−/− mice. Conclusions. TLR2 and MyD88 signaling plays an important role in protecting the retina from staphylococcal endophthalmitis by production of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP. PMID:25678692

  2. TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB Pathway, Reactive Oxygen Species, Potassium Efflux Activates NLRP3/ASC Inflammasome during Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mgbemena, Victoria; Tsai, Su-Yu; Chang, Te-Hung; Berton, Michael T.; Morris, Ian R.; Allen, Irving C.; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.; Bose, Santanu

    2012-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) constitute highly pathogenic virus that cause severe respiratory diseases in newborn, children, elderly and immuno-compromised individuals. Airway inflammation is a critical regulator of disease outcome in RSV infected hosts. Although “controlled” inflammation is required for virus clearance, aberrant and exaggerated inflammation during RSV infection results in development of inflammatory diseases like pneumonia and bronchiolitis. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays an important role in inflammation by orchestrating the pro-inflammatory response. IL-1β is synthesized as an immature pro-IL-1β form. It is cleaved by activated caspase-1 to yield mature IL-1β that is secreted extracellularly. Activation of caspase-1 is mediated by a multi-protein complex known as the inflammasome. Although RSV infection results in IL-1β release, the mechanism is unknown. Here in, we have characterized the mechanism of IL-1β secretion following RSV infection. Our study revealed that NLRP3/ASC inflammasome activation is crucial for IL-1β production during RSV infection. Further studies illustrated that prior to inflammasome formation; the “first signal” constitutes activation of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2)/MyD88/NF-κB pathway. TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB signaling is required for pro-IL-1β and NLRP3 gene expression during RSV infection. Following expression of these genes, two “second signals” are essential for triggering inflammasome activation. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and potassium (K+) efflux due to stimulation of ATP-sensitive ion channel promote inflammasome activation following RSV infection. Thus, our studies have underscored the requirement of TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB pathway (first signal) and ROS/potassium efflux (second signal) for NLRP3/ASC inflammasome formation, leading to caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1β release during RSV infection. PMID:22295065

  3. Positive Correlation between Enhanced Expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB with Insulin Resistance in Placentae of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hui; Wang, Chen; Lin, Li; Ma, Jingmei; Yang, Huixia

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a critical factor of the pathophysiology of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies on key organs involved in IR, such as livers and adipose tissues, showed that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can regulate insulin sensitivity. As a maternal-fetal interface with multi-functions, placentae could contribute to the development of IR for GDM. Thus, we investigated the expressions of TLR4/Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) in term placentae from 33 GDM women and 36 healthy pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance, evaluated local and systemic IR and furthermore identified the association between placental TLR4 and IR. TLR4 protein was expressed in various cells of term placenta, particularly in syncytiotrophoblast of villi. Compared with normal pregnancy, the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway increased in the placenta of GDM (p<0.05), and these differences were more pronounced in the maternal section of the placenta and the syncytiotrophoblast of villi. In addition, more severe IR was observed in the placenta of GDM patients than the control group, evidenced with higher pIRS-1(ser312) (p<0.001) and lower IRS-1 (p<0.05) as well as pAkt proteins (p<0.01). The expression of TLR4 in placentae is positively correlated with local IR (pIRS-1: r = 0.76, p <0.001 and pAkt: r = -0.47, p <0.001) and maternal fasting (r = 0.42, p <0.01), one-hour (r = 0.52, p <0.01) and two-hour glucose (r = 0.54, p <0.01) at OGTT. We found an that enhanced expression of the TLR4-MyD88-NF-kB pathway occurs in GDM placentae, which positively correlates with heightened local IR in placentae and higher maternal hyperglycemia. The TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway may play a potential role in the development of IR in placentae of GDM. PMID:27340831

  4. MYD88-independent growth and survival effects of Sp1 transactivation in Waldenström macroglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Fulciniti, Mariateresa; Amodio, Nicola; Bandi, Rajya Lakshmi; Munshi, Mansa; Yang, Guang; Xu, Lian; Hunter, Zachary; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Treon, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Sp1 transcription factor controls a pleiotropic group of genes and its aberrant activation has been reported in a number of malignancies, including multiple myeloma. In this study, we investigate and report its aberrant activation in Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). Both loss of and gain of Sp1 function studies have highlighted a potential oncogenic role of Sp1 in WM. We have further investigated the effect of a small molecule inhibitor, terameprocol (TMP), targeting Sp1 activity in WM. Treatment with TMP inhibited the growth and survival and impaired nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription activity in WM cells. We next investigated and observed that TMP treatment induced further inhibition of WM cells in MYD88 knockdown WM cells. Moreover, we observed that Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, a downstream target of MYD88 signaling pathway, is transcriptionally regulated by Sp1 in WM cells. The combined use of TMP with Bruton’s tyrosine kinase or interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 and 4 inhibitors resulted in a significant and synergistic dose-dependent antiproliferative effect in MYD88-L265P–expressing WM cells. In summary, these results demonstrate Sp1 as an important transcription factor that regulates proliferation and survival of WM cells independent of MYD88 pathway activation, and provide preclinical rationale for clinical development of TMP in WM alone or in combination with inhibitors of MYD88 pathway. PMID:24622324

  5. Early activation of MyD88-mediated autophagy sustains HSV-1 replication in human monocytic THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Siracusano, Gabriel; Venuti, Assunta; Lombardo, Daniele; Mastino, Antonio; Esclatine, Audrey; Sciortino, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway that exerts numerous functions in vital biological processes. Among these, it contributes to both innate and adaptive immunity. On the other hand, pathogens have evolved strategies to manipulate autophagy for their own advantage. By monitoring autophagic markers, we showed that HSV-1 transiently induced autophagosome formation during early times of the infection of monocytic THP-1 cells and human monocytes. Autophagy is induced in THP-1 cells by a mechanism independent of viral gene expression or viral DNA accumulation. We found that the MyD88 signaling pathway is required for HSV-1-mediated autophagy, and it is linked to the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Interestingly, autophagy inhibition by pharmacological modulators or siRNA knockdown impaired viral replication in both THP-1 cells and human monocytes, suggest that the virus exploits the autophagic machinery to its own benefit in these cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that the early autophagic response induced by HSV-1 exerts a proviral role, improving viral production in a semi-permissive model such as THP-1 cells and human monocytes. PMID:27509841

  6. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-Induced MyD88 Short Expression Is Regulated by Positive IKKβ and CREB Pathways and Negative ERK1/2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Carla S.; Miyata, Masanori; Susuki-Miyata, Seiko; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Komatsu, Kensei; Li, Jian-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized by excessive inflammation and are exacerbated by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Airway epithelial cells mount the initial innate immune responses to invading pathogens and thus modulate inflammation. While inflammation is necessary to eliminate a pathogen, excessive inflammation can cause damage to the host tissue. Therefore, the inflammatory response must be tightly regulated and deciphering the signaling pathways involved in this response will enhance our understanding of the regulation of the host inflammatory response. NTHi binds to TLR2 and signal propagation requires the adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). An alternative spliced form of MyD88 is called MyD88 short (MyD88s) and has been identified in macrophages and embryonic cell lines as a negative regulator of inflammation. However, the role of MyD88s in NTHi-induced inflammation in airway epithelial cells remains unknown. Here we show that NTHi induces MyD88s expression and MyD88s is a negative regulator of inflammation in airway epithelial cells. We further demonstrate that MyD88s is positively regulated by IKKβ and CREB and negatively regulated by ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Taken together these data indicate that airway inflammation is controlled in a negative feedback manner involving MyD88s and suggest that airway epithelial cells are essential to maintain immune homeostasis. PMID:26669856

  7. MyD88 is a key mediator of anorexia, but not weight loss, induced by lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-1 beta.

    PubMed

    Ogimoto, Kayoko; Harris, Marvin K; Wisse, Brent E

    2006-09-01

    Systemic inflammatory signals can disrupt the physiological regulation of energy balance, causing anorexia and weight loss. In the current studies, we investigated whether MyD88, the primary, but not exclusive, intracellular signal transduction pathway for Toll-like receptor 4 and IL-1 receptor I, is necessary for anorexia and weight loss to occur in response to stimuli that activate these key innate immune receptors. Our findings demonstrate that the absence of MyD88 signaling confers complete protection against anorexia induced by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (20 h food intake in MyD88-/- mice 5.4 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.3 +/- 0.4 g in MyD88+/+ control mice, P < 0.001) or IL-1 beta (20 h food intake in MyD88-/- mice 4.9 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.3 g in MyD88+/+ control mice, P < 0.001). However, absent MyD88 signaling does not prevent these inflammatory mediators from causing weight loss (LPS, -0.4 +/- 0.1 g; IL1 beta, -0.1 +/- 0.1 g, both P < 0.01 vs. vehicle-injected MyD88-/- mice, +0.4 +/- 0.2 g). Furthermore, LPS-induced weight loss occurs in the absence of adipsia, fever, or hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation in MyD88-deficient mice. In addition, the peripheral inflammatory response to LPS is surprisingly intact in mice lacking MyD88. Together, these observations indicate that LPS reduces food intake via a mechanism that is dissociated from its effect on peripheral cytokine production, and whereas the presence of circulating proinflammatory cytokines per se is insufficient to cause anorexia in the absence of MyD88 signaling, it may contribute to LPS-induced weight loss.

  8. Goose Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and antiviral molecules involved in anti-H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus response.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangmeng; Jiao, Peirong; Yuan, Runyu; Song, Yafen; Cui, Pengfei; Guo, Xuchen; Zheng, Bofang; Jia, Weixin; Qi, Wenbao; Ren, Tao; Liao, Ming

    2013-05-15

    In mammals, Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is an important membrane-bound receptor triggered by antiviral compounds and single-stranded RNA. It is implicated in the immune response to viruses such as influenza virus. It was not known whether geese, a natural host for avian influenza viruses, possess a homologue of mammalian TLR7 for recognizing avian influenza virus. In this study, we cloned the full-length of goose TLR7 and partial sequences of its adaptor protein, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), some antiviral molecules such as RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS). Goose TLR7 has a protein secondary structure identical to that of mammals, consisting of several leucine-rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain. To further understand whether the MyD88-dependent pathway of TLR7 is involved in the antiviral innate immune response against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in geese, we inoculated geese with an H5N1 HPAIV isolated from ducks in 2004. The virus, A/Duck/Guangdong/212/2004, replicated in various tissues resulting in 40% mortality. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed upregulation of mRNA transcripts for TLR7, MyD88, PKR and OAS in the lungs of geese at 1, 2 and 3 days post-inoculation. Therefore, the MyD88-dependent pathway of TLR7 was involved in the early stage of antiviral innate immune response in geese during H5N1 HPAIV infection.

  9. MyD88 regulates physical inactivity-induced skeletal muscle inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and glucose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Tanner, Ruth E.; Barrows, Katherine M.; Runtsch, Marah; Symons, J. David; Jalili, Thunder; Bikman, Benjamin T.; McClain, Donald A.; O'Connell, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity in older adults is a risk factor for developing glucose intolerance and impaired skeletal muscle function. Elevated inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis have been implicated in metabolic disruption and are linked to Toll-like receptor (TLR)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling. We hypothesize that a physical inactivity stimulus, capable of inducing glucose intolerance, would increase skeletal muscle inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis signaling and that this response would be regulated by the TLR/MyD88 pathway. Therefore, we subjected wild-type (WT) and MyD88−/− mice to hindlimb unloading (HU) for 14 days or an ambulatory control period. We observed impaired glucose uptake, muscle insulin signaling (p-Akt), and increased markers of NF-κB signaling (p-IκBα), inflammation (p-JNK, IL-6), TLR4, and the rate-limiting enzyme of ceramide biosynthesis, SPT2, with HU WT (P < 0.05), but not in HU MyD88−/− mice. Concurrently, we found that 5 days of bed rest in older adults resulted in whole body glucose dysregulation, impaired skeletal muscle insulin signaling, and upregulation of muscle IL-6 and SPT2 (P < 0.05). Post-bed rest TLR4 abundance was tightly correlated with impaired postprandial insulin and glucose levels. In conclusion, MyD88 signaling is necessary for the increased inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and compromised metabolic function that accompanies physical inactivity. PMID:25968578

  10. MyD88 regulates physical inactivity-induced skeletal muscle inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Tanner, Ruth E; Barrows, Katherine M; Runtsch, Marah; Symons, J David; Jalili, Thunder; Bikman, Benjamin T; McClain, Donald A; O'Connell, Ryan M; Drummond, Micah J

    2015-07-01

    Physical inactivity in older adults is a risk factor for developing glucose intolerance and impaired skeletal muscle function. Elevated inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis have been implicated in metabolic disruption and are linked to Toll-like receptor (TLR)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling. We hypothesize that a physical inactivity stimulus, capable of inducing glucose intolerance, would increase skeletal muscle inflammation and ceramide biosynthesis signaling and that this response would be regulated by the TLR/MyD88 pathway. Therefore, we subjected wild-type (WT) and MyD88(-/-) mice to hindlimb unloading (HU) for 14 days or an ambulatory control period. We observed impaired glucose uptake, muscle insulin signaling (p-Akt), and increased markers of NF-κB signaling (p-IκBα), inflammation (p-JNK, IL-6), TLR4, and the rate-limiting enzyme of ceramide biosynthesis, SPT2, with HU WT (P < 0.05), but not in HU MyD88(-/-) mice. Concurrently, we found that 5 days of bed rest in older adults resulted in whole body glucose dysregulation, impaired skeletal muscle insulin signaling, and upregulation of muscle IL-6 and SPT2 (P < 0.05). Post-bed rest TLR4 abundance was tightly correlated with impaired postprandial insulin and glucose levels. In conclusion, MyD88 signaling is necessary for the increased inflammation, ceramide biosynthesis signaling, and compromised metabolic function that accompanies physical inactivity.

  11. Total parenteral nutrition-associated lamina propria inflammation in mice is mediated by a MyD88 dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaka, Eiichi A.; Feng, Yongjia; Poroyko, Valeriy; Falkowski, Nicole R.; Erb-Downward, John; Gillilland, Merritt G.; Mason, Katie L.; Huffnagle, Gary B.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Enteral nutrient-deprivation, via total parenteral nutrition (TPN) administration leads to local mucosal inflammatory responses, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Methods Wild-type (WT) and MyD88-/- mice underwent jugular vein cannulation. One group received TPN without chow and controls received standard chow. After 7days, we harvested intestinal mucosally-associated bacteria, and isolated small-bowel lamina propria (LP) cells. Bacterial populations were analyzed using 454-pyrosequencing. LP cells were analyzed using quantitative PCR and multi-color flow cytometry. Results WT, control mucosally-associated microbiota were Firmicutes-dominant while WT TPN mice were Proteobacteria-domiant. Similar changes were observed in MyD88-/- mice with TPN administration. Unifrac analysis showed divergent small bowel and colonic bacterial communities in controls, merging towards similar microbiota (but distinct from controls) with TPN. The percentage of LP T-regulatory cells significantly decreased with TPN in WT mice. F4/80+CD11b+CD11cdull-neg macrophage derived pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly increased with TPN. These pro-inflammatory immunologic changes were significantly abrogated in MyD88-/- TPN mice. Conclusions TPN administration is associated with significant expansion of Proteobacteria within the intestinal microbiota and increased pro-inflammatory LP cytokines. MyD88 signaling blockade abrogated this pro-inflammatory response. PMID:23667106

  12. TLR2-MyD88-NF-κB pathway is involved in tubulointerstitial inflammation caused by proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li-Hong; Liu, Dan; Xu, Min; Wu, Min; Liu, Hong; Tang, Ri-Ning; Ma, Kun-Ling; Chen, Ping-Sheng; Liu, Bi-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Proteinuria is an important risk factor for chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Several studies have suggested that proteinuria initiates tubulointerstitial inflammation, while the mechanisms have not been fully understood. In this study, we hypothesized whether the activation of the TLR2-MyD88-NF-κB pathway is involved in tubulointerstitial inflammation induced by proteinuria. We observed expression of TLR2, MyD88, NF-κB, as well as TNF-α and IL-6 detected by immunohistostaining, Western blotting and real-time PCR in albumin-overloaded (AO) nephropathy rats. In vitro, we observed these markers in HK-2 cells stimulated by albumin. We used TLR2 siRNA or the NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 to observe the influence of TNF-α and IL-6 expression caused by albumin overload. Finally, we studied these markers in non-IgA mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) patients with different levels of proteinuria. It was demonstrated that expression of TLR2, MyD88 and NF-κB were significantly increased in AO rats and in non-IgA MsPGN patients with high levels of proteinuria, and TNF-α and IL-6 expressions were increased after NF-κB activation. Furthermore, TNF-α and IL-6 expression was positively correlated with the level of proteinuria. Albumin-overload induced TNF-α and IL-6 secretions by the TLR2-MyD88-NF-κB pathway activation, which could be attenuated by the TLR2 siRNA or BAY 11-7082 in HK-2 cells. In summary, we demonstrated that proteinuria may exhibit an endogenous danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) that induces tubulointerstitial inflammation via the TLR2-MyD88-NF-κB pathway activation. PMID:26485683

  13. Telmisartan mediates anti-inflammatory and not cognitive function through PPAR-γ agonism via SARM and MyD88 signaling.

    PubMed

    Prathab Balaji, S; Vijay Chand, C; Justin, A; Ramanathan, M

    2015-10-01

    Telmisartan (TM), an angiotensin II receptor I (AT1) blocker, has been reported to have agonist property with respect to PPAR-γ. Activation of PPAR-γ receptor by TM attenuated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated TLR4 central downstream inflammatory responses. However, the missing link between PPAR-γ and TLR4 signaling with TM stimulation has not been clarified. Hence, the present study has been designed to evaluate the molecular mechanism involving PPARγ-TLR4 signaling with TM stimulation in LPS induced inflammatory model. LPS was administered in rats through ICV and the rats were treated with either PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (GW) or TM or both. After 14days of LPS administration, the rats were subjected to behavioral tests and their brains were isolated for blotting techniques. The protein study includes NF-κB, PPAR-γ receptors, and their downstream proteins (MyD88 & SARM). The pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) levels were measured by ELISA and cresyl violet staining in the hippocampus region to measure the neuroprotective activity. Results have shown that TM significantly increased the motor co-ordination, cognitive functions, and activated SARM and PPAR-γ protein levels. Also, TM treatment decreased the NF-κB, MyD88 activation, and cytokines release in LPS rats. The co-administration of GW attenuated the TM responses in the parameters studied except cognitive functions. TM (10mg/kg) has significantly reduced the LPS mediated inflammatory responses. This resulted in effective regeneration of hippocampal neurons as observed by cresyl violet staining. It can be concluded that the activation of PPAR-γ receptors may increase the SARM and decrease the MyD88 and NF-κB expression. This negative regulation of SARM dependent inflammation control could be a possible mechanism for TM anti-neuroinflammatory activity. This study of TM in neuro-inflammatory model may further confirm the dual activities of TM that controls hypertension and cognition

  14. Salmonella inhibits monocyte differentiation into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells in a MyD88-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Rydström, Anna; Wick, Mary Jo

    2010-05-01

    Monocytes and DCs originate from a shared precursor in the bone marrow, and steady-state DCs in lymphoid organs develop directly from the precursor rather than via a monocyte intermediate. However, monocytes can differentiate into DCs in tissues such as the lung and gut mucosa and into macrophages in most tissues. As Ly6C hi monocytes accumulate in lymphoid organs during oral Salmonella infection, we investigated their ability to develop into potential DCs, identified as CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells, in infected hosts. Ly6C hi monocytes, isolated from the blood of Salmonella-infected mice, developed into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells after culture with GM-CSF or Flt3L. In contrast, the same monocytes cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and heat-killed Salmonella did not differentiate into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells. The bacteria-induced differentiation block was dependent on TLRs, as monocytes from MyD88-/- mice converted into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells even in the presence of bacteria. We hypothesized that Salmonella-activated wild-type monocytes secreted mediators that inhibited differentiation of MyD88-/--derived monocytes. However, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, or IL-12p70 did not account for the inhibition. Finally, monocyte-derived CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells pulsed with OVA peptide or protein did not induce proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells but rather, suppressed the ability of DCs to activate CD4+ T cells. Overall, the data show that Ly6C hi monocytes from Salmonella-infected mice develop into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells with poor antigen-presentation capacity when cultured ex vivo, and that monocyte exposure to Salmonella inhibits their differentiation into CD11c hi MHC-II hi cells in a MyD88-dependent fashion.

  15. SARM1, Not MyD88, Mediates TLR7/TLR9-Induced Apoptosis in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Piyali; Winkler, Clayton W; Taylor, Katherine G; Woods, Tyson A; Nair, Vinod; Khan, Burhan A; Peterson, Karin E

    2015-11-15

    Neuronal apoptosis is a key aspect of many different neurologic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unresolved. Recent studies have suggested a mechanism of innate immune-induced neuronal apoptosis through the stimulation of endosomal TLRs in neurons. TLRs are stimulated both by pathogen-associated molecular patterns as well as by damage-associated molecular patterns, including microRNAs released by damaged neurons. In the present study, we identified the mechanism responsible for TLR7/TLR9-mediated neuronal apoptosis. TLR-induced apoptosis required endosomal localization of TLRs but was independent of MyD88 signaling. Instead, apoptosis required the TLR adaptor molecule SARM1, which localized to the mitochondria following TLR activation and was associated with mitochondrial accumulation in neurites. Deficiency in SARM1 inhibited both mitochondrial accumulation in neurites and TLR-induced apoptosis. These studies identify a non-MyD88 pathway of TLR7/ TLR9 signaling in neurons and provide a mechanism for how innate immune responses in the CNS directly induce neuronal damage. PMID:26423149

  16. Liver Fibrosis Occurs Through Dysregulation of MyD88-dependent Innate B cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Manoj; Chinnadurai, Raghavan; Velazquez, Victoria M.; Tedesco, Dana; Elrod, Elizabeth; Han, Jin-Hwan; Sharma, Prachi; Ibegbu, Chris; Gewirtz, Andrew; Anania, Frank; Pulendran, Bali; Suthar, Mehul S.; Grakoui, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver disease mediated by activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) leads to liver fibrosis. Here, we postulated that the immune regulatory properties of HSCs might promote the profibrogenic activity of B cells. Fibrosis is completely attenuated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated B cell deficient μMT mice showing that B cells are required. The retinoic acid produced by HSCs augmented B cell survival, plasma cell marker CD138 expression, and IgG production. These activities were reversed following the addition of the retinoic acid inhibitor, LE540. Transcriptional profiling of fibrotic liver B cells revealed an increased expression of genes related to NF-κB activation, proinflammatory cytokine production and CD40 signaling suggesting that these B cells are activated and may be acting as inflammatory cells. Biological validation experiments also revealed increased activation (CD44 and CD86 expressions), constitutive IgG production and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP1-α. Likewise targeted deletion of B-cell-intrinsic MyD88 signaling, an innate adaptor with involvement in RA signaling, resulted in reduced infiltration of migratory CD11c+ dendritic cells and Ly6C++ monocytes, and hence reduced liver pathology. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that liver fibrosis occurs through a mechanism of HSC-mediated augmentation of innate B cell activity and highlight B cells as an important ‘first responders’ of the intrahepatic immune environment. PMID:25711908

  17. Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone down-regulates MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling by inhibiting endotoxin-induced trafficking of TLR4 to lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaomin; Fu, Juanli; Song, Xiufang; Shi, Qiong; Su, Chuanyang; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a lethal clinical syndrome characterized by the activation of macrophages and the increased production of inflammatory mediators. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), a widely-used low caloric artificial sweetener against FHF. An FHF experimental model was established in mice by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (d-GalN) (400mg/kg)/lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (10 μg/kg). Mice were orally administered NHDC for 6 continuous days and at 1h before d-GalN/LPS administration. RAW264.7 macrophages were used as an in vitro model. Cells were pre-treated with NHDC for 1h before stimulation with LPS (10 μg/ml) for 6h. d-GalN/LPS markedly increased the serum transaminase activities and levels of oxidative and inflammatory markers, which were significantly attenuated by NHDC. Mechanistic analysis indicated that NHDC inhibited LPS-induced myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and TIR-containing adapter molecule (TRIF)-dependent signaling. Transient transfection of TLR4 or MyD88 siRNA inhibited the downstream inflammatory signaling. This effect could also be achieved by the pretreatment with NHDC. The fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry results suggested that NHDC potently inhibited the binding of LPS to TLR4 in RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, the inhibitory effect of NHDC on LPS-induced translocation of TLR4 into lipid raft domains played an important role in the amelioration of production of downstream pro-inflammatory molecules. Furthermore, the activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) by NHDC inhibited TLR4 signaling. In conclusion, our results suggest that NHDC attenuates d-GalN/LPS-induced FHF by inhibiting the TLR4-mediated inflammatory pathway, demonstrating a new application of NHDC as a hepatoprotective agent. PMID:26453923

  18. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae induces inflammatory response in sheep airway epithelial cells via a MyD88-dependent TLR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xue, Di; Ma, Yan; Li, Min; Li, Yanan; Luo, Haixia; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2015-01-15

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is a bacterium that specifically infects sheep and goat and causes ovine infectious pleuropneumonia. In an effort to understand the pathogen-host interaction between the M. ovipneumoniae and airway epithelial cells, we investigated the host inflammatory response using a primary air-liquid interface (ALI) epithelial culture model generated from bronchial epithelial cells of Ningxia Tan sheep (Ovis aries). The ALI culture of sheep bronchial epithelial cells showed a fully differentiated epithelium comprising distinct epithelial types, including the basal, ciliated and goblet cells. Exposure of ALI cultures to M. ovipneumoniae led to increased expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and components of the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent TLR signaling pathway, including the MyD88, TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), IL-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), as well as subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokines in the epithelial cells. Of interest, infection with M. ovipneumoniae failed to induce the expression of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), TRAF3 and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), key components of the MyD88-independent signaling pathway. These results suggest that the MyD88-dependent TLR pathway may play a crucial role in sheep airway epithelial cells in response to M. ovipneumoniae infection, which also indicate that the ALI culture system may be a reliable model for investigating pathogen-host interactions between M. ovipneumoniae and airway epithelial cells.

  19. MyD88 Adaptor-Dependent Microbial Sensing by Regulatory T cells Promotes Mucosal Tolerance and Enforces Commensalism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sen; Charbonnier, Louis-Marie; Rivas, Magali Noval; Georgiev, Peter; Li, Ning; Gerber, Georg; Bry, Lynn; Chatila, Talal A

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Commensal microbiota promote mucosal tolerance in part by engaging regulatory T (Treg) cells via Toll like receptors (TLR). We report that Treg cell-specific deletion of the TLR adaptor MyD88 resulted in deficiency of intestinal Treg cells, a reciprocal increase in T helper-17 (Th17) cells and heightened interleukin-17 (IL-17)-dependent inflammation in experimental colitis. It also precipitated dysbiosis with overgrowth of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) and increased microbial loads in deep tissues. The Th17 cell dysregulation and bacterial dysbiosis were linked to impaired anti-microbial intestinal IgA responses, related to defective MyD88 adaptor- and Stat3 transcription factor-dependent T follicular regulatory and helper cell differentiation in the Peyer’s patches. These findings establish an essential role for MyD88-dependent microbial sensing by Treg cells in enforcing mucosal tolerance and maintaining commensalism by promoting intestinal Treg cell formation and anti-commensal IgA-responses. PMID:26231118

  20. Inhibition of IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling promotes mesenchymal stem cell-driven tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Mikaël M.; Maruyama, Kenta; Kuhn, Gisela A.; Satoh, Takashi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Müller, Ralph; Akira, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    Tissue injury and the healing response lead to the release of endogenous danger signals including Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor, type 1 (IL-1R1) ligands, which modulate the immune microenvironment. Because TLRs and IL-1R1 have been shown to influence the repair process of various tissues, we explored their role during bone regeneration, seeking to design regenerative strategies integrating a control of their signalling. Here we show that IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling negatively regulates bone regeneration, in the mouse. Furthermore, IL-1β which is released at the bone injury site, inhibits the regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Mechanistically, IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling impairs MSC proliferation, migration and differentiation by inhibiting the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. Lastly, as a proof of concept, we engineer a MSC delivery system integrating inhibitors of IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling. Using this strategy, we considerably improve MSC-based bone regeneration in the mouse, demonstrating that this approach may be useful in regenerative medicine applications. PMID:27001940

  1. Inhibition of IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling promotes mesenchymal stem cell-driven tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Martino, Mikaël M; Maruyama, Kenta; Kuhn, Gisela A; Satoh, Takashi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Müller, Ralph; Akira, Shizuo

    2016-03-22

    Tissue injury and the healing response lead to the release of endogenous danger signals including Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor, type 1 (IL-1R1) ligands, which modulate the immune microenvironment. Because TLRs and IL-1R1 have been shown to influence the repair process of various tissues, we explored their role during bone regeneration, seeking to design regenerative strategies integrating a control of their signalling. Here we show that IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling negatively regulates bone regeneration, in the mouse. Furthermore, IL-1β which is released at the bone injury site, inhibits the regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Mechanistically, IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling impairs MSC proliferation, migration and differentiation by inhibiting the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. Lastly, as a proof of concept, we engineer a MSC delivery system integrating inhibitors of IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling. Using this strategy, we considerably improve MSC-based bone regeneration in the mouse, demonstrating that this approach may be useful in regenerative medicine applications.

  2. MyD88 Adaptor-Dependent Microbial Sensing by Regulatory T Cells Promotes Mucosal Tolerance and Enforces Commensalism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Charbonnier, Louis-Marie; Noval Rivas, Magali; Georgiev, Peter; Li, Ning; Gerber, Georg; Bry, Lynn; Chatila, Talal A

    2015-08-18

    Commensal microbiota promote mucosal tolerance in part by engaging regulatory T (Treg) cells via Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We report that Treg-cell-specific deletion of the TLR adaptor MyD88 resulted in deficiency of intestinal Treg cells, a reciprocal increase in T helper 17 (Th17) cells and heightened interleukin-17 (IL-17)-dependent inflammation in experimental colitis. It also precipitated dysbiosis with overgrowth of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) and increased microbial loads in deep tissues. The Th17 cell dysregulation and bacterial dysbiosis were linked to impaired anti-microbial intestinal IgA responses, related to defective MyD88 adaptor- and Stat3 transcription factor-dependent T follicular regulatory and helper cell differentiation in the Peyer's patches. These findings establish an essential role for MyD88-dependent microbial sensing by Treg cells in enforcing mucosal tolerance and maintaining commensalism by promoting intestinal Treg cell formation and anti-commensal IgA responses.

  3. Aging and contribution of MyD88 and TRIF in expression of TLR pathway associated genes to Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb, Yazdani B.; Huang, Nasi; Weinberg, Ellen O.; Shen, Steve S.; Genco, Caroline A.; Gibson, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Periodontal disease is a highly complex chronic inflammatory disease of the oral cavity. Multiple factors influence periodontal disease including socioeconomic status, genetics, age, however, inflammation elicited by the presence of specific bacteria in the subgingival space is thought to drive the majority of soft and hard tissue destruction. Porphyromonas gingivalis is closely associated with periodontal disease. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their intracellular signaling pathways play roles in host responses to P. gingivalis. The focus of current study was to use microarray analysis to define the contributions that TLR adaptor molecules MyD88 and TRIF, and aging have on TLR pathway associated mRNA expression in response to P. gingivalis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMØ) from wild type (Wt), MyD88-KO and TrifLps2 mice at 2-months and 12-months of age were cultured with P. gingivalis. Expression of genes in BMØ cultured with P. gingivalis was determined in comparison to medium alone control. RESULTS Using a two-fold cut-off in mRNA expression criteria, differential expression of 32 genes was observed when Wt BMØ from 2-month old mice were cultured with P. gingivalis compared with medium alone control. When compared with 2-month old Wt, 21 and 12 genes were differentially expressed (P<0.05) as a result of MyD88 or TRIF mutations respectively. The expression of 5 genes was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in the 12-month group compared to the 2-month group in Wt BMØ following culture with P. gingivalis. Age also influenced expression of genes in MyD88-KO and TrifLps2 mice challenged with P. gingivalis. CONCLUSION Our results indicate that P. gingivalis induces differential expression of TLR pathway associated genes, and both MyD88, and TRIF play roles in the expression of these genes. Age also played a role in the expression of TLR-associated genes following stimulation of BMØ with P. gingivalis. PMID:24862405

  4. Therapeutic Inhibition of Pro-Inflammatory Signaling and Toxicity to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B by a Synthetic Dimeric BB-Loop Mimetic of MyD88

    PubMed Central

    Kissner, Teri L.; Ruthel, Gordon; Alam, Shahabuddin; Mann, Enrique; Ajami, Dariush; Rebek, Mitra; Larkin, Eileen; Fernandez, Stefan; Ulrich, Robert G.; Ping, Sun; Waugh, David S.; Rebek, Julius; Saikh, Kamal U.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) exposure triggers an exaggerated pro-inflammatory cytokine response that often leads to toxic shock syndrome (TSS) associated with organ failure and death. MyD88 mediates pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling induced by SEB exposure and MyD88−/− mice are resistant to SEB intoxication, suggesting that MyD88 may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention. We targeted the BB loop region of the Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain of MyD88 to develop small-molecule therapeutics. Here, we report that a synthetic compound (EM-163), mimic to dimeric form of BB-loop of MyD88 attenuated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 production in human primary cells, whether administered pre- or post-SEB exposure. Results from a direct binding assay, and from MyD88 co-transfection/co-immunoprecipitation experiments, suggest that EM-163 inhibits TIR-TIR domain interaction. Additional results indicate that EM-163 prevents MyD88 from mediating downstream signaling. In an NF-kB-driven reporter assay of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated MyD88 signaling, EM-163 demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of reporter activity as well as TNF-α and IL-1β production. Importantly, administration of EM-163 pre- or post exposure to a lethal dose of SEB abrogated pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and protected mice from toxic shock-induced death. Taken together, our results suggest that EM-163 exhibits a potential for therapeutic use against SEB intoxication. PMID:22848400

  5. Participation of MyD88 and Interleukin-33 as Innate Drivers of Th2 Immunity to Trichinella spiralis

    PubMed Central

    Scalfone, Lisa K.; Nel, Hendrik J.; Gagliardo, Lucille F.; Cameron, Jody L.; Al-Shokri, Shaikha; Leifer, Cynthia A.; Fallon, Padraic G.

    2013-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis is a highly destructive parasitic nematode that invades and destroys intestinal epithelial cells, injures many different tissues during its migratory phase, and occupies and transforms myotubes during the final phase of its life cycle. We set out to investigate the role in immunity of innate receptors for potential pathogen- or danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or DAMPs). Focusing on the MyD88-dependent receptors, which include Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) family members, we found that MyD88-deficient mice expelled worms normally, while TLR2/4-deficient mice showed accelerated worm expulsion, suggesting that MyD88 was active in signaling pathways for more than one receptor during intestinal immunity. A direct role for PAMPs in TLR activation was not supported in a transactivation assay involving a panel of murine and human TLRs. Mice deficient in the IL-1 family receptor for the DAMP, IL-33 (called ST2), displayed reduced intestinal Th2 responses and impaired mast cell activation. IL-33 was constitutively expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, where it became concentrated in nuclei within 2 days of infection. Nuclear localization was an innate response to infection that occurred in intestinal regions where worms were actively migrating. Th2 responses were also compromised in the lymph nodes draining the skeletal muscles of ST2-deficient mice, and this correlated with increased larval burdens in muscle. Our results support a mechanism in which the immune system recognizes and responds to tissue injury in a way that promotes Th2 responses. PMID:23403558

  6. Rifaximin Improves Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Toxicity in Caco-2 Cells by the PXR-Dependent TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Nobile, Nicola; Gigli, Stefano; Seguella, Luisa; Pesce, Marcella; d’Alessandro, Alessandra; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Capoccia, Elena; Steardo, Luca; Cuomo, Rosario; Sarnelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) caused by Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) lead to severe ulceration, inflammation and bleeding of the colon, and are difficult to treat. Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of rifaximin on TcdA-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells and investigate the role of PXR in its mechanism of action. Methods: Caco-2 cells were incubated with TcdA and treated with rifaximin (0.1-10 μM) with or without ketoconazole (10 μM). The transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and viability of the treated cells was determined. Also, the expression of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) was determined. Results: Rifaximin treatment (0.1, 1.0, and 10 μM) caused a significant and concentration-dependent increase in the TEER of Caco-2 cells (360, 480, and 680% vs. TcdA treatment) 24 h after the treatment and improved their viability (61, 79, and 105%). Treatment also concentration-dependently decreased the expression of Bax protein (-29, -65, and -77%) and increased the expression of ZO-1 (25, 54, and 87%) and occludin (71, 114, and 262%) versus TcdA treatment. The expression of TLR4 (-33, -50, and -75%), MyD88 (-29, -60, and -81%) and TAK1 (-37, -63, and -79%) were also reduced with rifaximin versus TcdA treatment. Ketoconazole treatment inhibited these effects. Conclusion: Rifaximin improved TcdA-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells by the PXR-dependent TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway mechanism, and may be useful in the treatment of CDIs. PMID:27242527

  7. SNP-SNP Interaction between TLR4 and MyD88 in Susceptibility to Coronary Artery Disease in the Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dandan; Sun, Liping; Xu, Qian; Gong, Yuehua; Wang, Honghu; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent signaling pathway plays a role in the initiation and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated SNP-SNP interactions between the TLR4 and MyD88 genes in CAD susceptibility and assessed whether the effects of such interactions were modified by confounding risk factors (hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection). Participants with CAD (n = 424) and controls (n = 424) without CAD were enrolled. Polymerase chain restriction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed on genomic DNA to detect polymorphisms in TLR4 (rs10116253, rs10983755, and rs11536889) and MyD88 (rs7744). H. pylori infections were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the cardiovascular risk factors for each subject were evaluated clinically. The significant interaction between TLR4 rs11536889 and MyD88 rs7744 was associated with an increased CAD risk (p value for interaction = 0.024). In conditions of hyperglycemia, the interaction effect was strengthened between TLR4 rs11536889 and MyD88 rs7744 (p value for interaction = 0.004). In hyperlipidemic participants, the interaction strength was also enhanced for TLR4 rs11536889 and MyD88 rs7744 (p value for interaction = 0.006). Thus, the novel interaction between TLR4 rs11536889 and MyD88 rs7744 was related with an increased risk of CAD, that could be strengthened by the presence of hyperglycemia or hyperlipidemia. PMID:26959040

  8. SNP-SNP Interaction between TLR4 and MyD88 in Susceptibility to Coronary Artery Disease in the Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dandan; Sun, Liping; Xu, Qian; Gong, Yuehua; Wang, Honghu; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-03-04

    The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent signaling pathway plays a role in the initiation and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated SNP-SNP interactions between the TLR4 and MyD88 genes in CAD susceptibility and assessed whether the effects of such interactions were modified by confounding risk factors (hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection). Participants with CAD (n = 424) and controls (n = 424) without CAD were enrolled. Polymerase chain restriction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed on genomic DNA to detect polymorphisms in TLR4 (rs10116253, rs10983755, and rs11536889) and MyD88 (rs7744). H. pylori infections were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the cardiovascular risk factors for each subject were evaluated clinically. The significant interaction between TLR4 rs11536889 and MyD88 rs7744 was associated with an increased CAD risk (p value for interaction = 0.024). In conditions of hyperglycemia, the interaction effect was strengthened between TLR4 rs11536889 and MyD88 rs7744 (p value for interaction = 0.004). In hyperlipidemic participants, the interaction strength was also enhanced for TLR4 rs11536889 and MyD88 rs7744 (p value for interaction = 0.006). Thus, the novel interaction between TLR4 rs11536889 and MyD88 rs7744 was related with an increased risk of CAD, that could be strengthened by the presence of hyperglycemia or hyperlipidemia.

  9. Trichinella spiralis Excretory-Secretory Products Protect against Polymicrobial Sepsis by Suppressing MyD88 via Mannose Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Du, Linlin; Liu, Lihua; Yu, Yang; Shan, Hui; Li, Leiqing

    2014-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) or its excretory-secretory products (TsES) protect hosts from autoimmune diseases, which depend on inducing host T helper (Th) 2 immune response and inhibiting inflammatory factors. Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) evoked by infection. Little is known about the effects of helminths or their excretory-secretory products on sepsis. Here, we investigated the effects of TsES in a mice model of polymicrobial sepsis. TsES improved survival, reduced organ injury, and enhanced bacterial clearance in septic mice. To investigate the molecular mechanism, macrophages from septic patients or the control group were incubated with TsES. TsES reduced sepsis-inducing inflammatory cytokines mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) in vitro by suppressing TLR adaptor-transducer myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor- (NF-)-κB. Furthermore, TsES upregulated mannose receptor (MR) expression during sepsis. MR blocking attenuated the effects of TsES on MyD88 and NF-κB expression. In vivo, MR RNAi reduced the survival rate of septic mice treated with TsES, suggesting that TsES-mediated protection against polymicrobial sepsis is dependent on MR. Thus, TsES administration might be a potential therapeutic strategy for treating sepsis. PMID:25054155

  10. Resveratrol suppresses NTHi-induced inflammation via up-regulation of the negative regulator MyD88 short

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Carla S.; Matsuyama, Shingo; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Li, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract inflammatory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) affect more than one-half billion people globally and are characterized by chronic inflammation that is often exacerbated by respiratory pathogens such as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and the limited success of currently available pharmaceuticals used to manage the symptoms of these diseases present an urgent need for the development of novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents. Resveratrol has long been thought as an interesting therapeutic agent for various diseases including inflammatory diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory properties remain largely unknown. Here we show for the first time that resveratrol decreases expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in airway epithelial cells and in the lung of mice by enhancing NTHi-induced MyD88 short, a negative regulator of inflammation, via inhibition of ERK1/2 activation. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibits NTHi-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation by increasing MKP-1 expression via a cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling pathway. Finally, we show that resveratrol has anti-inflammatory effects post NTHi infection, thereby demonstrating its therapeutic potential. Together these data reveal a novel mechanism by which resveratrol alleviates NTHi-induced inflammation in airway disease by up-regulating the negative regulator of inflammation MyD88s. PMID:27677845

  11. TLR4 and TLR5 on Corneal Macrophages Regulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis by Signaling through MyD88-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Karmakar, Mausita; Roy, Sanhita; Ramadan, Raniyah T.; Williams, Susan R.; Howell, Scott; Shive, Carey L.; Han, Yiping; Stopford, Charles M.; Rietsch, Arne; Pearlman, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in the United States and worldwide. Using a murine model of keratitis in which abraded corneas are infected with P. aeruginosa parent and ΔfliC (aflagellar) strains 19660 and PAO1, we found that F4/80+ macrophages were the predominant cell type in the cornea expressing TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5. Depletion of macrophages and dendritic cells using transgenic Mafia mice, in which Fas ligand is selectively activated in these cells, resulted in diminished cytokine production and cellular infiltration to the corneal stroma and unimpaired bacterial growth. TLR4−/− mice showed a similar phenotype postinfection with ΔfliC strains, whereas TLR4/5−/− mice were susceptible to corneal infection with parent strains. Bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated with ΔfliC bacteria induced Toll/IL-1R intracellular domain (TIR)-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF)-dependent phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factor 3 in addition to TIR-containing adaptor protein/MyD88-dependent phosphorylation of IκB and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NFκB. Furthermore, TRIF−/− mice showed a similar phenotype as TLR4−/− mice in regulating only ΔfliC bacteria, whereas MyD88−/− mice were unable to clear parent or ΔfliC bacteria. Finally, IL-1R1−/− and IL-1α/β−/− mice were highly susceptible to infection. Taken together, these findings indicate that P. aeruginosa activates TLR4/5 on resident corneal macrophages, which signal through TRIF and TIR-containing adaptor protein/MyD88 pathways, leading to NF-κB translocation to the nucleus, transcription of CXCL1 and other CXC chemokines, recruitment of neutrophils to the corneal stroma, and subsequent bacterial killing and tissue damage. IL-1α and IL-1β are also produced, which activate an IL-1R1/MyD88-positive feedback loop in macrophages and IL-1R on other resident cells in the cornea. PMID:20826748

  12. Protective Effect of Resveratrol against IL-1β-Induced Inflammatory Response on Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes Partly via the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB Signaling Pathway: An “in Vitro Study”

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Gu, Hailun; Liu, Huimin; Jiao, Yongliang; Li, Keyu; Zhao, Yue; An, Li; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound that prevents inflammation in chondrocytes and animal models of osteoarthritis (OA) via yet to be defined mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the protective effect of resveratrol on IL-1β-induced human articular chondrocytes was associated with the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway by incubating human articular chondrocytes (harvested from osteoarthritis patients) with IL-1β before treatment with resveratrol. Cell viability was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and TNFα levels in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA(Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay). The levels of TLR4 and its downstream signaling targets (MyD88 and TRAF6) and IL-1β were assessed by measuring the levels of mRNA and protein expression by real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively, in addition to assessing NF-κB activation. In addition, TLR4 siRNA was used to block TLR4 expression in chondrocytes further demonstrating that resveratrol prevented IL-1β-mediated inflammation by TLR4 inhibition. We found that resveratrol prevented IL-1β-induced reduction in cell viability. Stimulation of chondrocytes with IL-1β caused a significant up-regulation of TLR4 and its downstream targets MyD88 and TRAF6 resulting in NF-κB activation associated with the synthesis of IL-1β and TNFα. These IL-1β-induced inflammatory responses were all effectively reversed by resveratrol. Furthermore, activation of NF-κB in chondrocytes treated with TLR4 siRNA was significantly attenuated, but not abolished, and exposure to resveratrol further reduced NF-κB translocation. These data suggested that resveratrol prevented IL-1β-induced inflammation in human articular chondrocytes at least in part by inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway suggesting that resveratrol has the potential to be used as a nutritional supplement to counteract OA symptoms. PMID

  13. NOD2 Signaling Contributes to the Innate Immune Response Against Helper-Dependent Adenovirus Vectors Independently of MyD88 In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masataka; Cela, Racel; Bertin, Terry K.; Sule, Gautam; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Rodgers, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We previously demonstrated that Toll-like receptor/myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) signaling is required for maximal innate and acquired [T helper cell type 1 (Th1)] immune responses following systemic administration of helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDAds). However, MyD88-deficient mice injected with HDAdLacZ exhibited only partial reduction of innate immune cytokine expression compared with wild-type mice, suggesting MyD88-independent pathways also respond to HDAds. We now show that NOD2, a nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)–like receptor known to detect muramyl dipeptides in bacterial peptidoglycans, also contributes to innate responses to HDAds, but not to humoral or Th1 immune responses. We established NOD2/MyD88 double-deficient mice that, when challenged with HDAds, showed a significant reduction of the innate response compared with mice deficient for either gene singly, suggesting that NOD2 signaling contributes to the innate response independently of MyD88 signaling following systemic administration of HDAds. In addition, NOD2-deficient mice exhibited significantly higher transgene expression than did wild-type mice at an early time point (before development of an acquired response), but not at a later time point (after development of an acquired response). These results indicate that the intracellular sensor NOD2 is required for innate responses to HDAds and can limit transgene expression during early phases of infection. PMID:21561248

  14. Rare Circulating Cells in Familial Waldenström Macroglobulinemia Displaying the MYD88 L265P Mutation Are Enriched by Epstein-Barr Virus Immortalization.

    PubMed

    Pertesi, Maroulio; Galia, Perrine; Nazaret, Nicolas; Vallée, Maxime; Garderet, Laurent; Leleu, Xavier; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Foll, Matthieu; Byrnes, Graham; Lachuer, Joel; McKay, James D; Dumontet, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The MYD88 L265P is a recurrent somatic mutation in neoplastic cells from patients with Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (WM). We identified the MYD88 L265P mutation in three individuals from unrelated families, but its presence did not explain the disease segregation within these WM pedigrees. We observed the mutation in these three individuals at high allele fractions in DNA extracted from EBV-immortalized Lymphoblastoid cell lines established from peripheral blood (LCL), but at much lower allele fractions in DNA extracted directly from peripheral blood, suggesting that this mutation is present in a clonal cell subpopulation rather than of germ-line origin. Furthermore, we observed that the MYD88 L265P mutation is enriched in WM families, detected in 40.5% of patients with familial WM or MGUS (10/22 WM, 5/15 MGUS), compared to 3.5% of patients with familial MM or MGUS (0/72 MM, 4/41 MGUS) (p = 10-7). The mutant allele frequency increased with passages in vitro after immortalization with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) consistent with the MYD88 L265P described gain-of-function proposed for this mutation. The MYD88 L265P mutation appears to be frequently present in circulating cells in patients with WM, and MGUS, and these cells are amenable to immortalization by EBV.

  15. Detection of MYD88 L265P in patients with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia and other B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sang-Yong; Kim, Hyun-Young; Park, Chang-Hun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Seok Jin; Kim, Won Seog

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have identified a high prevalence of the MYD88 L265P mutation in lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) cases, whereas low frequencies have been observed in other B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs). Methods We evaluated the sensitivity of the mutant enrichment 3'-modified oligonucleotide (MEMO)-PCR technique, a new detection method. We examined the MYD88 L265P mutation in a series of Korean patients with LPL/WM and other B cell NHLs in bone marrow aspirates, using the MEMO-PCR technique. Results The sensitivity of MEMO-PCR was estimated to be approximately 10-16.7%. MYD88 L265P was detected in 21 of 28 LPL cases (75%) and only three of 69 B cell NHL cases (4.3%). Conclusion Although MEMO-PCR had relatively low sensitivity, we confirmed the high prevalence of the MYD88 L265P mutation in Korean LPL patients. Our study suggests the diagnostic value of MYD88 L265P for differentiating B-cell NHLs.

  16. Yeast glucan particles activate murine resident macrophages to secrete proinflammatory cytokines via MyD88- and Syk kinase-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Cramer, Daniel; Wagner, Stephanie; Hansen, Richard; King, Chelsea; Kakar, Shelly; Ding, Chuanlin; Yan, Jun

    2007-08-01

    The therapeutic benefits of fungal beta-glucans have been demonstrated as immuno-stimulating agents. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanisms used by yeast beta-glucan-rich particles to activate murine resident macrophages for cytokine secretion. We demonstrated that resident macrophages were effectively activated by whole yeast beta-glucan particles (WGPs), such as with the upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules and the secretion of cytokines. The binding ability of WGPs and the levels of cytokine secretion in resident macrophages were significantly inhibited by soluble yeast beta-glucan but not by blockade of zymosan glucan receptor dectin-1. In addition, WGP-stimulated cytokine secretion was partially dependent on the MyD-88 pathway but was not significantly affected in CR3-deficient (CR3(-/-)) mice. Furthermore, we showed that Syk kinase was recruited upon WGP stimulation and was required for the production of cytokines. Taken together, these observations suggest that beta-glucan recognition is necessary but not sufficient to induce inflammatory response on resident macrophages. In addition, beta-glucan particles may use differential mechanisms for cytokine secretion in resident macrophages that may modulate both innate and adaptive immunity.

  17. Yeast Glucan Particles Activate Murine Resident Macrophages to Secrete Proinflammatory Cytokines Via MyD88- and Syk Kinase-dependent Pathways1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Cramer, Daniel; Wagner, Stephanie; Hansen, Richard; King, Chelsea; Kakar, Shelly; Ding, Chuanlin; Yan, Jun

    2007-01-01

    The therapeutic benefits of fungal β-glucans have been demonstrated as immuno-stimulating agents. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanisms used by yeast β-glucan-rich particles to activate murine resident macrophages for cytokine secretion. We demonstrated that resident macrophages were effectively activated by whole yeast β-glucan particles (WGPs), such as with the up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and the secretion of cytokines. The binding ability of WGPs and the levels of cytokine secretion in resident macrophages were significantly inhibited by soluble yeast β-glucan but not by blockade of zymosan glucan receptor dectin-1. In addition, WGP-stimulated cytokine secretion was partially dependent on the MyD-88 pathway but was not significantly affected in CR3-deficient (CR3−/−) mice. Furthermore, we showed that Syk kinase was recruited upon WGP stimulation and was required for the production of cytokines. Taken together, these observations suggest that β-glucan recognition is necessary but not sufficient to induce inflammatory response on resident macrophages. In addition, β-glucan particles may use differential mechanisms for cytokine secretion in resident macrophages that may modulate both innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:17572156

  18. Gene expression profiles identify both MyD88-independent and MyD88-dependent pathways involved in the maturation of dendritic cells mediated by heparan sulfate: A novel adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meini; Wang, Haixuan; Shi, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Duan, Zhiqing; Li, Yanhan; Li, Jianfang; Hu, Ningzhu; Wei, Yiju; Chen, Yang; Hu, Yunzhang

    2015-01-01

    The traditional vaccine adjuvant research is mainly based on the trial and error method, and the mechanisms underlying the immune system stimulation remaining largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that heparan sulfate (HS), a TLR-4 ligand and endogenous danger signal, effectively enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses in mice immunized by HBsAg. This study aimed to evaluate whether HS induces better humoral immune responses against inactivated Hepatitis A or Rabies Vaccines, respectively, compared with traditional adjuvants (e.g. Alum and complete Freund's adjuvant). In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms of its adjuvanticity, the gene expression pattern of peripheral blood monocytes derived DCs (dendritic cells) stimulated with HS was analyzed at different times points. Total RNA was hybridized to Agilent SurePrint G3 Human Gene Expression 8 × 60 K one-color oligo-microarray. Through intersection analysis of the microarray results, we found that the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway was significantly activated, and NF-kB, TRAF3 and IRF7 were activated as early as 12 h, and MyD88 was activated at 48 h post-stimulation. Furthermore, the expression of the surface marker CD83 and the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 was up-regulated as early as 24 h. Therefore, we speculated that HS-induced human monocyte-derived DC maturation may occur through both MyD88-independent and dependent pathways, but primarily through the former (TRIF pathway). These data provide an important basis for understanding the mechanisms underlying HS enhancement of the immune response. PMID:25668674

  19. Cells exposed to sublethal oxidative stress selectively attract monocytes/macrophages via scavenger receptors and MyD88-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Geiger-Maor, Anat; Levi, Inbar; Even-Ram, Sharona; Smith, Yoav; Bowdish, Dawn M; Nussbaum, Gabriel; Rachmilewitz, Jacob

    2012-02-01

    The innate immune system responds to endogenous molecules released during cellular stress or those that have undergone modifications normally absent in healthy tissue. These structures are detected by pattern-recognition receptors, alerting the immune system to "danger." In this study, we looked for early signals that direct immune cells to cells undergoing stress before irreversible damage takes place. To avoid detecting signals emanating from apoptotic or necrotic cells we exposed fibroblasts to sublethal oxidative stress. Our results indicate that both nonenzymatic chemical reactions and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2-mediated enzymatic activity released signals from fibroblasts that selectively attracted CD14(+) monocytes but not T, NK, and NKT cells or granulocytes. Splenocytes from MyD88(-/-) mice did not migrate, and treatment with an inhibitory peptide that blocks MyD88 dimerization abrogated human monocyte migration. Monocyte migration was accompanied by downmodulation of CD14 expression and by the phosphorylation of IL-1R-associated kinase 1, a well-known MyD88-dependent signaling molecule. The scavenger receptor inhibitors, dextran sulfate and fucoidan, attenuated monocyte migration toward stressed cells and IL-1R-associated kinase 1 phosphorylation. Surprisingly, although monocyte migration was MyD88 dependent, it was not accompanied by inflammatory cytokine secretion. Taken together, these results establish a novel link between scavenger receptors and MyD88 that together function as sensors of oxidation-associated molecular patterns and induce monocyte motility. Furthermore, the data indicate that MyD88 independently regulates monocyte activation and motility.

  20. Successful treatment of refractory cold hemagglutinemia in MYD88 L265P mutation-negative Waldenström's macroglobulinemia with bortezomib.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Mayuko; Tsunemine, Hiroko; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Akihiro; Kusumoto, Toshiko; Kodaka, Taiichi; Itoh, Kiminari; Takahashi, Takayuki

    2015-08-01

    We report here the successful treatment of cold agglutinin-associated refractory hemolysis with bortezomib in a patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). A 78-year-old man was referred to our hospital with cold hemagglutinemia of unknown cause. Laboratory examination revealed a hemoglobin concentration of 6.9 g/dL, serum IgM concentration of 1904 mg/dL, and a titer of cold hemagglutinin of over ×8192. Serum immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated monoclonal protein of the IgM-κ type. A bone marrow aspirate showed many lymphoplasmacytic cells, which were positive for CD19, CD20, CD38, and cytoplasmic μ and κ light chains. A diagnosis of WM-associated cold hemagglutinemia was made. Because of red blood cell transfusion-dependency, we treated him with intravenous fludarabine, oral melphalan-prednisolone, cyclophosphamide, and melphalan, and two courses of R-CHOP in sequence with a marked decrease of serum IgM (928 mg). We then started weekly bortezomib plus dexamethasone (BD) therapy, as he was still transfusion-dependent. Soon after the initiation of BD, he achieved transfusion independence, with a further decrease in serum levels of IgM and marked improvement of anemia. Interestingly, his marrow abnormal lymphocytes were later found not to carry the MYD88 L265P mutation. The successful treatment with bortezomib for WM lacking this mutation is discussed.

  1. Rosmarinic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibits LPS-Induced NO Production via Suppression of MyD88- Dependent and -Independent Pathways and Induction of HO-1 in RAW 264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    So, Yangkang; Lee, Seung Young; Han, Ah-Reum; Kim, Jin-Baek; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jin, Chang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of rosmarinic acid methyl ester (RAME) isolated from a mutant cultivar of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. We found that RAME inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, with an IC50 of 14.25 µM, in RAW 264.7 cells. RAME inhibited the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-β, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Moreover, RAME suppressed the activation of nuclear factor kappa B. These results suggest that the downregulation of iNOS expression by RAME was due to myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent and -independent pathways. Furthermore, RAME induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) through activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2. Treatment with tin protoporphyrin, an inhibitor of HO-1, reversed the RAME-induced suppression of NO production. Taken together, RAME isolated from P. frutescens inhibited NO production in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells through simultaneous induction of HO-1 and inhibition of MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:27548124

  2. Clinicopathological features of 49 primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases; comparison with location, cell-of-origin, and frequency of MYD88 L265P.

    PubMed

    Nagakita, Keina; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Taniguchi, Kohei; Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Sato, Yasuharu; Tari, Akira; Ohnishi, Nobuhiko; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Omote, Shizuma; Nakamura, Naoya; Iwamuro, Masaya; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Okada, Hiroyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2016-08-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the most common primary site of extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with approximately one-third of extranodal DLBCL occurring in the GI tract. We investigated the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemically-assessed cell-of-origin of 49 GI DLBCL cases (stomach, 24; small intestine, 10; colon, 15) and also examined the presence of MYD88 L265P as recently this mutation has been frequently identified in ABC-like DLBCL, particularly in extranodal sites. Small intestinal DLBCL was characterized by the preponderance of women (P = 0.041) and elevated LDH (P = 0.002) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (P = 0.033). Small intestinal DLBCL more frequently showed anemia (P = 0.031) and elevated CRP (P = 0.029) than gastric DLBCL. ABC-like phenotype was seen in 71.4 % cases (stomach, 79 %; small intestine, 70 %; colon, 60 %). MYD88 L265P was detected in 6.1 % cases; all were primary gastric DLBCL with ABC-like phenotype but had no distinct clinicopathological features. In conclusion, GI DLBCL had different clinicopathological features according to the primary site especially in the small intestine. Also, MYD88 L265P had little involvement in GI DLBCL compared with other extranodal DLBCLs, suggesting that its pathogenesis might be different from that of organs with a high frequency of MYD88 L265P. PMID:27439595

  3. TLR2 synergizes with both TLR4 and TLR9 for induction of the MyD88-dependent splenic cytokine and chemokine response to Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Katherine S.; Scanga, Charles A.; Bachelder, Eric M.; Chen, Quanyi; Snapper, Clifford M.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that induction of splenic cytokine and chemokine secretion in response to Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pn) is MyD88-, but not critically TLR2-dependent, suggesting a role for additional TLRs. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR2, TLR4 and/or TLR9 in mediating this response. We show that a single deficiency in TLR2, TLR4, or TLR9 has only modest, selective effects on cytokine and chemokine secretion, whereas substantial defects were observed in TLR2-/- × TLR9-/- and TLR2-/- × TLR4-/- mice, though not as severe as in MyD88-/- mice. Chloroquine, which inhibits the function of intracellular TLRs, including TLR9, completely abrogated detectable cytokine and chemokine release in spleen cells from TLR2-/- × TLR4-/- mice, similar to what is observed for mice deficient in MyD88. These data demonstrate significant synergy between TLR2 and both TLR4 and TLR9 for induction of the MyD88-dependent splenic cytokine and chemokine response to Pn. PMID:17521621

  4. The myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is required for CD4+ T cell effector function in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease1

    PubMed Central

    Fukata, Masayuki; Breglio, Keith; Chen, Anli; Vamadevan, Arunan S.; Goo, Tyralee; Hsu, David; Conduah, Daisy; Xu, Ruliang; Abreu, Maria T.

