Science.gov

Sample records for adapting hatchery practices

  1. Standardized seawater rearing of chinook salmon smolts to evaluate hatchery practices showed low statistical power

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Elder, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    We examined, under standardized conditions, seawater survival of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at the smolt stage to evaluate the experimental hatchery practices applied to their rearing. The experimental rearing practices included rearing fish at different densities; attempting to control bacterial kidney disease with broodstock segregation, erythromycin injection, and an experimental diet; rearing fish on different water sources; and freeze branding the fish. After application of experimental rearing practices in hatcheries, smolts were transported to a rearing facility for about 2-3 months of seawater rearing. Of 16 experiments, 4 yielded statistically significant differences in seawater survival. In general we found that high variability among replicates, plus the low numbers of replicates available, resulted in low statistical power. We recommend including four or five replicates and using ?? = 0.10 in 1-tailed tests of hatchery experiments to try to increase the statistical power to 0.80.

  2. Optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices using Taguchi methods.

    PubMed

    Yavalkar, S P; Bhole, A G; Babu, P V Vijay; Prakash, Chandra

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for the reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices in the context of M. rosenbergii. The fresh water in the development of fisheries needs to be of suitable quality. Lack of desirable quality in available fresh water is generally the confronting restraint. On the Indian subcontinent, groundwater is the only source of raw water, having varying degree of hardness and thus is unsuitable for the fresh water prawn hatchery practices (M. rosenbergii). In order to make use of hard water in the context of aqua-hatchery, Lime-Soda process has been recommended. The efficacy of the various process parameters like lime, soda ash and detention time, on the reduction of hardness needs to be examined. This paper proposes to determine the parameter settings for the CIFE well water, which is pretty hard by using Taguchi experimental design method. Orthogonal Arrays of Taguchi, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been applied to determine their dosage and analysed for their effect on hardness reduction. The tests carried out with optimal levels of Lime-Soda process parameters confirmed the efficacy of the Taguchi optimisation method. Emphasis has been placed on optimisation of chemical doses required to reduce the total hardness using Taguchi method and ANOVA, to suit the available raw water quality for aqua-hatchery practices, especially for fresh water prawn M. rosenbergii.

  3. Adapting traditional healing practices.

    PubMed

    Weiser, J

    1999-01-01

    The Aboriginal people in Canada have been noted to have low self-esteem, subsequently increasing their risk of HIV. To this effect, two traditional healing practices are being used to help these people avoid HIV infection, and to live more healthily and positively if they are infected. The first method is the Medicine Wheel, which is a traditional model used to represent the complex interrelationship among all living things and show how their immune system is physically affected by their emotions and worries. Many Aboriginal AIDS Organizations, counselors and others are now using this AIDS teaching Wheel model. Meanwhile, the second method is the Sharing Circles, which provide an environment where people feel safe to talk about HIV and give participants a sense of support and a means for expression without stigma or judgement. As a result, many people who attend HIV circles begin to take better care of themselves and of others. Overall, it is emphasized that these traditional healing practices can be effectively adapted for use in HIV counseling and education.

  4. Prism adaptation by mental practice.

    PubMed

    Michel, Carine; Gaveau, Jérémie; Pozzo, Thierry; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2013-09-01

    The prediction of our actions and their interaction with the external environment is critical for sensorimotor adaptation. For instance, during prism exposure, which deviates laterally our visual field, we progressively correct movement errors by combining sensory feedback with forward model sensory predictions. However, very often we project our actions to the external environment without physically interacting with it (e.g., mental actions). An intriguing question is whether adaptation will occur if we imagine, instead of executing, an arm movement while wearing prisms. Here, we investigated prism adaptation during mental actions. In the first experiment, participants (n = 54) performed arm pointing movements before and after exposure to the optical device. They were equally divided into six groups according to prism exposure: Prisms-Active, Prisms-Imagery, Prisms-Stationary, Prisms-Stationary-Attention, No Conflict-Prisms-Imagery, No Prisms-Imagery. Adaptation, measured by the difference in pointing errors between pre-test and post-test, occurred only in Prisms-Active and Prisms-Imagery conditions. The second experiment confirmed the results of the first experiment and further showed that sensorimotor adaptation was mainly due to proprioceptive realignment in both Prisms-Active (n = 10) and Prisms-Imagery (n = 10) groups. In both experiments adaptation was greater following actual than imagined pointing movements. The present results are the first demonstration of prism adaptation by mental practice under prism exposure and they are discussed in terms of internal forward models and sensorimotor plasticity.

  5. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Policies and Procedures for Columbia Basin Anadromous Salmonid Hatcheries, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Integrated Hatchery Operations Team

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines regional policies and procedures for hatchery operations in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of these policies is to provide regional guidelines by which all anadromous fish hatcheries will be operated. These policies will be adopted by the fisheries co-managers, and will provide guidance to operate hatcheries in an efficient and biologically sound manner. The hatchery policies presented in this manual are not intended to establish production priorities. Rather, the intent is to guide hatchery operations once production numbers are established. Hatchery operations discussed in this report include broodstock collection, spawning, incubation of eggs, fish rearing and feeding, fish release, equipment maintenance and operations, and personnel training. Decisions regarding production priorities must be provided by fishery managers through a comprehensive plan that addresses both natural and hatchery fish production. The Integrated Hatchery Operations Team is a multi-agency group called for by the Northwest Power Planning Council. This team was directed to develop new basinwide policies for managing and operating all existing and future anadromous fish hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The parties pledge to confer with each other and to use their authorities and resources to accomplish these mutually acceptable hatchery practices.

  6. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stonecypher, R. Wess; Groberg, Jr., Warren J.; Farman, Brett M.

    2001-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program authorized construction of Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) in 1986. Measure 703 of the program amended the original authorization for the hatchery and specified evaluation of the Michigan (MI) raceways using oxygen supplementation to reach production goals of 290,000 lb of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss). The hatchery was completed in fall 1991. Partial justification for the hatchery was to evaluate new production and supplementation techniques. MI raceways at UFH increase smolt production with a limited water supply. Test results for MI raceways will have systematic application in the Columbia River basin. The UFH is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing steelhead in the Umatilla River (CTUIR and ODFW 1990) and is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council's goal of doubling salmon production in the Columbia Basin. Hatchery production goals and a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan were presented in the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 1990). The Comprehensive Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation of Umatilla Hatchery (Carmichael 1990) was approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council as a critical adaptive management guide for fisheries rehabilitation in the Umatilla River. Monitoring and evaluation will be used to increase knowledge about uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation and will complement the developing systematic monitoring and evaluation program. The monitoring and evaluation goals are: (1) Provide information and recommendations for the culture and release of hatchery fish, harvest regulations, and natural escapement to accomplish long-term natural and hatchery production goals in the Umatilla River basin that are consistent with provisions of the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. (2) Assess the success of achieving

  7. Adapted PBL Practical Exercises: Benefits for Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Use was made of adapted problem-based learning (PBL) practical exercises to address the disengagement of apprentices with the existing assembly-style electronic laboratory programme. Apprentices perceived the traditional routines as having little real-world relevance. This detracted from the value and benefit to them of the practical component of…

  8. Occurrence of antibiotics in water from fish hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, Earl M.; Dietze, Julie E.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2002-01-01

    The recent discovery of pharmaceuticals in streams across the United States (Kolpin and others, 2002) has raised the visibility and need for monitoring of antibiotics in the environment. Possible sources of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals in streams may include fish hatcheries. This fact sheet presents the results from a preliminary study of fish hatcheries across the United States for the occurrence and concentration of antibiotics present in fish hatchery water. The study examines both sufonamides and tetracyclines. Sulfonamides are synthetic compounds, and tetracyclines are naturally occurring compounds. The use of antibiotics added to specially formulated feed is a common practice in fish hatcheries to treat and prevent bacterial infections in large fish populations. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved antibiotics are oxytetracycline-HCI, sulfamerazine, and a combination drug containing ormetoprim and sulfadiamethoxine (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2003). During January 2001?June 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory (OGRL), Lawrence, Kansas, cooperatively collected water samples from 13 fish hatcheries across the United States (fig. 1) with the assistance of hatchery operators. A method for the analysis of antibiotics was developed and used to identify and quantify these compounds in fish hatchery water (Lindsey and others, 2001). This study was completed to determine if trace levels of antibiotics [approximately 1 microgram per liter (?g/L) or 1 part per billion or greater occurred] in which water associated with fish hatcheries, which are a potential source of these compounds in surface water.

  9. Spokane Tribal Hatchery, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peone, Tim L.

    2004-05-01

    have a negative impact on adult kokanee returns and limits the success of hatchery/net pen stocking on the number of harvestable fish. Preliminary results of gonad necropsies indicate a reduced incidence of precocious kokanee produced at the Spokane Tribal Hatchery in 2003. This was a probable attribute of change in hatchery rearing practices employed on 2002 brood year kokanee produced in 2003, primarily thermal manipulation and feed protein source. Kokanee and rainbow trout fingerlings transferred to Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake net pen rearing operations in the fall of 2003 for subsequent release as yearlings in 2004 consisted of 645,234 rainbow trout and 627,037 kokanee salmon. A total of 590,000 Lake Whatcom kokanee fingerlings were carried over at the Spokane Tribal Hatchery for stocking as yearlings in 2004. Recommendations for future hatchery/net pen operations include use of stocks compatible or native to the upper Columbia River, continue hatchery-rearing practices to reduce precocity rates of kokanee and continue new kokanee stocking strategies associated with increased kokanee harvest rates.

  10. Spokane Tribal Hatchery, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peone, Tim L.

    2005-03-01

    success of hatchery/net pen stocking on the number of harvestable fish. Recommendations for future hatchery/net pen operations include use of stocks compatible or native to the upper Columbia River, continue hatchery-rearing practices to reduce precocity rates of kokanee and continue new kokanee stocking strategies associated with increased kokanee harvest rates.

  11. Genetic evaluation of a Great Lakes lake trout hatchery program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Bast, D.; Holey, M.E.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts over several decades to restore lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in U.S. waters of the upper Great Lakes have emphasized the stocking of juveniles from each of six hatchery broodstocks. Retention of genetic diversity across all offspring life history stages throughout the hatchery system has been an important component of the restoration hatchery and stocking program. Different stages of the lake trout hatchery program were examined to determine how effective hatchery practices have been in minimizing the loss of genetic diversity in broodstock adults and in progeny stocked. Microsatellite loci were used to estimate allele frequencies, measures of genetic diversity, and relatedness for wild source populations, hatchery broodstocks, and juveniles. We also estimated the effective number of breeders for each broodstock. Hatchery records were used to track destinations of fertilized eggs from all spawning dates to determine whether adult contributions to stocking programs were proportional to reproductive effort. Overall, management goals of maintaining genetic diversity were met across all stages of the hatchery program; however, we identified key areas where changes in mating regimes and in the distribution of fertilized gametes and juveniles could be improved. Estimates of effective breeding population size (Nb) were 9-41% of the total number of adults spawned. Low estimates of Nb were primarily attributed to spawning practices, including the pooling of gametes from multiple males and females and the reuse of males. Nonrandom selection and distribution of fertilized eggs before stocking accentuated declines in effective breeding population size and increased levels of relatedness of juveniles distributed to different rearing facilities and stocking locales. Adoption of guidelines that decrease adult reproductive variance and promote more equitable reproductive contributions of broodstock adults to juveniles would further enhance management goals of

  12. Effects of selenium dietary enhancement on hatchery-reared coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), when compared with wild coho: hepatic enzymes and seawater adaptation evaluated.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felton, S.P.; Landolt, M.L.; Grace, R.; Palmisano, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Hatchery-reared coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), were fed elevated levels of selenium (as Na2SeO3) to raise eviscerated body burdens to the level measured in wild counterparts. The goal was to find a dietary concentration that would achieve the desired effect without causing damage to growth and normal development. To measure some indices of health, the detoxifying enzymes chosen were hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD). Eviscerated body selenium (Se) concentration, GSH-Px and SOD levels were measured during and at the end of the 9 month freshwater feeding trial. Selenium retention and enzyme activity were also measured during 6 months’residence in sea water (SW). Selenium supplements were added to a commercial ration to give final concentrations of 1.1, 8.6, 11.1, 13.6 μg g-1 Se in the four respective diets. The results indicated that a dietary concentration of 8.6 μg g-1selenium was capable of inducing eviscerated body burdens similar to those found in wild fish. The elevated selenium levels persisted throughout the freshwater (FW) rearing phase, but declined when the fish were fed an unsupplemented ration upon SW entry. Superoxide dismutase levels did not increase above control levels. Glutathione peroxidase levels increased in fish fed the supplemented diets. GSH-Px activity declined in the higher supplemented dietary groups when all groups were reduced to the control group level of 1.1 μg g-1. Cumulative mortality in SW was 20% in fish fed either the 1.1 or the 8.6 μg g-1 Se diets. The 8.6 μg g-1 Se supplemented diets did produce healthy coho, comparable to their wild counterparts.

  13. Adaptive Research Supervision: Exploring Expert Thesis Supervisors' Practical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have suggested the importance of being responsive to students' needs in research supervision. Adapting support strategies to students' needs in light of the goals of a task is referred to as "adaptivity." In the present study, the practice of adaptivity is explored by interviewing expert thesis supervisors about…

  14. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  15. Do hatchery-reared sea urchins pose a threat to genetic diversity in wild populations?

    PubMed Central

    Segovia-Viadero, M; Serrão, E A; Canteras-Jordana, J C; Gonzalez-Wangüemert, M

    2016-01-01

    In salmonids, the release of hatchery-reared fish has been shown to cause irreversible genetic impacts on wild populations. However, although responsible practices for producing and releasing genetically diverse, hatchery-reared juveniles have been published widely, they are rarely implemented. Here, we investigated genetic differences between wild and early-generation hatchery-reared populations of the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (a commercially important species in Europe) to assess whether hatcheries were able to maintain natural levels of genetic diversity. To test the hypothesis that hatchery rearing would cause bottleneck effects (that is, a substantial reduction in genetic diversity and differentiation from wild populations), we compared the levels and patterns of genetic variation between two hatcheries and four nearby wild populations, using samples from both Spain and Ireland. We found that hatchery-reared populations were less diverse and had diverged significantly from the wild populations, with a very small effective population size and a high degree of relatedness between individuals. These results raise a number of concerns about the genetic impacts of their release into wild populations, particularly when such a degree of differentiation can occur in a single generation of hatchery rearing. Consequently, we suggest that caution should be taken when using hatchery-reared individuals to augment fisheries, even for marine species with high dispersal capacity, and we provide some recommendations to improve hatchery rearing and release practices. Our results further highlight the need to consider the genetic risks of releasing hatchery-reared juveniles into the wild during the establishment of restocking, stock enhancement and sea ranching programs. PMID:26758187

  16. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Michael C.; Waln, Karen; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council`s Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program authorized construction of the Umatilla Hatchery in 1986. Measure 703 of the program amended the original authorization for the hatchery and specified evaluation of the Michigan type of rearing using oxygen supplementation to reach production goals of 290,000 lb of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus nzykiss). The hatchery was completed in the fall of 1991. Partial justification for the hatchery was to develop considerable knowledge and understanding of new production and supplementation techniques. The use of the Michigan raceways in rearing at Umatilla Hatchery was selected because it could increase smolt production given the limited hatchery well water supply and allow comparison of Michigan raceways with the standard Oregon raceways. Results of testing the Michigan raceways will have systematic application in the Columbia Basin. The Umatilla Hatchery is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing steelhead in the Umatilla River and is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council`s goal of doubling salmon production in the Columbia Basin. Hatchery production goals and a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan were presented in the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan . The Comprehensive Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation of Umatilla Hatchery was approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council as a critical adaptive management guide for fisheries rehabilitation in the Umatilla River. Monitoring and evaluation will be used to increase knowledge about uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation and will complement the developing systematic monitoring and evaluation program. This report covers the first four years of the monitoring of the hatchery.

  17. Rote of adaptation exercises in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kirtane, M V

    1999-04-01

    Adaptation, habitution and compensation are the mechanisms involved in rehabilitation of vertigo patients. In Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy (VRT), patients are advised to perform a series of maneuvers involving head, eye and body movements which stimulate the in-built adaptive mechanisms. Cawthorne and Cooksey were the first to describe adaptation exercises, which are further modified. Norre has designed VRT test battery of specific exercises. Drug treatment used along with VRT should not interfere with the compensation mechanism. Anti-vertigo drug Betahistine has been shown to hasten the compensation and hence is suitable for use with VRT.

  18. Strategies for improving adaptation practice in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Declan; Mustelin, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    The international community's support for adaptation in developing countries has proliferated through numerous complementary funding mechanisms. A range of serious practical issues are emerging, however, as adaptation moves from theory and international negotiation to implementation. We identify three areas deserving greater scrutiny: in-country priorities, entry points and delivery systems, and provide recommendations for improving adaptation practice. These concerns, if not addressed, have the potential to hamper attempts at effective delivery and to increase the vulnerability of intended beneficiaries of the adaptation agenda.

  19. Umatilla Hatchery Final Predesign Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown Author

    1988-04-01

    This report provides information on the preliminary design of Umatilla Fish Hatchery near Irrigon, Oregon. The fish hatchery will be capable of rearing steelhead and chinook with an initial capacity of 290,000 pounds. Future expansion will allow for a total capacity of 500,000 pounds if the initial production goals are met. The hatchery will consist of both Oregon and Michigan style ponds. The Oregon ponds are similar to those at Irrigon. The Michigan ponds are more narrow and shallow, are self cleaning, and use oxygen supplementation to obtain higher rearing densities as is currently being done in the state of Michigan. The Oregon ponds are a two-pass system with the capability to convert to Michigan style ponds, if this mode of operation proves to be an effective method in the west. The Michigan ponds are three-pass with the capability to expand to four-pass.

  20. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done

  1. Robust, Practical Adaptive Control for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb. S.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.

    2012-01-01

    A modern mechanization of a classical adaptive control concept is presented with an application to launch vehicle attitude control systems. Due to a rigorous flight certification environment, many adaptive control concepts are infeasible when applied to high-risk aerospace systems; methods of stability analysis are either intractable for high complexity models or cannot be reconciled in light of classical requirements. Furthermore, many adaptive techniques appearing in the literature are not suitable for application to conditionally stable systems with complex flexible-body dynamics, as is often the case with launch vehicles. The present technique is a multiplicative forward loop gain adaptive law similar to that used for the NASA X-15 flight research vehicle. In digital implementation with several novel features, it is well-suited to application on aerodynamically unstable launch vehicles with thrust vector control via augmentation of the baseline attitude/attitude-rate feedback control scheme. The approach is compatible with standard design features of autopilots for launch vehicles, including phase stabilization of lateral bending and slosh via linear filters. In addition, the method of assessing flight control stability via classical gain and phase margins is not affected under reasonable assumptions. The algorithm s ability to recover from certain unstable operating regimes can in fact be understood in terms of frequency-domain criteria. Finally, simulation results are presented that confirm the ability of the algorithm to improve performance and robustness in realistic failure scenarios.

  2. State Water Agency Practices for Climate Adaptation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webpage contains short descriptions of innovative practices that state water agencies are currently implementing to reduce their vulnerability to climate-related impacts and to build resilience to climate change.

  3. A practical sub-space adaptive filter.

    PubMed

    Zaknich, A

    2003-01-01

    A Sub-Space Adaptive Filter (SSAF) model is developed using, as a basis, the Modified Probabilistic Neural Network (MPNN) and its extension the Tuneable Approximate Piecewise Linear Regression (TAPLR) model. The TAPLR model can be adjusted by a single smoothing parameter continuously from the best piecewise linear model in each sub-space to the best approximately piecewise linear model over the whole data space. A suitable value in between ensures that all neighbouring piecewise linear models merge together smoothly at their boundaries. This model was developed by altering the form of the MPNN, a network used for general nonlinear regression. The MPNNs special structure allows it to be easily used to model a process by appropriately weighting piecewise linear models associated with each of the network's radial basis functions. The model has now been further extended to allow each piecewise linear model section to be adapted separately as new data flows through it. By doing this, the proposed SSAF model represents a learning/filtering method for nonlinear processes that provides one solution to the stability/plasticity dilemma associated with standard adaptive filters.

  4. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  5. Climate Change Adaptation: Putting Principles into Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausden, Malcolm

    2014-10-01

    Carrying out wildlife conservation in a changing climate requires planning on long timescales at both a site and network level, while also having the flexibility to adapt actions at sites over short timescales in response to changing conditions and new information. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), a land-owning wildlife conservation charity in the UK, achieves this on its nature reserves through its system of management planning. This involves setting network-wide objectives which inform the 25-year vision and 5-year conservation objectives for each site. Progress toward achieving each site's conservation objectives is reviewed annually, to identify any adjustments which might be needed to the site's management. The conservation objectives and 25-year vision of each site are reviewed every 5 years. Significant long-term impacts of climate change most frequently identified at RSPB reserves are: loss of intertidal habitat through coastal squeeze, loss of low-lying islands due to higher sea levels and coastal erosion, loss of coastal freshwater and brackish wetlands due to increased coastal flooding, and changes in the hydrology of wetlands. The main types of adaptation measures in place on RSPB reserves to address climate change-related impacts are: re-creation of intertidal habitat, re-creation and restoration of freshwater wetlands away from vulnerable coastal areas, blocking artificial drainage on peatlands, and addressing pressures on freshwater supply for lowland wet grasslands in eastern and southeastern England. Developing partnerships between organizations has been crucial in delivering large-scale adaptation projects.

  6. Lower fitness of hatchery and hybrid rainbow trout compared to naturalized populations in Lake Superior tributaries.

    PubMed

    Miller, L M; Close, T; Kapuscinski, A R

    2004-11-01

    We have documented an early life survival advantage by naturalized populations of anadromous rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss over a more recently introduced hatchery population and outbreeding depression resulting from interbreeding between the two strains. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of naturalized and hatchery trout, and reciprocal hybrid crosses, survive equally from fry to age 1+ in isolated reaches of Lake Superior tributary streams in Minnesota. Over the first summer, offspring of naturalized females had significantly greater survival than offspring of hatchery females in three of four comparisons (two streams and 2 years of stocking). Having an entire naturalized genome, not just a naturalized mother, was important for survival over the first winter. Naturalized offspring outperformed all others in survival to age 1+ and hybrids had reduced, but intermediate, survival relative to the two pure crosses. Averaging over years and streams, survival relative to naturalized offspring was 0.59 for hybrids with naturalized females, 0.37 for the reciprocal hybrids, and 0.21 for hatchery offspring. Our results indicate that naturalized rainbow trout are better adapted to the conditions of Minnesota's tributaries to Lake Superior so that they outperform the hatchery-propagated strain in the same manner that many native populations of salmonids outperform hatchery or transplanted fish. Continued stocking of the hatchery fish may conflict with a management goal of sustaining the naturalized populations.

  7. An evaluation of the effects of conservation and fishery enhancement hatcheries on wild populations of salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naish, Kerry A.; Taylor, Joseph E.; Levin, Phillip S.; Quinn, Thomas P; Winton, James R.; Huppert , Daniel; Hilborn , Ray

    2007-01-01

    The historical, political and scientific aspects of salmon hatchery programmes designed to enhance fishery production, or to recover endangered populations, are reviewed. We start by pointing out that the establishment of hatcheries has been a political response to societal demands for harvest and conservation; given this social context, we then critically examined the levels of activity, the biological risks, and the economic analysis associated with salmon hatchery programmes. A rigorous analysis of the impacts of hatchery programmes was hindered by the lack of standardized data on release sizes and survival rates at all ecological scales, and since hatchery programme objectives are rarely defined, it was also difficult to measure their effectiveness at meeting release objectives. Debates on the genetic effects of hatchery programmes on wild fish have been dominated by whether correct management practices can reduce negative outcomes, but we noted that there has been an absence of programmatic research approaches addressing this important issue. Competitive interactions between hatchery and wild fish were observed to be complex, but studies researching approaches to reduce these interactions at all ecological scales during the entire salmon life history have been rare, and thus are not typically considered in hatchery management. Harvesting of salmon released from fishery enhancement hatcheries likely impacts vulnerable wild populations; managers have responded to this problem by mass marking hatchery fish, so that fishing effort can be directed towards hatchery populations. However, we noted that the effectiveness of this approach is dependant on accurate marking and production of hatchery fish with high survival rates, and it is not yet clear whether selective fishing will prevent overharvest of wild populations. Finally, research demonstrating disease transmission from hatchery fish to wild populations was observed to be equivocal; evidence in this area has

  8. Evidence-Based Practice in Adapted Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Jooyeon; Yun, Joonkoo

    2010-01-01

    Although implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) has been strongly advocated by federal legislation as well as school districts in recent years, the concept has not been well accepted in adapted physical education (APE), perhaps due to a lack of understanding of the central notion of EBP. The purpose of this article is to discuss how APE…

  9. Thinking Ethically about Professional Practice in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donna L.; Rossow-Kimball, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    There has been little critical exploration of the ethical issues that arise in professional practice common to adapted physical activity. We cannot avoid moral issues as we inevitably will act in ways that will negatively affect the well-being of others. We will make choices, which in our efforts to support others, may hurt by violating dignity or…

  10. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Spring Chinook Master Plan, Technical Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashe, Becky L.; Concannon, Kathleen; Johnson, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Spring chinook salmon populations in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde rivers are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are at high risk of extirpation. The Nez Perce Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, are co-managers of conservation/restoration programs for Imnaha and Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon that use hatchery supplementation and conventional and captive broodstock techniques. The immediate goal of these programs is to prevent extirpation and provide the potential for restoration once factors limiting production are addressed. These programs redirect production occurring under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) from mitigation to conservation and restoration. Both the Imnaha and Grande Ronde conservation/restoration programs are described in ESA Section 10 permit applications and the co-managers refer to the fish production from these programs as the Currently Permitted Program (CPP). Recently, co-managers have determined that it is impossible to produce the CPP at Lookingglass Hatchery, the LSRCP facility intended for production, and that without additional facilities, production must be cut from these conservation programs. Development of new facilities for these programs through the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program is considered a new production initiative by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) and requires a master plan. The master plan provides the NPPC, program proponents and others with the information they need to make sound decisions about whether the proposed facilities to restore salmon populations should move forward to design. This master plan describes alternatives considered to meet the facility needs of the CPP so the conservation program can be fully implemented. Co-managers considered three alternatives: modify Lookingglass Hatchery; use existing facilities elsewhere in the Basin; and use new facilities in

  11. Judging adaptive management practices of U.S. agencies.

    PubMed

    Fischman, Robert L; Ruhl, J B

    2016-04-01

    All U.S. federal agencies administering environmental laws purport to practice adaptive management (AM), but little is known about how they actually implement this conservation tool. A gap between the theory and practice of AM is revealed in judicial decisions reviewing agency adaptive management plans. We analyzed all U.S. federal court opinions published through 1 January 2015 to identify the agency AM practices courts found most deficient. The shortcomings included lack of clear objectives and processes, monitoring thresholds, and defined actions triggered by thresholds. This trio of agency shortcuts around critical, iterative steps characterizes what we call AM-lite. Passive AM differs from active AM in its relative lack of management interventions through experimental strategies. In contrast, AM-lite is a distinctive form of passive AM that fails to provide for the iterative steps necessary to learn from management. Courts have developed a sophisticated understanding of AM and often offer instructive rather than merely critical opinions. The role of the judiciary is limited by agency discretion under U.S. administrative law. But courts have overturned some agency AM-lite practices and insisted on more rigorous analyses to ensure that the promised benefits of structured learning and fine-tuned management have a reasonable likelihood of occurring. Nonetheless, there remains a mismatch in U.S. administrative law between the flexibility demanded by adaptive management and the legal objectives of transparency, public participation, and finality.

  12. 29 CFR 780.127 - Hatchery operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.127 Hatchery operations. Hatchery operations incident to the breeding of poultry, whether performed in a rural or...

  13. 29 CFR 780.127 - Hatchery operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.127 Hatchery operations. Hatchery operations incident to the breeding of poultry, whether performed in a rural or...

  14. 29 CFR 780.127 - Hatchery operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.127 Hatchery operations. Hatchery operations incident to the breeding of poultry, whether performed in a rural or...

  15. 29 CFR 780.127 - Hatchery operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.127 Hatchery operations. Hatchery operations incident to the breeding of poultry, whether performed in a rural or...

  16. 29 CFR 780.127 - Hatchery operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE... of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.127 Hatchery operations. Hatchery operations incident to the breeding of poultry, whether performed in a rural or...

  17. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  18. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  19. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  20. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  1. 9 CFR 147.23 - Hatchery sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hatchery sanitation. 147.23 Section... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.23 Hatchery sanitation. An effective program for the prevention and control of...

  2. Framing Cross-Cultural Ethical Practice in Adapt[ive] Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donna; Howe, P. David

    2016-01-01

    Academics and practitioners are often at a loss when it comes to understanding the ethical socio-political and cultural contexts that invade the world of adapted physical activity. Ethical practice is situated in the local and the specific. In this article we highlight the reality that both academics and practitioners need to be ever mindful that…

  3. Lynch Ferry Hatchery - Summer Steelhead, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Summer Steelhead). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of fall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead, and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  4. Climate-smart conservation: putting adaption principles into practice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, Bruce A.; Glick, Patty; Edelson, Naomi; Staudt, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Climate change already is having significant impacts on the nation’s species and ecosystems, and these effects are projected to increase considerably over time. As a result, climate change is now a primary lens through which conservation and natural resource management must be viewed. How should we prepare for and respond to the impacts of climate change on wildlife and their habitats? What should we be doing differently in light of these climatic shifts, and what actions continue to make sense? Climate-Smart Conservation: Putting Adaptation Principles into Practice offers guidance for designing and carrying out conservation in the face of a rapidly changing climate. Addressing the growing threats brought about or accentuated by rapid climate change requires a fundamental shift in the practice of natural resource management and conservation. Traditionally, conservationists have focused their efforts on protecting and managing systems to maintain their current state, or to restore degraded systems back to a historical state regarded as more desirable. Conservation planners and practitioners will need to adopt forward-looking goals and implement strategies specifically designed to prepare for and adjust to current and future climatic changes, and the associated impacts on natural systems and human communities—an emerging discipline known as climate change adaptation. The field of climate change adaptation is still in its infancy. Although there is increasing attention focused on the subject, much of the guidance developed to date has been general in nature, concentrating on high-level principles rather than specific actions. It is against this backdrop that this guide was prepared as a means for helping put adaptation principles into practice, and for moving adaptation from planning to action.

  5. Incidence of Renibacterium salmoninarum infections in juvenile hatchery spring chinook salmon in the Columbia and Snake Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Rondorf, D.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Haner, P.V.

    1996-01-01

    From 1988 through 1992, we assessed the prevalence (frequency of occurrence) and severity (degree of infection) of Renibacterium salmoninarum (RS) among fish in marked groups of Columbia River basin and Snake River basin hatchery spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha before release and during their seaward migration. During the study, prevalence of RS infection decreased (from >90% to <65%) in six of the eight hatchery groups. We attributed this decrease to changes in hatchery practices that reduced vertical and horizontal transmission. Fish from Snake River hatcheries had a higher prevalence of infection when sampled at dams (mean >90%) than in the hatchery (mean <70%), but there were no differences in similar comparisons of Columbia River fish. Although prevalence and severity of RS infection were not correlated in the groups studied, it appears that fish from the Snake River were more severely infected than those from the Columbia River. Some groups of Snake River fish had higher severity of infection at dams than in the hatchery, but infection in fish from Columbia River hatcheries did not change. These differences between Snake River and Columbia River fish might have resulted from differences in river conditions and the distances from hatcheries to dams.