    2009-01-01

    Abnormal T cell responses to commensal bacteria are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MyD88 is an essential signal transducer for TLRs in response to the microflora. We hypothesized that TLR signaling via MyD88 was important for effector T cell responses in the intestine. TLR expression on murine T cells was examined by flow cytometry. CD4+CD45Rbhigh T cells and/or CD4+CD45RblowCD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) were isolated and adoptively transferred to RAG1−/− mice. Colitis was assessed by changes in body weight and histology score. Cytokine production was assessed by ELISA. In vitro proliferation of T cells was assessed by [3H]thymidine assay. In vivo proliferation of T cells was assessed by BrdU and CFSE labeling. CD4+CD45Rbhigh T cells expressed TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and TLR3 and TLR ligands could act as co-stimulatory molecules. MyD88−/− CD4+ T cells showed decreased proliferation compared with WT CD4+ T cells both in vivo and in vitro. CD4+CD45Rbhigh T cells from MyD88−/− mice did not induce wasting disease when transferred into RAG1−/− recipients. Lamina propria CD4+ T cell expression of IL-2 and IL-17 and colonic expression of IL-6 and IL-23 were significantly lower in mice receiving MyD88−/− cells than mice receiving WT cells. In vitro, MyD88−/− T cells were blunted in their ability to secrete IL-17 but not IFN-γ. Absence of MyD88 in CD4+CD45Rbhigh cells results in defective T cell function, especially Th17 differentiation. These results suggest a role for TLR signaling by T cells in the development of IBD. PMID:18209086

  5. MyD88/CD40 Genetic Adjuvant Function in Cutaneous Atypical Antigen-Presenting Cells Contributes to DNA Vaccine Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Slawin, Kevin M.; Levitt, Jonathan M.; Spencer, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic DNA-based vaccines aim to prime an adaptive host immune response against tumor-associated antigens, eliminating cancer cells primarily through CD8+ cytotoxic T cell-mediated destruction. To be optimally effective, immunological adjuvants are required for the activation of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells responses by DNA vaccination. Here, we describe enhanced anti-tumor efficacy of an in vivo electroporation-delivered DNA vaccine by inclusion of a genetically encoded chimeric MyD88/CD40 (MC) adjuvant, which integrates both innate and adaptive immune signaling pathways. When incorporated into a DNA vaccine, signaling by the MC adjuvant increased antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and promoted elimination of pre-established tumors. Interestingly, MC-enhanced vaccine efficacy did not require direct-expression of either antigen or adjuvant by local antigen-presenting cells, but rather our data supports a key role for MC function in “atypical” antigen-presenting cells of skin. In particular, MC adjuvant-modified keratinocytes increased inflammatory cytokine secretion, upregulated surface MHC class I, and were able to increase in vitro and in vivo priming of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, in the absence of critical CD8α+/CD103+ cross-priming dendritic cells, MC was still able to promote immune priming in vivo, albeit at a reduced level. Altogether, our data support a mechanism by which MC signaling activates an inflammatory phenotype in atypical antigen-presenting cells within the cutaneous vaccination site, leading to an enhanced CD8+ T cell response against DNA vaccine-encoded antigens, through both CD8α+/CD103+ dendritic cell-dependent and independent pathways. PMID:27741278

  6. Group A streptococcus activates type I interferon production and MyD88-dependent signaling without involvement of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Nina; Siller, Maria; Schaljo, Barbara; Pirzada, Zaid A; Gattermeier, Irene; Vojtek, Ivo; Kirschning, Carsten J; Wagner, Hermann; Akira, Shizuo; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Kovarik, Pavel

    2008-07-18

    Bacterial pathogens are recognized by the innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Engagement of TLRs triggers signaling cascades that launch innate immune responses. Activation of MAPKs and NF-kappaB, elements of the major signaling pathways induced by TLRs, depends in most cases on the adaptor molecule MyD88. In addition, Gram-negative or intracellular bacteria elicit MyD88-independent signaling that results in production of type I interferon (IFN). Here we show that in mouse macrophages, the activation of MyD88-dependent signaling by the extracellular Gram-positive human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) does not require TLR2, a receptor implicated in sensing of Gram-positive bacteria, or TLR4 and TLR9. Redundant engagement of either of these TLR molecules was excluded by using TLR2/4/9 triple-deficient macrophages. We further demonstrate that infection of macrophages by GAS causes IRF3 (interferon-regulatory factor 3)-dependent, MyD88-independent production of IFN. Surprisingly, IFN is induced also by GAS lacking slo and sagA, the genes encoding cytolysins that were shown to be required for IFN production in response to other Gram-positive bacteria. Our data indicate that (i) GAS is recognized by a MyD88-dependent receptor other than any of those typically used by bacteria, and (ii) GAS as well as GAS mutants lacking cytolysin genes induce type I IFN production by similar mechanisms as bacteria requiring cytoplasmic escape and the function of cytolysins.

  7. Group A Streptococcus Activates Type I Interferon Production and MyD88-dependent Signaling without Involvement of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, Nina; Siller, Maria; Schaljo, Barbara; Pirzada, Zaid A.; Gattermeier, Irene; Vojtek, Ivo; Kirschning, Carsten J.; Wagner, Hermann; Akira, Shizuo; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Kovarik, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens are recognized by the innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Engagement of TLRs triggers signaling cascades that launch innate immune responses. Activation of MAPKs and NF-κB, elements of the major signaling pathways induced by TLRs, depends in most cases on the adaptor molecule MyD88. In addition, Gram-negative or intracellular bacteria elicit MyD88-independent signaling that results in production of type I interferon (IFN). Here we show that in mouse macrophages, the activation of MyD88-dependent signaling by the extracellular Gram-positive human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) does not require TLR2, a receptor implicated in sensing of Gram-positive bacteria, or TLR4 and TLR9. Redundant engagement of either of these TLR molecules was excluded by using TLR2/4/9 triple-deficient macrophages. We further demonstrate that infection of macrophages by GAS causes IRF3 (interferon-regulatory factor 3)-dependent, MyD88-independent production of IFN. Surprisingly, IFN is induced also by GAS lacking slo and sagA, the genes encoding cytolysins that were shown to be required for IFN production in response to other Gram-positive bacteria. Our data indicate that (i) GAS is recognized by a MyD88-dependent receptor other than any of those typically used by bacteria, and (ii) GAS as well as GAS mutants lacking cytolysin genes induce type I IFN production by similar mechanisms as bacteria requiring cytoplasmic escape and the function of cytolysins. PMID:18480050

  8. Lack of MyD88 protects the immunodeficient host against fatal lung inflammation triggered by the opportunistic bacteria Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Grasiella M de C; Balloy, Viviane; Ramphal, Reuben; Khun, Huot; Huerre, Michel; Ryffel, Bernhard; Plotkowski, Maria-Cristina M; Chignard, Michel; Si-Tahar, Mustapha

    2009-07-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen of major concern for cystic fibrosis patients as well as immunocompromised cancer patients and transplant recipients. The mechanisms by which B. cenocepacia triggers a rapid health deterioration of the susceptible host have yet to be characterized. TLR and their key signaling intermediate MyD88 play a central role in the detection of microbial molecular patterns and in the initiation of an effective immune response. We performed a study to better understand the role of TLR-MyD88 signaling in B. cenocepacia-induced pathogenesis in the immunocompromised host, using an experimental murine model. The time-course of several dynamic parameters, including animal survival, bacterial load, and secretion of critical inflammatory mediators, was compared in infected and immunosuppressed wild-type and MyD88(-/-) mice. Notably, when compared with wild-type mice, infected MyD88(-/-) animals displayed significantly reduced levels of inflammatory mediators (including KC, TNF-alpha, IL-6, MIP-2, and G-CSF) in blood and lung airspaces. Moreover, despite a higher transient bacterial load in the lungs, immunosuppressed mice deficient in MyD88 had an unexpected survival advantage. Finally, we showed that this B. cenocepacia-induced life-threatening infection of wild-type mice involved the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and could be prevented by corticosteroids. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that a MyD88-dependent pathway can critically contribute to a detrimental host inflammatory response that leads to fatal pneumonia. PMID:19535624

  9. Dioscin attenuates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway via up-regulation of HSP70.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Zheng, Lingli; Qi, Yan; Han, Xu; Xu, Youwei; Xu, Lina; Yin, Lianhong; Wang, Changyuan; Zhao, Yanyan; Sun, Huijun; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Jinyong

    2015-10-01

    We previously reported the effect of dioscin against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats. However, little is known concerning the role of dioscin in renal IRI. In the present study, rats were subjected to IRI and dioscin was intragastrically administered for seven consecutive days before surgery. In vitro models of hypoxia/reoxygenation were developed in NRK-52E and HK-2 cells, which were prophylactically treated with or without dioscin. The results showed that dioscin significantly decreased serum BUN and Cr levels, and markedly attenuated cell injury. Mechanistic studies showed that dioscin significantly increased HSP70 levels, decreased the levels of TLR4, MyD88, TRAF6, COX-2, JNK, ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, suppressed the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and HMGB1, and subsequently decreased the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1 and IFN-γ. Moreover, HSP70 siRNA or TLR4 DNA reversed the nephroprotective effects of dioscin, while dioscin still significantly down-regulated the TLR4 signaling pathway. Furthermore, by inhibiting MyD88 with ST2825 (a MyD88 inhibitor), renal IRI was significantly attenuated, suggesting that the effect of dioscin against renal IRI depended on MyD88. Our results suggested that dioscin had a potent effect against renal IRI through suppressing the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway by up-regulating HSP70. These data provide new insights for investigating the natural product with the nephroprotective effect against IRI, which should be developed as a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute kidney injury in the future. PMID:26348276

  10. Sex hormone affects the severity of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis through the MyD88-dependent IL-6 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Guangda; Qin, Shaoyou; Wang, Song; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Yonggui

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the occurrence of gender disparity in liver cancer associated with sex differences in MyD88-dependent IL-6 production, but the role of this signaling pathway in sex differences of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unknown. To investigate the effects of sex hormone-specific intervention on pathology and progression of NASH, and on the inflammatory TLR-MyD88-IL-6 signaling pathway NASH was modeled in C57/BL6 mice by feeding a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 4 weeks. Male mice were subjected to sex hormone-related interventions such as orchidectomy, and orchidectomy combined with administration of either testosterone propionate or estradiol benzoate. Next, the degree of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS), serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the expression level of MyD88 and IL-6, were compared between these groups. Males developed more serious inflammatory problems and had a higher NAS than the females. Sex-specific intervention in male mice by orchidectomy reduced NAS, ALT, and AST, and the expression level of MyD88 and IL-6. But administration of exogenous androgen had no influence on either NAS or the expression of ALT, AST, MyD88, and IL-6. On the other hand, exogenous estrogen could alleviate the pathological damage caused by NASH, as well as reduce NAS, ALT and AST, and the expression of MyD88 and IL-6. The result show different sex hormone-related interventions affected the severity of NASH, possibly by modulating the level of sex hormones and regulating the TLR-MyD88-IL-6 signaling pathway. PMID:25790822

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bee Venom in BV2 Microglial Cells: Mediation of MyD88-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun Ju; Kim, Su Jung; Hong, Seung Bok; Park, Jin-Kyu; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used as a traditional folk medicine in Korea. It has been reportedly used for the treatment of arthritis, cancer, and inflammation. Although its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated inflammatory cells has been reported, the exact mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of bee venom in BV2 microglial cells. We first investigated whether NO production in LPS-activated BV2 cells was inhibited by bee venom, and further iNOS mRNA and protein expressions were determined. The mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were examined using semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Moreover, modulation of the transcription factor NF-κB by bee venom was also investigated using a luciferase assay. LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglial cells was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner upon pretreatment with bee venom. Bee venom markedly reduced the mRNA expression of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and suppressed LPS-induced activation of MyD88 and IRAK1 and phosphorylation of TAK1. Moreover, NF-κB translocation by IKKα/β phosphorylation and subsequent IκB-α degradation were also attenuated. Thus, collectively, these results indicate that bee venom exerts its anti-inflammatory activity via the IRAK1/TAK1/NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:27563334

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bee Venom in BV2 Microglial Cells: Mediation of MyD88-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jung; Hong, Seung Bok; Park, Jin-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used as a traditional folk medicine in Korea. It has been reportedly used for the treatment of arthritis, cancer, and inflammation. Although its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated inflammatory cells has been reported, the exact mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of bee venom in BV2 microglial cells. We first investigated whether NO production in LPS-activated BV2 cells was inhibited by bee venom, and further iNOS mRNA and protein expressions were determined. The mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were examined using semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Moreover, modulation of the transcription factor NF-κB by bee venom was also investigated using a luciferase assay. LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglial cells was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner upon pretreatment with bee venom. Bee venom markedly reduced the mRNA expression of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and suppressed LPS-induced activation of MyD88 and IRAK1 and phosphorylation of TAK1. Moreover, NF-κB translocation by IKKα/β phosphorylation and subsequent IκB-α degradation were also attenuated. Thus, collectively, these results indicate that bee venom exerts its anti-inflammatory activity via the IRAK1/TAK1/NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:27563334

  13. Loss of MyD88 alters neuroinflammatory response and attenuates early Purkinje cell loss in a spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Aikawa, Tomonori; Mogushi, Kaoru; Iijima-Tsutsui, Kumiko; Ishikawa, Kinya; Sakurai, Miyano; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Watase, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease, caused by an expansion of CAG repeat encoding a polyglutamine (PolyQ) tract in the Cav2.1 voltage-gated calcium channel. Its key pathological features include selective degeneration of the cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs), a common target for PolyQ-induced toxicity in various SCAs. Mutant Cav2.1 confers toxicity primarily through a toxic gain-of-function mechanism; however, its molecular basis remains elusive. Here, we studied the cerebellar gene expression patterns of young Sca6-MPI118Q/118Q knockin (KI) mice, which expressed mutant Cav2.1 from an endogenous locus and recapitulated many phenotypic features of human SCA6. Transcriptional signatures in the MPI118Q/118Q mice were distinct from those in the Sca1154Q/2Q mice, a faithful SCA1 KI mouse model. Temporal expression profiles of the candidate genes revealed that the up-regulation of genes associated with microglial activation was initiated before PC degeneration and was augmented as the disease progressed. Histological analysis of the MPI118Q/118Q cerebellum showed the predominance of M1-like pro-inflammatory microglia and it was concomitant with elevated expression levels of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 7. Genetic ablation of MyD88, a major adaptor protein conveying TLR signaling, altered expression patterns of M1/M2 microglial phenotypic markers in the MPI118Q/118Q cerebellum. More importantly, it ameliorated PC loss and partially rescued motor impairments in the early disease phase. These results suggest that early neuroinflammatory response may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SCA6 and its modulation could pave the way for slowing the disease progression during the early stage of the disease. PMID:26034136

  14. Loss of MyD88 alters neuroinflammatory response and attenuates early Purkinje cell loss in a spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Tomonori; Mogushi, Kaoru; Iijima-Tsutsui, Kumiko; Ishikawa, Kinya; Sakurai, Miyano; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Watase, Kei

    2015-09-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease, caused by an expansion of CAG repeat encoding a polyglutamine (PolyQ) tract in the Cav2.1 voltage-gated calcium channel. Its key pathological features include selective degeneration of the cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs), a common target for PolyQ-induced toxicity in various SCAs. Mutant Cav2.1 confers toxicity primarily through a toxic gain-of-function mechanism; however, its molecular basis remains elusive. Here, we studied the cerebellar gene expression patterns of young Sca6-MPI(118Q/118Q) knockin (KI) mice, which expressed mutant Cav2.1 from an endogenous locus and recapitulated many phenotypic features of human SCA6. Transcriptional signatures in the MPI(118Q/118Q) mice were distinct from those in the Sca1(154Q/2Q) mice, a faithful SCA1 KI mouse model. Temporal expression profiles of the candidate genes revealed that the up-regulation of genes associated with microglial activation was initiated before PC degeneration and was augmented as the disease progressed. Histological analysis of the MPI(118Q/118Q) cerebellum showed the predominance of M1-like pro-inflammatory microglia and it was concomitant with elevated expression levels of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 7. Genetic ablation of MyD88, a major adaptor protein conveying TLR signaling, altered expression patterns of M1/M2 microglial phenotypic markers in the MPI(118Q/118Q) cerebellum. More importantly, it ameliorated PC loss and partially rescued motor impairments in the early disease phase. These results suggest that early neuroinflammatory response may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SCA6 and its modulation could pave the way for slowing the disease progression during the early stage of the disease.

  15. Curcumin Represses NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation via TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and P2X7R Signaling in PMA-Induced Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fanqi; Ye, Bozhi; Cao, Jiatian; Cai, Xueli; Lin, Lu; Huang, Shanjun; Huang, Weijian; Huang, Zhouqing

    2016-01-01

    Aims: In the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, the pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is closely related to the progression of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to assess the effects of curcumin on NLRP3 inflammasome in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced macrophages and explore its underlying mechanism. Methods: Human monocytic THP-1 cells were pretreated with curcumin for 1 h and subsequently induced with PMA for 48 h. Total protein was collected for Western blot analysis. Cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β release and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation were detected by ELISA assay and cellular NF-κB translocation kit, respectively. Results: Curcumin significantly reduced the expression of NLRP3 and cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β secretion in PMA-induced macrophages. Moreover, Bay (a NF-κB inhibitor) treatment considerably suppressed the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in PMA-induced THP-1 cells. Curcumin also markedly inhibited the upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphorylation level of IκB-α, and activation of NF-κB in PMA-induced macrophages. In addition, purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) siRNA was administered, and it significantly decreased NLRP3 inflammasome expression in PMA-induced macrophages. Furthermore, curcumin reversed PMA-stimulated P2X7R activation, which further reduced the expression of NLRP3 and cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β secretion. Silencing of P2X7R using siRNA also suppressed the activation of NF-κB pathway in PMA-induced macrophages, but P2X7R-silenced cells did not significantly decrease the expression of TLR4 and MyD88. Conclusion: Curcumin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome through suppressing TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and P2X7R pathways in PMA-induced macrophages. PMID:27777559

  16. Heart-resident CCR2+ macrophages promote neutrophil extravasation through TLR9/MyD88/CXCL5 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Higashikubo, Ryuji; Saunders, Brian T.; Bharat, Ankit; Goldstein, Daniel R.; Krupnick, Alexander S.; Gelman, Andrew E.; Lavine, Kory J.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that maladaptive innate immune responses to sterile tissue injury represent a fundamental mechanism of disease pathogenesis. In the context of cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury, neutrophils enter inflamed heart tissue, where they play an important role in potentiating tissue damage and contributing to contractile dysfunction. The precise mechanisms that govern how neutrophils are recruited to and enter the injured heart are incompletely understood. Using a model of cardiac transplant–mediated ischemia reperfusion injury and intravital 2-photon imaging of beating mouse hearts, we determined that tissue-resident CCR2+ monocyte–derived macrophages are essential mediators of neutrophil recruitment into ischemic myocardial tissue. Our studies revealed that neutrophil extravasation is mediated by a TLR9/MyD88/CXCL5 pathway. Intravital 2-photon imaging demonstrated that CXCL2 and CXCL5 play critical and nonredundant roles in guiding neutrophil adhesion and crawling, respectively. Together, these findings uncover a specific role for a tissue-resident monocyte-derived macrophage subset in sterile tissue inflammation and support the evolving concept that macrophage ontogeny is an important determinant of function. Furthermore, our results provide the framework for targeting of cell-specific signaling pathways in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:27536731

  17. Toll-like Receptor 4 and MyD88 Dependent Signaling Mechanisms of the Innate Immune System are Essential for the Response to Lipopolysaccharide by Epithelial and Stromal Cells of the Bovine Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, James G; Turner, Matthew L; Goetze, Leopold; Bryant, Clare E; Sheldon, I Martin

    2015-01-01

    Infection of the bovine endometrium with Gram-negative bacteria commonly causes uterine disease. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on cells of the immune system bind Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulating the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, and the chemokine IL-8. As the endometrium is the first barrier to infection of the uterus, the signaling cascade triggered by LPS and the subsequent expression of inflammatory mediators was investigated in endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, and the key pathways identified using short interfering RNA (siRNA) and biochemical inhibitors. Treatment of endometrial cells with ultrapure LPS stimulated an inflammatory response characterized by increased IL1B, IL6 and IL8 mRNA expression, and IL-6 protein accumulation in epithelial cells; and increased IL1B and IL8 mRNA expression, and IL-6 and IL-8 protein accumulation in stromal cells. Treatment of endometrial cells with LPS also induced the degradation of IκB and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, as well as rapid phosphorylation of MAPK3/1 and MAPK14. Knockdown of TLR4 or its signaling adaptor molecule, MYD88, using siRNA reduced the inflammatory response to LPS in epithelial and stromal cells. Biochemical inhibition of MAPK3/1, but not JNK, or MAPK14, reduced LPS-induced IL1B, IL6 and IL8 expression in endometrial cells. In conclusion, epithelial and stromal cells have an intrinsic role in innate immune surveillance in the endometrium, and in the case of LPS this recognition occurs via TLR4 and MyD88 dependent cell signaling pathways. PMID:22053092

  18. Differential Effect of MyD88 Signal in Donor T Cells on Graft-versus-Leukemia Effect and Graft-versus-Host Disease after Experimental Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Young; Ryu, Da-Bin; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Gyeongsin; Choi, Eun Young; Min, Chang-Ki

    2015-11-01

    Despite the presence of toll like receptor (TLR) expression in conventional TCRαβ T cells, the direct role of TLR signaling via myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) within T lymphocytes on graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) remains unknown. In the allo-SCT model of C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) → B6D2F1 (H-2(b/d)), recipients received transplants of wild type (WT) T-cell-depleted (TCD) bone marrow (BM) and splenic T cells from either WT or MyD88 deficient (MyD88KO) donors. Host-type (H-2(d)) P815 mastocytoma or L1210 leukemia cells were injected either subcutaneously or intravenously to generate a GVHD/GVL model. Allogeneic recipients of MyD88KO T cells demonstrated a greater tumor growth without attenuation of GVHD severity. Moreover, GVHD-induced GVL effect, caused by increasing the conditioning intensity was also not observed in the recipients of MyD88KO T cells. In vitro, the absence of MyD88 in T cells resulted in defective cytolytic activity to tumor targets with reduced ability to produce IFN-γ or granzyme B, which are known to critical for the GVL effect. However, donor T cell expansion with effector and memory T-cell differentiation were more enhanced in GVHD hosts of MyD88KO T cells. Recipients of MyD88KO T cells experienced greater expansion of Foxp3- and IL4-expressing T cells with reduced INF-γ producing T cells in the spleen and tumor-draining lymph nodes early after transplantation. Taken together, these results highlight a differential role for MyD88 deficiency on donor T-cells, with decreased GVL effect without attenuation of the GVHD severity after experimental allo-SCT.

  19. Dioscin alleviates alcoholic liver fibrosis by attenuating hepatic stellate cell activation via the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Xu, Youwei; Han, Xu; Yin, Lianhong; Xu, Lina; Qi, Yan; Zhao, Yanyan; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Jinyong

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the activities and underlying mechanisms of dioscin against alcoholic liver fibrosis (ALF). In vivo liver fibrosis in mice was induced by an alcoholic liquid diet, and in vitro studies were performed on activated HSC-T6 and LX2 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide. Our results showed that dioscin significantly attenuated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, improved collagen accumulation, and attenuated inflammation through down-regulating the levels of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α by decreasing Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 expression both in vivo and in vitro. TLR4 overexpression was also decreased by dioscin, leading to the markedly down-regulated levels of MyD88, NF-κB, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type I collagen (COL1A1) in cultured HSCs. Suppression of cellular MyD88 by ST2825 or abrogation of NF-κB by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate eliminated the inhibitory effects of dioscin on the levels of TGF-β1, α-SMA and COL1A1. In a word, dioscin exhibited potent effects against ALF via altering TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway, which provided novel insights into the mechanisms of this compound as an antifibrogenic candidate for the treatment of ALF in the future. PMID:26655640

  20. TLR9 and MyD88 are crucial for the maturation and activation of dendritic cells by paromomycin–miltefosine combination therapy in visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sushmita; Rani, Mukta; Rabidas, Vidyanand; Pandey, Krishna; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Das, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The combination of paromomycin–miltefosine is a successful anti-leishmanial therapy in visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This encouraged us to study its effect on Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immunomodulation of dendritic cells (DC), as DC maturation and activation is crucial for anti-leishmanial activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH In silico protein–ligand interaction and biophysical characterization of TLR9–drug interaction was performed. Interaction assays of HEK293 cells with different concentrations of miltefosine and/or paromomycin were performed, and NF-κB promoter activity measured. The role of TLR9 and MyD88 in paromomycin/miltefosine-induced maturation and activation of DCs was evaluated through RNA interference techniques. The effect of drugs on DCs was measured in terms of counter-regulatory production of IL-12 over IL-10, and characterized by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay at the molecular level. KEY RESULTS Computational and biophysical studies revealed that paromomycin/miltefosine interact with TLR9. Both drugs, as a monotherapy/combination, induced TLR9-dependent NF-κB promoter activity through MyD88. Moreover, the drug combination induced TLR9/MyD88-dependent functional maturation of DCs, evident as an up-regulation of co-stimulatory markers, enhanced antigen presentation by increasing MHC II expression, and increased stimulation of naive T-cells to produce IFN-γ. Both drugs, by modifying histone H3 at the promoter level, increased the release of IL-12, but down-regulated IL-10 in a TLR9-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results provide the first evidence that the combination of paromomycin–miltefosine critically modifies the maturation, activation and development of host DCs through a mechanism dependent on TLR9 and MyD88. This has implications for evaluating the success of other combination anti-leishmanial therapies that act by targeting host DCs. PMID:24670148

  1. Lead exposure induced microgliosis and astrogliosis in hippocampus of young mice potentially by triggering TLR4-MyD88-NFκB signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Tao; Chen, Bei-Yu; Zhang, Jie-Qiong; Kuang, Fang; Chen, Liang-Wei

    2015-12-01

    Proper proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells or progenitors in hippocampus is critical to learn and memory functions, which might be disturbed by lead toxicity particularly in young individuals. While astroglial and microglial cells are known to play an important role in regulating neurogenesis of hippocampus, their abnormal response and influence on hippocampal neurogenesis remains unclear. In this study, therefore, glial response including microgliosis, astrogliogenesis and mediating involvement of TLR4-MyD88-NFκB signaling cascades were observed in hippocampus of young mice by animal model with lead (plumbum, Pb) exposure. It revealed that (1) significant microglial activation occurred in hippocampus soon following Pb exposure; (2) increased levels of TLR4, MyD88, NFκB expression were concomitantly detected; (3) BrdU-incorporated progenitor cells were observed in dentate gyrus with significantly-increased numbers at d28 in Pb insult group; (4) obvious astrogliogenesis was observed while these doublecortin-labeled differentiated neurons were not significantly changed in hippocampus; (5) administration of MyD88 inhibitory peptide attenuated or relieved above effects; (6) enhanced expression levels of IL-1β, TNFα, p38MAPK and ERK1/2 were also detected in hippocampus, indicating potential implication of inflammatory response and MAPK signaling activation in lead-induced microgliosis and astrogliosis. Data of this study overall have indicated that lead exposure could trigger or induce abnormal microgliosis and astrogliogenesis in the hippocampus of young mice through triggering TLR4-MyD88-NFκB signaling cascades, which might possibly thereafter disturb hippocampal neurogenesis and functional plasticity.

  2. SF3B1 mutations correlated to cytogenetics and mutations in NOTCH1, FBXW7, MYD88, XPO1 and TP53 in 1160 untreated CLL patients.

    PubMed

    Jeromin, S; Weissmann, S; Haferlach, C; Dicker, F; Bayer, K; Grossmann, V; Alpermann, T; Roller, A; Kohlmann, A; Haferlach, T; Kern, W; Schnittger, S

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed a large cohort of 1160 untreated CLL patients for novel genetic markers (SF3B1, NOTCH1, FBXW7, MYD88, XPO1) in the context of molecular, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic data. NOTCH1 mutations (mut) (12.3%), SF3B1mut (9.0%) and TP53mut (7.1%) were more frequent than XPO1mut (3.4%), FBXW7mut (2.5%) and MYD88mut (1.5%). SF3B1mut, NOTCH1mut, TP53mut and XPO1mut were highly correlated to unmutated, whereas MYD88mut were associated with mutated IGHV status. Associations of diverse cytogenetic aberrations and mutations emerged: (1) SF3B1mut with del(11q), (2) NOTCH1mut and FBXW7mut with trisomy 12 and nearly exclusiveness of SF3B1mut, (3) MYD88mut with del(13q) sole and low frequencies of SF3B1mut, NOTCH1mut and FBXW7mut. In patients with normal karyotype only SF3B1mut were frequent, whereas NOTCH1mut rarely occurred. An adverse prognostic impact on time to treatment (TTT) and overall survival (OS) was observed for SF3B1mut, NOTCH1mut and TP53 disruption. In multivariate analyses SF3B1mut, IGHV mutational status and del(11q) were the only independent genetic markers for TTT, whereas for OS SF3B1mut, IGHV mutational status and TP53 disruption presented with significant impact. Finally, our data suggest that analysis of gene mutations refines the risk stratification of cytogenetic prognostic subgroups and confirms data of a recently proposed model integrating molecular and cytogenetic data. PMID:24113472

  3. Ehrlichia chaffeensis induces monocyte inflammatory responses through MyD88, ERK, and NF-κB but not through TRIF, interleukin-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1)/IL-18R1, or toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Miura, Koshiro; Matsuo, Junji; Rahman, M Akhlakur; Kumagai, Yumi; Li, Xin; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2011-12-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis, an influenza-like illness accompanied by signs of hepatitis, is caused by infection of monocytes/macrophages with a lipopolysaccharide-deficient bacterium, Ehrlichia chaffeensis. The E. chaffeensis strain Wakulla induces diffuse hepatitis with neutrophil infiltration in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency, which is accompanied by strong CXCL2 (mouse functional homolog of interleukin-8 [IL-8]) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression in the liver. In this study, we found that expression of IL-1β, CXCL2, and TNF-α was induced by strain Wakulla in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages; this expression was dependent on MyD88, but not on TRIF, TLR2/4, IL-1R1/IL-18R1, or endosome acidification. When the human leukemia cell line THP-1 was exposed to E. chaffeensis, significant upregulation of IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α mRNA and extracellular regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) activation were detected. U0126 (inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1/2 [MEK1/2] upstream of ERK), manumycin A (Ras inhibitor), BAY43-9006 (Raf-1 inhibitor), and NS-50 (inhibitor of NF-κB nuclear translocation) inhibited the cytokine gene expression. A luciferase reporter assay using HEK293 cells, which lack Toll-like receptors (TLRs), showed activation of both the IL-8 promoter and NF-κB by E. chaffeensis. Activation of the IL-8 promoter in transfected HEK293 cells was inhibited by manumycin A, BAY43-9006, U0126, and transfection with a dominant-negative Ras mutant. These results indicate that the E. chaffeensis Wakulla strain can induce inflammatory responses through MyD88-dependent NF-κB and ERK pathways, without the involvement of TRIF and TLRs.

  4. TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB signalling pathway regulates IL-8 production in porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine circovirus 2.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yao; Li, Haihua; Qiao, Jiayun

    2016-02-01

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is the primary cause of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, in which it stimulates a strong IL-8 response that is associated with chronic inflammation as well as lesions in the lymphoid organs. However, the mechanism underlying PCV2-induced IL-8 production is still unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that increased IL-8 expression during PCV2 infection depends on Toll-like receptor (TLR2), but not TLR4 or TLR9 signalling pathways in porcine alveolar macrophages. Moreover, we found that impairment of the MyD88/NF-κB signalling pathway by MyD88 knockdown or NF-κB inhibitors markedly decreased PCV2-induced IL-8 secretion. These results suggest that PCV2 induces IL-8 secretion via the TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB signalling pathway. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the PCV2-induced inflammatory response. PMID:26581603

  5. miR-489 inhibits silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis by targeting MyD88 and Smad3 and is negatively regulated by lncRNA CHRF

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiuyun; Han, Lei; Yan, Weiwen; Ji, Xiaoming; Han, Ruhui; Yang, Jingjin; Yuan, Jiali; Ni, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is an incurable occupational disease associated with inflammation, fibroblast proliferation and the accumulation of extracellular matrix in lung tissues. The dysregulation of lncRNAs and miRNAs has been implicated in many complex diseases; however, the current understanding of their roles in fibrotic lung diseases, especially silicosis, remains limited. Our previous microRNA (miRNA, miR) microarray data have indicated decreased expression levels of miR-489 in lung tissues of silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we further explored the role of miR-489 in a mouse model of silicosis. Interestingly, miR-489 levels were reduced in both macrophages that were exposed to silica and fibroblasts that were exposed to TGF-β1. Additionally, the overexpressed miR-489 carried out its anti-fibrotic role by attenuating inflammation and fibrotic progression in vivo. Our molecular study further demonstrated that miR-489 inhibited silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis primarily by repressing its target genes MyD88 and Smad3. Moreover, the up-regulated lncRNA cardiac hypertrophy-related factor (CHRF) reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-489 on MyD88 and Smad3 and then triggered the inflammation and fibrotic signaling pathways. Overall, our data indicate that the CHRF-miR-489-MyD88 Smad3 signaling axis exerts key functions in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis and may represent a therapeutic target for silicosis. PMID:27506999

  6. Blood-Brain Barrier Deterioration and Hippocampal Gene Expression in Polymicrobial Sepsis: An Evaluation of Endothelial MyD88 and the Vagus Nerve.

    PubMed

    Honig, Gerard; Mader, Simone; Chen, Huiyi; Porat, Amit; Ochani, Mahendar; Wang, Ping; Volpe, Bruce T; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Systemic infection can initiate or exacerbate central nervous system (CNS) pathology, even in the absence of overt invasion of bacteria into the CNS. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that human survivors of sepsis have an increased risk of long-term neurocognitive decline. There is thus a need for improved understanding of the physiological mechanisms whereby acute sepsis affects the CNS. In particular, MyD88-dependent activation of brain microvascular endothelial cells and a resulting loss of blood-brain barrier integrity have been proposed to play an important role in the effects of systemic inflammation on the CNS. Signaling through the vagus nerve has also been considered to be an important component of CNS responses to systemic infection. Here, we demonstrate that blood-brain barrier permeabilization and hippocampal transcriptional responses during polymicrobial sepsis occur even in the absence of MyD88-dependent signaling in cerebrovascular endothelial cells. We further demonstrate that these transcriptional responses can occur without vagus nerve input. These results suggest that redundant signals mediate CNS responses in sepsis. Either endothelial or vagus nerve activation may be individually sufficient to transmit systemic inflammation to the central nervous system. Transcriptional activation in the forebrain in sepsis may be mediated by MyD88-independent endothelial mechanisms or by non-vagal neuronal pathways. PMID:26790027

  7. Blood-Brain Barrier Deterioration and Hippocampal Gene Expression in Polymicrobial Sepsis: An Evaluation of Endothelial MyD88 and the Vagus Nerve.

    PubMed

    Honig, Gerard; Mader, Simone; Chen, Huiyi; Porat, Amit; Ochani, Mahendar; Wang, Ping; Volpe, Bruce T; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Systemic infection can initiate or exacerbate central nervous system (CNS) pathology, even in the absence of overt invasion of bacteria into the CNS. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that human survivors of sepsis have an increased risk of long-term neurocognitive decline. There is thus a need for improved understanding of the physiological mechanisms whereby acute sepsis affects the CNS. In particular, MyD88-dependent activation of brain microvascular endothelial cells and a resulting loss of blood-brain barrier integrity have been proposed to play an important role in the effects of systemic inflammation on the CNS. Signaling through the vagus nerve has also been considered to be an important component of CNS responses to systemic infection. Here, we demonstrate that blood-brain barrier permeabilization and hippocampal transcriptional responses during polymicrobial sepsis occur even in the absence of MyD88-dependent signaling in cerebrovascular endothelial cells. We further demonstrate that these transcriptional responses can occur without vagus nerve input. These results suggest that redundant signals mediate CNS responses in sepsis. Either endothelial or vagus nerve activation may be individually sufficient to transmit systemic inflammation to the central nervous system. Transcriptional activation in the forebrain in sepsis may be mediated by MyD88-independent endothelial mechanisms or by non-vagal neuronal pathways.

  8. Blood-Brain Barrier Deterioration and Hippocampal Gene Expression in Polymicrobial Sepsis: An Evaluation of Endothelial MyD88 and the Vagus Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Honig, Gerard; Mader, Simone; Chen, Huiyi; Porat, Amit; Ochani, Mahendar; Wang, Ping; Volpe, Bruce T.; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Systemic infection can initiate or exacerbate central nervous system (CNS) pathology, even in the absence of overt invasion of bacteria into the CNS. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that human survivors of sepsis have an increased risk of long-term neurocognitive decline. There is thus a need for improved understanding of the physiological mechanisms whereby acute sepsis affects the CNS. In particular, MyD88-dependent activation of brain microvascular endothelial cells and a resulting loss of blood-brain barrier integrity have been proposed to play an important role in the effects of systemic inflammation on the CNS. Signaling through the vagus nerve has also been considered to be an important component of CNS responses to systemic infection. Here, we demonstrate that blood-brain barrier permeabilization and hippocampal transcriptional responses during polymicrobial sepsis occur even in the absence of MyD88-dependent signaling in cerebrovascular endothelial cells. We further demonstrate that these transcriptional responses can occur without vagus nerve input. These results suggest that redundant signals mediate CNS responses in sepsis. Either endothelial or vagus nerve activation may be individually sufficient to transmit systemic inflammation to the central nervous system. Transcriptional activation in the forebrain in sepsis may be mediated by MyD88-independent endothelial mechanisms or by non-vagal neuronal pathways. PMID:26790027

  9. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus infection exacerbates NSCLC cell metastasis by up-regulating TLR4/MyD88 pathway.

    PubMed

    An, J; Li, Z; Dong, Y; Ren, J; Guo, K

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a major public health problem worldwide, which brings to a more great threat for cancer patients. It's necessary to give attentions to lung cancer combined with MRSA. This study mainly focuses on the influences of MRSA on lung cancer cells (A549). We first found that MRSA infection can enhance metastasis ability of A549 cell and increase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP2 and MMP9) expressions in MRSA-infected A549 cell. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been reported to play an important role in tumor cell initiation and migration, and regulate the expression of MMPs in tumors. Our further research indicates that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/molecules myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling was up-regulated in MRSA-infected A549 cell. After silencing TLR4 or MyD88 gene, the enhanced metastasis ability of A549 cell by MRSA was decreased significantly; Also, MMP2 and MMP9 expression increase was reversed. In conclusion, MRSA infection can enhance NSCLC cell metastasis by up-regulating TLR4/MyD88 signaling. PMID:27545207

  10. Card9- and MyD88-Mediated Gamma Interferon and Nitric Oxide Production Is Essential for Resistance to Subcutaneous Coccidioides posadasii Infection.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chiung-Yu; Castro-Lopez, Natalia; Cole, Garry T

    2016-04-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a potentially life-threatening respiratory disease which is endemic to the southwestern United States and arid regions of Central and South America. It is responsible for approximately 150,000 infections annually in the United States alone. Almost every human organ has been reported to harbor parasitic cells of Coccidioides spp. in collective cases of the disseminated form of this mycosis. Current understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity against lung infection has been largely derived from murine models of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. However, little is known about the nature of the host response to Coccidioides in extrapulmonary tissue. Primary subcutaneous coccidioidal infection is rare but has been reported to result in disseminated disease. Here, we show that activation of MyD88 and Card9 signal pathways are required for resistance to Coccidioides infection following subcutaneous challenge of C57BL/6 mice, which correlates with earlier findings of the protective response to pulmonary infection. MyD88(-/-) andCard9(-/-) mice recruited reduced numbers of T cells, B cells, and neutrophils to the Coccidioides-infected hypodermis com pared to wild-type mice; however, neutrophils were dispensable for resistance to skin infection. Further studies have shown that gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production and activation of Th1 cells characterize resistance to subcutaneous infection. Furthermore, activation of a phagosomal enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase, which is necessary for NO production, is a requisite for fungal clearance in the hypodermis. Collectively, our data demonstrate that MyD88- and Card9-mediated IFN-γ and nitric oxide production is essential for protection against subcutaneous Coccidioides infection. PMID:26857574

  11. The Epithelial αvβ3-Integrin Boosts the MYD88-Dependent TLR2 Signaling in Response to Viral and Bacterial Components

    PubMed Central

    Gianni, Tatiana; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    TLR2 is a cell surface receptor which elicits an immediate response to a wide repertoire of bacteria and viruses. Its response is usually thought to be proinflammatory rather than an antiviral. In monocytic cells TLR2 cooperates with coreceptors, e.g. CD14, CD36 and αMβ2-integrin. In an earlier work we showed that αvβ3-integrin acts in concert with TLR2 to elicit an innate response to HSV, and to lipopolysaccharide. This response is characterized by production of IFN-α and -β, a specific set of cytokines, and NF-κB activation. We investigated the basis of the cooperation between αvβ3-integrin and TLR2. We report that β3-integrin participates by signaling through Y residues located in the C-tail, known to be involved in signaling activity. αvβ3-integrin boosts the MYD88-dependent TLR2 signaling and IRAK4 phosphorylation in 293T and in epithelial, keratinocytic and neuronal cell lines. The replication of ICP0minus HSV is greatly enhanced by DN versions of MYD88, of Akt – a hub of this pathway, or by β3integrin-silencing. αvβ3-integrin enables the recruitment of TLR2, MAL, MYD88 at lipid rafts, the platforms from where the signaling starts. The PAMP of the HSV-induced innate response is the gH/gL virion glycoprotein, which interacts with αvβ3-integrin and TLR2 independently one of the other, and cross-links the two receptors. Given the preferential distribution of αvβ3-integrin to epithelial cells, we propose that αvβ3-integrin serves as coreceptor of TLR2 in these cells. The results open the possibility that TLR2 makes use of coreceptors in a variety of cells to broaden its spectrum of activity and tissue specificity. PMID:25375272

  12. Dioscin alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory kidney injury via the microRNA let-7i/TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Yin, Lianhong; Xu, Lina; Tao, Xufeng; Qi, Yan; Han, Xu; Wang, Changyuan; Xu, Youwei; Sun, Huijun; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Jinyong

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported the potent effect of dioscin against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, but little is known about the role of dioscin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory kidney injury. The present work aimed to investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of dioscin in preventing LPS-induced kidney injury. In vivo injury was induced in rats and mice with an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10mg/kg), and in vitro studies were performed on NRK-52E and HK-2 cells challenged with LPS (0.5μg/ml). Our results indicated that dioscin significantly protected against renal damage by decreasing blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and reversing oxidative stress. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that dioscin markedly up- regulated the level of the microRNA let-7i, resulting in significant inhibition of TLR4 expression. Dioscin significantly down-regulated the levels of MyD88, NOX1 and cleaved caspase-8/3; inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB; inhibited PI3K and Akt phosphorylation; increased the levels of SOD2; and decreased the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, MIP-1α, Fas and FasL. In vitro, transfection of microRNA let-7i inhibitor and TLR4 DNA were applied, and the results further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of dioscin in suppressing TLR4/MyD88 signaling and subsequently inhibiting inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Furthermore, the abrogation of cellular MyD88 expression by ST2825 eliminated the inhibitory effect of dioscin on the levels of nuclear NF-κB, cleaved caspase-3, SOD2 and ROS. These data indicated that dioscin exerted a nephroprotective effect against LPS-induced inflammatory renal injury by adjusting the microRNA let-7i/TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway, which provided novel insights into the mechanisms of this therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory kidney injury. PMID:27431331

  13. MyD88 mediates the protective effects of probiotics against the arteriolar thrombosis and leukocyte recruitment associated with experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Daniele G.; Senchenkova, Elena Y.; Russell, Janice; Granger, D. Neil

    2014-01-01

    Several studies in IBD patients and in animal models of IBD have revealed a protective effect of probiotics in reducing clinical symptoms of disease and in blunting the gut inflammation that accompanies this condition. However, the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of probiotics is currently unknown. Furthermore, the ability of probiotics to influence the enhanced thrombus development that accompanies IBD has not been studied. This study addresses whether the enhanced extra-intestinal thrombosis (induced by light/dye injury) associated with experimental colitis is altered by oral treatment with the probiotic preparation VSL#3 or by the absence of microbiota. Colitis was induced by DSS 3% in Swiss Webster mice, germ free mice, C57BL/6 WT or Myd88−/− mice. In some experiments, mice received VSL#3 for 8 days before and during DSS feeding. Swiss Webster mice were also subjected to a chronic model of DSS colitis and the effect of VSL#3 was evaluated. VSL#3 treatment significantly attenuated the accelerated thrombus formation observed in both acute and chronic models of colitis. VSL#3-treated mice also exhibited attenuated inflammatory response and injury in the colon. The protective effects of VSL#3 on colitis-associated thrombogenesis and inflammation were not evident in MyD88-deficient mice. Our results suggest that improved control of the enteric microflora in IBD may afford protection against the hypercoagulable, prothrombotic state that follows this condition. PMID:25738377

  14. Comparative genomic evidence for duplication of TLR1 subfamily and miiuy croaker TLR1 perceives LPS stimulation via MyD88 and TIRAP.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianjun; Wang, Yanjin; Li, Jinrui; Shu, Chang; Han, Jingjing; Chu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Being indispensable pattern recognition receptors in innate immune responses in host protection, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in pathogen recognition. Fish TLRs exhibit high variety and distinct features, although little is known about their function on ligand recognition and signaling pathway in fish. This paper reports the evolutionary spectrum of the TLR1 subfamily (referred to as TLR1, TLR6, and TLR10) as determined using the comparative genomic approach. We hypothesized that the TLR1 subfamily underwent two rounds of gene duplication events; the first duplication occurred prior to the divergence of amphibians, and the second one occurred prior to the divergence of eutherians. To further study the function of fish TLR1, we identified miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) TLR1 (mmiTLR1) and determined its potential ability to perceive Vibrio anguillarum and lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Data further suggested that mmiTLR1 is dependent on TIRAP and MyD88 for signal transmission. In addition, immunocytochemistry showed the speculative interaction between MyD88 and mmiTLR1 TIR domain. Overall, we systematically and comprehensively analyzed evolution of TLR1 subfamily and the function of mmiTLR1, which will provide the basis for future scientific research on fish TLRs. PMID:27431585

  15. Differential Effect of MyD88 Signal in Donor T Cells on Graft-versus-Leukemia Effect and Graft-versus-Host Disease after Experimental Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji-Young; Ryu, Da-Bin; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Gyeongsin; Choi, Eun Young; Min, Chang-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the presence of toll like receptor (TLR) expression in conventional TCRαβ T cells, the direct role of TLR signaling via myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) within T lymphocytes on graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) remains unknown. In the allo-SCT model of C57BL/6 (H-2b) → B6D2F1 (H-2b/d), recipients received transplants of wild type (WT) T-cell-depleted (TCD) bone marrow (BM) and splenic T cells from either WT or MyD88 deficient (MyD88KO) donors. Host-type (H-2d) P815 mastocytoma or L1210 leukemia cells were injected either subcutaneously or intravenously to generate a GVHD/GVL model. Allogeneic recipients of MyD88KO T cells demonstrated a greater tumor growth without attenuation of GVHD severity. Moreover, GVHD-induced GVL effect, caused by increasing the conditioning intensity was also not observed in the recipients of MyD88KO T cells. In vitro, the absence of MyD88 in T cells resulted in defective cytolytic activity to tumor targets with reduced ability to produce IFN-γ or granzyme B, which are known to critical for the GVL effect. However, donor T cell expansion with effector and memory T-cell differentiation were more enhanced in GVHD hosts of MyD88KO T cells. Recipients of MyD88KO T cells experienced greater expansion of Foxp3- and IL4-expressing T cells with reduced INF-γ producing T cells in the spleen and tumor-draining lymph nodes early after transplantation. Taken together, these results highlight a differential role for MyD88 deficiency on donor T-cells, with decreased GVL effect without attenuation of the GVHD severity after experimental allo-SCT. PMID:26552489

  16. MyD88 dependence of beryllium-induced dendritic cell trafficking and CD4⁺ T-cell priming.

    PubMed

    McKee, A S; Mack, D G; Crawford, F; Fontenot, A P

    2015-11-01

    Beryllium exposure results in beryllium hypersensitivity in a subset of exposed individuals, leading to granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis in the lung. In addition to its antigenic properties, beryllium has potent adjuvant activity that contributes to sensitization via unknown pathways. Here we show that beryllium induces cellular death and release of interleukin (IL)-1α and DNA into the lung. Release of IL-1α was inflammasome independent and required for beryllium-induced neutrophil recruitment into the lung. Beryllium enhanced classical dendritic cell (cDC) migration from the lung to draining lymph nodes (LNs) in an IL-1R-independent manner, and the accumulation of activated cDCs in the LN was associated with increased priming of CD4(+) T cells. DC migration was reduced in Toll-like receptor 9 knockout (TLR9KO) mice; however, cDCs in the LNs of TLR9-deficient mice were highly activated, suggesting a role for more than one innate receptor in the effects on DCs. The adjuvant effects of beryllium on CD4(+) T-cell priming were similar in wild-type, IL-1R-, caspase-1-, TLR2-, TLR4-, TLR7-, and TLR9-deficient mice. In contrast, DC migration, activation, and the adjuvant effects of beryllium were significantly reduced in myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 knockout (MyD88KO) mice. Collectively, these data suggest that beryllium exposure results in the release of damage-associated molecular patterns that engage MyD88-dependent receptors to enhance pulmonary DC function.

  17. Effects of 5,14-HEDGE, a 20-HETE mimetic, on lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in MyD88/TAK1/IKKβ/IκB-α/NF-κB pathway and circulating miR-150, miR-223, and miR-297 levels in a rat model of septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Sari, A. Nihal; Korkmaz, Belma; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Kacan, Meltem; Unsal, Demet; Buharalioglu, C. Kemal; Firat, Seyhan Sahan; Manhati, Vijay L.; Falck, John R.; Malik, Kafait U.; Tunctan, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We have previously demonstrated that a stable synthetic analog of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), N-(20-hydroxyeicosa-5[Z],14[Z]-dienoyl)glycine (5,14-HEDGE), which mimics the effects of endogenously produced 20-HETE, prevents vascular hyporeactivity, hypotension, tachycardia, inflammation, and mortality in a rodent model of septic shock. The present study was performed to determine whether decreased renal and cardiovascular expression and activity of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/transforming growth factor-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)/inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase β (IKKβ)/IκB-α/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway and reduced circulating microRNA (miR)-150, miR-223, and miR-297 expression levels participate in the protective effect of 5,14-HEDGE against hypotension, tachycardia, and inflammation in response to systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods Conscious male Wistar rats received saline (4 ml/kg) or LPS (10 mg/kg) at time 0. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured using a tail-cuff device. Separate groups of LPS-treated rats were given 5,14-HEDGE (30 mg/kg) 1 h after injection of saline or LPS. The rats were sacrificed 4 h after LPS challenge and blood, kidney, heart, thoracic aorta, and superior mesenteric artery were collected for measurement of the protein expression. Results LPS-induced fall in blood pressure and rise in heart rate were associated with increased MyD88 expression and phosphorylation of TAK1 and IκB-α in cytosolic fractions of the tissues. LPS also caused an increase in both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated NF-κB p65 proteins in the cytosolic and nuclear fractions as well as nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. In addition, serum miR-150, miR-223, and miR-297 expression levels were increased in LPS-treated rats. These effects of LPS were prevented by 5,14-HEDGE. Conclusions These results suggest that downregulation of MyD88/TAK1/IKKβ/IκB-α/NF-κB pathway as well as

  18. Detection of MYD88 L265P mutations in formalin-fixed and decalcified BM biopsies from patients with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, Ianina Belén; May, Annette M; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Follo, Marie; Aumann, Konrad; Kayser, Gian; Perazzo, Juan Carlos; Werner, Martin; Fisch, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The diagnosis of bone marrow (BM) infiltration by Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM)/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) poses a diagnostic challenge in hematopathology. No definitive morphology or immunophenotype is able to distinguish between infiltration of paraffin-embedded BM sections by WM/LPL and other indolent lymphomas, in particular those of the splenic marginal zone (SMZL) which may also show plasmacytic maturation. An oncogenic gain-of-function mutation (L265P) in the human MYD88 gene has been found to be present in most cases of WM/LPL, yet is absent in most other cases of B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD), including SMZL. Here, we compare two newly developed diagnostic protocols for detection of this mutation in paraffin-embedded archival tissues which are particularly applicable to decalcified BM biopsies. Sanger sequencing can easily detect levels of BM infiltration above 15% by WM lymphoplasmacytic cells, while the allele-specific PCR can detect the L265P mutation in BM infiltrations below 1% of lymphoma cells. We show that these methods are easily applicable to archival BM specimens and markedly improve diagnostic accuracy of BM infiltrations by indolent B-cell lymphomas.

  19. Porcine circovirus type 2 induces type I interferon production via MyD88-IKKα-IRFs signaling rather than NF-κB in porcine alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengmeng; Han, Junyuan; Zhang, Yaqun; Duan, Dianning; Zhang, Shuxia

    2016-02-01

    Type I interferon (IFN-I) plays important roles in host antiviral responses. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and NF-κB transcription factors are thought to be important in the processes of viral secretion and triggering of interferon production. Recently, studies have shown that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) can induce IFN-I production in vivo and in vitro, but the mechanisms underlying the production of PAMs infected with PCV2 remains unknown. Treatment of these cells with BAY11-7082, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation, allowed us to study the secretion of IFN-α and IFN-β in PAMs infected with PCV2. We found that IFN-α expression was induced following virus infection of PAMs. Notably, even after inhibitor treatment of PAMs infected with PCV2, secretion of IFN-α was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared with the PCV2 infection alone group. Our findings suggest that NF-κB plays a minor role in PCV2-induced type I interferon responses. To further characterize the signaling pathway that drives IFN-I expression in PAMs in response to PCV2, we used siRNA to silence the expression of Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and study the role of MyD88-IKKα-IRF signaling in IFN-I production in PAMs induced by PCV2. Our findings show that PCV2 induced IFN-α mRNA transcription, which is associated with the activities of MyD88, IRF7, and IRF3. Thus, PCV2 can induce IFN-I transcription via the MyD88-IKKα-IRF signaling axis. PMID:26850559

  20. Immune effects of R848: evidences that suggest an essential role of TLR7/8-induced, Myd88- and NF-κB-dependent signaling in the antiviral immunity of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Xia; Sun, Li

    2015-03-01

    The imidazoquinoline compound R848 is a specific agonist of toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/TLR8 that has been used as an immunostimulant in humans against viral diseases. Although R848-induced immune response has been reported in teleost fish, the relevant mechanism is not clear. In this study, we investigated the antiviral potential and the signaling pathway of R848 in a model of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). We found that R848 was able to inhibit the replication of megalocytivirus, stimulated the proliferation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), enhanced the expression of immune genes, and reduced apoptosis of PBL. When endosomal acidification was blocked by chloroquine (CQ), R848-mediated antiviral activity and immune response were significantly reduced. Likewise, inhibition of Myd88 activation markedly impaired the pro-proliferation and anti-apoptosis effect of R848. Cellular study showed that cultured founder cells treated with R848 exhibited augmented NF-κB activity, which, however, was dramatically reduced in the presence of CQ and Myd88 inhibitor. Furthermore, when NF-κB was inactivated, the effect of R848 on cell proliferation and apoptosis was significantly decreased. Taken together, these results indicate that R848 is an immunostimulant with antiviral property in a teleost species, and that the immune response of R848 is mediated by, most likely, TLR7/TLR8 signaling pathway, in which Myd88 and NK-κB play an essential role. PMID:25475963

  1. MyD88- and TRIF-independent induction of type I interferon drives naive B cell accumulation but not loss of lymph node architecture in Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Hastey, Christine J; Ochoa, Jennine; Olsen, Kimberley J; Barthold, Stephen W; Baumgarth, Nicole

    2014-04-01

    Rapidly after infection, live Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is found within lymph nodes, causing rapid and strong tissue enlargement, a loss of demarcation between B cell follicles and T cell zones, and an unusually large accumulation of B cells. We sought to explore the mechanisms underlying these changes, as lymph tissue disruption could be detrimental for the development of robust Borrelia-specific immunity. A time course study demonstrated that the loss of the normal lymph node structure was a distinct process that preceded the strong increases in B cells at the site. The selective increases in B cell frequencies were due not to proliferation but rather to cytokine-mediated repositioning of B cells to the lymph nodes, as shown with various gene-targeted and bone marrow irradiation chimeras. These studies demonstrated that B. burgdorferi infection induced type I interferon receptor (IFNR) signaling in lymph nodes in a MyD88- and TRIF-independent manner and that type I IFNR indirect signaling was required for the excessive increases of naive B cells at those sites. It did not, however, drive the observed histopathological changes, which occurred independently also from major shifts in the lymphocyte-homing chemokines, CXCL12, CXCL13, and CCL19/21, as shown by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry, and transwell migration experiments. Thus, B. burgdorferi infection drives the production of type I IFN in lymph nodes and in so doing strongly alters the cellular composition of the lymph nodes, with potential detrimental effects for the development of robust Borrelia-specific immunity.

  2. Impaired Innate Immunity in Tlr4−/− Mice but Preserved CD8+ T Cell Responses against Trypanosoma cruzi in Tlr4-, Tlr2-, Tlr9- or Myd88-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tzelepis, Fanny; Klezewsky, Weberton; da Silva, Raquel N.; Neves, Fabieni S.; Cavalcanti, Gisele S.; Boscardin, Silvia; Nunes, Marise P.; Santiago, Marcelo F.; Nóbrega, Alberto; Rodrigues, Maurício M.; Bellio, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The murine model of T. cruzi infection has provided compelling evidence that development of host resistance against intracellular protozoans critically depends on the activation of members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family via the MyD88 adaptor molecule. However, the possibility that TLR/MyD88 signaling pathways also control the induction of immunoprotective CD8+ T cell-mediated effector functions has not been investigated to date. We addressed this question by measuring the frequencies of IFN-γ secreting CD8+ T cells specific for H-2Kb-restricted immunodominant peptides as well as the in vivo Ag-specific cytotoxic response in infected animals that are deficient either in TLR2, TLR4, TLR9 or MyD88 signaling pathways. Strikingly, we found that T. cruzi-infected Tlr2−/−, Tlr4−/−, Tlr9−/− or Myd88−/− mice generated both specific cytotoxic responses and IFN-γ secreting CD8+ T cells at levels comparable to WT mice, although the frequency of IFN-γ+CD4+ cells was diminished in infected Myd88−/− mice. We also analyzed the efficiency of TLR4-driven immune responses against T. cruzi using TLR4-deficient mice on the C57BL genetic background (B6 and B10). Our studies demonstrated that TLR4 signaling is required for optimal production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) in the spleen of infected animals and, as a consequence, Tlr4−/− mice display higher parasitemia levels. Collectively, our results indicate that TLR4, as well as previously shown for TLR2, TLR9 and MyD88, contributes to the innate immune response and, consequently, resistance in the acute phase of infection, although each of these pathways is not individually essential for the generation of class I-restricted responses against T. cruzi. PMID:20442858

  3. Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Orbital and Ocular Adnexal Lymphomas Identifies Frequent Alterations in MYD88 and Chromatin Modifiers: New Routes to Targeted Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Cani, Andi K.; Soliman, Moaaz; Hovelson, Daniel H.; Liu, Chia-Jen; McDaniel, Andrew S.; Haller, Michaela J.; Bratley, Jarred; Rahrig, Samantha; Li, Qiang; Briceño, César A.; Tomlins, Scott A.; Rao, Rajesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the orbit and ocular adnexa is the most common primary orbital malignancy. Treatments for low- (extra-nodal marginal zone and follicular lymphomas) and high-grade (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) are associated with local and vision-threatening toxicities. High-grade lymphomas relapse frequently and exhibit poor survival rates. Despite advances in genomic profiling and precision-medicine, orbital and ocular adnexal lymphomas remain poorly characterized molecularly. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing profiling of 38 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, orbital and ocular adnexal lymphomas obtained from a single-center using a panel targeting near-term, clinically-relevant genes. Potentially actionable mutations and copy-number alterations were prioritized based on gain- and loss-of function analyses, catalogued approved and investigational therapies. Of 36 informative samples, including marginal zone lymphomas (n=20), follicular lymphomas (n=9), and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (n=7), 53% harbored a prioritized alteration (median=1, range 0–5/sample). MYD88 was the most frequently altered gene in our cohort, with potentially clinically-relevant hot-spot gain-of-function mutations identified in 71% of diffuse large B-cell and 25% of marginal zone lymphomas. Prioritized alterations in epigenetic modulators were common and included gain-of-function EZH2 and loss-of-function ARID1A mutations (14% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and 22% of follicular lymphomas contained alterations in each of these two genes). Single prioritized alterations were also identified in the histone methyltransferases KMT2B (follicular lymphoma) and KMT3B (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). Loss-of-function mutations and copy-number alterations in the tumor suppressors TP53 (diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphoma), CDKN2A (all subtypes), PTEN (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma), ATM (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) and NF1 (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

  4. A negative role for MyD88 in the resistance to starvation as revealed in an intestinal infection of Drosophila melanogaster with the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus xylosus.

    PubMed

    Ayyaz, Arshad; Giammarinaro, Philippe; Liégeois, Samuel; Lestradet, Matthieu; Ferrandon, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a useful model to investigate mucosal immunity. The immune response to intestinal infections is mediated partly by the Immune deficiency (IMD) pathway, which only gets activated by a type of peptidoglycan lacking in several medically important Gram-positive bacterial species such as Staphylococcus. Thus, the intestinal host defense against such bacterial strains remains poorly known. Here, we have used Staphylococcus xylosus to develop a model of intestinal infections by Gram-positive bacteria. S. xylosus behaves as an opportunistic pathogen in a septic injury model, being able to kill only flies immunodeficient either for the Toll pathway or the cellular response. When ingested, it is controlled by IMD-independent host intestinal defenses, yet flies eventually die. Having excluded an overreaction of the immune response and the action of toxins, we find that flies actually succumb to starvation, likely as a result of a competition for sucrose between the bacteria and the flies. Fat stores of wild-type flies are severely reduced within a day, a period when sucrose is not yet exhausted in the feeding solution. Interestingly, the Toll pathway mutant MyD88 is more resistant to the ingestion of S. xylosus and to starvation than wild-type flies. MyD88 flies do not rapidly deplete their fat stores when starved, in contrast to wild-type flies. Thus, we have uncovered a novel function of MyD88 in the regulation of metabolism that appears to be independent of its known roles in immunity and development.

  5. Intramammary infusion of Panax ginseng extract in bovine mammary gland at cessation of milking induces changes in the expression of toll-like receptors, MyD88 and NF-kB during early involution.

    PubMed

    Baravalle, Celina; Silvestrini, Paula; Cadoche, Mónica C; Beccaria, Camila; Andreotti, Carolina S; Renna, María S; Pereyra, Elizabeth A L; Ortega, Hugo H; Calvinho, Luis F; Dallard, Bibiana E

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore TLR2 and TLR4 participation and MyD88 and NF-κB activation in bovine mammary glands (BMG) treated with Panax ginseng (PG) at involution and verify the effect of PG in the cytokine expression. Quarters were infused at the end of lactation with PG solution (3 mg/ml), placebo or kept as uninoculated controls. Cows were slaughtered at 7 d after cessation of milking and mammary tissue samples were taken. A significant increase of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression was observed in PG-treated quarters. Immunostaining of TLR2 and TLR4 was significantly higher in PG mammary tissues. The percentages of immunopositive cells for NF-κB-p65 were significantly higher in PG-treated quarters. The BMG responded to PG extract components possibly by TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathway. These results provide an insight into potential mechanisms by which PG stimulates innate immunity during BMG involution.

  6. Overexpression of myeloid differentiation protein 88 in mice induces mild cardiac dysfunction, but no deficit in heart morphology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, W.; Huang, Z.; Jiang, X.; Li, C.; Gao, X.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling involves changes in heart shape, size, structure, and function after injury to the myocardium. The proinflammatory adaptor protein myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) contributes to cardiac remodeling. To investigate whether excessive MyD88 levels initiate spontaneous cardiac remodeling at the whole-organism level, we generated a transgenic MyD88 mouse model with a cardiac-specific promoter. MyD88 mice (male, 20-30 g, n=∼80) were born at the expected Mendelian ratio and demonstrated similar morphology of the heart and cardiomyocytes with that of wild-type controls. Although heart weight was unaffected, cardiac contractility of MyD88 hearts was mildly reduced, as shown by echocardiographic examination, compared with wild-type controls. Moreover, the cardiac dysfunction phenotype was associated with elevation of ANF and BNP expression. Collectively, our data provide novel evidence of the critical role of balanced MyD88 signaling in maintaining physiological function in the adult heart. PMID:26628395

  7. CXC195 suppresses proliferation and inflammatory response in LPS-induced human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via regulating TLR4-MyD88-TAK1-mediated NF-κB and MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yiting; Tu, Qunfei; Yan, Wei; Xiao, Dan; Zeng, Zhimin; Ouyang, Yuming; Huang, Long; Cai, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoli; Chen, Ya-Jie; Liu, Anwen

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • CXC195 exhibited significant anti-proliferative effect and induced cell cycle arrest in LPS-induced HepG2 cells. • CXC195 suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced HepG2 cells. • CXC195 regulated TLR4-MyD88-TAK1-mediated NF-κB and MAPK pathway in LPS-induced HepG2 cells. - Abstract: CXC195 showed strong protective effects in neuronal apoptosis by exerting its antioxidant activity. However, the anti-cancer effects of CXC195 is still with limited acquaintance. Here, we investigated the role of CXC195 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells lines (HepG2) and the possible signaling pathways. CXC195 exhibited significant anti-proliferative effect and induced cell cycle arrest in LPS-induced HepG2 cells. In addition, CXC195 suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced HepG2 cells, including TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, CC chemokine ligand (CCL)-2, CCL-22 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Moreover, CXC195 inhibited the expressions and interactions of TLR4, MyD88 and TAK1, NF-κB translocation to nucleus and its DNA binding activity, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. Our results suggested that treatment with CXC195 could attenuate the TLR4-mediated proliferation and inflammatory response in LPS-induced HepG2 cells, thus might be beneficial for the treatment of HCC.

  8. Phosphoryl Moieties of Lipid A from Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharides Play an Important Role in Activation of both MyD88- and TRIF-Dependent TLR4/MD-2 Signaling Pathways1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingfeng; John, Constance M.; Jarvis, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) from Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae engages the TLR4/MD-2 complex. In this study, we report that LOS from different meningococcal and gonococcal strains have different potencies to activate NF-κB through TLR4/MD-2, and that the relative activation can be correlated with ion abundances in MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry that are indicative of the number of phosphoryl substituents on the lipid A (LA) component of the LOS. The LOS from three of the strains, meningococcal strain 89I and gonococcal strains 1291 and GC56, representing high, intermediate and low potency on NF-κB activation, respectively, differently activated cytokine expression through the TLR4/MD-2 pathway in monocytes. In addition to induction of typical inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, MIP-1α and MIP-1β also were significantly higher in cells treated with 89I LOS which had the most phosphoryl substitutions on the LA compared to 1291 and GC56. We found that LOS activated both the MyD88- and TRIF-dependent pathways through NF-κB and IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) transcription factors, respectively. Moreover, LOS induced the expression of costimulatory molecule CD80 on the surface of monocytes via upregulation of IRF-1. These results suggest that phosphoryl moieties of LA from N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae LOS play an important role in activation of both the MyD88- and TRIF-dependent pathways. Our findings are consistent with the concept that bacteria modulate pathogen-associated molecular patterns by expression of phosphoryl moieties on the LA to optimize interactions with the host. PMID:21037101

  9. Tumor-released autophagosomes induce IL-10-producing B cells with suppressive activity on T lymphocytes via TLR2-MyD88-NF-κB signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meng; Wen, Zhifa; Cheng, Feng; Ma, Jie; Li, Weixia; Ren, Hongyan; Sheng, Yemeng; Dong, Huixia; Lu, Liwei; Hu, Hong-Ming; Wang, Li-Xin

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that tumor cells can release autophagosomes, which transport a broad array of biologically active molecules with potential modulatory effects on immune cell functions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of tumor cells-released autophagosomes (i.e. TRAP) in regulating B cell differentiation and function. TRAPs from murine tumor cell lines were found to induce splenic B cells to differentiate into IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs) with a distinct phenotype of CD1d(+) CD5(+), which could potently inhibit CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell responses in IL-10-depedent manner both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, adoptive transfer of TRAP-induced Bregs abrogated the immune response and antitumor effect induced by OVA-loaded DC vaccinations in E.G7-OVA-bearing mouse model. Mechanistic studies revealed that membrane-bound high-mobility group B1 (HMGB1) on the intact TRAPs was crucial for inducing Breg differentiation via the activation of TLR2-MyD88-NF-κB signal pathway in B cells. Moreover, TRAPs enriched from malignant effusions of cancer patients could induce human B cells to differentiate into IL-10-producing B cells with immunoregulatory functions, the frequency of which were positively correlated with the HMGB1 levels on TRAPs. Together, our findings have demonstrated that TRAPs promote the generation of IL-10(+) Bregs, which may contribute to the suppression of antitumor immunity. PMID:27622036

  10. The anti-inflammatory drug BAY 11-7082 suppresses the MyD88-dependent signalling network by targeting the ubiquitin system.

    PubMed

    Strickson, Sam; Campbell, David G; Emmerich, Christoph H; Knebel, Axel; Plater, Lorna; Ritorto, Maria Stella; Shpiro, Natalia; Cohen, Philip

    2013-05-01

    The compound BAY 11-7082 inhibits IκBα [inhibitor of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)α] phosphorylation in cells and has been used to implicate the canonical IKKs (IκB kinases) and NF-κB in >350 publications. In the present study we report that BAY 11-7082 does not inhibit the IKKs, but suppresses their activation in LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-stimulated RAW macrophages and IL (interleukin)-1-stimulated IL-1R (IL-1 receptor) HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells. BAY 11-7082 exerts these effects by inactivating the E2-conjugating enzymes Ubc (ubiquitin conjugating) 13 and UbcH7 and the E3 ligase LUBAC (linear ubiquitin assembly complex), thereby preventing the formation of Lys63-linked and linear polyubiquitin chains. BAY 11-7082 prevents ubiquitin conjugation to Ubc13 and UbcH7 by forming a covalent adduct with their reactive cysteine residues via Michael addition at the C3 atom of BAY 11-7082, followed by the release of 4-methylbenzene-sulfinic acid. BAY 11-7082 stimulated Lys48-linked polyubiquitin chain formation in cells and protected HIF1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) from proteasomal degradation, suggesting that it inhibits the proteasome. The results of the present study indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of BAY 11-7082, its ability to induce B-cell lymphoma and leukaemic T-cell death and to prevent the recruitment of proteins to sites of DNA damage are exerted via inhibition of components of the ubiquitin system and not by inhibiting NF-κB.

  11. The anti-inflammatory drug BAY 11-7082 suppresses the MyD88-dependent signalling network by targeting the ubiquitin system.

    PubMed

    Strickson, Sam; Campbell, David G; Emmerich, Christoph H; Knebel, Axel; Plater, Lorna; Ritorto, Maria Stella; Shpiro, Natalia; Cohen, Philip

    2013-05-01

    The compound BAY 11-7082 inhibits IκBα [inhibitor of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)α] phosphorylation in cells and has been used to implicate the canonical IKKs (IκB kinases) and NF-κB in >350 publications. In the present study we report that BAY 11-7082 does not inhibit the IKKs, but suppresses their activation in LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-stimulated RAW macrophages and IL (interleukin)-1-stimulated IL-1R (IL-1 receptor) HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells. BAY 11-7082 exerts these effects by inactivating the E2-conjugating enzymes Ubc (ubiquitin conjugating) 13 and UbcH7 and the E3 ligase LUBAC (linear ubiquitin assembly complex), thereby preventing the formation of Lys63-linked and linear polyubiquitin chains. BAY 11-7082 prevents ubiquitin conjugation to Ubc13 and UbcH7 by forming a covalent adduct with their reactive cysteine residues via Michael addition at the C3 atom of BAY 11-7082, followed by the release of 4-methylbenzene-sulfinic acid. BAY 11-7082 stimulated Lys48-linked polyubiquitin chain formation in cells and protected HIF1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) from proteasomal degradation, suggesting that it inhibits the proteasome. The results of the present study indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of BAY 11-7082, its ability to induce B-cell lymphoma and leukaemic T-cell death and to prevent the recruitment of proteins to sites of DNA damage are exerted via inhibition of components of the ubiquitin system and not by inhibiting NF-κB. PMID:23441730

  12. The anti-inflammatory drug BAY 11-7082 suppresses the MyD88-dependent signalling network by targeting the ubiquitin system

    PubMed Central

    Strickson, Sam; Campbell, David G.; Emmerich, Christoph H.; Knebel, Axel; Plater, Lorna; Ritorto, Maria Stella; Shpiro, Natalia; Cohen, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The compound BAY 11-7082 inhibits IκBα [inhibitor of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)α] phosphorylation in cells and has been used to implicate the canonical IKKs (IκB kinases) and NF-κB in >350 publications. In the present study we report that BAY 11-7082 does not inhibit the IKKs, but suppresses their activation in LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-stimulated RAW macrophages and IL (interleukin)-1-stimulated IL-1R (IL-1 receptor) HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells. BAY 11-7082 exerts these effects by inactivating the E2-conjugating enzymes Ubc (ubiquitin conjugating) 13 and UbcH7 and the E3 ligase LUBAC (linear ubiquitin assembly complex), thereby preventing the formation of Lys63-linked and linear polyubiquitin chains. BAY 11-7082 prevents ubiquitin conjugation to Ubc13 and UbcH7 by forming a covalent adduct with their reactive cysteine residues via Michael addition at the C3 atom of BAY 11-7082, followed by the release of 4-methylbenzene-sulfinic acid. BAY 11-7082 stimulated Lys48-linked polyubiquitin chain formation in cells and protected HIF1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) from proteasomal degradation, suggesting that it inhibits the proteasome. The results of the present study indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of BAY 11-7082, its ability to induce B-cell lymphoma and leukaemic T-cell death and to prevent the recruitment of proteins to sites of DNA damage are exerted via inhibition of components of the ubiquitin system and not by inhibiting NF-κB. PMID:23441730

  13. Toll-like receptor 4 activation promotes cardiac arrhythmias by decreasing the transient outward potassium current (Ito) through an IRF3-dependent and MyD88-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Monnerat-Cahli, Gustavo; Alonso, Hiart; Gallego, Monica; Alarcón, Micaela Lopez; Bassani, Rosana A; Casis, Oscar; Medei, Emiliano

    2014-11-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are one of the main causes of death worldwide. Several studies have shown that inflammation plays a key role in different cardiac diseases and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) seem to be involved in cardiac complications. In the present study, we investigated whether the activation of TLR4 induces cardiac electrical remodeling and arrhythmias, and the signaling pathway involved in these effects. Membrane potential was recorded in Wistar rat ventricle. Ca(2+) transients, as well as the L-type Ca(2+) current (ICaL) and the transient outward K(+) current (Ito), were recorded in isolated myocytes after 24 h exposure to the TLR4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/ml). TLR4 stimulation in vitro promoted a cardiac electrical remodeling that leads to action potential prolongation associated with arrhythmic events, such as delayed afterdepolarization and triggered activity. After 24 h LPS incubation, Ito amplitude, as well as Kv4.3 and KChIP2 mRNA levels were reduced. The Ito decrease by LPS was prevented by inhibition of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), but not by inhibition of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) or nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Extrasystolic activity was present in 25% of the cells, but apart from that, Ca(2+) transients and ICaL were not affected by LPS; however, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) activity was apparently increased. We conclude that TLR4 activation decreased Ito, which increased AP duration via a MyD88-independent, IRF3-dependent pathway. The longer action potential, associated with enhanced Ca(2+) efflux via NCX, could explain the presence of arrhythmias in the LPS group.

  14. Protein adaptations in archaeal extremophiles.

    PubMed

    Reed, Christopher J; Lewis, Hunter; Trejo, Eric; Winston, Vern; Evilia, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Extremophiles, especially those in Archaea, have a myriad of adaptations that keep their cellular proteins stable and active under the extreme conditions in which they live. Rather than having one basic set of adaptations that works for all environments, Archaea have evolved separate protein features that are customized for each environment. We categorized the Archaea into three general groups to describe what is known about their protein adaptations: thermophilic, psychrophilic, and halophilic. Thermophilic proteins tend to have a prominent hydrophobic core and increased electrostatic interactions to maintain activity at high temperatures. Psychrophilic proteins have a reduced hydrophobic core and a less charged protein surface to maintain flexibility and activity under cold temperatures. Halophilic proteins are characterized by increased negative surface charge due to increased acidic amino acid content and peptide insertions, which compensates for the extreme ionic conditions. While acidophiles, alkaliphiles, and piezophiles are their own class of Archaea, their protein adaptations toward pH and pressure are less discernible. By understanding the protein adaptations used by archaeal extremophiles, we hope to be able to engineer and utilize proteins for industrial, environmental, and biotechnological applications where function in extreme conditions is required for activity.

  15. Identification of interaction sites for dimerization and adapter recruitment in Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain of Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Bovijn, Celia; Ulrichts, Peter; De Smet, Anne-Sophie; Catteeuw, Dominiek; Beyaert, Rudi; Tavernier, Jan; Peelman, Frank

    2012-02-01

    Toll-like receptor signaling requires interactions of the Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains of the receptor and adapter proteins. Using the mammalian protein-protein interaction trap strategy, homology modeling, and site-directed mutagenesis, we identify the interaction surfaces in the TLR4 TIR domain for the TLR4-TLR4, TLR4-MyD88 adapter-like (MAL), and TLR4-TRIF-related adapter molecule (TRAM) interaction. Two binding sites are equally important for TLR4 dimerization and adapter recruitment. In a model based on the crystal structure of the dimeric TLR10 TIR domain, the first binding site mediates TLR4-TLR4 TIR-TIR interaction. Upon dimerization, two identical second binding sites of the TLR4 TIR domain are juxtaposed and form an extended binding platform for both MAL and TRAM. In our mammalian protein-protein interaction trap assay, MAL and TRAM compete for binding to this platform. Our data suggest that adapter binding can stabilize the TLR4 TIR dimerization. PMID:22139835

  16. Identification of Interaction Sites for Dimerization and Adapter Recruitment in Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor (TIR) Domain of Toll-like Receptor 4*

    PubMed Central

    Bovijn, Celia; Ulrichts, Peter; De Smet, Anne-Sophie; Catteeuw, Dominiek; Beyaert, Rudi; Tavernier, Jan; Peelman, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptor signaling requires interactions of the Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains of the receptor and adapter proteins. Using the mammalian protein-protein interaction trap strategy, homology modeling, and site-directed mutagenesis, we identify the interaction surfaces in the TLR4 TIR domain for the TLR4-TLR4, TLR4-MyD88 adapter-like (MAL), and TLR4-TRIF-related adapter molecule (TRAM) interaction. Two binding sites are equally important for TLR4 dimerization and adapter recruitment. In a model based on the crystal structure of the dimeric TLR10 TIR domain, the first binding site mediates TLR4-TLR4 TIR-TIR interaction. Upon dimerization, two identical second binding sites of the TLR4 TIR domain are juxtaposed and form an extended binding platform for both MAL and TRAM. In our mammalian protein-protein interaction trap assay, MAL and TRAM compete for binding to this platform. Our data suggest that adapter binding can stabilize the TLR4 TIR dimerization. PMID:22139835

  17. TB, or not TB: that is the question – does TLR signaling hold the answer?

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Terence M.; Arditi, Moshe

    2004-01-01

    Innate immunity critically depends on signaling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that rely heavily on an intracellular adapter protein called myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Adaptive immune defenses are generally thought to be orchestrated by innate immune responses and so should require intact TLR-MyD88 signaling pathways. But a surprising new study in MyD88-null mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenges this view and instead suggests that MyD88 may not be absolutely required for a normal adaptive immune response. PMID:15599394

  18. Gedunin Binds to Myeloid Differentiation Protein 2 and Impairs Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Borges, Perla Villani; Moret, Katelim Hottz; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa Menezes; Souza-Silva, Franklin; Alves, Carlos Roberto; Batista, Paulo Ricardo; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl; Pacheco, Patrícia; Henriques, Maria das Graças; Penido, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by innate immune system is mediated by the cluster of differentiation 14/Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) complex. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effect of gedunin, a limonoid from species of the Meliaceae family described as a heat shock protein Hsp90 inhibitor, on LPS-induced response in immortalized murine macrophages. The pretreatment of wild-type (WT) macrophages with gedunin (0.01-100 µM, noncytotoxic concentrations) inhibited LPS (50 ng/ml)-induced calcium influx, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nitric oxide production in a concentration-dependent manner. The selective effect of gedunin on MyD88-adapter-like/myeloid differentiation primary response 88- and TRIF-related adaptor molecule/TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β-dependent signaling pathways was further investigated. The pretreatment of WT, TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β knockout, and MyD88 adapter-like knockout macrophages with gedunin (10 µM) significantly inhibited LPS (50 ng/ml)-induced tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production, at 6 hours and 24 hours, suggesting that gedunin modulates a common event between both signaling pathways. Furthermore, gedunin (10 µM) inhibited LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 production, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and nuclear factor κB translocation into the nucleus of WT macrophages, demonstrating a wide-range effect of this chemical compound. In addition to the ability to inhibit LPS-induced proinflammatory mediators, gedunin also triggered anti-inflammatory factors interleukin-10, heme oxygenase-1, and Hsp70 in macrophages stimulated or not with LPS. In silico modeling studies revealed that gedunin efficiently docked into the MD-2 LPS binding site, a phenomenon further confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. Our results reveal that, in addition to Hsp90 modulation, gedunin acts as a competitive inhibitor of LPS, blocking

  19. Lung epithelium and myeloid cells cooperate to clear acute pneumococcal infection

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, M; Puttur, F; Arnold-Schrauf, C; Kühl, A A; Holzmann, B; Henriques-Normark, B; Berod, L; Sparwasser, T

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae causes life-threatening infections, especially among immunocompromised patients. The host's immune system senses S. pneumoniae via different families of pattern recognition receptors, in particular the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family that promotes immune cell activation. Yet, while single TLRs are dispensable for initiating inflammatory responses against S. pneumoniae, the central TLR adapter protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is of vital importance, as MyD88-deficient mice succumb rapidly to infection. Since MyD88 is ubiquitously expressed in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, the extent to which MyD88 signaling is required in different cell types to control S. pneumoniae is unknown. Therefore, we used novel conditional knockin mice to investigate the necessity of MyD88 signaling in distinct lung-resident myeloid and epithelial cells for the initiation of a protective immune response against S. pneumoniae. Here, we show that MyD88 signaling in lysozyme M (LysM)– and CD11c-expressing myeloid cells, as well as in pulmonary epithelial cells, is critical to restore inflammatory cytokine and antimicrobial peptide production, leading to efficient neutrophil recruitment and enhanced bacterial clearance. Overall, we show a novel synergistic requirement of compartment-specific MyD88 signaling in S. pneumoniae immunity. PMID:26627460

  20. Lung epithelium and myeloid cells cooperate to clear acute pneumococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Dudek, M; Puttur, F; Arnold-Schrauf, C; Kühl, A A; Holzmann, B; Henriques-Normark, B; Berod, L; Sparwasser, T

    2016-09-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae causes life-threatening infections, especially among immunocompromised patients. The host's immune system senses S. pneumoniae via different families of pattern recognition receptors, in particular the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family that promotes immune cell activation. Yet, while single TLRs are dispensable for initiating inflammatory responses against S. pneumoniae, the central TLR adapter protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is of vital importance, as MyD88-deficient mice succumb rapidly to infection. Since MyD88 is ubiquitously expressed in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, the extent to which MyD88 signaling is required in different cell types to control S. pneumoniae is unknown. Therefore, we used novel conditional knockin mice to investigate the necessity of MyD88 signaling in distinct lung-resident myeloid and epithelial cells for the initiation of a protective immune response against S. pneumoniae. Here, we show that MyD88 signaling in lysozyme M (LysM)- and CD11c-expressing myeloid cells, as well as in pulmonary epithelial cells, is critical to restore inflammatory cytokine and antimicrobial peptide production, leading to efficient neutrophil recruitment and enhanced bacterial clearance. Overall, we show a novel synergistic requirement of compartment-specific MyD88 signaling in S. pneumoniae immunity. PMID:26627460

  1. Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 couples reverse cholesterol transport to inflammation.

    PubMed

    Smoak, Kathleen A; Aloor, Jim J; Madenspacher, Jennifer; Merrick, B Alex; Collins, Jennifer B; Zhu, Xuewei; Cavigiolio, Giorgio; Oda, Michael N; Parks, John S; Fessler, Michael B

    2010-06-01

    Crosstalk exists in mammalian cells between cholesterol trafficking and innate immune signaling. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), a serum apolipoprotein that induces antiatherogenic efflux of macrophage cholesterol, is widely described as anti-inflammatory because it neutralizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Conversely, lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation is proatherogenic. However, whether innate immunity plays an endogenous, physiological role in host cholesterol homeostasis in the absence of infection is undetermined. We report that apoA-I signals in the macrophage through Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, and CD14, utilizing myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88)-dependent and -independent pathways, to activate nuclear factor-kappaB and induce cytokines. MyD88 plays a critical role in reverse cholesterol transport in vitro and in vivo, in part through promoting ATP-binding cassette A1 transporter upregulation. Taken together, this work identifies apoA-I as an endogenous stimulus of innate immunity that couples cholesterol trafficking to inflammation through MyD88 and identifies innate immunity as a physiologic signal in cholesterol homeostasis.

  2. Protein cold adaptation: Role of physico-chemical parameters in adaptation of proteins to low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahzade, Soheila; Sharifi, Fatemeh; Vaseghi, Akbar; Faridounnia, Maryam; Jahandideh, Samad

    2015-10-21

    During years 2007 and 2008, we published three papers (Jahandideh, 2007a, JTB, 246, 159-166; Jahandideh, 2007b, JTB, 248, 721-726; Jahandideh, 2008, JTB, 255, 113-118) investigating sequence and structural parameters in adaptation of proteins to low temperatures. Our studies revealed important features in cold-adaptation of proteins. Here, we calculate values of a new set of physico-chemical parameters and perform a comparative systematic analysis on a more comprehensive database of psychrophilic-mesophilic homologous protein pairs. Our obtained results confirm that psychrophilicity rules are not merely the inverse rules of thermostability; for instance, although contact order is reported as a key feature in thermostability, our results have shown no significant difference between contact orders of psychrophilic proteins compared to mesophilic proteins. We are optimistic that these findings would help future efforts to propose a strategy for designing cold-adapted proteins.

  3. Matricellular proteins in cardiac adaptation and disease.

    PubMed

    Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2012-04-01

    The term matricellular proteins describes a family of structurally unrelated extracellular macromolecules that, unlike structural matrix proteins, do not play a primary role in tissue architecture, but are induced following injury and modulate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. When released to the matrix, matricellular proteins associate with growth factors, cytokines, and other bioactive effectors and bind to cell surface receptors transducing signaling cascades. Matricellular proteins are upregulated in the injured and remodeling heart and play an important role in regulation of inflammatory, reparative, fibrotic and angiogenic pathways. Thrombospondin (TSP)-1, -2, and -4 as well as tenascin-C and -X secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), osteopontin, periostin, and members of the CCN family (including CCN1 and CCN2/connective tissue growth factor) are involved in a variety of cardiac pathophysiological conditions, including myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, aging-associated myocardial remodeling, myocarditis, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and valvular disease. This review discusses the properties and characteristics of the matricellular proteins and presents our current knowledge on their role in cardiac adaptation and disease. Understanding the role of matricellular proteins in myocardial pathophysiology and identification of the functional domains responsible for their actions may lead to design of peptides with therapeutic potential for patients with heart disease.

  4. Effects of protein-energy malnutrition on NF-kappaB signalling in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Curi, Rui; Borges, Maria Carolina; Borelli, Primavera

    2010-04-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is an important public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. PEM decreases resistance to infection, impairing a number of physiological processes. In unstimulated cells, NF-kappaB is kept from binding to its consensus sequence by the inhibitor I kappaB alpha, which retains NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm. Upon various signals, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), I kappaB alpha is rapidly degraded and NF-kappaB is induced to translocate into the nucleus, where it activates expression of various genes that participate in the inflammatory response, including those involved in the synthesis of TNF-alpha. TRAF-6 is a cytoplasmic adapter protein that links the stimulatory signal from Toll like receptor-4 to NF-kappaB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of malnutrition on induction of TNF-alpha by LPS in murine peritoneal macrophages. We evaluated peritoneal cellularity, the expression of MyD88, TRAF-6, IKK, I kappaB alpha and NF-kappaB, NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha mRNA and protein synthesis in macrophages. Two-month-old male BALB/C mice were submitted to PEM with a low-protein diet that contained 2% protein, compared to 12% protein in the control diet. When the experimental group had lost about 20% of the original body weight, it was used in the subsequent experiments. Malnourished animals presented anemia, leucopenia and severe reduction in peritoneal cavity cellularity. TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels of macrophages stimulated with LPS were significantly lower in malnourished animals. PEM also decreased TRAF-6 expression and NF-kappaB activation after LPS stimulation. These results led us to conclude that PEM changes NF-kB signalling pathway in macrophages to LPS stimulus.

  5. Viruses are a dominant driver of protein adaptation in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Enard, David; Cai, Le; Gwennap, Carina; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2016-01-01

    Viruses interact with hundreds to thousands of proteins in mammals, yet adaptation against viruses has only been studied in a few proteins specialized in antiviral defense. Whether adaptation to viruses typically involves only specialized antiviral proteins or affects a broad array of virus-interacting proteins is unknown. Here, we analyze adaptation in ~1300 virus-interacting proteins manually curated from a set of 9900 proteins conserved in all sequenced mammalian genomes. We show that viruses (i) use the more evolutionarily constrained proteins within the cellular functions they interact with and that (ii) despite this high constraint, virus-interacting proteins account for a high proportion of all protein adaptation in humans and other mammals. Adaptation is elevated in virus-interacting proteins across all functional categories, including both immune and non-immune functions. We conservatively estimate that viruses have driven close to 30% of all adaptive amino acid changes in the part of the human proteome conserved within mammals. Our results suggest that viruses are one of the most dominant drivers of evolutionary change across mammalian and human proteomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12469.001 PMID:27187613

  6. An adaptable standard for protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, R Luke; Powers, Evan T; Buxbaum, Joel N; Kelly, Jeffery W; Balch, William E

    2007-11-16

    To provide an integrated view of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function in protein export, we have described the interdependence of protein folding energetics and the adaptable biology of cellular protein folding and transport through the exocytic pathway. A simplified treatment of the protein homeostasis network and a formalism for how this network of competing pathways interprets protein folding kinetics and thermodynamics provides a framework for understanding cellular protein trafficking. We illustrate how folding and misfolding energetics, in concert with the adjustable biological capacities of the folding, degradation, and export pathways, collectively dictate an adaptable standard for protein export from the ER. A model of folding for export (FoldEx) establishes that no single feature dictates folding and transport efficiency. Instead, a network view provides insight into the basis for cellular diversity, disease origins, and protein homeostasis, and predicts strategies for restoring protein homeostasis in protein-misfolding diseases.

  7. Adaptive evolution in an avian reproductive protein: ZP3.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Jennifer D; El-Hinn, Diana; Swanson, Willie J

    2007-11-01

    Proteins involved in reproduction appear to be evolving adaptively across taxa. This rapid evolution is thought to be the result of forces involved in sexual selection. One of the most often suggested of these forces is sexual conflict involving sperm competition and polyspermy avoidance. Bird species offer a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis since the avian egg coat tolerates physiological polyspermy, or the penetration of multiple sperm during fertilization, without negative effects on later development. Despite this, and the extensive amount of data gathered on sexual selection in birds, there are limited studies on the patterns of evolution of avian reproductive proteins. Here we present an analysis of the pattern of evolution of Zona Pellucida 3 (ZP3), a protein present on the avian egg coat. We found that, across several galliform and a single anseriform species, ZP3 appears to be diverging by positive adaptive evolution. In an exploratory analysis of portions of the gene in Callipepla californica we also found evidence of a selective sweep at the putative sperm binding region of the protein. In sum, ZP3 in birds, like reproductive proteins in other species, appears to be adaptively evolving. This result suggests that polyspermy avoidance is not sufficient to explain positive Darwinian selection in reproductive proteins across taxonomic groups. Clearly, the inclusion of bird species in the study of reproductive proteins across taxa promises to add greatly to the discussion of the factors driving the widespread phenomenon of adaptive evolution in reproductive proteins. PMID:17909693

  8. A Role for TLR4 in Clostridium difficile Infection and the Recognition of Surface Layer Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Anthony; Lynch, Mark; Smith, Sinead M.; Amu, Sylvie; Nel, Hendrik J.; McCoy, Claire E.; Dowling, Jennifer K.; Draper, Eve; O'Reilly, Vincent; McCarthy, Ciara; O'Brien, Julie; Ní Eidhin, Déirdre; O'Connell, Mary J.; Keogh, Brian; Morton, Charles O.; Rogers, Thomas R.; Fallon, Padraic G.; O'Neill, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the etiological agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and pseudomembranous colitis in humans. The role of the surface layer proteins (SLPs) in this disease has not yet been fully explored. The aim of this study was to investigate a role for SLPs in the recognition of C. difficile and the subsequent activation of the immune system. Bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DCs) exposed to SLPs were assessed for production of inflammatory cytokines, expression of cell surface markers and their ability to generate T helper (Th) cell responses. DCs isolated from C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice were used in order to examine whether SLPs are recognised by TLR4. The role of TLR4 in infection was examined in TLR4-deficient mice. SLPs induced maturation of DCs characterised by production of IL-12, TNFα and IL-10 and expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD80 and CD86. Furthermore, SLP-activated DCs generated Th cells producing IFNγ and IL-17. SLPs were unable to activate DCs isolated from TLR4-mutant C3H/HeJ mice and failed to induce a subsequent Th cell response. TLR4−/− and Myd88−/−, but not TRIF−/− mice were more susceptible than wild-type mice to C. difficile infection. Furthermore, SLPs activated NFκB, but not IRF3, downstream of TLR4. Our results indicate that SLPs isolated from C. difficile can activate innate and adaptive immunity and that these effects are mediated by TLR4, with TLR4 having a functional role in experimental C. difficile infection. This suggests an important role for SLPs in the recognition of C. difficile by the immune system. PMID:21738466

  9. α-Lipoic Acids Promote the Protein Synthesis of C2C12 Myotubes by the TLR2/PI3K Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yuanyuan; Cai, Xingcai; Xu, Yaqiong; Zhu, Canjun; Wang, Lina; Wang, Songbo; Zhu, Xiaotong; Gao, Ping; Zhang, Yongliang; Jiang, Qingyan; Shu, Gang

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscle protein turnover is regulated by endocrine hormones, nutrients, and inflammation. α-Lipoic acid (ALA) plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ALA on protein synthesis in skeletal muscles and reveal the underlying mechanism. ALA (25 μM) significantly increased the protein synthesis and phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, and S6 in C2C12 myotubes with attenuated phosphorylation of AMPK, Ikkα/β, and eIF2α. Intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg ALA also produced the same results in mouse gastrocnemius. Both the PI3K (LY294002) and mTOR (rapamycin) inhibitors abolished the effects of ALA on protein synthesis in the C2C12 myotubes. However, AICAR (AMPK agonist) failed to block the activation of mTOR and S6 by ALA. ALA increased TLR2 and MyD88 mRNA expression in the C2C12 myotubes. TLR2 knockdown by siRNA almost eliminated the effects of ALA on protein synthesis and the Akt/mTOR pathway in the C2C12 myotubes. Immunoprecipitation data showed that ALA enhanced the p85 subunit of PI3K binding to MyD88. These findings indicate that ALA induces protein synthesis and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by TLR2.

  10. Epistatically Interacting Substitutions Are Enriched during Adaptive Protein Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lizhi Ian; Bloom, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    Most experimental studies of epistasis in evolution have focused on adaptive changes—but adaptation accounts for only a portion of total evolutionary change. Are the patterns of epistasis during adaptation representative of evolution more broadly? We address this question by examining a pair of protein homologs, of which only one is subject to a well-defined pressure for adaptive change. Specifically, we compare the nucleoproteins from human and swine influenza. Human influenza is under continual selection to evade recognition by acquired immune memory, while swine influenza experiences less such selection due to the fact that pigs are less likely to be infected with influenza repeatedly in a lifetime. Mutations in some types of immune epitopes are therefore much more strongly adaptive to human than swine influenza—here we focus on epitopes targeted by human cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The nucleoproteins of human and swine influenza possess nearly identical numbers of such epitopes. However, mutations in these epitopes are fixed significantly more frequently in human than in swine influenza, presumably because these epitope mutations are adaptive only to human influenza. Experimentally, we find that epistatically constrained mutations are fixed only in the adaptively evolving human influenza lineage, where they occur at sites that are enriched in epitopes. Overall, our results demonstrate that epistatically interacting substitutions are enriched during adaptation, suggesting that the prevalence of epistasis is dependent on the underlying evolutionary forces at play. PMID:24811236

  11. MAP1S Protein Regulates the Phagocytosis of Bacteria and Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Signaling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming; Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Leyuan; Zhang, Tingting; Han, Fang; Cleveland, Joseph; Wang, Fen; McKeehan, Wallace L; Li, Yu; Zhang, Dekai

    2016-01-15

    Phagocytosis is a critical cellular process for innate immune defense against microbial infection. The regulation of phagocytosis process is complex and has not been well defined. An intracellular molecule might regulate cell surface-initiated phagocytosis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood (1). In this study, we found that microtubule-associated protein 1S (MAP1S), a protein identified recently that is involved in autophagy (2), is expressed primarily in macrophages. MAP1S-deficient macrophages are impaired in the phagocytosis of bacteria. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MAP1S interacts directly with MyD88, a key adaptor of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), upon TLR activation and affects the TLR signaling pathway. Intriguingly, we also observe that, upon TLR activation, MyD88 participates in autophagy processing in a MAP1S-dependent manner by co-localizing with MAP1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3 or LC3). Therefore, we reveal that an intracellular autophagy-related molecule of MAP1S controls bacterial phagocytosis through TLR signaling.

  12. An Adaptable Investigative Graduate Laboratory Course for Teaching Protein Purification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Christopher W.; Keller, Lani C.

    2014-01-01

    This adaptable graduate laboratory course on protein purification offers students the opportunity to explore a wide range of techniques while allowing the instructor the freedom to incorporate their own personal research interests. The course design involves two sequential purification schemes performed in a single semester. The first part…

  13. TLR9 re-expression in cancer cells extends the S-phase and stabilizes p16INK4a protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Parroche, P; Roblot, G; Le Calvez-Kelm, F; Tout, I; Marotel, M; Malfroy, M; Durand, G; McKay, J; Ainouze, M; Carreira, C; Allatif, O; Traverse-Glehen, A; Mendiola, M; Pozo-Kreilinger, J J; Caux, C; Tommasino, M; Goutagny, N; Hasan, U A

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes bacterial, viral or cell damage-associated DNA, which initiates innate immune responses. We have previously shown that TLR9 expression is downregulated in several viral induced cancers including HPV16-induced cervical neoplasia. Findings supported that downregulation of TLR9 expression is involved in loss of anti-viral innate immunity allowing an efficient viral replication. Here we investigated the role of TLR9 in altering the growth of transformed epithelial cells. Re-introducing TLR9 under the control of an exogenous promoter in cervical or head and neck cancer patient-derived cells reduced cell proliferation, colony formation and prevented independent growth of cells under soft agar. Neither TLR3, 7, nor the TLR adapter protein MyD88 expression had any effect on cell proliferation, indicating that TLR9 has a unique role in controlling cell growth. The reduction of cell growth was not due to apoptosis or necrosis, yet we observed that cells expressing TLR9 were slower in entering the S-phase of the cell cycle. Microarray-based gene expression profiling analysis highlighted a strong interferon (IFN) signature in TLR9-expressing head and neck cancer cells, with an increase in IFN-type I and IL-29 expression (IFN-type III), yet neither IFN-type I nor IL-29 production was responsible for the block in cell growth. We observed that the protein half-life of p16INK4a was increased in TLR9-expressing cells. Taken together, these data show for the first time that TLR9 affects the cell cycle by regulating p16INK4a post-translational modifications and highlights the role of TLR9 in the events that lead to carcinogenesis. PMID:27454079

  14. Adaptation in protein fitness landscapes is facilitated by indirect paths

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Nicholas C; Dai, Lei; Olson, C Anders; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Sun, Ren

    2016-01-01

    The structure of fitness landscapes is critical for understanding adaptive protein evolution. Previous empirical studies on fitness landscapes were confined to either the neighborhood around the wild type sequence, involving mostly single and double mutants, or a combinatorially complete subgraph involving only two amino acids at each site. In reality, the dimensionality of protein sequence space is higher (20L) and there may be higher-order interactions among more than two sites. Here we experimentally characterized the fitness landscape of four sites in protein GB1, containing 204 = 160,000 variants. We found that while reciprocal sign epistasis blocked many direct paths of adaptation, such evolutionary traps could be circumvented by indirect paths through genotype space involving gain and subsequent loss of mutations. These indirect paths alleviate the constraint on adaptive protein evolution, suggesting that the heretofore neglected dimensions of sequence space may change our views on how proteins evolve. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16965.001 PMID:27391790

  15. How protein materials balance strength, robustness, and adaptability

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, Markus J.; Yung, Yu Ching

    2010-01-01

    Proteins form the basis of a wide range of biological materials such as hair, skin, bone, spider silk, or cells, which play an important role in providing key functions to biological systems. The focus of this article is to discuss how protein materials are capable of balancing multiple, seemingly incompatible properties such as strength, robustness, and adaptability. To illustrate this, we review bottom-up materiomics studies focused on the mechanical behavior of protein materials at multiple scales, from nano to macro. We focus on alpha-helix based intermediate filament proteins as a model system to explain why the utilization of hierarchical structural features is vital to their ability to combine strength, robustness, and adaptability. Experimental studies demonstrating the activation of angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, are presented as an example of how adaptability of structure in biological tissue is achieved through changes in gene expression that result in an altered material structure. We analyze the concepts in light of the universality and diversity of the structural makeup of protein materials and discuss the findings in the context of potential fundamental evolutionary principles that control their nanoscale structure. We conclude with a discussion of multiscale science in biology and de novo materials design. PMID:20676305

  16. A Role for the Adaptor Proteins TRAM and TRIF in Toll-like Receptor 2 Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Nadra J.; Vladimer, Gregory I.; Stenvik, Jørgen; Orning, M. Pontus A.; Zeid-Kilani, Maria V.; Bugge, Marit; Bergstroem, Bjarte; Conlon, Joseph; Husebye, Harald; Hise, Amy G.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Espevik, Terje; Lien, Egil

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in sensing invading microbes by host innate immunity. TLR2 recognizes bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides, and lipopolysaccharide activates TLR4. TLR2 and TLR4 signal via the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor adaptors MyD88 and MAL, leading to NF-κB activation. TLR4 also utilizes the adaptors TRAM and TRIF, resulting in activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3. Here, we report a new role for TRAM and TRIF in TLR2 regulation and signaling. Interestingly, we observed that TLR2-mediated induction of the chemokine Ccl5 was impaired in TRAM or TRIF deficient macrophages. Inhibition of endocytosis reduced Ccl5 release, and the data also suggested that TRAM and TLR2 co-localize in early endosomes, supporting the hypothesis that signaling may occur from an intracellular compartment. Ccl5 release following lipoprotein challenge additionally involved the kinase Tbk-1 and Irf3, as well as MyD88 and Irf1. Induction of Interferon-β and Ccl4 by lipoproteins was also partially impaired in cells lacking TRIF cells. Our results show a novel function of TRAM and TRIF in TLR2-mediated signal transduction, and the findings broaden our understanding of how Toll/interleukin-1 receptor adaptor proteins may participate in signaling downstream from TLR2. PMID:25505250

  17. Adaptable Lipid Matrix Promotes Protein-Protein Association in Membranes.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Andrey S; Polyansky, Anton A; Fleck, Markus; Volynsky, Pavel E; Efremov, Roman G

    2015-09-01

    The cell membrane is "stuffed" with proteins, whose transmembrane (TM) helical domains spontaneously associate to form functionally active complexes. For a number of membrane receptors, a modulation of TM domains' oligomerization has been shown to contribute to the development of severe pathological states, thus calling for detailed studies of the atomistic aspects of the process. Despite considerable progress achieved so far, several crucial questions still remain: How do the helices recognize each other in the membrane? What is the driving force of their association? Here, we assess the dimerization free energy of TM helices along with a careful consideration of the interplay between the structure and dynamics of protein and lipids using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in the hydrated lipid bilayer for three different model systems - TM fragments of glycophorin A, polyalanine and polyleucine peptides. We observe that the membrane driven association of TM helices exhibits a prominent entropic character, which depends on the peptide sequence. Thus, a single TM peptide of a given composition induces strong and characteristic perturbations in the hydrophobic core of the bilayer, which may facilitate the initial "communication" between TM helices even at the distances of 20-30 Å. Upon tight helix-helix association, the immobilized lipids accommodate near the peripheral surfaces of the dimer, thus disturbing the packing of the surrounding. The dimerization free energy of the modeled peptides corresponds to the strength of their interactions with lipids inside the membrane being the lowest for glycophorin A and similarly higher for both homopolymers. We propose that the ability to accommodate lipid tails determines the dimerization strength of TM peptides and that the lipid matrix directly governs their association. PMID:26575933

  18. Adaptive resolution simulation of an atomistic protein in MARTINI water

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadlav, Julija; Melo, Manuel Nuno; Marrink, Siewert J.; Praprotnik, Matej

    2014-02-07

    We present an adaptive resolution simulation of protein G in multiscale water. We couple atomistic water around the protein with mesoscopic water, where four water molecules are represented with one coarse-grained bead, farther away. We circumvent the difficulties that arise from coupling to the coarse-grained model via a 4-to-1 molecule coarse-grain mapping by using bundled water models, i.e., we restrict the relative movement of water molecules that are mapped to the same coarse-grained bead employing harmonic springs. The water molecules change their resolution from four molecules to one coarse-grained particle and vice versa adaptively on-the-fly. Having performed 15 ns long molecular dynamics simulations, we observe within our error bars no differences between structural (e.g., root-mean-squared deviation and fluctuations of backbone atoms, radius of gyration, the stability of native contacts and secondary structure, and the solvent accessible surface area) and dynamical properties of the protein in the adaptive resolution approach compared to the fully atomistically solvated model. Our multiscale model is compatible with the widely used MARTINI force field and will therefore significantly enhance the scope of biomolecular simulations.

  19. Net protein oxidation is adapted to dietary protein intake in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    PubMed

    Russell, Kim; Murgatroyd, Peter R; Batt, Roger M

    2002-03-01

    Cats have a requirement for dietary protein two to three times that of omnivores and herbivores. This was reported to be due to the hepatic catabolic enzymes of this species being set to a permanently high level and, therefore, showing little adaptation to low dietary protein. A major mechanism for adapting to dietary protein in other species is amino acid oxidation (hereafter referred to as protein oxidation), and the objective of this study was to determine whether protein oxidation in cats was correlated with protein intake. Net protein and net fat oxidation in six adult cats were studied directly from gas exchanges using indirect calorimetry, after feeding moderate protein (MP; 35% energy) and high protein (HP; 52% energy) diets. Protein oxidation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) when cats were fed the HP diet (28.4 plus minus 0.7 mg/min) rather than the MP diet (20.4 plus minus 0.8 mg/min). Fat oxidation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) when cats consumed the MP diet (9.0 plus minus 0.7 mg/min) rather than the HP diet (4.7 plus minus 0.5 mg/min). Protein oxidation was significantly correlated (linear regression, R(2) = 46.0, P < 0.05) with protein intake such that the mean ratio of 18-h oxidation: 18-h intake was 1.2 on both diets. Fat oxidation was significantly correlated (linear regression, R(2) = 18.9, P < 0.05) with fat intake such that the mean ratio of 18-h fat oxidation: 18-h fat intake was 1.1 (MP) and 0.9 (HP). This study demonstrated that cats adapt net protein oxidation at these levels of protein intake, and the reason for the high dietary protein requirement of this species is, therefore, unclear.

  20. Endotoxin Tolerance Inhibits Degradation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 3 by Suppressing Pellino 1 Expression and the K48 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity of Cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 2.

    PubMed

    Li, Peizhi; Liu, Hongxiang; Zhang, Yiyin; Liao, Rui; He, Kun; Ruan, Xiongzhong; Gong, Jianping

    2016-09-15

    Pellino 1 positively regulates Toll-like receptor 4 signaling by regulating tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) degradation and is suppressed with the induction of endotoxin tolerance. However, the role of TRAF3 in endotoxin tolerance is largely unknown. In this study, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation decreased TARF3 protein expression in mouse Kupffer cells (KCs) and liver tissues, whereas endotoxin tolerization abrogated this effect. Degradative TRAF3 K48-linked ubiquitination and the cytoplasmic translocation of the MYD88-associated multiprotein complex were significantly inhibited in tolerized KCs, which led to markedly impaired activation of MYD88-dependent JNK and p38 and downregulation of inflammatory cytokines. TRAF3 ablation failed to induce a fully endotoxin-tolerant state in RAW264.7 cells. Pellino 1 knockdown in Raw264.7 cells did not impair induction of cIAP2 in response to LPS but inhibited the K63-linked ubiquitination of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) and K48-linked ubiquitination of TRAF3 protein. We also found upregulation of Pellino 1 and downregulation of TRAF3 in liver tissues of patients with cholangitis. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism that endotoxin tolerance reprograms mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling by suppressing Pellino 1-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination of cIAP2, K48-linked ubiquitination, and degradation of TRAF3. PMID:27377744

  1. Protein structure refinement with adaptively restrained homologous replicas.

    PubMed

    Della Corte, Dennis; Wildberg, André; Schröder, Gunnar F

    2016-09-01

    A novel protein refinement protocol is presented which utilizes molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of an ensemble of adaptively restrained homologous replicas. This approach adds evolutionary information to the force field and reduces random conformational fluctuations by coupling of several replicas. It is shown that this protocol refines the majority of models from the CASP11 refinement category and that larger conformational changes of the starting structure are possible than with current state of the art methods. The performance of this protocol in the CASP11 experiment is discussed. We found that the quality of the refined model is correlated with the structural variance of the coupled replicas, which therefore provides a good estimator of model quality. Furthermore, some remarkable refinement results are discussed in detail. Proteins 2016; 84(Suppl 1):302-313. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26441154

  2. Structural adaptations of proteins to different biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Pogozheva, Irina D.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Mosberg, Henry I.; Lomize, Andrei L.

    2013-01-01

    To gain insight into adaptations of proteins to their membranes, intrinsic hydrophobic thicknesses, distributions of different chemical groups and profiles of hydrogen-bonding capacities (α and β) and the dipolarity/polarizability parameter (π*) were calculated for lipid-facing surfaces of 460 integral α-helical, β-barrel and peripheral proteins from eight types of biomembranes. For comparison, polarity profiles were also calculated for ten artificial lipid bilayers that have been previously studied by neutron and X-ray scattering. Estimated hydrophobic thicknesses are 30-31 Å for proteins from endoplasmic reticulum, thylakoid, and various bacterial plasma membranes, but differ for proteins from outer bacterial, inner mitochondrial and eukaryotic plasma membranes (23.9, 28.6 and 33.5 Å, respectively). Protein and lipid polarity parameters abruptly change in the lipid carbonyl zone that matches the calculated hydrophobic boundaries. Maxima of positively charged protein groups correspond to the location of lipid phosphates at 20-22 Å distances from the membrane center. Locations of Tyr atoms coincide with hydrophobic boundaries, while distributions maxima of Trp rings are shifted by 3-4 Å toward the membrane center. Distributions of Trp atoms indicate the presence of two 5-8 Å-wide midpolar regions with intermediate π* values within the hydrocarbon core, whose size and symmetry depend on the lipid composition of membrane leaflets. Midpolar regions are especially asymmetric in outer bacterial membranes and cell membranes of mesophilic but not hyperthermophilic archaebacteria, indicating the larger width of the central nonpolar region in the later case. In artificial lipid bilayers, midpolar regions are observed up to the level of acyl chain double bonds. PMID:23811361

  3. Crowding in extremophiles: linkage between solvation and weak protein-protein interactions, stability and dynamics, provides insight into molecular adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ebel, Christine; Zaccai, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    The study of the molecular adaptation of microorganisms to extreme environments (solvent, temperature, etc.) has provided tools to investigate the complex relationships between protein-solvent and protein-protein interactions, protein stability and protein dynamics, and how they are modulated by the crowded environment of the cell. We have evaluated protein-solvent and protein-protein interactions by solution experiments (analytical ultracentrifugation, small angle neutron and X-ray scattering, density) and crystallography, and protein dynamics by energy resolved neutron scattering. This review concerns work from our laboratory on (i) proteins from extreme halophilic Archaea, and (ii) psychrophile, mesophile, thermophile and hyperthermophile bacterial cells.

  4. Effects of Protein Conformation in Docking: Improved Pose Prediction through Protein Pocket Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ajay N.

    2009-01-01

    Computational methods for docking ligands have been shown to be remarkably dependent on precise protein conformation, where acceptable results in pose prediction have been generally possible only in the artificial case of re-docking a ligand into a protein binding site whose conformation was determined in the presence of the same ligand (the “cognate” docking problem). In such cases, on well curated protein/ligand complexes, accurate dockings can be returned as top-scoring over 75% of the time using tools such as Surflex-Dock. A critical application of docking in modeling for lead optimization requires accurate pose prediction for novel ligands, ranging from simple synthetic analogs to very different molecular scaffolds. Typical results for widely used programs in the “cross-docking case” (making use of a single fixed protein conformation) have rates closer to 20% success. By making use of protein conformations from multiple complexes, Surflex-Dock yields an average success rate of 61% across eight pharmaceutically relevant targets. Following docking, protein pocket adaptation and rescoring identifies single pose families that are correct an average of 67% of the time. Consideration of the best of two pose families (from alternate scoring regimes) yields a 75% mean success rate. PMID:19340588

  5. Anesthetic agent propofol inhibits myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent and independent signaling and mitigates lipopolysaccharide-mediated reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xuli; Lv, Fei; Fang, Bo; Liu, Song; Lv, Huangwei; He, Guannan; Ma, Hong; Cao, Yaming; Wang, Yue

    2014-12-01

    Engagement of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can activate the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/toll-interleukin-1-resistance domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) dependent pathways, inducing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils. Propofol (PPF) has both anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the molecular mechanism by which PPF influences human neutrophil function is yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the influence of PPF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils. We isolated neutrophils from the peripheral blood of 10 healthy male donors. Neither 1 µg/ml LPS nor 10-150 μmol/L PPF influenced the rate of neutrophil apoptosis, but PPF significantly inhibited LPS-mediated reactive oxygen species production in a dose-dependent manner. PPF inhibited LPS-induced expression of MyD88, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6, and TRIF, but not the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 or phosphorylation of p47(phox), p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB, particularly in the neutrophils in which MyD88 or TRIF had been silenced by siRNA. The inhibitory effect of PPF on LPS-induced activation of p47(phox), p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-κB was partially antagonized by over-expression of MyD88 or TRIF in neutrophils. These observations provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of PPF. PPF reduces LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils via inhibiting expression of MyD88 and TRIF signaling. PMID:25446563

  6. Proteins induced during adaptation of Acetobacter aceti to high acetate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Steiner, P; Sauer, U

    2001-12-01

    As a typical product of microbial metabolism, the weak acid acetate is well known for its cytotoxic effects. In contrast to most other microbes, the so-called acetic acid bacteria can acquire significant resistance to high acetate concentrations when properly adapted to such hostile conditions. To characterize the molecular events that are associated with this adaptation, we analyzed global protein expression levels during adaptation of Acetobacter aceti by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Adaptation was achieved by using serial batch and continuous cultivations with increasing acetate supplementation. Computer-aided analysis revealed a complex proteome response with at least 50 proteins that are specifically induced by adaptation to acetate but not by other stress conditions, such as heat or oxidative or osmotic stress. Of these proteins, 19 were significantly induced in serial batch and continuous cultures and were thus noted as acetate adaptation proteins (Aaps). Here we present first microsequence information on such Aaps from A. aceti. Membrane-associated processes appear to be of major importance for adaptation, because some of the Aap bear N-terminal sequence homology to membrane proteins and 11 of about 40 resolved proteins from membrane protein-enriched fractions are significantly induced.

  7. Proteins Induced during Adaptation of Acetobacter aceti to High Acetate Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Peter; Sauer, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    As a typical product of microbial metabolism, the weak acid acetate is well known for its cytotoxic effects. In contrast to most other microbes, the so-called acetic acid bacteria can acquire significant resistance to high acetate concentrations when properly adapted to such hostile conditions. To characterize the molecular events that are associated with this adaptation, we analyzed global protein expression levels during adaptation of Acetobacter aceti by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Adaptation was achieved by using serial batch and continuous cultivations with increasing acetate supplementation. Computer-aided analysis revealed a complex proteome response with at least 50 proteins that are specifically induced by adaptation to acetate but not by other stress conditions, such as heat or oxidative or osmotic stress. Of these proteins, 19 were significantly induced in serial batch and continuous cultures and were thus noted as acetate adaptation proteins (Aaps). Here we present first microsequence information on such Aaps from A. aceti. Membrane-associated processes appear to be of major importance for adaptation, because some of the Aap bear N-terminal sequence homology to membrane proteins and 11 of about 40 resolved proteins from membrane protein-enriched fractions are significantly induced. PMID:11722895

  8. Regulation of the Target Protein (Transgene) Expression in the Adenovirus Vector Using Agonists of Toll-Like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bagaev, A. V.; Pichugin, A. V.; Lebedeva, E. S.; Lysenko, A. A.; Shmarov, M. M.; Logunov, D. Yu.; Naroditsky, B. S.; Ataullakhanov, R. I.; Khaitov, R. M.; Gintsburg, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Replication-defective adenoviral vectors are effective molecular tools for both gene therapy and gene vaccination. Using such vectors one can deliver and express target genes in different epithelial, liver, hematopoietic and immune system cells of animal and human origin. The success of gene therapy and gene vaccination depends on the production intensity of the target protein encoded by the transgene. In this work, we studied influence of Toll-like receptors (TLR) agonists on transduction and expression efficacy of adenoviral vectors in animal and human antigen-presenting cells. We found that agonists of TLR2, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9 significantly enhance a production of the target protein in cells transduced with adenoviral vector having the target gene insert. The enhancement was observed in dendritic cells and macrophages expressing cytoplasmic (GFP), membrane (HA) or secretory (SEAP) proteins encoded by the respective rAd-vectors. Experiments in mice showed that enhancement of the transgene expression can be achieved in the organism of animals using a pharmaceutical-grade TLR4-agonist. In contrast to other TLR-agonists, the agonist of TLR3 substantially suppressed the expression of transgene in cells transduced with adenoviral vectors having insert of GFP or SEAP target genes. We propose that the enhancement of transgene expression is linked to the activation of MyD88→ NF-kB, while the inhibition of transgene expression depends on TRIF→ IRF signaling pathways. Both of these pathways jointly exploited by TLR4-agonists lead to the enhancement of transgene expression due to the dominant role of the MyD88→ NF-kB signaling. PMID:25558392

  9. Adaptive evolution of relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB/IkappaB protein.

    PubMed

    Begun, D J; Whitley, P

    2000-03-01

    NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins have central roles in regulation of inflammation and innate immunity in mammals. Homologues of these proteins also play an important role in regulation of the Drosophila immune response. Here we present a molecular population genetic analysis of Relish, a Drosophila NF-kappaB/IkappaB protein, in Drosophila simulans and D. melanogaster. We find strong evidence for adaptive protein evolution in D. simulans, but not in D. melanogaster. The adaptive evolution appears to be restricted to the IkappaB domain. A possible explanation for these results is that Relish is a site of evolutionary conflict between flies and their microbial pathogens.

  10. Setting the PAS, the role of circadian PAS domain proteins during environmental adaptation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Julia H. M.; Schippers, Jos H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The per-ARNT-sim (PAS) domain represents an ancient protein module that can be found across all kingdoms of life. The domain functions as a sensing unit for a diverse array of signals, including molecular oxygen, small metabolites, and light. In plants, several PAS domain-containing proteins form an integral part of the circadian clock and regulate responses to environmental change. Moreover, these proteins function in pathways that control development and plant stress adaptation responses. Here, we discuss the role of PAS domain-containing proteins in anticipation, and adaptation to environmental changes in plants. PMID:26217364

  11. Adaptation to cell culture induces functional differences in measles virus proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bankamp, Bettina; Fontana, Judith M; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    Background Live, attenuated measles virus (MeV) vaccine strains were generated by adaptation to cell culture. The genetic basis for the attenuation of the vaccine strains is unknown. We previously reported that adaptation of a pathogenic, wild-type MeV to Vero cells or primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) resulted in a loss of pathogenicity in rhesus macaques. The CEF-adapted virus (D-CEF) contained single amino acid changes in the C and matrix (M) proteins and two substitutions in the shared amino terminal domain of the phosphoprotein (P) and V protein. The Vero-adapted virus (D-VI) had a mutation in the cytoplasmic tail of the hemagglutinin (H) protein. Results In vitro assays were used to test the functions of the wild-type and mutant proteins. The substitution in the C protein of D-CEF decreased its ability to inhibit mini-genome replication, while the wild-type and mutant M proteins inhibited replication to the same extent. The substitution in the cytoplasmic tail of the D-VI H protein resulted in reduced fusion in a quantitative fusion assay. Co-expression of M proteins with wild-type fusion and H proteins decreased fusion activity, but the mutation in the M protein of D-CEF did not affect this function. Both mutations in the P and V proteins of D-CEF reduced the ability of these proteins to inhibit type I and II interferon signaling. Conclusion Adaptation of a wild-type MeV to cell culture selected for genetic changes that caused measurable functional differences in viral proteins. PMID:18954437

  12. Toll-Like Receptor 4-Mediated Activation of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Is a Determinant of Respiratory Virus Entry and Tropism▿

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, David; Singhera, Gurpreet K.; Utokaparch, Soraya; Hackett, Tillie L.; Boyd, John H.; Luo, Zongshu; Si, Xiaoning; Dorscheid, Delbert R.; McManus, Bruce M.; Hegele, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory viruses exert a heavy toll of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite this burden there are few specific treatments available for respiratory virus infections. Since many viruses utilize host cell enzymatic machinery such as protein kinases for replication, we determined whether pharmacological inhibition of kinases could, in principle, be used as a broad antiviral strategy for common human respiratory virus infections. A panel of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing recombinant respiratory viruses, including an isolate of H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1/Weiss/43), was used to represent a broad range of virus families responsible for common respiratory infections (Adenoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Picornaviridae, and Orthomyxoviridae). Kinase inhibitors were screened in a high-throughput assay that detected virus infection in human airway epithelial cells (1HAEo-) using a fluorescent plate reader. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was able to significantly inhibit replication by all viruses tested. Therefore, the pathways involved in virus-mediated p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK activation were investigated using bronchial epithelial cells and primary fibroblasts derived from MyD88 knockout mouse lungs. Influenza virus, which activated p38 MAPK to approximately 10-fold-greater levels than did respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in 1HAEo- cells, was internalized about 8-fold faster and more completely than RSV. We show for the first time that p38 MAPK is a determinant of virus infection that is dependent upon MyD88 expression and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligation. Imaging of virus-TLR4 interactions showed significant clustering of TLR4 at the site of virus-cell interaction, triggering phosphorylation of downstream targets of p38 MAPK, suggesting the need for a signaling receptor to activate virus internalization. PMID:20702616

  13. Endocytosis-dependent desensitization and protein synthesis-dependent resensitization in retinal growth cone adaptation.

    PubMed

    Piper, Michael; Salih, Saif; Weinl, Christine; Holt, Christine E; Harris, William A

    2005-02-01

    It has been proposed that growth cones navigating through gradients adapt to baseline concentrations of guidance cues. This adaptation process is poorly understood. Using the collapse assay, we show that adaptation in Xenopus laevis retinal growth cones to the guidance cues Sema3A or netrin-1 involves two processes: a fast, ligand-specific desensitization that occurs within 2 min of exposure and is dependent on endocytosis, and a slower, ligand-specific resensitization, which occurs within 5 min and is dependent upon protein synthesis. These two phases of adaptation allow retinal axons to adjust their range of sensitivity to specific guidance cues.