  6. Review of probiotics for use in bivalve hatcheries.

    PubMed

    Prado, Susana; Romalde, Jesús L; Barja, Juan L

    2010-10-26

    The aquaculture of bivalve molluscs has attained a considerable level of production but it is not enough to cover the demand of worldwide consumers. In the development of this sector, hatcheries play an important role, as suppliers of competent spat of different bivalves, including species with an aquaculture based on natural extraction present. Besides, these installations may help in the recovery of exhausted natural beds and in the obtaining of populations under genetic selection. Unfortunately, the disease outbreaks caused by bacterial pathogens are frequent, with the loss of complete batches, compromising the regular production and the economic viability of the industry. There are many descriptive studies about these outbreaks, but only a few focused on the control of microbiota. The particularities of bivalve aquaculture in hatchery must be taken into account to design methods of control. A common environment is shared by larvae and bacteria, including both beneficial and potentially pathogenic. The filter-feeding behaviour of larvae increases the strong influence of these populations. The classical treatments are directed toward to the complete elimination of bacteria from culture seawater. That objective is unfeasible, because the cultures are not axenic, and undesirable, since some bacteria enhance larval development. Taking into account these considerations, the most promising alternative is the use of probiotic bacteria. In this review we summarize the scientific literature about this subject, considering the particularities of bivalve larval cultures and the need to adapt the concept of probiotic and the strategies to use in marine bivalve hatcheries.

  7. Hatchery hygiene evaluation by microbiological examination of hatchery samples.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Kim, K S

    2010-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the bacterial contamination of air and the surface of equipment and facilities in hatchery. In addition, the inhibitory effects of formaldehyde application methods on aerosol bacterial counts in the hatchers were also investigated. In the operating hatchers, the contamination of air by aerobic bacteria, coliform, and fungi was high, measuring over 300 cfu/63.6 cm(2). In the egg sorting room, contamination was moderate, whereas in the remaining sampling sites such as the setter room, candling-transfer room, and chick counting room, contamination was minimal, measuring less than 10 cfu/63.6 cm(2) for aerobic bacteria, 5 cfu/63.6 cm(2) for coliform, and 2 cfu/63.6 cm(2) for fungi. The bacterial contamination on the surface of the equipment and facilities showed similar tendencies with that of air. However, on the surfaces of the equipment and facilities in the hatcher room corridors and nonoperating hatchers where the bacterial contamination of the air was low, bacterial counts were high, measuring over 100 cfu/16 cm(2). Salmonella was mainly isolated from the hatcher rooms, chick counting room, and the related equipment and facilities but not from the areas used for the earlier processing step such as the egg receiving room, egg sorting room, setter rooms, and candling-transfer room. The Salmonella serotype that was most frequently isolated from the hatchery was Salmonella Senftenberg. The other occasional Salmonella serotypes such as Salmonella Schwarzengrund, Salmonella Madelia, Salmonella Montevideo, and Salmonella Enteritidis were isolated. The experimental group receiving formaldehyde by constant rate infusion during hatching had a significantly superior inhibitory effect on aerosol bacterial count 4 h before hatching as compared with the group receiving formaldehyde into a basin and the negative control group (P < 0.05).

  8. Hotchkiss National Fish Hatchery NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from outfalls at its Hotchkiss National Fish Hatchery wastewater treatment facility to the North Fork of the Gunnison River in Delta County, Colorado.

  9. Leadville National Fish Hatchery NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number CO-0000582, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from its Leadville National Fish Hatchery wastewater treatment facility in Colorado.

  10. Phenomenology and adapted physical activity: philosophy and professional practice.

    PubMed

    Standal, Øyvind F

    2014-01-01

    Through the increased use of qualitative research methods, the term phenomenology has become a quite familiar notion for researchers in adapted physical activity (APA). In contrast to this increasing interest in phenomenology as methodology, relatively little work has focused on phenomenology as philosophy or as an approach to professional practice. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of phenomenology as philosophy and as pedagogy to the field of APA. First, phenomenology as philosophy is introduced through three key notions, namely the first-person perspective, embodiment, and life-world. The relevance of these terms to APA is then outlined. Second, the concept of phenomenological pedagogy is introduced, and its application and potential for APA are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that phenomenology can help theorize ways of understanding human difference in movement contexts and form a basis of action-oriented research aiming at developing professional practice.

  11. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  12. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume I of V; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shelldrake, Tom

    1993-08-01

    Individual operational plans for 1993 are provided for the Abernathy Salmon Culture Technology Center, Carson National Fish Hatchery, Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Eagle Creek National Fish Hatchery, Entiat National Fish Hatchery, Hagerman National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery, Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery, Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Willard National Fish Hatchery, and the Winthrop National Fish Hatchery.

  13. Using practical and social information to influence flood adaptation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaire, Maura C.

    2016-08-01

    As the prospect for more frequent and severe extreme weather events gains scientific support, many nations are evaluating mitigation and adaptation options. Insurance and home retrofits could reduce household welfare losses due to flood events. Yet even after disasters, households often fail to take risk mitigation actions. This paper presents the first randomized field experiment that tests the effect of information provision on household uptake of flood insurance and home retrofits. A sample of 364 flood-prone households in Bangkok was randomly split into treatment and control groups. The treatment group received practical details on home retrofits and flood insurance as well as social information regarding the insurance purchase decisions of peers. Results indicate that the information intervention increased insurance purchases by about five percentage points, while no effect was detected for home retrofits. This effect is nearly equal to the increase in uptake that the national insurance program in Thailand has achieved through all other means since its establishment in 2012. If scaled up to include all uninsured, flood-prone households in Bangkok, nearly 70,000 additional households could be insured. The results suggest that well-designed information interventions could increase uptake of flood insurance, without additional premium subsidies or mandates.

  14. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Eggshells, which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of m...

  15. Some problems of private trout hatchery operators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, Robert R.

    1957-01-01

    Disease, nutritional, and environmental problems in commercial production of trout are discussed, including mortality and age of spawners, copepod and gyrodactylid infections, suitable water temperatures, diseases (especially red mouth and back peel) and inspection of fish. It is concluded that experiences with hatchery procedures have varied greatly and often the commercial trout producer must adjust methods to fit his particular needs and conditions.

  16. Leadville National Fish Hatchery NPDES Permit Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NPDES public notice, permit and statement of basis would authorize discharge of treated water from settling ponds of the Leadville National Fish Hatchery to an unnamed tributary to Hunt Gulch, which flows into Lake Fork, a tributary to the Arkansas River.

  17. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Teams (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Fall Chinook). The audit is being conducted as a requirement of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) ``Strategy for Salmon`` and the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Under the audit, the hatcheries are evaluated against policies and related performance measures developed by the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT). IHOT is a multi-agency group established by the NPPC to direct the development of new basinwide standards for managing and operating fish hatcheries. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  18. Genetic Diversity and Structure Analysis of Percocypris pingi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae): Implications for Conservation and Hatchery Release in the Yalong River

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Gan, Weixiong; Zeng, Rukui; Deng, Longjun; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-01-01

    Percocypris pingi is a near threatened cyprinid species, which has suffered a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic factors. As one response to this decline, hatchery release for P. pingi has been conducted in the lower reaches of the Yalong River since 2012. To understand the conservation status of this species and the potential impact of the release of hatchery-reared fish, we studied the genetic diversity and population structure of wild and hatchery populations of P. pingi. Two hatchery populations (Jinping [JPH] and Ya’an [YAH]) and two wild populations (Muli [MLW] and Woluo [WLW]) of P. pingi were analyzed based on microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA control region. The results showed that P. pingi possesses moderate levels of genetic diversity, with observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.657 to 0.770 and nucleotide diversities ranging from 0.00212 to 0.00491. Our results also suggested WLW harbors considerable proportions of genetic diversity in this species and serves as a refuge for P. pingi during anthropogenic disturbance, thus playing an important role for the conservation of P. pingi populations. Microsatellite and mitochondrial markers both indicated close genetic relationships between YAH and MLW, JPH and WLW, respectively. The results to some extent reflected the geographical provenances for original broodstocks of the two hatchery populations, which provide some practical guidance for hatchery release of P. pingi. The existence of remarkable genetic divergence distributed along limited geographical range (approximately 10 kilometers) suggests the two wild populations should be regarded at least as two distinct evolutionary significant units (ESUs) and management units (MUs). Considering reduced intra-population genetic variation in hatchery population for release and significant genetic compositions of the two hatchery populations, some appropriate breeding strategies were proposed to benefit conservation of P. pingi. PMID:27911911

  19. Genetic Diversity and Structure Analysis of Percocypris pingi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae): Implications for Conservation and Hatchery Release in the Yalong River.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyan; Deng, Yuanping; Yang, Kun; Gan, Weixiong; Zeng, Rukui; Deng, Longjun; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-01-01

    Percocypris pingi is a near threatened cyprinid species, which has suffered a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic factors. As one response to this decline, hatchery release for P. pingi has been conducted in the lower reaches of the Yalong River since 2012. To understand the conservation status of this species and the potential impact of the release of hatchery-reared fish, we studied the genetic diversity and population structure of wild and hatchery populations of P. pingi. Two hatchery populations (Jinping [JPH] and Ya'an [YAH]) and two wild populations (Muli [MLW] and Woluo [WLW]) of P. pingi were analyzed based on microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA control region. The results showed that P. pingi possesses moderate levels of genetic diversity, with observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.657 to 0.770 and nucleotide diversities ranging from 0.00212 to 0.00491. Our results also suggested WLW harbors considerable proportions of genetic diversity in this species and serves as a refuge for P. pingi during anthropogenic disturbance, thus playing an important role for the conservation of P. pingi populations. Microsatellite and mitochondrial markers both indicated close genetic relationships between YAH and MLW, JPH and WLW, respectively. The results to some extent reflected the geographical provenances for original broodstocks of the two hatchery populations, which provide some practical guidance for hatchery release of P. pingi. The existence of remarkable genetic divergence distributed along limited geographical range (approximately 10 kilometers) suggests the two wild populations should be regarded at least as two distinct evolutionary significant units (ESUs) and management units (MUs). Considering reduced intra-population genetic variation in hatchery population for release and significant genetic compositions of the two hatchery populations, some appropriate breeding strategies were proposed to benefit conservation of P. pingi.

  20. The Validation of a Classroom Observation Instrument Based on the Construct of Teacher Adaptive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughland, Tony; Vlies, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Teacher adaptability is a key disposition for teachers that has been linked to outcomes of interests to schools. The aim of this study was to examine how the broader disposition of teacher adaptability might be observable as classroom-based adaptive practices using an argument-based approach to validation. The findings from the initial phase of…

  1. Ford Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, Hatcheries Division, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Lovrak, Jon; Ward, Glen

    2004-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration's participation with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ford Hatchery, provides the opportunity for enhancing the recreational and subsistence kokanee fisheries in Banks Lake. The artificial production and fisheries evaluation is done cooperatively through the Spokane Hatchery, Sherman Creek Hatchery (WDFW), Banks Lake Volunteer Net Pen Project, and the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program. Ford Hatchery's production, together with the Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery, will contribute to an annual goal of one million kokanee yearlings for Lake Roosevelt and 1.4 million kokanee fingerlings and fry for Banks Lake. The purpose of this multi-agency program is to restore and enhance kokanee salmon and rainbow trout populations in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake due to Grand Coulee Dam impoundments. The Ford Hatchery will produce 9,533 lbs. (572,000) kokanee annually for release as fingerlings into Banks Lake in October. An additional 2,133 lbs. (128,000) kokanee will be transferred to net pens on Banks Lake at Electric City in October. The net pen raised kokanee will be reared through the fall, winter, and early spring to a total of 8,533 lbs and released in May. While the origin of kokanee comes from Lake Whatcom, current objectives will be to increase the use of native (or, indigenous) stocks for propagation in Banks Lake and the Upper Columbia River. Additional stocks planned for future use in Banks Lake include Lake Roosevelt kokanee and Meadow Creek kokanee. The Ford Hatchery continues to produce resident trout (80,584 lb. per year) to promote the sport fisheries in trout fishing lakes in eastern Washington (WDFW Management, Region 1). Operation and maintenance funding for the increased kokanee program was implemented in FY 2001 and scheduled to continue through FY 2010. Funds from BPA allow for an additional employee at the Ford Hatchery to assist in the operations and maintenance associated with

  2. Climate adaptation planning in practice: an evaluation of adaptation plans from three developed nations

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L; Westaway, Richard M.; Yuen, Emma J.

    2011-04-01

    Formal planning for climate change adaptation is emerging rapidly at a range of geo-political scales. This first generation of adaptation plans provides useful information regarding how institutions are framing the issue of adaptation and the range of processes that are recognized as being part of an adaptation response. To better understand adaptation planning among developed nations, a set of 57 adaptation plans from Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States was evaluated against a suite of 19 planning processes identified from existing guidance instruments for adaptation planning. Total scores among evaluated plans ranged from 16% of the maximum possible score to 61%, with an average of 37%. These results suggest adaptation plans are largely under-developed. Critical weaknesses in adaptation planning are related to limited consideration for non-climatic factors as well as neglect for issues of adaptive capacity including entitlements to various forms of capital needed for effective adaptation. Such gaps in planning suggest there are opportunities for institutions to make better use of existing guidance for adaptation planning and the need to consider the broader governance context in which adaptation will occur. In addition, the adaptation options prescribed by adaptation plans reflect a preferential bias toward low-risk capacity-building (72% of identified options) over the delivery of specific actions to reduce vulnerability. To the extent these findings are representative of the state of developed nation adaptation planning, there appear to be significant deficiencies in climate change preparedness, even among those nations often assumed to have the greatest adaptive capacity.

  3. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for growth and survival in the hatchery and seaward migration after release (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and Clearwater Hatchery; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies suggest that sea ranching of anadromous salmonids can result in domestication (increased fitness in the hatchery program) and a loss of fitness for natural production; however, the mechanism has not been characterized adequately. We artificially spawned hatchery and wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River, Idaho, reared the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) in hatcheries, and tested for differences in survival, growth, early maturation, downstream migration, and adult returns. Rearing treatments were mixed (crosses reared together) and separate (crosses reared separately from each other) at the hatchery of origin for the hatchery population where smolts are produced in one year, and at a nearby hatchery employing lower rations, lower winter temperatures, and two years of rearing to more closely mimic the natural life history (natural smolt age = 2-4 years). The hatchery population had been artificially propagated for six generations at the onset of our study. We found little or no difference in survival in the hatchery but substantially higher rates of growth and subsequent downstream migration for HxH than for WxW fish. Faster growth for HxH fish resulted in greater size at release which contributed to their higher migration rate, but other as yet uncharacterized traits also affected migration since the migration difference between crosses was apparent even within size classes. Growth of WxW fish was slower in the mixed than in the separate treatment indicating that WxW fish were competitively inferior to HxH fish in the hatchery environment. Incidence of precocious males was higher for WxW than for HxH fish in the separate but not in the mixed treatment. Incidence of HxH precocious males was similar between treatments. Apparently, the presence of HxH fish suppressed high incidence of early maturation by WxW males. A direct effect beyond

  4. Spokane Tribal Hatchery, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peone, Tim L.

    2006-03-01

    Due to the construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam (1939), anadromous salmon have been eradicated and resident fish populations permanently altered in the upper Columbia River region. Federal and private hydropower dam operations throughout the Columbia River system severely limits indigenous fish populations in the upper Columbia. Artificial production has been determined appropriate for supporting harvestable fisheries for kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake (Grand Coulee Dam impoundments). The Spokane Tribe, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Colville Confederated Tribes and Lake Roosevelt Development Association/Lake Roosevelt Volunteer Net Pen Project are cooperating in a comprehensive artificial production program to produce kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for annual releases into the project area. The program consists of the Spokane Tribal Hatchery, Sherman Creek Hatchery, Ford Trout Hatchery and Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Net Pen Rearing Projects. The Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake Fisheries Evaluation Program monitor and evaluates release strategies and production methods for the aforementioned projects. Between 1985 and 2005 the projects have collectively produced up to 800,000 rainbow trout and 4 million kokanee salmon for release into Lake Roosevelt and 1.4 million kokanee fry for Banks Lake annually. In 2005, the annual release goal included 3.3 million kokanee fry, 475,000 kokanee yearlings and 500,000 rainbow trout yearlings. Fish produced by this project in 2005 to meet collective fish production and release goals included: 3,446,438 kokanee fingerlings, 347,730 rainbow trout fingerlings and 525,721 kokanee yearlings. Kokanee yearlings were adipose fin clipped before release. Stock composition consisted of Meadow Creek and Lake Whatcom kokanee, diploid-triploid Spokane Trout Hatchery (McCloud River) rainbow trout and

  5. Cultural Adaptation of Interventions in Real Practice Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Booth, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of some common challenges and opportunities related to cultural adaptation of behavioral interventions. Cultural adaptation is presented as a necessary action to ponder when considering the adoption of an evidence-based intervention with ethnic and other minority groups. It proposes a roadmap to choose existing…

  6. Gendered knowledge and adaptive practices: Differentiation and change in Mwanga District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Smucker, Thomas A; Wangui, Elizabeth Edna

    2016-12-01

    We examine the wider social knowledge domain that complements technical and environmental knowledge in enabling adaptive practices through two case studies in Tanzania. We are concerned with knowledge production that is shaped by gendered exclusion from the main thrusts of planned adaptation, in the practice of irrigation in a dryland village and the adoption of fast-maturing seed varieties in a highland village. The findings draw on data from a household survey, community workshops, and key informant interviews. The largest challenge to effective adaptation is a lack of access to the social networks and institutions that allocate resources needed for adaptation. Results demonstrate the social differentiation of local knowledge, and how it is entwined with adaptive practices that emerge in relation to gendered mechanisms of access. We conclude that community-based adaptation can learn from engaging the broader social knowledge base in evaluating priorities for coping with greater climate variability.

  7. Adapting Practices of Science Journalism to Foster Science Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polman, Joseph L.; Newman, Alan; Saul, Ellen Wendy; Farrar, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe how the practices of expert science journalists enable them to act as "competent outsiders" to science. We assert that selected science journalism practices can be used to design reform-based science instruction; these practices not only foster science literacy that is useful in daily life, but also…

  8. Hell and High Water: Practice-Relevant Adaptation Science

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Richard H.; Meehl, G.; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Smith, J. B.; Arnold, J. R.; Arnott, J. C.; Behar, D.; Brasseur, Guy P.; Broomell, S. B.; Busalacchi, Antonio; Dessai, S.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Edmonds, James A.; Furlow, J.; Goddard, L.; Hartmann, Holly; Hurrell, Jim; Katzenberger, J. W.; Liverman, D. M.; Mote, Phil; Moser, S. C.; Kumar, A.; Pulwarty, Roger; Seyller, E. A.; Turner, B.L.; Washington, Warren M.; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2013-11-08

    Recent extreme weather such as Hurricane Sandy and the 2012 drought demonstrate the vulnerability of the United States to climate extremes in the present and point to the potential for increased future damages under a changing climate. They also provide lessons for reducing harm and realizing any potential benefits. Preparedness measures – also referred to as adaptation – can cost-effectively increase resilience today and in the future. The upfront costs will be more than offset by reductions in property damage, lives and livelihoods lost, and expensive post-disaster recovery processes. While others have addressed use of science for adaptation in specific sectors including biodiversity (Heller and Zavaleta, 2009) and freshwater ecosystem management (Wilby et al., 2010), or by simply taking a more pragmatic approach to adaptation under uncertainty (Hallegatte, 2009), here the authors make the case that a new, comprehensive approach is needed to create and use science to inform adaptations with applicable and sound knowledge (Kerr et al., 2011).

  9. Environmental enrichment in steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hatcheries: Field evaluation of aggression, foraging, and territoriality in natural and hatchery fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatara, C.P.; Riley, S.C.; Scheurer, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Reforms for salmonid hatcheries include production of hatchery fish with behavioral characteristics similar to wild conspecifics. Enrichment of the hatchery environment has been proposed to achieve this goal. Field experiments of steelhead (i.e., sea-run rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry from a common stock reared under natural (i.e., stream), enriched hatchery, and conventional hatchery conditions indicated no significant differences in the rates of foraging or aggression between rearing treatments. However, the rates of foraging and aggression of natural fry were significantly affected by the type of hatchery fry stocked with them. Natural steelhead fry fed at lower rates and exhibited higher rates of aggression when stocked with steelhead fry raised in enriched hatchery environments. Territory sizes of steelhead fry ranged from 0.015 to 0.801 m2; were significantly, positively related to body length; and were not significantly different between rearing treatments. We conclude that hatchery steelhead fry released into streams establish territories that are proportional to their body length and similar in size to territories of natural steelhead fry. Our results indicate that both conventional and enriched hatchery environments produce natural social behaviors in steelhead released as fry and that fry from enriched hatchery environments may alter the foraging and aggressive behavior of natural, resident steelhead fry. ?? 2008 NRC.

  10. Adapting Collaborative Depression Care for Public Community Long-Term Care: Using Research-Practice Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Lenze, Shannon; Brown, Teresa; Lawrence, Lisa; Nickel, Mike; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola K.

    2014-01-01

    Description This manuscript details potential benefits for using a research-practice partnership to adapt collaborative depression care for public community long-term care agencies serving older adults. We used sequential, multi-phase, and mixed methods approaches for documenting the process of adaptation within a case study. Systematic adaptation strategies are described, such as leveraging long-term research-practice collaborations, consulting with multiple stakeholders across all levels and disciplines, and balancing demands to monitor treatment fidelity, clinical outcomes, and implementation results. These examples demonstrate that researchers interested in implementation science need skills to negotiate the competing demands that arise from both the research and practice settings. PMID:24072560

  11. Adapting collaborative depression care for public community long-term care: using research-practice partnerships.

    PubMed

    Hasche, Leslie K; Lenze, Shannon; Brown, Teresa; Lawrence, Lisa; Nickel, Mike; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola K

    2014-09-01

    This manuscript details potential benefits for using a research-practice partnership to adapt collaborative depression care for public community long-term care agencies serving older adults. We used sequential, multi-phase, and mixed methods approaches for documenting the process of adaptation within a case study. Systematic adaptation strategies are described, such as leveraging long-term research-practice collaborations, consulting with multiple stakeholders across all levels and disciplines, and balancing demands to monitor treatment fidelity, clinical outcomes, and implementation results. These examples demonstrate that researchers interested in implementation science need skills to negotiate the competing demands that arise from both the research and practice settings.

  12. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Final Siting Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  13. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Bonneville Hatchery - Tule Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Bonneville Hatchery (Tule Fall Chinook). The hatchery is located on the Columbia River just west of Cascade Locks, Oregon. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of Tule Fall Chinook and URB Fall Chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  14. Hatchery Evaluation Report / Bonneville Hatchery - Urb Fall Chinook : An Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Bonneville Hatchery (Upriver bright [URB] Fall Chinook). The hatchery is located on the Columbia River just west of Cascade Locks, Oregon. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of Tule Fall Chinook and URB Fall Chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of at two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  15. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Summer Steelhead : an Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Summer Steelhead). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of tall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead, and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  16. Hatchery Evaluation Report/Lyons Ferry Hatchery - Spring Chinook : an Independent Audit Based on Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT) Performance Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Spring Chinook). Lyons Ferry Hatchery is located downstream of the confluence of the Palouse and Snake rivers, about 7 miles west of Starbuck, Washington. The hatchery is used for adult collection of fall chinook and summer steelhead, egg incubation of fall chinook, spring chinook, steelhead. and rainbow trout and rearing of fall chinook, spring chinook, summer steelhead, and rainbow trout. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  17. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1992-1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Hayes, Michael C.; Groberg, Jr., Warren J.

    1994-06-01

    The Umatilla Hatchery is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing summer steelhead in the Umatilla River and expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council`s goal of doubling salmonid production in the Columbia Basin. This report covers the second year of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. As both the hatchery and the evaluation study are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary.

  18. Self as Text: Adaptations of Honors Practice in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michaela Ruppert

    2012-01-01

    City as Text™, the experiential learning program developed by the National Collegiate Honors Council (NCHC) Honors Semesters Committee, has been adopted and adapted by hundreds if not thousands of educational institutions throughout the United States and beyond. This essay discusses how, having served on the Honors Semesters Committee, Michaela…

  19. Training Adaptable Leaders: Lessons from Research and Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    FIGURE 2. PORTFOLIO DEVELOPMENT PROCESS ........................................... 22 vii TRAINING ADAPTABLE LEADERS: LESSONS FROM RESEARCH AND...Robertson, 2000; Klein, 1997). + Metacognitive skills. Metacognition has been defined as "thinking about thinking", referring essentially to an awareness...and regulation of one’s own thought processes. Often, metacognition is described as mentally checking on one’s progress toward a goal. For example

  20. A Systematic Ecological Model for Adapting Physical Activities: Theoretical Foundations and Practical Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a theory- and practice-based model for adapting physical activities. The ecological frame of reference includes Dynamic and Action System Theory, World Health Organization International Classification of Function and Disability, and Adaptation Theory. A systematic model is presented addressing (a) the task objective, (b) task…

  1. Protocol and practice in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, F.; Williams, K.

    1999-01-01

    Waterfowl harvest management in North America, for all its success, historically has had several shortcomings, including a lack of well-defined objectives, a failure to account for uncertain management outcomes, and inefficient use of harvest regulations to understand the effects of management. To address these and other concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began implementation of adaptive harvest management in 1995. Harvest policies are now developed using a Markov decision process in which there is an explicit accounting for uncontrolled environmental variation, partial controllability of harvest, and structural uncertainty in waterfowl population dynamics. Current policies are passively adaptive, in the sense that any reduction in structural uncertainty is an unplanned by-product of the regulatory process. A generalization of the Markov decision process permits the calculation of optimal actively adaptive policies, but it is not yet clear how state-specific harvest actions differ between passive and active approaches. The Markov decision process also provides managers the ability to explore optimal levels of aggregation or "management scale" for regulating harvests in a system that exhibits high temporal, spatial, and organizational variability. Progress in institutionalizing adaptive harvest management has been remarkable, but some managers still perceive the process as a panacea, while failing to appreciate the challenges presented by this more explicit and methodical approach to harvest regulation. Technical hurdles include the need to develop better linkages between population processes and the dynamics of landscapes, and to model the dynamics of structural uncertainty in a more comprehensive fashion. From an institutional perspective, agreement on how to value and allocate harvests continues to be elusive, and there is some evidence that waterfowl managers have overestimated the importance of achievement-oriented factors in setting hunting

  2. Effectiveness of an integrated hatchery program: Can genetic-based performance differences between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon be avoided?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Michael C.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Drake, Deanne C.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Young, Sewall F.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of wild (W) and hatchery (H) spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was evaluated for a sixth generation hatchery program. Management techniques to minimize genetic divergence from the wild stock included regular use of wild broodstock and volitional releases of juveniles. Performance of HH, WW, and HW (hatchery female spawned with wild male) crosses was compared in hatchery and stream environments. The WW juveniles emigrated from the hatchery at two to three times the rate of HH fish in the fall (HW intermediate) and 35% more HH than WW adults returned (27% more HW than WW adults). Performance in the stream did not differ statistically between HH and WW fish, but outmigrants (38% WW, 30% HW, and 32% HH fish) during the first 39 days of the 16-month sampling period composed 74% of total outmigrants. Differences among hatchery-reared crosses were partially due to additive genetic effects, were consistent with domestication (increased fitness for the hatchery population in the hatchery program), and suggested that selection against fall emigration from the hatchery was a possible mechanism of domestication.

  3. Integrated Hatchery Operations : Existing Policy Affecting Hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shelldrake, Tom

    1993-05-01

    Collected together in this document is relevant laws and policy of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington State Department of Wildlife, Oregon State, Washington Department of Fisheries, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game as they affect hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin.

  4. Parental distress, parenting practices, and child adaptive outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Micklewright, Jackie L; King, Tricia Z; O'Toole, Kathleen; Henrich, Chris; Floyd, Frank J

    2012-03-01

    Moderate and severe pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are associated with significant familial distress and child adaptive sequelae. Our aim was to examine the relationship between parental psychological distress, parenting practices (authoritarian, permissive, authoritative), and child adaptive functioning 12-36 months following TBI or orthopedic injury (OI). Injury type was hypothesized to moderate the relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning, demonstrating a significantly stronger relationship in the TBI relative to OI group. Authoritarian parenting practices were hypothesized to mediate relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning across groups. Groups (TBI n = 21, OI n = 23) did not differ significantly on age at injury, time since injury, sex, race, or SES. Parents completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, Parenting Practices Questionnaire, and Vineland-II. Moderation and mediation hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression and a bootstrapping approach, respectively. Results supported moderation and revealed that higher parental psychological distress was associated with lower child adaptive functioning in the TBI group only. Mediation results indicated that higher parental distress was associated with authoritarian parenting practices and lower adaptive functioning across groups. Results suggest that parenting practices are an important area of focus for studies attempting to elucidate the relationship between parent and child functioning following TBI.

  5. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Washington Department of Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 tabs.

  6. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, US Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 tabs.

  7. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Washington Department of Fish Hatcheries, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 figs.

  8. Practical Issues in Large-Scale High-Stakes Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Craig N.; Stocking, Martha L.

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT), while well-grounded in psychometric theory, has had few large-scale applications for high-stakes, secure tests in the past. This is now changing as the cost of computing has declined rapidly. As is always true where theory is translated into practice, many practical issues arise. This paper discusses a number…

  9. Growing Your Business by Adapting Employer Child Care Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Becky

    2012-01-01

    As an early childhood professional for 30 years operating both traditional and employer child care programs, the author believes that traditional center owners and operators have an opportunity to grow their business, serve more children and families, and stay relevant for future workforce needs by integrating employer child care practices into…

  10. An adaptive online learning framework for practical breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Tianshu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Jiayu

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an adaptive online learning (OL) framework for supporting clinical breast cancer (BC) diagnosis. Unlike traditional data mining, which trains a particular model from a fixed set of medical data, our framework offers robust OL models that can be updated adaptively according to new data sequences and newly discovered features. As a result, our framework can naturally learn to perform BC diagnosis using experts' opinions on sequential patient cases with cumulative clinical measurements. The framework integrates both supervised learning (SL) models for BC risk assessment and reinforcement learning (RL) models for decision-making of clinical measurements. In other words, online SL and RL interact with one another, and under a doctor's supervision, push the patient's diagnosis further. Furthermore, our framework can quickly update relevant model parameters based on current diagnosis information during the training process. Additionally, it can build flexible fitted models by integrating different model structures and plugging in the corresponding parameters during the prediction (or decision-making) process. Even when the feature space is extended, it can initialize the corresponding parameters and extend the existing model structure without loss of the cumulative knowledge. We evaluate the OL framework on real datasets from BCSC and WBC, and demonstrate that our SL models achieve accurate BC risk assessment from sequential data and incremental features. We also verify that the well-trained RL models provide promising measurement suggestions.

  11. A test for the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two different hatcheries (Study site: Warm Springs Hatchery; Stocks: Warm Springs Hatchery and Carson Hatchery; Year class: 1993): Chapter 10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was undertaken to determine the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in a common environment, as a companion study to our investigation of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. Pure-strain and reciprocal crosses were made between two hatchery stocks (Carson and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries). The offspring were reared together in one of the hatcheries to the smolt stage, and then were transferred to a seawater rearing facility (USGS-Marrowstone Field Station). Differences in survival, growth and disease prevalence were assessed. Fish with Carson parentage grew to greater size at the hatchery and in seawater than the pure-strain Warm Springs fish, but showed higher mortality at introduction to seawater. The analyses of maternal and stock effects were inconclusive, but the theoretical responses to different combinations of maternal and stock effects may be useful in interpreting stock comparison studies.