  14. Endocytosis-dependent desensitization and protein synthesis–dependent resensitization in retinal growth cone adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Michael; Salih, Saif; Weinl, Christine; Holt, Christine E; Harris, William A

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that growth cones navigating through gradients adapt to baseline concentrations of guidance cues. This adaptation process is poorly understood. Using the collapse assay, we show that adaptation in Xenopus laevis retinal growth cones to the guidance cues Sema3A or netrin-1 involves two processes: a fast, ligand-specific desensitization that occurs within 2 min of exposure and is dependent on endocytosis, and a slower, ligand-specific resensitization, which occurs within 5 min and is dependent upon protein synthesis. These two phases of adaptation allow retinal axons to adjust their range of sensitivity to specific guidance cues. PMID:15643427

  15. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mediates Tolerance in Macrophages Stimulated with Toxoplasma gondii-Derived Heat Shock Protein 70

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Hye-Seong; Aosai, Fumie; Norose, Kazumi; Piao, Lian-Xun; Fang, Hao; Akira, Shizuo; Yano, Akihiko

    2005-01-01

    Peritoneal macrophages (PMs) from toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice were responsive to recombinant Toxoplasma gondii-derived heat shock protein 70 (rTgHSP70) and natural TgHSP70 (nTgHSP70) in NO release, but those from TLR2-, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-, and interleukin-1R-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4)-deficient mice were not. Polymyxin B did not inhibit PM activation by TgHSP70 and nTgHSP70 from WT and TLR4-deficient mice, while it inhibited PM activation by lipopolysaccharide. Pretreatment of PMs from WT but not from TLR4-deficient mice with rTgHSP70 resulted in suppression of NO release on restimulation with rTgHSP70. Similarly, pretreatment of PMs from WT but not TLR4-deficient mice with nTgHSP70 resulted in suppression of NO release on restimulation with nTgHSP70. Polymyxin B did not inhibit rTgHSP70- and nTgHSP70-induced tolerance of PMs from TLR4-deficient mice. Furthermore, PMs from WT mice increased suppressor of cytokine-signaling-1 (SOCS-1) expression after restimulation with rTgHSP70, while those from TLR4-deficient mice did not. Phosphorylation of JNK and I-κBα occurred in rTgHSP70-induced tolerance of PMs from TLR4-deficient mice, but not in that from WT mice. These data indicated that TgHSP70 signaling mechanisms were mediated by TLR2, MyD88, and IRAK4, but not by TLR4. On the other hand, signaling of TgHSP70-induced tolerance was mediated by TLR4, and the expression of SOCS-1 suppressed the TLR2 signaling pathway. PMID:16040976

  16. Catalysis of protein folding by chaperones accelerates evolutionary dynamics in adapting cell populations.

    PubMed

    Cetinbaş, Murat; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2013-01-01

    Although molecular chaperones are essential components of protein homeostatic machinery, their mechanism of action and impact on adaptation and evolutionary dynamics remain controversial. Here we developed a physics-based ab initio multi-scale model of a living cell for population dynamics simulations to elucidate the effect of chaperones on adaptive evolution. The 6-loci genomes of model cells encode model proteins, whose folding and interactions in cellular milieu can be evaluated exactly from their genome sequences. A genotype-phenotype relationship that is based on a simple yet non-trivially postulated protein-protein interaction (PPI) network determines the cell division rate. Model proteins can exist in native and molten globule states and participate in functional and all possible promiscuous non-functional PPIs. We find that an active chaperone mechanism, whereby chaperones directly catalyze protein folding, has a significant impact on the cellular fitness and the rate of evolutionary dynamics, while passive chaperones, which just maintain misfolded proteins in soluble complexes have a negligible effect on the fitness. We find that by partially releasing the constraint on protein stability, active chaperones promote a deeper exploration of sequence space to strengthen functional PPIs, and diminish the non-functional PPIs. A key experimentally testable prediction emerging from our analysis is that down-regulation of chaperones that catalyze protein folding significantly slows down the adaptation dynamics. PMID:24244114

  17. Gain-of-Function Mutations in the Toll-Like Receptor Pathway: TPL2-Mediated ERK1/ERK2 MAPK Activation, a Path to Tumorigenesis in Lymphoid Neoplasms?

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Simon; Martel, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoid neoplasms form a family of cancers affecting B-cells, T-cells, and NK cells. The Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) signaling adapter molecule MYD88 is the most frequently mutated gene in these neoplasms. This signaling adaptor relays signals from TLRs to downstream effector pathways such as the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFκB) and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways to regulate innate immune responses. Gain-of-function mutations such as MYD88[L265P] activate downstream signaling pathways in absence of cognate ligands for TLRs, resulting in increased cellular proliferation and survival. This article reports an analysis of non-synonymous somatic mutations found in the TLR signaling network in lymphoid neoplasms. In accordance with previous reports, mutations map to MYD88 pro-inflammatory signaling and not TRIF-mediated Type I IFN production. Interestingly, the analysis of somatic mutations found downstream of the core TLR-signaling network uncovered a strong association with the ERK1/2 MAPK cascade. In support of this analysis, heterologous expression of MYD88[L265P] in HEK293 cells led to ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation in addition to NFκB activation. Moreover, this activation is dependent on the protein kinase Tumor Promoting Locus 2 (TPL2), activated downstream of the IKK complex. Activation of ERK1/2 would then lead to activation, amongst others, of MYC and hnRNPA1, two proteins previously shown to contribute to tumor formation in lymphoid neoplasms. Taken together, this analysis suggests that TLR-mediated ERK1/2 activation via TPL2 may be a novel path to tumorigenesis. Therefore, the hypothesis proposed is that inhibition of ERK1/2 MAPK activation would prevent tumor growth downstream of MYD88[L265]. It will be interesting to test whether pharmacological inhibitors of this pathway show efficacy in primary tumor cells derived from hematologic malignancies such as Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia, where the majority of the cells carry the MYD88[L265P

  18. Symmetry-adapted digital modeling I. Axial symmetric proteins.

    PubMed

    Janner, A

    2016-05-01

    Considered are axial symmetric proteins exemplified by the octameric mitochondrial creatine kinase, the Pyr RNA-binding attenuation protein, the D-aminopeptidase and the cyclophilin A-cyclosporin complex, with tetragonal (422), trigonal (32), pentagonal (52) and pentagonal (52) point-group symmetry, respectively. One starts from the protein enclosing form, which is characterized by vertices at points of a lattice (the form lattice) whose dimension depends on the point group. This allows the indexing of Cα's at extreme radial positions. The indexing is extended to additional residues on the basis of a finer lattice, the digital modeling lattice Λ, which includes the form lattice as a sublattice. This leads to a coarse-grained description of the protein. In the crystallographic point-group case, the planar indices are obtained from a projection of atomic positions along the rotation axis, taken as the z axis. The planar indices of a Cα are then those of the nearest projected lattice point. In the non-crystallographic case, low indices are an additional requirement. The coarse-grained bead follows from the condition imposed on the residues selected to have a z coordinate within a band of value δ above and below the height of lattice points. The choice of δ permits a variation of the coarse-grained bead model. For example, the value δ = 0.5 leads to a fine-grained indexing of the full set of residues, whereas with δ = 0.25 one gets a coarse-grained model which includes only about half of these residues. Within this procedure, the indexing of the Cα only depends on the choice of the digital modeling lattice and not on the value of δ. The characteristics which distinguish the present approach from other coarse-grained models of proteins on lattices are summarized at the end. PMID:27126107

  19. Thermal adaptability of Kluyveromyces marxianus in recombinant protein production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Kluyveromyces marxianus combines the ease of genetic manipulation and fermentation with the ability to efficiently secrete high molecular weight proteins, performing eukaryotic post-translational modifications. It is able to grow efficiently in a wide range of temperatures. The secretion performances were analyzed in the host K. marxianus L3 in the range between 5°C and 40°C by means of 3 different reporter proteins, since temperature appears a key parameter for production and secretion of recombinant proteins. Results The recombinant strains were able to grow up to 40°C and, along the tested temperature interval (5-40°C), the specific growth rates (μ) were generally lower as compared to those of the untransformed strain. Biomass yields were slightly affected by temperature, with the highest values reached at 15°C and 30°C. The secretion of the endogenous β-fructofuranosidase, used as an internal control, was efficient in the range of the tested temperature, as evaluated by assaying the enzyme activity in the culture supernatants. The endogenous β-fructofuranosidase production was temperature dependent, with the highest yield at 30°C. The heterologous proteins HSA, GAA and Sod1p were all successfully produced and secreted between 5°C and 40°C, albeit each one presented a different optimal production temperature (15, 40, 5-30°C for HSA, GAA and Sod1p, respectively). Conclusions K. marxianus L3 has been identified as a promising and flexible cell factory. In a sole host, the optimization of growth temperatures for the efficient secretion of each individual protein can be carried out over a wide range of temperatures. PMID:23587421

  20. The emerging role of PDZ adapter proteins for regulation of intestinal ion transport.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, G; Seidler, U

    2006-11-01

    In the gastrointestinal tract, CFTR, in conjunction with one or several members of the SLC26 anion exchanger family, mediates electrogenic Cl- and HCO3- secretion. Na+/H+ exchanger isoform NHE3, on the other hand, coupled to one or several of the SLC26 isoforms, mediates electroneutral NaCl absorption. The agonist-induced activation of anion secretion and inhibition of salt absorption causes secretory diarrhea. Current dogma sees the formation of a multiprotein complex of transport proteins, postsynaptic density-95/discs large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) adapter proteins, anchoring proteins, the cytoskeleton, and the involved protein kinases as one crucial step in the regulation of these transport processes. Data obtained in heterologous expression studies suggest an important role of these PDZ adapter proteins in trafficking, endocytic recycling, and membrane retention of the respective transmembrane proteins. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of the role of the PDZ adapter proteins NHERF, E3KARP, PDZK1, IKEPP (NHERF-1 to NHERF-4), CAL, and Shank-2 that bind to CFTR, NHE3, and the intestinal SLC26 members in the regulation of intestinal fluid transport. Current concepts are mostly derived from heterologous expression studies and studies on their role in organ physiology are still in infancy. Recently, however, PDZ adapter protein-deficient mice and organ-specific cell lines have become available, and the first results suggest a more cell-type and possibly signal-specific role of these adapter proteins. This opens the potential for drug development targeted to PDZ domain interactions, which is, in theory, one of the most efficient antidiarrheal strategies. PMID:16798722

  1. Adaptive Protein Evolution in Animals and the Effective Population Size Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Galtier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The rate at which genomes adapt to environmental changes and the prevalence of adaptive processes in molecular evolution are two controversial issues in current evolutionary genetics. Previous attempts to quantify the genome-wide rate of adaptation through amino-acid substitution have revealed a surprising diversity of patterns, with some species (e.g. Drosophila) experiencing a very high adaptive rate, while other (e.g. humans) are dominated by nearly-neutral processes. It has been suggested that this discrepancy reflects between-species differences in effective population size. Published studies, however, were mainly focused on model organisms, and relied on disparate data sets and methodologies, so that an overview of the prevalence of adaptive protein evolution in nature is currently lacking. Here we extend existing estimators of the amino-acid adaptive rate by explicitly modelling the effect of favourable mutations on non-synonymous polymorphism patterns, and we apply these methods to a newly-built, homogeneous data set of 44 non-model animal species pairs. Data analysis uncovers a major contribution of adaptive evolution to the amino-acid substitution process across all major metazoan phyla-with the notable exception of humans and primates. The proportion of adaptive amino-acid substitution is found to be positively correlated to species effective population size. This relationship, however, appears to be primarily driven by a decreased rate of nearly-neutral amino-acid substitution because of more efficient purifying selection in large populations. Our results reveal that adaptive processes dominate the evolution of proteins in most animal species, but do not corroborate the hypothesis that adaptive substitutions accumulate at a faster rate in large populations. Implications regarding the factors influencing the rate of adaptive evolution and positive selection detection in humans vs. other organisms are discussed. PMID:26752180

  2. Adaptive Protein Evolution in Animals and the Effective Population Size Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Galtier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The rate at which genomes adapt to environmental changes and the prevalence of adaptive processes in molecular evolution are two controversial issues in current evolutionary genetics. Previous attempts to quantify the genome-wide rate of adaptation through amino-acid substitution have revealed a surprising diversity of patterns, with some species (e.g. Drosophila) experiencing a very high adaptive rate, while other (e.g. humans) are dominated by nearly-neutral processes. It has been suggested that this discrepancy reflects between-species differences in effective population size. Published studies, however, were mainly focused on model organisms, and relied on disparate data sets and methodologies, so that an overview of the prevalence of adaptive protein evolution in nature is currently lacking. Here we extend existing estimators of the amino-acid adaptive rate by explicitly modelling the effect of favourable mutations on non-synonymous polymorphism patterns, and we apply these methods to a newly-built, homogeneous data set of 44 non-model animal species pairs. Data analysis uncovers a major contribution of adaptive evolution to the amino-acid substitution process across all major metazoan phyla—with the notable exception of humans and primates. The proportion of adaptive amino-acid substitution is found to be positively correlated to species effective population size. This relationship, however, appears to be primarily driven by a decreased rate of nearly-neutral amino-acid substitution because of more efficient purifying selection in large populations. Our results reveal that adaptive processes dominate the evolution of proteins in most animal species, but do not corroborate the hypothesis that adaptive substitutions accumulate at a faster rate in large populations. Implications regarding the factors influencing the rate of adaptive evolution and positive selection detection in humans vs. other organisms are discussed. PMID:26752180

  3. Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Local Adaptive Techniques in Training Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aik, Lim Eng; Zainuddin, Zarita; Joseph, Annie

    2008-01-01

    One of the most significant problems in computer molecular biology today is how to predict a protein's three-dimensional structure from its one-dimensional amino acid sequence or generally call the protein folding problem and difficult to determine the corresponding protein functions. Thus, this paper involves protein secondary structure prediction using neural network in order to solve the protein folding problem. The neural network used for protein secondary structure prediction is multilayer perceptron (MLP) of the feed-forward variety. The training set are taken from the protein data bank which are 120 proteins while 60 testing set is the proteins which were chosen randomly from the protein data bank. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is used to get the protein similar sequence and Position Specific Scoring matrix (PSSM) is used for network input. The training process of the neural network involves local adaptive techniques. Local adaptive techniques used in this paper comprises Learning rate by sign changes, SuperSAB, Quickprop and RPROP. From the simulation, the performance for learning rate by Rprop and Quickprop are superior to all other algorithms with respect to the convergence time. However, the best result was obtained using Rprop algorithm.

  4. Adaptive evolution of recently duplicated accessory gland protein genes in desert Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Bradley J; Begun, David J

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between animal mating system variation and patterns of protein polymorphism and divergence is poorly understood. Drosophila provides an excellent system for addressing this issue, as there is abundant interspecific mating system variation. For example, compared to D. melanogaster subgroup species, repleta group species have higher remating rates, delayed sexual maturity, and several other interesting differences. We previously showed that accessory gland protein genes (Acp's) of Drosophila mojavensis and D. arizonae evolve more rapidly than Acp's in the D. melanogaster subgroup and that adaptive Acp protein evolution is likely more common in D. mojavensis/D. arizonae than in D. melanogaster/D. simulans. These findings are consistent with the idea that greater postcopulatory selection results in more adaptive evolution of seminal fluid proteins in the repleta group flies. Here we report another interesting evolutionary difference between the repleta group and the D. melanogaster subgroup Acp's. Acp gene duplications are present in D. melanogaster, but their high sequence divergence indicates that the fixation rate of duplicated Acp's has been low in this lineage. Here we report that D. mojavensis and D. arizonae genomes contain several very young duplicated Acp's and that these Acp's have experienced very rapid, adaptive protein divergence. We propose that rapid remating of female desert Drosophila generates selection for continuous diversification of the male Acp complement to improve male fertilization potential. Thus, mating system variation may be associated with adaptive protein divergence as well as with duplication of Acp's in Drosophila.

  5. Optimizing intramuscular adaptations to aerobic exercise: effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lee M; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a critical metabolic adaptation to aerobic exercise training that results in enhanced mitochondrial size, content, number, and activity. Recent evidence has shown that dietary manipulation can further enhance mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training, which may delay skeletal muscle fatigue and enhance exercise performance. Specifically, studies have demonstrated that combining carbohydrate restriction (endogenous and exogenous) with a single bout of aerobic exercise potentiates the beneficial effects of exercise on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, studies have demonstrated that high-quality protein supplementation enhances anabolic skeletal muscle intracellular signaling and mitochondrial protein synthesis following a single bout of aerobic exercise. Mitochondrial biogenesis is stimulated by complex intracellular signaling pathways that appear to be primarily regulated by 5'AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediated through proliferator-activated γ receptor co-activator 1 α activation, resulting in increased mitochondrial DNA expression and enhanced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. However, the mechanisms by which concomitant carbohydrate restriction and dietary protein supplementation modulates mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise training remains unclear. This review summarizes intracellular regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and the effects of carbohydrate restriction and protein supplementation on mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic exercise.

  6. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Membrane Protein-Mediated Hypersaline Sensitivity and Adaptation in Halophilic Nocardiopsis xinjiangensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Yanchang; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Mingzhi; Su, Na; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Lingsheng; Wei, Wei; Luo, Jing; Zhou, Yanxia; Xu, Yongru; Xu, Ping; Li, Wenjun; Tao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is one of the most dominant Actinobacteria that survives in hypersaline environments. However, the adaptation mechanisms for halophilism are still unclear. Here, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification based quantitative proteomics to investigate the functions of the membrane proteome after salt stress. A total of 683 membrane proteins were identified and quantified, of which 126 membrane proteins displayed salt-induced changes in abundance. Intriguingly, bioinformatics analyses indicated that these differential proteins showed two expression patterns, which were further validated by phenotypic changes and functional differences. The majority of ABC transporters, secondary active transporters, cell motility proteins, and signal transduction kinases were up-regulated with increasing salt concentration, whereas cell differentiation, small molecular transporter (ions and amino acids), and secondary metabolism proteins were significantly up-regulated at optimum salinity, but down-regulated or unchanged at higher salinity. The small molecule transporters and cell differentiation-related proteins acted as sensing proteins that played a more important biological role at optimum salinity. However, the ABC transporters for compatible solutes, Na(+)-dependent transporters, and cell motility proteins acted as adaptive proteins that actively counteracted higher salinity stress. Overall, regulation of membrane proteins may provide a major protection strategy against hyperosmotic stress. PMID:26549328

  7. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Membrane Protein-Mediated Hypersaline Sensitivity and Adaptation in Halophilic Nocardiopsis xinjiangensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Yanchang; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Mingzhi; Su, Na; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Lingsheng; Wei, Wei; Luo, Jing; Zhou, Yanxia; Xu, Yongru; Xu, Ping; Li, Wenjun; Tao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is one of the most dominant Actinobacteria that survives in hypersaline environments. However, the adaptation mechanisms for halophilism are still unclear. Here, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification based quantitative proteomics to investigate the functions of the membrane proteome after salt stress. A total of 683 membrane proteins were identified and quantified, of which 126 membrane proteins displayed salt-induced changes in abundance. Intriguingly, bioinformatics analyses indicated that these differential proteins showed two expression patterns, which were further validated by phenotypic changes and functional differences. The majority of ABC transporters, secondary active transporters, cell motility proteins, and signal transduction kinases were up-regulated with increasing salt concentration, whereas cell differentiation, small molecular transporter (ions and amino acids), and secondary metabolism proteins were significantly up-regulated at optimum salinity, but down-regulated or unchanged at higher salinity. The small molecule transporters and cell differentiation-related proteins acted as sensing proteins that played a more important biological role at optimum salinity. However, the ABC transporters for compatible solutes, Na(+)-dependent transporters, and cell motility proteins acted as adaptive proteins that actively counteracted higher salinity stress. Overall, regulation of membrane proteins may provide a major protection strategy against hyperosmotic stress.

  8. Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor Domain Dimers as the Platform for Activation and Enhanced Inhibition of Toll-like Receptor Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Fekonja, Ota; Benčina, Mojca; Jerala, Roman

    2012-01-01

    TIR (Toll/IL-1 receptor) domains mediate interactions between TLR (Toll-like) or IL-1 family receptors and signaling adapters. While homotypic TIR domain interactions mediate receptor activation they are also usurped by microbial TIR domain containing proteins for immunosuppression. Here we show the role of a dimerized TIR domain platform for the suppression as well as for the activation of MyD88 signaling pathway. Coiled-coil dimerization domain, present in many bacterial TCPs, potently augments suppression of TLR/IL-1R signaling. The addition of a strong coiled-coil dimerization domain conferred the superior inhibition against the wide spectrum of TLRs and prevented the constitutive activation by a dimeric TIR platform. We propose a molecular model of MyD88-mediated signaling based on the dimerization of TIR domains as the limiting step. PMID:22829600

  9. HCV Causes Chronic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Leading to Adaptation and Interference with the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Merquiol, Emmanuelle; Uzi, Dotan; Mueller, Tobias; Goldenberg, Daniel; Nahmias, Yaakov; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cellular site for protein folding. ER stress occurs when protein folding capacity is exceeded. This stress induces a cyto-protective signaling cascades termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) aimed at restoring homeostasis. While acute ER stress is lethal, chronic sub-lethal ER stress causes cells to adapt by attenuation of UPR activation. Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major human pathogen, was shown to cause ER stress, however it is unclear whether HCV induces chronic ER stress, and if so whether adaptation mechanisms are initiated. We wanted to characterize the kinetics of HCV-induced ER stress during infection and assess adaptation mechanisms and their significance. Methods and Findings The HuH7.5.1 cellular system and HCV-transgenic (HCV-Tg) mice were used to characterize HCV-induced ER stress/UPR pathway activation and adaptation. HCV induced a wave of acute ER stress peaking 2–5 days post-infection, which rapidly subsided thereafter. UPR pathways were activated including IRE1 and EIF2α phosphorylation, ATF6 cleavage and XBP-1 splicing. Downstream target genes including GADD34, ERdj4, p58ipk, ATF3 and ATF4 were upregulated. CHOP, a UPR regulated protein was activated and translocated to the nucleus. Remarkably, UPR activity did not return to baseline but remained elevated for up to 14 days post infection suggesting that chronic ER stress is induced. At this time, cells adapted to ER stress and were less responsive to further drug-induced ER stress. Similar results were obtained in HCV-Tg mice. Suppression of HCV by Interferon-α 2a treatment, restored UPR responsiveness to ER stress tolerant cells. Conclusions Our study shows, for the first time, that HCV induces adaptation to chronic ER stress which was reversed upon viral suppression. These finding represent a novel viral mechanism to manipulate cellular response pathways. PMID:21949742

  10. Structure of the GAT domain of the endosomal adapter protein Tom1.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shuyan; Ellena, Jeffrey F; Armstrong, Geoffrey S; Capelluto, Daniel G S

    2016-06-01

    Cellular homeostasis requires correct delivery of cell-surface receptor proteins (cargo) to their target subcellular compartments. The adapter proteins Tom1 and Tollip are involved in sorting of ubiquitinated cargo in endosomal compartments. Recruitment of Tom1 to the endosomal compartments is mediated by its GAT domain's association to Tollip's Tom1-binding domain (TBD). In this data article, we report the solution NMR-derived structure of the Tom1 GAT domain. The estimated protein structure exhibits a bundle of three helical elements. We compare the Tom1 GAT structure with those structures corresponding to the Tollip TBD- and ubiquitin-bound states. PMID:26977434

  11. [Small heat shock proteins and adaptation to hypertermia in various Drosophila species].

    PubMed

    Shilova, V Iu; Garbuz, D G; Evgen'ev, M B; Zatsepina, O G

    2006-01-01

    Expression level and kinetics of accumulation of small heat shock proteins (21-27 kDa group) have been investigated in three Drosophila species differing significantly by temperature niche and thermosensitivity. It was shown that low-latitude thermotolerant species D. virilis exceeds the high-latitude thermosensitive closely-related species D. lummei as well as distant thermosensitive species D. melanogaster in terms of small heat shock proteins expression and accumulation after temperature elevation. The data obtained enable to postulate an important role of small heat shock proteins in organism basal thermotolerance and general adaptation to adverse conditions of environment. PMID:16637267

  12. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  13. Ancestral Protein Reconstruction Yields Insights into Adaptive Evolution of Binding Specificity in Solute-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Ben E; Jackson, Colin J

    2016-02-18

    The promiscuous functions of proteins are an important reservoir of functional novelty in protein evolution, but the molecular basis for binding promiscuity remains elusive. We used ancestral protein reconstruction to experimentally characterize evolutionary intermediates in the functional expansion of the polar amino acid-binding protein family, which has evolved to bind a variety of amino acids with high affinity and specificity. High-resolution crystal structures of an ancestral arginine-binding protein in complex with l-arginine and l-glutamine show that the promiscuous binding of l-glutamine is enabled by multi-scale conformational plasticity, water-mediated interactions, and selection of an alternative conformational substate productive for l-glutamine binding. Evolution of specialized glutamine-binding proteins from this ancestral protein was achieved by displacement of water molecules from the protein-ligand interface, reducing the entropic penalty associated with the promiscuous interaction. These results provide a structural and thermodynamic basis for the co-option of a promiscuous interaction in the evolution of binding specificity.

  14. Fast automated protein NMR data collection and assignment by ADAPT-NMR on Bruker spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woonghee; Hu, Kaifeng; Tonelli, Marco; Bahrami, Arash; Neuhardt, Elizabeth; Glass, Karen C; Markley, John L

    2013-11-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) supports automated NMR data collection and backbone and side chain assignment for [U-(13)C, U-(15)N]-labeled proteins. Given the sequence of the protein and data for the orthogonal 2D (1)H-(15)N and (1)H-(13)C planes, the algorithm automatically directs the collection of tilted plane data from a variety of triple-resonance experiments so as to follow an efficient pathway toward the probabilistic assignment of (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N signals to specific atoms in the covalent structure of the protein. Data collection and assignment calculations continue until the addition of new data no longer improves the assignment score. ADAPT-NMR was first implemented on Varian (Agilent) spectrometers [A. Bahrami, M. Tonelli, S.C. Sahu, K.K. Singarapu, H.R. Eghbalnia, J.L. Markley, PLoS One 7 (2012) e33173]. Because of broader interest in the approach, we present here a version of ADAPT-NMR for Bruker spectrometers. We have developed two AU console programs (ADAPT_ORTHO_run and ADAPT_NMR_run) that run under TOPSPIN Versions 3.0 and higher. To illustrate the performance of the algorithm on a Bruker spectrometer, we tested one protein, chlorella ubiquitin (76 amino acid residues), that had been used with the Varian version: the Bruker and Varian versions achieved the same level of assignment completeness (98% in 20 h). As a more rigorous evaluation of the Bruker version, we tested a larger protein, BRPF1 bromodomain (114 amino acid residues), which yielded an automated assignment completeness of 86% in 55 h. Both experiments were carried out on a 500 MHz Bruker AVANCE III spectrometer equipped with a z-gradient 5 mm TCI probe. ADAPT-NMR is available at http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/ADAPT-NMR in the form of pulse programs, the two AU programs, and instructions for installation and use. PMID:24091140

  15. Fast automated protein NMR data collection and assignment by ADAPT-NMR on Bruker spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woonghee; Hu, Kaifeng; Tonelli, Marco; Bahrami, Arash; Neuhardt, Elizabeth; Glass, Karen C.; Markley, John L.

    2013-11-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) supports automated NMR data collection and backbone and side chain assignment for [U-13C, U-15N]-labeled proteins. Given the sequence of the protein and data for the orthogonal 2D 1H-15N and 1H-13C planes, the algorithm automatically directs the collection of tilted plane data from a variety of triple-resonance experiments so as to follow an efficient pathway toward the probabilistic assignment of 1H, 13C, and 15N signals to specific atoms in the covalent structure of the protein. Data collection and assignment calculations continue until the addition of new data no longer improves the assignment score. ADAPT-NMR was first implemented on Varian (Agilent) spectrometers [A. Bahrami, M. Tonelli, S.C. Sahu, K.K. Singarapu, H.R. Eghbalnia, J.L. Markley, PLoS One 7 (2012) e33173]. Because of broader interest in the approach, we present here a version of ADAPT-NMR for Bruker spectrometers. We have developed two AU console programs (ADAPT_ORTHO_run and ADAPT_NMR_run) that run under TOPSPIN Versions 3.0 and higher. To illustrate the performance of the algorithm on a Bruker spectrometer, we tested one protein, chlorella ubiquitin (76 amino acid residues), that had been used with the Varian version: the Bruker and Varian versions achieved the same level of assignment completeness (98% in 20 h). As a more rigorous evaluation of the Bruker version, we tested a larger protein, BRPF1 bromodomain (114 amino acid residues), which yielded an automated assignment completeness of 86% in 55 h. Both experiments were carried out on a 500 MHz Bruker AVANCE III spectrometer equipped with a z-gradient 5 mm TCI probe. ADAPT-NMR is available at http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/ADAPT-NMR in the form of pulse programs, the two AU programs, and instructions for installation and use.

  16. Fast automated protein NMR data collection and assignment by ADAPT-NMR on Bruker spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woonghee; Hu, Kaifeng; Tonelli, Marco; Bahrami, Arash; Neuhardt, Elizabeth; Glass, Karen C; Markley, John L

    2013-11-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) supports automated NMR data collection and backbone and side chain assignment for [U-(13)C, U-(15)N]-labeled proteins. Given the sequence of the protein and data for the orthogonal 2D (1)H-(15)N and (1)H-(13)C planes, the algorithm automatically directs the collection of tilted plane data from a variety of triple-resonance experiments so as to follow an efficient pathway toward the probabilistic assignment of (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N signals to specific atoms in the covalent structure of the protein. Data collection and assignment calculations continue until the addition of new data no longer improves the assignment score. ADAPT-NMR was first implemented on Varian (Agilent) spectrometers [A. Bahrami, M. Tonelli, S.C. Sahu, K.K. Singarapu, H.R. Eghbalnia, J.L. Markley, PLoS One 7 (2012) e33173]. Because of broader interest in the approach, we present here a version of ADAPT-NMR for Bruker spectrometers. We have developed two AU console programs (ADAPT_ORTHO_run and ADAPT_NMR_run) that run under TOPSPIN Versions 3.0 and higher. To illustrate the performance of the algorithm on a Bruker spectrometer, we tested one protein, chlorella ubiquitin (76 amino acid residues), that had been used with the Varian version: the Bruker and Varian versions achieved the same level of assignment completeness (98% in 20 h). As a more rigorous evaluation of the Bruker version, we tested a larger protein, BRPF1 bromodomain (114 amino acid residues), which yielded an automated assignment completeness of 86% in 55 h. Both experiments were carried out on a 500 MHz Bruker AVANCE III spectrometer equipped with a z-gradient 5 mm TCI probe. ADAPT-NMR is available at http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/ADAPT-NMR in the form of pulse programs, the two AU programs, and instructions for installation and use.

  17. Continued protein synthesis at low [ATP] and [GTP] enables cell adaptation during energy limitation.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Michael C; Miller, Mark L; Chen, Yvonne; Swartz, James R

    2009-02-01

    One of biology's critical ironies is the need to adapt to periods of energy limitation by using the energy-intensive process of protein synthesis. Although previous work has identified the individual energy-requiring steps in protein synthesis, we still lack an understanding of the dependence of protein biosynthesis rates on [ATP] and [GTP]. Here, we used an integrated Escherichia coli cell-free platform that mimics the intracellular, energy-limited environment to show that protein synthesis rates are governed by simple Michaelis-Menten dependence on [ATP] and [GTP] (K(m)(ATP), 27 +/- 4 microM; K(m)(GTP), 14 +/- 2 microM). Although the system-level GTP affinity agrees well with the individual affinities of the GTP-dependent translation factors, the system-level K(m)(ATP) is unexpectedly low. Especially under starvation conditions, when energy sources are limited, cells need to replace catalysts that become inactive and to produce new catalysts in order to effectively adapt. Our results show how this crucial survival priority for synthesizing new proteins can be enforced after rapidly growing cells encounter energy limitation. A diminished energy supply can be rationed based on the relative ATP and GTP affinities, and, since these affinities for protein synthesis are high, the cells can adapt with substantial changes in protein composition. Furthermore, our work suggests that characterization of individual enzymes may not always predict the performance of multicomponent systems with complex interdependencies. We anticipate that cell-free studies in which complex metabolic systems are activated will be valuable tools for elucidating the behavior of such systems.

  18. mda-9/Syntenin: more than just a simple adapter protein when it comes to cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Devanand; Boukerche, Habib; Su, Zao-Zhong; Fisher, Paul B

    2008-05-01

    Cancer is a progressive disease that, in many instances, if untreated, can culminate in metastatic spread of primary tumor cells to distant sites in the body. Metastasis frequently confers virulence and therapy resistance to cancer cells, and defining the molecular events that control metastasis will be mandatory to develop rational, targeted therapies for effective intervention, prevention of recurrence, and the "holy grail" of engendering a cure. Adapter proteins are physiologically pertinent molecules that, through interactions with key regulatory proteins via specific conserved domains, control important cellular events. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-9 (mda-9), also known as syntenin, is a PDZ domain-containing adapter protein that is involved in organization of protein complexes in the plasma membranes, regulation of B-cell development, intracellular trafficking and cell-surface targeting, synaptic transmission, and axonal outgrowth. Recent studies now define a seminal role for mda-9/syntenin in cancer metastasis. The present review provides a current perspective of our understanding of this important aspect of mda-9/syntenin, suggesting that this gene and its encoded protein and interacting protein partners may provide viable targets for intervening in the final and invariably the most lethal stage of cancer progression, namely, cancer metastasis. PMID:18451132

  19. Intra-plastid protein trafficking: how plant cells adapted prokaryotic mechanisms to the eukaryotic condition.

    PubMed

    Celedon, Jose M; Cline, Kenneth

    2013-02-01

    Protein trafficking and localization in plastids involve a complex interplay between ancient (prokaryotic) and novel (eukaryotic) translocases and targeting machineries. During evolution, ancient systems acquired new functions and novel translocation machineries were developed to facilitate the correct localization of nuclear encoded proteins targeted to the chloroplast. Because of its post-translational nature, targeting and integration of membrane proteins posed the biggest challenge to the organelle to avoid aggregation in the aqueous compartments. Soluble proteins faced a different kind of problem since some had to be transported across three membranes to reach their destination. Early studies suggested that chloroplasts addressed these issues by adapting ancient-prokaryotic machineries and integrating them with novel-eukaryotic systems, a process called 'conservative sorting'. In the last decade, detailed biochemical, genetic, and structural studies have unraveled the mechanisms of protein targeting and localization in chloroplasts, suggesting a highly integrated scheme where ancient and novel systems collaborate at different stages of the process. In this review we focus on the differences and similarities between chloroplast ancestral translocases and their prokaryotic relatives to highlight known modifications that adapted them to the eukaryotic situation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids.

  20. Protein cold adaptation strategy via a unique seven-amino acid domain in the icefish (Chionodraco hamatus) PEPT1 transporter.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Antonia; Romano, Alessandro; Kottra, Gabor; Acierno, Raffaele; Storelli, Carlo; Verri, Tiziano; Daniel, Hannelore; Maffia, Michele

    2013-04-23

    Adaptation of organisms to extreme environments requires proteins to work at thermodynamically unfavorable conditions. To adapt to subzero temperatures, proteins increase the flexibility of parts of, or even the whole, 3D structure to compensate for the lower thermal kinetic energy available at low temperatures. This may be achieved through single-site amino acid substitutions in regions of the protein that undergo large movements during the catalytic cycle, such as in enzymes or transporter proteins. Other strategies of cold adaptation involving changes in the primary amino acid sequence have not been documented yet. In Antarctic icefish (Chionodraco hamatus) peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1), the first transporter cloned from a vertebrate living at subzero temperatures, we came upon a unique principle of cold adaptation. A de novo domain composed of one to six repeats of seven amino acids (VDMSRKS), placed as an extra stretch in the cytosolic COOH-terminal region, contributed per se to cold adaptation. VDMSRKS was in a protein region uninvolved in transport activity and, notably, when transferred to the COOH terminus of a warm-adapted (rabbit) PEPT1, it conferred cold adaptation to the receiving protein. Overall, we provide a paradigm for protein cold adaptation that relies on insertion of a unique domain that confers greater affinity and maximal transport rates at low temperatures. Due to its ability to transfer a thermal trait, the VDMSRKS domain represents a useful tool for future cell biology or biotechnological applications. PMID:23569229

  1. Life at the border: Adaptation of proteins to anisotropic membrane environment

    PubMed Central

    Pogozheva, Irina D; Mosberg, Henry I; Lomize, Andrei L

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses main features of transmembrane (TM) proteins which distinguish them from water-soluble proteins and allow their adaptation to the anisotropic membrane environment. We overview the structural limitations on membrane protein architecture, spatial arrangement of proteins in membranes and their intrinsic hydrophobic thickness, co-translational and post-translational folding and insertion into lipid bilayers, topogenesis, high propensity to form oligomers, and large-scale conformational transitions during membrane insertion and transport function. Special attention is paid to the polarity of TM protein surfaces described by profiles of dipolarity/polarizability and hydrogen-bonding capacity parameters that match polarity of the lipid environment. Analysis of distributions of Trp resides on surfaces of TM proteins from different biological membranes indicates that interfacial membrane regions with preferential accumulation of Trp indole rings correspond to the outer part of the lipid acyl chain region—between double bonds and carbonyl groups of lipids. These “midpolar” regions are not always symmetric in proteins from natural membranes. We also examined the hydrophobic effect that drives insertion of proteins into lipid bilayer and different free energy contributions to TM protein stability, including attractive van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds, side-chain conformational entropy, the hydrophobic mismatch, membrane deformations, and specific protein–lipid binding. PMID:24947665

  2. Live imaging using adaptive optics with fluorescent protein guide-stars

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xiaodong; Crest, Justin; Kotadia, Shaila; Azucena, Oscar; Chen, Diana C.; Sullivan, William; Kubby, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Spatially and temporally dependent optical aberrations induced by the inhomogeneous refractive index of live samples limit the resolution of live dynamic imaging. We introduce an adaptive optical microscope with a direct wavefront sensing method using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and fluorescent protein guide-stars for live imaging. The results of imaging Drosophila embryos demonstrate its ability to correct aberrations and achieve near diffraction limited images of medial sections of large Drosophila embryos. GFP-polo labeled centrosomes can be observed clearly after correction but cannot be observed before correction. Four dimensional time lapse images are achieved with the correction of dynamic aberrations. These studies also demonstrate that the GFP-tagged centrosome proteins, Polo and Cnn, serve as excellent biological guide-stars for adaptive optics based microscopy. PMID:22772285

  3. Toll-like receptor 4-dependent responses to lung injury in a murine model of pulmonary contusion.

    PubMed

    Hoth, J Jason; Wells, Jonathan D; Brownlee, Noel A; Hiltbold, Elizabeth M; Meredith, J Wayne; McCall, Charles E; Yoza, Barbara K

    2009-04-01

    Blunt chest trauma resulting in pulmonary contusion with an accompanying acute inflammatory response is a common but poorly understood injury. We previously demonstrated that toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) participates in the inflammatory response to lung injury. We hypothesized that the TLR-4, in an MyD88-dependent manner, may also participate in the response to lung injury. To investigate this, we used a model of pulmonary contusion in the mouse that is similar to that observed clinically in humans and evaluated postinjury lung function, pulmonary neutrophil recruitment, and the systemic innate immune response. Comparisons were made between wild-type mice and mice deficient in TLR-4 or MyD88. We found TLR-4-dependent responses to pulmonary contusion that include hypoxemia, edema, and neutrophil infiltration. Increased expression of IL-6 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage and serum was also dependent on TLR-4 activation. We further demonstrated that these responses to pulmonary contusion were dependent on MyD88, an adapter protein in the signal transduction pathway mediated by TLRs. These results show that TLRs have a primary role in the response to acute lung injury. Lung inflammation and systemic innate immune responses are dependent on TLR activation by pulmonary contusion.

  4. Intra-plastid protein trafficking; how plant cells adapted prokaryotic mechanisms to the eukaryotic condition

    PubMed Central

    Celedon, Jose M.; Cline, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Protein trafficking and localization in plastids involves a complex interplay between ancient (prokaryotic) and novel (eukaryotic) translocases and targeting machineries. During evolution, ancient systems acquired new functions and novel translocation machineries were developed to facilitate the correct localization of nuclear encoded proteins targeted to the chloroplast. Because of its post-translational nature, targeting and integration of membrane proteins posed the biggest challenge to the organelle to avoid aggregation in the aqueous compartments. Soluble proteins faced a different kind of problem since some had to be transported across three membranes to reach their destination. Early studies suggested that chloroplasts addressed these issues by adapting ancient-prokaryotic machineries and integrating them with novel-eukaryotic systems, a process called ‘conservative sorting’. In the last decade, detailed biochemical, genetic, and structural studies have unraveled the mechanisms of protein targeting and localization in chloroplasts, suggesting a highly integrated scheme where ancient and novel systems collaborate at different stages of the process. In this review we focus on the differences and similarities between chloroplast ancestral translocases and their prokaryotic relatives to highlight known modifications that adapted them to the eukaryotic situation. PMID:22750312

  5. Adaptive Evolution of Eel Fluorescent Proteins from Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Produces Bright Fluorescence in the Marine Environment.

    PubMed

    Gruber, David F; Gaffney, Jean P; Mehr, Shaadi; DeSalle, Rob; Sparks, John S; Platisa, Jelena; Pieribone, Vincent A

    2015-01-01

    We report the identification and characterization of two new members of a family of bilirubin-inducible fluorescent proteins (FPs) from marine chlopsid eels and demonstrate a key region of the sequence that serves as an evolutionary switch from non-fluorescent to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs). Using transcriptomic analysis of two species of brightly fluorescent Kaupichthys eels (Kaupichthys hyoproroides and Kaupichthys n. sp.), two new FPs were identified, cloned and characterized (Chlopsid FP I and Chlopsid FP II). We then performed phylogenetic analysis on 210 FABPs, spanning 16 vertebrate orders, and including 163 vertebrate taxa. We show that the fluorescent FPs diverged as a protein family and are the sister group to brain FABPs. Our results indicate that the evolution of this family involved at least three gene duplication events. We show that fluorescent FABPs possess a unique, conserved tripeptide Gly-Pro-Pro sequence motif, which is not found in non-fluorescent fatty acid binding proteins. This motif arose from a duplication event of the FABP brain isoforms and was under strong purifying selection, leading to the classification of this new FP family. Residues adjacent to the motif are under strong positive selection, suggesting a further refinement of the eel protein's fluorescent properties. We present a phylogenetic reconstruction of this emerging FP family and describe additional fluorescent FABP members from groups of distantly related eels. The elucidation of this class of fish FPs with diverse properties provides new templates for the development of protein-based fluorescent tools. The evolutionary adaptation from fatty acid-binding proteins to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins raises intrigue as to the functional role of bright green fluorescence in this cryptic genus of reclusive eels that inhabit a blue, nearly monochromatic, marine environment.

  6. G protein beta gamma subunits stimulate phosphorylation of Shc adapter protein.

    PubMed Central

    Touhara, K; Hawes, B E; van Biesen, T; Lefkowitz, R J

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation by pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi-coupled receptors is known to involve the beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (G beta gamma), p21ras activation, and an as-yet-unidentified tyrosine kinase. To investigate the mechanism of G beta gamma-stimulated p21ras activation, G beta gamma-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation was examined by overexpressing G beta gamma or alpha 2-C10 adrenergic receptors (ARs) that couple to Gi in COS-7 cells. Immunoprecipitation of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins revealed a 2- to 3-fold increase in the phosphorylation of two proteins of approximately 50 kDa (designated as p52) in G beta gamma-transfected cells or in alpha 2-C10 AR-transfected cells stimulated with the agonist UK-14304. The latter response was pertussis toxin sensitive. These proteins (p52) were also specifically immunoprecipitated with anti-Shc antibodies and comigrated with two Shc proteins, 46 and 52 kDa. The G beta gamma- or alpha 2-C10 AR-stimulated p52 (Shc) phosphorylation was inhibited by coexpression of the carboxyl terminus of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (a G beta gamma-binding pleckstrin homology domain peptide) or by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and herbimycin A, but not by a dominant negative mutant of p21ras. Worthmannin, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibited phosphorylation of p52 (Shc), implying involvement of PI3K. These results suggest that G beta gamma-stimulated Shc phosphorylation represents an early step in the pathway leading to p21ras activation, similar to the mechanism utilized by growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7568118

  7. Adaptive Evolution of Eel Fluorescent Proteins from Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Produces Bright Fluorescence in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, David F.; Gaffney, Jean P.; Mehr, Shaadi; DeSalle, Rob; Sparks, John S.; Platisa, Jelena; Pieribone, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    We report the identification and characterization of two new members of a family of bilirubin-inducible fluorescent proteins (FPs) from marine chlopsid eels and demonstrate a key region of the sequence that serves as an evolutionary switch from non-fluorescent to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs). Using transcriptomic analysis of two species of brightly fluorescent Kaupichthys eels (Kaupichthys hyoproroides and Kaupichthys n. sp.), two new FPs were identified, cloned and characterized (Chlopsid FP I and Chlopsid FP II). We then performed phylogenetic analysis on 210 FABPs, spanning 16 vertebrate orders, and including 163 vertebrate taxa. We show that the fluorescent FPs diverged as a protein family and are the sister group to brain FABPs. Our results indicate that the evolution of this family involved at least three gene duplication events. We show that fluorescent FABPs possess a unique, conserved tripeptide Gly-Pro-Pro sequence motif, which is not found in non-fluorescent fatty acid binding proteins. This motif arose from a duplication event of the FABP brain isoforms and was under strong purifying selection, leading to the classification of this new FP family. Residues adjacent to the motif are under strong positive selection, suggesting a further refinement of the eel protein’s fluorescent properties. We present a phylogenetic reconstruction of this emerging FP family and describe additional fluorescent FABP members from groups of distantly related eels. The elucidation of this class of fish FPs with diverse properties provides new templates for the development of protein-based fluorescent tools. The evolutionary adaptation from fatty acid-binding proteins to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins raises intrigue as to the functional role of bright green fluorescence in this cryptic genus of reclusive eels that inhabit a blue, nearly monochromatic, marine environment. PMID:26561348

  8. SR splicing factors serve as adapter proteins for TAP-dependent mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yingqun; Gattoni, Renata; Stévenin, James; Steitz, Joan A

    2003-03-01

    The only mammalian RNA binding adapter proteins known to partner with TAP/NXF1, the primary receptor for general mRNA export, are members of the REF family. We demonstrate that at least three shuttling SR (serine/arginine-rich) proteins interact with the same domain of TAP/NXF1 that binds REFs. Included are 9G8 and SRp20, previously shown to promote the export of intronless RNAs. A peptide derived from the N terminus of 9G8 inhibits the binding of both REF and SR proteins to TAP/NXF1 in vitro, and this finding argues for competitive interactions. In Xenopus oocytes, the N terminus of 9G8 exhibits a dominant-negative effect on mRNA export from the nucleus, while addition of excess TAP/NXF1 overcomes this inhibition. Thus, multiple adapters including SR proteins most likely cooperate to recruit multiple copies of TAP/NXF1 for efficient mRNA export. PMID:12667464

  9. Adaptive evolution of multicolored fluorescent proteins in reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Field, Steven F; Bulina, Maria Y; Kelmanson, Ilya V; Bielawski, Joseph P; Matz, Mikhail V

    2006-03-01

    Here we investigate the evolutionary scenarios that led to the appearance of fluorescent color diversity in reef-building corals. We show that the mutations that have been responsible for the generation of new cyan and red phenotypes from the ancestral green were fixed with the help of positive natural selection. This fact strongly suggests that the color diversity is a product of adaptive evolution. An unexpected finding was a set of residues arranged as an intermolecular binding interface, which was also identified as a target of positive selection but is nevertheless not related to color diversification. We hypothesize that multicolored fluorescent proteins evolved as part of a mechanism regulating the relationships between the coral and its algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae). We envision that the effect of the proteins' fluorescence on algal physiology may be achieved not only through photosynthesis modulation, but also through regulatory photosensors analogous to phytochromes and cryptochromes of higher plants. Such a regulation would require relatively subtle, but spectrally precise, modifications of the light field. Evolution of such a mechanism would explain both the adaptive diversification of colors and the coevolutionary chase at the putative algae-protein binding interface in coral fluorescent proteins.

  10. Emergence of tissue sensitivity to Hox protein levels underlies the evolution of an adaptive morphological trait.

    PubMed

    Refki, Peter Nagui; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Viala, Séverine; Khila, Abderrahman

    2014-08-15

    Growth control scales morphological attributes and, therefore, provides a critical contribution to the evolution of adaptive traits. Yet, the genetic mechanisms underlying growth in the context of specific ecological adaptations are poorly understood. In water striders, adaptation to locomotion on the water surface is associated with allometric and functional changes in thoracic appendages, such that T2-legs, used as propelling oars, are longer than T3-legs, used as steering rudders. The Hox gene Ubx establishes this derived morphology by elongating T2-legs but shortening T3-legs. Using gene expression assays, RNAi knockdown, and comparative transcriptomics, we demonstrate that the evolution of water surface rowing as a novel means of locomotion is associated with the evolution of a dose-dependent promoting-repressing effect of Ubx on leg growth. In the water strider Limnoporus dissortis, T3-legs express six to seven times higher levels of Ubx compared to T2-legs. Ubx RNAi shortens T2-legs and the severity of this phenotype increases with increased depletion of Ubx protein. Conversely, Ubx RNAi lengthens T3-legs but this phenotype is partially rescued when Ubx protein is further depleted. This dose-dependent effect of Ubx on leg growth is absent in non-rowing relatives that retain the ancestral relative leg length. We also show that the spatial patterns of expression of dpp, wg, hh, egfr, dll, exd, hth, and dac are unchanged in Ubx RNAi treatments. This indicates that the dose-dependent opposite effect of Ubx on T2- and T3-legs operates without any apparent effect on the spatial expression of major leg patterning genes. Our data suggest that scaling of adaptive allometries can evolve through changes in the levels of expression of Hox proteins early during ontogeny, and in the sensitivity of the tissues that express them, without any major effects on pattern formation.

  11. Median Modified Wiener Filter for nonlinear adaptive spatial denoising of protein NMR multidimensional spectra

    PubMed Central

    Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Abbas, Ahmed; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Denoising multidimensional NMR-spectra is a fundamental step in NMR protein structure determination. The state-of-the-art method uses wavelet-denoising, which may suffer when applied to non-stationary signals affected by Gaussian-white-noise mixed with strong impulsive artifacts, like those in multi-dimensional NMR-spectra. Regrettably, Wavelet's performance depends on a combinatorial search of wavelet shapes and parameters; and multi-dimensional extension of wavelet-denoising is highly non-trivial, which hampers its application to multidimensional NMR-spectra. Here, we endorse a diverse philosophy of denoising NMR-spectra: less is more! We consider spatial filters that have only one parameter to tune: the window-size. We propose, for the first time, the 3D extension of the median-modified-Wiener-filter (MMWF), an adaptive variant of the median-filter, and also its novel variation named MMWF*. We test the proposed filters and the Wiener-filter, an adaptive variant of the mean-filter, on a benchmark set that contains 16 two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR-spectra extracted from eight proteins. Our results demonstrate that the adaptive spatial filters significantly outperform their non-adaptive versions. The performance of the new MMWF* on 2D/3D-spectra is even better than wavelet-denoising. Noticeably, MMWF* produces stable high performance almost invariant for diverse window-size settings: this signifies a consistent advantage in the implementation of automatic pipelines for protein NMR-spectra analysis. PMID:25619991

  12. Emergence of tissue sensitivity to Hox protein levels underlies the evolution of an adaptive morphological trait

    PubMed Central

    Refki, Peter Nagui; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Viala, Séverine; Khila, Abderrahman

    2014-01-01

    Growth control scales morphological attributes and, therefore, provides a critical contribution to the evolution of adaptive traits. Yet, the genetic mechanisms underlying growth in the context of specific ecological adaptations are poorly understood. In water striders, adaptation to locomotion on the water surface is associated with allometric and functional changes in thoracic appendages, such that T2-legs, used as propelling oars, are longer than T3-legs, used as steering rudders. The Hox gene Ubx establishes this derived morphology by elongating T2-legs but shortening T3-legs. Using gene expression assays, RNAi knockdown, and comparative transcriptomics, we demonstrate that the evolution of water surface rowing as a novel means of locomotion is associated with the evolution of a dose-dependent promoting-repressing effect of Ubx on leg growth. In the water strider Limnoporus dissortis, T3-legs express six to seven times higher levels of Ubx compared to T2-legs. Ubx RNAi shortens T2-legs and the severity of this phenotype increases with increased depletion of Ubx protein. Conversely, Ubx RNAi lengthens T3-legs but this phenotype is partially rescued when Ubx protein is further depleted. This dose-dependent effect of Ubx on leg growth is absent in non-rowing relatives that retain the ancestral relative leg length. We also show that the spatial patterns of expression of dpp, wg, hh, egfr, dll, exd, hth, and dac are unchanged in Ubx RNAi treatments. This indicates that the dose-dependent opposite effect of Ubx on T2- and T3-legs operates without any apparent effect on the spatial expression of major leg patterning genes. Our data suggest that scaling of adaptive allometries can evolve through changes in the levels of expression of Hox proteins early during ontogeny, and in the sensitivity of the tissues that express them, without any major effects on pattern formation. PMID:24886828

  13. The de-adhesive activity of matricellular proteins: is intermediate cell adhesion an adaptive state?

    PubMed

    Murphy-Ullrich, J E

    2001-04-01

    The process of cellular de-adhesion is potentially important for the ability of a cell to participate in morphogenesis and to respond to injurious stimuli. Cellular de-adhesion is induced by the highly regulated matricellular proteins TSP1 and 2, tenascin-C, and SPARC. These proteins induce a rapid transition to an intermediate state of adhesiveness characterized by loss of actin-containing stress fibers and restructuring of the focal adhesion plaque that includes loss of vinculin and alpha-actinin, but not of talin or integrin. This process involves intracellular signaling mediators, which are engaged in response to matrix protein-receptor interactions. Each of these proteins employs different receptors and signaling pathways to achieve this common morphologic endpoint. What is the function of this intermediate adhesive state and what is the physiologic significance of this action of the matricellular proteins? Given that matricellular proteins are expressed in response to injury and during development, one can speculate that the intermediate adhesive state is an adaptive condition that facilitates expression of specific genes that are involved in repair and adaptation. Since cell shape is maintained in weakly adherent cells, this state might induce survival signals to prevent apoptosis due to loss of strong cell adhesion, but yet allow for cell locomotion. The three matricellular proteins considered here might each preferentially facilitate one or more aspects of this adaptive response rather than all of these equally. Currently, we have only preliminary data to support the specific ideas proposed in this article. It will be interesting in the next several years to continue to elucidate the biological roles of the intermediate adhesive state induced by these matricellular proteins. and focal adhesions in a cell that nevertheless maintains a spread, extended morphology and integrin clustering. TSP1, tenascin-C, and SPARC induce the intermediate adhesive state, as

  14. ApoCanD: Database of human apoptotic proteins in the context of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rahul; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, apoptosis pathway has gained a serious consideration being a critical cellular process in determining the cancer progression. Inverse relationship between cancer progression and apoptosis rate has been well established in the literature. It causes apoptosis proteins under the investigative scanner for developing anticancer therapies, which certainly got a success in the case of few apoptosis proteins as drug targets. In the present study, we have developed a dedicated database of 82 apoptosis proteins called ApoCanD. This database comprises of crucial information of apoptosis proteins in the context of cancer. Genomic status of proteins in the form of mutation, copy number variation and expression in thousands of tumour samples and cancer cell lines are the major bricks of this database. In analysis, we have found that TP53 and MYD88 are the two most frequently mutated proteins in cancer. Availability of other information e.g. gene essentiality data, tertiary structure, sequence alignments, sequences profiles, post-translational modifications makes it even more useful for the researchers. A user-friendly web interface is provided to ameliorate the use of ApoCanD. We anticipate that, this database will facilitate the research community working in the field of apoptosis and cancer. The database can be accessed at: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/apocand. PMID:26861916

  15. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, N.; Michoud, G.; Cario, A.; Ollivier, J.; Franzetti, B.; Jebbar, M.; Oger, P.; Peters, J.

    2016-09-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure.

  16. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, N; Michoud, G; Cario, A; Ollivier, J; Franzetti, B; Jebbar, M; Oger, P; Peters, J

    2016-01-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:27595789

  17. High protein flexibility and reduced hydration water dynamics are key pressure adaptive strategies in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, N.; Michoud, G.; Cario, A.; Ollivier, J.; Franzetti, B.; Jebbar, M.; Oger, P.; Peters, J.

    2016-01-01

    Water and protein dynamics on a nanometer scale were measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the piezophile archaeon Thermococcus barophilus and the closely related pressure-sensitive Thermococcus kodakarensis, at 0.1 and 40 MPa. We show that cells of the pressure sensitive organism exhibit higher intrinsic stability. Both the hydration water dynamics and the fast protein and lipid dynamics are reduced under pressure. In contrast, the proteome of T. barophilus is more pressure sensitive than that of T. kodakarensis. The diffusion coefficient of hydration water is reduced, while the fast protein and lipid dynamics are slightly enhanced with increasing pressure. These findings show that the coupling between hydration water and cellular constituents might not be simply a master-slave relationship. We propose that the high flexibility of the T. barophilus proteome associated with reduced hydration water may be the keys to the molecular adaptation of the cells to high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:27595789

  18. Substrate adaptabilities of Thermotogae mannan binding proteins as a function of their evolutionary histories.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Nathalie; Noll, Kenneth M

    2016-09-01

    The Thermotogae possess a large number of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including two mannan binding proteins, ManD and CelE (previously called ManE). We show that a gene encoding an ancestor of these was acquired by the Thermotogae from the archaea followed by gene duplication. To address the functional evolution of these proteins as a consequence of their evolutionary histories, we measured the binding affinities of ManD and CelE orthologs from representative Thermotogae. Both proteins bind cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, β-1,4-mannotriose, and β-1,4-mannotetraose. The CelE orthologs additionally bind β-1,4-mannobiose, laminaribiose, laminaritriose and sophorose while the ManD orthologs additionally only weakly bind β-1,4-mannobiose. The CelE orthologs have higher unfolding temperatures than the ManD orthologs. An examination of codon sites under positive selection revealed that many of these encode residues located near or in the binding site, suggesting that the proteins experienced selective pressures in regions that might have changed their functions. The gene arrangement, phylogeny, binding properties, and putative regulatory networks suggest that the ancestral mannan binding protein was a CelE ortholog which gave rise to the ManD orthologs. This study provides a window on how one class of proteins adapted to new functions and temperatures to fit the physiologies of their new hosts. PMID:27457081

  19. Massively parallel sampling of lattice proteins reveals foundations of thermal adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venev, Sergey V.; Zeldovich, Konstantin B.

    2015-08-01

    Evolution of proteins in bacteria and archaea living in different conditions leads to significant correlations between amino acid usage and environmental temperature. The origins of these correlations are poorly understood, and an important question of protein theory, physics-based prediction of types of amino acids overrepresented in highly thermostable proteins, remains largely unsolved. Here, we extend the random energy model of protein folding by weighting the interaction energies of amino acids by their frequencies in protein sequences and predict the energy gap of proteins designed to fold well at elevated temperatures. To test the model, we present a novel scalable algorithm for simultaneous energy calculation for many sequences in many structures, targeting massively parallel computing architectures such as graphics processing unit. The energy calculation is performed by multiplying two matrices, one representing the complete set of sequences, and the other describing the contact maps of all structural templates. An implementation of the algorithm for the CUDA platform is available at http://www.github.com/kzeldovich/galeprot and calculates protein folding energies over 250 times faster than a single central processing unit. Analysis of amino acid usage in 64-mer cubic lattice proteins designed to fold well at different temperatures demonstrates an excellent agreement between theoretical and simulated values of energy gap. The theoretical predictions of temperature trends of amino acid frequencies are significantly correlated with bioinformatics data on 191 bacteria and archaea, and highlight protein folding constraints as a fundamental selection pressure during thermal adaptation in biological evolution.

  20. Regulation of the Adaptive Immune Response by the IκB Family Protein Bcl-3

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, Felicity D.; Nibbs, Robert J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Bcl-3 is a member of the IκB family of proteins and an important regulator of Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB activity. The ability of Bcl-3 to bind and regulate specific NF-κB dimers has been studied in great depth, but its physiological roles in vivo are still not fully understood. It is, however, becoming clear that Bcl-3 is essential for the proper development, survival and activity of adaptive immune cells. Bcl-3 dysregulation can be observed in a number of autoimmune pathologies, and Bcl3-deficient animals are more susceptible to bacterial and parasitic infection. This review will describe our current understanding of the roles played by Bcl-3 in the development and regulation of the adaptive immune response, including lymphoid organogenesis, immune tolerance, lymphocyte function and dendritic cell biology. PMID:27023613

  1. Evolution of an antifreeze protein by neofunctionalization under escape from adaptive conflict.

    PubMed

    Deng, Cheng; Cheng, C-H Christina; Ye, Hua; He, Ximiao; Chen, Liangbiao

    2010-12-14

    The evolutionary model escape from adaptive conflict (EAC) posits that adaptive conflict between the old and an emerging new function within a single gene could drive the fixation of gene duplication, where each duplicate can freely optimize one of the functions. Although EAC has been suggested as a common process in functional evolution, definitive cases of neofunctionalization under EAC are lacking, and the molecular mechanisms leading to functional innovation are not well-understood. We report here clear experimental evidence for EAC-driven evolution of type III antifreeze protein gene from an old sialic acid synthase (SAS) gene in an Antarctic zoarcid fish. We found that an SAS gene, having both sialic acid synthase and rudimentary ice-binding activities, became duplicated. In one duplicate, the N-terminal SAS domain was deleted and replaced with a nascent signal peptide, removing pleiotropic structural conflict between SAS and ice-binding functions and allowing rapid optimization of the C-terminal domain to become a secreted protein capable of noncolligative freezing-point depression. This study reveals how minor functionalities in an old gene can be transformed into a distinct survival protein and provides insights into how gene duplicates facing presumed identical selection and mutation pressures at birth could take divergent evolutionary paths. PMID:21115821

  2. Unfolding Thermodynamics of Cysteine-Rich Proteins and Molecular Thermal-Adaptation of Marine Ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Cazzolli, Giorgia; Škrbić, Tatjana; Guella, Graziano; Faccioli, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Euplotes nobilii and Euplotes raikovi are phylogenetically closely allied species of marine ciliates, living in polar and temperate waters, respectively. Their evolutional relation and the sharply different temperatures of their natural environments make them ideal organisms to investigate thermal-adaptation. We perform a comparative study of the thermal unfolding of disulfide-rich protein pheromones produced by these ciliates. Recent circular dichroism (CD) measurements have shown that the two psychrophilic (E. nobilii) and mesophilic (E. raikovi) protein families are characterized by very different melting temperatures, despite their close structural homology. The enhanced thermal stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is realized notwithstanding the fact that these proteins form, as a rule, a smaller number of disulfide bonds. We perform Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in a structure-based coarse-grained (CG) model to show that the higher stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is due to the lower locality of the disulfide bonds, which yields a lower entropy increase in the unfolding process. Our study suggests that the higher stability of the mesophilic E. raikovi phermones is not mainly due to the presence of a strongly hydrophobic core, as it was proposed in the literature. In addition, we argue that the molecular adaptation of these ciliates may have occurred from cold to warm, and not from warm to cold. To provide a testable prediction, we identify a point-mutation of an E. nobilii pheromone that should lead to an unfolding temperature typical of that of E. raikovi pheromones. PMID:24970199

  3. Contractile activity-induced adaptations in the mitochondrial protein import system.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Chesley, A; Freyssenet, D; Hood, D A

    1998-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondrial subfractions import proteins at different rates. This study was undertaken to investigate 1) whether protein import is altered by chronic contractile activity, which induces mitochondrial biogenesis, and 2) whether these two subfractions adapt similarly. Using electrical stimulation (10 Hz, 3 h/day for 7 and 14 days) to induce contractile activity, we observed that malate dehydrogenase import into the matrix of the SS and IMF mitochondia isolated from stimulated muscle was significantly increased by 1.4-to 1.7-fold, although the pattern of increase differed for each subfraction. This acceleration of import may be mitochondrial compartment specific, since the import of Bcl-2 into the outer membrane was not affected. Contractile activity also modified the mitochondrial content of proteins comprising the import machinery, as evident from increases in the levels of the intramitochondrial chaperone mtHSP70 as well as the outer membrane import receptor Tom20 in SS and IMF mitochondria. Addition of cytosol isolated from stimulated or control muscles to the import reaction resulted in similar twofold increases in the ability of mitochondria to import malate dehydrogenase, despite elevations in the concentration of mitochondrial import-stimulating factor within the cytosol of chronically stimulated muscle. These results suggest that chronic contractile activity modifies the extra- and intramitochondrial environments in a fashion that favors the acceleration of precursor protein import into the matrix of the organelle. This increase in protein import is likely an important adaptation in the overall process of mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:9612226

  4. Adaptation of Salmonella enterica Hadar under static magnetic field: effects on outer membrane protein pattern

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Hadar (S. Hadar) is a highly prevalent foodborne pathogen and therefore a major cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Outer membrane proteins whose production is often regulated by environmental conditions also play important roles in the adaptability of bacterial pathogens to various environments. Results The present study investigated the adaptation of S. Hadar under the effect of acute static magnetic field exposure (200 mT, 9 h) and the impact on the outer membrane protein pattern. Via two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and LC-MS/MS spectrometry, we compared the proteome of enriched-outer membrane fraction before and after exposure to a magnetic field. A total of 11 proteins, displaying more than a two-fold change, were differentially expressed in exposed cells, among which 7 were up-regulated and 4 down-regulated. These proteins were involved in the integrity of cell envelope (TolB, Pal), in the response to oxidative stress (OmpW, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, UspF), in the oxidative stress status (bacterioferritin), in virulence (OmpX, Yfgl) or in motility (FlgE and UspF). Complementary experiments associated the down-regulation of FlgE and UspF with an alteration of swarming, a flagella-driven motility, under SMF. Furthermore, the antibiotic disc diffusion method confirmed a decrease of gentamicin susceptibility in exposed cells. This decrease could be partly associated with the up-regulation of TolC, outer membrane component of an efflux pump. OmpA, a multifunctional protein, was up-regulated. Conclusions SMF (200 mT) seems to maintain the cell envelope integrity and to submit the exposed cells to an oxidative stress. Some alterations suggest an increase of the ability of exposed cells to form biofilms. PMID:22304719

  5. Translocation of double-stranded DNA through membrane-adapted phi29 motor protein nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendell, David; Jing, Peng; Geng, Jia; Subramaniam, Varuni; Lee, Tae Jin; Montemagno, Carlo; Guo, Peixuan

    2009-11-01

    Biological pores have been used to study the transport of DNA and other molecules, but most pores have channels that allow only the movement of small molecules and single-stranded DNA and RNA. The bacteriophage phi29 DNA-packaging motor, which allows double-stranded DNA to enter the virus during maturation and exit during an infection, contains a connector protein with a channel that is between 3.6 and 6 nm wide. Here we show that a modified version of this connector protein, when reconstituted into liposomes and inserted into planar lipid bilayers, allows the translocation of double-stranded DNA. The measured conductance of a single connector channel was 4.8 nS in 1 M KCl. This engineered and membrane-adapted phage connector is expected to have applications in microelectromechanical sensing, microreactors, gene delivery, drug loading and DNA sequencing.