  12. Adaptive Systems Engineering: A Medical Paradigm for Practicing Systems Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann

    2011-06-01

    From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.

  13. The protozoan diseases of hatchery fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1935-01-01

    Following the somewhat bleak picture painted in the consideration of the bacterial diseases of hatchery fish in the last number of The Progressive Fish Culturist, it is a relief to turn to another large group of fish diseases caused by small, single-celled parasitic animals known as the protozoa. To the hatcheryman, the protozoan diseases of fish are just as important as the bacterial diseases for they are equally destructive if allowed to run unchecked. The protozoan diseases are just as common as those caused by bacteria, particularly at those hatcheries which depend upon lakes or streams for their water supplies. However, a very cheery point of difference exists between these two groups of diseases—the protozoan diseases are easier to recognize and, for the most part, they are exceedingly easy to eradicate. To the hatcheryman who has struggled day and night for weeks in an attempt to combat an epidemic wherein he is rewarded immediately by the satisfying sight of a complete recovery of his infected fish as the direct result of his labors.

  14. Adaptation to floods in future climate: a practical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroszkiewicz, Joanna; Romanowicz, Renata; Radon, Radoslaw; Hisdal, Hege

    2016-04-01

    In this study some aspects of the application of the 1D hydraulic model are discussed with a focus on its suitability for flood adaptation under future climate conditions. The Biała Tarnowska catchment is used as a case study. A 1D hydraulic model is developed for the evaluation of inundation extent and risk maps in future climatic conditions. We analyse the following flood indices: (i) extent of inundation area; (ii) depth of water on flooded land; (iii) the flood wave duration; (iv) the volume of a flood wave over the threshold value. In this study we derive a model cross-section geometry following the results of primary research based on a 500-year flood inundation extent. We compare two methods of localisation of cross-sections from the point of view of their suitability to the derivation of the most precise inundation outlines. The aim is to specify embankment heights along the river channel that would protect the river valley in the most vulnerable locations under future climatic conditions. We present an experimental design for scenario analysis studies and uncertainty reduction options for future climate projections obtained from the EUROCORDEX project. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the project CHIHE (Climate Change Impact on Hydrological Extremes), carried out in the Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences, funded by Norway Grants (contract No. Pol-Nor/196243/80/2013). The hydro-meteorological observations were provided by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Poland.

  15. Adapting research instruction to support the scholarship of practice: practice-scholar partnerships.

    PubMed

    Crist, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Evidence-based practice (EBP) is crucial to the success of delivering quality occupational therapy services. The skill to engage in the scholarship of practice is central to being able to create evidence specific to one's everyday practice and leads to an emerging role within occupational therapy called the practice-scholar. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the effectiveness of an instructional approach that engaged the scholarship of practice and the functions of a practice-scholar. Occupational therapy graduate students and practitioners collaborated to develop a practice-based study proposal during a traditional experimental research class. The objective was to apply research concepts contextualized within the natural practice context while developing the role of the practice-scholar in designing outcomes studies. As part of an entry-level research course, students (n == 39) and practitioners (n == 14) were grouped into learning teams and discussed two self-assessments to reflect on their self-efficacy perceptions of practice-scholarship research at the beginning and the end of a series of guided sessions to design a research proposal. Postcourse results show that students' perceptions of self-efficacy improved regarding their abilities to participate in practice-scholarship as a result of the learning partnerships. Anecdotal similarities were found for practitioners. As an instructional method, the learning partnership facilitated the development of foundational knowledge and skills related to becoming practice-scholars through increased self-efficacy in using proposal design. This educational approach proactively used the scholarship of practice research to bridge practice and education using a meaningful, partnership-based model for entry-level graduate students and occupational therapy practitioners.

  16. Adapting Project Management Practices to Research-Based Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, P.; Baker, T.; Corbin, B.; Keith, L.; Loerch, L.; Mullenax, C.; Myers, R.; Rhodes, B.; Skytland, N.

    2007-01-01

    From dealing with the inherent uncertainties in outcomes of scientific research to the lack of applicability of current NASA Procedural Requirements guidance documentation, research-based projects present challenges that require unique application of classical project management techniques. If additionally challenged by the creation of a new program transitioning from basic to applied research in a technical environment often unfamiliar with the cost and schedule constraints addressed by project management practices, such projects can find themselves struggling throughout their life cycles. Finally, supplying deliverables to a prime vehicle customer, also in the formative stage, adds further complexity to the development and management of research-based projects. The Biomedical Research and Countermeasures Projects Branch at NASA Johnson Space Center encompasses several diverse applied research-based or research-enabling projects within the newly-formed Human Research Program. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the organizational structure and environment in which these projects operate and how the projects coordinate to address and manage technical requirements. We will identify several of the challenges (cost, technical, schedule, and personnel) encountered by projects across the Branch, present case reports of actions taken and techniques implemented to deal with these challenges, and then close the session with an open forum discussion of remaining challenges and potential mitigations.

  17. Genetic differences in growth and survival of juvenile hatchery and wild steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; McIntyre, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Relative growth and survival of offspring from matings of hatchery and wild Deschutes River (Oregon) summer steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri, were measured to determine if hatchery fish differ genetically from wild fish in traits that can affect the stock–recruitment relationship of wild populations. Sections of four natural streams and a hatchery pond were each stocked with genetically marked (lactate dehydrogenase genotypes) eyed eggs or unfed swim-up fry from each of three matings: hatchery × hatchery (HH), hatchery × wild (HW), and wild × wild (WW). In streams, WW fish had the highest survival and HW fish the highest growth rates when significant differences were found; in the hatchery pond, HH fish had the highest survival and growth rates. The hatchery fish were genetically different from wild fish and when they interbreed with wild fish may reduce the number of smolts produced. Hatchery procedures can be modified to reduce the genetic differences between hatchery and wild fish.

  18. Spokane Tribal Hatchery, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peone, Tim L.

    2003-03-01

    The Spokane Tribal Hatchery (Galbraith Springs) project originated from the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The goal of this project is to aid in the restoration and enhancement of the Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake fisheries adversely affected by the construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam. The objective is to produce kokanee salmon and rainbow trout for release into Lake Roosevelt for maintaining a viable fishery. The goal and objective of this project adheres to the NPPC Resident Fish Substitution Policy and specifically to the biological objectives addressed in the NPPC Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to mitigate for hydropower related fish losses in the blocked area above Chief Joseph/Grand Coulee Dams.

  19. Modeling Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff in Adaptive System for Practicing Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nižnan, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    Estimation is useful in situations where an exact answer is not as important as a quick answer that is good enough. A web-based adaptive system for practicing estimates is currently being developed. We propose a simple model for estimating student's latent skill of estimation. This model combines a continuous measure of correctness and response…

  20. Adaptation of Social Interaction Practices for the Preschool Years into Turkish: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samur, Ayse Ozturk; Soydan, Sema

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to adapt SIPPY (social interaction practices for the preschool years) scale into Turkish. The SIPPY is a tool designed to assess teachers' judgments of the acceptability and feasibility, as well as their current use of literature-supported strategies for promoting the development of young children's social competence in…

  1. ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION, PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR EXCEPTIONAL STUDENTS. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DANIELS, ARTHUR S.; DAVIES, EVELYN A.

    THIS BOOK HAS THREE PURPOSES--(1) TO SHOW HOW PHYSICAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES MAY BE ADAPTED FOR EXCEPTIONAL STUDENTS AT ALL LEVELS OF SCHOOL, (2) TO SERVE AS A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION PERSONNEL WHO WISH TO WORK FOR FULL DEVELOPMENT OF EACH STUDENT, AND (3) TO SERVE AS A TEXT FOR STUDENTS IN TRAINING, TEACHERS, AND THERAPISTS. PART ONE…

  2. Monitoring and evaluation plan for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, C.R.

    1996-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has proposed to build and operate the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in the Clearwater River subbasin of Idaho for the purpose of restoring self-sustaining populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook salmon to their native habitats. The project comprises a combination of incubation and rearing facilities, satellite rearing facilities, juvenile and adult collection sites, and associated production and harvest management activities. As currently conceived, the NPTH program will produce approximately 768,000 spring chinook parr, 800,000 summer chinook fry, and 2,000,000 fall chinook fry on an annual basis. Hatchery fish would be spawned, reared, and released under conditions that promote wild-type characteristics, minimize genetic changes in both hatchery and wild chinook populations, and minimize undesirable ecological interactions. The primary objective is to enable hatchery-produced fish to return to reproduce naturally in the streams in which they are released. These and other characteristics of the project are described in further detail in the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan, the 1995 Supplement to the Master Plan, and the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program Environmental Impact Statement. The report in hand is referred to in project literature as the NPTH Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Plan. This report describes monitoring and evaluation activities that will help NPTH managers determine whether they were successful in restoring chinook salmon populations and avoiding adverse ecological impacts.

  3. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2009-08-18

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia River Basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: The ratio of jack to adult male Chinook salmon were varied in experimental breeding populations to test the hypothesis that reproductive success of the two male phenotypes would vary with their relative frequency in the population. Adult Chinook salmon males nearly always obtained primary access to nesting females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Observed participation in spawning events and adult-to-fry reproductive success of jack and adult males was consistent with a negative frequency-dependent selection model. Overall, jack males sired an average of 21% of the offspring produced across a range of jack male frequencies. Implications of these and additional findings on Chinook salmon hatchery broodstock management will be presented in the FY 2009 Annual Report. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. Expression levels of basic amino acid receptor (BAAR) mRNA in the olfactory epithelium

  4. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, S.L.; Pearsons, T.N.; Knudsen, C.M.

    2005-05-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that adult salmon produced by artificial culture are not as reproductively successful as wild fish when they spawn under natural conditions. Behavioral, morphological, and physiological divergences have been observed between hatchery and wild fish. These disparities are the likely proximate causes of the differences seen in the reproductive success of hatchery and wild salmonids. Two evolutionary paradigms have been proposed to explain why salmonids cultured in hatcheries are genetically and phenotypically different from wild cohorts. The first proposes that natural selection has been significantly relaxed in hatcheries. Consequently, fish that normally would have perished because of the possession of unsuitable traits are able to survive. If these traits have a genetic basis, they may become established in a hatchery population and cause its productivity to be less than expected if the fish are once again exposed to natural selection pressures. The second theorizes that environmental and social conditions in hatcheries are less variable than in the natural environment and that these conditions will remain relatively constant from one generation to the next. In this circumstance, selection for genetic traits that adapt fish to artificial culture will become prevalent in the population. Such traits may be mal-adaptive under natural conditions. Many of the studies that have compared the reproductive success (RS) of hatchery and wild fish, however, have used non-local hatchery fish that have experienced multiple generations of hatchery culture. Few efforts have been made where both the hatchery and wild fish have originated from the same population. When such studies have been performed differences in the competency of the fish to produce offspring have not been detected or are not as great as those expressed when non-local hatchery fish have been used. The hatchery spring Chinook produced by the Yakima Fisheries Project

  5. Analytical verification of waterborne chemical treatment regimens in hatchery raceways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Ramsay, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical therapy for control and prevention of fish diseases is a necessary and common practice in aquaculture. Many factors affect the accuracy of a chemical treatment application, such as the functioning of the chemical delivery system, calculation of chemical quantities to be delivered, water temperature, geometry of the culture unit, inlet-outlet structure, the influence of aerators, wind movement, and measurement of water volumes and flow rates. Three separate trials were conducted at the Osceola Fish Hatchery, a facility of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, evaluating the accuracy of flow-through hydrogen peroxide treatments applied to 1, 3, or 9 raceways that were connected in series. Raceways were treated with 50 or 75 ??L/L of hydrogen peroxide for 30 min. Chemical concentrations were determined titrimetrically. The target treatment regimen was not realized in any of the applications. Chemical concentrations dropped and exposure times increased with each additional raceway treated in series. Single introduction of a therapeutant to more than three raceways in series is not recommended. Factors that interfered with the accuracy of the treatments were culture unit configuration, aeration, and flow rates. Several treatment modifications were identified that would result in more accurate chemical treatments.

  6. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Dan

    2009-04-16

    The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations for

  7. Evaluation of the Reproductive Success of Wild and Hatchery Steelhead in Hatchery and Natural and Hatchery Environments : Annual Report for 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Thomas P.; Seamons, todd; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry

    2008-12-05

    This report summarizes the field, laboratory, and analytical work from December 2007 through November 2008 on a research project that investigates interactions and comparative reproductive success of wild and hatchery origin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout in Forks Creek, a tributary of the Willapa River in southwest Washington. First, we continued to successfully sample hatchery and wild (i.e., naturally spawned) adult and wild smolt steelhead at Forks Creek. Second, we revealed microsatellite genotype data for adults and smolts through brood year 2008. Finally, four formal scientific manuscripts were published in 2008 and two are in press, one is in revision and two are in preparations.

  8. Study of Disease and Physiology in the 1979 Homing Study Hatchery Stocks: A Supplement to "Imprinting Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing", 1979 by Slatick, Gilbreath, and Walch.

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Anthony J.; Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1981-09-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration, is conducting research on imprinting salmon and steelhead for homing (Slatick et al. 1979, 1980; Novotny and Zaugg 1979). The studies were begun with little background knowledge of the effects of disease or certain physiological functions on imprinting and homing in salmonids. Consequently, work aimed at filling this void was begun by the authors in 1978 (Novotny and Zaugg 1979) and continued in 1979. In 1979, we examined random samples of normal populations of homing test fish at the hatcheries to determine the physiological readiness to migrate and adapt to seawater and general fish health. At the Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington, we determined the survival of samples of the test fish maintained in marine net-pens after release from the hatcheries. Hatcheries and stocks sampled are listed in Table 1.

  9. Practice explains abolished behavioural adaptation after human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lesions.

    PubMed

    van Steenbergen, H; Haasnoot, E; Bocanegra, B R; Berretty, E W; Hommel, B

    2015-04-08

    The role of mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), also referred to as dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, in regulating cognitive control is a topic of primary importance in cognitive neuroscience. Although many studies have shown that MCC responds to cognitive demands, lesion studies in humans are inconclusive concerning the causal role of the MCC in the adaptation to these demands. By elegantly combining single-cell recordings with behavioural methods, Sheth et al. [Sheth, S. et al. Human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex neurons mediate ongoing behavioural adaptation. Nature 488, 218-22 (2012).] recently were able to show that neurons in MCC encode cognitive demand. Importantly, this study also claimed that focal lesions of the MCC abolished behavioural adaptation to cognitive demands. Here we show that the absence of post-cingulotomy behavioural adaptation reported in this study may have been due to practice effects. We run a control condition where we tested subjects before and after a dummy treatment, which substituted cingulotomy with a filler task (presentation of a documentary). The results revealed abolished behavioural adaptation following the dummy treatment. Our findings suggest that future work using proper experimental designs is needed to advance the understanding of the causal role of the MCC in behavioural adaptation.

  10. Adapting evidence-based practices for persons with mental illness involved with the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Osher, Fred C; Steadman, Henry J

    2007-11-01

    The overrepresentation of persons with mental illnesses in the criminal justice system is well documented. As more communities attempt to offer appropriate evidence-based practices in diversion and reentry programs, a major issue that has become apparent is that adaptations to the standard practices are often required because of the legal predicaments faced by clients. The associated question is how extensive can adaptations be before fidelity to the proven practice is compromised. To better understand these pressing issues, the National GAINS Center for Evidence-Based Programs in the Justice System held a series of six meetings focused on evidence-based practices (assertive community treatment, housing, trauma interventions, supported employment, illness self-management and recovery, and integrated treatment) and their applicability for persons involved in the criminal justice system. This Open Forum integrates the results of those meetings and proposes future steps to establish relevant evidence-based practices that can influence both behavioral health and public safety outcomes for persons involved with the criminal justice system.

  11. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Focher, Shannon M.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Hayes, Michael C.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Hatchery for the period November 1, 1995 to October 31, 1996. Studies at Umatilla Hatchery are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in Michigan raceways. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at Umatilla Hatchery and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program is intensively monitored and evaluated as part of the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring are mandatory and have become the responsibility of the fish health staff conducting the studies at Umatilla Hatchery. Additional studies include evaluations of sport fisheries in the Umatilla River and mass marking and straying of fall chinook salmon. Juvenile rearing experiments have been completed for subyearling fall chinook salmon reared in Michigan and Oregon raceways. Although preliminary adult return data has been recovered, the most data on post-release survival is incomplete. Conclusions in this report should be viewed as preliminary and used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available.

  12. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Idaho Department of Fish and Game Hatcheries, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighting 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs., 25 figs.

  13. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs, 25 figs.

  14. An elegant application of appropriate technology: the Sheep Creek Hatchery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Lewis F.; Macaulay, Ladd; Coffey, Catherine M.

    1986-01-01

    Alaska's program for rebuilding salmon stock is called fishery enhancement. Hatchery technology can produce dramatic increases in numbers of fish homing to selected streams. The Sheep Creek Hatchery is unusually efficient— it increases a fish run by a factor of 3000 and produces salmon at 9 11c/kg by minimizing mechanical energy inputs and human labor. The design harnesses the force of gravity and capitalizes on instinctual behavior of the fish. Since migratory fish collect protein from ocean “pasturage,” the technology increases the share of this resource collected and concentrated for harvest in a specific country or region. While small seaside hatcheries can solve biological problems of depleted fish stocks, economic and political considerations may preclude efficient utilization of the protein produced. Further, the potential for one state or country to concentrate fish near its shores poses new dilemmas for international regulation of harvests.

  15. Environmental Assessment on Construction of the Cabinet Gorge Kokanee Hatchery.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration, the Washington Water Power Company, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game plan to enter into a cooperative cost-sharing agreement for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a kokanee hatchery in northern Idaho. The proposed hatchery shall supplement mitigation of adverse federal and non-federal hydroelectric and nonhydroelectric impacts. Hydroelectric impacts were primarily degradation of the Lake Pend Oreille shoreline kokanee habitat and blockage of migrating Clark Fork River kokanee. The introduction and establishment of Mysis relicta, the opossum shrimp, created further adverse effects on the kokanee fishery. The proposed hatchery will produce 20 million advanced-stage kokanee fry which will restore the Lake Pend Oreille kokanee fishery level to 744,000 harvestable adults after the first 5 years of operation. 6 references, 4 figures.

  16. Willamette Hatchery Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Annual Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.D.; Ewing, S.K.; Sheahan, J.E.

    1993-11-01

    Hydropower development and operations in the Columbia River basin have caused the loss of 5 million to 11 million salmonids. An interim goal of the Northwest Power Planning Council is to reestablish these historical numbers by doubling the present adult runs from 2.5 million to 5.0 million fish. This increase in production will be accomplished through comprehensive management of both wild and hatchery fish, but artificial propagation will play a major role in the augmentation process. The current husbandry techniques in existing hatcheries require improvements that may include changes in rearing densities, addition of oxygen, removal of excess nitrogen, and improvement in raceway design. Emphasis will be placed on the ability to increase the number of fish released from hatcheries that survive to return as adults.

  17. Intervention Mapping to Adapt Evidence-Based Interventions for Use in Practice: Increasing Mammography among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Highfield, Linda; Hartman, Marieke A.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Rodriguez, Serena A.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the systematic planning process, Intervention Mapping, to adapt an evidence-based public health intervention (EBI). We used a simplified version of Intervention Mapping (IM Adapt) to increase an intervention's fit with a new setting and population. IM Adapt guides researchers and practitioners in selecting an EBI, making decisions about whether and what to adapt, and executing the adaptation while guarding the EBI's essential elements (those responsible for effectiveness). We present a case study of a project in which we used IM Adapt to find, adapt, implement, and evaluate an EBI to improve mammography adherence for African American women in a new practice setting in Houston, Texas. IM Adapt includes the following (1) assess needs and organizational capacity; (2) find EBIs; (3) plan adaptations based on fit assessments; (4) make adaptations; (5) plan for implementation; and (6) plan for evaluation of the adapted EBI. The case study shows an example of how public health researchers and practitioners can use the tool to make it easier to find and use EBIs, thus encouraging greater uptake. IM Adapt adds to existing dissemination and adaptation models by providing detailed guidance on how to decide on effective adaptation, while maintaining the essential elements of the EBI. PMID:26587531

  18. Management of bacterial kidney disease in Chinook Salmon hatcheries based on broodstock testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: A multiyear study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, A. Douglas; Elliott, Diane G.; Johnson, Keith

    2010-01-01

    From the mid-1980s through the early 1990s, outbreaks of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum continued in Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) hatcheries despite the use of three control methods: (1) injection of returning adult fish with erythromycin to reduce prespawning BKD mortality and limit vertical transmission of R. salmoninarum, (2) topical disinfection of green eggs with iodophor, and (3) prophylactic treatments of juvenile fish with erythromycin-medicated feed. In addition, programs to manage BKD through measurement of R. salmoninarum antigen levels in kidney tissues from spawning female Chinook salmon by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were tested over 13–15 brood years at three IDFG hatcheries. The ELISA results were used for either (1) segregated rearing of progeny from females with high ELISA optical density (OD) values (usually ≥0.25), which are indicative of high R. salmoninarum antigen levels, or (2) culling of eggs from females with high ELISA OD values. The ELISA-based culling program had the most profound positive effects on the study populations. Mortality of juvenile fish during rearing was significantly lower at each hatchery for brood years derived from culling compared with brood years for which culling was not practiced. The prevalence of R. salmoninarum in juvenile fish, as evidenced by detection of the bacterium in kidney smears by the direct fluorescent antibody test, also decreased significantly at each hatchery. In addition, the proportions of returning adult females with kidney ELISA OD values of 0.25 or more decreased 56–85% for fish reared in brood years during which culling was practiced, whereas the proportions of ELISA-negative adults increased 55–58%. This management strategy may allow IDFG Chinook salmon hatcheries to reduce or eliminate prophylactic erythromycin-medicated feed treatments. We recommend using ELISA

  19. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  20. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  1. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  2. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  3. Modeling the influence of climate change on watershed systems: Adaptation through targeted practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudula, John; Randhir, Timothy O.

    2016-10-01

    Climate change may influence hydrologic processes of watersheds (IPCC, 2013) and increased runoff may cause flooding, eroded stream banks, widening of stream channels, increased pollutant loading, and consequently impairment of aquatic life. The goal of this study was to quantify the potential impacts of climate change on watershed hydrologic processes and to evaluate scale and effectiveness of management practices for adaptation. We simulate baseline watershed conditions using the Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) simulation model to examine the possible effects of changing climate on watershed processes. We also simulate the effects of adaptation and mitigation through specific best management strategies for various climatic scenarios. With continuing low-flow conditions and vulnerability to climate change, the Ipswich watershed is the focus of this study. We quantify fluxes in runoff, evapotranspiration, infiltration, sediment load, and nutrient concentrations under baseline and climate change scenarios (near and far future). We model adaptation options for mitigating climate effects on watershed processes using bioretention/raingarden Best Management Practices (BMPs). It was observed that climate change has a significant impact on watershed runoff and carefully designed and maintained BMPs at subwatershed scale can be effective in mitigating some of the problems related to stormwater runoff. Policy options include implementation of BMPs through education and incentives for scale-dependent and site specific bioretention units/raingardens to increase the resilience of the watershed system to current and future climate change.

  4. Towards an integrated agenda for adaptation research: theory, practice, and policy: Strategy paper

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Patwardhan, Anand; Downing, Tom; Leary, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to the adverse impacts of climate change has been recognized as a priority area for national and international policy. The findings of the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC have reemphasized the urgency of action and the scale of response needed to cope with climate change outcomes. The scientific community has an important role to play in advancing the information and knowledge base that would help in identifying, developing and implementing effective responses to enhance adaptive capacity and reduce vulnerability. This paper examines the way in which science and research could advance the adaptation agenda. To do so, we pose a number of questions aimed at identifying the knowledge gaps and research needs. We argue that in order to address these science and research needs, an integrated approach is necessary, one that combines new knowledge with new approaches for knowledge generation, and where research and practice co-evolve; and that such a learning-by-doing approach is essential to rapidly scale up and implement concrete adaptation actions.

  5. European edition of the NCCN clinical practice guidelines: relevance of the translation and adaptation into Spanish.

    PubMed

    Guillem, V; Camps, C; Carrato, A; Díaz-Rubio, E; Gascón, P

    2017-03-01

    The NCCN-evidence-based oncology guidelines are consensus-based management documents, to ensure that all patients receive the most appropriate diagnosis, treatment and support services to achieve the best results. However, the use of these guidelines for decision-making by physicians in Spain is sometimes controversial, as treatments or diagnostic procedures are recommended which might not be authorised in our country, or other management options may exist. In March 2015, the ECO Foundation reached an agreement to translate and adapt the NCCN's clinical practice guidelines in oncology for the Spanish sector. Consequently, ECO is the first European organization to reach an agreement of this type with the NCCN. This agreement will allow all agents involved in managing the cancer patients to have available guidelines that are adapted to the specific needs of Spain.

  6. A model of professional development for practicing genetic counselors: adaptation of communication skills training in oncology.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Kate L; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Butow, Phyllis; Heinrich, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Ongoing professional development for practicing genetic counselors is critical in maintaining best practice. Communication skills training (CST) workshops for doctors in oncology, utilizing trained actors in role plays, have been implemented for many years to improve patient-centred communication. This model was adapted to provide professional development in counseling skills for practicing genetic counselors, already highly trained in counseling skills. Detailed evidence based scenarios were developed. Evaluation of participants' experience and perceived outcomes on practice included surveys immediately post workshops (2002, 2004, 2005, 2008 (×2); n = 88/97), 2-5 years later (2007; n = 21/38) and a focus group (2007; n = 7). All rated workshops as effective training. Aspects highly valued included facilitator feedback, actors rather than role-playing with peers and being able to stop and try doing things differently. Perceived outcomes included the opportunity to reflect on practice; bring focus to communication; motivation and confidence. The high level of satisfaction is a strong endorsement for ongoing communication skills training in this format as part of professional development.

  7. Adaptation Guidance for Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy and STI/HIV Prevention Curricula: From Development to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolleri, Lori A.; Fuller, Taleria R.; Firpo-Triplett, Regina; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Moore, Claire; Leeks, Kimberly D.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are effective in preventing adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections; however, prevention practitioners are challenged when selecting and adapting the most appropriate programs. While there are existing adaptation frameworks, there is little practical guidance in applying research in the field.…

  8. Genetic characterization of hatchery populations of Korean spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    An, H S; Kim, H Y; Kim, J B; Chang, D S; Park, K D; Lee, J W; Myeong, J I; An, C M

    2014-08-28

    The spotted sea bass, Lateolabrax maculatus, is an important commercial and recreational fishery resource in Korea. Aquacultural production of this species has increased because of recent resource declines, growing consumption, and ongoing government-operated stock release programs. Therefore, the genetic characterization of hatchery populations is necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this species and to develop more effective aquaculture practices. In this study, the genetic diversity and structure of three cultured populations in Korea were assessed using multiplex assays with 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci; 144 alleles were identified. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 28, with an average of 13.1. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.724 and 0.753, respectively. Low levels of inbreeding were detected according to the inbreeding coefficient (mean FIS = 0.003-0.073). All hatchery populations were significantly differentiated from each other (overall fixation index (FST) = 0.027, P < 0.01), and no population formed a separate cluster. Pairwise multilocus FST tests, estimates of genetic distance, mantel test, and principal component analyses did not show a consistent relationship between geographic and genetic distances. These results could reflect the exchange of breeds and eggs between hatcheries and/or genetic drift due to intensive breeding practices. For optimal resource management, the genetic variation of hatchery stocks should be monitored and inbreeding controlled within the spotted sea bass stocks that are being released every year. This genetic information will be useful for the management of both L. maculatus fisheries and the aquaculture industry.

  9. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  10. Fitness of hatchery-reared salmonids in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Hitoshi; Berejikian, Barry A; Ford, Michael J; Blouin, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating data indicate that hatchery fish have lower fitness in natural environments than wild fish. This fitness decline can occur very quickly, sometimes following only one or two generations of captive rearing. In this review, we summarize existing data on the fitness of hatchery fish in the wild, and we investigate the conditions under which rapid fitness declines can occur. The summary of studies to date suggests: nonlocal hatchery stocks consistently reproduce very poorly in the wild; hatchery stocks that use wild, local fish for captive propagation generally perform better than nonlocal stocks, but often worse than wild fish. However, the data above are from a limited number of studies and species, and more studies are needed before one can generalize further. We used a simple quantitative genetic model to evaluate whether domestication selection is a sufficient explanation for some observed rapid fitness declines. We show that if selection acts on a single trait, such rapid effects can be explained only when selection is very strong, both in captivity and in the wild, and when the heritability of the trait under selection is high. If selection acts on multiple traits throughout the life cycle, rapid fitness declines are plausible. PMID:25567636

  11. 9 CFR 145.6 - Specific provisions for participating hatcheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... combination represented. (d) Eggs incubated should be sound in shell, typical for the breed, variety, strain... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific provisions for participating hatcheries. 145.6 Section 145.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  12. 9 CFR 145.6 - Specific provisions for participating hatcheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... combination represented. (d) Eggs incubated should be sound in shell, typical for the breed, variety, strain... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specific provisions for participating hatcheries. 145.6 Section 145.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  13. 9 CFR 145.6 - Specific provisions for participating hatcheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... combination represented. (d) Eggs incubated should be sound in shell, typical for the breed, variety, strain... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific provisions for participating hatcheries. 145.6 Section 145.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  14. 9 CFR 145.6 - Specific provisions for participating hatcheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... combination represented. (d) Eggs incubated should be sound in shell, typical for the breed, variety, strain... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specific provisions for participating hatcheries. 145.6 Section 145.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 145.6 - Specific provisions for participating hatcheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... combination represented. (d) Eggs incubated should be sound in shell, typical for the breed, variety, strain... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific provisions for participating hatcheries. 145.6 Section 145.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  16. Evaluation of Zooplankton in Hatchery Diets for Channel Catfish Fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of zooplankton as a supplemental hatchery diet for fry of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated. When a commercial diet is used as a reference, fry fed exclusively on zooplankton–either live or dried–performed poorly in their growth rate. However, when live or dried zooplan...

  17. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2009-04-08

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia river basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: Adult and jack Chinook salmon males were stocked into four replicate spawning channels at a constant density (N = 16 per breeding group), but different ratios, and were left to spawn naturally with a fixed number of females (N = 6 per breeding group). Adult males obtained primary access to females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Spawning participation by jack and adult males is consistent with a negative frequency dependent selection model, which means that selection during spawning favors the rarer life history form. Results of DNA parentage assignments will be analyzed to estimate adult-to-fry fitness of each male. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. The results suggest that sockeye salmon are capable of imprinting to homing cues during the developmental periods that correspond to several of current release strategies employed as part of the Captive Broodstock program (specifically

  18. Computer Adaptive Practice of Maths Ability Using a New Item Response Model for on the Fly Ability and Difficulty Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinkenberg, S.; Straatemeier, M.; van der Maas, H. L. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a model for computerized adaptive practice and monitoring. This model is used in the Maths Garden, a web-based monitoring system, which includes a challenging web environment for children to practice arithmetic. Using a new item response model based on the Elo (1978) rating system and an explicit scoring rule, estimates of…

  19. Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Disaster Risk Reduction in Urban Contexts: Perceptions and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the perceptions of disaster risk reduction (DRR) practitioners concerning the on-going integration of climate change adaptation (CCA) into their practices in urban contexts in Nicaragua. Understanding their perceptions is important as this will provide information on how this integration can be improved. Exploring the perceptions of practitioners in Nicaragua is important as the country has a long history of disasters, and practitioners have been developing the current DRR planning framework for more than a decade. The analysis is based on semi-structured interviews designed to collect information about practitioners’ understanding of: (a) CCA, (b) the current level of integration of CCA into DRR and urban planning, (c) the opportunities and constraints of this integration, and (d) the potential to adapt cities to climate change. The results revealed that practitioners’ perception is that the integration of CCA into their practice is at an early stage, and that they need to improve their understanding of CCA in terms of a development issue. Three main constraints on improved integration were identified: (a) a recognized lack of understanding of CCA, (b) insufficient guidance on how to integrate it, and (c) the limited opportunities to integrate it into urban planning due to a lack of instruments and capacity in this field. Three opportunities were also identified: (a) practitioners’ awareness of the need to integrate CCA into their practices, (b) the robust structure of the DRR planning framework in the country, which provides a suitable channel for facilitating integration, and (c) the fact that CCA is receiving more attention and financial and technical support from the international community. PMID:24475365

  20. Adaptation of farming practices could buffer effects of climate change on northern prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voldseth, R.A.; Johnson, W.C.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Gilmanov, T.; Millett, B.V.

    2009-01-01

    Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are vulnerable to climate change. Adaptation of farming practices to mitigate adverse impacts of climate change on wetland water levels is a potential watershed management option. We chose a modeling approach (WETSIM 3.2) to examine the effects of changes in climate and watershed cover on the water levels of a semi-permanent wetland in eastern South Dakota. Land-use practices simulated were unmanaged grassland, grassland managed with moderately heavy grazing, and cultivated crops. Climate scenarios were developed by adjusting the historical climate in combinations of 2??C and 4??C air temperature and ??10% precipitation. For these climate change scenarios, simulations of land use that produced water levels equal to or greater than unmanaged grassland under historical climate were judged to have mitigative potential against a drier climate. Water levels in wetlands surrounded by managed grasslands were significantly greater than those surrounded by unmanaged grassland. Management reduced both the proportion of years the wetland went dry and the frequency of dry periods, producing the most dynamic vegetation cycle for this modeled wetland. Both cultivated crops and managed grassland achieved water levels that were equal or greater than unmanaged grassland under historical climate for the 2??C rise in air temperature, and the 2??C rise plus 10% increase in precipitation scenarios. Managed grassland also produced water levels that were equal or greater than unmanaged grassland under historical climate for the 4??C rise plus 10% increase in precipitation scenario. Although these modeling results stand as hypotheses, they indicate that amelioration potential exists for a change in climate up to an increase of 2??C or 4??C with a concomitant 10% increase in precipitation. Few empirical data exist to verify the results of such land-use simulations; however, adaptation of farming practices is one possible mitigation

  1. The experiences and adaptations of abortion providers practicing under a new TRAP law: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Rebecca J.; Buchbinder, Mara; Bryant, Amy; Britton, Laura

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Abortion laws are proliferating in the United States, but little is known about their impact on abortion providers. In 2011, North Carolina instituted the Woman’s Right to Know (WRTK) Act, which mandates a 24-hour waiting period and counseling with state-prescribed information prior to abortion. We performed a qualitative study to explore the experiences of abortion providers practicing under this law. STUDY DESIGN We conducted semi-structured interviews with 31 abortion providers (17 physicians, 9 nurses, 1 physician assistant, 1 counselor, and 3 clinic administrators) in North Carolina. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. We identified emergent themes, coded all transcripts, and developed a thematic framework. RESULTS Two major themes define provider experiences with the WRTK law: provider objections / challenges and provider adaptations. Most providers described the law in negative terms, though providers varied in the extent to which they were affected. Many providers described extensive alterations in clinic practices to balance compliance with minimization of burdens for patients. Providers indicated that biased language and inappropriate content in counseling can negatively impact the patient-physician relationship by interfering with trust and rapport. Most providers developed verbal strategies to mitigate the emotional impacts for patients. CONCLUSIONS Abortion providers in North Carolina perceive WRTK to have a negative impact on their clinical practice. Compliance is burdensome, and providers perceive potential harm to patients. The overall impact of WRTK is shaped by interaction between the requirements of the law and the adaptations providers make in order to comply with the law while continuing to provide comprehensive abortion care. PMID:25746295

  2. [European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. Spanish adaptation of the CEIPC 2008].

    PubMed

    Lobos, J M; Royo-Bordonada, M A; Brotons, C; Alvarez-Sala, L; Armario, P; Maiques, A; Mauricio, D; Sans, S; Villar, F; Lizcano, A; Gil-Núñez, A; de Alvaro, F; Conthe, P; Luengo, E; del Río, A; Rico, O; de Santiago, A; Vargas, M A; Martíonez, M; Lizarbe, V

    2009-09-01

    We present the Spanish adaptation made by the CEIPC of the European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention (CVD) in Clinical Practice 2008. This guide recommends the SCORE model for risk evaluation. The aim is to prevent premature mortality and morbidity due to CVD through the management of its related risk factors in clinical practice. The guide focuses on primary prevention and emphasizes the role of the nurses and primary care medical doctors in promoting a healthy life style, based on increasing physical activity, change dietary habits, and non smoking. The therapeutic goal is to achieve a Blood Pressure < 140/90 mmHg, but among patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or definite CVD, the objective is <130/80 mmHg. Serum cholesterol should be < 200 mg/dl and cLDL<130 mg/dl, although among patients with CVD or diabetes, the objective is <100 mg/dl (80 mg/dl if feasible in very high-risk patients). Patients with type 2 diabetes and those with metabolic syndrome must lose weight and increase their physical activity, and drugs must be administered whenever applicable, to reach body mass index (BMI) guided and waist circumference objectives. In diabetic type 2 patients, the objective is glycated haemoglobin <7%. Allowing people to know the guides and developing implementation programs, identifying barriers and seeking solutions for them, are priorities for the CEIPC in order to transfer the recommendations established into the daily clinical practice.

  3. Broodstock History Strongly Influences Natural Spawning Success in Hatchery Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Ford, Michael J; Murdoch, Andrew R; Hughes, Michael S; Seamons, Todd R; LaHood, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    We used genetic parentage analysis of 6200 potential parents and 5497 juvenile offspring to evaluate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and natural steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss) when spawning in the wild between 2008 and 2011 in the Wenatchee River, Washington. Hatchery fish originating from two prior generation hatchery parents had <20% of the reproductive success of natural origin spawners. In contrast, hatchery females originating from a cross between two natural origin parents of the prior generation had equivalent or better reproductive success than natural origin females. Males originating from such a cross had reproductive success of 26-93% that of natural males. The reproductive success of hatchery females and males from crosses consisting of one natural origin fish and one hatchery origin fish was 24-54% that of natural fish. The strong influence of hatchery broodstock origin on reproductive success confirms similar results from a previous study of a different population of the same species and suggests a genetic basis for the low reproductive success of hatchery steelhead, although environmental factors cannot be entirely ruled out. In addition to broodstock origin, fish size, return time, age, and spawning location were significant predictors of reproductive success. Our results indicate that incorporating natural fish into hatchery broodstock is clearly beneficial for improving subsequent natural spawning success, even in a population that has a decades-long history of hatchery releases, as is the case in the Wenatchee River.

  4. Broodstock History Strongly Influences Natural Spawning Success in Hatchery Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Andrew R.; Hughes, Michael S.; Seamons, Todd R.; LaHood, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    We used genetic parentage analysis of 6200 potential parents and 5497 juvenile offspring to evaluate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and natural steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss) when spawning in the wild between 2008 and 2011 in the Wenatchee River, Washington. Hatchery fish originating from two prior generation hatchery parents had <20% of the reproductive success of natural origin spawners. In contrast, hatchery females originating from a cross between two natural origin parents of the prior generation had equivalent or better reproductive success than natural origin females. Males originating from such a cross had reproductive success of 26–93% that of natural males. The reproductive success of hatchery females and males from crosses consisting of one natural origin fish and one hatchery origin fish was 24–54% that of natural fish. The strong influence of hatchery broodstock origin on reproductive success confirms similar results from a previous study of a different population of the same species and suggests a genetic basis for the low reproductive success of hatchery steelhead, although environmental factors cannot be entirely ruled out. In addition to broodstock origin, fish size, return time, age, and spawning location were significant predictors of reproductive success. Our results indicate that incorporating natural fish into hatchery broodstock is clearly beneficial for improving subsequent natural spawning success, even in a population that has a decades-long history of hatchery releases, as is the case in the Wenatchee River. PMID:27737000

  5. Do stocked hatchery-reared juveniles ecologically suppress wild juveniles in Salvelinus leucomaenis?

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Doi, T

    2014-05-01

    The dominancy of semi-wild and hatchery-reared white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles was evaluated using pair-wise enclosure tests and field stocking tests. The semi-wild S. leucomaenis originated in a hatchery, being stocked into the test stream as eyed-eggs. In the pair-wise enclosure test, the semi-wild S. leucomaenis dominated the hatchery S. leucomaenis that were of a similar standard length (L(S) ). The semi-wild S. leucomaenis were subordinate to hatchery S. leucomaenis that were > 11% larger in LS . In the field stocking test, the abundance and growth of semi-wild S. leucomaenis was decreased in the presence of larger hatchery S. leucomaenis (14% larger LS ). Taken together, these results suggest that larger hatchery S. leucomaenis ecologically suppress the smaller semi-wild S. leucomaenis. Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles that are stocked with the intention of supplementing natural populations should be < 10% larger than their wild counterparts at the time of stocking to minimize their competitive advantage. The semi-wild and hatchery S. leucomaenis used in both tests were genetically similar individuals, suggesting that the differences are due to the early rearing environment of either a natural stream or hatchery. The hatchery S. leucomaenis have lower levels of aggression as a result of selection in the hatchery rearing environment. Rearing in a natural stream from the eyed-egg stage is likely to increase their lowered aggression.

  6. PEPA-1* genotype affects return rate for hatchery steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Hayes, M.C.; Rubin, S.P.; Wetzel, L.A.; Baker, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Allozymes continue to be useful as genetic markers in a variety of studies; however, their utility often hinges on the selective neutrality of the allelic variation. Our study tested for neutrality between the two most common alleles (*100 and *110) at the cytosol nonspecific dipeptidase locus (PEPA-1*) in steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery in Idaho. We tested for differential growth and survival among fish with the * 100/100, *100/ 110, and *110/110 genotypes rearing in a hatchery or a natural stream. We repeated the study for two year-classes, using heterozygous (*100/110) adults to make the experimental crosses. This design avoided differences in family contribution among genotypes because each cross produced all three genotypes. We divided the progeny from each family into two groups. One group was reared in a hatchery for 1 year and then released for migration to the sea and subsequent return to the hatchery as adults. The other group was released into a natural stream and monitored for 3 years. We found no significant differences in size or survival among PEPA-1* genotypes for either the naturally reared fish or the hatchery-reared fish immediately prior to release as smolts. For females, survival to returning adult also was similar among genotypes; however, hatchery-reared males with the *110/110 genotype returned at a higher rate than did males with the *100/ 100 genotype; heterozygous males were intermediate. These results indicate that selection occurs at the PEPA-1* locus or at one or more loci tightly linked to it. The finding of nearly equal frequencies for these two alleles in the source population suggests that selection differentials among genotypes reverse or vary from year to year; otherwise, steady directional selection would drive the *100 allele to low frequencies or extinction. Locus PEPA-1* seems inappropriate for genetic marks in studies of steelhead that span the full life cycle and probably should be avoided

  7. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a devastating impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas were completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, causing the native people who's number one food resource was salmon to rely entirely upon resident fish to replace lost fisheries resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the ''Blocked Area'' above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 as a resident fish substitution measure and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout. To achieve this quota the Colville Tribal Hatchery was scheduled to produce 174,000 fingerling rainbow trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 sub-yearling rainbow trout (15 grams/fish), 80,000 legal size rainbow trout (90 grams/fish), 196,000 fingerling brook trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 subyearling brook trout (15 grams/fish) and 60,000 lahontan cutthroat trout (15 grams/fish) in 2001. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence /recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members as well as a successful non-member sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to provide a ''carry-over'' fishery. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be capable of contributing to the natural production component of the reservation fish populations. Contribution to the natural production component will be achieved by producing and releasing fish of sufficient quality and quantity for fish to survive to spawning maturity, to spawn

  8. 76 FR 70751 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... program, Watersheds work program, TRRP budget update, Hatchery practices review, Fish marking,...

  9. Adaptive practices in heart failure care teams: implications for patient-centered care in the context of complexity

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Glendon R; Bates, Joanna; LaDonna, Kori A; Schulz, Valerie N; Strachan, Patricia H; McDougall, Allan; Lingard, Lorelei

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF), one of the three leading causes of death, is a chronic, progressive, incurable disease. There is growing support for integration of palliative care’s holistic approach to suffering, but insufficient understanding of how this would happen in the complex team context of HF care. This study examined how HF care teams, as defined by patients, work together to provide care to patients with advanced disease. Methods Team members were identified by each participating patient, generating team sampling units (TSUs) for each patient. Drawn from five study sites in three Canadian provinces, our dataset consists of 209 interviews from 50 TSUs. Drawing on a theoretical framing of HF teams as complex adaptive systems (CAS), interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method associated with constructivist grounded theory. Results This paper centers on the dominant theme of system practices, how HF care delivery is reported to work organizationally, socially, and practically, and describes two subthemes: “the way things work around here”, which were commonplace, routine ways of doing things, and “the way we make things work around here”, which were more conscious, effortful adaptations to usual practice in response to emergent needs. An adaptive practice, often a small alteration to routine, could have amplified effects beyond those intended by the innovating team member and could extend to other settings. Conclusion Adaptive practices emerged unpredictably and were variably experienced by team members. Our study offers an empirically grounded explanation of how HF care teams self-organize and how adaptive practices emerge from nonlinear interdependencies among diverse agents. We use these insights to reframe the question of palliative care integration, to ask how best to foster palliative care-aligned adaptive practices in HF care. This work has implications for health care’s growing challenge of providing care to those with

  10. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  11. Removal of excess nitrogen in a hatchery water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, R.R.

    1948-01-01

    The water system at the U. S. Fish Cultural Station, Leavenworth, Washington, has been supplemented with two wells that were to be used to increase the temperature of the water during the winter and to cool the Water in the summer if necessary. The well water proved to be unsuitable for hatchery purposes because it was supersaturated with nitrogen, causing "gas-bubble" disease among fish subjected to 11. Mr. R. E. Burrows, the district biologist at the Leavenworth laboratory, devised a system by which the water from one well could be used satisfactorily in the hatchery after a  circuitous routing through a mixing chamber with considerable agitation and a settling basin. The circuitous routing precluded the use of the rearing ponds, and it did not sufficiently reduce the nitrogen tension of the water from the other well.

  12. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, David B.; Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.

    2001-08-17

    This report consists of activities/events conducted in response to the Objectives and Tasks described in the 1999 contract Statement Of Work for the Planning and Planning and Design (P and D) and Maintenance (O and M) activities of the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH). The report follows the format of the contract for ease in finding accomplishments. Although specific emphasis will be placed on activities related directly to the NPTH, activities from other artificial production related projects might also be noted because of overlap in staff duties and production facilities. Additionally, the project leader's role has evolved as other Tribal fisheries projects have been developed and assigned to the Production Division, Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM), and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT). Thus, implementation of the project leader role for the NPTH actually entails specific duties of the Production Division Director and the Production Division Coordinator, as well as the Hatchery Division Coordinator.

  13. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1999-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, Dale W.; Cameron, William A.; Stonecypher, Jr., R. Wes

    2003-12-01

    REPORT A: UMATILLA HATCHERY MONITORING AND EVALUATION--This report summarizes monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) for 1 November, 1999 to 31 October, 2002. Studies at UFH are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in ''Michigan raceways''. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at UFH and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program are intensively monitored and evaluated along with the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring at UFH are mandatory. An experiment designed to evaluate rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon in Michigan and Oregon raceways has been completed. An evaluation of survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon reared at three densities will be completed with final returns in 2005. Two new evaluations were started during this reporting period. The first is an evaluation of spring chinook survival of groups transferred to Imeques acclimation facility in the fall, overwinter-acclimated and released with the standard acclimated production groups in March. The second is an evaluation of subyearling fall chinook survival and straying of a direct-stream released group in the lower Umatilla River and the standard group acclimated at Thornhollow acclimation facility in the upper Umatilla River. An important aspect of the project is evaluation of the spring chinook and summer steelhead fisheries in the upper and lower Umatilla River. REPORT B: Fish Health Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000 Fiscal Year--The results presented in this report are from the ninth year of Fish Health Monitoring and Evaluation in the Umatilla Hatchery program. Broodstock monitoring for hatchery production was conducted on adult returns to the Umatilla River at

  14. Hatchery workers' IgG antibody profiles to airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Paul; Gromöller, Silvana; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Wilharm, Gottfried; Jäckel, Udo

    2017-04-01

    Occupational exposure to high concentrations of airborne bacteria in poultry production is related to an increased risk of respiratory disorders. However, etiology and in particular microorganisms' potential role in pathogenesis still needs to be elucidated. Thus, detection of specific antibodies against occupational microbial antigens may lead to identification of potentially harmful species. For the purpose of IgG titer determination, indirect immunofluorescence on various bacterial isolates from duck hatchery air was combined with image-based quantification of fluorescence intensity. Moreover, in addition to established assays with pure bacterial cultures, a new approach utilized complex bioaerosol samples for detection of anti-microbial antibodies in human sera by determination of percentages of antibody-bound cells in different serum dilutions. Mean titers in sera from hatchery workers and a non-exposed control group did not display significant differences for most tested isolates and application of comprehensive cluster analysis to entire titer data revealed no structure reflecting workers and controls group. Furthermore, determination of immunoreactivity to the complete microbial community in workplace air displayed similar proportions of antibody-bound cells in both groups. Although no general differences in immunoreaction patterns were observed, mean titers to a Proteus mirabilis isolate and to 3 of 4 distinct Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were higher in the group of hatchery workers than in the reference group indicating a potential applicability as exposure markers. We conclude, despite long term bioaerosol exposure, hatchery workers' IgG antibody profiles to tested antigens did not differ substantially from those of the control group. However, increased workers' titers to A. baumannii and clinical relevance of this species should lead to further investigations regarding potential involvement in pathogenesis of occupational respiratory disorders.

  15. Estimating the hatchery fraction of a natural population: a Bayesian approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Jarrett J.; Gerow, Kenneth G.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Singh, Sarabdeep

    2011-01-01

    There is strong and growing interest in estimating the proportion of hatchery fish that are in a natural population (the hatchery fraction). In a sample of fish from the relevant population, some are observed to be marked, indicating their origin as hatchery fish. The observed proportion of marked fish is usually less than the actual hatchery fraction, since the observed proportion is determined by the proportion originally marked, differential survival (usually lower) of marked fish relative to unmarked hatchery fish, and rates of mark retention and detection. Bayesian methods can work well in a setting such as this, in which empirical data are limited but for which there may be considerable expert judgment regarding these values. We explored a Bayesian estimation of the hatchery fraction using Monte Carlo–Markov chain methods. Based on our findings, we created an interactive Excel tool to implement the algorithm, which we have made available for free.

  16. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Carmichael, Richard W.; French, Rod A.

    1993-03-01

    This report covers the first year of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. As both the hatchery and the evaluation study are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary. The most crucial data for evaluating the success of the hatchery program, the data on post-release performance and survival, is yet unavailable. In addition, several years of data are necessary to make conclusions about rearing performance at Umatilla Hatchery. The conclusions drawn in this report should be viewed as preliminary and should be used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available. A comprehensive fish health monitoring regimen was incorporated into the monitoring and evaluation study for Umatilla Hatchery. This is a unique feature of the Umatilla Hatchery evaluation project.

  17. Adapting evidence-based interventions using a common theory, practices, and principles.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Becker, Kimberly D

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of validated evidence-based intervention programs (EBIP) aim to improve families' well-being; however, most are not broadly adopted. As an alternative diffusion strategy, we created wellness centers to reach families' everyday lives with a prevention framework. At two wellness centers, one in a middle-class neighborhood and one in a low-income neighborhood, popular local activity leaders (instructors of martial arts, yoga, sports, music, dancing, Zumba), and motivated parents were trained to be Family Mentors. Trainings focused on a framework that taught synthesized, foundational prevention science theory, practice elements, and principles, applied to specific content areas (parenting, social skills, and obesity). Family Mentors were then allowed to adapt scripts and activities based on their cultural experiences but were closely monitored and supervised over time. The framework was implemented in a range of activities (summer camps, coaching) aimed at improving social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Successes and challenges are discussed for (a) engaging parents and communities; (b) identifying and training Family Mentors to promote children and families' well-being; and (c) gathering data for supervision, outcome evaluation, and continuous quality improvement. To broadly diffuse prevention to families, far more experimentation is needed with alternative and engaging implementation strategies that are enhanced with knowledge harvested from researchers' past 30 years of experience creating EBIP. One strategy is to train local parents and popular activity leaders in applying robust prevention science theory, common practice elements, and principles of EBIP. More systematic evaluation of such innovations is needed.

  18. Assessing existing drought monitoring and forecasting capacities, mitigation and adaptation practices in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyabeze, W. R.; Dlamini, L.; Lahlou, O.; Imani, Y.; Alaoui, S. B.; Vermooten, J. S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is one of the major natural hazards in many parts of the world, including Africa and some regions in Europe. Drought events have resulted in extensive damages to livelihoods, environment and economy. In 2011, a consortium consisting of 19 organisations from both Africa and Europe started a project (DEWFORA) aimed at developing a framework for the provision of early warning and response through drought impact mitigation for Africa. This framework covers the whole chain from monitoring and vulnerability assessment to forecasting, warning, response and knowledge dissemination. This paper presents the first results of the capacity assessment of drought monitoring and forecasting systems in Africa, the existing institutional frameworks and drought mitigation and adaptation practices. Its focus is particularly on the historical drought mitigation and adaptation actions identified in the North Africa - Maghreb Region (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. This is based on an extensive review of historical drought experiences. From the 1920's to 2009, the study identified 37 drought seasons in the North African - Maghreb Region and 33 drought seasons in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. Existing literature tends to capture the spatial extent of drought at national and administrative scale in great detail. This is driven by the need to map drought impacts (food shortage, communities affected) in order to inform drought relief efforts (short-term drought mitigation measures). However, the mapping of drought at catchment scale (hydrological unit), required for longer-term measures, is not well documented. At regional level, both in North Africa and Southern Africa, two organisations are involved in drought monitoring and forecasting, while at national level 22 organisations are involved in North Africa and 37 in Southern Africa. Regarding drought related mitigation actions, the inventory shows that the most common actions

  19. Fuzzy modeling to predict chicken egg hatchability in commercial hatchery.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, N J; Scala, N L; Macari, M; Furlan, R L; Meyer, A D; Fernandez-Alarcon, M F; Kroetz Neto, F L; Souza, F A

    2012-10-01

    Experimental studies have shown that hatching rate depends, among other factors, on the main physical characteristics of the eggs. The physical parameters used in our work were egg weight, eggshell thickness, egg sphericity, and yolk per albumen ratio. The relationships of these parameters in the incubation process were modeled by Fuzzy logic. The rules of the Fuzzy modeling were based on the analysis of the physical characteristics of the hatching eggs and the respective hatching rate using a commercial hatchery by applying a trapezoidal membership function into the modeling process. The implementations were performed in software. Aiming to compare the Fuzzy with a statistical modeling, the same data obtained in the commercial hatchery were analyzed using multiple linear regression. The estimated parameters of multiple linear regressions were based on a backward selection procedure. The results showed that the determination coefficient and the mean square error were higher using the Fuzzy method when compared with the statistical modeling. Furthermore, the predicted hatchability rates by Fuzzy Logic agreed with hatching rates obtained in the commercial hatchery.

  20. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Conceptual Design Report, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  1. Simulated hatchery system to assess bacteriophage efficacy against Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Raghu Patil, J; Desai, Srividya Narayanamurthy; Roy, Panchali; Durgaiah, Murali; Saravanan, R Sanjeev; Vipra, Aradhana

    2014-12-02

    Vibriosis caused by luminous Vibrio harveyi commonly contributes to poor survival in shrimp hatcheries and aquaculture ponds. Lytic bacteriophages pathogenic for V. harveyi are currently being investigated as an alternative to antibiotics to prevent vibriosis. Here, 8 bacteriophages were isolated from oysters and clams using V. harveyi strains as baiting hosts. Among these bacteriophages, 1 strain (VHP6b) identified as broadly pathogenic for 27 V. harveyi strains examined was further characterized by electron microscopy and genome sequence analysis. Phage VHP6b possessed a tail and morphology consistent with it being a member of the family Siphoviridae, and its genome and proteome were most closely related to the Vibrio phages SSP02 and MAR10. An integrase gene essential for lysogeny was not evident. The ability of bacteriophage VHP6b to protect shrimp postlarvae against vibriosis caused by V. harveyi strain VH6 was demonstrated in a model system designed to simulate typical hatchery conditions. Bacteriophage treatment improved survival of postlarvae by 40 to 60% under these conditions, so therapies based on this or other bacteriophages may be useful in shrimp hatcheries.

  2. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery

    1996-06-01

    This summary gives the major points of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) prepared for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery by the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and other interested parties. The Nez Perce once were one of the largest Plateau tribes in the Northwest and occupied a territory that included north central Idaho, southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon. Salmon and other migratory fish species are an invaluable food resource and an integral part of the Nez Perce Tribe`s culture. Anadromous fish have always made up the bulk of the Nez Perce tribal diet and this dependence on salmon was recognized in the treaties made with the Tribe by the US. The historic economic, social, and religious significance of the fish to the Nez Perce Tribe continues to this day, which makes the decline of fish populations in the Columbia River Basin a substantial detrimental impact to the Nez Perce way of life. The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that would rear and release spring, summer, and fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), biologically similar to wild fish, to reproduce in the Clearwater River Subbasin. Program managers propose techniques that are compatible with existing aquatic and riparian ecosystems and would integrate hatchery-produced salmon into the stream and river environments needed to complete their life cycle.

  3. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery .

    1996-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Nez Perce Tribe propose a supplementation program to restore chinook salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin in Idaho. The Clearwater River is a tributary to the Snake River, which empties into the Columbia River. The Nez Perce Tribe would build and operate two central incubation and rearing hatcheries and six satellite facilities. Spring, summer and fall chinook salmon would be reared and acclimated to different areas in the Subbasin and released at the hatchery and satellite sites or in other watercourses throughout the Subbasin. The supplementation program differs from other hatchery programs because the fish would be released at different sizes and would return to reproduce naturally in the areas where they are released. Several environmental issues were identified during scoping: the possibility that the project would fail if mainstem Columbia River juvenile and adult passage problems are not solved; genetic risks to fish listed as endangered or threatened; potential impacts to wild and resident fish stocks because of increase competition for food and space; and water quality. The Proposed Action would affect several important aspects of Nez Perce tribal life, primarily salmon harvest, employment, and fisheries management.

  4. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Michael C.; Brown, Kassandra A.; Waln, Karen

    1999-11-01

    This report summarizes monitoring and evaluation studies of salmonids reared at Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) for the period November 1, 1997 to October 31, 1998. Studies at Umatilla Hatchery are designed to evaluate rearing of chinook salmon and steelhead in ''Michigan raceways''. Characteristics of Michigan raceways include high fish densities, rapid water turnover, oxygen supplementation, reuse of water, and baffles designed to reduce cleaning. Fish health at UFH and other facilities associated with the Umatilla program are intensively monitored and evaluated as part of the overall research project. Further, under the Integrated Hatchery Operations Team guidelines, specific requirements for fish health monitoring are mandatory and have become the responsibility of the fish health staff conducting studies at UFH. Additional studies include evaluations of sport fisheries in the Umatilla River and mass marking and straying of fall chinook salmon. Except for adult recovery data, an experiment designed to evaluate rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon in Michigan and Oregon raceways has been completed. We are currently in the second year of rearing subyearling fall chinook salmon at three densities. Experimental rearing of subyearling, fall release, and yearling spring chinook salmon, and steelhead has also been conducted. Although preliminary adult return data has been recovered, data on smolt-to-adult survival for all groups is incomplete. Conclusions in this report should be viewed as preliminary and used in conjunction with additional data as it becomes available.

  5. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, Curtis M.

    2003-05-01

    This report is intended to satisfy two concurrent needs: (1) provide a contract deliverable from Oncorh Consulting to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), with emphasis on identification of salient results of value to ongoing Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) planning, and (2) summarize results of research that have broader scientific relevance. This is the second in a series of reports that address reproductive ecological research and monitoring of spring chinook in the Yakima River basin. In addition to within-year comparisons, between-year comparisons will be made to determine if traits of the wild Naches basin control population, the naturally spawning population in the upper Yakima River and the hatchery control population are diverging over time. This annual report summarizes data collected between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2003. In the future, these data will be compared to previous years to identify general trends and make preliminary comparisons. Supplementation success in the Yakima Klickitat Fishery Project's (YKFP) spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) program is defined as increasing natural production and harvest opportunities, while keeping adverse ecological interactions and genetic impacts within acceptable bounds (Busack et al. 1997). Within this context demographics, phenotypic traits, and reproductive ecology have significance because they directly affect natural productivity. In addition, significant changes in locally adapted traits due to hatchery influence, i.e. domestication, would likely be maladaptive resulting in reduced population productivity and fitness (Taylor 1991; Hard 1995). Thus, there is a need to study demographic and phenotypic traits in the YKFP in order to understand hatchery and wild population productivity, reproductive ecology, and the effects of domestication (Busack et al. 1997). Tracking trends in these traits over time is also a critical aspect of domestication monitoring (Busack et al

  6. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation Creston National Fish Hatchery, FY 2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hooley, Sharon

    2009-03-20

    A total of 350,000, M012 strain, westslope cutthroat trout (WCT) eggs were received from Montana Fish Wildlife & Parks (MFWP), Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in June of 2005 to accomplish this fishery management objective. These eggs were incubated, hatched and reared entirely inside the hatchery nursery building using a protected well water supply. Fish grew according to schedule and survival was excellent. The hatchery achieved a 0.78 feed fed to pounds gained conversion ratio for this group of WCT. Not all of the progenies from this fish lot were used for Hungry Horse Dam Fishery Mitigation Implementation. Some were used for other regional fishery management projects. Westslope cutthroat trout were reared using approved fish culture techniques as recommended in the USFWS Fish Hatchery Management Handbook and also utilizing a regimen adapted for hatchery specific site conditions. The fish health for these WCT was very good. Survival from first feeding fry stage to stocking was 79%. The hatchery had an annual fish health inspection performed by the USFWS Bozeman Fish Health Center in mid March of 2006. This inspection found all fish lots at Creston to be disease free. The Montana State Fish Health Board has placed the hatchery under a limited quarantine since May of 2005 due to an epizootic of Furunculosis. This classification has allowed the Creston NFH to stock disease free fish in locations approved by regional fish managers. The hatchery has been working with the State Fish Pathologist to remove the limited quarantine classification from the facility. Although fish health for all station fish lots remains disease free, MFWP has asserted it will not remove the limited quarantine until the new influent water treatment system, including the ultraviolet disinfection unit, is running full time, year round. The USFWS is working to secure the additional funding necessary to operate the treatment building year round. Distribution of the WCT took place from March

  7. Kalispel Resident Fish Project- Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalispel Tribe, Department of Natural Resources

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, construction activities commenced on a largemouth bass hatchery located on the Kalispel Indian Reservation. The major construction activities were complete as of October 1997. Of the six objectives identified in the 1997 Annual Operating Plan two objectives were fully achieved: the assembly of the life support system, and the preparation of the hatchery Operations and Maintenance Manual. The remaining four objectives were not fully achieved due to the hatchery not being completed before the spawning season (spring).