  6. Molecular adaptation of photoprotection: triplet states in light-harvesting proteins.

    PubMed

    Gall, Andrew; Berera, Rudi; Alexandre, Maxime T A; Pascal, Andrew A; Bordes, Luc; Mendes-Pinto, Maria M; Andrianambinintsoa, Sandra; Stoitchkova, Katerina V; Marin, Alessandro; Valkunas, Leonas; Horton, Peter; Kennis, John T M; van Grondelle, Rienk; Ruban, Alexander; Robert, Bruno

    2011-08-17

    The photosynthetic light-harvesting systems of purple bacteria and plants both utilize specific carotenoids as quenchers of the harmful (bacterio)chlorophyll triplet states via triplet-triplet energy transfer. Here, we explore how the binding of carotenoids to the different types of light-harvesting proteins found in plants and purple bacteria provides adaptation in this vital photoprotective function. We show that the creation of the carotenoid triplet states in the light-harvesting complexes may occur without detectable conformational changes, in contrast to that found for carotenoids in solution. However, in plant light-harvesting complexes, the triplet wavefunction is shared between the carotenoids and their adjacent chlorophylls. This is not observed for the antenna proteins of purple bacteria, where the triplet is virtually fully located on the carotenoid molecule. These results explain the faster triplet-triplet transfer times in plant light-harvesting complexes. We show that this molecular mechanism, which spreads the location of the triplet wavefunction through the pigments of plant light-harvesting complexes, results in the absence of any detectable chlorophyll triplet in these complexes upon excitation, and we propose that it emerged as a photoprotective adaptation during the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis.

  7. PSB27: A thylakoid protein enabling Arabidopsis to adapt to changing light intensity.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xin; Fu, Aigen; Garcia, Veder J; Buchanan, Bob B; Luan, Sheng

    2015-02-01

    In earlier studies we have identified FKBP20-2 and CYP38 as soluble proteins of the chloroplast thylakoid lumen that are required for the formation of photosystem II supercomplexes (PSII SCs). Subsequent work has identified another potential candidate functional in SC formation (PSB27). We have followed up on this possibility and isolated mutants defective in the PSB27 gene. In addition to lack of PSII SCs, mutant plants were severely stunted when cultivated with light of variable intensity. The stunted growth was associated with lower PSII efficiency and defective starch accumulation. In response to high light exposure, the mutant plants also displayed enhanced ROS production, leading to decreased biosynthesis of anthocyanin. Unexpectedly, we detected a second defect in the mutant, namely in CP26, an antenna protein known to be required for the formation of PSII SCs that has been linked to state transitions. Lack of PSII SCs was found to be independent of PSB27, but was due to a mutation in the previously described cp26 gene that we found had no effect on light adaptation. The present results suggest that PSII SCs, despite being required for state transitions, are not associated with acclimation to changing light intensity. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that PSB27 plays an essential role in enabling plants to adapt to fluctuating light intensity through a mechanism distinct from photosystem II supercomplexes and state transitions.

  8. Subfamily-specific adaptations in the structures of two penicillin-binding proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DOE PAGES

    Prigozhin, Daniil M.; Krieger, Inna V.; Huizar, John P.; Mavrici, Daniela; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Hung, Li -Wei; Sacchettini, James C.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Alber, Tom; Mayer, Claudine

    2014-12-31

    Beta-lactam antibiotics target penicillin-binding proteins including several enzyme classes essential for bacterial cell-wall homeostasis. To better understand the functional and inhibitor-binding specificities of penicillin-binding proteins from the pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we carried out structural and phylogenetic analysis of two predicted D,D-carboxypeptidases, Rv2911 and Rv3330. Optimization of Rv2911 for crystallization using directed evolution and the GFP folding reporter method yielded a soluble quadruple mutant. Structures of optimized Rv2911 bound to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and Rv3330 bound to meropenem show that, in contrast to the nonspecific inhibitor, meropenem forms an extended interaction with the enzyme along a conserved surface. Phylogenetic analysis shows thatmore » Rv2911 and Rv3330 belong to different clades that emerged in Actinobacteria and are not represented in model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Clade-specific adaptations allow these enzymes to fulfill distinct physiological roles despite strict conservation of core catalytic residues. The characteristic differences include potential protein-protein interaction surfaces and specificity-determining residues surrounding the catalytic site. Overall, these structural insights lay the groundwork to develop improved beta-lactam therapeutics for tuberculosis.« less

  9. Reciprocal Influence of Protein Domains in the Cold-Adapted Acyl Aminoacyl Peptidase from Sporosarcina psychrophila

    PubMed Central

    Parravicini, Federica; Natalello, Antonino; Papaleo, Elena; De Gioia, Luca; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Lotti, Marina; Brocca, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Acyl aminoacyl peptidases are two-domain proteins composed by a C-terminal catalytic α/β-hydrolase domain and by an N-terminal β-propeller domain connected through a structural element that is at the N-terminus in sequence but participates in the 3D structure of the C-domain. We investigated about the structural and functional interplay between the two domains and the bridge structure (in this case a single helix named α1-helix) in the cold-adapted enzyme from Sporosarcina psychrophila (SpAAP) using both protein variants in which entire domains were deleted and proteins carrying substitutions in the α1-helix. We found that in this enzyme the inter-domain connection dramatically affects the stability of both the whole enzyme and the β-propeller. The α1-helix is required for the stability of the intact protein, as in other enzymes of the same family; however in this psychrophilic enzyme only, it destabilizes the isolated β-propeller. A single charged residue (E10) in the α1-helix plays a major role for the stability of the whole structure. Overall, a strict interaction of the SpAAP domains seems to be mandatory for the preservation of their reciprocal structural integrity and may witness their co-evolution. PMID:23457536

  10. Subfamily-Specific Adaptations in the Structures of Two Penicillin-Binding Proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Prigozhin, Daniil M.; Krieger, Inna V.; Huizar, John P.; Mavrici, Daniela; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Hung, Li-Wei; Sacchettini, James C.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Alber, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Beta-lactam antibiotics target penicillin-binding proteins including several enzyme classes essential for bacterial cell-wall homeostasis. To better understand the functional and inhibitor-binding specificities of penicillin-binding proteins from the pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we carried out structural and phylogenetic analysis of two predicted D,D-carboxypeptidases, Rv2911 and Rv3330. Optimization of Rv2911 for crystallization using directed evolution and the GFP folding reporter method yielded a soluble quadruple mutant. Structures of optimized Rv2911 bound to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and Rv3330 bound to meropenem show that, in contrast to the nonspecific inhibitor, meropenem forms an extended interaction with the enzyme along a conserved surface. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Rv2911 and Rv3330 belong to different clades that emerged in Actinobacteria and are not represented in model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Clade-specific adaptations allow these enzymes to fulfill distinct physiological roles despite strict conservation of core catalytic residues. The characteristic differences include potential protein-protein interaction surfaces and specificity-determining residues surrounding the catalytic site. Overall, these structural insights lay the groundwork to develop improved beta-lactam therapeutics for tuberculosis. PMID:25551456

  11. A Dopamine- and Protein Kinase A-Dependent Mechanism for Network Adaptation in Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero, C. F.; Pignatelli, A.; Partida, G. J.; Ishida, A. T.

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrates can detect light intensity changes in vastly different photic environments, in part, because post-receptoral neurons undergo “network adaptation”. Previous data implicated dopaminergic, cAMP-dependent inhibition of retinal ganglion cells in this process, yet left unclear how this occurs, and whether this occurs in darkness versus light. To test for light- and dopamine-dependent changes in ganglion cell cAMP levels in situ, we immunostained dark- and light-adapted retinas with anti-cAMP antisera, in the presence and absence of various dopamine receptor ligands. To test for direct effects of dopamine receptor ligands and membrane-permeable protein kinase ligands on ganglion cell excitability, we recorded spikes from isolated ganglion cells in perforated-patch whole-cell mode, before and during application of these agents by microperfusion. Our immunostainings show that light, endogenous dopamine, and exogenous dopamine elevate ganglion cell cAMP levels in situ by activating D1-type dopamine receptors. Our spike recordings show that D1-type agonists and 8-bromo cAMP reduce spike frequency and curtail sustained spike firing, and that these effects entail protein kinase A activation. These effects resemble those of background light on ganglion cell responses to light flashes. Network adaptation could thus be produced, to some extent, by dopaminergic modulation of ganglion cell spike generation, a mechanism distinct from modulation of transmitter release onto ganglion cells or of transmitter-gated currents in ganglion cells. Combining these observations, with results obtained in studies of photoreceptor, bipolar, and horizontal cells, indicates that all three layers of neurons in the retina are equipped with mechanisms for adaptation to ambient light. PMID:11606650

  12. Role of protein kinase C in light adaptation of molluscan microvillar photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Piccoli, Giuseppe; del Pilar Gomez, Maria; Nasi, Enrico

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Ca2+ regulates light adaptation in microvillar photoreceptors remain poorly understood. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a likely candidate, both because some sub-types are activated by Ca2+ and because of its association with the macromolecular ‘light-transduction complex’ in Drosophila. We investigated the possible role of PKC in the modulation of the light response in molluscan photoreceptors. Western blot analysis with isoform-specific antibodies revealed the presence of PKCα in retinal homogenates. Immunocytochemistry in isolated cell preparations confirmed PKCα localization in microvillar photoreceptors, preferentially confined to the light-sensing lobe. Light stimulation induced translocation of PKCα immunofluorescence to the photosensitive membrane, an effect that provides independent evidence for PKC activation by illumination; a similar outcome was observed after incubation with the phorbol ester PMA. Several chemically distinct activators of PKC, such as phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), (-)indolactam V and 1,2,-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG) inhibited the light response of voltage-clamped microvillar photoreceptors, but were ineffective in ciliary photoreceptors, in which light does not activate the Gq/PLC cascade, nor elevates intracellular Ca2+. Pharmacological inhibition of PKC antagonized the desensitization produced by adapting lights and also caused a small, but consistent enhancement of basal sensitivity. These results strongly support the involvement of PKC activation in the light-dependent regulation of response sensitivity. However, unlike adapting background light or elevation of [Ca2+]i, PKC activators did not speed up the photoresponse, nor did PKC inhibitors antagonize the accelerating effects of background adaptation, suggesting that modulation of photoresponse time course may involve a separate Ca2+-dependent signal. PMID:12205183

  13. FK506 binding protein 51 integrates pathways of adaptation: FKBP51 shapes the reactivity to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Rein, Theo

    2016-09-01

    This review portraits FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 as "reactivity protein" and collates recent publications to develop the concept of FKBP51 as contributor to different levels of adaptation. Adaptation is a fundamental process that enables unicellular and multicellular organisms to adjust their molecular circuits and structural conditions in reaction to environmental changes threatening their homeostasis. FKBP51 is known as chaperone and co-chaperone of heat shock protein (HSP) 90, thus involved in processes ensuring correct protein folding in response to proteotoxic stress. In mammals, FKBP51 both shapes the stress response and is calibrated by the stress levels through an ultrashort molecular feedback loop. More recently, it has been linked to several intracellular pathways related to the reactivity to drug exposure and stress. Through its role in autophagy and DNA methylation in particular it influences adaptive pathways, possibly also in a transgenerational fashion. Also see the video abstract here. PMID:27374865

  14. Bacillus anthracis TIR Domain-Containing Protein Localises to Cellular Microtubule Structures and Induces Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Emil; Thwaite, Joanne E.; Jenner, Dominic C.; Spear, Abigail M.; Flick-Smith, Helen; Atkins, Helen S.; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise invading pathogens and mediate downstream immune signalling via Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains. TIR domain proteins (Tdps) have been identified in multiple pathogenic bacteria and have recently been implicated as negative regulators of host innate immune activation. A Tdp has been identified in Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Here we present the first study of this protein, designated BaTdp. Recombinantly expressed and purified BaTdp TIR domain interacted with several human TIR domains, including that of the key TLR adaptor MyD88, although BaTdp expression in cultured HEK293 cells had no effect on TLR4- or TLR2- mediated immune activation. During expression in mammalian cells, BaTdp localised to microtubular networks and caused an increase in lipidated cytosolic microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3), indicative of autophagosome formation. In vivo intra-nasal infection experiments in mice showed that a BaTdp knockout strain colonised host tissue faster with higher bacterial load within 4 days post-infection compared to the wild type B. anthracis. Taken together, these findings indicate that BaTdp does not play an immune suppressive role, but rather, its absence increases virulence. BaTdp present in wild type B. anthracis plausibly interact with the infected host cell, which undergoes autophagy in self-defence. PMID:27391310

  15. Bacillus anthracis TIR Domain-Containing Protein Localises to Cellular Microtubule Structures and Induces Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Emil; Thwaite, Joanne E; Jenner, Dominic C; Spear, Abigail M; Flick-Smith, Helen; Atkins, Helen S; Byrne, Bernadette; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise invading pathogens and mediate downstream immune signalling via Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains. TIR domain proteins (Tdps) have been identified in multiple pathogenic bacteria and have recently been implicated as negative regulators of host innate immune activation. A Tdp has been identified in Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Here we present the first study of this protein, designated BaTdp. Recombinantly expressed and purified BaTdp TIR domain interacted with several human TIR domains, including that of the key TLR adaptor MyD88, although BaTdp expression in cultured HEK293 cells had no effect on TLR4- or TLR2- mediated immune activation. During expression in mammalian cells, BaTdp localised to microtubular networks and caused an increase in lipidated cytosolic microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3), indicative of autophagosome formation. In vivo intra-nasal infection experiments in mice showed that a BaTdp knockout strain colonised host tissue faster with higher bacterial load within 4 days post-infection compared to the wild type B. anthracis. Taken together, these findings indicate that BaTdp does not play an immune suppressive role, but rather, its absence increases virulence. BaTdp present in wild type B. anthracis plausibly interact with the infected host cell, which undergoes autophagy in self-defence. PMID:27391310

  16. Identification of proteins secreted into the medium by human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with or without adaptive environments.

    PubMed

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Lai, Xianyin; Honikel, Louise; Reungpatthanaphong, Paiboon; Witzmann, Frank A

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to support the hypothesis of adaptive response, a phenomenon in which protection arises from a low-dose radiation (<0.1 Gy) against damage induced by subsequent exposure to high-dose radiation. The molecular mechanisms underlying such protection are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to fill this knowledge gap. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was used to characterize global protein expression profiles in the medium collected from human lymphocyte cultures given sham irradiation (0 Gy) or a priming low dose of 0.03 Gy 137Cs γ rays 4 h prior to a challenging dose of 1 Gy 137Cs γ rays. Adaptive response was determined by decreased micronucleus frequencies in lymphocytes receiving low dose irradiation prior to high dose irradiation compared to those receiving only high dose irradiation. Adaptive response was found in these experiments. Proteomic analysis of media revealed: (a) 55 proteins with similar abundance in both groups; (b) 23 proteins in both groups, but 7 of them were high abundance in medium with adaptive environment, while 16 high abundance proteins were in medium without adaptive environment; (c) 17 proteins in medium with adaptive environment only; and (d) 8 proteins in medium without adaptive environment only. The results provide a foundation for improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects of low dose radiation that, in turn, will have an important impact on radiation risk estimation. Hence, these studies are highly relevant to radiation protection due to an increased use of low dose radiation in daily life (e.g., medical diagnosis or airport safety) or an unavoidable exposure to low level background radiation. PMID:22134077

  17. RNA binding proteins mediate the ability of a fungus to adapt to the cold.

    PubMed

    Fang, Weiguo; St Leger, Raymond J

    2010-03-01

    Little is known about how fungi adapt to chilling. In eubacteria, cold shock proteins (CSPs) facilitate translation by destabilizing RNA secondary structure. Animals and plants have homologous cold shock domains within proteins, and additional glycine-rich RNA binding proteins (GRPs), but their role in stress resistance is poorly understood. In this study, we identified GRP homologues in diverse fungi. However, only Aspergillus clavatus and Metarhizium anisopliae possessed cold shock domains. Both M. anisopliae's small eubacteria-like CSP (CRP1) and its GRP (CRP2) homologue were induced by cold. Disrupting either Crp1 or Crp2 greatly reduced metabolism and conidial germination rates at low temperatures, and decreased tolerance to freezing. However, while both Crp1 and Crp2 reduced freezing-induced production of reactive oxygen species, only Crp1 protected cells against H(2)O(2) and increased M. anisopliae's virulence to caterpillars. Unlike CRP2, CRP1 rescued the cold-sensitive growth defects of an Escherichia coli CSP deletion mutant, and CRP1 also demonstrated transcription anti-termination activity, so CRP1 can regulate transcription and translation at low temperature. Expressing either Crp1 or Crp2 in yeast increased metabolism at cold temperatures and Crp1 improved tolerance to freezing. Thus besides providing a model relevant to many biological systems, Crp1 and Crp2 have potential applications in biotechnology.

  18. Structural Adaptation of a Thermostable Biotin-binding Protein in a Psychrophilic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Amit; Bayer, Edward A.; Livnah, Oded

    2012-01-01

    Shwanavidin is an avidin-like protein from the marine proteobactrium Shewanella denitrificans, which exhibits an innate dimeric structure while maintaining high affinity toward biotin. A unique residue (Phe-43) from the L3,4 loop and a distinctive disulfide bridge were shown to account for the high affinity toward biotin. Phe-43 emulates the function and position of the critical intermonomeric Trp that characterizes the tetrameric avidins but is lacking in shwanavidin. The 18 copies of the apo-monomer revealed distinctive snapshots of L3,4 and Phe-43, providing rare insight into loop flexibility, binding site accessibility, and psychrophilic adaptation. Nevertheless, as in all avidins, shwanavidin also displays high thermostability properties. The unique features of shwanavidin may provide a platform for the design of a long sought after monovalent form of avidin, which would be ideal for novel types of biotechnological application. PMID:22493427

  19. Assisted protein folding at low temperature: evolutionary adaptation of the Antarctic fish chaperonin CCT and its client proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar, Jorge; Yébenes, Hugo; Parker, Sandra K.; Carranza, Gerardo; Serna, Marina; Valpuesta, José María; Zabala, Juan Carlos; Detrich, H. William

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eukaryotic ectotherms of the Southern Ocean face energetic challenges to protein folding assisted by the cytosolic chaperonin CCT. We hypothesize that CCT and its client proteins (CPs) have co-evolved molecular adaptations that facilitate CCT–CP interaction and the ATP-driven folding cycle at low temperature. To test this hypothesis, we compared the functional and structural properties of CCT–CP systems from testis tissues of an Antarctic fish, Gobionotothen gibberifrons (Lönnberg) (habitat/body T = −1.9 to +2°C), and of the cow (body T = 37°C). We examined the temperature dependence of the binding of denatured CPs (β-actin, β-tubulin) by fish and bovine CCTs, both in homologous and heterologous combinations and at temperatures between −4°C and 20°C, in a buffer conducive to binding of the denatured CP to the open conformation of CCT. In homologous combination, the percentage of G. gibberifrons CCT bound to CP declined linearly with increasing temperature, whereas the converse was true for bovine CCT. Binding of CCT to heterologous CPs was low, irrespective of temperature. When reactions were supplemented with ATP, G. gibberifrons CCT catalyzed the folding and release of actin at 2°C. The ATPase activity of apo-CCT from G. gibberifrons at 4°C was ∼2.5-fold greater than that of apo-bovine CCT, whereas equivalent activities were observed at 20°C. Based on these results, we conclude that the catalytic folding cycle of CCT from Antarctic fishes is partially compensated at their habitat temperature, probably by means of enhanced CP-binding affinity and increased flexibility of the CCT subunits. PMID:24659247

  20. Different genome stability proteins underpin primed and naïve adaptation in E. coli CRISPR-Cas immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ivančić-Baće, Ivana; Cass, Simon D; Wearne, Stephen J; Bolt, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas is a prokaryotic immune system built from capture and integration of invader DNA into CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) loci, termed ‘Adaptation’, which is dependent on Cas1 and Cas2 proteins. In Escherichia coli, Cascade-Cas3 degrades invader DNA to effect immunity, termed ‘Interference’. Adaptation can interact with interference (‘primed’), or is independent of it (‘naïve’). We demonstrate that primed adaptation requires the RecG helicase and PriA protein to be present. Genetic analysis of mutant phenotypes suggests that RecG is needed to dissipate R-loops at blocked replication forks. Additionally, we identify that DNA polymerase I is important for both primed and naive adaptation, and that RecB is needed for naïve adaptation. Purified Cas1-Cas2 protein shows specificity for binding to and nicking forked DNA within single strand gaps, and collapsing forks into DNA duplexes. The data suggest that different genome stability systems interact with primed or naïve adaptation when responding to blocked or collapsed invader DNA replication. In this model, RecG and Cas3 proteins respond to invader DNA replication forks that are blocked by Cascade interference, enabling DNA capture. RecBCD targets DNA ends at collapsed forks, enabling DNA capture without interference. DNA polymerase I is proposed to fill DNA gaps during spacer integration. PMID:26578567

  1. Flavin-Induced Oligomerization in Escherichia coli Adaptive Response Protein AidB

    SciTech Connect

    Hamill, Michael J.; Jost, Marco; Wong, Cintyu; Elliott, Sean J.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2011-11-21

    The process known as 'adaptive response' allows Escherichia coli to respond to small doses of DNA-methylating agents by upregulating the expression of four proteins. While the role of three of these proteins in mitigating DNA damage is well understood, the function of AidB is less clear. Although AidB is a flavoprotein, no catalytic role has been established for the bound cofactor. Here we investigate the possibility that flavin plays a structural role in the assembly of the AidB tetramer. We report the generation and biophysical characterization of deflavinated AidB and of an AidB mutant that has greatly reduced affinity for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Using fluorescence quenching and analytical ultracentrifugation, we find that apo AidB has a high affinity for FAD, as indicated by an apparent dissociation constant of 402.1 {+-} 35.1 nM, and that binding of substoichiometric amounts of FAD triggers a transition in the AidB oligomeric state. In particular, deflavinated AidB is dimeric, whereas the addition of FAD yields a tetramer. We further investigate the dimerization and tetramerization interfaces of AidB by determining a 2.8 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure in space group P3{sub 2} that contains three intact tetramers in the asymmetric unit. Taken together, our findings provide strong evidence that FAD plays a structural role in the formation of tetrameric AidB.

  2. Flavin-Induced Oligomerization in Escherichia coli Adaptive Response Protein AidB

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The process known as “adaptive response” allows Escherichia coli to respond to small doses of DNA-methylating agents by upregulating the expression of four proteins. While the role of three of these proteins in mitigating DNA damage is well understood, the function of AidB is less clear. Although AidB is a flavoprotein, no catalytic role has been established for the bound cofactor. Here we investigate the possibility that flavin plays a structural role in the assembly of the AidB tetramer. We report the generation and biophysical characterization of deflavinated AidB and of an AidB mutant that has greatly reduced affinity for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Using fluorescence quenching and analytical ultracentrifugation, we find that apo AidB has a high affinity for FAD, as indicated by an apparent dissociation constant of 402.1 ± 35.1 nM, and that binding of substoichiometric amounts of FAD triggers a transition in the AidB oligomeric state. In particular, deflavinated AidB is dimeric, whereas the addition of FAD yields a tetramer. We further investigate the dimerization and tetramerization interfaces of AidB by determining a 2.8 Å resolution crystal structure in space group P32 that contains three intact tetramers in the asymmetric unit. Taken together, our findings provide strong evidence that FAD plays a structural role in the formation of tetrameric AidB. PMID:22004173

  3. Phospholipids and protein adaptation of Pseudomonas sp. to the xenoestrogen tributyltin chloride (TBT).

    PubMed

    Bernat, Przemysław; Siewiera, Paulina; Soboń, Adrian; Długoński, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    A tributyltin (TBT)-resistant strain of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from an overworked car filter was tested for its adaptation to TBT. The isolate was checked for organotin degradation ability, as well as membrane lipid and cellular protein composition in the presence of TBT. The phospholipid profiles of bacteria, grown with and without increased amounts of TBT, were characterized using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. The strain reacted to the biocide by changing the composition of its phospholipids. TBT induced a twofold decline in the amounts of many molecular species of phosphatidylglycerol and an increase in the levels of phosphatidic acid (by 58%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (by 70%). An increase in the degree of saturation of phospholipid fatty acids of TBT exposed Pseudomonas sp. was observed. These changes in the phospholipid composition and concentration reflect the mechanisms which support optimal lipid ordering in the presence of toxic xenobiotic. In the presence of TBT the abundances of 16 proteins, including TonB-dependent receptors, porins and peroxidases were modified, which could indicate a contribution of some enzymes to TBT resistance. PMID:24792605

  4. Object-adapted trapping and shape-tracking to probe a bacterial protein chain motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Julian; Koch, Matthias; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The helical bacterium Spiroplasma is a motile plant and anthropod pathogen which swims by propagating pairs of kinks along its cell body. As a well suited model system for bacterial locomotion, understanding the cell's molecular motor is of vital interest also regarding the combat of bacterial diseases. The extensive deformations related to these kinks are caused by a contractile cytoskeletal protein ribbon representing a linear motor in contrast to common rotary motors as, e.g., flagella. We present new insights into the working of this motor through experiments with object-adapted optical traps and shape-tracking techniques. We use the given laser irradiation from the optical trap to hinder bacterial energy (ATP) production through the production of O2 radicals. The results are compared with experiments performed under the influence of an O2-Scavenger and ATP inhibitors, respectively. Our results show clear dependences of the kinking properties on the ATP concentration inside the bacterium. The experiments are supported by a theoretical model which we developed to describe the switching of the ribbon's protein subunits.

  5. Adaptive evolution of the venom-targeted vWF protein in opossums that eat pitvipers.

    PubMed

    Jansa, Sharon A; Voss, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    The rapid evolution of venom toxin genes is often explained as the result of a biochemical arms race between venomous animals and their prey. However, it is not clear that an arms race analogy is appropriate in this context because there is no published evidence for rapid evolution in genes that might confer toxin resistance among routinely envenomed species. Here we report such evidence from an unusual predator-prey relationship between opossums (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) and pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae). In particular, we found high ratios of replacement to silent substitutions in the gene encoding von Willebrand Factor (vWF), a venom-targeted hemostatic blood protein, in a clade of opossums known to eat pitvipers and to be resistant to their hemorrhagic venom. Observed amino-acid substitutions in venom-resistant opossums include changes in net charge and hydrophobicity that are hypothesized to weaken the bond between vWF and one of its toxic snake-venom ligands, the C-type lectin-like protein botrocetin. Our results provide the first example of rapid adaptive evolution in any venom-targeted molecule, and they support the notion that an evolutionary arms race might be driving the rapid evolution of snake venoms. However, in the arms race implied by our results, venomous snakes are prey, and their venom has a correspondingly defensive function in addition to its usual trophic role.

  6. Adaptive evolution of tight junction protein claudin-14 in echolocating whales.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huihui; Liu, Yang; He, Guimei; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2013-11-10

    Toothed whales and bats have independently evolved specialized ultrasonic hearing for echolocation. Recent findings have suggested that several genes including Prestin, Tmc1, Pjvk and KCNQ4 appear to have undergone molecular adaptations associated with the evolution of this ultrasonic hearing in mammals. Here we studied the hearing gene Cldn14, which encodes the claudin-14 protein and is a member of tight junction proteins that functions in the organ of Corti in the inner ear to maintain a cationic gradient between endolymph and perilymph. Particular mutations in human claudin-14 give rise to non-syndromic deafness, suggesting an essential role in hearing. Our results uncovered two bursts of positive selection, one in the ancestral branch of all toothed whales and a second in the branch leading to the delphinid, phocoenid and ziphiid whales. These two branches are the same as those previously reported to show positive selection in the Prestin gene. Furthermore, as with Prestin, the estimated hearing frequencies of whales significantly correlate with numbers of branch-wise non-synonymous substitutions in Cldn14, but not with synonymous changes. However, in contrast to Prestin, we found no evidence of positive selection in bats. Our findings from Cldn14, and comparisons with Prestin, strongly implicate multiple loci in the acquisition of echolocation in cetaceans, but also highlight possible differences in the evolutionary route to echolocation taken by whales and bats.

  7. The COPII adaptor protein TMED7 is required to initiate and mediate the anterograde trafficking of Toll-like receptor 4 to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Liaunardy-Jopeace, Ardiyanto; Bryant, Clare E.; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), the receptor for the bacterial product endotoxin, is subject to multiple points of regulation at the levels of signaling, biogenesis, and trafficking. Dysregulation of TLR4 signaling can cause serious inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis. We found that the p24 family protein TMED7 (transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 7) is required for the trafficking of TLR4 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface through the Golgi. TMED7 formed a stable complex with the ectodomain of TLR4, an interaction that required the coiled-coil and GOLD domains, but not the cytosolic, COP II sorting motif, of TMED7. Depletion of TMED7 reduced TLR4 signaling mediated by the adaptor protein MyD88, but not that mediated by the adaptor proteins TRAM and TRIF. Truncated forms of TMED7 lacking the COP II sorting motif or the transmembrane domain were mislocalized and resulted in constitutive activation of TLR4 signaling. Together, these results support the hypothesis that p24 proteins perform a quality control step by recognizing correctly folded anterograde cargo, such as TLR4, in early secretory compartments and facilitating the translocation of this cargo to the cell surface. PMID:25074978

  8. Comparative proteome profiling of bovine and human Staphylococcus epidermidis strains for screening specifically expressed virulence and adaptation proteins.

    PubMed

    Siljamäki, Pia; Varmanen, Pekka; Kankainen, Matti; Pyörälä, Satu; Karonen, Taru; Iivanainen, Antti; Auvinen, Petri; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia K; Taponen, Suvi; Simojoki, Heli; Sukura, Antti; Nyman, Tuula A; Savijoki, Kirsi

    2014-08-01

    The present study reports a comparative proteome cataloging of a bovine mastitis and a human-associated Staphylococcus epidermidis strain with a specific focus on surfome (cell-wall bound and extracellular) proteins. Protein identification by 1DE coupled with LC-MS/MS analyses resulted in 1400 and 1287 proteins from the bovine (PM221) and human (ATCC12228) strains, respectively, covering over 50% of all predicted and more than 30% of all predicted surfome proteins in both strains. Comparison of the identification results suggests elevated levels of proteins involved in adherence, biofilm formation, signal transduction, house-keeping functions, and immune evasion in PM221, whereas ATCC12228 was more effective in expressing host defense evasion proteases, skin adaptation lipases, hemagglutination, and heavy-metal resistance proteins. Phenotypic analyses showed that only PM221 displays protein- and DNA-mediated adherent growth, and that PM221 was more efficient in cleaving tributyrin, a natural compound of milk fat under low CO2 conditions. These findings are in line with the identification data and suggest that distinct expression of lipases and adhesive surfome proteins could lead to the observed phenotypes. This study is the first extensive survey of S. epidermidis proteomes to date, providing several protein candidates to be examined for their roles in adaptation and virulence in vivo. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000404 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000404).

  9. Laboratory adaptation of Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae) decreases mating age and increases protein consumption and number of eggs produced per milligram of protein.

    PubMed

    Meats, A; Holmes, H M; Kelly, G L

    2004-12-01

    A significant reduction in age of mating occurred during the first four generations (G1-G4) of laboratory adaptation of wild Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and this was associated with the earlier attainment of peak egg load although no significant differences were detected in the peak egg load itself. A long term laboratory (LTL) strain had a significantly earlier mating age and higher peak egg load than flies of wild origin or those from the first four laboratory generations. The amount of protein consumed by females in the first week of adult life was significantly higher in the LTL strain than in flies of wild origin or G1-G4 but there were no significant changes (or only slight changes) with laboratory adaptation in the amounts of protein consumed up to the ages of mating and peak egg load. Laboratory adaptation resulted in no significant changes in egg size, egg dry weight, puparial fresh weight and the dry weight of newly emerged females. The large increase in fecundity with laboratory adaptation is associated with a 4- to 5-fold increase in the rate of conversion of dietary protein to eggs (i.e. eggs produced per mg of protein consumed). PMID:15541191

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cell Membrane Protein Expression from Phenotypically Diverse Cystic Fibrosis Isolates Demonstrates Host-Specific Adaptations.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Karthik Shantharam; Pascovici, Dana; Penesyan, Anahit; Goel, Apurv; Venkatakrishnan, Vignesh; Paulsen, Ian T; Packer, Nicolle H; Molloy, Mark P

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, nosocomial, highly adaptable opportunistic pathogen especially prevalent in immuno-compromised cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The bacterial cell surface proteins are important contributors to virulence, yet the membrane subproteomes of phenotypically diverse P. aeruginosa strains are poorly characterized. We carried out mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteome analysis of the membrane proteins of three novel P. aeruginosa strains isolated from the sputum of CF patients and compared protein expression to the widely used laboratory strain, PAO1. Microbes were grown in planktonic growth condition using minimal M9 media, and a defined synthetic lung nutrient mimicking medium (SCFM) limited passaging. Two-dimensional LC-MS/MS using iTRAQ labeling enabled quantitative comparisons among 3171 and 2442 proteins from the minimal M9 medium and in the SCFM, respectively. The CF isolates showed marked differences in membrane protein expression in comparison with PAO1 including up-regulation of drug resistance proteins (MexY, MexB, MexC) and down-regulation of chemotaxis and aerotaxis proteins (PA1561, PctA, PctB) and motility and adhesion proteins (FliK, FlgE, FliD, PilJ). Phenotypic analysis using adhesion, motility, and drug susceptibility assays confirmed the proteomics findings. These results provide evidence of host-specific microevolution of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung and shed light on the adaptation strategies used by CF pathogens. PMID:27246823

  11. Evolutionary Adaptation of an AraC-Like Regulatory Protein in Citrobacter rodentium and Escherichia Species

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Aimee; Petty, Nicola K.; Hocking, Dianna; Bennett-Wood, Vicki; Wakefield, Matthew; Praszkier, Judyta; Tauschek, Marija; Yang, Ji

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of pathogenic bacteria is a multifaceted and complex process, which is strongly influenced by the horizontal acquisition of genetic elements and their subsequent expression in their new hosts. A well-studied example is the RegA regulon of the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. The RegA regulatory protein is a member of the AraC/XylS superfamily, which coordinates the expression of a gene repertoire that is necessary for full pathogenicity of this murine pathogen. Upon stimulation by an exogenous, gut-associated signal, namely, bicarbonate ions, RegA activates the expression of a series of genes, including virulence factors, such as autotransporters, fimbriae, a dispersin-like protein, and the grlRA operon on the locus of enterocyte effacement pathogenicity island. Interestingly, the genes encoding RegA homologues are distributed across the genus Escherichia, encompassing pathogenic and nonpathogenic subtypes. In this study, we carried out a series of bioinformatic, transcriptional, and functional analyses of the RegA regulons of these bacteria. Our results demonstrated that regA has been horizontally transferred to Escherichia spp. and C. rodentium. Comparative studies of two RegA homologues, namely, those from C. rodentium and E. coli SMS-3-5, a multiresistant environmental strain of E. coli, showed that the two regulators acted similarly in vitro but differed in terms of their abilities to activate the virulence of C. rodentium in vivo, which evidently was due to their differential activation of grlRA. Our data indicate that RegA from C. rodentium has strain-specific adaptations that facilitate infection of its murine host. These findings shed new light on the development of virulence by C. rodentium and on the evolution of virulence-regulatory genes of bacterial pathogens in general. PMID:25624355

  12. Evolutionary adaptation of an AraC-like regulatory protein in Citrobacter rodentium and Escherichia species.

    PubMed

    Tan, Aimee; Petty, Nicola K; Hocking, Dianna; Bennett-Wood, Vicki; Wakefield, Matthew; Praszkier, Judyta; Tauschek, Marija; Yang, Ji; Robins-Browne, Roy

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of pathogenic bacteria is a multifaceted and complex process, which is strongly influenced by the horizontal acquisition of genetic elements and their subsequent expression in their new hosts. A well-studied example is the RegA regulon of the enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. The RegA regulatory protein is a member of the AraC/XylS superfamily, which coordinates the expression of a gene repertoire that is necessary for full pathogenicity of this murine pathogen. Upon stimulation by an exogenous, gut-associated signal, namely, bicarbonate ions, RegA activates the expression of a series of genes, including virulence factors, such as autotransporters, fimbriae, a dispersin-like protein, and the grlRA operon on the locus of enterocyte effacement pathogenicity island. Interestingly, the genes encoding RegA homologues are distributed across the genus Escherichia, encompassing pathogenic and nonpathogenic subtypes. In this study, we carried out a series of bioinformatic, transcriptional, and functional analyses of the RegA regulons of these bacteria. Our results demonstrated that regA has been horizontally transferred to Escherichia spp. and C. rodentium. Comparative studies of two RegA homologues, namely, those from C. rodentium and E. coli SMS-3-5, a multiresistant environmental strain of E. coli, showed that the two regulators acted similarly in vitro but differed in terms of their abilities to activate the virulence of C. rodentium in vivo, which evidently was due to their differential activation of grlRA. Our data indicate that RegA from C. rodentium has strain-specific adaptations that facilitate infection of its murine host. These findings shed new light on the development of virulence by C. rodentium and on the evolution of virulence-regulatory genes of bacterial pathogens in general.

  13. An unrecognized extracellular function for an intracellular adapter protein released from the cytoplasm into the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Paul J; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Ozawa, Michael G; Hajitou, Amin; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Christianson, Dawn R; Arap, Marco A; Giordano, Ricardo J; Souza, Glauco R; Easley, Jeffrey; Salameh, Ahmad; Oliviero, Salvatore; Brentani, Ricardo R; Koivunen, Erkki; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2009-02-17

    Mammalian cell membranes provide an interface between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. It is currently thought that cytoplasmic signaling adapter proteins play no functional role within the extracellular tumor environment. Here, by selecting combinatorial random peptide libraries in tumor-bearing mice, we uncovered a direct, specific, and functional interaction between CRKL, an adapter protein [with Src homology 2 (SH2)- and SH3-containing domains], and the plexin-semaphorin-integrin domain of beta(1) integrin in the extracellular milieu. Through assays in vitro, in cellulo, and in vivo, we show that this unconventional and as yet unrecognized protein-protein interaction between a regulatory integrin domain (rather than a ligand-binding one) and an intracellular adapter (acting outside of the cells) triggers an alternative integrin-mediated cascade for cell growth and survival. Based on these data, here we propose that a secreted form of the SH3/SH2 adaptor protein CRKL may act as a growth-promoting factor driving tumorigenesis and may lead to the development of cancer therapeutics targeting secreted CRKL.

  14. Electrochemical Characterization of Escherichia coli Adaptive Response Protein AidB

    PubMed Central

    Hamill, Michael J.; Jost, Marco; Wong, Cintyu; Bene, Nicholas C.; Drennan, Catherine L.; Elliott, Sean J.

    2012-01-01

    When exposed to known DNA-damaging alkylating agents, Escherichia coli cells increase production of four DNA repair enzymes: Ada, AlkA, AlkB, and AidB. The role of three enzymes (Ada, AlkA, and AlkB) in repairing DNA lesions has been well characterized, while the function of AidB is poorly understood. AidB has a distinct cofactor that is potentially related to the elusive role of AidB in adaptive response: a redox active flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). In this study, we report the thermodynamic redox properties of the AidB flavin for the first time, both for free protein and in the presence of potential substrates. We find that the midpoint reduction potential of the AidB flavin is within a biologically relevant window for redox chemistry at −181 mV, that AidB significantly stabilizes the flavin semiquinone, and that small molecule binding perturbs the observed reduction potential. Our electrochemical results combined with structural analysis allow for fresh comparisons between AidB and the homologous acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACAD) family of enzymes. AidB exhibits several discrepancies from ACADs that suggest a novel catalytic mechanism distinct from that of the ACAD family enzymes. PMID:23443126

  15. Gal3 Binds Gal80 Tighter than Gal1 Indicating Adaptive Protein Changes Following Duplication.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Tali; Yanagida, Hayato; Tawfik, Dan S

    2016-02-01

    Derived from the yeast whole-genome duplication, Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL1 and GAL3 encode the catabolic enzyme galactokinase (Gal1) and its transcriptional coinducer (Gal3), whereas the ancestral, preduplicated GAL1 gene performed both functions. Previous studies indicated that divergence was primarily driven by changes in upstream promoter elements, and changes in GAL3's coding region are assumed to be the result of drift. We show that replacement of GAL3's open-reading-frame with GAL1's results in an extended lag phase upon switching to growth on galactose with up to 2.5-fold differences in the initial cell masses. Accordingly, the binding affinity of Gal3 to Gal80 was found to be greater than 10-folds higher than that of Gal1, with both a higher association rate (ka) and lower dissociation (kd) rate. Thus, while changes in the noncoding, regulatory regions were the initial driving force for GAL3's subfunctionalization as a coinducer, adaptive changes in the protein sequence seem to have followed.

  16. Toll-Like Receptor Gene Expression during Trichinella spiralis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sin; Park, Mi Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun

    2015-01-01

    In Trichinella spiralis infection, type 2 helper T (Th2) cell-related and regulatory T (Treg) cell-related immune responses are the most important immune events. In order to clarify which Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are closely associated with these responses, we analyzed the expression of mouse TLR genes in the small intestine and muscle tissue during T. spiralis infection. In addition, the expression of several chemokine- and cytokine-encoding genes, which are related to Th2 and Treg cell mediated immune responses, were analyzed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/TIR-associated proteins (TIRAP) and Toll receptor-associated activator of interferons (TRIF) adapter protein deficient and wild type (WT) mice. The results showed significantly increased TLR4 and TLR9 gene expression in the small intestine after 2 weeks of T. spiralis infection. In the muscle, TLR1, TLR2, TLR5, and TLR9 gene expression significantly increased after 4 weeks of infection. Only the expression of the TLR4 and TLR9 genes was significantly elevated in WT MEF cells after treatment with excretory-secretory (ES) proteins. Gene expression for Th2 chemokine genes were highly enhanced by ES proteins in WT MEF cells, while this elevation was slightly reduced in MyD88/TIRAP-/- MEF cells, and quite substantially decreased in TRIF-/- MEF cells. In contrast, IL-10 and TGF-β expression levels were not elevated in MyD88/TIRAP-/- MEF cells. In conclusion, we suggest that TLR4 and TLR9 might be closely linked to Th2 cell and Treg cell mediated immune responses, although additional data are needed to convincingly prove this observation. PMID:26323841

  17. The negatively charged regions of lactoferrin binding protein B, an adaptation against anti-microbial peptides.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, Ari; Beddek, Amanda; Schryvers, Anthony B

    2014-01-01

    Lactoferrin binding protein B (LbpB) is a bi-lobed membrane bound lipoprotein that is part of the lactoferrin receptor complex in a variety of Gram-negative pathogens. Despite high sequence diversity among LbpBs from various strains and species, a cluster of negatively charged amino acids is invariably present in the protein's C-terminal lobe in all species except Moraxella bovis. The function of LbpB in iron acquisition has yet to be experimentally demonstrated, whereas in vitro studies have shown that LbpB confers protection against lactoferricin, a short cationic antimicrobial peptide released from the N- terminus of lactoferrin. In this study we demonstrate that the negatively charged regions can be removed from the Neisseria meningitidis LbpB without compromising stability, and this results in the inability of LbpB to protect against the bactericidal effects of lactoferricin. The release of LbpB from the cell surface by the autotransporter NalP reduces the protection against lactoferricin in the in vitro killing assay, attributed to removal of LbpB during washing steps, but is unlikely to have a similar impact in vivo. The protective effect of the negatively charged polysaccharide capsule in the killing assay was less than the protection conferred by LbpB, suggesting that LbpB plays a major role in protection against cationic antimicrobial peptides in vivo. The selective release of LbpB by NalP has been proposed to be a mechanism for evading the adaptive immune response, by reducing the antibody binding to the cell surface, but may also provide insights into the primary function of LbpB in vivo. Although TbpB and LbpB have been shown to be major targets of the human immune response, the selective release of LbpB suggests that unlike TbpB, LbpB may not be essential for iron acquisition, but important for protection against cationic antimicrobial peptides. PMID:24465982

  18. Adaptive aneuploidy protects against thiol peroxidase deficiency by increasing respiration via key mitochondrial proteins.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Alaattin; Gerashchenko, Maxim V; Seim, Inge; Labarre, Jean; Toledano, Michel B; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2015-08-25

    Aerobic respiration is a fundamental energy-generating process; however, there is cost associated with living in an oxygen-rich environment, because partially reduced oxygen species can damage cellular components. Organisms evolved enzymes that alleviate this damage and protect the intracellular milieu, most notably thiol peroxidases, which are abundant and conserved enzymes that mediate hydrogen peroxide signaling and act as the first line of defense against oxidants in nearly all living organisms. Deletion of all eight thiol peroxidase genes in yeast (∆8 strain) is not lethal, but results in slow growth and a high mutation rate. Here we characterized mechanisms that allow yeast cells to survive under conditions of thiol peroxidase deficiency. Two independent ∆8 strains increased mitochondrial content, altered mitochondrial distribution, and became dependent on respiration for growth but they were not hypersensitive to H2O2. In addition, both strains independently acquired a second copy of chromosome XI and increased expression of genes encoded by it. Survival of ∆8 cells was dependent on mitochondrial cytochrome-c peroxidase (CCP1) and UTH1, present on chromosome XI. Coexpression of these genes in ∆8 cells led to the elimination of the extra copy of chromosome XI and improved cell growth, whereas deletion of either gene was lethal. Thus, thiol peroxidase deficiency requires dosage compensation of CCP1 and UTH1 via chromosome XI aneuploidy, wherein these proteins support hydroperoxide removal with the reducing equivalents generated by the electron transport chain. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of adaptive aneuploidy counteracting oxidative stress.

  19. Circadian clock proteins control adaptation to novel environment and memory formation

    PubMed Central

    A.Kondratova, Anna; V.Dubrovsky, Yuliya; Antoch, Marina P.; Kondratov, Roman V.

    2010-01-01

    Deficiency of the transcription factor BMAL1, a core component of the circadian clock, results in an accelerated aging phenotype in mice. The circadian clock regulates many physiological processes and was recently implicated in control of brain-based activities, such as memory formation and the regulation of emotions. Aging is accompanied by the decline in brain physiology, particularly decline in the response and adaptation to novelty. We investigated the role of the circadian clock in exploratory behavior and habituation to novelty using the open field paradigm. We found that mice with a deficiency of the circadian transcription factor BMAL1 display hyperactivity in novel environments and impaired intra- and intersession habituation, indicative of defects in short- and long-term memory formation. In contrast, mice double-deficient for the circadian proteins CRY1 and CRY2 (repressors of the BMAL1-mediated transcription) demonstrate reduced activity and accelerated habituation when compared to wild type mice. Mice with mutation in theClock gene (encoding the BMAL1 transcription partner) show normal locomotion, but increased rearing activity and impaired intersession habituation. BMAL1 is highly expressed in the neurons of the hippocampus - a brain region associated with spatial memory formation; BMAL1 deficiency disrupts circadian oscillation in gene expression and reactive oxygen species homeostasis in the brain, which may be among the possible mechanisms involved. Thus, we suggest that the BMAL1:CLOCK activity is critical for the proper exploratory and habituation behavior, and that the circadian clock prepares organism for a new round of everyday activities through optimization of behavioral learning. PMID:20519775

  20. Plant natriuretic peptides induce proteins diagnostic for an adaptive response to stress

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Ilona; Marondedze, Claudius; Wheeler, Janet I.; Gehring, Chris; Irving, Helen R.

    2014-01-01

    In plants, structural and physiological evidence has suggested the presence of biologically active natriuretic peptides (PNPs). PNPs are secreted into the apoplast, are systemically mobile and elicit a range of responses signaling via cGMP. The PNP-dependent responses include tissue specific modifications of cation transport and changes in stomatal conductance and the photosynthetic rate. PNP also has a critical role in host defense responses. Surprisingly, PNP-homologs are produced by several plant pathogens during host colonization suppressing host defense responses. Here we show that a synthetic peptide representing the biologically active fragment of the Arabidopsis thaliana PNP (AtPNP-A) induces the production of reactive oxygen species in suspension-cultured A. thaliana (Col-0) cells. To identify proteins whose expression changes in an AtPNP-A dependent manner, we undertook a quantitative proteomic approach, employing tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling, to reveal temporal responses of suspension-cultured cells to 1 nM and 10 pM PNP at two different time-points post-treatment. Both concentrations yield a distinct differential proteome signature. Since only the higher (1 nM) concentration induces a ROS response, we conclude that the proteome response at the lower concentration reflects a ROS independent response. Furthermore, treatment with 1 nM PNP results in an over-representation of the gene ontology (GO) terms “oxidation-reduction process,” “translation” and “response to salt stress” and this is consistent with a role of AtPNP-A in the adaptation to environmental stress conditions. PMID:25505478

  1. A Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 receptor domain protein from Yersinia pestis interacts with mammalian IL-1/Toll-like receptor pathways but does not play a central role in the virulence of Y. pestis in a mouse model of bubonic plague.

    PubMed

    Spear, Abigail M; Rana, Rohini R; Jenner, Dominic C; Flick-Smith, Helen C; Oyston, Petra C F; Simpson, Peter; Matthews, Stephen J; Byrne, Bernadette; Atkins, Helen S

    2012-06-01

    The Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (TIR) domain is an essential component of eukaryotic innate immune signalling pathways. Interaction between TIR domains present in Toll-like receptors and associated adaptors initiates and propagates an immune signalling cascade. Proteins containing TIR domains have also been discovered in bacteria. Studies have subsequently shown that these proteins are able to modulate mammalian immune signalling pathways dependent on TIR interactions and that this may represent an evasion strategy for bacterial pathogens. Here, we investigate a TIR domain protein from the highly virulent bacterium Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. When overexpressed in vitro this protein is able to downregulate IL-1β- and LPS-dependent signalling to NFκB and to interact with the TIR adaptor protein MyD88. This interaction is dependent on a single proline residue. However, a Y. pestis knockout mutant lacking the TIR domain protein was not attenuated in virulence in a mouse model of bubonic plague. Minor alterations in the host cytokine response to the mutant were indicated, suggesting a potential subtle role in pathogenesis. The Y. pestis mutant also showed increased auto-aggregation and reduced survival in high-salinity conditions, phenotypes which may contribute to pathogenesis or survival.

  2. Cardiac hypertrophy and failure--a disease of adaptation. Modifications in membrane proteins provide a molecular basis for arrhythmogenicity.

    PubMed

    Moalic, J M; Charlemagne, D; Mansier, P; Chevalier, B; Swynghedauw, B

    1993-05-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is the physiological adaptation of the heart to chronic mechanical overload. Cardiac failure indicates the limits of the process. Cardiac hypertrophy is only one example of biological adaptation and results from the induction of several changes in gene expression, mostly of the fetal type, including those coding for the myosin heavy chain or the alpha-subunit of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase. From a thermodynamic point of view, the decrease in Vmax allows the heart to produce a normal tension at a lower cost. This process results from changes both in the sarcomere and in the expression of certain membrane proteins. The decrease in calcium transient is determined by several changes in membrane proteins that result in a rather fragile equilibrium in terms of calcium homeostasis. Any abnormal input in calcium will have exaggerated detrimental consequences on a hypertrophied myocyte and may cause automaticity and arrhythmias or an exaggerated response to anoxia in terms of compliance. PMID:8485830

  3. Perilipins: Lipid Droplet Coat Proteins Adapted for Tissue-Specific Energy Storage and Utilization, and Lipid Cytoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Sztalryd, Carole; Kimmel, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Cytosolic lipid storage droplets are primary functional organelles that regulate cellular lipid metabolism and homeostasis. Paradoxically, excess lipid stores are linked to both adaptive (fasting and chronic exercise) and mal-adaptive (obesity and related health complications) conditions. Thus, collective metabolic and physiological processes must balance lipid storage and utilization with prevention of lipocytotoxicity and compounding tissue dysfunctions, urging the need to further define the connection of mammalian lipid droplet function and lipid homeostasis. The perilipins are a multi-protein family that targets lipid droplet surfaces and regulates lipid storage and hydrolysis. Study of perilipin functions has provided insight into the physiological roles of cytosolic lipid droplets and their relationship with obesity-related pathologies. Here, we review the current knowledge of the multiple perilipin proteins in regulating tissue-specific lipid droplets and associations with tissue and systemic energetics. PMID:24036367

  4. Lack of hepatic enzymatic adaptation to low and high levels of dietary protein in the adult cat.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Q R; Morris, J G; Freedland, R A

    1977-01-01

    The activities of three urea cycle enzymes, several nitrogen catabolic, gluconeogenic, and lipogenic enzymes were measured in the liver of adult cats fed: a commercial kibble; a 17.5 or 70% protein purified diet, or starved for 5 days. Except for an increase in tyrosine transaminase (EC 2.6.1.5) after feeding the high protein diet, there were no changes in the activities of the hepatic enzymes as influenced by dietary protein level. Likewise, starvation had a minimal effect on the activities of these enzymes as compared to that found in similar experiments in rats. These results indicate that the cat may have only minimal capabilities for enzyme adaptation as compared to that found in many herbivores and omnivores and may provide an explanation as to why cats have an unusually high protein requirement as compared to many other mammals.

  5. Mutation of a cuticular protein, BmorCPR2, alters larval body shape and adaptability in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Liang; Xiong, Gao; Wang, Ri-xin; He, Song-zhen; Chen, Jie; Tong, Xiao-ling; Hu, Hai; Li, Chun-lin; Gai, Ting-ting; Xin, Ya-qun; Liu, Xiao-fan; Chen, Bin; Xiang, Zhong-huai; Lu, Cheng; Dai, Fang-yin

    2014-04-01

    Cuticular proteins (CPs) are crucial components of the insect cuticle. Although numerous genes encoding cuticular proteins have been identified in known insect genomes to date, their functions in maintaining insect body shape and adaptability remain largely unknown. In the current study, positional cloning led to the identification of a gene encoding an RR1-type cuticular protein, BmorCPR2, highly expressed in larval chitin-rich tissues and at the mulberry leaf-eating stages, which is responsible for the silkworm stony mutant. In the Dazao-stony strain, the BmorCPR2 allele is a deletion mutation with significantly lower expression, compared to the wild-type Dazao strain. Dysfunctional BmorCPR2 in the stony mutant lost chitin binding ability, leading to reduced chitin content in larval cuticle, limitation of cuticle extension, abatement of cuticle tensile properties, and aberrant ratio between internodes and intersegmental folds. These variations induce a significant decrease in cuticle capacity to hold the growing internal organs in the larval development process, resulting in whole-body stiffness, tightness, and hardness, bulging intersegmental folds, and serious defects in larval adaptability. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the corresponding phenotype of stony in insects caused by mutation of RR1-type cuticular protein. Our findings collectively shed light on the specific role of cuticular proteins in maintaining normal larval body shape and will aid in the development of pest control strategies for the management of Lepidoptera. PMID:24514903

  6. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of TLR9, MyD88 and TRAF6 genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induction of innate immune pathways is critical for early host defense but there is limited understanding of how teleost fish recognize pathogen molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, cells of the innate immune system detect pathogenic molecular structures using pattern recognition rece...

  7. Functional characterization of bovine TIRAP and MyD88 in mediating bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial NF-kappaB activation and apoptosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is a prevalent disease in dairy cows. Gram-negative bacteria, which express the pro-inflammatory molecule lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are responsible for the majority of acute clinical cases of mastitis. Previous studies have identified differential susceptibility of human and bovine endoth...

  8. Deer Prion Proteins Modulate the Emergence and Adaptation of Chronic Wasting Disease Strains

    PubMed Central

    Duque Velásquez, Camilo; Kim, Chiye; Herbst, Allen; Daude, Nathalie; Garza, Maria Carmen; Wille, Holger; Aiken, Judd

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) between cervids is influenced by the primary structure of the host cellular prion protein (PrPC). In white-tailed deer, PRNP alleles encode the polymorphisms Q95 G96 (wild type [wt]), Q95 S96 (referred to as the S96 allele), and H95 G96 (referred to as the H95 allele), which differentially impact CWD progression. We hypothesize that the transmission of CWD prions between deer expressing different allotypes of PrPC modifies the contagious agent affecting disease spread. To evaluate the transmission properties of CWD prions derived experimentally from deer of four PRNP genotypes (wt/wt, S96/wt, H95/wt, or H95/S96), transgenic (tg) mice expressing the wt allele (tg33) or S96 allele (tg60) were challenged with these prion agents. Passage of deer CWD prions into tg33 mice resulted in 100% attack rates, with the CWD H95/S96 prions having significantly longer incubation periods. The disease signs and neuropathological and protease-resistant prion protein (PrP-res) profiles in infected tg33 mice were similar between groups, indicating that a prion strain (Wisc-1) common to all CWD inocula was amplified. In contrast, tg60 mice developed prion disease only when inoculated with the H95/wt and H95/S96 CWD allotypes. Serial passage in tg60 mice resulted in adaptation of a novel CWD strain (H95+) with distinct biological properties. Transmission of first-passage tg60CWD-H95+ isolates into tg33 mice, however, elicited two prion disease presentations consistent with a mixture of strains associated with different PrP-res glycotypes. Our data indicate that H95-PRNP heterozygous deer accumulated two CWD strains whose emergence was dictated by the PrPC primary structure of the recipient host. These findings suggest that CWD transmission between cervids expressing distinct PrPC molecules results in the generation of novel CWD strains. IMPORTANCE CWD prions are contagious among wild and captive cervids in North America and in South

  9. Unconventional secretion of misfolded proteins promotes adaptation to proteasome dysfunction in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Gu; Takahama, Shokichi; Zhang, Guofeng; Tomarev, Stanislav I; Ye, Yihong

    2016-07-01

    To safeguard proteomic integrity, cells rely on the proteasome to degrade aberrant polypeptides, but it is unclear how cells remove defective proteins that have escaped degradation owing to proteasome insufficiency or dysfunction. Here we report a pathway termed misfolding-associated protein secretion, which uses the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated deubiquitylase USP19 to preferentially export aberrant cytosolic proteins. Intriguingly, the catalytic domain of USP19 possesses an unprecedented chaperone activity, allowing recruitment of misfolded proteins to the ER surface for deubiquitylation. Deubiquitylated cargos are encapsulated into ER-associated late endosomes and secreted to the cell exterior. USP19-deficient cells cannot efficiently secrete unwanted proteins, and grow more slowly than wild-type cells following exposure to a proteasome inhibitor. Together, our findings delineate a protein quality control (PQC) pathway that, unlike degradation-based PQC mechanisms, promotes protein homeostasis by exporting misfolded proteins through an unconventional protein secretion process. PMID:27295555

  10. Adapting the machine: adaptor proteins for Hsp100/Clp and AAA+ proteases.

    PubMed

    Kirstein, Janine; Molière, Noël; Dougan, David A; Turgay, Kürşad

    2009-08-01

    Members of the AAA+ protein superfamily contribute to many diverse aspects of protein homeostasis in prokaryotic cells. As a fundamental component of numerous proteolytic machines in bacteria, AAA+ proteins play a crucial part not only in general protein quality control but also in the regulation of developmental programmes, through the controlled turnover of key proteins such as transcription factors. To manage these many, varied tasks, Hsp100/Clp and AAA+ proteases use specific adaptor proteins to enhance or expand the substrate recognition abilities of their cognate protease. Here, we review our current knowledge of the modulation of bacterial AAA+ proteases by these cellular arbitrators.

  11. The Negatively Charged Regions of Lactoferrin Binding Protein B, an Adaptation against Anti-Microbial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Morgenthau, Ari; Beddek, Amanda; Schryvers, Anthony B.