  8. Kalispel Resident Fish Project: Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bluff, Stanley

    2000-12-01

    No Annual Production Goals were achieved for the year. The Kalispel Hatchery experienced two episodes of brood fish mortality. The first due to a standpipe malfunction and the second attributed to gas bubble disease caused by elevated Total Dissolved Gases (TDG's) in the reservoir. To date, the hatchery has 29 brood fish in the raceway and ready to spawn. If all things go well this spring, hatchery operations should be well underway next year.

  9. Enriching practice of dialectic behaviour therapy with the dynamic maturational model of attachment and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    The major challenge for a clinician is integration of the wisdom available in the wide range of therapeutic paradigms available. I have found the principles guiding dialectic behaviour therapy (DBT; see Miller, Rathus, & Linehan, 2007, for applying DBT to adolescents) extremely useful in my practice running a general adolescent unit; similarly, the understanding of the different information processing and learning principles associated with each of the Type A and C attachment strategies, as understood in dynamic maturational model (DMM), has guided me through the dark corners of treatment. Specifically, how does DMM inform practice of DBT? As a 'DBTer' might say, 'Where is the wisdom in both points of view?' Nevertheless, DMM is not primarily about treatment. It concerns how different ways of adapting to developmental contingencies bias perceptual propensities, and hence the information available for reflective brain function. Recognition of these twists to knowing what is going on can then be used to inform a variety of therapeutic approaches. The purpose of this article is to look for the signposts in DBT and DMM which together help navigate the comprehensive approach necessary in complicated therapy. In the process, hopefully some more general principles for addressing discomfited adolescents arise for informing future practice. Although many steer shy of using personality disorder diagnoses for adolescents, clinicians are nevertheless addressing, directly or indirectly, the personality development of all adolescents in treatment, regardless of their classical axis I diagnoses, including both those with developing emotional instability and a group of avoidant over-controlled adolescents, which in Norway is growing in prominence.

  10. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a major negative impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas have been completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, destroying the primary food resource (salmon) for many native people forcing them to rely heavily upon resident fish to replace these lost resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program that addresses the loss of anadromous fish resources in the Upper Columbia Sub-Region within the ''blocked area'' created by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. This project enhances resident fisheries located in the Intermountain and Columbia Cascade Provinces, specifically within the Colville Reservation portion of the Upper Columbia, SanPoil and Oakanogan Sub-Basins. The project partially mitigates for anadromous fish losses through protection/augmentation of resident fish populations to enhance fishery potential (i.e. in-place, out-of-kind mitigation) pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The Colville Tribal Hatchery (CTH) is located on the northern bank of the Columbia River just down stream of the town of Bridgeport, Washington that is just down stream of Chief Joseph Dam. The hatchery is located on land owned by the Colville Tribes. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout annually. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence/recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members and provide for a successful nonmember sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to support ''carry-over'' fisheries. Fish

  11. Analytical, Creative, and Practical Intelligence as Predictors of Self-reported Adaptive Functioning: A Case Study in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the efficacy of the triarchic theory of intelligence as a basis for predicting adaptive functioning in a rapidly changing society, that of Russia. Results of intelligence measures administered to 452 women and 293 men show that analytical, practical, and creative intelligence all relate in some degree to self-reported everyday adaptive…

  12. Neural adaptations to resistive exercise: mechanisms and recommendations for training practices.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, David A; Kamen, Gary; Frost, Gail

    2006-01-01

    It is generally accepted that neural factors play an important role in muscle strength gains. This article reviews the neural adaptations in strength, with the goal of laying the foundations for practical applications in sports medicine and rehabilitation. An increase in muscular strength without noticeable hypertrophy is the first line of evidence for neural involvement in acquisition of muscular strength. The use of surface electromyographic (SEMG) techniques reveal that strength gains in the early phase of a training regimen are associated with an increase in the amplitude of SEMG activity. This has been interpreted as an increase in neural drive, which denotes the magnitude of efferent neural output from the CNS to active muscle fibres. However, SEMG activity is a global measure of muscle activity. Underlying alterations in SEMG activity are changes in motor unit firing patterns as measured by indwelling (wire or needle) electrodes. Some studies have reported a transient increase in motor unit firing rate. Training-related increases in the rate of tension development have also been linked with an increased probability of doublet firing in individual motor units. A doublet is a very short interspike interval in a motor unit train, and usually occurs at the onset of a muscular contraction. Motor unit synchronisation is another possible mechanism for increases in muscle strength, but has yet to be definitely demonstrated. There are several lines of evidence for central control of training-related adaptation to resistive exercise. Mental practice using imagined contractions has been shown to increase the excitability of the cortical areas involved in movement and motion planning. However, training using imagined contractions is unlikely to be as effective as physical training, and it may be more applicable to rehabilitation. Retention of strength gains after dissipation of physiological effects demonstrates a strong practice effect. Bilateral contractions are

  13. Adapting Evidence-based Interventions using a Common Theory, Practices, and Principles

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Becker, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Hundreds of validated evidence-based intervention programs (EBIP) aim to improve families’ well-being, however, most are not broadly adopted. As an alternative diffusion strategy, we created wellness centers to reach families’ everyday lives with a prevention framework. Method At two wellness centers, one in a middle-class neighborhood and one in a low-income neighborhood, popular local activity leaders (instructors of martial arts, yoga, sports, music, dancing, zumba), and motivated parents were trained to be Family Mentors. Trainings focused on a framework which taught synthesized, foundational prevention science theory, practice elements, and principles, applied to specific content areas (parenting, social skills, and obesity). Family Mentors were then allowed to adapt scripts and activities based on their cultural experiences, but were closely monitored and supervised over time. The framework was implemented in a range of activities (summer camps, coaching) aimed at improving social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Results Successes and challenges are discussed for: 1) engaging parents and communities; 2) identifying and training Family Mentors to promote children and families’ well-being; and 3) gathering data for supervision, outcome evaluation, and continuous quality improvement (CQI). Conclusion To broadly diffuse prevention to families, far more experimentation is needed with alternative and engaging implementation strategies that are enhanced with knowledge harvested from researchers’ past 30 years of experience creating EBIP. One strategy is to train local parents and popular activity leaders in applying robust prevention science theory, common practice elements, and principles of EBIP. More systematic evaluation of such innovations is needed. PMID:24079747

  14. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff,

    2004-02-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 141,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) was acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in May 2002 for this objective. We also received an additional 22,000 westslope cutthroat eggs, MO12 strain naturalized, from feral fish at Rogers Lake, Flathead County, Montana. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 95.6%. We achieved a 0.80 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 54,000 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) was acquired from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery in December 2002 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 99.9%. We achieved a 0.79 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to the creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai

  15. Integrated approaches to natural resources management in practice: the catalyzing role of National Adaptation Programmes for Action.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Virpi; Smith, Mark

    2011-06-01

    The relationship of forests in water quantity and quality has been debated during the past years. At the same time, focus on climate change has increased interest in ecosystem restoration as a means for adaptation. Climate change might become one of the key drivers pushing integrated approaches for natural resources management into practice. The National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) is an initiative agreed under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. An analysis was done to find out how widely ecosystem restoration and integrated approaches have been incorporated into NAPA priority adaptation projects. The data show that that the NAPAs can be seen as potentially important channel for operationalizing various integrated concepts. Key challenge is to implement the NAPA projects. The amount needed to implement the NAPA projects aiming at ecosystem restoration using integrated approaches presents only 0.7% of the money pledged in Copenhagen for climate change adaptation.

  16. Adaptation of neurological practice and policy to a changing US health-care landscape.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, Philip B

    2016-04-01

    Health care in the USA is undergoing a drastic transformation under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is driving major health-care policy changes by connecting payment for traditional health-care services to value-based care initiatives and emphasising population health and innovative mechanisms to deliver care. Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, neurological practice will need to adapt and transform. Therefore, neurological policy should consider employing a new framework for neurological residency training, developing interdisciplinary team approaches to neurological subspecialty care, and strengthening the primary care-neurological specialty care interface to avoid redundancies and other medical waste. Additionally, neurological policy will need to support a more robust review of diagnostic and care pathway use to reduce avoidable expenditures, and test and implement bundled payments for key neurological diagnoses. In view of an anticipated 19% shortage of US neurologists in the next 10 years, development of new neurological policy under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is paramount.

  17. Adapting a community of practice model to design an innovative ethics curriculum in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Sudeshni; Vernillo, Anthony T

    2014-01-01

    The focus of healthcare ethics within the framework of ethical principles and philosophical foundations has always, in recent times, been the community, namely, the healthcare provider, the patient or, in research, the study participant. An initiative is thus described whereby a community of practice (CoP) model was developed around health ethics in health research, education and clinical care. The ethics curriculum was redesigned to include several components that are integrated and all embracing, namely, health research ethics, healthcare ethics, health personnel education in ethics and global and public health ethics. A CoP is a group who share a common interest and a desire to learn from and contribute to the community with their variety of experiences. The CoP is dynamic and organic, generating knowledge that can be translated into effective healthcare delivery and ethical research. It requires the collaboration and social presence of active participants such as community members, healthcare professionals and educators, ethicists and policy makers to benefit the community by developing approaches that adapt to and resonate with the community and its healthcare needs. Philosophical principles constitute the foundation or underpinning of this innovative curriculum. Recommendations are presented that will continue to guide the consolidation and sustainability of the CoP.

  18. Load-adaptive practical multi-channel communications in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shariful; Alam, Muhammad Mahbub; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a significant number of sensor node prototypes have been designed that provide communications in multiple channels. This multi-channel feature can be effectively exploited to increase the overall capacity and performance of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, we present a multi-channel communications system for WSNs that is referred to as load-adaptive practical multi-channel communications (LPMC). LPMC estimates the active load of a channel at the sink since it has a more comprehensive view of the network behavior, and dynamically adds or removes channels based on the estimated load. LPMC updates the routing path to balance the loads of the channels. The nodes in a path use the same channel; therefore, they do not need to switch channels to receive or forward packets. LPMC has been evaluated through extensive simulations, and the results demonstrate that it can effectively increase the delivery ratio, network throughput, and channel utilization, and that it can decrease the end-to-end delay and energy consumption.

  19. Spring Chinook Salmon Production for Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery, Annual Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Doulas, Speros

    2007-01-01

    This annual report covers the period from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2006. Work completed supports the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) effort to restore a locally-adapted stock of spring Chinook to the Umatilla River Basin. During the year, staff at the Little White Salmon/Willard National Fish Hatchery Complex have completed the rearing of 218,764 Brood Year 2004 spring Chinook salmon for release into the Umatilla River during spring 2006 and initiated production of approximately 220,000 Brood Year 2005 spring Chinook for transfer and release into the Umatilla River during spring 2007. All work under this contract is performed at the Little White Salmon and Willard National Fish Hatcheries (NFH), Cook, WA.

  20. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  1. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  2. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  3. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  4. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  5. On the reproductive success of early-generation hatchery fish in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Mark R; Ford, Michael J; Blouin, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Large numbers of hatchery salmon spawn in wild populations each year. Hatchery fish with multiple generations of hatchery ancestry often have heritably lower reproductive success than wild fish and may reduce the fitness of an entire population. Whether this reduced fitness also occurs for hatchery fish created with local- and predominantly wild-origin parents remains controversial. Here, we review recent studies on the reproductive success of such ‘early-generation’ hatchery fish that spawn in the wild. Combining 51 estimates from six studies on four salmon species, we found that (i) early-generation hatchery fish averaged only half the reproductive success of their wild-origin counterparts when spawning in the wild, (ii) the reduction in reproductive success was more severe for males than for females, and (iii) all species showed reduced fitness due to hatchery rearing. We review commonalities among studies that point to possible mechanisms (e.g., environmental versus genetic effects). Furthermore, we illustrate that sample sizes typical of these studies result in low statistical power to detect fitness differences unless the differences are substantial. This review demonstrates that reduced fitness of early-generation hatchery fish may be a general phenomenon. Future research should focus on determining the causes of those fitness reductions and whether they lead to long-term reductions in the fitness of wild populations. PMID:25469167

  6. Differences in Lateral Line Morphology between Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew D.; Sisneros, Joseph A.; Jurasin, Tyler; Nguyen, Chau; Coffin, Allison B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite identification of multiple factors mediating salmon survival, significant disparities in survival-to-adulthood among hatchery- versus wild-origin juveniles persist. In the present report, we explore the hypothesis that hatchery-reared juveniles might exhibit morphological defects in vulnerable mechanosensory systems prior to release from the hatchery, potentiating reduced survival after release. Juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from two different hatcheries were compared to wild-origin juveniles on several morphological traits including lateral line structure, otolith composition (a proxy for auditory function), and brain weight. Wild juveniles were found to possess significantly more superficial lateral line neuromasts than hatchery-reared juveniles, although the number of hair cells within individual neuromasts was not significantly different across groups. Wild juveniles were also found to possess primarily normal, aragonite-containing otoliths, while hatchery-reared juveniles possessed a high proportion of crystallized (vaterite) otoliths. Finally, wild juveniles were found to have significantly larger brains than hatchery-reared juveniles. These differences together predict reduced sensitivity to biologically important hydrodynamic and acoustic signals from natural biotic (predator, prey, conspecific) and abiotic (turbulent flow, current) sources among hatchery-reared steelhead, in turn predicting reduced survival fitness after release. Physiological and behavioral studies are required to establish the functional significance of these morphological differences. PMID:23554988

  7. 50 CFR 70.3 - State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. 70.3 Section 70.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... § 70.3 State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. State cooperation may be...

  8. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance Annual Report, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Nenema, David

    2003-03-01

    The Kalispel Tribal hatchery successfully spawned largemouth bass broodfish in spring 2002. Approximately 150,000 eggs were produced and hatched. These fry were started on brine shrimp for a period of ten days. At this time, the fry needed more abundance food supply. Cannibalism started and the hatchery staff transferred the remaining fry to the river in hopes that some fish would survive.

  9. Differences in lateral line morphology between hatchery- and wild-origin steelhead.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew D; Sisneros, Joseph A; Jurasin, Tyler; Nguyen, Chau; Coffin, Allison B

    2013-01-01

    Despite identification of multiple factors mediating salmon survival, significant disparities in survival-to-adulthood among hatchery- versus wild-origin juveniles persist. In the present report, we explore the hypothesis that hatchery-reared juveniles might exhibit morphological defects in vulnerable mechanosensory systems prior to release from the hatchery, potentiating reduced survival after release. Juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from two different hatcheries were compared to wild-origin juveniles on several morphological traits including lateral line structure, otolith composition (a proxy for auditory function), and brain weight. Wild juveniles were found to possess significantly more superficial lateral line neuromasts than hatchery-reared juveniles, although the number of hair cells within individual neuromasts was not significantly different across groups. Wild juveniles were also found to possess primarily normal, aragonite-containing otoliths, while hatchery-reared juveniles possessed a high proportion of crystallized (vaterite) otoliths. Finally, wild juveniles were found to have significantly larger brains than hatchery-reared juveniles. These differences together predict reduced sensitivity to biologically important hydrodynamic and acoustic signals from natural biotic (predator, prey, conspecific) and abiotic (turbulent flow, current) sources among hatchery-reared steelhead, in turn predicting reduced survival fitness after release. Physiological and behavioral studies are required to establish the functional significance of these morphological differences.

  10. Physiological and endocrine changes in Atlantic salmon smolts during hatchery rearing, downstream migration and ocean entry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Sheehan, Timothy F.; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; Lipsky, Christine; Kocik, John F.; Regish, Amy M.; O'Dea, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Billions of hatchery salmon smolts are released annually in an attempt to mitigate anthropogenic impacts on freshwater habitats, often with limited success. Mortality of wild and hatchery fish is high during downstream and early ocean migration. To understand changes that occur during migration, we examined physiological and endocrine changes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts during hatchery rearing, downstream migration, and early ocean entry in two successive years. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased in the hatchery during spring, increased further after river release, and was slightly lower after recapture in the ocean. Plasma growth hormone levels increased in the hatchery, were higher in the river, and increased further in the ocean. Plasma IGF-I remained relatively constant in the hatchery, increased in the river, then decreased in the ocean. Plasma thyroid hormones were variable in the hatchery, but increased in both river- and ocean-captured smolts. Naturally reared fish had lower condition factor, gill NKA activity, and plasma thyroxine than hatchery fish in the river but were similar in the ocean. This novel data set provides a vital first step in understanding the role and norms of endocrine function in smolts and the metrics of successful marine entry.

  11. Ecological interactions between hatchery summer steelhead and wild Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Willamette River basin, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Green, Ethan D.; Vernon, Christopher R.; Mcmichael, Geoffrey A.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which juvenile hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead overlap in space and time, to evaluate the extent of residualism among hatchery summer steelhead in the South Santiam River, and to evaluate the potential for negative ecological interactions among hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead. Because it is not possible to visually discern juvenile winter steelhead from resident rainbow trout, we treated all adipose-intact juvenile O. mykiss as one group that represented juvenile wild winter steelhead. The 2014 study objectives were to 1) estimate the proportion of hatchery summer steelhead that residualized in the South Santiam River in 2014, 2) determine the extent to which hatchery and naturally produced O. mykiss overlapped in space and time in the South Santiam River, and 3) characterize the behavioral interactions between hatchery-origin juvenile summer steelhead and naturally produced O. mykiss. We used a combination of radio telemetry and direct observations (i.e., snorkeling) to determine the potential for negative interactions between hatchery summer and wild winter steelhead juveniles in the South Santiam River. Data collected from these two independent methods indicated that a significant portion of the hatchery summer steelhead released as smolts did not rapidly emigrate from the South Santiam River in 2014. Of the 164 radio-tagged steelhead that volitionally left the hatchery, only 66 (40.2%) were detected outside of the South Santiam River. Forty-four (26.8% of 164) of the radio-tagged hatchery summer steelhead successfully emigrated to Willamette Falls. Thus, the last known location of the majority of the tagged fish (98 of 164 = 59.8%) was in the South Santiam River. Thirty-three of the tagged hatchery steelhead were detected in the South Santiam River during mobile-tracking surveys. Of those, 21 were found to be alive in the South Santiam River over three months after

  12. Occurrence of antibiotics in water from 13 fish hatcheries, 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietze, J.E.; Scribner, E.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Kolpin, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    A 2-year study of extensive and intensive fish hatcheries was conducted to assess the general temporal occurrence of antibiotics in aquaculture. Antibiotics were detected in 15% of the water samples collected during the 2001-2002 collection period and in 31% of the samples during the 2003 collection period. Antibiotics were detected more frequently in samples from the intensive hatcheries (17 and 39%) than in samples from the extensive hatcheries (14 and 4%) during the 2001-2002 and 2003 collection periods, respectively. The maximum ormetoprim, oxytetracycline, and sulphadimethoxine concentrations were higher in samples from the intensive hatcheries (12, 10, and 36 µg L-1), respectively, than in samples from the extensive hatcheries (<0.05, 0.31, and 1.2 µg L-1), respectively. Sulphadimethoxine persisted for a longer period of time (up to 48 days) than ormetoprim (up to 28 days) and oxytetracycline (less than 20 days).

  13. Genetic versus Rearing-Environment Effects on Phenotype: Hatchery and Natural Rearing Effects on Hatchery- and Wild-Born Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Chittenden, Cedar M.; Biagi, Carlo A.; Davidsen, Jan Grimsrud; Davidsen, Anette Grimsrud; Kondo, Hidehiro; McKnight, Allison; Pedersen, Ole-Petter; Raven, Peter A.; Rikardsen, Audun H.; Shrimpton, J. Mark; Zuehlke, Brett; McKinley, R. Scott; Devlin, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    With the current trends in climate and fisheries, well-designed mitigative strategies for conserving fish stocks may become increasingly necessary. The poor post-release survival of hatchery-reared Pacific salmon indicates that salmon enhancement programs require assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles that genotype and rearing environment play in the phenotypic expression of young salmon, including their survival, growth, physiology, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. Wild- and hatchery-born coho salmon adults (Oncorhynchus kisutch) returning to the Chehalis River in British Columbia, Canada, were crossed to create pure hatchery, pure wild, and hybrid offspring. A proportion of the progeny from each cross was reared in a traditional hatchery environment, whereas the remaining fry were reared naturally in a contained side channel. The resulting phenotypic differences between replicates, between rearing environments, and between cross types were compared. While there were few phenotypic differences noted between genetic groups reared in the same habitat, rearing environment played a significant role in smolt size, survival, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. The lack of any observed genetic differences between wild- and hatchery-born salmon may be due to the long-term mixing of these genotypes from hatchery introgression into wild populations, or conversely, due to strong selection in nature—capable of maintaining highly fit genotypes whether or not fish have experienced part of their life history under cultured conditions. PMID:20808853

  14. Comparison of ozone and formaldehyde as poultry hatchery disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Whistler, P.E.; Sheldon, B.W. )

    1989-10-01

    Ozone and formaldehyde were compared as poultry hatchery disinfectants in a poultry setter, and evaluated for effectiveness. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella typhimurium, and Proteus spp. were inoculated onto open petri plates and exposed to ozone or onto filter paper strips and exposed to ozone or formaldehyde in a poultry setter. Ozone (1.41 to 1.68% by weight) resulted in significant bacterial reductions of greater than 4 log10 on the open plates and greater than 3 log10 on filter paper strips, whereas formaldehyde (triple strength) resulted in greater than 7 log10 reduction on filter paper strips. Ozone was similarly lethal to organisms on filter paper strips at 90% relative humidity (RH) and 13.9 C, and at 50% RH and 37.7 C. Although under the conditions of this study formaldehyde (triple strength) was more lethal than ozone, ozone killed greater than 99.9% of the starting microbial populations. In the event that formaldehyde can no longer be used in the hatchery, an effective alternative may be ozone.

  15. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, David B.; Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.

    2000-01-27

    This report consists of activities/events conducted in response to the Objectives and Tasks described in the 1998 contract Statement Of Work for the Planning and Predesign activities of the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH). The report follows the format of the contract for ease in finding accomplishments. Although specific emphasis will be placed on activities related directly to the NPTH, activities from other artificial production related projects may also be noted because of overlap in staff duties and production facilities. Additionally, the project leader's role has evolved as other Tribal fisheries projects have been developed and assigned to the Production Services Division, Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT). Thus, implementation of the project leader role for the NPTH actually entails specific duties of the Hatchery Supervisor, the Production Coordinator as well as the Production Director. The Production Director, Ed Larson was absent mos t of January and part of February before he began working part time from home while recovering from back surgery.

  16. Hospitals as complex adaptive systems: A case study of factors influencing priority setting practices at the hospital level in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Barasa, Edwine W; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike; Cleary, Susan

    2017-02-01

    There is a dearth of literature on priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA) practices in hospitals, particularly in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Using a case study approach, we examined PSRA practices in 2 public hospitals in coastal Kenya. We collected data through a combination of in-depth interviews of national level policy makers, hospital managers, and frontline practitioners in the case study hospitals (n = 72), review of documents such as hospital plans and budgets, minutes of meetings and accounting records, and non-participant observations of PSRA practices in case study hospitals over a period of 7 months. In this paper, we apply complex adaptive system (CAS) theory to examine the factors that influence PSRA practices. We found that PSRA practices in the case hospitals were influenced by, 1) inadequate financing level and poorly designed financing arrangements, 2) limited hospital autonomy and decision space, and 3) inadequate management and leadership capacity in the hospital. The case study hospitals exhibited properties of complex adaptive systems (CASs) that exist in a dynamic state with multiple interacting agents. Weaknesses in system 'hardware' (resource scarcity) and 'software' (including PSRA guidelines that reduced hospitals decision space, and poor leadership skills) led to the emergence of undesired properties. The capacity of hospitals to set priorities should be improved across these interacting aspects of the hospital organizational system. Interventions should however recognize that hospitals are CAS. Rather than rectifying isolated aspects of the system, they should endeavor to create conditions for productive emergence.

  17. Preparing Adapted Physical Educators to Teach Students with Autism: Current Practices and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Sean; Judge, Joann P.; Block, Martin E.; Kwon, Eun Hye

    2016-01-01

    For many students with autism spectrum disorder, physical education is the responsibility of an adapted physical education specialist. In this study, we examined the training focused on teaching students with autism spectrum disorder received by a sample of 106 adapted physical education specialists. Competencies necessary on a course to train…

  18. Improving the Usability of Integrated Assessment for Adaptation Practice: Insights from the U.S. Southeast Energy Sector

    SciTech Connect

    de Bremond, Ariane; Preston, Benjamin; Rice, Jennie S.

    2014-10-01

    Energy systems comprise a key sector of the U.S. economy, and one that has been identified as potentially vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change. However, understanding of adaptation processes in energy companies and private entities more broadly is limited. It is unclear, for example, the extent to which energy companies are well-served by existing knowledge and tools emerging from the impacts, adaptation and vulnerability (IAV) and integrated assessment modeling (IAM) communities and/or what experiments, analyses, and model results have practical utility for informing adaptation in the energy sector. As part of a regional IAM development project, we investigated available evidence of adaptation processes in the energy sector, with a particular emphasis on the U.S. Southeast and Gulf Coast region. A mixed methods approach of literature review and semi-structured interviews with key informants from energy utilities was used to compare existing knowledge from the IAV community with that of regional stakeholders. That comparison revealed that much of the IAV literature on the energy sector is climate-centric and therefore disconnected from the more integrated decision-making processes and institutional perspectives of energy utilities. Increasing the relevance of research and assessment for the energy sector will necessitate a greater investment in integrated assessment and modeling efforts that respond to practical decision-making needs as well as greater collaboration between energy utilities and researchers in the design, execution, and communication of those efforts.

  19. Spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binder, Thomas; Riley, Stephen C.; Holbrook, Christopher; Hansen, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Fidelity to high-quality spawning sites helps ensure that adults repeatedly spawn at sites that maximize reproductive success. Fidelity is also an important behavioural characteristic to consider when hatchery-reared individuals are stocked for species restoration, because artificial rearing environments may interfere with cues that guide appropriate spawning site selection. Acoustic telemetry was used in conjunction with Cormack–Jolly–Seber capture–recapture models to compare degree of spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron. Annual survival was estimated to be between 77% and 81% and did not differ among wild and hatchery males and females. Site fidelity estimates were high in both wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (ranging from 0.78 to 0.94, depending on group and time filter), but were slightly lower in hatchery-reared fish than in wild fish. The ecological implication of the small difference in site fidelity between wild and hatchery-reared lake trout is unclear, but similarities in estimates suggest that many hatchery-reared fish use similar spawning sites to wild fish and that most return to those sites annually for spawning.

  20. Chemical and histological studies of wild and hatchery salmon in fresh water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.; Halver, J.E.; Woodall, A.N.

    1960-01-01

    In a study of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), the gross chemical and histological changes occurring over a 14-month period spent in fresh water were determined. The determinations were made at 3-month intervals on: 1) hatchery-reared fish, 2) fish hatchery-reared for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and then planted in a controlled stream for the remainder of the period; and 3) an indigenous group of wild fish in this stream. Wild fish showed high incidence of tissue damage from spinose hairs of the moth larva, Halisidota argentata. Hatchery fish were similarly affected with the severity and incidence of lesions varying directly with the time of exposure of the larvae in the wild environment. Both groups of fish were heavily parasitized by sporozoan organisms in the kidney and spinal cord. Kidney disease appeared in both wild and planted hatchery fish. The gross chemical composition of hatchery fish transformed rapidly after planting to that of the wild fish. Although the initial rate of fat loss is essentially constant for all hatchery groups after planting, fish that were hatchery reared for 9 to 12 months did not complete the transformation to the wild-type body composition by the time of downstream migration at 14 months.

  1. Are antipredator behaviours of hatchery Salmo salar juveniles similar to wild juveniles?

    PubMed

    Salvanes, A G V

    2017-01-27

    This study explores how antipredator behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar developed during conventional hatchery rearing of eggs from wild brood stock, compared with the behaviour of wild-caught juveniles from the same population. Juveniles aged 1+ years were tested in two unfamiliar environments; in one S. salar were presented with simulated predator attacks and in the other they were given the opportunity to explore an open-field arena. No difference was found in their spontaneous escape responses or ventilation rate (reflex responses) after simulated predator attacks. Hatchery-reared juveniles were more risk-prone in their behaviours than wild-caught individuals. Hatchery juveniles stayed less time in association with shelter. In the open-field arena, hatchery juveniles were more active than wild juveniles. Hatchery juveniles were also immobile for less time and spent a shorter amount of time than wild juveniles in the fringe of the open-field arena. Salmo salar size had no effect on the observed behaviour. Overall, this study provides empirical evidence that one generation of hatchery rearing does not change reflex responses associated with threats, whereas antipredator behaviour, typically associated with prior experience, was less developed in hatchery-reared than in wild individuals.

  2. Genetic differences in growth, migration, and survival between hatchery and wild steelhead and Chinook salmon: Introduction and executive summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of studies testing for genetically based differences in performance (growth, migration, and survival) between hatchery and wild populations of steelhead and Chinook salmon (Project Number 90-052). The report is organized into 10 chapters with a general study introduction preceding the first chapter. A growing body of data shows that domestication and a resulting loss of fitness for natural rearing occur in hatchery populations of anadromous salmonids; however, the magnitude of domestication will vary among species and hatchery programs. Better information on domestication is needed to accurately predict the consequences when hatchery and wild fish interbreed. The intent of hatchery supplementation is to increase natural production through introduction of hatchery fish into natural production areas. The goal of this study was to provide managers with information on the genetic risks of hatchery supplementation to wild populations of Columbia River Basin summer steelhead and spring Chinook salmon.

  3. Kalispel Resident Fish Project: Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bluff, Stanley

    2000-12-01

    In October of 1997, The construction of the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was complete. No spawning activity was recorded for the spring of 1998. On June 14, 1999 the first spawn at the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was successful. A total of seven nests were fertilized that produced approximately 144,000 fry. The second spawn occurred on July 13, 1999 and a total of six nests were fertilized producing approximately 98,0000 fry. The total amount of largemouth bass fry produced at the Kalispel Tribal Hatchery was 242,000.

  4. The nociceptive withdrawal reflex does not adapt to joint position change and short-term motor practice.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Nathan; Riley, Zachary A

    2013-01-01

    The nociceptive withdrawal reflex is a protective mechanism to mediate interactions within a potentially dangerous environment. The reflex is formed by action-based sensory encoding during the early post-natal developmental period, and it is unknown if the protective motor function of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex in the human upper-limb is adaptable based on the configuration of the arm or if it can be modified by short-term practice of a similar or opposing motor action. In the present study, nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were evoked by a brief train of electrical stimuli applied to digit II, 1) in five different static arm positions and, 2) before and after motor practice that was opposite (EXT) or similar (FLEX) to the stereotyped withdrawal response, in 10 individuals. Withdrawal responses were quantified by the electromyography (EMG) reflex response in several upper limb muscles, and by the forces and moments recorded at the wrist. EMG onset latencies and response amplitudes were not significantly different across the arm positions or between the EXT and FLEX practice conditions, and the general direction of the withdrawal response was similar across arm positions. In addition, the force vectors were not different after practice in either the practice condition or between EXT and FLEX conditions. We conclude the withdrawal response is insensitive to changes in elbow or shoulder joint angles as well as remaining resistant to short-term adaptations from the practice of motor actions, resulting in a generalized limb withdrawal in each case. It is further hypothesized that the multisensory feedback is weighted differently in each arm position, but integrated to achieve a similar withdrawal response to safeguard against erroneous motor responses that could cause further harm. The results remain consistent with the concept that nociceptive withdrawal reflexes are shaped through long-term and not short-term action based sensory encoding.

  5. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan and Appendices.

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Roy Edward; Mobrand, Lars Erik

    1992-03-01

    This report describes the findings that have resulted from the effort to create a proposed Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in northern Idaho. This effort has been undertaken because of low population densities of salmon in the Clearwater and Salmon River Basins. The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) has approved the NPTH concept. For the NPTH to proceed, the Council must approve a master plan and amend the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (CBFWP). Requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also must be met. The goals of NPTH are to: (1) develop, increase, and reintroduce natural populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook in the Clearwater and Salmon River Basins; (2) sustain long-term preservation and genetic integrity of target fish populations; (3) keep the ecological and genetic impacts of nontarget fish populations within acceptable limits; and, (4) provide harvest opportunities for both tribal and non-tribal anglers.

  6. Investigating the Potential of Guided Practice with an Enactment Tool for Supporting Adaptive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghousseini, Hala; Beasley, Heather; Lord, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Recently, attention has focused on identifying core instructional practices that could leverage novice teachers' development of professional knowledge and skill. To help novices learn to implement these practices, there is also increasing interest in developing enactment tools that could translate abstract conceptual tasks into more concrete…

  7. Evidence-Based Practice and Research: A Challenge to the Development of Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu Shayke

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a growing movement in the health and educational disciplines that recommends emphasis on research outcomes during decision making in practice. EBP is made possible through evidence based research (EBR), which attempts to synthesize the volume and scientific rigor of intervention effectiveness. With the purpose of…

  8. A practical comparison of phase diversity to interferometry in measuring the aberrations in an adaptive optics system

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B; Campbell, G; Carrano, C; Gavel, D T; Olivier, S

    1999-07-01

    Any adaptive optics system must be calibrated with respect to internal aberrations in order for it to properly correct the starlight before it enters the science camera. Typical internal calibration consists of using a point source stimulus at the input to the AO system and recording the wavefront at the output. Two methods for such calibration have been implemented on the adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory. The first technique, Phase Diversity, consists of taking out of focus images with the science camera and using an iterative algorithm to estimate the system wavefront. A second technique uses a newly installed instrument, the Phase-Shifting Diffraction Interferometer, which has the promise of providing very high accuracy wavefront measurements. During observing campaigns in 1998, both of these methods were used for initial calibrations. In this paper we present results and compare the two methods in regard to accuracy and their practical aspects.

  9. Opportunistic management of estuaries under climate change: A new adaptive decision-making framework and its practical application.

    PubMed

    Peirson, William; Davey, Erica; Jones, Alan; Hadwen, Wade; Bishop, Keith; Beger, Maria; Capon, Samantha; Fairweather, Peter; Creese, Bob; Smith, Timothy F; Gray, Leigh; Tomlinson, Rodger

    2015-11-01

    Ongoing coastal development and the prospect of severe climate change impacts present pressing estuary management and governance challenges. Robust approaches must recognise the intertwined social and ecological vulnerabilities of estuaries. Here, a new governance and management framework is proposed that recognises the integrated social-ecological systems of estuaries so as to permit transformative adaptation to climate change within these systems. The framework lists stakeholders and identifies estuarine uses and values. Goals are categorised that are specific to ecosystems, private property, public infrastructure, and human communities. Systematic adaptation management strategies are proposed with conceptual examples and associated governance approaches. Contrasting case studies are used to illustrate the practical application of these ideas. The framework will assist estuary managers worldwide to achieve their goals, minimise maladaptative responses, better identify competing interests, reduce stakeholder conflict and exploit opportunities for appropriate ecosystem restoration and sustainable development.

  10. Maladaptation and phenotypic mismatch in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar released in the wild.

    PubMed

    Stringwell, R; Lock, A; Stutchbury, C J; Baggett, E; Taylor, J; Gough, P J; Garcia de Leaniz, C

    2014-12-01

    Changes in body shape, fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and crypsis were compared among Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry kept as controls in captivity and those released and subsequently recaptured in the wild according to a before-after-control-impact (BACI) design. Hatchery fish that survived in the wild became more cryptic and displayed a much lower incidence of fin erosion and of asymmetric individuals than control fish kept in captivity. Significant differences in body shape were also apparent, and survivors had longer heads, thicker caudal peduncles and a more streamlined body shape than hatchery controls as early as 20 days following stocking, most likely as a result of phenotypic plasticity and non-random, selective mortality of maladapted phenotypes. Hatchery-reared fish typically perform poorly in the wild and the results of this study indicate that this may be due to phenotypic mismatch, i.e. because hatcheries generate fish that are phenotypically mismatched to the natural environment.

  11. Fish Research Project Oregon; Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Michael C.; Onjukka, Sam T.; Focher, Shannon M.

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the first three years of comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the Umatilla Hatchery. Because the hatchery and the evaluation study and the fish health monitoring investigations are in the early stages of implementation, much of the information contained in this report is preliminary. The majority of the data that is crucial for evaluating the success of the hatchery program, the data on post-release performance and survival, is yet unavailable. In addition, several years of data are necessary to make conclusions about rearing performance at Umatilla Hatchery. The conclusions drawn in this report should be viewed as preliminary and should be used in conjunction with additional information as it becomes available.

  12. Age of ground water in basalt aquifers near Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery, Skamania County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of CFC data with both adjusted and unadjusted 14C data suggests that water discharging at the hatchery springs contains a mixture of modem and old water, where old water is defined as water recharged prior to 1944. The CFC data support a component of modem water, whereas the 14C data suggest a component of old water. Similar results were obtained from a comparison of CFC data with adjusted and unadjusted 14C data for water collected from Well 3. Well 3 is north of the hatchery springs, on a flow path that appears to be parallel to and similar in length to the flow path leading to the hatchery springs. Water from the Hatchery Well, however, may be devoid of modem water and appears to have an overall age on the order of thousands of years.

  13. Physiological Assessment of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : Final Report, 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Donald A.; Beckman, Brian R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2003-08-01

    It is generally held that hatchery-reared salmonids are of inferior quality and have lower smolt-to-adult survival compared to naturally-reared salmon. The overall objectives of the work performed under this contract were the following: (1) Characterize the physiology and development of naturally rearing juvenile salmonids to: (2) Allow for the design of effective rearing programs for producing wild-like smolts in supplementation and production hatchery programs. (3) Examine the relationship between growth rate and size on the physiology and migratory performance of fish reared in hatchery programs. (4) Examine the interaction of rearing temperature and feed rate on the growth and smoltification of salmon for use in producing a more wild-like smolt in hatchery programs.

  14. Bioenergetics estimate of the effects of stocking density on hatchery production of smallmouth bass fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robel, G.L.; Fisher, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Production of and consumption by hatchery-reared tingerling (age-0) smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu at various simulated stocking densities were estimated with a bioenergetics model. Fish growth rates and pond water temperatures during the 1996 growing season at two hatcheries in Oklahoma were used in the model. Fish growth and simulated consumption and production differed greatly between the two hatcheries, probably because of differences in pond fertilization and mortality rates. Our results suggest that appropriate stocking density depends largely on prey availability as affected by pond fertilization and on fingerling mortality rates. The bioenergetics model provided a useful tool for estimating production at various stocking density rates. However, verification of physiological parameters for age-0 fish of hatchery-reared species is needed.

  15. Investigations of the distribution and persistence of Salmonella and ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli in turkey hatcheries in the UK.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Doblies, D; Clouting, C; Davies, R H

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at gaining information on the presence of Salmonella in UK turkey hatcheries and possible epidemiological links between breeding farms, hatcheries and finishing farms. The presence of ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli in hatchery samples, as well as in faecal samples from farms, and trends in occurrence of resistance were also investigated. Over a 2 year-period, four British turkey hatcheries were visited and intensively sampled for the presence of Salmonella and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. In two hatcheries, a link could be demonstrated between the presence of certain Salmonella serovars in the hatcheries and on breeding and finishing farms. Within the hatcheries, serovars linked to breeding farms were found more frequently in the poult processing and dispatch areas, whereas serovars identified as 'resident hatchery contaminants' were predominantly found inside the hatcher cabinets. Ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates of S. Senftenberg were identified in one hatchery, which coincided with enrofloxacin treatment of some of the breeding flocks. Ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli was found in two hatcheries, and the majority of these isolates showed multidrug resistance.

  16. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  17. Critically Adaptive Pedagogical Relations: The Relevance for Educational Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Morwenna

    2013-01-01

    In this article Morwenna Griffiths argues that teacher education policies should be predicated on a proper and full understanding of pedagogical relations as contingent, responsive, and adaptive over the course of a career. Griffiths uses the example of the recent report on teacher education in Scotland, by Graham Donaldson, to argue that for all…

  18. A Practical Computer Adaptive Testing Model for Small-Scale Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Yu-Hui; Wu, Yu-Lung; Chang, Hsin-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Computer adaptive testing (CAT) is theoretically sound and efficient, and is commonly seen in larger testing programs. It is, however, rarely seen in a smaller-scale scenario, such as in classrooms or business daily routines, because of the complexity of most adopted Item Response Theory (IRT) models. While the Sequential Probability Ratio Test…

  19. Monitoring and Evaluation Plan for the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery, 1996 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, Cleveland R.

    1996-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has proposed to build and operate the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) in the Clearwater River subbasin of Idaho for the purpose of restoring self-sustaining populations of spring, summer, and fall chinook salmon to their native habitats. The project comprises a combination of incubation and rearing facilities, satellite rearing facilities, juvenile and adult collection sites, and associated production and harvest management activities. As currently conceived, the NPTH program will produce approximately 768,000 spring chinook parr, 800,000 summer chinook fry, and 2,000,000 fall chinook fry on an annual basis. Hatchery fish would be spawned, reared, and released under conditions that promote wild-type characteristics, minimize genetic changes in both hatchery and wild chinook populations, and minimize undesirable ecological interactions. The primary objective is to enable hatchery-produced fish to return to reproduce naturally in the streams in which they are released. These and other characteristics of the project are described in further detail in the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Master Plan (Larson and Mobrand 1992), the 1995 Supplement to the Master Plan (Johnson et al. 1995), and the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Program Environmental Impact Statement (Bonneville Power Administration et al. 1996). The report in hand is referred to in project literature as the NPTH Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Plan. This report describes monitoring and evaluation activities that will help NPTH managers determine. whether they were successful in restoring chinook salmon populations and avoiding adverse ecological impacts. Program success will be gauged primarily by changes in the abundance and distribution of supplemented chinook populations. The evaluation of project-related impacts will focus on the biological effects of constructing and operating NPTH hatchery facilities, introducing hatchery fish into the natural environment, and removing or displacing wild

  20. Mechanisms of cell protection by adaptation to chronic and acute hypoxia: molecular biology and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Corbucci, G G; Marchi, A; Lettieri, B; Luongo, C

    2005-11-01

    Several experimental and clinical studies have shown that specific biochemical and molecular pathways are involved in the myocardial and skeletal muscle cell tolerance to acute and/or chronic hypoxic injury. A number of different factors were proposed to play a role in the preservation of tissue viability, but to a few of them a pivotal role in the adaptive mechanisms to hypoxic stimuli could be ascribed. Starting from the observation that mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enzymic complexes are the targets of oxygen reduced availability, most of data are compatible with a mechanism of enzymic adaptation in which the nitric oxide (NO) generation plays the major role. If the partial and reversible NO-induced inhibition of ETC enzymic complexes represents the most rapid and prominent adaptive mechanism in counteracting the damaging effects of hypoxia, the sarcolemmal and mitochondrial K+(ATP) channels activation results to be closely involved in cytoprotection. This process is depending on protein kinase C (PKC) isoform activation triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and Ca++ overload. It is well known that all these factors are present in hypoxia-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial Ca++ altered pools represent powerful stimuli in the damaging processes. The activation of mitochondrial K+(ATP) channels leads to a significant reduction of Ca++ influx and attenuation of mitochondrial Ca++ overload. Closely linked to these adaptive changes signal transduction pathways are involved in the nuclear DNA damage and repair mechanisms. On this context, an essential role is played by the hypoxia-induced factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in terms of key transcription factor involved in oxygen-dependent gene regulation. The knowledge of the biochemical and molecular sequences involved in these adaptive processes call for a re-evaluation of the therapeutic approach to hypoxia-induced pathologies. On this light

  1. Upstream movement of residual hatchery steelhead into areas containing bull trout and cutthroat trout.

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A. ); Pearsons, Todd N.

    2000-11-01

    Hatchery-reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss that do not emigrate as smolts shortly after release may negatively impact wild fish communities through ecological interactions. We used systematic, stratified snorkeling surveys to document the relative abundance of wild rainbow trout O. mykiss, bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi as well as the upstream limit of residual hatchery steelhead (hatchery-reared steelhead that had failed to emigrate before June 1). Our objective was to determine whether residual hatchery steelhead had migrated upstream from their release point into an area containing a threatened population of bull trout and cutthroat trout. Hatchery steelhead made up a larger portion of the salmonid community in the sites near their release location (mean= 52.5%, range= 29-79%), and constituted a lower proportion (mean= 4.8%, range= 0-14%) of the salmonid community as distance upstream of the release location increased. However, residual hatchery steelhead had migrated over 12 km upstream into an area containing a threatened stock of bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi.

  2. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, Curtis M.; Schroder, Steven L.; Johnston, Mark V.

    2005-05-01

    This report is intended to satisfy two concurrent needs: (1) provide a contract deliverable from Oncorh Consulting to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), with emphasis on identification of salient results of value to ongoing Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) planning and (2) summarize results of research that have broader scientific relevance. This is the fourth in a series of reports that address reproductive ecological research and monitoring of spring chinook populations in the Yakima River basin. This annual report summarizes data collected between April 1, 2004 and March 31, 2005 and includes analyses of historical baseline data, as well. Supplementation success in the Yakima Klickitat Fishery Project's (YKFP) spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) program is defined as increasing natural production and harvest opportunities, while keeping adverse ecological interactions and genetic impacts within acceptable bounds (Busack et al. 1997). Within this context demographics, phenotypic traits, and reproductive ecology have significance because they directly affect natural productivity. In addition, significant changes in locally adapted traits due to hatchery influence, i.e. domestication, would likely be maladaptive resulting in reduced population productivity and fitness (Taylor 1991; Hard 1995). Thus, there is a need to study demographic and phenotypic traits in the YKFP in order to understand hatchery and wild population productivity, reproductive ecology, and the effects of domestication (Busack et al. 1997). Tracking trends in these traits over time is also a critical aspect of domestication monitoring (Busack et al. 2004) to determine whether trait changes have a genetic component and, if so, are they within acceptable limits. The first chapter of this report compares first generation hatchery and wild upper Yakima River spring chinook returns over a suite of life-history, phenotypic and demographic traits. The second chapter

  3. Mothers' marital adaptation following the birth of twins or singletons: empirical evidence and practical insights.

    PubMed

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Findler, Liora; Bendet, Chaya; Stanger, Varda; Ben-Shlomo, Shirley; Kuint, Jacob

    2008-08-01

    Parenting twins is typically portrayed as more stressful than is parenting single children and, therefore, more of a strain on the marital relationship. With this in mind, the present study examined the contribution of infant characteristics and mother's internal resources (attachment style) and external resources (maternal and paternal grandmothers' perceived support) to their marital adaptation during the first month following delivery, comparing mothers of twins (n = 88) with mothers of singletons (n = 82). The findings indicate that both internal and external resources contribute to the marital adaptation of the two groups, even beyond the contribution of specific circumstances. Thus, it seems that the birth of twins and the birth of a single child are normative life events that have more in common than previously acknowledged. The implications for the focus of social work interventions, particularly in the case of the birth of twins, are discussed.

  4. Trial-by-Trial Adaptation of Movements during Mental Practice under Force Field

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Muhammad Nabeel

    2013-01-01

    Human nervous system tries to minimize the effect of any external perturbing force by bringing modifications in the internal model. These modifications affect the subsequent motor commands generated by the nervous system. Adaptive compensation along with the appropriate modifications of internal model helps in reducing human movement errors. In the current study, we studied how motor imagery influences trial-to-trial learning in a robot-based adaptation task. Two groups of subjects performed reaching movements with or without motor imagery in a velocity-dependent force field. The results show that reaching movements performed with motor imagery have relatively a more focused generalization pattern and a higher learning rate in training direction. PMID:23737857

  5. Practical high-order adaptive optics systems for extrasolar planet searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce A.; Olivier, Scot S.; Bauman, Brian J.; Brase, James M.; Carr, Emily; Carrano, Carmen J.; Gavel, Donald T.; Max, Claire E.; Patience, Jennifer

    2002-02-01

    Direct detection of photons emitted or reflected by an extrasolar planet is an extremely difficult but extremely exciting application of adaptive optics. Typical contrast levels for an extrasolar planet would be 109 - Jupiter is a billion times fainter than the sun. Current adaptive optics systems can only achieve contrast levels of 106, but so-called extreme adaptive optics systems with 104 -105 degrees of freedom could potentially detect extrasolar planets. We explore the scaling laws defining the performance of these systems, first set out by Angel (1994), and derive a different definition of an optimal system. Our sensitivity predictions are somewhat more pessimistic than the original paper, due largely to slow decorrelation timescales for some noise sources, though choosing to site an ExAO system at a location with exceptional r0 (e.g. Mauna Kea) can offset this. We also explore the effects of segment aberrations in a Keck-like telescope on ExAO; although the effects are significant, they can be mitigated through Lyot coronagraphy.

  6. An overview of short bowel syndrome management: adherence, adaptation, and practical recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wall, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) refers to the clinical consequences resulting from loss of small bowel absorptive surface area due to surgical resection or bypass. The syndrome is characterized by maldigestion, malabsorption, and malnutrition. Survival of patients with SBS is dependent on adaptation in the remaining bowel and a combination of pharmacologic and nutrition therapies. Individual plans of care are developed based on the length and sites of remaining bowel, the degree of intestinal adaptation, and the patient's ability to adhere to the medication and dietary regimens. Antisecretory and antidiarrheal medications are prescribed to slow intestinal transit times and optimize fluid and nutrient absorption. Based on postsurgical anatomy, enteral feedings, parenteral infusions, complex diet plans, and vitamin and mineral supplementation are used in various combinations to nourish patients with SBS. In the acute care setting, registered dietitians (RDs) assist with infusion therapy, diet education, and discharge planning. Long-term, as the small intestine adapts, RDs revise the nutrition care plan and monitor for nutrient deficiencies, metabolic bone disease, and anemia. The frequent monitoring and revision of care plans, plus the appreciable benefits from proper medical nutrition therapy, make this patient population extremely challenging and rewarding for RDs to manage. This article provides a brief, case study-based overview of the medical and nutrition management of SBS.

  7. Practical High-Order Adaptive Optics Systems For Extrasolar Planet Searches

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B A; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Brase, J; Carr, E; Carrano, C J; Gavel, D; Max, C E; Patience, J

    2001-08-29

    Direct detection of photons emitted or reflected by an extrasolar planet is an extremely difficult but extremely exciting application of adaptive optics. Typical contrast levels for an extrasolar planet would be 10{sup 9}-Jupiter is a billion times fainter than the sun. Current adaptive optics systems can only achieve contrast levels of 10{sup 6}, but so-called ''extreme'' adaptive optics systems with 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} degrees of freedom could potentially detect extrasolar planets. We explore the scaling laws defining the performance of these systems, first set out by Angel (1994), and derive a different definition of an optimal system. Our sensitivity predictions are somewhat more pessimistic than the original paper, due largely to slow decorrelation timescales for some noise sources, though choosing to site an ExAO system at a location with exceptional r{sub 0} (e.g. Mauna Kea) can offset this. We also explore the effects of segment aberrations in a Keck-like telescope on ExAO; although the effects are significant, they can be mitigated through Lyot coronagraphy.

  8. Do open-cycle hatcheries relying on tourism conserve sea turtles? Sri Lankan developments and economic-ecological considerations.

    PubMed

    Tisdell, Clem; Wilson, Clevo

    2005-04-01

    By combining economic analysis of markets with ecological parameters, this article considers the role that tourism-based sea turtle hatcheries (of an open-cycle type) can play in conserving populations of sea turtles. Background is provided on the nature and development of such hatcheries in Sri Lanka. The modeling facilitates the assessment of the impacts of turtle hatcheries on the conservation of sea turtles and enables the economic and ecological consequences of tourism, based on such hatcheries, to be better appreciated. The results demonstrate that sea turtle hatcheries serving tourists can make a positive contribution to sea turtle conservation, but that their conservation effectiveness depends on the way they are managed. Possible negative effects are also identified. Economic market models are combined with turtle population survival relationships to predict the conservation impact of turtle hatcheries and their consequence for the total economic value obtained from sea turtle populations.

  9. Effect of incubation temperature on post-embryonic survival and growth of steelhead in a natural stream and a hatchery (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and North Fork Palouse River; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Baker, Bruce M.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether varying incubation temperatures to match development between embryos from different spawning dates affected survival and growth of unfed steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry released in a stream and in hatchery ponds. Hatchery steelhead returning to the Clearwater River, Idaho were artificially spawned on two dates separated by a four week interval. Progeny from the early date (ExE, from early males and early females) were incubated in chilled (7°C) water and those from the late date (LxL) in ambient (12°C) water until developmental stage matched. A third group, created by fertilizing eggs from late females with cryopreserved milt from early males (ExL), was included to control for any genetic differences between early and late returning adults. Survival in the stream to 3 and 15 months after release was similar among crosses. Survival in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period was similar among crosses for one of two year - classes but different for the other; however, it was difficult to ascribe the differences (ExL>ExE; LxL intermediate but closer to ExE) to incubation temperature differences. We conclude that there was little if any effect of incubation temperature on survival. Length of juveniles of one year - class differed among crosses in the stream and in the hatchery. Length of the other year - class differed among crosses in one pond at the hatchery but not in the other pond or in the stream. When length differed the pattern was always the same: ExE>LxL; ExL intermediate but closer to LxL. We speculate that incubation temperature may have affected growth of juveniles, and in particular that a longer period of incubation in chilled water may have caused fast juvenile growth relative to a shorter incubation period in ambient water.

  10. Post-Release Performance of Natural and Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, William P.

    2008-04-01

    reported here, but will be presented in future reports written after workshops and input by federal, state, and tribal researchers. In this report, we compared the postrelease performance of natural subyearlings to the postrelease performance of surrogate and production subyearlings. We made this comparison to help the fisheries community determine which of the two hatchery rearing strategies produced fish that were more similar to natural subyearlings. We compared the following attributes of postrelease performance (1) detection dates at dams, (2) detections during the implementation of summer spill, (3) travel times, (4) migrant sizes, and (5) the joint probability of migration and survival. Overall, we found that postrelease performance was more similar between natural and surrogate subyearlings than between natural and production subyearlings. Further, the similarity between natural and surrogate subyearlings was greater in 2006 than in 2005, partly as the result of changes in incubation and early rearing practices we recommended based on 2005 results.

  11. Old Recipes, New Practice? The Latin Adaptations of the Hippocratic Gynaecological Treatises

    PubMed Central

    Totelin, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    There were two main gynaecological traditions in the early Middle Ages: the Soranic and Hippocratic traditions. This article focuses on the latter tradition, which was based on the translations into Latin of the Greek treatises Diseases of Women I and II. These translations, referred to here as Latin Diseases of Women and On the Diverse Afflictions of Women, contain a wealth of recipes, which are examined in detail. I ask whether recipes that had been first written down in the fifth century BC could still form the basis of gynaecological practice in the Middle Ages, and whether the act of translation transformed medical practice.

  12. Mycobacteria in adult salmonid fishes returning to national fish hatcheries in Washington, Oregon and California in 1958-59

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.

    1963-01-01

    Incidence of acid-fast bacillus infections in salmonid fishes at West Coast hatcheries was determined for 1957-59. No evidence was obtained which would indicate a definite trend towards either increased or decreased rates of infection. It is apparent that the incidence of infection is higher in hatchery-marked fish than in unmarked fish. Only one hatchery was found free of infection during the 3 years covered by the investigation. This installation had never used raw salmon products in diet.

  13. Seasonal growth and mortality of juveniles of Lampsilis fasciola (Bivalvia: Unionidae) released to a fish hatchery raceway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanlon, S.D.; Neves, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent efforts to restore remnant or extirpated populations of freshwater mussels have focused on artificial propagation as an effective and practical conservation strategy. Although artificially cultured juveniles have been produced and released to the wild at various times of the year, no study has investigated the best time of year to release these juveniles. Newly metamorphosed juveniles of the wavyrayed lampmussel (Lampsilis fasciola) were released into a stream-fed fish hatchery raceway during March, June, and September. Growth and survival rates were measured 32, 52, 72, and 92 days post-metamorphosis. Juveniles released in June experienced the greatest growth and survival rates. Juveniles released in September and March experienced high mortality within the first month of release and exhibited poor growth in the cool water conditions typical of those seasons. Overwinter survival exhibited a size-dependent relationship.

  14. Modeling the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Pacific Salmon Culture Programs: An Example at Winthrop National Fish Hatchery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Kyle C.; Peterson, Douglas P.

    2014-09-01

    Hatcheries have long been used in an attempt to mitigate for declines in wild stocks of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.), though the conservation benefit of hatcheries is a topic of ongoing debate. Irrespective of conservation benefits, a fundamental question is whether hatcheries will be able to function as they have in the past given anticipated future climate conditions. To begin to answer this question, we developed a deterministic modeling framework to evaluate how climate change may affect hatcheries that rear Pacific salmon. The framework considers the physiological tolerances for each species, incorporates a temperature-driven growth model, and uses two metrics commonly monitored by hatchery managers to determine the impacts of changes in water temperature and availability on hatchery rearing conditions. As a case study, we applied the model to the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Winthrop National Fish Hatchery. We projected that hatchery environmental conditions remained within the general physiological tolerances for Chinook salmon in the 2040s (assuming A1B greenhouse gas emissions scenario), but that warmer water temperatures in summer accelerated juvenile salmon growth. Increased growth during summer coincided with periods when water availability should also be lower, thus increasing the likelihood of physiological stress in juvenile salmon. The identification of these climate sensitivities led to a consideration of potential mitigation strategies such as chilling water, altering rations, or modifying rearing cycles. The framework can be refined with new information, but in its present form, it provides a consistent, repeatable method to assess the vulnerability of hatcheries to predicted climate change.

  15. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald D.

    1997-06-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem and Thornhollow satellite facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead and Three Mile Dam is used for holding and spawning adult fall chinook and coho salmon. Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques and Thornhollow facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and summer steelhead. The main goal of acclimation is to reduce stress from trucking prior to release and improve imprinting of juvenile salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin. Juveniles are transported to the acclimation facilities primarily from Umatilla and Bonneville Hatcheries. This report details activities associated with operation and maintenance of the Bonifer, Minthorn, Imeques, Thornhollow and Three Mile Dam facilities in 1996.

  16. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fairgrieve, William; Christensen, David

    2004-04-01

    The Colville Tribal Hatchery produced 62,335 pounds of trout during the contract period, however, only 46,092 pounds were liberated to lakes and streams. The remaining production will be carried over to 2004 to be planted as larger fish into reservation waters for the lakes opener. New raceways were completed in November and brought on line in the spring. These raceways currently hold the redband rainbow brood stock and will be spawned in 2004. Efforts are continuing to capture redbands from other streams in coordination with the monitoring and evaluation program. Creel was expanded by hiring a second creel clerk to give better coverage of reservation waters by reducing travel time. Marking continues on all fish planted from CTH and refinements continue to be made. The first tag retention study has been completed and the second study is now underway to determine long term tag recognition. Lakes continue to be surveyed to complete the baseline analysis of all reservation lakes and will be completed in 2004.

  17. Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities; Operations and Maintenance, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, Gerald

    2003-05-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to enhance steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As an integral part of this program, Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem, Thornhollow and Pendleton satellite facilities are operated for acclimation and release of juvenile summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fall and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Minthorn is also used for holding and spawning adult summer steelhead and Three Mile Dam and South Fork Walla Walla facilities are used for holding and spawning chinook salmon. In some years, Three Mile Dam may also be used for holding and spawning coho salmon. In the spring of 2002, summer steelhead were acclimated and released at Bonifer Pond (54,917), Minthorn Springs (47,521), and Pendleton (54,366). Yearling coho (1,621,857) were also acclimated and released at Pendleton. Yearling spring chinook salmon (876,121) were acclimated and released at Imeques C-mem-ini-kem. At Thornhollow, 520,564 yearling fall chinook and 307,194 subyearling fall chinook were acclimated. In addition, 104,908 spring chinook were transported to Imeques C-mem-ini-kem in November for release in the spring of 2003. CTUIR and ODFW personnel monitored the progress of outmigration for juvenile releases at the Westland Canal juvenile facility. Nearly all juveniles released in the spring migrated downstream prior to the trap being opened in early July. A total of 100 unmarked and 10 marked summer steelhead were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from September 21, 2001, through April 2, 2002. An estimated 180,955 green eggs were taken from 36 females and were transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for incubation and rearing. A total of 560 adult and 26 jack spring chinook salmon were collected for broodstock at Three Mile Dam from April 22 through June 12, 2002

  18. An auto-adaptive optimization approach for targeting nonpoint source pollution control practices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Wei, Guoyuan; Shen, Zhenyao

    2015-01-01

    To solve computationally intensive and technically complex control of nonpoint source pollution, the traditional genetic algorithm was modified into an auto-adaptive pattern, and a new framework was proposed by integrating this new algorithm with a watershed model and an economic module. Although conceptually simple and comprehensive, the proposed algorithm would search automatically for those Pareto-optimality solutions without a complex calibration of optimization parameters. The model was applied in a case study in a typical watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. The results indicated that the evolutionary process of optimization was improved due to the incorporation of auto-adaptive parameters. In addition, the proposed algorithm outperformed the state-of-the-art existing algorithms in terms of convergence ability and computational efficiency. At the same cost level, solutions with greater pollutant reductions could be identified. From a scientific viewpoint, the proposed algorithm could be extended to other watersheds to provide cost-effective configurations of BMPs. PMID:26487474

  19. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume IV of IV; Washington: Rocky Reach Hatchery Addendum, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, Larry

    1993-08-01

    Rocky Reach Hatchery is located along the Columbia Paver, just downstream from Rocky Reach Dam. Site elevation is 800 feet above sea level. The Turtle Rock Island facility, located 2 miles upstream, is operated as a satellite facility (shared with the Washington Department of Wildlife). The facility is staffed with 2.75 FTE`S. The hatchery was originally designed as a mile-long spawning channel at Turtle Rock Island. Rearing units consist of eight vinyl raceways at Rocky Reach and four rearing ponds at Turtle Rock. Water rights are held by Chelan County PUD and total 3,613 gpm from the Columbia River. Water available for use in the Turtle Rock rearing ponds averages 12,000 gpm from the Columbia River. Rocky Reach Hatchery and the Turtle Rock satellite facility are owned by Chelan County PUD. They are operated as mitigation facilities for the fishery impacts caused by the construction and operation of Rocky Reach Dam. Rocky Reach Hatchery is used for incubation and early rearing of upriver bright (URB) fall chinook. Fingerlings are later transferred to the Turtle Rock facility for final rearing and release.