    2014-01-01

    Lactoferrin binding protein B (LbpB) is a bi-lobed membrane bound lipoprotein that is part of the lactoferrin receptor complex in a variety of Gram-negative pathogens. Despite high sequence diversity among LbpBs from various strains and species, a cluster of negatively charged amino acids is invariably present in the protein’s C-terminal lobe in all species except Moraxella bovis. The function of LbpB in iron acquisition has yet to be experimentally demonstrated, whereas in vitro studies have shown that LbpB confers protection against lactoferricin, a short cationic antimicrobial peptide released from the N- terminus of lactoferrin. In this study we demonstrate that the negatively charged regions can be removed from the Neisseria meningitidis LbpB without compromising stability, and this results in the inability of LbpB to protect against the bactericidal effects of lactoferricin. The release of LbpB from the cell surface by the autotransporter NalP reduces the protection against lactoferricin in the in vitro killing assay, attributed to removal of LbpB during washing steps, but is unlikely to have a similar impact in vivo. The protective effect of the negatively charged polysaccharide capsule in the killing assay was less than the protection conferred by LbpB, suggesting that LbpB plays a major role in protection against cationic antimicrobial peptides in vivo. The selective release of LbpB by NalP has been proposed to be a mechanism for evading the adaptive immune response, by reducing the antibody binding to the cell surface, but may also provide insights into the primary function of LbpB in vivo. Although TbpB and LbpB have been shown to be major targets of the human immune response, the selective release of LbpB suggests that unlike TbpB, LbpB may not be essential for iron acquisition, but important for protection against cationic antimicrobial peptides. PMID:24465982

  12. Selective interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 inhibitors for the treatment of autoimmune disorders and lymphoid malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Priscilla N; Romero, Donna L; Yang, Yibin; Shaffer, Arthur L; Chaudhary, Divya; Robinson, Shaughnessy; Miao, Wenyan; Rui, Lixin; Westlin, William F; Kapeller, Rosana; Staudt, Louis M

    2015-12-14

    Pathological activation of the Toll-like receptor signaling adaptor protein MYD88 underlies many autoimmune and inflammatory disease states. In the activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the oncogenic MYD88 L265P mutation occurs in 29% of cases, making it the most prevalent activating mutation in this malignancy. IRAK4 kinase accounts for almost all of the biological functions of MYD88, highlighting IRAK4 as a therapeutic target for diseases driven by aberrant MYD88 signaling. Using innovative structure-based drug design methodologies, we report the development of highly selective and bioavailable small molecule IRAK4 inhibitors, ND-2158 and ND-2110. These small molecules suppressed LPS-induced TNF production, alleviated collagen-induced arthritis, and blocked gout formation in mouse models. IRAK4 inhibition promoted killing of ABC DLBCL lines harboring MYD88 L265P, by down-modulating survival signals, including NF-κB and autocrine IL-6/IL-10 engagement of the JAK-STAT3 pathway. In ABC DLBCL xenograft models, IRAK4 inhibition suppressed tumor growth as a single agent, and in combination with the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib or the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-199. Our findings support pharmacological inhibition of IRAK4 as a therapeutic strategy in autoimmune disorders, in a genetically defined population of ABC DLBCL, and possibly other malignancies dependent on aberrant MYD88 signaling. PMID:26621451

  13. Selective interleukin-1 receptor–associated kinase 4 inhibitors for the treatment of autoimmune disorders and lymphoid malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Priscilla N.; Romero, Donna L.; Yang, Yibin; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Chaudhary, Divya; Robinson, Shaughnessy; Miao, Wenyan; Rui, Lixin; Westlin, William F.; Kapeller, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    Pathological activation of the Toll-like receptor signaling adaptor protein MYD88 underlies many autoimmune and inflammatory disease states. In the activated B cell–like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the oncogenic MYD88 L265P mutation occurs in 29% of cases, making it the most prevalent activating mutation in this malignancy. IRAK4 kinase accounts for almost all of the biological functions of MYD88, highlighting IRAK4 as a therapeutic target for diseases driven by aberrant MYD88 signaling. Using innovative structure-based drug design methodologies, we report the development of highly selective and bioavailable small molecule IRAK4 inhibitors, ND-2158 and ND-2110. These small molecules suppressed LPS-induced TNF production, alleviated collagen-induced arthritis, and blocked gout formation in mouse models. IRAK4 inhibition promoted killing of ABC DLBCL lines harboring MYD88 L265P, by down-modulating survival signals, including NF-κB and autocrine IL-6/IL-10 engagement of the JAK–STAT3 pathway. In ABC DLBCL xenograft models, IRAK4 inhibition suppressed tumor growth as a single agent, and in combination with the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib or the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-199. Our findings support pharmacological inhibition of IRAK4 as a therapeutic strategy in autoimmune disorders, in a genetically defined population of ABC DLBCL, and possibly other malignancies dependent on aberrant MYD88 signaling. PMID:26621451

  14. A Comparative Pan-Genome Perspective of Niche-Adaptable Cell-Surface Protein Phenotypes in Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ravi; Sigvart-Mattila, Pia; Paulin, Lars; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Saarela, Maria; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a ubiquitously adaptable Gram-positive bacterium and as a typical commensal can be recovered from various microbe-accessible bodily orifices and cavities. Then again, other isolates are food-borne, with some of these having been long associated with naturally fermented cheeses and yogurts. Additionally, because of perceived health benefits to humans and animals, numerous L. rhamnosus strains have been selected for use as so-called probiotics and are often taken in the form of dietary supplements and functional foods. At the genome level, it is anticipated that certain genetic variances will have provided the niche-related phenotypes that augment the flexible adaptiveness of this species, thus enabling its strains to grow and survive in their respective host environments. For this present study, we considered it functionally informative to examine and catalogue the genotype-phenotype variation existing at the cell surface between different L. rhamnosus strains, with the presumption that this might be relatable to habitat preferences and ecological adaptability. Here, we conducted a pan-genomic study involving 13 genomes from L. rhamnosus isolates with various origins. In using a benchmark strain (gut-adapted L. rhamnosus GG) for our pan-genome comparison, we had focused our efforts on a detailed examination and description of gene products for certain functionally relevant surface-exposed proteins, each of which in effect might also play a part in niche adaptability among the other strains. Perhaps most significantly of the surface protein loci we had analyzed, it would appear that the spaCBA operon (known to encode SpaCBA-called pili having a mucoadhesive phenotype) is a genomic rarity and an uncommon occurrence in L. rhamnosus. However, for any of the so-piliated L. rhamnosus strains, they will likely possess an increased niche-specific fitness, which functionally might presumably be manifested by a protracted transient colonization of

  15. Lysine63-linked ubiquitylation of PIN2 auxin carrier protein governs hormonally controlled adaptation of Arabidopsis root growth.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Johannes; Petrášek, Jan; Tomanov, Konstantin; Retzer, Katarzyna; Pařezová, Markéta; Korbei, Barbara; Bachmair, Andreas; Zažímalová, Eva; Luschnig, Christian

    2012-05-22

    Cross-talk between plant cells and their surroundings requires tight regulation of information exchange at the plasma membrane (PM), which involves dynamic adjustments of PM protein localization and turnover to modulate signal perception and solute transport at the interface between cells and their surroundings. In animals and fungi, turnover of PM proteins is controlled by reversible ubiquitylation, which signals endocytosis and delivery to the cell's lytic compartment, and there is emerging evidence for related mechanisms in plants. Here, we describe the fate of Arabidopsis PIN2 protein, required for directional cellular efflux of the phytohormone auxin, and identify cis- and trans-acting mediators of PIN2 ubiquitylation. We demonstrate that ubiquitin acts as a principal signal for PM protein endocytosis in plants and reveal dynamic adjustments in PIN2 ubiquitylation coinciding with variations in vacuolar targeting and proteolytic turnover. We show that control of PIN2 proteolytic turnover via its ubiquitylation status is of significant importance for auxin distribution in root meristems and for environmentally controlled adaptations of root growth. Moreover, we provide experimental evidence indicating that PIN2 vacuolar sorting depends on modification specifically by lysine(63)-linked ubiquitin chains. Collectively, our results establish lysine(63)-linked PM cargo ubiquitylation as a regulator of polar auxin transport and adaptive growth responses in higher plants.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Tanshinone IIA in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages via miRNAs and TLR4-NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guanwei; Jiang, Xiaorui; Wu, Xiaoyan; Fordjour, Patrick Asare; Miao, Lin; Zhang, Han; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiumei

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation is a physiological response to infection or injury and involves the innate and adaptive immune system. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a well-known flavonoid that elicits an important therapeutic effect by inhibiting inflammatory response. In this study, we examined whether Tan IIA exerts anti-inflammatory activity and investigated the possible mechanisms, including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MyD88-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway and microRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Tan IIA could attenuate the inflammatory reaction via decreasing cytokine, chemokine, and acute-phase protein production, including GM-CSF, sICAM-1, cxcl-1, MIP-1α, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), analyzed by Proteome profile array in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Concurrently, the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 were also significantly reduced by Tan IIA. Additionally, Tan IIA decreased LPS-induced NF-κB activation and downregulated TLR4 and MyD88 protein expression levels. We also observed reduced microRNA-155, miR-147, miR-184, miR-29b, and miR-34c expression levels, while LPS-induced microRNA-105, miR-145a, miR-194, miR-383, miR-132, and miR-451a expression levels were upregulated using microRNA (miRNA) qPCR array. Our results indicate that Tan IIA could exert an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells by decreasing TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway and regulating a series of cytokine production and miRNA expression. PMID:26639663

  17. Deletion of the protein kinase A/protein kinase G target SMTNL1 promotes an exercise-adapted phenotype in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Anne A; Fortner, Christopher N; Lontay, Beata; Akimoto, Takayuki; Neppl, Ronald L; Facemire, Carie; Datto, Michael B; Kwon, Ashley; McCook, Everett; Li, Ping; Wang, Shiliang; Thresher, Randy J; Miller, Sara E; Perriard, Jean-Claude; Gavin, Timothy P; Hickner, Robert C; Coffman, Thomas M; Somlyo, Avril V; Yan, Zhen; Haystead, Timothy A J

    2008-04-25

    In vivo protein kinases A and G (PKA and PKG) coordinately phosphorylate a broad range of substrates to mediate their various physiological effects. The functions of many of these substrates have yet to be defined genetically. Herein we show a role for smoothelin-like protein 1 (SMTNL1), a novel in vivo target of PKG/PKA, in mediating vascular adaptations to exercise. Aortas from smtnl1(-/-) mice exhibited strikingly enhanced vasorelaxation before exercise, similar in extent to that achieved after endurance training of wild-type littermates. Additionally, contractile responses to alpha-adrenergic agonists were greatly attenuated. Immunological studies showed SMTNL1 is expressed in smooth muscle and type 2a striated muscle fibers. Consistent with a role in adaptations to exercise, smtnl1(-/-) mice also exhibited increased type 2a fibers before training and better performance after forced endurance training compared smtnl1(+/+) mice. Furthermore, exercise was found to reduce expression of SMTNL1, particularly in female mice. In both muscle types, SMTNL1 is phosphorylated at Ser-301 in response to adrenergic signals. In vitro SMTNL1 suppresses myosin phosphatase activity through a substrate-directed effect, which is relieved by Ser-301 phosphorylation. Our findings suggest roles for SMTNL1 in cGMP/cAMP-mediated adaptations to exercise through mechanisms involving direct modulation of contractile activity.

  18. Characterization of promoter region and genomic structure of the murine and human genes encoding Src like adapter protein.

    PubMed

    Kratchmarova, I; Sosinowski, T; Weiss, A; Witter, K; Vincenz, C; Pandey, A

    2001-01-10

    Src-like adapter protein (SLAP) was identified as a signaling molecule in a yeast two-hybrid system using the cytoplasmic domain of EphA2, a receptor protein tyrosine kinase (Pandey et al., 1995. Characterization of a novel Src-like adapter protein that associates with the Eck receptor tyrosine kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 19201-19204). It is very similar to members of the Src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases in that it contains very homologous SH3 and SH2 domains (Abram and Courtneidge, 2000. Src family tyrosine kinases and growth factor signaling. Exp. Cell. Res. 254, 1-13.). However, instead of a kinase domain at the C-terminus, it contains a unique C-terminal region. In order to exclude the possibility that an alternative form exists, we have isolated genomic clones containing the murine Slap gene as well as the human SLA gene. The coding regions of murine Slap and human SLA genes contain seven exons and six introns. Absence of any kinase domain in the genomic region confirm its designation as an adapter protein. Additionally, we have cloned and sequenced approximately 2.6 kb of the region 5' to the initiator methionine of the murine Slap gene. When subcloned upstream of a luciferase gene, this fragment increased the transcriptional activity about 6-fold in a human Jurkat T cell line and approximately 52-fold in a murine T cell line indicating that this region contains promoter elements that dictate SLAP expression. We have also cloned the promoter region of the human SLA gene. Since SLAP is transcriptionally regulated by retinoic acid and by activation of B cells, the cloning of its promoter region will permit a detailed analysis of the elements required for its transcriptional regulation.

  19. Exercise, skeletal muscle and inflammation: ARE-binding proteins as key regulators in inflammatory and adaptive networks.

    PubMed

    Beiter, Thomas; Hoene, Miriam; Prenzler, Frauke; Mooren, Frank C; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Weigert, Cora; Nieß, Andreas M; Munz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The role of inflammation in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise is complex and has hardly been elucidated so far. While the acute inflammatory response to exercise seems to promote skeletal muscle training adaptation and regeneration, persistent, low-grade inflammation, as seen in a multitude of chronic diseases, is obviously detrimental. The regulation of cytokine production in skeletal muscle cells has been relatively well studied, yet little is known about the compensatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms that resolve inflammation and restore tissue homeostasis. One important strategy to ensure sequential, timely and controlled resolution of inflammation relies on the regulated stability of mRNAs encoding pro-inflammatory mediators. Many key transcripts in early immune responses are characterized by the presence of AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3'-untranslated regions of their mRNAs, allowing efficient fine-tuning of gene expression patterns at the post-transcriptional level. AREs exert their function by recruiting particular RNA-binding proteins, resulting, in most cases, in de-stabilization of the target transcripts. The best-characterized ARE-binding proteins are HuR, CUGBP1, KSRP, AUF1, and the three ZFP36 proteins, especially TTP/ZFP36. Here, we give a general introduction into the role of inflammation in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise. Subsequently, we focus on potential roles of ARE-binding proteins in skeletal muscle tissue in general and specifically exercise-induced skeletal muscle remodeling. Finally, we present novel data suggesting a specific function of TTP/ZFP36 in exercise-induced skeletal muscle plasticity.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Identifies Infection-specific, Redox Associated Proteins and Insight into Adaptation to Different Plant Hosts.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jonathan P; Hane, James K; Stoll, Thomas; Pain, Nicholas; Hastie, Marcus L; Kaur, Parwinder; Hoogland, Christine; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Singh, Karam B

    2016-04-01

    Rhizoctonia solaniis an important root infecting pathogen of a range of food staples worldwide including wheat, rice, maize, soybean, potato and others. Conventional resistance breeding strategies are hindered by the absence of tractable genetic resistance in any crop host. Understanding the biology and pathogenicity mechanisms of this fungus is important for addressing these disease issues, however, little is known about howR. solanicauses disease. This study capitalizes on recent genomic studies by applying mass spectrometry based proteomics to identify soluble, membrane-bound and culture filtrate proteins produced under wheat infection and vegetative growth conditions. Many of the proteins found in the culture filtrate had predicted functions relating to modification of the plant cell wall, a major activity required for pathogenesis on the plant host, including a number found only under infection conditions. Other infection related proteins included a high proportion of proteins with redox associated functions and many novel proteins without functional classification. The majority of infection only proteins tested were confirmed to show transcript up-regulation during infection including a thaumatin which increased susceptibility toR. solaniwhen expressed inNicotiana benthamiana In addition, analysis of expression during infection of different plant hosts highlighted how the infection strategy of this broad host range pathogen can be adapted to the particular host being encountered. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002806.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Identifies Infection-specific, Redox Associated Proteins and Insight into Adaptation to Different Plant Hosts.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jonathan P; Hane, James K; Stoll, Thomas; Pain, Nicholas; Hastie, Marcus L; Kaur, Parwinder; Hoogland, Christine; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Singh, Karam B

    2016-04-01

    Rhizoctonia solaniis an important root infecting pathogen of a range of food staples worldwide including wheat, rice, maize, soybean, potato and others. Conventional resistance breeding strategies are hindered by the absence of tractable genetic resistance in any crop host. Understanding the biology and pathogenicity mechanisms of this fungus is important for addressing these disease issues, however, little is known about howR. solanicauses disease. This study capitalizes on recent genomic studies by applying mass spectrometry based proteomics to identify soluble, membrane-bound and culture filtrate proteins produced under wheat infection and vegetative growth conditions. Many of the proteins found in the culture filtrate had predicted functions relating to modification of the plant cell wall, a major activity required for pathogenesis on the plant host, including a number found only under infection conditions. Other infection related proteins included a high proportion of proteins with redox associated functions and many novel proteins without functional classification. The majority of infection only proteins tested were confirmed to show transcript up-regulation during infection including a thaumatin which increased susceptibility toR. solaniwhen expressed inNicotiana benthamiana In addition, analysis of expression during infection of different plant hosts highlighted how the infection strategy of this broad host range pathogen can be adapted to the particular host being encountered. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002806. PMID:26811357

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Identifies Infection-specific, Redox Associated Proteins and Insight into Adaptation to Different Plant Hosts*

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jonathan P.; Hane, James K.; Stoll, Thomas; Pain, Nicholas; Hastie, Marcus L.; Kaur, Parwinder; Hoogland, Christine; Gorman, Jeffrey J.; Singh, Karam B.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important root infecting pathogen of a range of food staples worldwide including wheat, rice, maize, soybean, potato and others. Conventional resistance breeding strategies are hindered by the absence of tractable genetic resistance in any crop host. Understanding the biology and pathogenicity mechanisms of this fungus is important for addressing these disease issues, however, little is known about how R. solani causes disease. This study capitalizes on recent genomic studies by applying mass spectrometry based proteomics to identify soluble, membrane-bound and culture filtrate proteins produced under wheat infection and vegetative growth conditions. Many of the proteins found in the culture filtrate had predicted functions relating to modification of the plant cell wall, a major activity required for pathogenesis on the plant host, including a number found only under infection conditions. Other infection related proteins included a high proportion of proteins with redox associated functions and many novel proteins without functional classification. The majority of infection only proteins tested were confirmed to show transcript up-regulation during infection including a thaumatin which increased susceptibility to R. solani when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. In addition, analysis of expression during infection of different plant hosts highlighted how the infection strategy of this broad host range pathogen can be adapted to the particular host being encountered. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002806. PMID:26811357

  3. Degradation of Human PDZ-Proteins by Human Alphapapillomaviruses Represents an Evolutionary Adaptation to a Novel Cellular Niche.

    PubMed

    Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; DeSalle, Rob; Einstein, Mark H; Burk, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    In order to complete their life cycle, papillomaviruses have evolved to manipulate a plethora of cellular pathways. The products of the human Alphapapillomavirus E6 proteins specifically interact with and target PDZ containing proteins for degradation. This viral phenotype has been suggested to play a role in viral oncogenesis. To analyze the association of HPV E6 mediated PDZ-protein degradation with cervical oncogenesis, a high-throughput cell culture assay was developed. Degradation of an epitope tagged human MAGI1 isoform was visualized by immunoblot. The correlation between HPV E6-induced degradation of hMAGI1 and epidemiologically determined HPV oncogenicity was evaluated using a Bayesian approach within a phylogenetic context. All tested oncogenic types degraded the PDZ-containing protein hMAGI1d; however, E6 proteins isolated from several related albeit non-oncogenic viral types were equally efficient at degrading hMAGI1. The relationship between both traits (oncogenicity and PDZ degradation potential) is best explained by a model in which the potential to degrade PDZ proteins was acquired prior to the oncogenic phenotype. This analysis provides evidence that the ancestor of both oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPVs acquired the potential to degrade human PDZ-containing proteins. This suggests that HPV E6 directed degradation of PDZ-proteins represents an ancient ecological niche adaptation. Phylogenetic modeling indicates that this phenotype is not specifically correlated with oncogenic risk, but may act as an enabling phenotype. The role of PDZ protein degradation in HPV fitness and oncogenesis needs to be interpreted in the context of Alphapapillomavirus evolution.

  4. Degradation of Human PDZ-Proteins by Human Alphapapillomaviruses Represents an Evolutionary Adaptation to a Novel Cellular Niche

    PubMed Central

    Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; DeSalle, Rob; Einstein, Mark H.; Burk, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to complete their life cycle, papillomaviruses have evolved to manipulate a plethora of cellular pathways. The products of the human Alphapapillomavirus E6 proteins specifically interact with and target PDZ containing proteins for degradation. This viral phenotype has been suggested to play a role in viral oncogenesis. To analyze the association of HPV E6 mediated PDZ-protein degradation with cervical oncogenesis, a high-throughput cell culture assay was developed. Degradation of an epitope tagged human MAGI1 isoform was visualized by immunoblot. The correlation between HPV E6-induced degradation of hMAGI1 and epidemiologically determined HPV oncogenicity was evaluated using a Bayesian approach within a phylogenetic context. All tested oncogenic types degraded the PDZ-containing protein hMAGI1d; however, E6 proteins isolated from several related albeit non-oncogenic viral types were equally efficient at degrading hMAGI1. The relationship between both traits (oncogenicity and PDZ degradation potential) is best explained by a model in which the potential to degrade PDZ proteins was acquired prior to the oncogenic phenotype. This analysis provides evidence that the ancestor of both oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPVs acquired the potential to degrade human PDZ-containing proteins. This suggests that HPV E6 directed degradation of PDZ-proteins represents an ancient ecological niche adaptation. Phylogenetic modeling indicates that this phenotype is not specifically correlated with oncogenic risk, but may act as an enabling phenotype. The role of PDZ protein degradation in HPV fitness and oncogenesis needs to be interpreted in the context of Alphapapillomavirus evolution. PMID:26086730

  5. A Reevaluation of the Role of the Unfolded Protein Response in Islet Dysfunction: Maladaptation or a Failure to Adapt?

    PubMed

    Herbert, Terence P; Laybutt, D Ross

    2016-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by perturbations in ER homeostasis activates an adaptive response termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) whose function is to resolve ER stress. If unsuccessful, the UPR initiates a proapoptotic program to eliminate the malfunctioning cells from the organism. It is the activation of this proapoptotic UPR in pancreatic β-cells that has been implicated in the onset of type 2 diabetes and thus, in this context, is considered a maladaptive response. However, there is growing evidence that β-cell death in type 2 diabetes may not be caused by a maladaptive UPR but by the inhibition of the adaptive UPR. In this review, we discuss the evidence for a role of the UPR in β-cell dysfunction and death in the development of type 2 diabetes and ask the following question: Is β-cell dysfunction the result of a maladaptive UPR or a failure of the UPR to adequately adapt? The answer to this question is critically important in defining potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. In addition, we discuss the potential role of the adaptive UPR in staving off type 2 diabetes by enhancing β-cell mass and function in response to insulin resistance. PMID:27222391

  6. Adaptive selection and coevolution at the proteins of the Polycomb repressive complexes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Martín, J M; Librado, P; Aguadé, M; Papaceit, M; Segarra, C

    2016-02-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are important epigenetic regulatory proteins that modulate the chromatin state through posttranslational histone modifications. These interacting proteins form multimeric complexes that repress gene expression. Thus, PcG proteins are expected to evolve coordinately, which might be reflected in their phylogenetic trees by concordant episodes of positive selection and by a correlation in evolutionary rates. In order to detect these signals of coevolution, the molecular evolution of 17 genes encoding the subunits of five Polycomb repressive complexes has been analyzed in the Drosophila genus. The observed distribution of divergence differs substantially among and along proteins. Indeed, CAF1 is uniformly conserved, whereas only the established protein domains are conserved in other proteins, such as PHO, PHOL, PSC, PH-P and ASX. Moreover, regions with a low divergence not yet described as protein domains are present, for instance, in SFMBT and SU(Z)12. Maximum likelihood methods indicate an acceleration in the nonsynonymous substitution rate at the lineage ancestral to the obscura group species in most genes encoding subunits of the Pcl-PRC2 complex and in genes Sfmbt, Psc and Kdm2. These methods also allow inferring the action of positive selection in this lineage at genes E(z) and Sfmbt. Finally, the protein interaction network predicted from the complete proteomes of 12 Drosophila species using a coevolutionary approach shows two tight PcG clusters. These clusters include well-established binary interactions among PcG proteins as well as new putative interactions.

  7. Proteomic Profiling of Cereal Aphid Saliva Reveals Both Ubiquitous and Adaptive Secreted Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Tom L.

    2013-01-01

    The secreted salivary proteins from two cereal aphid species, Sitobion avenae and Metopolophium dirhodum, were collected from artificial diets and analysed by tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed by searching MS data against the official protein set from the current pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) genome assembly and revealed 12 and 7 proteins in the saliva of S. avenae and M. dirhodum, respectively. When combined with a comparable dataset from A. pisum, only three individual proteins were common to all the aphid species; two paralogues of the GMC oxidoreductase family (glucose dehydrogenase; GLD) and ACYPI009881, an aphid specific protein previously identified as a putative component of the salivary sheath. Antibodies were designed from translated protein sequences obtained from partial cDNA sequences for ACYPI009881 and both saliva associated GLDs. The antibodies detected all parent proteins in secreted saliva from the three aphid species, but could only detect ACYPI009881, and not saliva associated GLDs, in protein extractions from the salivary glands. This result was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using whole and sectioned salivary glands, and in addition, localised ACYPI009881 to specific cell types within the principal salivary gland. The implications of these findings for the origin of salivary components and the putative role of the proteins identified are discussed in the context of our limited understanding of the functional relationship between aphid saliva and the plants they feed on. The mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange and can be accessed under the identifier PXD000113. PMID:23460852

  8. Adaptation to ER Stress Is Mediated by Differential Stabilities of Pro-Survival and Pro-Apoptotic mRNAs and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, D. Thomas; Arnold, Stacey M; Miller, Corey N; Wu, Jun; Li, Jack; Gunnison, Kathryn M; Mori, Kazutoshi; Sadighi Akha, Amir A.; Raden, David; Kaufman, Randal J

    2006-01-01

    The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates a signaling cascade known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Although activation of the UPR is well described, there is little sense of how the response, which initiates both apoptotic and adaptive pathways, can selectively allow for adaptation. Here we describe the reconstitution of an adaptive ER stress response in a cell culture system. Monitoring the activation and maintenance of representative UPR gene expression pathways that facilitate either adaptation or apoptosis, we demonstrate that mild ER stress activates all UPR sensors. However, survival is favored during mild stress as a consequence of the intrinsic instabilities of mRNAs and proteins that promote apoptosis compared to those that facilitate protein folding and adaptation. As a consequence, the expression of apoptotic proteins is short-lived as cells adapt to stress. We provide evidence that the selective persistence of ER chaperone expression is also applicable to at least one instance of genetic ER stress. This work provides new insight into how a stress response pathway can be structured to allow cells to avert death as they adapt. It underscores the contribution of posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms in influencing this outcome. PMID:17090218

  9. Seasonal proteomic changes reveal molecular adaptations to preserve and replenish liver proteins during ground squirrel hibernation.

    PubMed

    Epperson, L Elaine; Rose, James C; Carey, Hannah V; Martin, Sandra L

    2010-02-01

    Hibernators are unique among mammals in their ability to survive extended periods of time with core body temperatures near freezing and with dramatically reduced heart, respiratory, and metabolic rates in a state known as torpor. To gain insight into the molecular events underlying this remarkable physiological phenotype, we applied a proteomic screening approach to identify liver proteins that differ between the summer active (SA) and the entrance (Ent) phase of winter hibernation in 13-lined ground squirrels. The relative abundance of 1,600 protein spots separated on two-dimensional gels was quantitatively determined using fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis, and 74 unique proteins exhibiting significant differences between the two states were identified using liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Proteins elevated in Ent hibernators included liver fatty acid-binding protein, fatty acid transporter, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase, which support the known metabolic fuel switch to lipid and ketone body utilization in winter. Several proteins involved in protein stability and protein folding were also elevated in the Ent phase, consistent with previous findings. In contrast to transcript screening results, there was a surprising increase in the abundance of proteins involved in protein synthesis during Ent hibernation, including several initiation and elongation factors. This finding, coupled with decreased abundance of numerous proteins involved in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, supports the intriguing hypothesis that the mechanism of protein preservation and resynthesis is used by hibernating ground squirrels to help avoid nitrogen toxicity and ensure preservation of essential amino acids throughout the long winter fast.

  10. Duplication and Adaptive Evolution of a Key Centromeric Protein in Mimulus, a Genus with Female Meiotic Drive.

    PubMed

    Finseth, Findley R; Dong, Yuzhu; Saunders, Arpiar; Fishman, Lila

    2015-10-01

    The fundamental asymmetry of female meiosis creates an arena for genetic elements to compete for inclusion in the egg, promoting the selfish evolution of centromere variants that maximize their transmission to the future egg. Such "female meiotic drive" has been hypothesized to explain the paradoxically complex and rapidly evolving nature of centromeric DNA and proteins. Although theoretically widespread, few cases of active drive have been observed, thereby limiting the opportunities to directly assess the impact of centromeric drive on molecular variation at centromeres and binding proteins. Here, we characterize the molecular evolutionary patterns of CENH3, the centromere-defining histone variant, in Mimulus monkeyflowers, a genus with one of the few known cases of active centromere-associated female meiotic drive. First, we identify a novel duplication of CENH3 in diploid Mimulus, including in lineages with actively driving centromeres. Second, we demonstrate long-term adaptive evolution at several sites in the N-terminus of CENH3, a region with some meiosis-specific functions that putatively interacts with centromeric DNA. Finally, we infer that the paralogs evolve under different selective regimes; some sites in the N-terminus evolve under positive selection in the pro-orthologs or only one paralog (CENH3_B) and the paralogs exhibit significantly different patterns of polymorphism within populations. Our finding of long-term, adaptive evolution at CENH3 in the context of centromere-associated meiotic drive supports an antagonistic, coevolutionary battle for evolutionary dominance between centromeric DNA and binding proteins.

  11. Early origin and adaptive evolution of the GW182 protein family, the key component of RNA silencing in animals

    PubMed Central

    Zielezinski, Andrzej; Karlowski, Wojciech M

    2015-01-01

    The GW182 proteins are a key component of the miRNA-dependent post-transcriptional silencing pathway in animals. They function as scaffold proteins to mediate the interaction of Argonaute (AGO)-containing complexes with cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding proteins (PABP) and PAN2-PAN3 and CCR4-NOT deadenylases. The AGO-GW182 complexes mediate silencing of the target mRNA through induction of translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. Although the GW182 proteins are a subject of extensive experimental research in the recent years, very little is known about their origin and evolution. Here, based on complex functional annotation and phylogenetic analyses, we reveal 448 members of the GW182 protein family from the earliest animals to humans. Our results indicate that a single-copy GW182/TNRC6C progenitor gene arose with the emergence of multicellularity and it multiplied in the last common ancestor of vertebrates in 2 rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) resulting in 3 genes. Before the divergence of vertebrates, both the AGO- and CCR4-NOT-binding regions of GW182s showed significant acceleration in the accumulation of amino acid changes, suggesting functional adaptation toward higher specificity to the molecules of the silencing complex. We conclude that the silencing ability of the GW182 proteins improves with higher position in the taxonomic classification and increasing complexity of the organism. The first reconstruction of the molecular journey of GW182 proteins from the ancestral metazoan protein to the current mammalian configuration provides new insight into development of the miRNA-dependent post-transcriptional silencing pathway in animals. PMID:26106978

  12. Amino Acid Substitutions in Cold-Adapted Proteins from Halorubrum lacusprofundi, an Extremely Halophilic Microbe from Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    DasSarma, Shiladitya; Capes, Melinda D.; Karan, Ram; DasSarma, Priya

    2013-01-01

    The halophilic Archaeon Halorubrum lacusprofundi, isolated from the perennially cold and hypersaline Deep Lake in Antarctica, was recently sequenced and compared to 12 Haloarchaea from temperate climates by comparative genomics. Amino acid substitutions for 604 H. lacusprofundi proteins belonging to conserved haloarchaeal orthologous groups (cHOGs) were determined and found to occur at 7.85% of positions invariant in proteins from mesophilic Haloarchaea. The following substitutions were observed most frequently: (a) glutamic acid with aspartic acid or alanine; (b) small polar residues with other small polar or non-polar amino acids; (c) small non-polar residues with other small non-polar residues; (d) aromatic residues, especially tryptophan, with other aromatic residues; and (e) some larger polar residues with other similar residues. Amino acid substitutions for a cold-active H. lacusprofundi β-galactosidase were then examined in the context of a homology modeled structure at residues invariant in homologous enzymes from mesophilic Haloarchaea. Similar substitutions were observed as in the genome-wide approach, with the surface accessible regions of β-galactosidase displaying reduced acidity and increased hydrophobicity, and internal regions displaying mainly subtle changes among smaller non-polar and polar residues. These findings are consistent with H. lacusprofundi proteins displaying amino acid substitutions that increase structural flexibility and protein function at low temperature. We discuss the likely mechanisms of protein adaptation to a cold, hypersaline environment on Earth, with possible relevance to life elsewhere. PMID:23536799

  13. Protein evaluation of four oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars adapted for cultivation in the south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pedó, I; Sgarbieri, V C; Gutkoski, L C

    1999-01-01

    Four oat cultivars adapted for soil and climate conditions in the southern region of Brazil were evaluated for protein nutritive value. Evaluations were done both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro evaluation was done by essential amino acid profile, available lysine, amino acid scoring, and protein digestibility corrected amino acid-scoring (PDCAAS). Nitrogen balance indices and PER were determined in vivo with rats. In all four cultivars (UFP-15, UFP-16, CTC-03, UFRGS-14), lysine was the most limiting amino acid. Available lysine, amino acid score and PDCAAS were highest for cultivar UFRGS-14 and lowest for CTC-03. When compared to casein, only nitrogen retention for UFRGS-14 did not differ statistically (p>0.05); all other indices of protein quality were inferior to casein for the oat cultivars. The oat cultivars tended to be identical among themselves, except for apparent protein digestibility which was significantly higher in the UFRGS-14 and CTC-03 cultivars. On average, the PER values of the oat cultivars were 82% of casein; the net protein utilization was 88% of casein as determined in vivo and 49% by the estimation in vitro (PDCAAS). PMID:10540981

  14. Protein evaluation of four oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars adapted for cultivation in the south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pedó, I; Sgarbieri, V C; Gutkoski, L C

    1999-01-01

    Four oat cultivars adapted for soil and climate conditions in the southern region of Brazil were evaluated for protein nutritive value. Evaluations were done both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro evaluation was done by essential amino acid profile, available lysine, amino acid scoring, and protein digestibility corrected amino acid-scoring (PDCAAS). Nitrogen balance indices and PER were determined in vivo with rats. In all four cultivars (UFP-15, UFP-16, CTC-03, UFRGS-14), lysine was the most limiting amino acid. Available lysine, amino acid score and PDCAAS were highest for cultivar UFRGS-14 and lowest for CTC-03. When compared to casein, only nitrogen retention for UFRGS-14 did not differ statistically (p>0.05); all other indices of protein quality were inferior to casein for the oat cultivars. The oat cultivars tended to be identical among themselves, except for apparent protein digestibility which was significantly higher in the UFRGS-14 and CTC-03 cultivars. On average, the PER values of the oat cultivars were 82% of casein; the net protein utilization was 88% of casein as determined in vivo and 49% by the estimation in vitro (PDCAAS).

  15. Adaptation of model proteins from cold to hot environments involves continuous and small adjustments of average parameters related to amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    De Vendittis, Emmanuele; Castellano, Immacolata; Cotugno, Roberta; Ruocco, Maria Rosaria; Raimo, Gennaro; Masullo, Mariorosario

    2008-01-01

    The growth temperature adaptation of six model proteins has been studied in 42 microorganisms belonging to eubacterial and archaeal kingdoms, covering optimum growth temperatures from 7 to 103 degrees C. The selected proteins include three elongation factors involved in translation, the enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase, the cell division protein FtsZ. The common strategy of protein adaptation from cold to hot environments implies the occurrence of small changes in the amino acid composition, without altering the overall structure of the macromolecule. These continuous adjustments were investigated through parameters related to the amino acid composition of each protein. The average value per residue of mass, volume and accessible surface area allowed an evaluation of the usage of bulky residues, whereas the average hydrophobicity reflected that of hydrophobic residues. The specific proportion of bulky and hydrophobic residues in each protein almost linearly increased with the temperature of the host microorganism. This finding agrees with the structural and functional properties exhibited by proteins in differently adapted sources, thus explaining the great compactness or the high flexibility exhibited by (hyper)thermophilic or psychrophilic proteins, respectively. Indeed, heat-adapted proteins incline toward the usage of heavier-size and more hydrophobic residues with respect to mesophiles, whereas the cold-adapted macromolecules show the opposite behavior with a certain preference for smaller-size and less hydrophobic residues. An investigation on the different increase of bulky residues along with the growth temperature observed in the six model proteins suggests the relevance of the possible different role and/or structure organization played by protein domains. The significance of the linear correlations between growth temperature and parameters related to the amino acid composition improved when the analysis was

  16. Comparative expression study to increase the solubility of cold adapted Vibrio proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Niiranen, Laila; Espelid, Sigrun; Karlsen, Christian R; Mustonen, Milla; Paulsen, Steinar M; Heikinheimo, Pirkko; Willassen, Nils P

    2007-03-01

    Functional and structural studies require gene overexpression and purification of soluble proteins. We wanted to express proteins from the psychrophilic bacterium Vibrio salmonicida in Escherichia coli, but encountered solubility problems. To improve the solubility of the proteins, we compared the effects of six N-terminal fusion proteins (Gb1, Z, thioredoxin, GST, MBP and NusA) and an N-terminal His6-tag. The selected test set included five proteins from the fish pathogen V. salmonicida and two related products from the mesophilic human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. We tested the expression in two different expression strains and at three different temperatures (16, 23 and 37 degrees C). His6-tag was the least effective tag, and these vector constructs were also difficult to transform. MBP and NusA performed best, expressing soluble proteins with all fusion partners in at least one of the cell types. In some cases MBP, GST and thioredoxin fusions resulted in products of incorrect size. The effect of temperature is complex: in most cases level of expression increased with temperature, whereas the effect on solubility was opposite. We found no clear connection between the preferred expression temperature of the protein and the temperature of the original host organism's natural habitat.

  17. Expression of Src-like adapter protein mRNA is induced by all-trans retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, T; Hatake, K; Ikeda, M; Tomizuka, H; Terui, Y; Uwai, M; Miura, Y

    1997-01-01

    By using a differential display method, specific bands were selected from ladder PCR products derived from ATRA-dependent differentiated U937 cells, in comparison with those of untreated U937. By screening the cDNA library of ATRA-dependent differentiated U937 cells with one of the PCR products, we cloned the src-like adapter protein (SLAP). Northern blot analysis of U937 cells with or without ATRA treatment indicated that the SLAP mRNA was clearly induced by ATRA. The induction was inhibited by the addition of cycloheximide, indicating that ATRA acted indirectly through synthesis of other proteins. The SLAP mRNA was induced in HL60 and NB-4 but not in K562 or THP-1. Interestingly, these cells in which SLAP mRNA was induced by ATRA all showed ATRA-dependent cell differentiation. The relationship between SLAP and cell differentiation is unclear, but SLAP may transduce a signal for cell differentiation.

  18. Toll-like receptor and tumour necrosis factor dependent endotoxin-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Togbe, Dieudonnée; Schnyder-Candrian, Silvia; Schnyder, Bruno; Doz, Emilie; Noulin, Nicolas; Janot, Laure; Secher, Thomas; Gasse, Pamela; Lima, Carla; Coelho, Fernando Rodrigues; Vasseur, Virginie; Erard, François; Ryffel, Bernhard; Couillin, Isabelle; Moser, Rene

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies on endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute inflammatory response in the lung are reviewed. The acute airway inflammatory response to inhaled endotoxin is mediated through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 signalling as mice deficient for TLR4 or CD14 are unresponsive to endotoxin. Acute bronchoconstriction, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-12 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) production, protein leak and neutrophil recruitment in the lung are abrogated in mice deficient for the adaptor molecules myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), but independent of TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF). In particular, LPS-induced TNF is required for bronchoconstriction, but dispensable for inflammatory cell recruitment. Lipopolysaccharide induces activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Inhibition of pulmonary MAPK activity abrogates LPS-induced TNF production, bronchoconstriction, neutrophil recruitment into the lungs and broncho-alveolar space. In conclusion, TLR4-mediated, bronchoconstriction and acute inflammatory lung pathology to inhaled endotoxin are dependent on TLR4/CD14/MD2 expression using the adapter proteins TIRAP and MyD88, while TRIF, IL-1R1 or IL-18R signalling pathways are dispensable. Further downstream in this axis of signalling, TNF blockade reduces only acute bronchoconstriction, while MAPK inhibition abrogates completely endotoxin-induced inflammation. PMID:18039275

  19. Cross-talk between the two divergent insulin signaling pathways is revealed by the protein kinase B (Akt)-mediated phosphorylation of adapter protein APS on serine 588.

    PubMed

    Katsanakis, Kostas D; Pillay, Tahir S

    2005-11-11

    The APS adapter protein is recruited to the autophosphorylated kinase domain of the insulin receptor and initiates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-independent pathway of insulin-stimulated glucose transport by recruiting CAP and c-Cbl. In this study, we have identified APS as a novel substrate for protein kinase B/Akt using an antibody that exhibits insulin-dependent immunoreactivity with a phosphospecific antibody raised against the protein kinase B substrate consensus sequence RXRXX(pS/pT) and a phosphospecific antibody that recognizes serine 21/9 of glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha/beta. This phosphorylation of APS is observed in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and transfected cells. The insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of APS was inhibited by a PI3-kinase inhibitor, LY290004, a specific protein kinase B (PKB) inhibitor, deguelin, and knockdown of Akt. Serine 588 of APS is contained in a protein kinase B consensus sequence for phosphorylation conserved in APS across multiple species but not found in other members of this family, including SH2-B and Lnk. Mutation of serine 588 to alanine abolished the insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation of APS and prevented the localization of APS to membrane ruffles. A glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing amino acids 534-621 of APS was phosphorylated by purified PKB in vitro, and mutation of serine 588 abolished the PKB-mediated phosphorylation of APS in vitro. Taken together, this study identifies APS as a novel physiological substrate for PKB and the first serine phosphorylation site on APS. These data therefore reveal the molecular cross-talk between the insulin-activated PI3-kinase-dependent and -independent pathways previously thought to be distinct and divergent.

  20. Subfamily-specific adaptations in the structures of two penicillin-binding proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Prigozhin, Daniil M.; Krieger, Inna V.; Huizar, John P.; Mavrici, Daniela; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Hung, Li -Wei; Sacchettini, James C.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Alber, Tom; Mayer, Claudine

    2014-12-31

    Beta-lactam antibiotics target penicillin-binding proteins including several enzyme classes essential for bacterial cell-wall homeostasis. To better understand the functional and inhibitor-binding specificities of penicillin-binding proteins from the pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we carried out structural and phylogenetic analysis of two predicted D,D-carboxypeptidases, Rv2911 and Rv3330. Optimization of Rv2911 for crystallization using directed evolution and the GFP folding reporter method yielded a soluble quadruple mutant. Structures of optimized Rv2911 bound to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and Rv3330 bound to meropenem show that, in contrast to the nonspecific inhibitor, meropenem forms an extended interaction with the enzyme along a conserved surface. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Rv2911 and Rv3330 belong to different clades that emerged in Actinobacteria and are not represented in model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Clade-specific adaptations allow these enzymes to fulfill distinct physiological roles despite strict conservation of core catalytic residues. The characteristic differences include potential protein-protein interaction surfaces and specificity-determining residues surrounding the catalytic site. Overall, these structural insights lay the groundwork to develop improved beta-lactam therapeutics for tuberculosis.

  1. An endocytic YXXΦ (YRRF) cargo sorting motif in the cytoplasmic tail of murine cytomegalovirus AP2 'adapter adapter' protein m04/gp34 antagonizes virus evasion of natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Fink, Annette; Blaum, Franziska; Babic Cac, Marina; Ebert, Stefan; Lemmermann, Niels A W; Reddehase, Matthias J

    2015-06-01

    Viruses have evolved proteins that bind immunologically relevant cargo molecules at the cell surface for their downmodulation by internalization. Via a tyrosine-based sorting motif YXXΦ in their cytoplasmic tails, they link the bound cargo to the cellular adapter protein-2 (AP2), thereby sorting it into clathrin-triskelion-coated pits for accelerated endocytosis. Downmodulation of CD4 molecules by lentiviral protein NEF represents the most prominent example. Based on connecting cargo to cellular adapter molecules, such specialized viral proteins have been referred to as 'connectors' or 'adapter adapters.' Murine cytomegalovirus glycoprotein m04/gp34 binds stably to MHC class-I (MHC-I) molecules and suspiciously carries a canonical YXXΦ endocytosis motif YRRF in its cytoplasmic tail. Disconnection from AP2 by motif mutation ARRF should retain m04-MHC-I complexes at the cell surface and result in an enhanced silencing of natural killer (NK) cells, which recognize them via inhibitory receptors. We have tested this prediction with a recombinant virus in which the AP2 motif is selectively destroyed by point mutation Y248A, and compared this with the deletion of the complete protein in a Δm04 mutant. Phenotypes were antithetical in that loss of AP2-binding enhanced NK cell silencing, whereas absence of m04-MHC-I released them from silencing. We thus conclude that AP2-binding antagonizes NK cell silencing by enhancing endocytosis of the inhibitory ligand m04-MHC-I. Based on a screen for tyrosine-based endocytic motifs in cytoplasmic tail sequences, we propose here the new hypothesis that most proteins of the m02-m16 gene family serve as 'adapter adapters,' each selecting its specific cell surface cargo for clathrin-assisted internalization.

  2. Thermal adaptation analyzed by comparison of protein sequences from mesophilic and extremely thermophilic Methanococcus species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, P. J.; Badger, J. H.; Buldak, G. L.; Reich, C. I.; Woese, C. R.; Olsen, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    The genome sequence of the extremely thermophilic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii provides a wealth of data on proteins from a thermophile. In this paper, sequences of 115 proteins from M. jannaschii are compared with their homologs from mesophilic Methanococcus species. Although the growth temperatures of the mesophiles are about 50 degrees C below that of M. jannaschii, their genomic G+C contents are nearly identical. The properties most correlated with the proteins of the thermophile include higher residue volume, higher residue hydrophobicity, more charged amino acids (especially Glu, Arg, and Lys), and fewer uncharged polar residues (Ser, Thr, Asn, and Gln). These are recurring themes, with all trends applying to 83-92% of the proteins for which complete sequences were available. Nearly all of the amino acid replacements most significantly correlated with the temperature change are the same relatively conservative changes observed in all proteins, but in the case of the mesophile/thermophile comparison there is a directional bias. We identify 26 specific pairs of amino acids with a statistically significant (P < 0.01) preferred direction of replacement.

  3. Identification and characterization of a novel bacterial virulence factor that shares homology with mammalian Toll/interleukin-1 receptor family proteins.

    PubMed

    Newman, Ruchi M; Salunkhe, Prabhakar; Godzik, Adam; Reed, John C

    2006-01-01

    Many important bacterial virulence factors act as mimics of mammalian proteins to subvert normal host cell processes. To identify bacterial protein mimics of components of the innate immune signaling pathway, we searched the bacterial genome database for proteins with homology to the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain of the mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their adaptor proteins. A previously uncharacterized gene, which we have named tlpA (for TIR-like protein A), was identified in the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis genome that is predicted to encode a protein resembling mammalian TIR domains, We show that overexpression of TlpA in mammalian cells suppresses the ability of mammalian TIR-containing proteins TLR4, IL-1 receptor, and MyD88 to induce the transactivation and DNA-binding activities of NF-kappaB, a downstream target of the TIR signaling pathway. In addition, TlpA mimics the previously characterized Salmonella virulence factor SipB in its ability to induce activation of caspase-1 in a mammalian cell transfection model. Disruption of the chromosomal tlpA gene rendered a virulent serovar Enteritidis strain defective in intracellular survival and IL-1beta secretion in a cell culture infection model using human THP1 macrophages. Bacteria with disrupted tlpA also displayed reduced lethality in mice, further confirming an important role for this factor in pathogenesis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the bacterial TIR-like protein TlpA is a novel prokaryotic modulator of NF-kappaB activity and IL-1beta secretion that contributes to serovar Enteritidis virulence.

  4. A convenient and adaptable microcomputer environment for DNA and protein sequence manipulation and analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Pustell, J; Kafatos, F C

    1986-01-01

    We describe the further development of a widely used package of DNA and protein sequence analysis programs for microcomputers (1,2,3). The package now provides a screen oriented user interface, and an enhanced working environment with powerful formatting, disk access, and memory management tools. The new GenBank floppy disk database is supported transparently to the user and a similar version of the NBRF protein database is provided. The programs can use sequence file annotation to automatically annotate printouts and translate or extract specified regions from sequences by name. The sequence comparison programs can now perform a 5000 X 5000 bp analysis in 12 minutes on an IBM PC. A program to locate potential protein coding regions in nucleic acids, a digitizer interface, and other additions are also described. PMID:3753784

  5. Deciphering the contribution of human meningothelial cells to the inflammatory and antimicrobial response at the meninges.

    PubMed

    Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Rogers, Andrew J; Wooldridge, Karl G; Tighe, Patrick; Mahdavi, Jafar; Rittig, Michael G; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated the response of primary human meningothelial cells to Neisseria meningitidis. Through a transcriptome analysis, we provide a comprehensive examination of the response of meningothelial cells to bacterial infection. A wide range of chemokines are elicited which act to attract and activate the main players of innate and adaptive immunity. We showed that meningothelial cells expressed a high level of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and, using a gene silencing strategy, we demonstrated the contribution of this pathogen recognition receptor in meningothelial cell activation. Secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), CXCL10, and CCL5 was almost exclusively TLR4 dependent and relied on MyD88 and TRIF adaptor cooperation. In contrast, IL-8 induction was independent of the presence of TLR4, MyD88, and TRIF. Transcription factors NF-κB p65, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK1), IRF3, and IRF7 were activated after contact with bacteria. Interestingly, the protein kinase IRAK4 was found to play a minor role in the meningothelial cell response to Neisseria infection. Our work highlights the role of meningothelial cells in the development of an immune response and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) in response to meningococcal infection. It also sheds light on the complexity of intracellular signaling after TLR triggering.

  6. Adaptive Smith-Waterman residue match seeding for protein structural alignment.

    PubMed

    Topham, Christopher M; Rouquier, Mickaël; Tarrat, Nathalie; André, Isabelle

    2013-10-01

    The POLYFIT rigid-body algorithm for automated global pairwise and multiple protein structural alignment is presented. Smith-Waterman local alignment is used to establish a set of seed equivalences that are extended using Needleman-Wunsch dynamic programming techniques. Structural and functional interaction constraints provided by evolution are encoded as one-dimensional residue physical environment strings for alignment of highly structurally overlapped protein pairs. Local structure alignment of more distantly related pairs is carried out using rigid-body conformational matching of 15-residue fragments, with allowance made for less stringent conformational matching of metal-ion and small molecule ligand-contact, disulphide bridge, and cis-peptide correspondences. Protein structural plasticity is accommodated through the stepped adjustment of a single empirical distance parameter value in the calculation of the Smith-Waterman dynamic programming matrix. Structural overlap is used both as a measure of similarity and to assess alignment quality. Pairwise alignment accuracy has been benchmarked against that of 10 widely used aligners on the Sippl and Wiederstein set of difficult pairwise structure alignment problems, and more extensively against that of Matt, SALIGN, and MUSTANG in pairwise and multiple structural alignments of protein domains with low shared sequence identity in the SCOP-ASTRAL 40% compendium. The results demonstrate the advantages of POLYFIT over other aligners in the efficient and robust identification of matching seed residue positions in distantly related protein targets and in the generation of longer structurally overlapped alignment lengths. Superposition-based application areas include comparative modeling and protein and ligand design. POLYFIT is available on the Web server at http://polyfit.insa-toulouse.fr.

  7. Cooperation of two mRNA-binding proteins drives metabolic adaptation to iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Sergi; Vergara, Sandra V.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Iron (Fe) is an essential co-factor for a wide range of cellular processes. We have previously demonstrated that during Fe-deficiency yeast Cth2 is expressed and promotes degradation of a battery of mRNAs leading to reprogramming of Fe-dependent metabolism and Fe-storage. We report that the Cth2-homologous protein, Cth1, is transiently expressed during Fe-deprivation and participates in the response to Fe-deficiency through the degradation of mRNAs primarily involved in mitochondrially-localized activities including respiration and amino acid biosynthesis. In parallel, wild type but not cth1Δ cth2Δ cells accumulate mRNAs encoding proteins that function in glucose import and storage and store high levels of glycogen. In addition, Fe-deficiency leads to Snf1 phosphorylation, a member of the AMP-activated protein kinase family required for the cellular response to glucose starvation. These studies demonstrate a metabolic reprogramming as a consequence of Fe-starvation that is dependent on the coordinated activities of two mRNA-binding proteins. PMID:18522836

  8. Genome adaptations of a tripartite motif protein for retroviral defense in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) genes encode proteins composed of RING, B-box, and coiled coil motif domains. Primate TRIM5' has been shown to be a primary determinant of retroviral host cell range restriction in primates. TRIM5 restriction was originally thought to be a primate-specific defense mechanism...

  9. Identifying the adaptive mechanism in globular proteins: Fluctuations in densely packed regions manipulate flexible parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Lutfu Safak; Atilgan, Ali Rana

    2000-09-01

    A low-resolution structural model based on the packing geometry of α-carbons is utilized to establish a connection between the flexible and rigid parts of a folded protein. The former commonly recognizes a complementing molecule for making a complex, while the latter manipulates the necessary conformational change for binding. We attempt analytically to distinguish this control architecture that intrinsically exists in globular proteins. First with two-dimensional simple models, then for a native protein, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, we explicitly demonstrate that inserting fluctuations in tertiary contacts supported by the stable core, one can regulate the displacement of residues on loop regions. The positional fluctuations of the flexible regions are annihilated by the rest of the protein in conformity with the Le Chatelier-Braun principle. The results indicate that the distortion of the principal nonbonded contacts between highly packed residues is accompanied by that of the slavery fluctuations that are widely distributed over the native structure. These positional arrangements do not appear in a reciprocal relation between a perturbation and the associated response; the effect of a movement of residue i on residue j is not equal to that of the same movement of residue j on residue i.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of ABCA1-Null Macrophages Reveals a Role for Stomatin-Like Protein-2 in Raft Composition and Toll-Like Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Saiful M; Zhu, Xuewei; Aloor, Jim J; Azzam, Kathleen M; Gabor, Kristin A; Ge, William; Addo, Kezia A; Tomer, Kenneth B; Parks, John S; Fessler, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    Lipid raft membrane microdomains organize signaling by many prototypical receptors, including the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system. Raft-localization of proteins is widely thought to be regulated by raft cholesterol levels, but this is largely on the basis of studies that have manipulated cell cholesterol using crude and poorly specific chemical tools, such as β-cyclodextrins. To date, there has been no proteome-scale investigation of whether endogenous regulators of intracellular cholesterol trafficking, such as the ATP binding cassette (ABC)A1 lipid efflux transporter, regulate targeting of proteins to rafts. Abca1(-/-) macrophages have cholesterol-laden rafts that have been reported to contain increased levels of select proteins, including TLR4, the lipopolysaccharide receptor. Here, using quantitative proteomic profiling, we identified 383 proteins in raft isolates from Abca1(+/+) and Abca1(-/-) macrophages. ABCA1 deletion induced wide-ranging changes to the raft proteome. Remarkably, many of these changes were similar to those seen in Abca1(+/+) macrophages after lipopolysaccharide exposure. Stomatin-like protein (SLP)-2, a member of the stomatin-prohibitin-flotillin-HflK/C family of membrane scaffolding proteins, was robustly and specifically increased in Abca1(-/-) rafts. Pursuing SLP-2 function, we found that rafts of SLP-2-silenced macrophages had markedly abnormal composition. SLP-2 silencing did not compromise ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux but reduced macrophage responsiveness to multiple TLR ligands. This was associated with reduced raft levels of the TLR co-receptor, CD14, and defective lipopolysaccharide-induced recruitment of the common TLR adaptor, MyD88, to rafts. Taken together, we show that the lipid transporter ABCA1 regulates the protein repertoire of rafts and identify SLP-2 as an ABCA1-dependent regulator of raft composition and of the innate immune response.

  11. Viral adaptation to an antiviral protein enhances the fitness level to above that of the uninhibited wild type.

    PubMed

    Cherwa, James E; Sanchez-Soria, Pablo; Wichman, Holly A; Fane, Bentley A

    2009-11-01

    Viruses often evolve resistance to antiviral agents. While resistant strains are able to replicate in the presence of the agent, they generally exhibit lower fitness than the wild-type strain in the absence of the inhibitor. In some cases, resistant strains become dependent on the antiviral agent. However, the agent rarely, if ever, elevates dependent strain fitness above the uninhibited wild-type level. This would require an adaptive mechanism to convert the antiviral agent into a beneficial growth factor. Using an inhibitory scaffolding protein that specifically blocks phiX174 capsid assembly, we demonstrate that such mechanisms are possible. To obtain the quintuple-mutant resistant strain, the wild-type virus was propagated for approximately 150 viral life cycles in the presence of increasing concentrations of the inhibitory protein. The expression of the inhibitory protein elevated the strain's fitness significantly above the uninhibited wild-type level. Thus, selecting for resistance coselected for dependency, which was characterized and found to operate on the level of capsid nucleation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a virus evolving a mechanism to productively utilize an antiviral agent to stimulate its fitness above the uninhibited wild-type level. The results of this study may be predictive of the types of resistant phenotypes that could be selected by antiviral agents that specifically target capsid assembly. PMID:19726521

  12. Adaptive mutation in nuclear export protein allows stable transgene expression in a chimaeric influenza A virus vector.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Irina; Shurygina, Anna-Polina; Wolf, Brigitte; Wolschek, Markus; Enzmann, Florian; Sansyzbay, Abylay; Khairullin, Berik; Sandybayev, Nurlan; Stukova, Marina; Kiselev, Oleg; Egorov, Andrej; Bergmann, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The development of influenza virus vectors with long insertions of foreign sequences remains difficult due to the small size and instable nature of the virus. Here, we used the influenza virus inherent property of self-optimization to generate a vector stably expressing long transgenes from the NS1 protein ORF. This was achieved by continuous selection of bright fluorescent plaques of a GFP-expressing vector during multiple passages in mouse B16f1 cells. The newly generated vector acquired stability in IFN-competent cell lines and in vivo in murine lungs. Although improved vector fitness was associated with the appearance of four coding mutations in the polymerase (PB2), haemagglutinin and non-structural (NS) segments, the stability of the transgene expression was dependent primarily on the single mutation Q20R in the nuclear export protein (NEP). Importantly, a longer insert, such as a cassette of 1299 nt encoding two Mycobacterium tuberculosis Esat6 and Ag85A proteins, could substitute for the GFP transgene. Thus, the inherent property of the influenza virus to adapt can also be used to adjust a vector backbone to give stable expression of long transgenes. PMID:24222196

  13. Structural models of intrinsically disordered and calcium-bound folded states of a protein adapted for secretion

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Darragh P.; Hernandez, Belen; Durand, Dominique; Hourdel, Véronique; Sotomayor-Pérez, Ana-Cristina; Vachette, Patrice; Ghomi, Mahmoud; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Ladant, Daniel; Brier, Sébastien; Chenal, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria use Type I secretion systems, T1SS, to secrete virulence factors that contain calcium-binding Repeat-in-ToXin (RTX) motifs. Here, we present structural models of an RTX protein, RD, in both its intrinsically disordered calcium-free Apo-state and its folded calcium-bound Holo-state. Apo-RD behaves as a disordered polymer chain comprising several statistical elements that exhibit local rigidity with residual secondary structure. Holo-RD is a folded multi-domain protein with an anisometric shape. RTX motifs thus appear remarkably adapted to the structural and mechanistic constraints of the secretion process. In the low calcium environment of the bacterial cytosol, Apo-RD is an elongated disordered coil appropriately sized for transport through the narrow secretion machinery. The progressive folding of Holo-RD in the extracellular calcium-rich environment as it emerges form the T1SS may then favor its unidirectional export through the secretory channel. This process is relevant for hundreds of bacterial species producing virulent RTX proteins. PMID:26374675

  14. Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kiani, A; Alstrup, L; Nielsen, M O

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to elucidate whether distinct endocrine and metabolic adaptations provide llamas superior ability to adapt to low protein content grass-based diets as compared with the true ruminants. Eighteen adult, nonpregnant females (6 llamas, 6 goats, and 6 sheep) were fed either green grass hay with (HP) or grass seed straw (LP) in a cross-over design experiment over 2 periods of 21 d. Blood samples were taken on day 21 in each period at -30, 60, 150, and 240 min after feeding the morning meal and analyzed for plasma contents of glucose, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxy butyrate (BOHB), urea, creatinine, insulin, and leptin. Results showed that llamas vs sheep and goats had higher plasma concentrations of glucose (7.1 vs 3.5 and 3.6 ± 0.18 mmol/L), creatinine (209 vs 110 and 103 ± 10 μmol/L), and urea (6.7 vs 5.6 and 4.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but lower leptin (0.33 vs 1.49 and 1.05 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and BOHB (0.05 vs 0.26 and 0.12 ± 0.02 mmol/L), respectively. BOHB in llamas was extremely low for a ruminating animal. Llamas showed that hyperglycemia coexisted with hyperinsulinemia (in general on the HP diet; postprandially on the LP diet). Llamas were clearly hypercreatinemic compared with the true ruminants, which became further exacerbated on the LP diet, where they also sustained plasma urea at markedly higher concentrations. However, llamas had markedly lower leptin concentrations than the true ruminants. In conclusion, llamas appear to have an intrinsic insulin resistant phenotype. Augmentation of creatinine and sustenance of elevated plasma urea concentrations in llamas when fed the LP diet must reflect distinct metabolic adaptations of intermediary protein and/or nitrogen metabolism, not observed in the true ruminants. These features can contribute to explain lower metabolic rates in llamas compared with the true ruminants, which must improve the chances of survival on low protein content diets.

  15. Scaling properties of evolutionary paths in a biophysical model of protein adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manhart, Michael; Morozov, Alexandre V.