  20. Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

  1. Effective size of a wild salmonid population is greatly reduced by hatchery supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Christie, M R; Marine, M L; French, R A; Waples, R S; Blouin, M S

    2012-01-01

    Many declining and commercially important populations are supplemented with captive-born individuals that are intentionally released into the wild. These supplementation programs often create large numbers of offspring from relatively few breeding adults, which can have substantial population-level effects. We examined the genetic effects of supplementation on a wild population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Hood River, Oregon, by matching 12 run-years of hatchery steelhead back to their broodstock parents. We show that the effective number of breeders producing the hatchery fish (broodstock parents; Nb) was quite small (harmonic mean Nb=25 fish per brood-year vs 373 for wild fish), and was exacerbated by a high variance in broodstock reproductive success among individuals within years. The low Nb caused hatchery fish to have decreased allelic richness, increased average relatedness, more loci in linkage disequilibrium and substantial levels of genetic drift in comparison with their wild-born counterparts. We also documented a substantial Ryman–Laikre effect whereby the additional hatchery fish doubled the total number of adult fish on the spawning grounds each year, but cut the effective population size of the total population (wild and hatchery fish combined) by nearly two-thirds. We further demonstrate that the Ryman–Laikre effect is most severe in this population when (1) >10% of fish allowed onto spawning grounds are from hatcheries and (2) the hatchery fish have high reproductive success in the wild. These results emphasize the trade-offs that arise when supplementation programs attempt to balance disparate goals (increasing production while maintaining genetic diversity and fitness). PMID:22805657

  2. Use of a crop climate modeling system to evaluate climate change adaptation practices: maize yield in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N. J.; Alagarswamy, G.; Andresen, J.; Olson, J.; Thornton, P.

    2013-12-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is dominated by small-scale farmers and is heavily depend on growing season precipitation. Recent studies indicate that anthropogenic- induced warming including the Indian Ocean sea surface significantly influences precipitation in East Africa. East Africa is a useful region to assess impacts of future climate because of its large rainfall gradient, large percentage of its area being sub-humid or semi-arid, complex climatology and topography, varied soils, and because the population is particularly vulnerable to shifts in climate. Agronomic adaptation practices most commonly being considered include include a shift to short season, drought resistant maize varieties, better management practices especially fertilizer use, and irrigation. The effectiveness of these practices with climate change had not previously been tested. We used the WorldClim data set to represent current climate and compared the current and future climate scenarios of 4 Global Climate Models (GCMs) including a wetter (CCSM) and drier (HadCM3) GCM downscaled to 6 km resolution. The climate data was then used in the process-based CERES maize crop model to simulate the current period (representing 1960- 1990) and change in future maize production (from 2000 to 2050s). The effectiveness of agronomic practices, including short duration maize variety, fertilizer use and irrigation, to reduce projected future yield losses due to climate change were simulated. The GCMs project an increase in maximum temperature during growing season ranging from 1.5 to 3°C. Changes in precipitation were dependent on the GCM, with high variability across different topographies land cover types and elevations. Projected warmer temperatures in the future scenarios accelerated plant development and led to a reduction in growing season length and yields even where moisture was sufficient Maize yield changes in 2050 relative to the historical period were highly varied, in excess of +/- 500 kg

  3. Adaptive sex allocation in birds: the complexities of linking theory and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Komdeur, Jan; Pen, Ido

    2002-01-01

    We review some recent theoretical and empirical developments in the study of sex allocation in birds. The advent of reliable molecular sexing techniques has led to a sharp increase in the number of studies that report biased offspring sex ratios in birds. However, compelling evidence for adaptive sex allocation in birds is still very scant. We argue that there are two reasons for this: (i) standard sex allocation models, very helpful in understanding sex allocation of invertebrates, do not sufficiently take the complexities of bird life histories and physiology into account. Recent theoretical work might bring us a step closer to more realistic models; (ii) experimental field and laboratory studies on sex allocation in birds are scarce. Recent experimental work both in the laboratory and in the field shows that this is a promising approach. PMID:11958705

  4. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lovrak, Jon; Combs, Mitch

    2004-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operation and evaluation. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribes form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery. The LRHCT also serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. Since 1994 the kokanee fingerling program has changed to yearling releases. By utilizing both the hatcheries and additional net pens, up to 1,000,000 kokanee yearlings can be reared and released. The construction and operation of twenty net pens in 2001 enabled the increased production. Another significant change has been to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native tributary stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin waters. The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program (LRFEP) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation on the Lake Roosevelt Projects. From 1988 to 1998, the principal sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee

  5. Occurrence, size, and tag retention of sneaker male hatchery rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isely, J.J.; Grabowski, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    One alternative reproductive tactic involving early-maturing, cryptic males is referred to as "sneaking." Although sneakers tend to be easily detectable upon close inspection, little is known about the proportion of a fish population consisting of sneakers. We examined 15,400 age-1 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a hatchery. Total length (mm), wet weight (g), and sex (sneaker male or unknown) were recorded for each fish. We also individually tagged each sneaker male with soft visual implant alphanumeric (VIalpha) tags that were sequentially numbered and held the fish for 25 d before inspection. Sneakers constituted 2.8% of the hatchery rainbow trout population and were smaller in total length and weight than typical rainbow trout of the same age. Retention of the VIalpha tags in sneakers was 58.9%, significantly lower than has been reported under similar circumstances. We found that sneaker males may contribute substantially to hatchery populations. Reduced tag retention in sneakers may bias studies evaluating the effect of hatchery fish on wild populations. We believe that hatchery-produced sneaker males have the potential to contribute importantly to the genetic composition of wild populations.

  6. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1988 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1989-02-01

    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1988. Estimated kokanee abundance in early September was 10.2 million fish. This estimate is 70% higher than 1987 and 140% higher than the populations's low point in 1986. Increased population size over the past two years is the result of two consecutive strong year classes produced from high recruitment of hatchery and wild fry. High recruitment of wild fry in 1988 resulted from good parental escapement (strong year class) in 1987 and relatively high fry survival. Hatchery fry made up 51% of total fry recruitment (73% of total fry biomass), which is the largest contribution since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. High hatchery fry abundance resulted from a large release (13 million fry) from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery and excellent fry survival (29%) during their first summer in Lake Pend Oreille. Improved fry release strategies enhanced survival, which doubled from 1987 to 1988 and was ten times higher than survival in 1986. Our research goal is to maintain 30% survival so we are very optimistic, but need to replicate additional years to address annual variability. 27 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Vertebral deformities in hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Hongjian; Zhang, Xiumei; Fu, Mei; Xi, Dan; Su, Shengqi; Yao, Weizhi

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared vertebral deformities of hatchery-reared and wild-caught juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. A total of 362 hatchery-reared flounder (total length 122.5-155.8 mm) were collected from three commercial hatcheries located in Yantai, East China, and 89 wild fish (total length 124.7-161.3 mm) were caught off Yangma Island near Yantai City (37°27'N, 121°36'E). All the fish were dissected, photographed, and images of the axial skeleton were examined for vertebral deformities. Compared with wild-caught flounder in which no deformed vertebrae were detected, 48 (13.3%) hatcheryreared fish had deformed vertebrae. The deformities were classified as compression, compression-ankylosis, and dislocation-ankylosis. The vertebral deformities were mainly localized between post-cranial vertebra 1 and 3, with vertebrae number 1 as the most commonly deformed. The causative factors leading to vertebral deformities in reared Japanese flounder may be related to unfavorable temperature conditions, inflammation, damage, or rupture to the intervertebral ligaments under rearing conditions. Furthermore, no significant difference in the total number of vertebral bodies was observed between wild-caught (38.8±0.4) and hatchery-reared flounder (38.1±0.9) ( P>0.05). However, the number of vertebral bodies of hatchery-reared and wild-caught flounder ranged from 35 to 39 and from 38 to 39, respectively.

  8. Evaluation of chemical control for nonnative crayfish at a warm-water fish production hatchery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allert, Ann L.; McKee, M.J.; DiStefano, R.J.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive crayfish are known to displace native crayfish species, alter aquatic habitat and community structure and function, and are serious pests for fish hatcheries. White River Crawfish (WRC; Procambarus acutus) were inadvertently introduced to a warm-water fish hatchery in Missouri, USA, possibly in an incoming fish shipment. We evaluated the use of chemical control for crayfish to ensure incoming and outgoing fish shipments from hatcheries do not contain live crayfish. We conducted acute (≤24 hr) static toxicity tests to determine potency, dose-response, and selectivity of pesticides to WRC, Virile Crayfish (VC; Orconectes virilis), and Fathead Minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). Testing identified a formulation of cypermethrin (Cynoff®) as the most potent of five pesticides evaluated for toxicity to crayfish. A 4-hr exposure to a cypermethrin concentration of 100 μg · L-1 was found to kill 100% of juvenile and adult WRC; however, adult VC were not consistently killed. Concentrations of cypermethrin ≤100 μg · L-1 did not cause significant (>10%) mortality in juvenile FHM. Additional testing is needed to examine selectivity between crayfish and hatchery fish species. Biosecurity protocols at hatcheries that use chemical control have the potential to reliably prevent inadvertent transfers of live crayfish in fish shipments.

  9. Practical Study and Solutions Adapted For The Road Noise In The Algiers City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iddir, R.; Boukhaloua, N.; Saadi, T.

    At the present hour where the city spreads on a big space, the road network devel- opment was a following logical of this movement. Generating a considerable impact thus on the environment. This last is a resulting open system of the interaction be- tween the man and the nature, it's affected all side by the different means of transport and by their increasing demand of mobility. The contemporary city development be- got problems bound to the environment and among it : The road noise. This last is a complex phenomenon, essentially by reason of its humans sensory effects, its impact on the environment is considerable, this one concerns the life quality directly, mainly in population zones to strong density. The resonant pollution reached its paroxysm; the road network of Algiers is not conceived to satisfy requirements in resonant pol- lution matter. For it arrangements soundproof should be adapted in order to face of it these new requirements in matter of the acoustic comfort. All these elements drove to the process aiming the attenuation of the hindrance caused by the road traffic and it by actions essentially aiming: vehicles, the structure of the road and the immediate envi- ronment of the system road - structure. From these results, we note that the situation in resonant nuisance matter in this zone with strong traffic is disturbing, and especially on the residents health.

  10. Intrusive versus domiciliated triatomines and the challenge of adapting vector control practices against Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Waleckx, Etienne; Gourbière, Sébastien; Dumonteil, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease prevention remains mostly based on triatomine vector control to reduce or eliminate house infestation with these bugs. The level of adaptation of triatomines to human housing is a key part of vector competence and needs to be precisely evaluated to allow for the design of effective vector control strategies. In this review, we examine how the domiciliation/intrusion level of different triatomine species/populations has been defined and measured and discuss how these concepts may be improved for a better understanding of their ecology and evolution, as well as for the design of more effective control strategies against a large variety of triatomine species. We suggest that a major limitation of current criteria for classifying triatomines into sylvatic, intrusive, domiciliary and domestic species is that these are essentially qualitative and do not rely on quantitative variables measuring population sustainability and fitness in their different habitats. However, such assessments may be derived from further analysis and modelling of field data. Such approaches can shed new light on the domiciliation process of triatomines and may represent a key tool for decision-making and the design of vector control interventions. PMID:25993504

  11. Self-neglect: adaptation of a clinical tool to the practice of the medical examiner.

    PubMed

    Sauvageau, Anny; Hunter, Brian C

    2012-09-01

    Self-neglect is the inability or unwillingness to provide for oneself the goods and services needed to live safely and independently. It is the most common allegation reported to Adult Protective Services agencies throughout the United States. Unfortunately, it seems that most medical examiners and their teams are not trained appropriately on self-neglect and forget to ask pertinent questions and document relevant observations. The most important aspect of self-neglect for the medical examiner is to recognize the diagnosis to avoid confusion with other forms of elder abuse, particularly neglect from a third party. In this context, a self-neglect scale could be a useful tool to assist the death investigation team. In the clinical field, a self-neglect severity scale was developed by the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-Neglect of Texas. It is here proposed that a self-neglect severity scale for medical examiners should be developed, to assist the investigative team in assessing these common cases. This scale is developed by modifying the clinical scale to adapt it to the particular needs of death investigation. This scale can help the medical examiner and his team in approaching these deaths in a systematic and comprehensive way.

  12. A comparison of the survival and migratory behavior of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead smolts in the Alsea river and estuary, Oregon, using acoustic telemetry

    EPA Science Inventory

    We tracked three groups of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts implanted with acoustic transmitters to determine whether the degree of hatchery domestication or the juvenile rearing environment (hatchery raceway versus natural stream) influenced migration timing and survival in ...

  13. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide based product as a hatchery sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, P; Cox, S; Gadde, U; Clark, F D; Bramwell, K; Watkins, S E

    2016-12-05

    Formaldehyde is commonly used to overcome contaminants introduced by hatching eggs or water supply in the hatcher cabinets. However, health risks associated with its use make economical alternatives important. This project evaluated a chlorine dioxide based product (CDBP) (0.3% concentrate) as a hatchery sanitizer in decontaminating microbial populations on the shell surface of hatching eggs (>18 d old), as well as its impact on hatchability and chick performance. Hatchers (0.20 m(2)) designed to hold approximately 50 eggs and equipped with circulation fans, heaters, and thermostats were used for the evaluation. For each of the 2 trials conducted, 450 hatching eggs were obtained and incubated in a common setter. Eggs used in trial 1 were floor eggs whereas in trial 2 nest eggs were used. On d 18 of incubation, eggs were removed from the setter, and viable eggs were randomly allocated to 9 hatchers. Pre-treatment egg rinse samples (10 eggs per hatcher) were collected for initial microbial analysis. Three hatchers were treated with CDBP and 3 hatchers with a formaldehyde based product (FBP). Three untreated hatchers served as control (C). Prior to hatch, 10 eggs/incubator, not previously rinsed, were used for post treatment microbial counts. The hatched chicks were reared until d 21 in floor pens with a common starter diet. For the CDBP treated eggs, hatchability and chick performance (weight gains, mortality, and FCR on d 7 and d 21) were similar to the other treatments. The application rate of CDBP evaluated in this study was not an effective antimicrobial alternative to formaldehyde for sanitizing hatching eggs in hatcher cabinets prior to hatch.

  14. Challenges in adapting international best practices in cancer prevention, care, and research for Qatar.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Peter J; Kerr, Karen; Al Kuwari, Hanan; Mohamed Husain Ali, Faleh; Knuth, Alexander; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that all countries develop a cancer control program. Qatar is the first country in the Gulf Cooperation Council to develop such a plan, with its National Cancer Strategy 2011-2016. Three years into implementation, meaningful progress has been made, particularly in reducing patient waiting times, creating a multidisciplinary approach to cancer treatment, and fostering international research collaboration. Challenges include attracting sufficient numbers of trained health care workers, reaching a diverse population with messages tailored to their needs, and emphasizing cancer prevention and early detection in addition to research and treatment. Qatar's example shows that best practices developed in North America, Western Europe, and Australasia can be assimilated in a very different demographic and cultural context when such approaches are tailored to local characteristics and circumstances.

  15. [Adapting medical practices to the field: pregnancy and HIV in French Guyana and Saint-Martin].

    PubMed

    Carde, Estelle

    2011-01-01

    Because of its high prevalence, HIV in pregnancy is a major public health issue in French Guyana and Saint Martin, particularly since the risk of transmission to the child can be significantly reduced through pharmacological treatment. Most of the HIV-infected women in these areas are immigrants living in highly precarious circumstances. This study examines the capacity of the healthcare system to adapt to the specific social characteristics of overseas regions, focusing in particular on perceptions of the risks associated with pregnancy among HIV-infected women and the social inequalities affecting adherence to HIV treatment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Cayenne, Saint-Laurent du Maroni and Saint-Martin with 19 HIV-infected women and 54 social and health care professionals. Observations (medical consultations, therapeutic education consultations, discussion groups, medical meetings) were also conducted to complete the data set. The results show that professionals tend to use the most significant concern expressed by HIV-infected women - i.e. the risk of transmitting their infection to their child - as an opportunity to promote the active involvement of patients in their own care and the health care of their children by encouraging them to adhere to their treatment. The study found that professionals seek to lessen the impact of social inequalities on patient adherence to the treatment in a context of social stigmatization linked to the particular status of their patients as HIV-infected women, undocumented migrants, and ethnic minority members. The example of HIV in pregnancy illustrates the capacity of the healthcare system to reduce the impact of social inequalities on health and highlights the significant negative impact that a reduced commitment to this issue would have.

  16. Variation in feeding, aggression, and position choice between hatchery and wild cutthroat trout in an artificial stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, Matthew G.

    1991-01-01

    I compared feeding, aggressive behavior, and spatial distribution of differently ranked individuals of hatchery and wild coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki clarki in an artificial stream. Both hatchery and wild groups established stable dominance hierarchies that seemed to be based on size differences. Hatchery and wild fish within a hierarchical rank fed at similar rates. Hatchery fish were more aggressive than their wild conspecifics, irrespective of rank. Dominant hatchery fish were evenly distributed in pools and riffles, whereas dominant wild fish were three times more often in pools than in riffles. In both groups, socially intermediate fish were almost evenly distributed between pools and riffles, and subordinate fish spent most of their time in pools. On average, hatchery fish spent 57% of their time in pools and 43% in riffles, whereas wild fish spent 71% of their time in pools and 29% in riffles. These results support the hypothesis that excessive expenditure of energy for unnecessary aggression, use of fast-flowing water, or other purposes contributes to poor survival of hatchery fish after they are stocked in streams. Poor survival would reduce the efficacy of using hatchery stocks to supplement wild production.

  17. Array measurements adapted to the number of available sensors: Theoretical and practical approach for ESAC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiana-Merino, J. J.; Rosa-Cintas, S.; Rosa-Herranz, J.; Garrido, J.; Peláez, J. A.; Martino, S.; Delgado, J.

    2016-05-01

    Array measurements of ambient noise have become a useful technique to estimate the surface wave dispersion curves and subsequently the subsurface elastic parameters that characterize the studied soil. One of the logistical handicaps associated with this kind of measurements is the requirement of several stations recording at the same time, which limits their applicability in the case of research groups without enough infrastructure resources. In this paper, we describe the theoretical basis of the ESAC method and we deduce how the number of stations needed to implement any array layout can be reduced to only two stations. In this way, we propose a new methodology to implement an N stations array layout by using only M stations (M < N), which will be recording in different positions of the original prearranged N stations geometry at different times. We also provide some practical guidelines to implement the proposed approach and we show different examples where the obtained results confirm the theoretical foundations. Thus, the study carried out reflects that we can use a minimum of 2 stations to deploy any array layout originally designed for higher number of sensors.

  18. [Spanish adaptation of the 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Royo-Bordonada, M Á; Armario, P; Lobos Bejarano, J M; Pedro-Botet, J; Villar Alvarez, F; Elosua, R; Brotons Cuixart, C; Cortés, O; Serrano, B; Cammafort Babkowski, M; Gil Núñez, A; Pérez, A; Maiques, A; de Santiago Nocito, A; Castro, A; Alegría, E; Baeza, C; Herranz, M; Sans, S; Campos, P

    The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk. Diabetes mellitus confers a high risk, except for subjects with type 2 diabetes with less than <10 years of evolution, without other risk factors or complications, or type 1 diabetes of short evolution without complications. The decision to start pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension will depend on the blood pressure level and the cardiovascular risk, taking into account the lesion of target organs. The guidelines don't recommend antiplatelet drugs in primary prevention because of the increased bleeding risk. The low adherence to the medication requires simplified therapeutic regimes and to identify and combat its causes. The guidelines highlight the responsibility of health professionals to take an active role in advocating evidence-based interventions at the population level, and propose effective interventions, at individual and population level, to promote a healthy diet, the practice of physical activity, the cessation of smoking and the protection against alcohol abuse.

  19. Spanish adaptation of the 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Royo-Bordonada, M Á; Armario, P; Lobos Bejarano, J M; Pedro-Botet, J; Villar Alvarez, F; Elosua, R; Brotons Cuixart, C; Cortés, O; Serrano, B; Camafort Babkowski, M; Gil Núñez, A; Pérez, A; Maiques, A; de Santiago Nocito, A; Castro, A; Alegría, E; Baeza, C; Herranz, M; Sans, S; Campos, P

    The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk. Diabetes mellitus confers a high risk, except for subjects with type 2 diabetes with less than <10 years of evolution, without other risk factors or complications, or type 1 diabetes of short evolution without complications. The decision to start pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension will depend on the blood pressure level and the cardiovascular risk, taking into account the lesion of target organs. The guidelines don't recommend antiplatelet drugs in primary prevention because of the increased bleeding risk. The low adherence to the medication requires simplified therapeutic regimes and to identify and combat its causes. The guidelines highlight the responsibility of health professionals to take an active role in advocating evidence-based interventions at the population level, and propose effective interventions, at individual and population level, to promote a healthy diet, the practice of physical activity, the cessation of smoking and the protection against alcohol abuse.

  20. [Spanish Adaptation of the 2016 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice].

    PubMed

    Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Angel; Armario, Pedro; Lobos Bejarano, José María; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; Elosua, Roberto; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Cortés, Olga; Serrano, Benilde; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Gil Núñez, Antonio; Pérez, Antonio; Maiques, Antonio; de Santiago Nocito, Ana; Castro, Almudena; Alegría, Eduardo; Baeza, Ciro; Herranz, María; Sans, Susana; Campos, Pilar

    2016-11-24

    The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk. Diabetes mellitus confers a high risk, except for subjects with type 2 diabetes with less than 10 years of evolution, without other risk factors or complications, or type 1 diabetes of short evolution without complications. The decision to start pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension will depend on the blood pressure level and the cardiovascular risk, taking into account the lesion of target organs. The guidelines don't recommend antiplatelet drugs in primary prevention because of the increased bleeding risk. The low adherence to the medication requires simplified therapeutic regimes and to identify and combat its causes. The guidelines highlight the responsibility of health professionals to take an active role in advocating evidence-based interventions at the population level, and propose effective interventions, at individual and population level, to promote a healthy diet, the practice of physical activity, the cessation of smoking and the protection against alcohol abuse.

  1. [Spanish adaptation of the 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Royo-Bordonada, M Á; Armario, P; Lobos Bejarano, J M; Pedro-Botet, J; Villar Alvarez, F; Elosua, R; Brotons Cuixart, C; Cortés, O; Serrano, B; Camafort Babkowski, M; Gil Núñez, A; Pérez, A; Maiques, A; de Santiago Nocito, A; Castro, A; Alegría, E; Baeza, C; Herranz, M; Sans, S; Campos, P

    2017-03-11

    The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk. Diabetes mellitus confers a high risk, except for subjects with type 2 diabetes with less than <10 years of evolution, without other risk factors or complications, or type 1 diabetes of short evolution without complications. The decision to start pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension will depend on the blood pressure level and the cardiovascular risk, taking into account the lesion of target organs. The guidelines don't recommend antiplatelet drugs in primary prevention because of the increased bleeding risk. The low adherence to the medication requires simplified therapeutic regimes and to identify and combat its causes. The guidelines highlight the responsibility of health professionals to take an active role in advocating evidence-based interventions at the population level, and propose effective interventions, at individual and population level, to promote a healthy diet, the practice of physical activity, the cessation of smoking and the protection against alcohol abuse.

  2. Practical interventions to promote circadian adaptation to permanent night shift work: study 4.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark R; Fogg, Louis F; Eastman, Charmane I

    2009-04-01

    Scheduled bright light and darkness can phase shift the circadian clocks of night workers for complete adaptation to a night work, day sleep schedule, but few night workers would want this because it would leave them out of phase with the diurnal world on days off. This is the final study in a series designed to produce a compromise circadian phase position for permanent night shift work in which the sleepiest circadian time is delayed out of the night work period and into the first half of the day sleep episode. The target compromise phase position was a dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) of 3:00, which puts the sleepiest circadian time at approximately 10:00. This was predicted to improve night shift alertness and performance while permitting sufficient daytime sleep after work as well as late-night sleep on days off. In a between-subjects design, 19 healthy subjects underwent 3 simulated night shifts (23:00-7:00), 2 days off, 4 more night shifts, and 2 more days off. Subjects "worked" in the lab and slept at home. Experimental subjects received four 15-min bright light pulses during each night shift, wore dark sunglasses when outside, slept in dark bedrooms at scheduled times, and received outdoor afternoon light exposure ("light brake") to keep their rhythms from delaying too far. Control subjects remained in normal room light during night shifts, wore lighter sunglasses, and had unrestricted sleep and outdoor light exposure. The final DLMO of the experimental group was 3:22 +/- 2.0 h, close to the target of 3:00, and later than the control group at 23:24 +/- 3.8 h. Experimental subjects slept for nearly all the permitted time in bed. Some control subjects who slept late on weekends also reached the compromise phase position and obtained more daytime sleep. Subjects who phase delayed (whether in the experimental or control group) close to the target phase performed better during night shifts. A compromise circadian phase position improved performance during night

  3. Ammonia disinfection of hatchery waste for elimination of single-stranded RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Emmoth, Eva; Ottoson, Jakob; Albihn, Ann; Belák, Sándor; Vinnerås, Björn

    2011-06-01

    Hatchery waste, an animal by-product of the poultry industry, needs sanitation treatment before further use as fertilizer or as a substrate in biogas or composting plants, owing to the potential presence of opportunistic pathogens, including zoonotic viruses. Effective sanitation is also important in viral epizootic outbreaks and as a routine, ensuring high hygiene standards on farms. This study examined the use of ammonia at different concentrations and temperatures to disinfect hatchery waste. Inactivation kinetics of high-pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 and low-pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N3, as representatives of notifiable avian viral diseases, were determined in spiked hatchery waste. Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, feline coronavirus, and feline calicivirus were used as models for other important avian pathogens, such as Newcastle disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, and avian hepatitis E virus. Bacteriophage MS2 was also monitored as a stable indicator. Coronavirus was the most sensitive virus, with decimal reduction (D) values of 1.2 and 0.63 h after addition of 0.5% (wt/wt) ammonia at 14 and 25°C, respectively. Under similar conditions, high-pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 was the most resistant, with D values of 3.0 and 1.4 h. MS2 was more resistant than the viruses to all treatments and proved to be a suitable indicator of viral inactivation. The results indicate that ammonia treatment of hatchery waste is efficient in inactivating enveloped and naked single-stranded RNA viruses. Based on the D values and confidence intervals obtained, guidelines for treatment were proposed, and one was successfully validated at full scale at a hatchery, with MS2 added to hatchery waste.

  4. Endocrine and physiological changes in Atlantic salmon smolts following hatchery release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; O'Dea, M. F.; Moeckel, Amy M.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur

    2003-01-01

    Physiological and endocrine changes during smolt development were examined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared and released as part of a restoration program on the Connecticut River and its tributaries. Fish were reared in a cold water hatchery in Pittsford, VT and released into the Farmington River, CT (a major tributary of the Connecticut River) or into 'imprint ponds' fed by the Farmington River. Smelts were recaptured 10-20 days after their release at a smolt bypass facility 16 km downstream of their release site. Fish sampled at the hatchery from January to May had only moderate smolt development based on salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and hormone profiles. In contrast, smolts released into the river or imprint ponds had higher salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and thyroxine than smolts that remained in the hatchery. These physiological and endocrine changes were nearly identical to those of smolts that had been released into the river 2 years earlier as fry and were captured as active migrants at the same bypass facility (stream-reared smolts). The stomach contents as a percent of body weight (primarily aquatic insects) varied greatly among individuals and were greater in hatchery-reared fish than stream-reared smolts. Results from the rearing of hatchery fish at temperatures similar to that of the Farmington River indicate that some of the physiological changes may be due to increased temperature after release, though other factors may also be involved. The results indicate that substantial physiological smolt development can occur after hatchery release, coincident with downstream migration. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashe, Becky L.; Miller, Alan C.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began a smolt monitoring study on the Imnaha River in cooperation with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from March 1 to June 15, 1994. We PIT tagged and released 956 wild chinook salmon, 661 hatchery chinook salmon, 1,432 wild steelhead trout and 2,029 hatchery steelhead trout. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 62.2% for wild chinook salmon, 45.2% for hatchery chinook salmon, 51.3% for wild steelhead trout, and 34.3% for hatchery steelhead trout.

  6. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1997-04-01

    For the third consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 23 to June 24, 1996. A total of 1,797 wild chinook salmon, 11,896 hatchery chinook salmon, 3,786 wild steelhead trout, and 31,094 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during outmigration studies on the Imnaha River in 1996. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low, being 1.4% for wild chinook, 0.18% for hatchery chinook, 0.21% for wild steelhead and 0.28% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts.

  7. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Mitch

    2003-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program (LRFEP) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation on the Lake Roosevelt Projects. From 1988 to 1998, the principal sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year

  8. Short-term physiological responses of wild and hatchery-produced red drum during angling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallman, E.A.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1999-01-01

    Serum cortisol concentrations, plasma glucose concentrations, plasma lactate concentrations, and plasma osmolalities increased in red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (26.0-65.5 cm total length) during angling in estuarine waters (17-33 g/L salinity, 21-31??C). Angling time varied from as fast as possible (10 s) to the point when fish ceased resisting (up to 350 s). The increases in the physiological characteristics were similar in wild and hatchery-produced fish. This study indicates that hatchery-produced red drum may be used in catch-and-release studies to simulate the responses of wild fish.

  9. Recycling ground water in Waushara County, Wisconsin : resource management for cold-water fish hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novitzki, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Other recharge-recycling schemes can also be evaluated. Estimating the recycling efficiency (of recharge ponds, trenches, spreading areas, or irrigated fields) provides a basis for predicting water-level declines, the concentration of conservative ions (conservative in the sense that no reaction other than mixing occurs to change the character of the ion being considered) in the water supply and in the regional ground-water system, and the temperature of the water supply. Hatchery development and management schemes can be chosen to optimize hatchery productivity or minimize operation costs while protecting the ground-water system.

  10. Modeling the response of native steelhead to hatchery supplementation programs in an Idaho River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, Alan; Bjornn, T.C.; McIntyre, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    A life history model was used to predict the response of native steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Lochsa River, Idaho, to long-term supplementation with hatchery fry and smolts. The four key factors affecting the response of the native fish to a stocking program were (1) the number of native spawners, (2) the number of stocked fish, (3) the number and fitness of progeny from stocked fish, and (4) the amount of mating between hatchery and native fish. Long-term stocking of fry or smolts led to the extinction of native fish in some scenarios. The model can be used to help assess the risks and benefits of proposed stocking programs.