    2015-07-01

    The enormous size and complexity of genotypic sequence space frequently requires consideration of coarse-grained sequences in empirical models. We develop scaling relations to quantify the effect of this coarse-graining on properties of fitness landscapes and evolutionary paths. We first consider evolution on a simple Mount Fuji fitness landscape, focusing on how the length and predictability of evolutionary paths scale with the coarse-grained sequence length and alphabet. We obtain simple scaling relations for both the weak- and strong-selection limits, with a non-trivial crossover regime at intermediate selection strengths. We apply these results to evolution on a biophysical fitness landscape that describes how proteins evolve new binding interactions while maintaining their folding stability. We combine the scaling relations with numerical calculations for coarse-grained protein sequences to obtain quantitative properties of the model for realistic binding interfaces and a full amino acid alphabet.

  16. Sexual selection and the adaptive evolution of PKDREJ protein in primates and rodents.

    PubMed

    Vicens, Alberto; Gómez Montoto, Laura; Couso-Ferrer, Francisco; Sutton, Keith A; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2015-02-01

    PKDREJ is a testis-specific protein thought to be located on the sperm surface. Functional studies in the mouse revealed that loss of PKDREJ has effects on sperm transport and the ability to undergo an induced acrosome reaction. Thus, PKDREJ has been considered a potential target of post-copulatory sexual selection in the form of sperm competition. Proteins involved in reproductive processes often show accelerated evolution. In many cases, this rapid divergence is promoted by positive selection which may be driven, at least in part, by post-copulatory sexual selection. We analysed the evolution of the PKDREJ protein in primates and rodents and assessed whether PKDREJ divergence is associated with testes mass relative to body mass, which is a reliable proxy of sperm competition levels. Evidence of an association between the evolutionary rate of the PKDREJ gene and testes mass relative to body mass was not found in primates. Among rodents, evidence of positive selection was detected in the Pkdrej gene in the family Cricetidae but not in Muridae. We then assessed whether Pkdrej divergence is associated with episodes of sperm competition in these families. We detected a positive significant correlation between the evolutionary rates of Pkdrej and testes mass relative to body mass in cricetids. These findings constitute the first evidence of post-copulatory sexual selection influencing the evolution of a protein that participates in the mechanisms regulating sperm transport and the acrosome reaction, strongly suggesting that positive selection may act on these fertilization steps, leading to advantages in situations of sperm competition. PMID:25304980

  17. Human skeletal muscle and erythrocyte proteins involved in acid-base homeostasis: adaptations to chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Juel, C; Lundby, C; Sander, M; Calbet, J A L; Hall, G van

    2003-04-15

    Chronic hypoxia is accompanied by changes in blood and skeletal muscle acid-base control. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanisms include altered protein expression of transport systems and the enzymes involved in lactate, HCO3- and H+ fluxes in skeletal muscle and erythrocytes. Immunoblotting was used to quantify densities of the transport systems and enzymes. Muscle and erythrocyte samples were obtained from eight Danish lowlanders at sea level and after 2 and 8 weeks at 4100 m (Bolivia). For comparison, samples were obtained from eight Bolivian natives. In muscle membranes there were no changes in fibre-type distribution, lactate dehydrogenase isoforms, Na+,K+-pump subunits or in the lactate-H+ co-transporters MCT1 and MCT4. The Na+-H+ exchanger protein NHE1 was elevated by 39 % in natives compared to lowlanders. The Na+-HCO3- co-transporter density in muscle was elevated by 47-69 % after 2 and 8 weeks at altitude. The membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase (CA) IV in muscle increased in the lowlanders by 39 %, whereas CA XIV decreased by 23-47 %. Levels of cytosolic CA II and III in muscle and CA I and II in erythrocytes were unchanged. The erythrocyte lactate-H+ co-transporter MCT1 increased by 230-405 % in lowlanders and was 324 % higher in natives. The erythrocyte inorganic anion exchanger (Cl--HCO3- exchanger AE1) was increased by 149-228 %. In conclusion, chronic hypoxia induces dramatic changes in erythrocyte proteins, but only moderate changes in muscle proteins involved in acid-base control. Together, these changes suggest a hypoxia-induced increase in the capacity for lactate, HCO3- and H+ fluxes from muscle to blood and from blood to erythrocytes. PMID:12611920

  18. Morphological adaptation and protein modulation of myotendinous junction following moderate aerobic training.

    PubMed

    Curzi, Davide; Baldassarri, Valentina; De Matteis, Rita; Salamanna, Francesca; Bolotta, Alessandra; Frizziero, Antonio; Fini, Milena; Marini, Marina; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    Myotendinous junction is the muscle-tendon interface through which the contractile force can be transferred from myofibrils to the tendon extracellular matrix. At the ultrastructural level, aerobic training can modify the distal myotendinous junction of rat gastrocnemius, increasing the contact area between tissues. The aim of this work is to investigate the correlation between morphological changes and protein modulation of the myotendinous junction following moderate training. For this reason, talin, vinculin and type IV collagen amount and spatial distribution were investigated by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. The images were then digitally analyzed by evaluating fluorescence intensity. Morphometric analysis revealed a significant increased thickening of muscle basal lamina in the trained group (53.1 ± 0.4 nm) with respect to the control group (43.9 ± 0.3 nm), and morphological observation showed the presence of an electron-dense area in the exercised muscles, close to the myotendinous junction. Protein concentrations appeared significantly increased in the trained group (talin +22.2%; vinculin +22.8% and type IV collagen +11.8%) with respect to the control group. Therefore, our findings suggest that moderate aerobic training induces/causes morphological changes at the myotendinous junction, correlated to the synthesis of structural proteins of the muscular basal lamina and of the cytoskeleton.

  19. Heat shock partially dissociates the overlapping modules of the yeast protein-protein interaction network: a systems level model of adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mihalik, Ágoston; Csermely, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Network analysis became a powerful tool giving new insights to the understanding of cellular behavior. Heat shock, the archetype of stress responses, is a well-characterized and simple model of cellular dynamics. S. cerevisiae is an appropriate model organism, since both its protein-protein interaction network (interactome) and stress response at the gene expression level have been well characterized. However, the analysis of the reorganization of the yeast interactome during stress has not been investigated yet. We calculated the changes of the interaction-weights of the yeast interactome from the changes of mRNA expression levels upon heat shock. The major finding of our study is that heat shock induced a significant decrease in both the overlaps and connections of yeast interactome modules. In agreement with this the weighted diameter of the yeast interactome had a 4.9-fold increase in heat shock. Several key proteins of the heat shock response became centers of heat shock-induced local communities, as well as bridges providing a residual connection of modules after heat shock. The observed changes resemble to a 'stratus-cumulus' type transition of the interactome structure, since the unstressed yeast interactome had a globally connected organization, similar to that of stratus clouds, whereas the heat shocked interactome had a multifocal organization, similar to that of cumulus clouds. Our results showed that heat shock induces a partial disintegration of the global organization of the yeast interactome. This change may be rather general occurring in many types of stresses. Moreover, other complex systems, such as single proteins, social networks and ecosystems may also decrease their inter-modular links, thus develop more compact modules, and display a partial disintegration of their global structure in the initial phase of crisis. Thus, our work may provide a model of a general, system-level adaptation mechanism to environmental changes. PMID:22022244

  20. Heat shock partially dissociates the overlapping modules of the yeast protein-protein interaction network: a systems level model of adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mihalik, Ágoston; Csermely, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Network analysis became a powerful tool giving new insights to the understanding of cellular behavior. Heat shock, the archetype of stress responses, is a well-characterized and simple model of cellular dynamics. S. cerevisiae is an appropriate model organism, since both its protein-protein interaction network (interactome) and stress response at the gene expression level have been well characterized. However, the analysis of the reorganization of the yeast interactome during stress has not been investigated yet. We calculated the changes of the interaction-weights of the yeast interactome from the changes of mRNA expression levels upon heat shock. The major finding of our study is that heat shock induced a significant decrease in both the overlaps and connections of yeast interactome modules. In agreement with this the weighted diameter of the yeast interactome had a 4.9-fold increase in heat shock. Several key proteins of the heat shock response became centers of heat shock-induced local communities, as well as bridges providing a residual connection of modules after heat shock. The observed changes resemble to a 'stratus-cumulus' type transition of the interactome structure, since the unstressed yeast interactome had a globally connected organization, similar to that of stratus clouds, whereas the heat shocked interactome had a multifocal organization, similar to that of cumulus clouds. Our results showed that heat shock induces a partial disintegration of the global organization of the yeast interactome. This change may be rather general occurring in many types of stresses. Moreover, other complex systems, such as single proteins, social networks and ecosystems may also decrease their inter-modular links, thus develop more compact modules, and display a partial disintegration of their global structure in the initial phase of crisis. Thus, our work may provide a model of a general, system-level adaptation mechanism to environmental changes.

  1. Transduction of Functionally Contrasting Signals by Two Mycobacterial PPE Proteins Downstream of TLR2 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Udgata, Atul; Qureshi, Rahila; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-09-01

    As pathogen-associated molecular pattern sensors, the TLRs can detect diverse ligands to elicit either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses, but the mechanism that dictates such contrasting immune responses is not well understood. In this work, we demonstrate that proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE)17 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces TLR1/2 heterodimerization to elicit proinflammatory-type response, whereas PPE18-induced homodimerization of TLR2 triggers anti-inflammatory type responses. Ligation of TLR1/2 caused an increased recruitment of IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)1, MyD88, and protein kinase C (PKC)ε to the downstream TLR-signaling complex that translocated PKCε into the nucleus in an IRAK1-dependent manner. PKCε-mediated phosphorylation allowed the nuclear IRAK3 to be exported to the cytoplasm, leading to increased activation of ERK1/2, stabilization of MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), and induction of TNF-α with concomitant downregulation of p38MAPK. Silencing of TLR1 inhibited PPE17-triggered cytoplasmic export of IRAK3 as well as TNF-α induction, suggesting an important role of TLR1/2 heterodimer in regulating proinflammatory responses via the IRAK3-signaling pathway. In contrast, PPE18-mediated homodimerization of TLR2 caused poorer cytoplasmic export of nuclear IRAK3 and MKP-1 stabilization, resulting in increased p38MAPK activation. Our study hints to a novel mechanism that implicates PKCε-IRAK3-MKP-1 signaling in the regulation of MAPK activity and inflammatory cascades downstream of TLR2 in tuberculosis. PMID:27481848

  2. KAT2B Is Required for Pancreatic Beta Cell Adaptation to Metabolic Stress by Controlling the Unfolded Protein Response.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Nabil; Denechaud, Pierre-Damien; Gromada, Xavier; Hannou, Sarah Anissa; Zhang, Hongbo; Rashid, Talha; Salas, Elisabet; Durand, Emmanuelle; Sand, Olivier; Bonnefond, Amélie; Yengo, Loic; Chavey, Carine; Bonner, Caroline; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Abderrahmani, Amar; Auwerx, Johan; Fajas, Lluis; Froguel, Philippe; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-05-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR(er)) pathway plays an important role in helping pancreatic β cells to adapt their cellular responses to environmental cues and metabolic stress. Although altered UPR(er) gene expression appears in rodent and human type 2 diabetic (T2D) islets, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We show here that germline and β cell-specific disruption of the lysine acetyltransferase 2B (Kat2b) gene in mice leads to impaired insulin secretion and glucose intolerance. Genome-wide analysis of Kat2b-regulated genes and functional assays reveal a critical role for Kat2b in maintaining UPR(er) gene expression and subsequent β cell function. Importantly, Kat2b expression is decreased in mouse and human diabetic β cells and correlates with UPR(er) gene expression in normal human islets. In conclusion, Kat2b is a crucial transcriptional regulator for adaptive β cell function during metabolic stress by controlling UPR(er) and represents a promising target for T2D prevention and treatment. PMID:27117420

  3. Protein surface softness is the origin of enzyme cold-adaptation of trypsin.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2014-08-01

    Life has effectively colonized most of our planet and extremophilic organisms require specialized enzymes to survive under harsh conditions. Cold-loving organisms (psychrophiles) express heat-labile enzymes that possess a high specific activity and catalytic efficiency at low temperatures. A remarkable universal characteristic of cold-active enzymes is that they show a reduction both in activation enthalpy and entropy, compared to mesophilic orthologs, which makes their reaction rates less sensitive to falling temperature. Despite significant efforts since the early 1970s, the important question of the origin of this effect still largely remains unanswered. Here we use cold- and warm-active trypsins as model systems to investigate the temperature dependence of the reaction rates with extensive molecular dynamics free energy simulations. The calculations quantitatively reproduce the catalytic rates of the two enzymes and further yield high-precision Arrhenius plots, which show the characteristic trends in activation enthalpy and entropy. Detailed structural analysis indicates that the relationship between these parameters and the 3D structure is reflected by significantly different internal protein energy changes during the reaction. The origin of this effect is not localized to the active site, but is found in the outer regions of the protein, where the cold-active enzyme has a higher degree of softness. Several structural mechanisms for softening the protein surface are identified, together with key mutations responsible for this effect. Our simulations further show that single point-mutations can significantly affect the thermodynamic activation parameters, indicating how these can be optimized by evolution.

  4. Protein surface softness is the origin of enzyme cold-adaptation of trypsin.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2014-08-01

    Life has effectively colonized most of our planet and extremophilic organisms require specialized enzymes to survive under harsh conditions. Cold-loving organisms (psychrophiles) express heat-labile enzymes that possess a high specific activity and catalytic efficiency at low temperatures. A remarkable universal characteristic of cold-active enzymes is that they show a reduction both in activation enthalpy and entropy, compared to mesophilic orthologs, which makes their reaction rates less sensitive to falling temperature. Despite significant efforts since the early 1970s, the important question of the origin of this effect still largely remains unanswered. Here we use cold- and warm-active trypsins as model systems to investigate the temperature dependence of the reaction rates with extensive molecular dynamics free energy simulations. The calculations quantitatively reproduce the catalytic rates of the two enzymes and further yield high-precision Arrhenius plots, which show the characteristic trends in activation enthalpy and entropy. Detailed structural analysis indicates that the relationship between these parameters and the 3D structure is reflected by significantly different internal protein energy changes during the reaction. The origin of this effect is not localized to the active site, but is found in the outer regions of the protein, where the cold-active enzyme has a higher degree of softness. Several structural mechanisms for softening the protein surface are identified, together with key mutations responsible for this effect. Our simulations further show that single point-mutations can significantly affect the thermodynamic activation parameters, indicating how these can be optimized by evolution. PMID:25165981

  5. Human resting extracellular heat shock protein 72 concentration decreases during the initial adaptation to exercise in a hot, humid environment

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Helen C.; Ferguson, Richard A.; Nimmo, Myra A.

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 is a cytosolic protein that also is present in the circulation. Extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) is inducible by exercise and is suggested to act as a danger signal to the immune system. The adaptive response of eHsp72 to repeated exercise-heat exposures in humans remains to be determined. An intracellular animal study found a reduced Hsp72 response, with no change in resting levels, during heat stress after a single day of passive heat acclimation. The current study therefore tested whether adaptations in human eHsp72 levels would similarly occur 24 hours after a single exercise-heat exposure. Seven males completed cycle exercise (42.5% V̇O2peak for 2 hours) in a hot, humid environment (38°C, 60% relative humidity) on each of 2 consecutive days. Blood samples were obtained from an antecubital vein before exercise and 0 hours and 22 hours postexercise for the analysis of eHsp72. Exercise-heat stress resulted in enhanced eHsp72, with a similar absolute increase found on both days (day 1: 1.26 ng/mL [0.80 ng/mL]; day 2: 1.29 ng/mL [1.60 ng/mL]). Resting eHsp72 decreased from rest on day 1 to day 2's 22-hour postexercise sample (P < 0.05). It is suggested that the reduction in resting eHsp72 after 2 consecutive exercise-heat exposures is possibly due to an enhanced removal from the circulation, for either immunoregulatory functions, or for improved cellular stress tolerance in this initial, most stressful period of acclimation. PMID:16817318

  6. A kinetic model of catabolic adaptation and protein reprofiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during temperature shifts.

    PubMed

    Mensonides, Femke I C; Brul, Stanley; Hellingwerf, Klaas J; Bakker, Barbara M; Teixeira de Mattos, M Joost

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we aim to find an explanation for the surprisingly thin line, with regard to temperature, between cell growth, growth arrest and ultimately loss of cell viability. To this end, we used an integrative approach including both experimental and modelling work. We measured the short- and long-term effects of increases in growth temperature from 28 °C to 37, 39, 41, 42 or 43 °C on the central metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on the experimental data, we developed a kinetic mathematical model that describes the metabolic and energetic changes in growing bakers' yeast when exposed to a specific temperature upshift. The model includes the temperature dependence of core energy-conserving pathways, trehalose synthesis, protein synthesis and proteolysis. Because our model focuses on protein synthesis and degradation, the net result of which is important in determining the cell's capacity to grow, the model includes growth, i.e. glucose is consumed and biomass and adenosine nucleotide cofactors are produced. The model reproduces both the observed initial metabolic response and the subsequent relaxation into a new steady-state, compatible with the new ambient temperature. In addition, it shows that the energy consumption for proteome reprofiling may be a major determinant of heat-induced growth arrest and subsequent recovery or cell death.

  7. Birth and rapid subcellular adaptation of a hominoid-specific CDC14 protein.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Lia; Marques, Ana Claudia; Weier, Manuela; Lambert, Nelle; Lambot, Marie-Alexandra; Vanderhaeghen, Pierre; Kaessmann, Henrik

    2008-06-10

    Gene duplication was prevalent during hominoid evolution, yet little is known about the functional fate of new ape gene copies. We characterized the CDC14B cell cycle gene and the functional evolution of its hominoid-specific daughter gene, CDC14Bretro. We found that CDC14B encodes four different splice isoforms that show different subcellular localizations (nucleus or microtubule-associated) and functional properties. A microtubular CDC14B variant spawned CDC14Bretro through retroposition in the hominoid ancestor 18-25 million years ago (Mya). CDC14Bretro evolved brain-/testis-specific expression after the duplication event and experienced a short period of intense positive selection in the African ape ancestor 7-12 Mya. Using resurrected ancestral protein variants, we demonstrate that by virtue of amino acid substitutions in distinct protein regions during this time, the subcellular localization of CDC14Bretro progressively shifted from the association with microtubules (stabilizing them) to an association with the endoplasmic reticulum. CDC14Bretro evolution represents a paradigm example of rapid, selectively driven subcellular relocalization, thus revealing a novel mode for the emergence of new gene function.

  8. Adaptation of Clostridium difficile toxin A for use as a protein translocation system

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, Stephanie M.; Feig, Andrew L.

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Catalytic domain of TcdA was replaced by a luciferase reporter. {yields} Each functional domain retains activity in the context of the fusion protein. {yields} We provide evidence that reporter proteins are delivered into vero cells. {yields} System releases cargo into the cytosol, providing a powerful new biotechnology tool. -- Abstract: A cellular delivery system is a useful biotechnology tool, with many possible applications. Two derivatives of Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) have been constructed (GFP-TcdA and Luc-TcdA), by fusing reporter genes to functional domains of TcdA, and evaluated for their ability to translocate their cargo into mammalian cells. The cysteine protease and receptor binding domains of TcdA have been examined and found to be functional when expressed in the chimeric construct. Whereas GFP failed to internalize in the context of the TcdA fusion, significant cellular luciferase activity was detected in vero cell lysates after treatment with Luc-TcdA. Treatment with bafilomycin A1, which inhibits endosomal acidification, traps the luciferase activity within endosomes. To further understand these results, clarified lysates were subjected to molecular weight sieving, demonstrating that active luciferase was released from Luc-TcdA after translocation and internal processing.

  9. Distribution of cold adaptation proteins in microbial mats in Lake Joyce, Antarctica: Analysis of metagenomic data by using two bioinformatics tools.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyunmin; Hakim, Joseph A; Fisher, Phillip R E; Grueneberg, Alexander; Andersen, Dale T; Bej, Asim K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the distribution and abundance of cold-adaptation proteins in microbial mat communities in the perennially ice-covered Lake Joyce, located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. We have used MG-RAST and R code bioinformatics tools on Illumina HiSeq2000 shotgun metagenomic data and compared the filtering efficacy of these two methods on cold-adaptation proteins. Overall, the abundance of cold-shock DEAD-box protein A (CSDA), antifreeze proteins (AFPs), fatty acid desaturase (FAD), trehalose synthase (TS), and cold-shock family of proteins (CSPs) were present in all mat samples at high, moderate, or low levels, whereas the ice nucleation protein (INP) was present only in the ice and bulbous mat samples at insignificant levels. Considering the near homogeneous temperature profile of Lake Joyce (0.08-0.29 °C), the distribution and abundance of these proteins across various mat samples predictively correlated with known functional attributes necessary for microbial communities to thrive in this ecosystem. The comparison of the MG-RAST and the R code methods showed dissimilar occurrences of the cold-adaptation protein sequences, though with insignificant ANOSIM (R = 0.357; p-value = 0.012), ADONIS (R(2) = 0.274; p-value = 0.03) and STAMP (p-values = 0.521-0.984) statistical analyses. Furthermore, filtering targeted sequences using the R code accounted for taxonomic groups by avoiding sequence redundancies, whereas the MG-RAST provided total counts resulting in a higher sequence output. The results from this study revealed for the first time the distribution of cold-adaptation proteins in six different types of microbial mats in Lake Joyce, while suggesting a simpler and more manageable user-defined method of R code, as compared to a web-based MG-RAST pipeline. PMID:26578243

  10. Distribution of cold adaptation proteins in microbial mats in Lake Joyce, Antarctica: Analysis of metagenomic data by using two bioinformatics tools.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyunmin; Hakim, Joseph A; Fisher, Phillip R E; Grueneberg, Alexander; Andersen, Dale T; Bej, Asim K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the distribution and abundance of cold-adaptation proteins in microbial mat communities in the perennially ice-covered Lake Joyce, located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. We have used MG-RAST and R code bioinformatics tools on Illumina HiSeq2000 shotgun metagenomic data and compared the filtering efficacy of these two methods on cold-adaptation proteins. Overall, the abundance of cold-shock DEAD-box protein A (CSDA), antifreeze proteins (AFPs), fatty acid desaturase (FAD), trehalose synthase (TS), and cold-shock family of proteins (CSPs) were present in all mat samples at high, moderate, or low levels, whereas the ice nucleation protein (INP) was present only in the ice and bulbous mat samples at insignificant levels. Considering the near homogeneous temperature profile of Lake Joyce (0.08-0.29 °C), the distribution and abundance of these proteins across various mat samples predictively correlated with known functional attributes necessary for microbial communities to thrive in this ecosystem. The comparison of the MG-RAST and the R code methods showed dissimilar occurrences of the cold-adaptation protein sequences, though with insignificant ANOSIM (R = 0.357; p-value = 0.012), ADONIS (R(2) = 0.274; p-value = 0.03) and STAMP (p-values = 0.521-0.984) statistical analyses. Furthermore, filtering targeted sequences using the R code accounted for taxonomic groups by avoiding sequence redundancies, whereas the MG-RAST provided total counts resulting in a higher sequence output. The results from this study revealed for the first time the distribution of cold-adaptation proteins in six different types of microbial mats in Lake Joyce, while suggesting a simpler and more manageable user-defined method of R code, as compared to a web-based MG-RAST pipeline.

  11. Adaptive hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions of mussel foot proteins with organic thin films.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Kan, Yajing; Rapp, Michael; Danner, Eric; Wei, Wei; Das, Saurabh; Miller, Dusty R; Chen, Yunfei; Waite, J Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2013-09-24

    The adhesion of mussel foot proteins (Mfps) to a variety of specially engineered mineral and metal oxide surfaces has previously been investigated extensively, but the relevance of these studies to adhesion in biological environments remains unknown. Most solid surfaces exposed to seawater or physiological fluids become fouled by organic conditioning films and biofilms within minutes. Understanding the binding mechanisms of Mfps to organic films with known chemical and physical properties therefore is of considerable theoretical and practical interest. Using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on atomically smooth gold substrates and the surface forces apparatus, we explored the force-distance profiles and adhesion energies of three different Mfps, Mfp-1, Mfp-3, and Mfp-5, on (i) hydrophobic methyl (CH3)- and (ii) hydrophilic alcohol (OH)-terminated SAM surfaces between pH 3 and pH 7.5. At acidic pH, all three Mfps adhered strongly to the CH3-terminated SAM surfaces via hydrophobic interactions (range of adhesive interaction energy = -4 to -9 mJ/m(2)) but only weakly to the OH-terminated SAM surfaces through H- bonding (adhesive interaction energy ≤ -0.5 mJ/m(2)). 3, 4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) residues in Mfps mediate binding to both SAM surface types but do so through different interactions: typical bidentate H-bonding by Dopa is frustrated by the longer spacing of OH-SAMs; in contrast, on CH3-SAMs, Dopa in synergy with other nonpolar residues partitions to the hydrophobic surface. Asymmetry in the distribution of hydrophobic residues in intrinsically unstructured proteins, the distortion of bond geometry between H-bonding surfaces, and the manipulation of physisorbed binding lifetimes represent important concepts for the design of adhesive and nonfouling surfaces.

  12. Adaptive hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions of mussel foot proteins with organic thin films

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; Kan, Yajing; Rapp, Michael; Danner, Eric; Wei, Wei; Das, Saurabh; Miller, Dusty R.; Chen, Yunfei; Waite, J. Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2013-01-01

    The adhesion of mussel foot proteins (Mfps) to a variety of specially engineered mineral and metal oxide surfaces has previously been investigated extensively, but the relevance of these studies to adhesion in biological environments remains unknown. Most solid surfaces exposed to seawater or physiological fluids become fouled by organic conditioning films and biofilms within minutes. Understanding the binding mechanisms of Mfps to organic films with known chemical and physical properties therefore is of considerable theoretical and practical interest. Using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on atomically smooth gold substrates and the surface forces apparatus, we explored the force–distance profiles and adhesion energies of three different Mfps, Mfp-1, Mfp-3, and Mfp-5, on (i) hydrophobic methyl (CH3)- and (ii) hydrophilic alcohol (OH)-terminated SAM surfaces between pH 3 and pH 7.5. At acidic pH, all three Mfps adhered strongly to the CH3-terminated SAM surfaces via hydrophobic interactions (range of adhesive interaction energy = −4 to −9 mJ/m2) but only weakly to the OH-terminated SAM surfaces through H- bonding (adhesive interaction energy ≤ −0.5 mJ/m2). 3, 4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) residues in Mfps mediate binding to both SAM surface types but do so through different interactions: typical bidentate H-bonding by Dopa is frustrated by the longer spacing of OH-SAMs; in contrast, on CH3-SAMs, Dopa in synergy with other nonpolar residues partitions to the hydrophobic surface. Asymmetry in the distribution of hydrophobic residues in intrinsically unstructured proteins, the distortion of bond geometry between H-bonding surfaces, and the manipulation of physisorbed binding lifetimes represent important concepts for the design of adhesive and nonfouling surfaces. PMID:24014592

  13. Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (Srb1) Is Required for Hypoxic Adaptation and Virulence in the Dimorphic Fungus Histoplasma capsulatum

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Juwen C.; Smulian, A. George

    2016-01-01

    The Histoplasma capsulatum sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), Srb1 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), leucine zipper DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that possess a unique tyrosine (Y) residue instead of an arginine (R) residue in the bHLH region. We have determined that Srb1 message levels increase in a time dependent manner during growth under oxygen deprivation (hypoxia). To further understand the role of Srb1 during infection and hypoxia, we silenced the gene encoding Srb1 using RNA interference (RNAi); characterized the resulting phenotype, determined its response to hypoxia, and its ability to cause disease within an infected host. Silencing of Srb1 resulted in a strain of H. capsulatum that is incapable of surviving in vitro hypoxia. We found that without complete Srb1 expression, H. capsulatum is killed by murine macrophages and avirulent in mice given a lethal dose of yeasts. Additionally, silencing Srb1 inhibited the hypoxic upregulation of other known H. capsulatum hypoxia-responsive genes (HRG), and genes that encode ergosterol biosynthetic enzymes. Consistent with these regulatory functions, Srb1 silenced H. capsulatum cells were hypersensitive to the antifungal azole drug itraconazole. These data support the theory that the H. capsulatum SREBP is critical for hypoxic adaptation and is required for H. capsulatum virulence. PMID:27711233

  14. Extensive amino acid polymorphism at the pgm locus is consistent with adaptive protein evolution in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Verrelli, B C; Eanes, W F

    2000-01-01

    PGM plays a central role in the glycolytic pathway at the branch point leading to glycogen metabolism and is highly polymorphic in allozyme studies of many species. We have characterized the nucleotide diversity across the Pgm gene in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans to investigate the role that protein polymorphism plays at this crucial metabolic branch point shared with several other enzymes. Although D. melanogaster and D. simulans share common allozyme mobility alleles, we find these allozymes are the result of many different amino acid changes at the nucleotide level. In addition, specific allozyme classes within species contain several amino acid changes, which may explain the absence of latitudinal clines for PGM allozyme alleles, the lack of association of PGM allozymes with the cosmopolitan In(3L)P inversion, and the failure to detect differences between PGM allozymes in functional studies. We find a significant excess of amino acid polymorphisms within D. melanogaster when compared to the complete absence of fixed replacements with D. simulans. There is also strong linkage disequilibrium across the 2354 bp of the Pgm locus, which may be explained by a specific amino acid haplotype that is high in frequency yet contains an excess of singleton polymorphisms. Like G6pd, Pgm shows strong evidence for a branch point enzyme that exhibits adaptive protein evolution. PMID:11102370

  15. The adaptive metabolic response involves specific protein glutathionylation during the filamentation process in the pathogen Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Gergondey, R; Garcia, C; Serre, V; Camadro, J M; Auchère, F

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunist pathogen responsible for a large spectrum of infections, from superficial mycosis to the systemic disease candidiasis. Its ability to adopt various morphological forms, such as unicellular yeasts, filamentous pseudohyphae and hyphae, contributes to its ability to survive within the host. It has been suggested that the antioxidant glutathione is involved in the filamentation process. We investigated S-glutathionylation, the reversible binding of glutathione to proteins, and the functional consequences on C. albicans metabolic remodeling during the yeast-to-hyphae transition. Our work provided evidence for the specific glutathionylation of mitochondrial proteins involved in bioenergetics pathways in filamentous forms and a regulation of the main enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase, by glutathionylation. Isocitrate lyase inactivation in the hyphal forms was reversed by glutaredoxin treatment, in agreement with a glutathionylation process, which was confirmed by proteomic data showing the binding of one glutathione molecule to the enzyme (data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003685). We also assessed the effect of alternative carbon sources on glutathione levels and isocitrate lyase activity. Changes in nutrient availability led to morphological flexibility and were related to perturbations in glutathione levels and isocitrate lyase activity, confirming the key role of the maintenance of intracellular redox status in the adaptive metabolic strategy of the pathogen.

  16. The adaptive metabolic response involves specific protein glutathionylation during the filamentation process in the pathogen Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Gergondey, R; Garcia, C; Serre, V; Camadro, J M; Auchère, F

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunist pathogen responsible for a large spectrum of infections, from superficial mycosis to the systemic disease candidiasis. Its ability to adopt various morphological forms, such as unicellular yeasts, filamentous pseudohyphae and hyphae, contributes to its ability to survive within the host. It has been suggested that the antioxidant glutathione is involved in the filamentation process. We investigated S-glutathionylation, the reversible binding of glutathione to proteins, and the functional consequences on C. albicans metabolic remodeling during the yeast-to-hyphae transition. Our work provided evidence for the specific glutathionylation of mitochondrial proteins involved in bioenergetics pathways in filamentous forms and a regulation of the main enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase, by glutathionylation. Isocitrate lyase inactivation in the hyphal forms was reversed by glutaredoxin treatment, in agreement with a glutathionylation process, which was confirmed by proteomic data showing the binding of one glutathione molecule to the enzyme (data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003685). We also assessed the effect of alternative carbon sources on glutathione levels and isocitrate lyase activity. Changes in nutrient availability led to morphological flexibility and were related to perturbations in glutathione levels and isocitrate lyase activity, confirming the key role of the maintenance of intracellular redox status in the adaptive metabolic strategy of the pathogen. PMID:27083931

  17. Immaturity of infection control in preterm and term newborns is associated with impaired toll-like receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Kambis; Berger, Angelika; Langgartner, Michaela; Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Hayde, Michael; Herkner, Kurt; Pollak, Arnold; Spittler, Andreas; Forster-Waldl, Elisabeth

    2007-01-15

    The impaired infection control related to the functional immaturity of the neonatal immune system is an important cause of infection in preterm newborns. We previously reported that constitutive Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 expression and cytokine secretion on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation increases with gestational age. Here, we analyzed constitutive monocyte TLR2 expression and evaluated the expression profiles of the proximal downstream adapter molecule myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). We further investigated activation of protein kinases p38 and extracellular regulated kinsase (ERK) 1/2 in CD14 monocytes after ex vivo stimulation with bacterial TLR ligands (LPS and lipoteichoic acid [LTA]). The functional outcome of the stimulation was determined by cytokine secretion. Monocytes from 31 preterm newborns (<30 weeks of gestation, n=16; 30-37 weeks of gestation, n=15), 10 term newborns, and 12 adults were investigated. In contrast to TLR4 expression, TLR2 levels did not differ between age groups. However, MyD88 levels were significantly lower in preterm newborns. Activation of p38 and ERK1/2 was impaired in all newborn age groups after stimulation with TLR-specific ligands. Accordingly, after LTA stimulation, the levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta , IL-6, and IL-8 cytokine production were substantially lower (P<.001) in preterm newborns than in adults. The reduced functional response to bacterial cell wall components appears to be part of the functional immaturity of the neonatal immune system and might predispose premature newborns to bacterial infection.

  18. Waldenström Macroglobulinemia: Clinical and Immunological Aspects, Natural History, Cell of Origin, and Emerging Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare and currently incurable neoplasm of IgM-expressing B-lymphocytes that is characterized by the occurrence of a monoclonal IgM (mIgM) paraprotein in blood serum and the infiltration of the hematopoietic bone marrow with malignant lymphoplasmacytic cells. The symptoms of patients with WM can be attributed to the extent and tissue sites of tumor cell infiltration and the magnitude and immunological specificity of the paraprotein. WM presents fascinating clues on neoplastic B-cell development, including the recent discovery of a specific gain-of-function mutation in the MYD88 adapter protein. This not only provides an intriguing link to new findings that natural effector IgM+IgD+ memory B-cells are dependent on MYD88 signaling, but also supports the hypothesis that WM derives from primitive, innate-like B-cells, such as marginal zone and B1 B-cells. Following a brief review of the clinical aspects and natural history of WM, this review discusses the thorny issue of WM's cell of origin in greater depth. Also included are emerging, genetically engineered mouse models of human WM that may enhance our understanding of the biologic and genetic underpinnings of the disease and facilitate the design and testing of new approaches to treat and prevent WM more effectively. PMID:24106612

  19. VISA is an adapter protein required for virus-triggered IFN-beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang-Guo; Wang, Yan-Yi; Han, Ke-Jun; Li, Lian-Yun; Zhai, Zhonghe; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2005-09-16

    Viral infection or stimulation of TLR3 triggers signaling cascades, leading to activation of the transcription factors IRF-3 and NF-kappaB, which collaborate to induce transcription of type I interferon (IFN) genes. In this study, we identified a protein termed VISA (for virus-induced signaling adaptor) as a critical component in the IFN-beta signaling pathways. VISA recruits IRF-3 to the cytoplasmic viral dsRNA sensor RIG-I. Depletion of VISA inhibits virus-triggered and RIG-I-mediated activation of IRF-3, NF-kappaB, and the IFN-beta promoter, suggesting that VISA plays a central role in virus-triggered TLR3-independent IFN-beta signaling. Our data also indicate that VISA interacts with TRIF and TRAF6 and mediates bifurcation of the TLR3-triggered NF-kappaB and IRF-3 activation pathways. These findings suggest that VISA is critically involved in both virus-triggered TLR3-independent and TLR3-mediated antiviral IFN signaling.

  20. Detecting the signatures of adaptive evolution in protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Bielawski, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    The field of molecular evolution, which includes genome evolution, is devoted to finding variation within and between groups of organisms and explaining the processes responsible for generating this variation. Many DNA changes are believed to have little to no functional effect, and a neutral process will best explain their evolution. Thus, a central task is to discover which changes had positive fitness consequences and were subject to Darwinian natural selection during the course of evolution. Due the size and complexity of modern molecular datasets, the field has come to rely extensively on statistical modeling techniques to meet this analytical challenge. For DNA sequences that encode proteins, one of the most powerful approaches is to employ a statistical model of codon evolution. This unit provides a general introduction to the practice of modeling codon evolution using the statistical framework of maximum likelihood. Four real-data analysis activities are used to illustrate the principles of parameter estimation, robustness, hypothesis testing, and site classification. Each activity includes an explicit analytical protocol based on programs provided by the Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) package. PMID:23288462

  1. Acute heat stress induces oxidative stress and decreases adaptation in young white leghorn cockerels by downregulation of avian uncoupling protein.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, A; Akiba, Y; Toyomizu, M

    2007-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species-induced damage of cells and molecules is one of the mechanisms responsible for the decline in an animal's performance due to heat stress. Mitochondria are the main producers of cellular superoxide, a process that is sensitive to proton motive force, and this superoxide production can be decreased by mild uncoupling. We studied the effects of heat stress on the production of mitochondrial superoxide as well as heat stress effects on the expression of avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) and avian A nucleotide translocator (avANT) in skeletal muscles of chicks and young cockerels. Male White Leghorn (Julia) chicks at 16 d and cockerels at 87 d of age were exposed to acute heat stress, 34 degrees C for 18 h, or kept at moderate ambient temperature (25 and 21 degrees C, respectively). There was no difference in mitochondrial superoxide production between heat-exposed and control chicks, whereas significant differences were observed in the case of young cockerels. Greater substrate-independent superoxide production was found in muscle mitochondria from heat-stressed young cockerels. In chicks, neither avUCP nor avANT transcript expression was changed by heat exposure, whereas in young cockerels avUCP transcript was decreased, but avANT transcript level was not changed. Thus, in heat-stressed young cockerels, increased mitochondrial superoxide production was accompanied by downregulation of avUCP. Taken together, these results suggest that exposure of young cockerels to heat stress stimulates mitochondrial superoxide production, possibly via downregulation of avUCP. Chicks with persistent avUCP expression, on the other hand, are relatively better adapted to high temperature. It can be assumed that appropriate expression of avUCP may alleviate overproduction of mitochondrial superoxide and could help birds adapt to oxidative stress resulting from acute heat stress.

  2. Glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins are functionally conserved in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa during cold adaptation process

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Yeol; Kim, Won Yong; Kwak, Kyung Jin; Oh, Seung Han; Han, Yeon Soo; Kang, Hunseung

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to the increasing amount of knowledge regarding the functional roles of glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (GRPs) in Arabidopsis thaliana in stress responses, the physiological functions of GRPs in rice (Oryza sativa) currently remain largely unknown. In this study, the functional roles of six OsGRPs from rice on the growth of E. coli and plants under cold or freezing stress conditions have been evaluated. Among the six OsGRPs investigated, OsGRP1, OsGRP4, and OsGRP6 were shown to have the ability to complement cold-sensitive BX04 E. coli mutant cells under low temperature conditions, and this complementation ability was correlated closely with their DNA- and RNA-melting abilities. Moreover, OsGRP1 and OsGRP4 rescued the growth-defect of a cold-sensitive Arabidopsis grp7 mutant plant under cold and freezing stress, and OsGRP6 conferred freezing tolerance in the grp7 mutant plant, in which the expression of AtGRP7 was suppressed and is sensitive to cold and freezing stresses. OsGRP4 and OsGRP6 complemented the defect in mRNA export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in grp7 mutants during cold stress. Considering that AtGRP7 confers freezing tolerance in plants and harbours RNA chaperone activity during the cold adaptation process, the results of the present study provide evidence that GRPs in rice and Arabidopsis are functionally conserved, and also suggest that GRPs perform a function as RNA chaperones during the cold adaptation process in monocotyledonous plants, as well as in dicotyledonous plants. PMID:20231330

  3. Prolyl Isomerization as a Molecular Memory in the Allosteric Regulation of the Signal Adapter Protein c-CrkII

    PubMed Central

    Schmidpeter, Philipp A. M.; Schmid, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    c-CrkII is a central signal adapter protein. A domain opening/closing reaction between its N- and C-terminal Src homology 3 domains (SH3N and SH3C, respectively) controls signal propagation from upstream tyrosine kinases to downstream targets. In chicken but not in human c-CrkII, opening/closing is coupled with cis/trans isomerization at Pro-238 in SH3C. Here, we used advanced double-mixing experiments and kinetic simulations to uncover dynamic domain interactions in c-CrkII and to elucidate how they are linked with cis/trans isomerization and how this regulates substrate binding to SH3N. Pro-238 trans → cis isomerization is not a simple on/off switch but converts chicken c-CrkII from a high affinity to a low affinity form. We present a double-box model that describes c-CrkII as an allosteric system consisting of an open, high affinity R state and a closed, low affinity T state. Coupling of the T-R transition with an intrinsically slow prolyl isomerization provides c-CrkII with a kinetic memory and possibly functions as a molecular attenuator during signal transduction. PMID:25488658

  4. Pulmonary Surfactant Protein A Is Expressed in Mouse Retina by Müller Cells and Impacts Neovascularization in Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Faizah; Ball, Genevieve; Hobbs, Ronald; Linens, Annette; Munzar, Saad; Akram, Rizwan; Barber, Alistair J.; Anderson, Michael; Elliott, Michael; Edwards, Madeline

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) up-regulates cytokine expression in lung disease of prematurity. Here we present data that for the first time characterizes SP-A expression and localization in the mouse retina and its impact on neovascularization (NV) in the mouse. Methods. Retinal SP-A was localized in wild-type (WT) mice with the cell markers glutamine synthetase (Müller cells), neurofilament-M (ganglion cells), glial acid fibrillary acid protein (astrocytes), and cluster of differentiation 31 (endothelial cells). Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 (TLR-2 and TLR-4) ligands were used to up-regulate SP-A expression in WT and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) protein (necessary for NFκB signaling) null mouse retinas and Müller cells, which were quantified using ELISA. Retinal SP-A was then measured in the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model. The effect of SP-A on retinal NV was then studied in SP-A null (SP-A−/−) mice. Results. SP-A is present at birth in the WT mouse retina and colocalizes with glutamine synthetase. TLR-2 and TLR-4 ligands increase SP-A both in the retina and in Müller cells. SP-A is increased at postnatal day 17 (P17) in WT mouse pups with OIR compared to that in controls (P = 0.02), and SP-A−/− mice have reduced NV compared to WT mice (P = 0.001) in the OIR model. Conclusions. Retinal and Müller cell SP-A is up-regulated via the NFκB pathway and up-regulated during the hypoxia phase of OIR. Absence of SP-A attenuates NV in the OIR model. Thus SP-A may be a marker of retinal inflammation during NV. PMID:25406276

  5. TRIF-dependent innate immune activation is critical for survival to neonatal gram-negative sepsis.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Alex G; Joiner, Dallas N; Gentile, Lori F; Cuenca, Angela L; Wynn, James L; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra M; Scumpia, Philip O; Behrns, Kevin E; Efron, Philip A; Nacionales, Dina; Lui, Chao; Wallet, Shannon M; Reeves, Westley H; Mathews, Clayton E; Moldawer, Lyle L

    2015-02-01

    Current evidence suggests that neonatal immunity is functionally distinct from adults. Although TLR signaling through the adaptor protein, MyD88, has been shown to be critical for survival to sepsis in adults, little is known about the role of MyD88 or TRIF in neonatal sepsis. We demonstrate that TRIF(-/-) but not MyD88(-/-) neonates are highly susceptible to Escherichia coli peritonitis and bacteremia. This was associated with decreased innate immune recruitment and function. Importantly, we found that the reverse was true in adults that MyD88(-/-) but not TRIF(-/-) or wild-type adults are susceptible to E. coli peritonitis and bacteremia. In addition, we demonstrate that TRIF but not MyD88 signaling is critical for the TLR4 protective adjuvant effect we have previously demonstrated. These data suggest a differential requirement for the survival of neonates versus adults to Gram-negative infection, and that modulation of TRIF in neonates can be used to augment survival to neonatal sepsis.

  6. Human endotoxin tolerance is associated with enrichment of the CD14+ CD16+ monocyte subset.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Nieto, Aimée; Zentella, Alejandro; Moreno, José; Ventura, José L; Pedraza, Sigifredo; Velázquez, Juan R

    2015-01-01

    Prior exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induces a state of cell resistance to subsequent LPS restimulation, known as endotoxin tolerance, mainly by repressing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We established an endotoxin tolerance model in human monocytes Endotoxin-tolerant cells showed a decrease in IκBα degradation and diminished expression of Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (both messenger RNA [mRNA] and protein content). The myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/MyD88 splice variant (MyD88s) ratio, an indirect way to test the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) MyD88-dependent signaling cascade, did not change in endotoxin-tolerant cells when compared to LPS-stimulated or -unstimulated ones. Remarkably, cell population analysis indicated a significant increase of the CD14+ CD16+ subset only under the endotoxin-tolerant condition. Furthermore, endotoxin-tolerant cells produced higher amounts of C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), a typical MyD88-independent cytokine.

  7. Human endotoxin tolerance is associated with enrichment of the CD14+ CD16+ monocyte subset.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Nieto, Aimée; Zentella, Alejandro; Moreno, José; Ventura, José L; Pedraza, Sigifredo; Velázquez, Juan R

    2015-01-01

    Prior exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induces a state of cell resistance to subsequent LPS restimulation, known as endotoxin tolerance, mainly by repressing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We established an endotoxin tolerance model in human monocytes Endotoxin-tolerant cells showed a decrease in IκBα degradation and diminished expression of Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (both messenger RNA [mRNA] and protein content). The myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/MyD88 splice variant (MyD88s) ratio, an indirect way to test the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) MyD88-dependent signaling cascade, did not change in endotoxin-tolerant cells when compared to LPS-stimulated or -unstimulated ones. Remarkably, cell population analysis indicated a significant increase of the CD14+ CD16+ subset only under the endotoxin-tolerant condition. Furthermore, endotoxin-tolerant cells produced higher amounts of C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), a typical MyD88-independent cytokine. PMID:25172544

  8. TRIF-dependent innate immune activation is critical for survival to neonatal gram-negative sepsis.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Alex G; Joiner, Dallas N; Gentile, Lori F; Cuenca, Angela L; Wynn, James L; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra M; Scumpia, Philip O; Behrns, Kevin E; Efron, Philip A; Nacionales, Dina; Lui, Chao; Wallet, Shannon M; Reeves, Westley H; Mathews, Clayton E; Moldawer, Lyle L

    2015-02-01

    Current evidence suggests that neonatal immunity is functionally distinct from adults. Although TLR signaling through the adaptor protein, MyD88, has been shown to be critical for survival to sepsis in adults, little is known about the role of MyD88 or TRIF in neonatal sepsis. We demonstrate that TRIF(-/-) but not MyD88(-/-) neonates are highly susceptible to Escherichia coli peritonitis and bacteremia. This was associated with decreased innate immune recruitment and function. Importantly, we found that the reverse was true in adults that MyD88(-/-) but not TRIF(-/-) or wild-type adults are susceptible to E. coli peritonitis and bacteremia. In addition, we demonstrate that TRIF but not MyD88 signaling is critical for the TLR4 protective adjuvant effect we have previously demonstrated. These data suggest a differential requirement for the survival of neonates versus adults to Gram-negative infection, and that modulation of TRIF in neonates can be used to augment survival to neonatal sepsis. PMID:25548220

  9. Distribution of phosphorylated protein kinase C alpha in goldfish retinal bipolar synaptic terminals: control by state of adaptation and pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Uwe D; Borde, Johannes; Mack, Andreas F; Wagner, Hans-Joachim

    2007-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a signalling enzyme critically involved in many aspects of synaptic plasticity. In cyprinid retinae, the PKC alpha isoform is localized in a subpopulation of depolarizing bipolar cells that show adaptation-related morphological changes of their axon terminals. We have studied the subcellular localization of phosphorylated PKC alpha (pPKC alpha) in retinae under various conditions by immunohistochemistry with a phosphospecific antibody. In dark-adapted retinae, pPKC alpha immunoreactivity is weak in the cytoplasm of synaptic terminals, labelling being predominantly associated with the membrane compartment. In light-adapted cells, immunoreactivity is diffusely distributed throughout the terminal. Western blot analysis has revealed a reduction of pPKC alpha immunoreactivity in cytosolic fractions of homogenized dark-adapted retinae compared with light-adapted retinae. Pharmacological experiments with the isoform-specific PKC blocker Goe6976 have shown that inhibition of the enzyme influences immunolabelling for pPKC alpha, mimicking the effects of light on the subcellular distribution of immunoreactivity. Our findings suggest that the state of adaptation modifies the subcellular localization of a signalling molecule (PKC alpha) at the ribbon-type synaptic complex. We propose that changes in the subcellular distribution of PKC alpha immunoreactivity might be one component regulating the strength of the signal transfer of the bipolar cell terminal.

  10. Distribution of phosphorylated protein kinase C alpha in goldfish retinal bipolar synaptic terminals: control by state of adaptation and pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Uwe D; Borde, Johannes; Mack, Andreas F; Wagner, Hans-Joachim

    2007-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a signalling enzyme critically involved in many aspects of synaptic plasticity. In cyprinid retinae, the PKC alpha isoform is localized in a subpopulation of depolarizing bipolar cells that show adaptation-related morphological changes of their axon terminals. We have studied the subcellular localization of phosphorylated PKC alpha (pPKC alpha) in retinae under various conditions by immunohistochemistry with a phosphospecific antibody. In dark-adapted retinae, pPKC alpha immunoreactivity is weak in the cytoplasm of synaptic terminals, labelling being predominantly associated with the membrane compartment. In light-adapted cells, immunoreactivity is diffusely distributed throughout the terminal. Western blot analysis has revealed a reduction of pPKC alpha immunoreactivity in cytosolic fractions of homogenized dark-adapted retinae compared with light-adapted retinae. Pharmacological experiments with the isoform-specific PKC blocker Goe6976 have shown that inhibition of the enzyme influences immunolabelling for pPKC alpha, mimicking the effects of light on the subcellular distribution of immunoreactivity. Our findings suggest that the state of adaptation modifies the subcellular localization of a signalling molecule (PKC alpha) at the ribbon-type synaptic complex. We propose that changes in the subcellular distribution of PKC alpha immunoreactivity might be one component regulating the strength of the signal transfer of the bipolar cell terminal. PMID:17043793

  11. The role of mammalian antimicrobial peptides and proteins in awakening of innate host defenses and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Chertov, O; Oppenheim, J J

    2001-06-01

    Since we live in a dirty environment, we have developed many host defenses to contend with microorganisms. The epithelial lining of our skin, gastrointestinal tract and bronchial tree produces a number of antibacterial peptides, and our phagocytic neutrophils rapidly ingest and enzymatically degrade invading organisms, as well as produce peptides and enzymes with antimicrobial activities. Some of these antimicrobial moieties also appear to alert host cells involved in both innate host defense and adaptive immune responses. The epithelial cells are a source of constitutively produced beta defensin (HBD1) and proinflammatory cytokine-inducible beta defensins (HBD2 and -3) and cathelicidin (LL37). The neutrophils-derived antimicrobial peptides are released on demand from their cytoplasmic granules. They include the enzymes cathepsin G and chymase, azurocidin, a defensins and cathelicidin. In contrast, C5a and C3b are produced by activation of the serum complement cascade. The antimicrobial moieties direct the migration and activate target cells by interacting with selected G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors (GPCRs) on cell surfaces. The beta defensins interact with the CCR6 chemokine GPCRs, whereas cathelicidins interact with the low-affinity FPRL-1 receptors. The neutrophil-derived cathepsin G acts on the high-affinity FMLP receptor (GPCR) known as FPR, while the receptors for chymase and azurocidin have not been identified as yet. The serum-derived C5a uses a GPCR known as C5aR to mediate its chemotactic and cell-activating effects. Consequently, all these ligand-receptor interactions in addition to mediating chemotaxis also activate receptor-expressing cells to produce other mediators of inflammation.

  12. Calcineurin inhibitors recruit protein kinases JAK2 and JNK, TLR signaling and the UPR to activate NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses in kidney tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    González-Guerrero, Cristian; Ocaña-Salceda, Carlos; Berzal, Sergio; Carrasco, Susana; Fernández-Fernández, Beatriz; and others

    2013-11-01

    The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus are key drugs in current immunosuppressive regimes for solid organ transplantation. However, they are nephrotoxic and promote death and profibrotic responses in tubular cells. Moreover, renal inflammation is observed in CNI nephrotoxicity but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have now studied molecular pathways leading to inflammation elicited by the CNIs in cultured and kidney tubular cells. Both CsA and tacrolimus elicited a proinflammatory response in tubular cells as evidenced by a transcriptomics approach. Transcriptomics also suggested several potential pathways leading to expression of proinflammatory genes. Validation and functional studies disclosed that in tubular cells, CNIs activated protein kinases such as the JAK2/STAT3 and TAK1/JNK/AP-1 pathways, TLR4/Myd88/IRAK signaling and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) to promote NF-κB activation and proinflammatory gene expression. CNIs also activated an Nrf2/HO-1-dependent compensatory response and the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane inhibited JAK2 and JNK activation and inflammation. A murine model of CsA nephrotoxicity corroborated activation of the proinflammatory pathways identified in cell cultures. Human CNIs nephrotoxicity was also associated with NF-κB, STAT3 and IRE1α activation. In conclusion, CNIs recruit several intracellular pathways leading to previously non-described proinflammatory actions in renal tubular cells. Identification of these pathways provides novel clues for therapeutic intervention to limit CNIs nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: • Molecular mechanisms modulating CNI renal inflammation were investigated. • Kinases, immune receptors and ER stress mediate the inflammatory response to CNIs. • Several intracellular pathways activate NF-κB in CNIs-treated tubular cells. • A NF-κB-dependent cytokine profile characterizes CNIs-induced inflammation. • CNI nephrotoxicity was associated to inflammatory

  13. Enhancement of tumor-specific T cell-mediated immunity in dendritic cell-based vaccines by Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein X.

    PubMed

    Jung, In Duk; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Min-Goo; Kang, Tae Heung; Han, Hee Dong; Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Woo Sik; Kim, Hong Min; Park, Won Sun; Kim, Han Wool; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Lee, Eun Kyung; Wu, T-C; Park, Yeong-Min

    2014-08-01

    Despite the potential for stimulation of robust antitumor immunity by dendritic cells (DCs), clinical applications of DC-based immunotherapy are limited by the low potency in generating tumor Ag-specific T cell responses. Therefore, optimal conditions for generating potent immunostimulatory DCs that overcome tolerance and suppression are key factors in DC-based tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we demonstrate that use of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein X (HspX) as an immunoadjuvant in DC-based tumor immunotherapy has significant potential in therapeutics. In particular, the treatment aids the induction of tumor-reactive T cell responses, especially tumor-specific CTLs. The HspX protein induces DC maturation and proinflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-β) through TLR4 binding partially mediated by both the MyD88 and the TRIF signaling pathways. We employed two models of tumor progression and metastasis to evaluate HspX-stimulated DCs in vivo. The administration of HspX-stimulated DCs increased the activation of naive T cells, effectively polarizing the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to secrete IFN-γ, as well as enhanced the cytotoxicity of splenocytes against HPV-16 E7 (E7)-expressing TC-1 murine tumor cells in therapeutic experimental animals. Moreover, the metastatic capacity of B16-BL6 melanoma cancer cells toward the lungs was remarkably attenuated in mice that received HspX-stimulated DCs. In conclusion, the high therapeutic response rates with tumor-targeted Th1-type T cell immunity as a result of HspX-stimulated DCs in two models suggest that HspX harnesses the exquisite immunological power and specificity of DCs for the treatment of tumors.

  14. Role of protein kinase R in the killing of Leishmania major by macrophages in response to neutrophil elastase and TLR4 via TNFα and IFNβ.

    PubMed

    Faria, Marilia S; Calegari-Silva, Tereza C; de Carvalho Vivarini, Aislan; Mottram, Jeremy C; Lopes, Ulisses Gazos; Lima, Ana Paula C A

    2014-07-01

    In cutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania amazonensis activates macrophage double-stranded, RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) to promote parasite growth. In our study, Leishmania major grew normally in RAW cells, RAW-expressing dominant-negative PKR (PKR-DN) cells, and macrophages of PKR-knockout mice, revealing that PKR is dispensable for L. major growth in macrophages. PKR activation in infected macrophages with poly I:C resulted in parasite death. Fifty percent of L. major-knockout lines for the ecotin-like serine peptidase inhibitor (ISP2; Δisp2/isp3), an inhibitor of neutrophil elastase (NE), died in RAW cells or macrophages from 129Sv mice, as a result of PKR activation. Inhibition of PKR or NE or neutralization of Toll-like receptor 4 or 2(TLR4 or TLR2) prevented the death of Δisp2/isp3. Δisp2/isp3 grew normally in RAW-PKR-DN cells or macrophages from 129Sv pkr(-/-), tlr2(-/-), trif(-/-), and myd88(-/-) mice, associating NE activity, PKR, and TLR responses with parasite death. Δisp2/isp3 increased the expression of mRNA for TNF-α by 2-fold and of interferon β (IFNβ) in a PKR-dependent manner. Antibodies to TNF-α reversed the 95% killing by Δisp2/isp3, whereas they grew normally in macrophages from IFN receptor-knockout mice. We propose that ISP2 prevents the activation of PKR via an NE-TLR4-TLR2 axis to control innate responses that contribute to the killing of L. major.-Faria, M. S., Calegari-Silva, T. C., de Carvalho Vivarini, A., Mottram, J. C., Lopes, U. G., Lima, A. P. C. A. Role of protein kinase R in the killing of Leishmania major by macrophages in response to neutrophil elastase and TLR4 via TNFα and IFNβ. PMID:24732131

  15. The Adapter Protein APPL1 Links FSH Receptor to Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Production and Is Implicated in Intracellular Ca2+ Mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Richard M.; Nechamen, Cheryl A.; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E.; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    FSH binds to its receptor (FSHR) on target cells in the ovary and testis, to regulate oogenesis and spermatogenesis, respectively. The signaling cascades activated after ligand binding are extremely complex and have been shown to include protein kinase A, mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate–mediated calcium signaling pathways. The adapter protein APPL1 (Adapter protein containing Pleckstrin homology domain, Phosphotyrosine binding domain and Leucine zipper motif), which has been linked to an assortment of other signaling proteins, was previously identified as an interacting protein with FSHR. Thus, alanine substitution mutations in the first intracellular loop of FSHR were generated to determine which residues are essential for FSHR-APPL1 interaction. Three amino acids were essential; when any one of them was altered, APPL1 association with FSHR mutants was abrogated. Two of the mutants (L377A and F382A) that displayed poor cell-surface expression were not studied further. Substitution of FSHR-K376A did not affect FSH binding or agonist-stimulated cAMP production in either transiently transfected human embryonic kidney cells or virally transduced human granulosa cells (KGN). In the KGN line, as well as primary cultures of rat granulosa cells transduced with wild type or mutant receptor, FSH-mediated progesterone or estradiol production was not affected by the mutation. However, in human embryonic kidney cells inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production was curtailed and KGN cells transduced with FSHR-K376A evidenced reduced Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores after FSH treatment. PMID:21285318

  16. Role of Cell Cycle Regulation and MLH1, A Key DNA Mismatch Repair Protein, In Adaptive Survival Responses. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Boothman

    1999-08-11

    Due to several interesting findings on both adaptive survival responses (ASRs) and DNA mismatch repair (MMR), this grant was separated into two discrete Specific Aim sets (each with their own discrete hypotheses). The described experiments were simultaneously performed.

  17. Plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations and hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate kinase activities during and upon adaptation of rats to a high protein diet.

    PubMed

    Peret, J; Foustock, S; Chanez, M; Bois-Joyeux, B; Assan, R

    1981-07-01

    Plasma hormones, glucose and free fatty acids, liver glycogen and two key enzymes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis were examined in adult rats during a 40-day period of high protein feeding. Plasma insulin fell within 1 day but returned to normal after 4 days. Glucagon changed more slowly, reaching a maximum on day 4 and declined to near the control value within 24 days. Consequently, the insulin to glucagon ratio was lower on days 1, 4 and 8 and was nearly normal on day 24. With respect to hepatic enzymes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity rose sharply on the 1st day and remained elevated for 40-day period; the L-isozyme of pyruvate kinase, although unchanged on the 1st day, decreased thereafter and from day 8 on represented 15--20% of control. Circadian variations in these parameters were also measured in rats adapted to the high protein diet. In such animals, the diurnal change in plasma hormones was less marked but tended to be inverted with respect to controls; the insulin/glucagon ratio was highest during daylight on high protein and in late night on the control diet. Over 24 hours, pyruvate kinase activity was related directly and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase inversely to the hormone ratio. We concluded that in rats adapted to high protein, as in controls, the diurnal balance between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is probably regulated by the same factor, namely the insulin/glucagon ratio.

  18. Rapid and Adaptable Measurement of Protein Thermal Stability by Differential Scanning Fluorimetry: Updating a Common Biochemical Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Jeremy; Savas, Christopher J.; Kartje, Zachary; Hoops, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of protein denaturation and protein folding is a common laboratory technique used in undergraduate biochemistry laboratories. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) provides a rapid, sensitive, and general method for measuring protein thermal stability in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory. In this method, the thermal…

  19. Tlr4-mutant mice are resistant to acute alcohol-induced sterol-regulatory element binding protein activation and hepatic lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Cheng; He, Wei; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Chen, Xi; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication caused hepatic lipid accumulation. The present study showed that acute alcohol intoxication caused hepatic lipid accumulation in Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1, a transcription factor regulating fatty acid and triglyceride (TG) synthesis, was activated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic Fas, Acc, Scd-1 and Dgat-2, the key genes for fatty acid and TG synthesis, were up-regulated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Additional experiment showed that hepatic MyD88 was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic NF-κB was activated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Moreover, hepatic GSH content was reduced and hepatic MDA level was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic CYP2E1 was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic p67phox and gp91phox, two NADPH oxidase subunits, were up-regulated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN), a free radical spin-trapping agent, protected against alcohol-induced hepatic SREBP-1 activation and hepatic lipid accumulation. In conclusion, Tlr4-mutant mice are resistant to acute alcohol-induced hepatic SREBP-1 activation and hepatic lipid accumulation. PMID:27627966

  20. Tlr4-mutant mice are resistant to acute alcohol-induced sterol-regulatory element binding protein activation and hepatic lipid accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Cheng; He, Wei; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Chen, Xi; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication caused hepatic lipid accumulation. The present study showed that acute alcohol intoxication caused hepatic lipid accumulation in Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1, a transcription factor regulating fatty acid and triglyceride (TG) synthesis, was activated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic Fas, Acc, Scd-1 and Dgat-2, the key genes for fatty acid and TG synthesis, were up-regulated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Additional experiment showed that hepatic MyD88 was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic NF-κB was activated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Moreover, hepatic GSH content was reduced and hepatic MDA level was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic CYP2E1 was elevated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Hepatic p67phox and gp91phox, two NADPH oxidase subunits, were up-regulated in alcohol-treated Tlr4-wild-type mice but not in Tlr4-mutant mice. Alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN), a free radical spin-trapping agent, protected against alcohol-induced hepatic SREBP-1 activation and hepatic lipid accumulation. In conclusion, Tlr4-mutant mice are resistant to acute alcohol-induced hepatic SREBP-1 activation and hepatic lipid accumulation. PMID:27627966

  1. High-intensity interval training-induced metabolic adaptation coupled with an increase in Hif-1α and glycolytic protein expression.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takaaki; Kitaoka, Yu; Kikuchi, Dale Manjiro; Takeda, Kohei; Numata, Osamu; Takemasa, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    It is known that repeated bouts of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lead to enhanced levels of glycolysis, glycogenesis, and lactate transport proteins in skeletal muscle; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations. To decipher the mechanism leading to improvement of skeletal muscle glycolytic capacity associated with HIIT, we examined the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), the major transcription factor regulating the expression of genes related to anaerobic metabolism, in the adaptation to HIIT. First, we induced Hif-1α accumulation using ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB) to assess the potential role of Hif-1α in skeletal muscle. Treatment with EDHB significantly increased the protein levels of Hif-1α in gastrocnemius muscles, accompanied by elevated expression of genes related to glycolysis, glycogenesis, and lactate transport. Daily administration of EDHB for 1 wk resulted in elevated glycolytic enzyme activity in gastrocnemius muscles. Second, we examined whether a single bout of HIIT could induce Hif-1α protein accumulation and subsequent increase in the expression of genes related to anaerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle. We observed that the protein levels of Hif-1α and expression of the target genes were elevated 3 h after an acute bout of HIIT in gastrocnemius muscles. Last, we examined the effects of long-term HIIT. We found that long-term HIIT increased the basal levels of Hif-1α as well as the glycolytic capacity in gastrocnemius muscles. Our results suggest that Hif-1α is a key regulator in the metabolic adaptation to high-intensity training.

  2. High-intensity interval training-induced metabolic adaptation coupled with an increase in Hif-1α and glycolytic protein expression.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takaaki; Kitaoka, Yu; Kikuchi, Dale Manjiro; Takeda, Kohei; Numata, Osamu; Takemasa, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    It is known that repeated bouts of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lead to enhanced levels of glycolysis, glycogenesis, and lactate transport proteins in skeletal muscle; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations. To decipher the mechanism leading to improvement of skeletal muscle glycolytic capacity associated with HIIT, we examined the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α), the major transcription factor regulating the expression of genes related to anaerobic metabolism, in the adaptation to HIIT. First, we induced Hif-1α accumulation using ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB) to assess the potential role of Hif-1α in skeletal muscle. Treatment with EDHB significantly increased the protein levels of Hif-1α in gastrocnemius muscles, accompanied by elevated expression of genes related to glycolysis, glycogenesis, and lactate transport. Daily administration of EDHB for 1 wk resulted in elevated glycolytic enzyme activity in gastrocnemius muscles. Second, we examined whether a single bout of HIIT could induce Hif-1α protein accumulation and subsequent increase in the expression of genes related to anaerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle. We observed that the protein levels of Hif-1α and expression of the target genes were elevated 3 h after an acute bout of HIIT in gastrocnemius muscles. Last, we examined the effects of long-term HIIT. We found that long-term HIIT increased the basal levels of Hif-1α as well as the glycolytic capacity in gastrocnemius muscles. Our results suggest that Hif-1α is a key regulator in the metabolic adaptation to high-intensity training. PMID:26429867

  3. Hrd1 and ER-Associated Protein Degradation, ERAD, Are Critical Elements of the Adaptive ER Stress Response in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Doroudgar, Shirin; Völkers, Mirko; Thuerauf, Donna J; Khan, Mohsin; Mohsin, Sadia; Respress, Jonathan L; Wang, Wei; Gude, Natalie; Müller, Oliver J; Wehrens, Xander HT; Sussman, Mark A; Glembotski, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Hrd1 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been studied in yeast, where it contributes to ER protein quality control by ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins that accumulate during ER stress. Neither Hrd1 nor ERAD have been studied in the heart, or in cardiac myocytes, where protein quality control is critical for proper heart function. Objective The objectives of this study were to elucidate roles for Hrd1 in ER stress, ERAD, and viability in cultured cardiac myocytes and in the mouse heart, in vivo. Methods and Results The effects of siRNA-mediated Hrd1 knockdown were examined in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. The effects of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Hrd1 knockdown and overexpression were examined in the hearts of mice subjected to pressure-overload induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy, which challenges protein-folding capacity. In cardiac myocytes, the ER stressors, thapsigargin (TG) and tunicamycin (TM) increased ERAD, as well as adaptive ER stress proteins, and minimally affected cell death. However, when Hrd1 was knocked down, TG and TM dramatically decreased ERAD, while increasing maladaptive ER stress proteins and cell death. In vivo, Hrd1 knockdown exacerbated cardiac dysfunction, and increased apoptosis and cardiac hypertrophy, while Hrd1 overexpression preserved cardiac function, and decreased apoptosis and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in the hearts of mice subjected to pressure-overload. Conclusions Hrd1 and ERAD are essential components of the adaptive ER stress response in cardiac myocytes. Hrd1 contributes to preserving heart structure and function in a mouse model of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26137860

  4. Verification at the protein level of the PIF4-mediated external coincidence model for the temperature-adaptive photoperiodic control of plant growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yamashino, Takafumi; Nomoto, Yuji; Lorrain, Séverine; Miyachi, Miki; Ito, Shogo; Nakamichi, Norihito; Fankhauser, Christian; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2013-03-01

    Plant circadian clock controls a wide variety of physiological and developmental events, which include the short-days (SDs)-specific promotion of the elongation of hypocotyls during de-etiolation and also the elongation of petioles during vegetative growth. In A. thaliana, the PIF4 gene encoding a phytochrome-interacting basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor plays crucial roles in this photoperiodic control of plant growth. According to the proposed external coincidence model, the PIF4 gene is transcribed precociously at the end of night specifically in SDs, under which conditions the protein product is stably accumulated, while PIF4 is expressed exclusively during the daytime in long days (LDs), under which conditions the protein product is degraded by the light-activated phyB and also the residual proteins are inactivated by the DELLA family of proteins. A number of previous reports provided solid evidence to support this coincidence model mainly at the transcriptional level of the PIF 4 and PIF4-traget genes. Nevertheless, the diurnal oscillation profiles of PIF4 proteins, which were postulated to be dependent on photoperiod and ambient temperature, have not yet been demonstrated. Here we present such crucial evidence on PIF4 protein level to further support the external coincidence model underlying the temperature-adaptive photoperiodic control of plant growth in A. thaliana.

  5. Activation of Natural Killer T Cells by α-Galactosylceramide Rapidly Induces the Full Maturation of Dendritic Cells In Vivo and Thereby Acts as an Adjuvant for Combined CD4 and CD8 T Cell Immunity to a Coadministered Protein

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Shin-ichiro; Shimizu, Kanako; Smith, Caroline; Bonifaz, Laura; Steinman, Ralph M.

    2003-01-01

    The maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) allows these antigen-presenting cells to initiate immunity. We pursued this concept in situ by studying the adjuvant action of α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) in mice. A single i.v. injection of glycolipid induced the full maturation of splenic DCs, beginning within 4 h. Maturation was manifest by marked increases in costimulator and major histocompatibility complex class II expression, interferon (IFN)-γ production, and stimulation of the mixed leukocyte reaction. These changes were not induced directly by αGalCer but required natural killer T (NKT) cells acting independently of the MyD88 adaptor protein. To establish that DC maturation was responsible for the adjuvant role of αGalCer, mice were given αGalCer together with soluble or cell-associated ovalbumin antigen. Th1 type CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses developed, and the mice became resistant to challenge with ovalbumin-expressing tumor. DCs from mice given ovalbumin plus adjuvant, but not the non-DCs, stimulated ovalbumin-specific proliferative responses and importantly, induced antigen-specific, IFN-γ producing, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells upon transfer into naive animals. In the latter instance, immune priming did not require further exposure to ovalbumin, αGalCer, NKT, or NK cells. Therefore a single dose of αGalCer i.v. rapidly stimulates the full maturation of DCs in situ, and this accounts for the induction of combined Th1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immunity to a coadministered protein. PMID:12874260

  6. Activation of natural killer T cells by alpha-galactosylceramide rapidly induces the full maturation of dendritic cells in vivo and thereby acts as an adjuvant for combined CD4 and CD8 T cell immunity to a coadministered protein.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Shimizu, Kanako; Smith, Caroline; Bonifaz, Laura; Steinman, Ralph M

    2003-07-21

    The maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) allows these antigen-presenting cells to initiate immunity. We pursued this concept in situ by studying the adjuvant action of alpha-galactosylceramide (alphaGalCer) in mice. A single i.v. injection of glycolipid induced the full maturation of splenic DCs, beginning within 4 h. Maturation was manifest by marked increases in costimulator and major histocompatibility complex class II expression, interferon (IFN)-gamma production, and stimulation of the mixed leukocyte reaction. These changes were not induced directly by alphaGalCer but required natural killer T (NKT) cells acting independently of the MyD88 adaptor protein. To establish that DC maturation was responsible for the adjuvant role of alphaGalCer, mice were given alphaGalCer together with soluble or cell-associated ovalbumin antigen. Th1 type CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses developed, and the mice became resistant to challenge with ovalbumin-expressing tumor. DCs from mice given ovalbumin plus adjuvant, but not the non-DCs, stimulated ovalbumin-specific proliferative responses and importantly, induced antigen-specific, IFN-gamma producing, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells upon transfer into naive animals. In the latter instance, immune priming did not require further exposure to ovalbumin, alphaGalCer, NKT, or NK cells. Therefore a single dose of alphaGalCer i.v. rapidly stimulates the full maturation of DCs in situ, and this accounts for the induction of combined Th1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immunity to a coadministered protein.

  7. Adaptation of Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus to Chicken Embryonic Fibroblasts by Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Residues 279 and 284 of Viral Coat Protein VP2

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Boon-Leong; Cao, Yongchang; Yu, Tiffany; Mo, Chi-Wai

    1999-01-01

    The full-length RNA genomes of a chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF)-nonpermissive, very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) (strain HK46) were amplified into cDNAs by reverse transcription-PCR. The full-length cDNAs were sequenced and subcloned into a eukaryotic expression vector, from which point mutations were introduced into the VP2 region by site-directed mutagenesis. The wild-type and mutated plasmids were transfected directly into CEFs to examine their ability to generate CEF-permissive recombinant viruses. Substitution of amino acid residues 279 (Asp→Asn) and 284 (Ala→Thr) of the VP2 protein yielded a recombinant virus which was able to be passaged in CEFs, whereas the wild-type cDNAs and an amino acid substitution at residue 330 (Ser→Arg) of the VP2 protein alone did not yield viable virus. The results indicated that mutation of other viral proteins, including VP1, VP3, VP4, and VP5, was not required for CEF adaptation of the virus. The same approach may be used to produce CEF-adapted strains from newly evolved IBDVs or to manipulate the antigenicity of the virus. PMID:10074133

  8. Adaptive changes in the capacity of systems used for the synthesis of citrulline in rat liver mitochondria in response to high- and low-protein diets

    PubMed Central

    McGivan, J. D.; Bradford, Norah M.; Chappell, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    1. Citrulline synthesis was measured in mitochondria from rats fed on a standard diet, a high-protein diet, or on glucose. 2. With NH4Cl as the nitrogen source the rate of citrulline synthesis was higher in mitochondria from rats fed on a high-protein diet than in those from rats fed on a standard diet. When rats were fed solely on glucose the rate of synthesis of citrulline from NH4Cl was very low. 3. With glutamate as the nitrogen source the relative rates of citrulline synthesis were much lower than when NH4Cl was present, but similar adaptive changes occurred. 4. The activity of the mitochondrial glutamate-transporting system increased two to three times on feeding rats on a high-protein diet, but the Km for glutamate was unchanged. 5. Adaptive changes in certain intramitochondrial enzymes were also measured. 6. The results were interpreted to indicate that when an excess of substrate was present, citrulline synthesis from NH4Cl was rate-limited by the intramitochondrial concentration of N-acetyl-glutamate, but citrulline synthesis from glutamate was rate-limited primarily by the activity of the glutamate-transporting system. PMID:4374198

  9. Adaptation of HepG2 cells to a steady-state reduction in the content of protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) catalytic subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, Joan M.; Salomon, Arthur R.; Tantravahi, Umadevi; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2015-07-15

    Protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr phosphatase involved in an array of cellular processes. To assess the potential of PP6 as a therapeutic target in liver disorders, we attenuated expression of the PP6 catalytic subunit in HepG2 cells using lentiviral-transduced shRNA. Two PP6 knock-down (PP6KD) cell lines (90% reduction of PP6-C protein content) were studied in depth. Both proliferated at a rate similar to control cells. However, flow cytometry indicated G2/M cell cycle arrest that was accounted for by a shift of the cells from a diploid to tetraploid state. PP6KD cells did not show an increase in apoptosis, nor did they exhibit reduced viability in the presence of bleomycin or taxol. Gene expression analysis by microarray showed attenuated anti-inflammatory signaling. Genes associated with DNA replication were downregulated. Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic analysis yielded 80 phosphopeptides representing 56 proteins that were significantly affected by a stable reduction in PP6-C. Proteins involved in DNA replication, DNA damage repair and pre-mRNA splicing were overrepresented among these. PP6KD cells showed intact mTOR signaling. Our studies demonstrated involvement of PP6 in a diverse set of biological pathways and an adaptive response that may limit the effectiveness of targeting PP6 in liver disorders. - Highlights: • Lentiviral-transduced shRNA was used to generate a stable knockdown of PP6 in HepG2 cells. • Cells adapted to reduced PP6; cell proliferation was unaffected, and cell survival was normal. • However, PP6 knockdown was associated with a transition to a tetraploid state. • Genomic profiling showed downregulated anti-inflammatory signaling and DNA replication. • Phosphoproteomic profiling showed changes in proteins associated with DNA replication and repair.

  10. Multi‐omic profiling ­of EPO‐producing Chinese hamster ovary cell panel reveals metabolic adaptation to heterologous protein production

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Daniel; Seresht, Ali Kazemi; Engmark, Mikael; Magdenoska, Olivera; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. The production of heterologous proteins in CHO cells imposes a burden on the host cell metabolism and impact cellular physiology on a global scale. In this work, a multi‐omics approach was applied to study the production of erythropoietin (EPO) in a panel of CHO‐K1 cells under growth‐limited and unlimited conditions in batch and chemostat cultures. Physiological characterization of the EPO‐producing cells included global transcriptome analysis, targeted metabolome analysis, including intracellular pools of glycolytic intermediates, NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+, adenine nucleotide phosphates (ANP), and extracellular concentrations of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids. Potential impact of EPO expression on the protein secretory pathway was assessed at multiple stages using quantitative PCR (qPCR), reverse transcription PCR (qRT‐PCR), Western blots (WB), and global gene expression analysis to assess EPO gene copy numbers, EPO gene expression, intracellular EPO retention, and differentially expressed genes functionally related to secretory protein processing, respectively. We found no evidence supporting the existence of production bottlenecks in energy metabolism (i.e., glycolytic metabolites, NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ and ANPs) in batch culture or in the secretory protein production pathway (i.e., gene dosage, transcription and post‐translational processing of EPO) in chemostat culture at specific productivities up to 5 pg/cell/day. Time‐course analysis of high‐ and low‐producing clones in chemostat culture revealed rapid adaptation of transcription levels of amino acid catabolic genes in favor of EPO production within nine generations. Interestingly, the adaptation was followed by an increase in specific EPO productivity. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 2373–2387. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  11. Cell culture adaptation mutations in foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A capsid proteins: implications for receptor interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we describe the adaptive changes fixed on the capsid of several foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A strains during propagation in cell monolayers. Viruses passaged extensively in three cell lines (BHK-21, LFBK and IB-RS-2), consistently gained several positively charged amino acids...

  12. How rods respond to single photons: Key adaptations of a G-protein cascade that enable vision at the physical limit of perception.

    PubMed

    Reingruber, Jürgen; Holcman, David; Fain, Gordon L

    2015-11-01

    Rod photoreceptors are among the most sensitive light detectors in nature. They achieve their remarkable sensitivity across a wide variety of species through a number of essential adaptations: a specialized cellular geometry, a G-protein cascade with an unusually stable receptor molecule, a low-noise transduction mechanism, a nearly perfect effector enzyme, and highly evolved mechanisms of feedback control and receptor deactivation. Practically any change in protein expression, enzyme activity, or feedback control can be shown to impair photon detection, either by decreasing sensitivity or signal-to-noise ratio, or by reducing temporal resolution. Comparison of mammals to amphibians suggests that rod outer-segment morphology and the molecules and mechanism of transduction may have evolved together to optimize light sensitivity in darkness, which culminates in the extraordinary ability of these cells to respond to single photons at the ultimate limit of visual perception. PMID:26354340

  13. How rods respond to single photons: Key adaptations of a G-protein cascade that enable vision at the physical limit of perception.

    PubMed

    Reingruber, Jürgen; Holcman, David; Fain, Gordon L

    2015-11-01

    Rod photoreceptors are among the most sensitive light detectors in nature. They achieve their remarkable sensitivity across a wide variety of species through a number of essential adaptations: a specialized cellular geometry, a G-protein cascade with an unusually stable receptor molecule, a low-noise transduction mechanism, a nearly perfect effector enzyme, and highly evolved mechanisms of feedback control and receptor deactivation. Practically any change in protein expression, enzyme activity, or feedback control can be shown to impair photon detection, either by decreasing sensitivity or signal-to-noise ratio, or by reducing temporal resolution. Comparison of mammals to amphibians suggests that rod outer-segment morphology and the molecules and mechanism of transduction may have evolved together to optimize light sensitivity in darkness, which culminates in the extraordinary ability of these cells to respond to single photons at the ultimate limit of visual perception.

  14. SH2-Containing Inositol 5′-Phosphatase SHIP2 Associates with the p130Cas Adapter Protein and Regulates Cellular Adhesion and Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Nagendra; Topping, Robert S.; Decker, Stuart J.

    2001-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that the SHIP2 protein became tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with the Shc adapter protein in response to the treatment of cells with growth factors and insulin (T. Habib, J. A. Hejna, R. E. Moses, and S. J. Decker, J. Biol. Chem. 273:18605–18609, 1998). We describe here a novel interaction between SHIP2 and the p130Cas adapter protein, a mediator of actin cytoskeleton organization. SHIP2 and p130Cas association was detected in anti-SHIP2 immunoprecipitates from several cell types. Reattachment of trypsinized cells stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of SHIP2 and increased the formation of a complex containing SHIP2 and a faster-migrating tyrosine-phosphorylated form of p130Cas. The faster-migrating form of p130Cas was no longer recognized by antibodies to the amino terminus of p130Cas and appeared to be generated through proteolysis. Interaction of the SHIP2 protein with the various forms of p130Cas was mediated primarily through the SH2 domain of SHIP2. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that SHIP2 localized to focal contacts and to lamellipodia. Increased adhesion was observed in HeLa cells transiently expressing exogenous WT-SHIP2. These effects were not seen with SHIP2 possessing a mutation in the SH2 domain (R47G). Transfection of a catalytic domain deletion mutant of SHIP2 (ΔRV) inhibited cell spreading. Taken together, our studies suggest an important role for SHIP2 in adhesion and spreading. PMID:11158326

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α facilitates Toll-like receptor 4-mediated microglial inflammation through regulation of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) location.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu Thi Ngoc; Kim, Yong Min; Kim, T Doohun; Le, Oanh Thi Tu; Kim, Jae Jin; Kang, Ho Chul; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Kanaho, Yasunori; Jou, Ilo; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2013-02-22

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), generated by PI 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K), regulates many critical cellular events. PIP(2) is also known to mediate plasma membrane localization of the Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), required for the MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling pathway. Microglia are the primary immune competent cells in brain tissue, and TLR4 is important for microglial activation. However, a functional role for PIP5K and PIP(2) in TLR4-dependent microglial activation remains unclear. Here, we knocked down PIP5Kα, a PIP5K isoform, in a BV2 microglial cell line using stable expression of lentiviral shRNA constructs or siRNA transfection. PIP5Kα knockdown significantly suppressed induction of inflammatory mediators, including IL-6, IL-1β, and nitric oxide, by lipopolysaccharide. PIP5Kα knockdown also attenuated signaling events downstream of TLR4 activation, including p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation, NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, and IκB-α degradation. Complementation of the PIP5Kα knockdown cells with wild type but not kinase-dead PIP5Kα effectively restored the LPS-mediated inflammatory response. We found that PIP5Kα and TIRAP colocalized at the cell surface and interacted with each other, whereas kinase-dead PIP5Kα rendered TIRAP soluble. Furthermore, in LPS-stimulated control cells, plasma membrane PIP(2) increased and subsequently declined, and TIRAP underwent bi-directional translocation between the membrane and cytosol, which temporally correlated with the changes in PIP(2). In contrast, PIP5Kα knockdown that reduced PIP(2) levels disrupted TIRAP membrane targeting by LPS. Together, our results suggest that PIP5Kα promotes TLR4-associated microglial inflammation by mediating PIP(2)-dependent recruitment of TIRAP to the plasma membrane.

  16. Adaptation of Tri-molecular fluorescence complementation allows assaying of regulatory Csr RNA-protein interactions in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gelderman, Grant; Sivakumar, Anusha; Lipp, Sarah; Contreras, Lydia

    2015-02-01

    sRNAs play a significant role in controlling and regulating cellular metabolism. One of the more interesting aspects of certain sRNAs is their ability to make global changes in the cell by interacting with regulatory proteins. In this work, we demonstrate the use of an in vivo Tri-molecular Fluorescence Complementation assay to detect and visualize the central regulatory sRNA-protein interaction of the Carbon Storage Regulatory system in E. coli. The Carbon Storage Regulator consists primarily of an RNA binding protein, CsrA, that alters the activity of mRNA targets and of an sRNA, CsrB, that modulates the activity of CsrA. We describe the construction of a fluorescence complementation system that detects the interactions between CsrB and CsrA. Additionally, we demonstrate that the intensity of the fluorescence of this system is able to detect changes in the affinity of the CsrB-CsrA interaction, as caused by mutations in the protein sequence of CsrA. While previous methods have adopted this technique to study mRNA or RNA localization, this is the first attempt to use this technique to study the sRNA-protein interaction directly in bacteria. This method presents a potentially powerful tool to study complex bacterial RNA protein interactions in vivo.

  17. Molecular changes of the fusion protein gene of chicken embryo fibroblast-adapted velogenic Newcastle disease virus: effect on its pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Mohan, C Madhan; Dey, Sohini; Kumanan, K

    2005-03-01

    Molecular changes of cell culture-adapted Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were studied by adapting a velogenic NDV isolated from commercial layer chicken-to-chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells. The isolate was passaged 50 times in CEF cells. At every 10th passage the virus was characterized conventionally by mean death time analysis, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and virus titration. As the passage level increased, a gradual reduction in the virulence of the virus was observed. Molecular characterization of the virus included cloning and sequencing of a portion of the fusion gene (1349 bp) encompassing the fusion protein cleavage site (FPCS), which was previously amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis revealed a total of 134 nucleotide substitutions, which resulted in the change of 41 amino acids between the parent and the 50th passage virus. Pathogenicity studies conducted in 20-wk-old seronegative chickens revealed gross and histopathologic changes in the chickens injected with the parent virus and absence of the lesions in chickens injected with the adapted virus. The 50th passage cell culture virus was back-passaged five times in susceptible chickens and was subjected to virulence attribute analysis and sequence analysis of the FPCS region, with minor differences between them.

  18. Pellino-1 Positively Regulates Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 Signaling and Is Suppressed upon Induction of Endotoxin Tolerance*

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michael; Xiong, Yanbao; Pattabiraman, Goutham; Qiu, Fu; Medvedev, Andrei E.

    2015-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance reprograms Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-mediated macrophage responses by attenuating induction of proinflammatory cytokines while retaining expression of anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial mediators. We previously demonstrated deficient TLR4-induced activation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) 4, IRAK1, and TANK-binding kinase (TBK) 1 as critical hallmarks of endotoxin tolerance, but mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we examined the role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Pellino-1 in endotoxin tolerance and TLR signaling. LPS stimulation increased Pellino-1 mRNA and protein expression in macrophages from mice injected with saline and in medium-pretreated human monocytes, THP-1, and MonoMac-6 cells, whereas endotoxin tolerization abrogated LPS inducibility of Pellino-1. Overexpression of Pellino-1 in 293/TLR2 and 293/TLR4/MD2 cells enhanced TLR2- and TLR4-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and expression of IL-8 mRNA, whereas Pellino-1 knockdown reduced these responses. Pellino-1 ablation in THP-1 cells impaired induction of myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MyD88), and Toll-IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β (TRIF)-dependent cytokine genes in response to TLR4 and TLR2 agonists and heat-killed Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas only weakly affecting phagocytosis of heat-killed bacteria. Co-expressed Pellino-1 potentiated NF-κB activation driven by transfected MyD88, TRIF, IRAK1, TBK1, TGF-β-activated kinase (TAK) 1, and TNFR-associated factor 6, whereas not affecting p65-induced responses. Mechanistically, Pellino-1 increased LPS-driven K63-linked polyubiquitination of IRAK1, TBK1, TAK1, and phosphorylation of TBK1 and IFN regulatory factor 3. These results reveal a novel mechanism by which endotoxin tolerance re-programs TLR4 signaling via suppression of Pellino-1, a positive regulator of MyD88- and TRIF-dependent signaling that promotes K63-linked polyubiquitination of IRAK1, TBK1, and

  19. Proteolytic targeting of Rab29 by an effector protein distinguishes the intracellular compartments of human-adapted and broad-host Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Spanò, Stefania; Liu, Xiaoyun; Galán, Jorge E

    2011-11-01

    Unlike broad-host Salmonella serovars, which cause self-limiting disease, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi can infect only humans causing typhoid fever, a life-threatening systemic disease. The molecular bases for these differences are presently unknown. Here we show that the GTPase Rab29 (Rab7L1) distinguishes the intracellular vacuole of human-adapted and broad-host Salmonella serovars. A screen to identify host factors required for the export of typhoid toxin, which is exclusively encoded by the human-specific Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) identified Rab29. We found that Rab29 is recruited to the S. Typhi-containing vacuole but not to vacuoles containing broad-host Salmonella. We observed that in cells infected with broad-host Salmonella Rab29 is specifically cleaved by the proteolytic activity of GtgE, a unique type III secretion effector protein that is absent from S. Typhi. An S. Typhi strain engineered to express GtgE and therefore able to cleave Rab29 exhibited increased intracellular replication in human macrophages. These findings indicate significant differences in the intracellular biology of human-adapted and broad-host Salmonella and show how subtle differences in the assortment of effector proteins encoded by highly related pathogens can have a major impact in their biology.

  20. Secretome profile analysis of hypervirulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis CPT31 reveals increased production of EsxB and proteins involved in adaptation to intracellular lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Romero, Fernado; Guitierrez-Najera, Nora; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Ortega-Bernal, Daniel; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Castañón-Arreola, Mauricio

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological information and animal models have shown various Mycobacterium tuberculosis phenotypes ranging from hyper- to hypovirulent forms. Recent genomic and proteomic studies suggest that the outcome of infection depends on the M. tuberculosis fitness, which is a direct consequence of its phenotype. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms used by mycobacteria to survive, replicate and persist during infection. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive proteomic analysis of culture filtrate from hypo- (CPT23) and hypervirulent (CPT31) M. tuberculosis isolates. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we observed that 70 proteins were unique, or more abundant in culture filtrate of CPT31, and 15 of these were identified by mass spectrometry. Our analysis of protein expression showed that most of the proteins identified are involved in lipid metabolism (FadA3, FbpB and EchA3), detoxification and adaptation (GroEL2, SodB and HspX) and cell wall processes (LprA, Tig and EsxB). These results suggest that overrepresented proteins in M. tuberculosis CPT31 secretome could facilitate mycobacterial infection and persistence.

  1. Rice G-protein subunits qPE9-1 and RGB1 play distinct roles in abscisic acid responses and drought adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Yong; Yin, Jian-Feng; Yan, Xue-Jiao; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Wei-Feng; Baluška, František; Wang, Yi-Ping; Xia, Yi-Ji; Liang, Guo-hua; Liang, Jian-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G-protein)-mediated abscisic acid (ABA) and drought-stress responses have been documented in numerous plant species. However, our understanding of the function of rice G-protein subunits in ABA signalling and drought tolerance is limited. In this study, the function of G-protein subunits in ABA response and drought resistance in rice plants was explored. It was found that the transcription level of qPE9-1 (rice Gγ subunit) gradually decreased with increasing ABA concentration and the lack of qPE9-1 showed an enhanced drought tolerance in rice plants. In contrast, mRNA levels of RGB1 (rice Gβ subunit) were significantly upregulated by ABA treatment and the lack of RGB1 led to reduced drought tolerance. Furthermore, the results suggested that qPE9-1 negatively regulates the ABA response by suppressing the expression of key transcription factors involved in ABA and stress responses, while RGB1 positively regulates ABA biosynthesis by upregulating NCED gene expression under both normal and drought stress conditions. Taken together, it is proposed that RGB1 is a positive regulator of the ABA response and drought adaption in rice plants, whereas qPE9-1 is modulated by RGB1 and functions as a negative regulator in the ABA-dependent drought-stress responses.

  2. Rice G-protein subunits qPE9-1 and RGB1 play distinct roles in abscisic acid responses and drought adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Yong; Yin, Jian-Feng; Yan, Xue-Jiao; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Wei-Feng; Baluška, František; Wang, Yi-Ping; Xia, Yi-Ji; Liang, Guo-hua; Liang, Jian-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G-protein)-mediated abscisic acid (ABA) and drought-stress responses have been documented in numerous plant species. However, our understanding of the function of rice G-protein subunits in ABA signalling and drought tolerance is limited. In this study, the function of G-protein subunits in ABA response and drought resistance in rice plants was explored. It was found that the transcription level of qPE9-1 (rice Gγ subunit) gradually decreased with increasing ABA concentration and the lack of qPE9-1 showed an enhanced drought tolerance in rice plants. In contrast, mRNA levels of RGB1 (rice Gβ subunit) were significantly upregulated by ABA treatment and the lack of RGB1 led to reduced drought tolerance. Furthermore, the results suggested that qPE9-1 negatively regulates the ABA response by suppressing the expression of key transcription factors involved in ABA and stress responses, while RGB1 positively regulates ABA biosynthesis by upregulating NCED gene expression under both normal and drought stress conditions. Taken together, it is proposed that RGB1 is a positive regulator of the ABA response and drought adaption in rice plants, whereas qPE9-1 is modulated by RGB1 and functions as a negative regulator in the ABA-dependent drought-stress responses. PMID:26175353

  3. Inhibition of Translation Initiation by Protein 169: A Vaccinia Virus Strategy to Suppress Innate and Adaptive Immunity and Alter Virus Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Strnadova, Pavla; Ren, Hongwei; Valentine, Robert; Mazzon, Michela; Sweeney, Trevor R.; Brierley, Ian; Smith, Geoffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic orthopoxvirus and the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox. Here we show that VACV strain Western Reserve protein 169 is a cytoplasmic polypeptide expressed early during infection that is excluded from virus factories and inhibits the initiation of cap-dependent and cap-independent translation. Ectopic expression of protein 169 causes the accumulation of 80S ribosomes, a reduction of polysomes, and inhibition of protein expression deriving from activation of multiple innate immune signaling pathways. A virus lacking 169 (vΔ169) replicates and spreads normally in cell culture but is more virulent than parental and revertant control viruses in intranasal and intradermal murine models of infection. Intranasal infection by vΔ169 caused increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, infiltration of pulmonary leukocytes, and lung weight. These alterations in innate immunity resulted in a stronger CD8+ T-cell memory response and better protection against virus challenge. This work illustrates how inhibition of host protein synthesis can be a strategy for virus suppression of innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:26334635

  4. Secretome profile analysis of hypervirulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis CPT31 reveals increased production of EsxB and proteins involved in adaptation to intracellular lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Romero, Fernado; Guitierrez-Najera, Nora; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Ortega-Bernal, Daniel; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Castañón-Arreola, Mauricio

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological information and animal models have shown various Mycobacterium tuberculosis phenotypes ranging from hyper- to hypovirulent forms. Recent genomic and proteomic studies suggest that the outcome of infection depends on the M. tuberculosis fitness, which is a direct consequence of its phenotype. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms used by mycobacteria to survive, replicate and persist during infection. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive proteomic analysis of culture filtrate from hypo- (CPT23) and hypervirulent (CPT31) M. tuberculosis isolates. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we observed that 70 proteins were unique, or more abundant in culture filtrate of CPT31, and 15 of these were identified by mass spectrometry. Our analysis of protein expression showed that most of the proteins identified are involved in lipid metabolism (FadA3, FbpB and EchA3), detoxification and adaptation (GroEL2, SodB and HspX) and cell wall processes (LprA, Tig and EsxB). These results suggest that overrepresented proteins in M. tuberculosis CPT31 secretome could facilitate mycobacterial infection and persistence. PMID:26733498

  5. Inhibition of Translation Initiation by Protein 169: A Vaccinia Virus Strategy to Suppress Innate and Adaptive Immunity and Alter Virus Virulence.

    PubMed

    Strnadova, Pavla; Ren, Hongwei; Valentine, Robert; Mazzon, Michela; Sweeney, Trevor R; Brierley, Ian; Smith, Geoffrey L

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the prototypic orthopoxvirus and the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox. Here we show that VACV strain Western Reserve protein 169 is a cytoplasmic polypeptide expressed early during infection that is excluded from virus factories and inhibits the initiation of cap-dependent and cap-independent translation. Ectopic expression of protein 169 causes the accumulation of 80S ribosomes, a reduction of polysomes, and inhibition of protein expression deriving from activation of multiple innate immune signaling pathways. A virus lacking 169 (vΔ169) replicates and spreads normally in cell culture but is more virulent than parental and revertant control viruses in intranasal and intradermal murine models of infection. Intranasal infection by vΔ169 caused increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, infiltration of pulmonary leukocytes, and lung weight. These alterations in innate immunity resulted in a stronger CD8+ T-cell memory response and better protection against virus challenge. This work illustrates how inhibition of host protein synthesis can be a strategy for virus suppression of innate and adaptive immunity.

  6. pAUL: A Gateway-Based Vector System for Adaptive Expression and Flexible Tagging of Proteins in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lyska, Dagmar; Engelmann, Kerstin; Meierhoff, Karin; Westhoff, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Determination of protein function requires tools that allow its detection and/or purification. As generation of specific antibodies often is laborious and insufficient, protein tagging using epitopes that are recognized by commercially available antibodies and matrices appears more promising. Also, proper spatial and temporal expression of tagged proteins is required to prevent falsification of results. We developed a new series of binary Gateway cloning vectors named pAUL1-20 for C- and N-terminal in-frame fusion of proteins to four different tags: a single (i) HA epitope and (ii) Strep-tagIII, (iii) both epitopes combined to a double tag, and (iv) a triple tag consisting of the double tag extended by a Protein A tag possessing a 3C protease cleavage site. Expression can be driven by either the 35 S CaMV promoter or, for C-terminal fusions, promoters from genes encoding the chloroplast biogenesis factors HCF107, HCF136, or HCF173. Fusions of the four promoters to the GUS gene showed that endogenous promoter sequences are functional and drive expression more moderately and consistently throughout different transgenic lines when compared to the 35 S CaMV promoter. By testing complementation of mutations affected in chloroplast biogenesis factors HCF107 and HCF208, we found that the effect of different promoters and tags on protein function strongly depends on the protein itself. Single-step and tandem affinity purification of HCF208 via different tags confirmed the integrity of the cloned tags. PMID:23326506

  7. Full-Length Venom Protein cDNA Sequences from Venom-Derived mRNA: Exploring Compositional Variation and Adaptive Multigene Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Modahl, Cassandra M.; Mackessy, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Envenomation of humans by snakes is a complex and continuously evolving medical emergency, and treatment is made that much more difficult by the diverse biochemical composition of many venoms. Venomous snakes and their venoms also provide models for the study of molecular evolutionary processes leading to adaptation and genotype-phenotype relationships. To compare venom complexity and protein sequences, venom gland transcriptomes are assembled, which usually requires the sacrifice of snakes for tissue. However, toxin transcripts are also present in venoms, offering the possibility of obtaining cDNA sequences directly from venom. This study provides evidence that unknown full-length venom protein transcripts can be obtained from the venoms of multiple species from all major venomous snake families. These unknown venom protein cDNAs are obtained by the use of primers designed from conserved signal peptide sequences within each venom protein superfamily. This technique was used to assemble a partial venom gland transcriptome for the Middle American Rattlesnake (Crotalus simus tzabcan) by amplifying sequences for phospholipases A2, serine proteases, C-lectins, and metalloproteinases from within venom. Phospholipase A2 sequences were also recovered from the venoms of several rattlesnakes and an elapid snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus), and three-finger toxin sequences were recovered from multiple rear-fanged snake species, demonstrating that the three major clades of advanced snakes (Elapidae, Viperidae, Colubridae) have stable mRNA present in their venoms. These cDNA sequences from venom were then used to explore potential activities derived from protein sequence similarities and evolutionary histories within these large multigene superfamilies. Venom-derived sequences can also be used to aid in characterizing venoms that lack proteomic profiles and identify sequence characteristics indicating specific envenomation profiles. This approach, requiring only venom, provides

  8. Contrast in adaptive mass gains: Eurasian golden plovers store fat before midwinter and protein before prebreeding flight.

    PubMed

    Piersma, Theunis; Jukema, Joop

    2002-06-01

    Before predictable periods of high nutritional demand and little or no intake, vertebrates store fuel mainly composed of energy-dense lipids or energy-poor but protein-rich muscle tissue. Documenting contrasts in fuel composition and storage patterns within species, or even within individuals, would greatly help to elucidate the functional significance of the variety of storage strategies demonstrated in birds. We show here that the 40-50 g mass gain of 200 g in Eurasian golden plovers (Pluvialis apricaria) in autumn in The Netherlands consists of fat only, but that the similar gain in body mass in spring consists of proteinaceous tissue (pectoral and other skeletal muscle and possibly skin tissue). That the same golden plovers store energy in autumn and store protein in spring suggests that they face energy deficits in early winter and risk protein deficits in spring, especially perhaps after arrival on the breeding grounds in late April and early May. In autumn and winter their diet consists largely of protein-rich earthworms, but upon arrival on Low Arctic and montane tundras, golden plovers tend to eat berries which are rich in sugars but notably poor in proteins. We therefore propose that the build-up of proteinaceous tissue in spring reflects a strategic storage of a nutritional resource that is likely to be in short supply somewhat later in the year. PMID:12061951

  9. Species barrier in prion diseases: a kinetic interpretation based on the conformational adaptation of the prion protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kellershohn, N; Laurent, M

    1998-01-01

    Prion diseases are thought to result from the conformational change of the normal cellular prion protein to a pathogenic protease-resistant isoform. However, brain extracts not containing the protease-resistant isoform of the prion protein can be infectious following interspecies transmission. The 'protein-only' hypothesis of pathogenesis is extended to provide possible explanations which could be interpreted in terms of a different infectious agent. It is proposed that normal cellular protein (PrPC) may be transformed into a form (PrP*) that is conformationally distinct from the host-specific abnormal isoform (PrPSc). In infection from a heterologous donor, the dimeric forms of heterologous PrPSc, which may catalyse the formation of host PrP* from PrPC, host PrP* and host PrPSc are all considered to be capable of catalysing, to some extent, the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc. However, depending on the species involved, PrP* may, or may not, be pathogenic, and may, or may not, be sensitive to proteolysis. It is shown, by numerical integration of the differential rate equations derived from this model, that a strain may be stabilized after two or three passages through a different species and that transmission might occur in the absence of detectable protease-resistant prion protein. The natural transmission of scrapie to cattle is discussed in relation to the model. PMID:9729459

  10. Radio-adaptive response of base excision repair genes and proteins in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Toprani, Sneh M; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2015-09-01

    Radio-adaptive response is a mechanism whereby a low-dose exposure (priming dose) induces resistance to a higher dose (challenging dose) thus significantly reducing its detrimental effects. Radiation-induced DNA damage gets repaired through various DNA repair pathways in human cells depending upon the type of lesion. The base excision repair (BER) pathway repairs radiation-induced base damage, abasic sites and single-strand breaks in cellular DNA. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the involvement of BER genes and proteins in the radio-adaptive response in human resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Venous blood samples were collected from 20 randomly selected healthy male individuals with written informed consent. PBMC were isolated and irradiated at a priming dose of 0.1 Gy followed 4h later with a challenging dose of 2.0 Gy (primed cells). Quantitation of DNA damage was done using the alkaline comet assay immediately and expression profile of BER genes and proteins were studied 30 min after the challenging dose using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. The overall result showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction of DNA damage in terms of percentage of DNA in tail (%T) with a priming dose of 0.1 Gy followed by a challenging dose of 2.0 Gy after 4 h. Twelve individuals showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in %T whereas eight individuals showed marginal reduction in DNA damage that was not statistically significant. However, at the transcriptional level, BER genes such as APE1, FEN1 and LIGASE1 showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) up-regulation in both groups. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) up-regulation was also observed at the protein level for OGG1, APE1, MBD4, FEN1 and LIGASE1 in primed cells. Up-regulation of some BER genes and proteins such as APE1, FEN1 and LIGASE1 in primed cells of resting PBMC is suggestive of active involvement of the BER pathway in radio-adaptive response

  11. The adapter protein CD2AP binds to p53 protein in the cytoplasm and can discriminate its polymorphic variants P72R.

    PubMed

    Panni, Simona; Salvioli, Stefano; Santonico, Elena; Langone, Francesca; Storino, Francesca; Altilia, Serena; Franceschi, Claudio; Cesareni, Gianni; Castagnoli, Luisa

    2015-02-01

    Proline-rich motifs are widely distributed in eukaryotic proteomes and are usually involved in the assembly of functional complexes through interaction with specific binding modules. The tumour-suppressor p53 protein presents a proline-rich region that is crucial for regulating apoptosis by connecting the p53 with a complex protein network. In humans, a common polymorphism determines the identity of residue 72, either proline or arginine, and affects the features of the motifs present in the polyproline domain. The two isoforms have different biochemical properties and markedly influence cancer onset and progression. In this article, we analyse the binding of the p53 proline-rich region with a pool of selected polyproline binding domains (i.e. SH3 and WW), and we present the first demonstration that the purified SH3 domains of the CD2AP/Cin85 protein family are able to directly bind the p53 protein, and to discriminate between the two polymorphic variants P72R.

  12. The adapter protein CD2AP binds to p53 protein in the cytoplasm and can discriminate its polymorphic variants P72R.

    PubMed

    Panni, Simona; Salvioli, Stefano; Santonico, Elena; Langone, Francesca; Storino, Francesca; Altilia, Serena; Franceschi, Claudio; Cesareni, Gianni; Castagnoli, Luisa

    2015-02-01

    Proline-rich motifs are widely distributed in eukaryotic proteomes and are usually involved in the assembly of functional complexes through interaction with specific binding modules. The tumour-suppressor p53 protein presents a proline-rich region that is crucial for regulating apoptosis by connecting the p53 with a complex protein network. In humans, a common polymorphism determines the identity of residue 72, either proline or arginine, and affects the features of the motifs present in the polyproline domain. The two isoforms have different biochemical properties and markedly influence cancer onset and progression. In this article, we analyse the binding of the p53 proline-rich region with a pool of selected polyproline binding domains (i.e. SH3 and WW), and we present the first demonstration that the purified SH3 domains of the CD2AP/Cin85 protein family are able to directly bind the p53 protein, and to discriminate between the two polymorphic variants P72R. PMID:25261582

  13. [Heat shock proteins of freshwater protists and their involvement in adaptation to changes in the environmental salinity].

    PubMed

    Plekhanov, A Iu; Smurov, A O; Podlipaeva, Iu I; Ivanova, L O; Gudkov, A V

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the level of heat shock proteins (HSP) in cells of freshwater protists, amoebae Amoeba proteus and ciliates Paramecium jenningsi, in response to changes in the environmental salinity were investigated. Changes in salinity levels were considered as a stress factor. The immunoblotting method revealed a polypeptide antigen cross-reacting with antibodies against bovine HSP70 in total protein extracts of both intact cells and cells subjected to salinity stress. The same polypeptide antigen was revealed in A. proteus cells subjected to heat shock. Therefore, it may be supposed that the polypeptide revealed after salinity shock is a heat shock protein related to the vertebrate HSP70. Under the impact of stress factor, well acclimated protists mostly spend their own previously accumulated HSP70. A conclusion is made that freshwater protists, living under conditions of increased salinity, appear to be preadapted to changes in environmental factors.

  14. Adaptive expansion of the maize maternally expressed gene (Meg) family involves changes in expression patterns and protein secondary structures of its members

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Maternally expressed gene (Meg) family is a locally-duplicated gene family of maize which encodes cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs). The founding member of the family, Meg1, is required for normal development of the basal endosperm transfer cell layer (BETL) and is involved in the allocation of maternal nutrients to growing seeds. Despite the important roles of Meg1 in maize seed development, the evolutionary history of the Meg cluster and the activities of the duplicate genes are not understood. Results In maize, the Meg gene cluster resides in a 2.3 Mb-long genomic region that exhibits many features of non-centromeric heterochromatin. Using phylogenetic reconstruction and syntenic alignments, we identified the pedigree of the Meg family, in which 11 of its 13 members arose in maize after allotetraploidization ~4.8 mya. Phylogenetic and population-genetic analyses identified possible signatures suggesting recent positive selection in Meg homologs. Structural analyses of the Meg proteins indicated potentially adaptive changes in secondary structure from α-helix to β-strand during the expansion. Transcriptomic analysis of the maize endosperm indicated that 6 Meg genes are selectively activated in the BETL, and younger Meg genes are more active than older ones. In endosperms from B73 by Mo17 reciprocal crosses, most Meg genes did not display parent-specific expression patterns. Conclusions Recently-duplicated Meg genes have different protein secondary structures, and their expressions in the BETL dominate over those of older members. Together with the signs of positive selections in the young Meg genes, these results suggest that the expansion of the Meg family involves potentially adaptive transitions in which new members with novel functions prevailed over older members. PMID:25084677

  15. The rise in computational systems biology approaches for understanding NF-κB signaling dynamics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard A; Timmis, Jon; Qwarnstrom, Eva E

    2015-07-14

    A study by Cheng et al. in this issue of Science Signaling highlights the distinct single-cell signaling characteristics conferred by pathways mediated by the adaptor proteins MyD88 and TRIF in the TLR4-dependent activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB).

  16. [Heat shock protein of Hsp70 in Paramecium nephridiatum and its role in adaptation to environmental salinity changes].

    PubMed

    Smurov, A O; Podlipaeva, Iu I; Gudkov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The level of Hsp70 was studied in the cells of eurihaline ciliate Paramecium nephridiatum after the environmental salinity changes. Two types of treatment were applied. "Shock": ciliates were placed for 1 h to the medium with stress salinity, then transferred back to the medium, they were acclimated to, for 2 h; "adaptation": ciliates were placed for 3 h into stress salinity. It has been shown, that ciliates, acclimated to fresh water (0%) have the higher constitutive level of Hsp70, than those, acclimated to 10%. Transfer from fresh water to 10% does not cause the increase of Hsp70 synthesis in protists, whereas the reciprocal transfer results in induction of Hsp70 in the cells. "Adaptation" results in induction of Hsp70 in both "directions" of salinity changes. The results obtained allow to presume that the possibility to survive in the media of various salinity in eurihaline ciliates is somehow determined by the higher initial level of Hsp70 in their cells, than in stenohaline representatives of the same genus.

  17. Population Growth of the Generalist Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridida) Following Adaptation to High- or Low-Fat and High- or Low-Protein Diets and the Effect of Dietary Switch.

    PubMed

    Erban, Tomas; Rybanska, Dagmar; Hubert, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is a cosmopolitan generalist feeder that prefers foodstuffs of high-fat and high-protein content. Our aim was to investigate the population growth of T. putrescentiae after long-term nutritional adaptation to two distinct diets that are commonly infested in the synanthropic environment. Crushed dry dog food kernels provided a high-fat, high-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet, whereas wholemeal spelt flour provided a low-protein, low-fat, and high-carbohydrate diet. After >6 mo of nutritional adaptation, each of the two populations were used in two 28-d population growth tests: one that mites remained on their adaptation diet (homogenous diet treatment) and one that mites underwent a dietary switch (dietary switch treatment). Dietary treatment, nutritional adaptation, and their interaction all significantly influenced population growth. The homogenous diet treatment showed 7.5 times higher growth on the dog food diet than on flour. In the dietary switch, flour-adapted mites switching to dog food experienced five times greater population growth than the flour-adapted mites remained on flour, whereas the dog food-adapted population showed a 2.8-fold decrease in population growth when transferred to the flour. A comparison of means between the two dietary switch treatments showed a 1.9-fold higher population growth after flour-adapted mites were shifted to dog food than when the dog food-adapted mites were shifted to flour. We demonstrated that T. putrescentiae is able survive and reproduce for many generations on dry dog food and flour with different levels of success. High-fat and -protein food accelerated T. putrescentiae population growth compared with the high-carbohydrate diet.

  18. Functional cloning of Src-like adapter protein-2 (SLAP-2), a novel inhibitor of antigen receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Holland, S J; Liao, X C; Mendenhall, M K; Zhou, X; Pardo, J; Chu, P; Spencer, C; Fu, A; Sheng, N; Yu, P; Pali, E; Nagin, A; Shen, M; Yu, S; Chan, E; Wu, X; Li, C; Woisetschlager, M; Aversa, G; Kolbinger, F; Bennett, M K; Molineaux, S; Luo, Y; Payan, D G; Mancebo, H S; Wu, J

    2001-11-01

    In an effort to identify novel therapeutic targets for autoimmunity and transplant rejection, we developed and performed a large-scale retroviral-based functional screen to select for proteins that inhibit antigen receptor-mediated activation of lymphocytes. In addition to known regulators of antigen receptor signaling, we identified a novel adaptor protein, SLAP-2 which shares 36% sequence similarity with the known Src-like adaptor protein, SLAP. Similar to SLAP, SLAP-2 is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells. Overexpression of SLAP-2 in B and T cell lines specifically impaired antigen receptor-mediated signaling events, including CD69 surface marker upregulation, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) promoter activation and calcium influx. Signaling induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin was not significantly reduced, suggesting SLAP-2 functions proximally in the antigen receptor signaling cascade. The SLAP-2 protein contains an NH2-terminal myristoylation consensus sequence and SH3 and SH2 Src homology domains, but lacks a tyrosine kinase domain. In antigen receptor-stimulated cells, SLAP-2 associated with several tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, including the ubiquitin ligase Cbl. Deletion of the COOH terminus of SLAP-2 blocked function and abrogated its association with Cbl. Mutation of the putative myristoylation site of SLAP-2 compromised its inhibitory activity and impaired its localization to the membrane compartment. Our identification of the negative regulator SLAP-2 demonstrates that a retroviral-based screening strategy may be an efficient way to identify and characterize the function of key components of many signal transduction systems.

  19. Functional Cloning of Src-like Adapter Protein-2 (SLAP-2), a Novel Inhibitor of Antigen Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Sacha J.; Liao, X. Charlene; Mendenhall, Marcy K.; Zhou, Xiulan; Pardo, Jorge; Chu, Peter; Spencer, Collin; Fu, Alan; Sheng, Ning; Yu, Peiwen; Pali, Erlina; Nagin, Anup; Shen, Mary; Yu, Simon; Chan, Eva; Wu, Xian; Li, Connie; Woisetschlager, Max; Aversa, Gregorio; Kolbinger, Frank; Bennett, Mark K.; Molineaux, Susan; Luo, Ying; Payan, Donald G.; Mancebo, Helena S.Y.; Wu, Jun

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to identify novel therapeutic targets for autoimmunity and transplant rejection, we developed and performed a large-scale retroviral-based functional screen to select for proteins that inhibit antigen receptor-mediated activation of lymphocytes. In addition to known regulators of antigen receptor signaling, we identified a novel adaptor protein, SLAP-2 which shares 36% sequence similarity with the known Src-like adaptor protein, SLAP. Similar to SLAP, SLAP-2 is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells. Overexpression of SLAP-2 in B and T cell lines specifically impaired antigen receptor-mediated signaling events, including CD69 surface marker upregulation, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) promoter activation and calcium influx. Signaling induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin was not significantly reduced, suggesting SLAP-2 functions proximally in the antigen receptor signaling cascade. The SLAP-2 protein contains an NH2-terminal myristoylation consensus sequence and SH3 and SH2 Src homology domains, but lacks a tyrosine kinase domain. In antigen receptor–stimulated cells, SLAP-2 associated with several tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, including the ubiquitin ligase Cbl. Deletion of the COOH terminus of SLAP-2 blocked function and abrogated its association with Cbl. Mutation of the putative myristoylation site of SLAP-2 compromised its inhibitory activity and impaired its localization to the membrane compartment. Our identification of the negative regulator SLAP-2 demonstrates that a retroviral-based screening strategy may be an efficient way to identify and characterize the function of key components of many signal transduction systems. PMID:11696592

  20. Upregulation of TLRs and IL-6 as a Marker in Human Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chien-Chang; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Wang, Feng-Sheng; Jou, Ming-Huey; Lee, Ko-Chao; Chuang, Jiin-Haur

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) not only form an important part of the innate immune system but also serve to activate the adaptive immune system in response to cancer. Real-time PCR; immunohistochemical stain and Western blotting analyses were performed to clarify molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We identified Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1), TLR2, TLR4 and TLR8 gene expression levels and downstream gene, i.e., interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, interferon-α (IFN-α) and myeloid differentiation primary-response protein-88 (MyD88), expression levels in CRC patients and in cancer cell lines. CRC tissues have higher TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression levels than do the normal colon mucosa (p < 0.05). TLR2 expression varied in different cell types (mucosa and lymphocytes). There was no difference in the MyD88 and IFN-α gene expression levels between cancerous and normal colon mucosa. CRC patients had higher levels of IL-6 (p = 0.002) and IL-8 (p = 0.038) expression than healthy volunteers did; and higher IL-6 and IL-8 expression was also found to signify a higher risk of recurrence. CL075 (3M002) treatments can reduce the production of IL-8 in different cancer cell lines. The signaling pathway of TLRs in cancer tissue is different from that in normal cells; and is MyD88-independent. Higher expression levels of TLR1, TLR2, TLR 4 and TLR 8 mRNA were related to upregulation inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression in tissue and to the upregulation of IL-6 in blood. The concentration of IL-6 in serum can be used as an indicator of the possibility of CRC recurrence. Treatment with 3M002 can reduce IL-6 production in vitro and may prevent CRC recurrence. Our findings provide evidence that TLR1, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR8 gene expression induce downstream IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression; detection of these expression levels can serve as a CRC marker. PMID:25547486

  1. Primary photochemistry of the dark- and light-adapted states of the YtvA protein from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Hun; Madsen, Dorte; van der Steen, Jeroen B; Pullman, Robert; Freer, Lucy H; Hellingwerf, Klaas J; Larsen, Delmar S

    2013-11-12

    The primary (100 fs to 10 ns) and secondary (10 ns to 100 μs) photodynamics in the type II light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain from the blue light YtvA photoreceptor extracted from Bacillus subtilis were explored with transient absorption spectroscopy. The photodynamics of full-length YtvA were characterized after femtosecond 400 nm excitation of both the dark-adapted D447 state and the light-adapted S390 state. The S390 state relaxes on a 43 min time scale at room temperature back into D447, which is weakly accelerated by the introduction of imidazole. This is ascribed to an obstructed cavity in YtvA that hinders access to the embedded FMN chromophore and is more open in type I LOV domains. The primary photochemistry of dark-adapted YtvA is qualitatively similar to that of the type I LOV domains, including AsLOV2 from Avena sativa, but exhibits an appreciably higher (60% greater) terminal triplet yield, estimated near the maximal ΦISC value of ≈78%; the other 22% decays via non-triplet-generating fluorescence. The subsequent secondary dynamics are inhomogeneous, with three triplet populations co-evolving: the faster-decaying (I)T* population (38% occupancy) with a 200 ns decay time is nonproductive in generating the S390 adduct state, a slower (II)T* population (57% occupancy) exhibits a high yield (Φadduct ≈ 100%) in generating S390 and a third (5%) (III)T*population persists (>100 μs) with unresolved photoactivity. The ultrafast photoswitching dynamics of the S390 state appreciably differ from those previously resolved for the type I AcLOV2 domain from Adiantum capillus-veneris [Kennis, J. T., et al. (2004) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 4512], with a low-yield dissociation (Φdis ≈ 2.5%) reaction, which is due to an ultrafast recombination reaction, following photodissociation, and is absent in AcLOV2, which results in the increased photoswitching activity of the latter domain.

  2. Directed Evolution and In Silico Analysis of Reaction Centre Proteins Reveal Molecular Signatures of Photosynthesis Adaptation to Radiation Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Giuseppina; Lambreva, Maya; Polticelli, Fabio; Bertalan, Ivo; Antonacci, Amina; Pastorelli, Sandro; Damasso, Mario; Johanningmeier, Udo; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary mechanisms adopted by the photosynthetic apparatus to modifications in the Earth's atmosphere on a geological time-scale remain a focus of intense research. The photosynthetic machinery has had to cope with continuously changing environmental conditions and particularly with the complex ionizing radiation emitted by solar flares. The photosynthetic D1 protein, being the site of electron tunneling-mediated charge separation and solar energy transduction, is a hot spot for the generation of radiation-induced radical injuries. We explored the possibility to produce D1 variants tolerant to ionizing radiation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and clarified the effect of radiation-induced oxidative damage on the photosynthetic proteins evolution. In vitro directed evolution strategies targeted at the D1 protein were adopted to create libraries of chlamydomonas random mutants, subsequently selected by exposures to radical-generating proton or neutron sources. The common trend observed in the D1 aminoacidic substitutions was the replacement of less polar by more polar amino acids. The applied selection pressure forced replacement of residues more sensitive to oxidative damage with less sensitive ones, suggesting that ionizing radiation may have been one of the driving forces in the evolution of the eukaryotic photosynthetic apparatus. A set of the identified aminoacidic substitutions, close to the secondary plastoquinone binding niche and oxygen evolving complex, were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in un-transformed strains, and their sensitivity to free radicals attack analyzed. Mutants displayed reduced electron transport efficiency in physiological conditions, and increased photosynthetic performance stability and oxygen evolution capacity in stressful high-light conditions. Finally, comparative in silico analyses of D1 aminoacidic sequences of organisms differently located in the evolution chain, revealed a higher ratio of residues more sensitive to

  3. Coordinated Regulation of the Neutral Amino Acid Transporter SNAT2 and the Protein Phosphatase Subunit GADD34 Promotes Adaptation to Increased Extracellular Osmolarity*

    PubMed Central

    Krokowski, Dawid; Jobava, Raul; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Farabaugh, Kenneth; Wu, Jing; Majumder, Mithu; Bianchi, Massimiliano G.; Snider, Martin D.; Bussolati, Ovidio; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to shrinkage induced by increased extracellular osmolarity via programmed changes in gene transcription and mRNA translation. The immediate response to this stress includes the induction of expression of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2. Increased SNAT2-mediated uptake of neutral amino acids is an essential adaptive mechanism for restoring cell volume. In contrast, stress-induced phosphorylation of the α subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2 (eIF2α) can promote apoptosis. Here we show that the response to mild hyperosmotic stress involves regulation of the phosphorylation of eIF2α by increased levels of GADD34, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The induction of GADD34 was dependent on transcriptional control by the c-Jun-binding cAMP response element in the GADD34 gene promoter and posttranscriptional stabilization of its mRNA. This mechanism differs from the regulation of GADD34 expression by other stresses that involve activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). ATF4 was not translated during hyperosmotic stress despite an increase in eIF2α phosphorylation. The SNAT2-mediated increase in amino acid uptake was enhanced by increased GADD34 levels in a manner involving decreased eIF2α phosphorylation. It is proposed that the induction of the SNAT2/GADD34 axis enhances cell survival by promoting the immediate adaptive response to stress. PMID:26041779

  4. Recognition of the disordered p53 transactivation domain by the transcriptional adapter zinc finger domains of CREB-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Krois, Alexander S; Ferreon, Josephine C; Martinez-Yamout, Maria A; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2016-03-29

    An important component of the activity of p53 as a tumor suppressor is its interaction with the transcriptional coactivators cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) and p300, which activate transcription of p53-regulated stress response genes and stabilize p53 against ubiquitin-mediated degradation. The highest affinity interactions are between the intrinsically disordered N-terminal transactivation domain (TAD) of p53 and the TAZ1 and TAZ2 domains of CBP/p300. The NMR spectra of simple binary complexes of the TAZ1 and TAZ2 domains with the p53TAD suffer from exchange broadening, but innovations in construct design and isotopic labeling have enabled us to obtain high-resolution structures using fusion proteins, uniformly labeled in the case of the TAZ2-p53TAD fusion and segmentally labeled through transintein splicing for the TAZ1-p53TAD fusion. The p53TAD is bipartite, with two interaction motifs, termed AD1 and AD2, which fold to form short amphipathic helices upon binding to TAZ1 and TAZ2 whereas intervening regions of the p53TAD remain flexible. Both the AD1 and AD2 motifs bind to hydrophobic surfaces of the TAZ domains, with AD2 making more extensive hydrophobic contacts consistent with its greater contribution to the binding affinity. Binding of AD1 and AD2 is synergistic, and structural studies performed with isolated motifs can be misleading. The present structures of the full-length p53TAD complexes demonstrate the versatility of the interactions available to an intrinsically disordered domain containing bipartite interaction motifs and provide valuable insights into the structural basis of the affinity changes that occur upon stress