  11. Development of a natural practice to adapt conservation goals to global change.

    PubMed

    Heller, Nicole E; Hobbs, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Conservation goals at the start of the 21st century reflect a combination of contrasting ideas. Ideal nature is something that is historically intact but also futuristically flexible. Ideal nature is independent from humans, but also, because of the pervasiveness of human impacts, only able to reach expression through human management. These tensions emerge in current management rationales because scientists and managers are struggling to accommodate old and new scientific and cultural thinking, while also maintaining legal mandates from the past and commitments to preservation of individual species in particular places under the stresses of global change. Common management goals (such as integrity, wilderness, resilience), whether they are forward looking and focused on sustainability and change, or backward looking and focused on the persistence and restoration of historic states, tend to create essentialisms about how ecosystems should be. These essentialisms limit the options of managers to accommodate the dynamic, and often novel, response of ecosystems to global change. Essentialisms emerge because there is a tight conceptual coupling of place and historical species composition as an indicator of naturalness (e.g., normal, healthy, independent from humans). Given that change is increasingly the norm and ecosystems evolve in response, the focus on idealized ecosystem states is increasingly unwise and unattainable. To provide more open-ended goals, we propose greater attention be paid to the characteristics of management intervention. We suggest that the way we interact with other species in management and the extent to which those interactions reflect the interactions among other biotic organisms, and also reflect our conservation virtues (e.g., humility, respect), influences our ability to cultivate naturalness on the landscape. We call this goal a natural practice (NP) and propose it as a framework for prioritizing and formulating how, when, and where to

  12. Practicing Conservation Agriculture to mitigate and adapt to Climate Change in Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2016-04-01

    Climate change scenarios indicate that Jordan and the Middle East could suffer from reduced agricultural productivity and water availability among other negative impacts. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6 °C by 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. The dominant form of agriculture system in Jordan is based on intensive tillage. This form of tillage has resulted in large losses of organic soil carbon, weaker soil structure, and cause compaction. It has negative effects on soil aeration, root development and water infiltration among other factors. There is a need to transform farming practices to conservation agriculture to sequester carbon so that climate change mitigation becomes an inherent property of future farming systems. Conservation Agriculture, a system avoiding or minimizing soil disturbance, combined with soil cover and crop diversification, is considered to be a sustainable production system that can also sequester carbon unlike tillage agriculture. Conservation agriculture promotes minimal disturbance of the soil by tillage (zero tillage), balanced application of chemical inputs and careful management of residues and wastes. This study was conducted to develop a clear understanding of the impacts and benefits of the two most common types of agriculture, traditional tillage agriculture and conservation agriculture with respect to their effects on land productivity and on soil carbon pools. The study results indicated that conservation agriculture contributed to the reduction of the farming systems' greenhouse gas emissions and enhance its role as carbon sinks. Also, it was found that by shifting to conservation agriculture labor cost needed for

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  14. [Nutrition in the sport practice: adaptation of the food guide pyramid to the characteristics of athletes diet].

    PubMed

    González-Gross, M; Gutiérrez, A; Mesa, J L; Ruiz-Ruiz, J; Castillo, M J

    2001-12-01

    In spite of all the advances in sport nutrition and the importance of an adequate food intake in order to improve sport performance, both recreational and professional athletes forget frequently to include planning an optimum diet and fluid intake in their global strategy for performance. Physiological and metabolic adaptations produced as a consequence of physical exercise lead to the necessity of increasing caloric (in accordance to energy output) and protein (based on the trophic needs of the organism) intake. Likewise, paying major attention to vitamin and mineral intake, specifically B vitamins and zinc and chromium, is required, in order to optimize carbohydrate metabolism, the ultimate limiting factor for sport performance. During the training phase, 60% of calories should come from carbohydrates, protein intake should be 1.2-2 g/kg/day and athletes should follow the recommendations of the food guide pyramid. During the pre-, per- and post-competition phase the healthy aspect of the diet passes to a second level, in order to obtain good sport performance and to guarantee a fast and effective recovery. Again, carbohydrates with a high or medium glycaemic index and water are the nutrients which have to be calculated more thoroughly. In conclusion, athletes have to follow a diet that is adequate to their higher energy output and to their higher metabolic turnover. The food guide pyramid is a graphic expression which facilitates the comprehension and following of a healthy diet. In the present article, the authors introduce the pyramid adapted to the characteristics of sports nutrition, with easy-to-follow practical recommendations regarding the kind and amounts of foodstuffs that should be consumed in order to cover nutrient needs of people who exercise regularly.

  15. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program Hatcheries Division: Ford Hatchery, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike; Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia

    2002-11-01

    will also evaluate the success of several rearing and stocking strategies for hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  16. Disease management strategies for shellfish aquaculture: the important role of hatcheries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease management is a critical component of the successful production of bivalves. Infections by bacterial pathogens can cause rapid mortality of shellfish larvae with devastating consequences for both the hatcheries and the farmers that rely upon them. Furthermore, several bacterial and parasiti...

  17. Energy and resource consumption of land-based hatchery systems for finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need for precise control of the rearing environment. This chapter evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flo...

  18. Techno-Arrogance and Halfway Technologies: Salmon Hatcheries on the Pacific Coast of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meffe, Gary K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses an attempt to recover Pacific salmonid fisheries with hatcheries as an example of a human attitude toward nature that places technological mastery over nature at the forefront of our approach to many environmental problems. Points out how this approach addresses the symptoms but not the causes of the salmon population decline. Suggests…

  19. Hatchery mortalities of larval oysters caused by Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio coralliilyticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hatchery production of bivalve shellfish has been hampered by the occasional presence of opportunistic pathogens, particularly Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii. The present study reports the results of several avenues of research to better define these pathogens and the roles they play i...

  20. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... distribution of fish or other aquatic animal life....

  1. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... distribution of fish or other aquatic animal life....

  2. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... distribution of fish or other aquatic animal life....

  3. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Complex; Operations and Maintenance and 2005 Annual Operation Plan, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, Harold R.; Lundberg, Jeffrey H.; Penney, Aaron K.

    2005-02-01

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) responds directly to a need to mitigate for naturally-reproducing salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin. The overall goal is to produce and release fish that will survive to adulthood, spawn in the Clearwater River subbasin and produce viable offspring that will support future natural production and genetic integrity. Several underlying purposes of fisheries management will be maintained through this program: (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Columbia River subbasin anadromous fish resources. (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater River subbasin. (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project completion. (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations. (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits. (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal Management of Nez Perce Tribal hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that will rear and release spring, fall, and early-fall stocks of chinook salmon. Two life stages of spring chinook salmon will be released: parr and presmolts. Fall and early-fall chinook salmon will be released as subyearling smolts. The intent of NPTHC is to use conventional hatchery and Natural Rearing Enhancement Systems (NATURES) techniques to develop, increase and restore natural populations of spring and fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin.

  4. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Complex; Operations and Maintenance and 2004 Annual Operation Plan, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, Harold R.; Penney, Aaron K.; Larson, Roy Edward

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) responds directly to a need to mitigate for naturally-reproducing salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin. The overall goal is to produce and release fish that will survive to adulthood, spawn in the Clearwater River subbasin and produce viable offspring that will support future natural production and genetic integrity. Several underlying purposes of fisheries management will be maintained through this program: (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Columbia River subbasin anadromous fish resources. (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater River subbasin. (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project completion. (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations. (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits. (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal Management of Nez Perce Tribal hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery is a supplementation program that will rear and release spring, fall, and early-fall stocks of chinook salmon. Two life stages of spring chinook salmon will be released: parr and presmolts. Fall and early-fall chinook salmon will be released as subyearling smolts. The intent of NPTHC is to use conventional hatchery and Natural Rearing Enhancement Systems (NATURES) techniques to develop, increase and restore natural populations of spring and fall chinook salmon in the Clearwater River subbasin.

  5. 50 CFR 70.3 - State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State cooperation in national fish hatchery area management. 70.3 Section 70.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH...

  6. Use of copper sulfate to control Saprolegniasis at a commercial sunshine bass hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  7. Egg saprolegniasis in a commercial sunshine bass hatchery: Control regime developed using copper sulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  8. 9 CFR 145.9 - Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers. 145.9 Section 145.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR...

  9. 9 CFR 145.9 - Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers. 145.9 Section 145.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR...

  10. 9 CFR 145.9 - Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers. 145.9 Section 145.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR...

  11. 9 CFR 145.9 - Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers. 145.9 Section 145.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR...

  12. 9 CFR 145.9 - Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terminology and classification; hatcheries and dealers. 145.9 Section 145.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR...

  13. Nutritional supplement of hatchery eggshell membrane improves poultry performance and provides resistance against endotoxin stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confe...

  14. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Mitch

    2002-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. Monitoring and evaluation is preformed by the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program. From 1988 to 1998, the principle sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The most recent information from the

  15. Oxbow Fish Hatchery Snake River Sockeye Salmon Smolt Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Duane D.

    2009-11-14

    This contract proposal is in response to the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion Implementation Plan/Update Proposed Action (UPA) associated with increasing the number of Snake River sockeye smolts by 150,000. To accomplish this proposal the cooperation and efforts of three government entities has been planned (e.g., Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)). Improvements at the IDFG Eagle Fish Hatchery and NMFS Burley Creek Hatchery will focus on increasing sockeye salmon captive broodstock and egg production. Improvements at the ODFW Oxbow Fish Hatchery will be made to accommodate the incubation, hatching and rearing of 150,000 sockeye salmon smolts for release into Idaho's Sawtooth Valley, Upper Salmon River near IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and/or Redfish Lake Creek 1.4 km downstream of Redfish Lake. Modifications to Oxbow Fish Hatchery (ODFW) will include retro-fit existing pond drains so pond cleaning effluent water can be routed to the pollution abatement pond, and modifications to the abatement pond. Also included in this project as an added phase, was the rerouting of the hatchery building effluent water to meet state DEQ guidelines for the use of formalin to treat salmonid eggs. Some additional funding for the described Oxbow Hatchery modifications will come from Mitchell Act Funding. All personnel costs associated with this project will come from Mitchell Act funding. Due to heavy work load issues, being under staffed, and two emergency projects in the spring and summer of 2006, ODFW engineers were not able to complete all plans and get them out for bid in 2006. As a result of these circumstances retro-fitting pond drains and modifications to the abatement pond was carried over into fiscal year 2007-2008. A no cost time extension to the contract was approved by BPA. The format for this report will follow the standard format for Statement

  16. Differences in survival and growth in hatchery and stream environments, and in maturation of residuls in a stream, between progeny of hatchery and wild steelhead (Study sites: Brushy Fork Creek and Dworshak Hatchery; Stocks:Dworshak hatchery and Fish Creek wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1993): Chapter 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater survival in hatchery and natural rearing environments was compared between progeny of hatchery (H) and wild (W) steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho. Adults from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild adults from Fish Creek fish were artificially spawned, and their progeny were genetically marked at the PEPA allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in production facilities at the hatchery and in Brushy Fork Creek, also in the Clearwater River drainage, in a common garden design. Survival was higher for H than for W progeny at the hatchery but lower for H than for W progeny in Brushy Fork, indicating reduced fitness of the hatchery population for natural rearing and suggesting domestication as the cause. Survival at the hatchery was lower than is typical due to disease outbreaks. Survival of the first year-class of experimental fish to smolt release was only 18%. Survival of H fish was 3.8 times that of W fish under these poor survival conditions. All fish from the second year-class died halfway through the scheduled 10 month rearing period. Survival of H fish was 5.2 times that of W fish to when 1% of the initial fry were still alive indicating that W fish succumbed to the epizootic sooner than did H fish. Emigrants from the Brushy Fork study reach were sampled for three years and fish residing in the study reach were sampled for six years following fry release. Most emigrants were one or two years old and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 93 mm). Survival in Brushy Fork was lower for H than for W fish of the first year-class. Survival of the second year-class was higher for H than for W fish during the first two months in the stream but was lower for H than for W fish thereafter, and net survival from release to ages 3 and older was also lower for H than for W fish if our emigrant samples were representative (periods of inoperative emigrant traps prevented certainty about this

  17. Relying on fin erosion to identify hatchery-reared brown trout in a Tennessee river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meerbeek, Jonathan R.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2012-01-01

    Hatchery-induced fin erosion can be used to identify recently stocked catchable-size brown trout Salmo trutta during annual surveys to qualitatively estimate contributions to a fishery. However, little is known about the longevity of this mark and its effectiveness as a short-term (≤ 1 year) mass-marking technique. We evaluated hatchery-induced pectoral fin erosion as a mass-marking technique for short-term stocking evaluations by stocking microtagged brown trout in a tailwater and repeatedly sampling those fish to observe and measure their pectoral fins. At Dale Hollow National Fish Hatchery, 99.1% (228 of 230) of microtagged brown trout in outdoor concrete raceways had eroded pectoral fins 1 d prior to stocking. Between 34 and 68 microtagged and 26-35 wild brown trout were collected during eight subsequent electrofishing samples. In a blind test based on visual examination of pectoral fins at up to 322 d poststocking, one observer correctly identified 91.7% to 100.0% (mean of 96.9%) of microtagged brown trout prior to checking for microtags. In the laboratory, pectoral fin length and width measurements were recorded to statistically compare the fin measurements of wild and microtagged hatchery brown trout. With only one exception, all pectoral fin measurements on each date averaged significantly larger for wild trout than for microtagged brown trout. Based on the number of pectoral fin measurements falling below 95% prediction intervals, 93.7% (148 of 158) of microtagged trout were correctly identified as hatchery fish based on regression models up to 160 d poststocking. Only 72.2% (70 of 97) of microtagged trout were identified correctly after 160 d based on pectoral fin measurements and the regression models. We concluded that visual examination of pectoral fin erosion was a very effective way to identify stocked brown trout for up to 322 d poststocking.

  18. Effect of developmental stage of unfed fry on survival and growth of steelhead released in a stream and hatchery ponds (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and North Fork Palouse River; Stock: Dworshak hatchery; Year class: 1996): Chapter 6

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether differences in developmental stage of unfed fry at release affected subsequent survival and growth of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in a stream and hatchery ponds. Differences in development were created by artificially spawning hatchery steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho, and incubating their progeny at three different temperatures (means=10.9, 11.3, and 11.7°C). Time between fertilization and maximum alevin wet weight (MAWW) was predicted from incubation temperature using a model. MAWW is equivalent to the button - up fry stage of development. Developmental stages at release were “underdeveloped” (97.7% of model - predicted time to MAWW, mean weight=0.177 g, proportion yolk=0.087), “intermediate” (102.5%, 0.179 g, 0.044), and “overdeveloped” (107.9%, 0.156 g, 0.030). Neither survival nor growth in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period differed among groups. In the stream, frequency of overdeveloped fish relative to the other two groups decreased fro m release in May to September, probably indicating lower survival for the overdeveloped fish during that interval since emigration of sub - yearlings is typically negligible. Length in September was less for overdeveloped than for intermediate fish and was in between for underdeveloped fish, suggesting that growth between May and September was less for overdeveloped fish than for intermediate fish. Although changes in relative frequency and size occurred among fry development groups from September to one ye ar later, those changes may have reflected differences in emigration rate during the interval rather than differential survival or growth. Our results show a cost to survival and growth in a stream, but not in a hatchery, from overdevelopment characterize d by loss of weight and yolk reserves relative to fry closer to MAWW at release. We didn’t find any cost from underdevelopment; however, our underdeveloped fry were closer to MAWW than the

  19. Post-release feeding and growth of hatchery-reared Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus: relevance to stocking effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, T; Watanabe, M; Kawata, G; Ebe, K

    2011-05-01

    The feeding and growth of hatchery-reared (HR) Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus of c. 100 mm total length (L(T) ) released off the coast of Fukushima, Japan, were investigated. From 2 to 15 days after release, the HR P. olivaceus frequently exhibited high empty-stomach frequency (>40%), low stomach-content mass (<1% of body mass), reduced somatic condition from release (c.-10%) and negligible growth. Thereafter, empty-stomach frequency decreased, the stomach-content mass of HR fish increased to 2-8% of body mass, the somatic condition recovered and growth rate increased to 0·5-1·5 mm day(-1) . Prey items were initially mysids, shifting thereafter to fishes such as the Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonica, as observed similarly in wild counterparts. The proportion of mysids decreased with time after release irrespective of size at release, indicating the importance of mysids for adaptation to natural food. Recapture rates at age 1 year, derived from fish market surveys, varied greatly among release years (4-11%). The variation in the recapture rates was largely accounted for by the post-release growth rates (r(2) = 0·5), suggesting a relationship between the post-release growth of HR fish and their survival and subsequent stocking effectiveness.

  20. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project, Operations and Maintenance and Planning and Design, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.; Penney, Aaron K.

    2006-03-01

    This report fulfills the contract obligations based on the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2001 annual report combines information from two contracts with a combined value of $2,336,491. They are identified by Bonneville Power Administration as follows: (1) Operations and Maintenance--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4504, and (2) Planning and Design--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4035. The Operations and Maintenance (O&M) budget of $2,166,110 was divided as follows: Facility Development and Fish Production Costs--$860,463; and Equipment Purchases as capital cost--$1,305,647 for equipment and subcontracts. The Planning and Design (P&D) budget of $170,381 was allocated to development of a Coho master planning document in conjunction with Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery. The O&M budget expenditures represent personnel and fish production expenses; e.g., administration, management, coordination, facility development, personnel training and fish production costs for spring Chinook and Coho salmon. Under Objective 1: Fish Culture Training and Education, tribal staff worked at Clearwater Anadromous Hatchery (CAFH) an Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) facility to produce spring Chinook smolt and parr for release that are intended to provide future broodstock for NPTH. As a training exercise, BPA allowed tribal staff to rear Coho salmon at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) facility. This statement of work allows this type of training to prepare tribal staff to later rear salmon at Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery under Task 1.6. As a subset of the O&M budget, the equipment purchase budget of $1,305,647 less $82,080 for subcontracts provides operational and portable equipment necessary for NPTH facilities after construction. The equipment budget for the year was $1,223,567; this year's purchases amounted $287,364.48 (see

  1. Making sense in a complex landscape: how the Cynefin Framework from Complex Adaptive Systems Theory can inform health promotion practice.

    PubMed

    Van Beurden, Eric K; Kia, Annie M; Zask, Avigdor; Dietrich, Uta; Rose, Lauren

    2013-03-01

    Health promotion addresses issues from the simple (with well-known cause/effect links) to the highly complex (webs and loops of cause/effect with unpredictable, emergent properties). Yet there is no conceptual framework within its theory base to help identify approaches appropriate to the level of complexity. The default approach favours reductionism--the assumption that reducing a system to its parts will inform whole system behaviour. Such an approach can yield useful knowledge, yet is inadequate where issues have multiple interacting causes, such as social determinants of health. To address complex issues, there is a need for a conceptual framework that helps choose action that is appropriate to context. This paper presents the Cynefin Framework, informed by complexity science--the study of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). It introduces key CAS concepts and reviews the emergence and implications of 'complex' approaches within health promotion. It explains the framework and its use with examples from contemporary practice, and sets it within the context of related bodies of health promotion theory. The Cynefin Framework, especially when used as a sense-making tool, can help practitioners understand the complexity of issues, identify appropriate strategies and avoid the pitfalls of applying reductionist approaches to complex situations. The urgency to address critical issues such as climate change and the social determinants of health calls for us to engage with complexity science. The Cynefin Framework helps practitioners make the shift, and enables those already engaged in complex approaches to communicate the value and meaning of their work in a system that privileges reductionist approaches.

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  3. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  4. Spring Outmigration of Wild and Hatchery Chinook Salmonid Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.; Osborne, Randall S.

    1996-04-01

    For the second consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A rotary screw trap was used to collect emigrating wild and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 6 to June 20, 1995. We PIT tagged and released 421 wild chinook salmon smolts, 747 hatchery chinook salmon smolts (445 HxW and 302 HxH), 227 wild steelhead trout smolts and 1,296 hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Cumulative interrogation rates at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams were 78.4% for wild chinook salmon, 58.9% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxW), 56.6% for hatchery chinook salmon (HxH), 76.2% for wild steelhead trout, and 69.2% for hatchery steelhead trout. Peak outmigration of NPT tagged wild Imnaha River chinook salmon smolts occurred from early to mid-May at Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental Dams. Median and 90% passage dates for wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam were May 1 and May 11, respectively. Continuous spill at Lower Granite Dam was initiated on May 3 and lasted for 51 days. The 90% passage date of wild chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam (May 11) preceded peak Snake River and Lower Granite (June 6) flows by 26 days. Although hatchery chinook salmon exhibited a shorter outmigration period through the Snake River than their wild counterparts, peak arrival for both groups occurred at approximately the same time. Median and 90% passage dates at Lower Granite Dam for other PIT tagged groups were: hatchery chinook salmon (NPT-HxW) - May 2 and May 13; hatchery chinook salmon (FPC-HxH) - May 8 and May 15; wild steelhead trout - May 2 and May 9; and hatchery steelhead trout (NPT and FPC) - May 31 and June 16. Hatchery steelhead trout displayed small peaks in arrival timing at Lower Granite and Little Goose Dams in mid-May to mid-June.

  5. Current Practice in Designing Training for Complex Skills: Implications for Design and Evaluation of ADAPT[IT].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eseryel, Deniz; Schuver-van Blanken, Marian J.; Spector, J. Michael

    ADAPT[IT] (Advanced Design Approach for Personalized Training-Interactive Tools is a European project coordinated by the Dutch National Aerospace Laboratory. The aim of ADAPT[IT] is to create and validate an effective training design methodology, based on cognitive science and leading to the integration of advanced technologies, so that the…

  6. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume II of III; Data Summaries, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Slatick, Emil; Ringe, R.R.; Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1988-02-02

    The main functions of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) aquaculture task biologists and contractual scientists involved in the 1978 homing studies were primarily a surveillance of fish physiology, disease, and relative survival during culture in marine net-pens, to determine if there were any unusual factors that might affect imprinting and homing behavior. The studies were conducted with little background knowledge of the implications of disease and physiology on imprinting and homing in salmonids. The health status or the stocks were quite variable as could be expected. The Dworshak and Wells Hatcheries steelhead suffered from some early stresses in seawater, probably osmoregulatory. The incidences of latent BKD in the Wells and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead and Kooskia Hatchery spring chinook salmon were extremely high, and how these will affect survival in the ocean is not known. Gill enzyme activity in the Dworshak and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead at release was low. Of the steelhead, survival in the Tucannon Hatchery stock will probably be the highest, with Dworshak Hatchery stock the lowest. This report contains the data for the narratives in Volume I.

  7. Distinguishing between natural and hatchery Snake River fall Chinook salmon subyearlings in the field using body morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Connor, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    We used body morphology to distinguish between natural- and hatchery-origin subyearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in rearing areas of the Snake River and at a downstream dam during seaward migration. Using subjective eye and body shape characteristics, field personnel correctly classified 88.9–100% of natural subyearlings (N = 626) and 90.0–100% of hatchery subyearlings (N = 867) in rearing areas from 2001 to 2008. The morphological characteristics used by these personnel proved to have a quantitative basis, as was shown by digital photography and principal components analysis. Natural subyearlings had smaller eyes and pupils, smaller heads, deeper bodies, and shorter caudal peduncles than their hatchery counterparts during rearing and at the dam. A discriminant function fitted from this set of morphological characteristics classified the origin of fish during rearing and at the dam with over 97% accuracy. We hypothesize that these morphological differences were primarily due to environmental influences during incubation and rearing because it is highly probable that a large portion of the natural juveniles we studied were the offspring of hatchery × hatchery mating in the wild. The findings in this paper might provide guidance for others seeking to differentiate between natural and hatchery fish.

  8. Testing for genetic differences in survival and growth between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon from Warm Springs River, Oregon (Study sites: Warm Springs Hatchery and Little White Salmon River; Stocks: Warm Springs hatchery and Warm Springs River wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1996): Chapter 8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery in north - central Oregon was initiated with spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Warm Springs River. Managers included wild fish in the broodstock most years and avoided artificial selection to minimize genetic divergence from the wild founder population. We tested for genetic differences in survival and growth between the hatchery and wild populations to ascertain whether this goal has been achieved. Progeny of hatchery x hatchery (HH), hatchery female x wild male (HW), and wild x wild (WW) crosses were genetically marked at the sSOD - 1* allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in hatchery ponds in 1992 and 1996 and in the Little White Salmon River, in south - central Washington, in 1996. Fish were evaluated to returning adult at the hatchery and over their freshwater residence of 16 months in the stream. The three crosses differed on several measures including survival to outmigration in the stream (WW>HH>HW) and juvenile growth in the hatchery (1992 year - class; WW>HW>HH); however, results may have been confounded. The genetic marks were found to differentially effect survival in a companion study (HH mark favored over WW mark; HW mark intermediate). Furthermore, HW survival in the current study was neither intermediate, as would be expect ed from additive genetic effects, nor similar to that of HH fish as would be expected from maternal effects since HW and HH fish were maternal half - siblings. Finally, the unexpected performance of HW fish precludes ruling out maternal differences between hatchery and wild mothers as the cause of differences between HH and WW fish. The key finding that survival of HH fish in a stream was 0.91 that for WW fish, indicating a small loss of fitness for natural rearing in the hatchery population, is valid only if three conditions hold: (1) any selection on the genetic marks was in the same direction as in the companion study, (2) lower survival in

  9. Erosion of interspecific reproductive barriers resulting from hatchery supplementation of rainbow trout sympatric with cutthroat trout.

    PubMed

    Docker, Margaret F; Dale, Angie; Heath, Daniel D

    2003-12-01

    The frequency of hybridization between cutthroat (Onchorhynchus clarki clarki) and rainbow (O. mykiss irideus) trout from coastal habitats in British Columbia, Canada, was examined in seven populations where the two species are sympatric with no history of rainbow trout stocking and compared with areas where native rainbow trout populations have been supplemented with hatchery fish (three populations). Four nuclear markers were used to identify each species and interspecific hybrids and one mitochondrial marker showed the direction of gene exchange between species. The frequency of hybrids was significantly higher (Fisher exact test, P < 0.001) in river systems where hatchery rainbow trout have been introduced (50.6% hybrids) than in populations where the two species naturally co-occur without supplementation (9.9% hybrids).

  10. Family size and effective population size in a hatchery stock of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, R.C.; McIntyre, J.D.; Hemmingsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Means and variances of family size measured in five year-classes of wire-tagged coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were linearly related. Population effective size was calculated by using estimated means and variances of family size in a 25-yr data set. Although numbers of age 3 adults returning to the hatchery appeared to be large enough to avoid inbreeding problems (the 25-yr mean exceeded 4500), the numbers actually contributing to the hatchery production may be too low. Several strategies are proposed to correct the problem perceived. Argument is given to support the contention that the problem of effective size is fairly general and is not confined to the present study population.

  11. Predation on Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery salmonids and Fallfish in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; McKenna, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally reproduced Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha contribute substantially to the fishery in Lake Ontario. The Salmon River, a Lake Ontario tributary in New York, produces the largest numbers of naturally spawned Chinook Salmon, with parr abundance in the river often exceeding 10 million. In the spring of each year, large numbers of hatchery salmonid yearlings—potential predators of Chinook Salmon parr—are released into the Salmon River by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We sought to examine predation on Chinook Salmon parr in the Salmon River during May and June prior to out-migration. Over the 4 years examined (2009–2012), annual consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery-released yearling steelhead O. mykiss and Coho Salmon O. kisutch ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 million and from 0.4 to 2.1 million, respectively. In 2009, Fallfish Semotilus corporalis were estimated to consume 2.9 million Chinook Salmon parr. Predation was higher in May, when the average TL of Chinook Salmon parr was 44.5 mm, than in June. Fallfish were also important predators of naturally reproduced steelhead subyearlings, consuming an estimated 800,000 steelhead in 2009. Hatchery-released yearling salmonids consumed 13.8–15.3% of the Chinook Salmon parr that were estimated to be present in the Salmon River during 2010–2012. Earlier releases of hatchery salmonid yearlings could reduce the riverine consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by facilitating the out-migration of yearlings prior to Chinook Salmon emergence.

  12. Sherman Creek Hatchery; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Mitch

    2001-03-01

    The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. These strategic changes have been the result of recommendations through the Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) and were done to enhance imprinting, improve survival and operate the two kokanee facilities more effectively. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear 200,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Monitoring and evaluation is preformed by the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program. From 1988 to 1998, the principle sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The most recent information from the monitoring program also suggests that the hatchery and net pen rearing programs have been beneficial to enhancing the Lake Roosevelt fishery while not negatively impacting wild and native stocks within the lake.

  13. Catatropis hatcheri n. sp. (Digenea: Notocotylidae) from Heleobia hatcheri (Prosobranchia: Hydrobiidae) and notes on its life-cycle in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Flores, Verónica; Brugni, Norma

    2006-02-01

    A new species of Catatropis Oghner, 1905 from a freshwater Neotropical prosobranch snail, Heleobia hatcheri (Hydrobiidae), is described. Naturally infected snails were collected from Nahuel Huapí Lake in Andean Patagonia. The characteristics of the larval stages are also presented. Experimental adults were recovered from the distal region of the intestinal caeca of chicks and ducklings and natural adults from a wild duck Anas platyrhynchos. Adults of Catatropis hatcheri n. sp. can be distinguished from all other species of the genus in having 10-12 (11) ventral glands in each lateral row, the cirrus-sac extending back to between the first third and the middle of the body, the metraterm shorter than the cirrus-sac, a previtelline field of 1,258-1,544 (1,396), vitelline follicles reach back to the anterior border of the testes with some follicles extending slightly lateral to them, only external testicular margin lobed and genital pore in median line just posterior to the intestinal bifurcation. In addition, the eggs have one filament on each pole, the rediae contain one or two mature cercariae, and the cercariae are tri-oculate, with a long tail and encyst in the environment.

  14. Vibrios in hatchery cultures of the razor clam, Solen marginatus (Pulteney).

    PubMed

    Prado, S; Dubert, J; da Costa, F; Martínez-Patiño, D; Barja, J L

    2014-03-01

    Hatchery culture of the razor clam, Solen marginatus (Pulteney), has recently been developed in Galicia (NW Spain). However, recurrent episodes of mortalities of larval and post-larval cultures have been recorded during the course of various studies. The disease signs were similar to those described for other bivalve species in outbreaks caused by bacteria of the genus Vibrio. In this article, we present the results of microbiological monitoring of two batches of razor clams with different survival rates. All fermentative isolates were identified as members of the Splendidus clade within the genus Vibrio. Some of these isolates, identified as Vibrio splendidus-like, were clearly associated with the batch suffering mortalities, indicating their possible role as pathogens. Similar strains were found in the broodstock, suggesting vertical transmission of these bacteria. This is the first study of the microbiota associated with hatchery culture of S. marginatus, and the results will provide useful information for the optimization of a protocol for hatchery culture of this bivalve species.

  15. Survival of hatchery Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi Mitchill, 1815) in the Suwannee River, Florida: a 19-year evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael; Clugston, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental release of 1192 hatchery-reared, individually PIT tagged, 220 days old (296–337 mm TL) Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, was undertaken in 1992 in the Suwannee River, Florida. The original objectives of the 1992 release experiment were to: (1) evaluate survival rate of cultured Gulf sturgeon in the wild vs survival rate of their wild 1992 cohort counterparts, (2) determine the differential effect of release site within the river upon long-term survival, and (3) evaluate comparative growth rates of recaptured hatchery vs captured wild 1992 cohort Gulf sturgeon. The present investigation addressed those original objectives, plus an additional fourth objective: (4) evaluation of hatchery fish recapture rate change over the 19-year experiment. The primary objective was to determine efficacy of potential conservation aquaculture for this species in terms of long-term survival in the wild. Follow-up 1993–2011 gill net sampling in freshwater reaches (rkm 4–237) and the estuarine river mouth (rkm −6 to 4) yielded recaptures representing 13.0% of the total released. Mean annual hatchery fish mortality (including emigration) rate estimated for the 19-year period (1993–2011) was more than twice that for same cohort wild fish. Mark-recapture survival probability (phi) for hatchery fish, 1993–2011, was substantially lower (0.733) than for their wild counterparts (0.888). Mean annual hatchery fish recapture rate, as a percentage of all 1992 cohort fish recaptures, declined significantly after age-7, coinciding with age of onset of migration into the open Gulf of Mexico. Hypothesized causal factors may be differentially lower fitness in the marine habitat or permanent outmigration due to natal river imprinting failure. Hatchery fish recapture rates varied significantly for fish from the ten release sites, being highest near the river mouth, and lowest for the furthest upriver sites in the Suwannee River and its Santa Fe River tributary

  16. A strategy for assessing costs of implementing new practices in the child welfare system: adapting the English cost calculator in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Snowden, Lonnie R; Padgett, Courtenay; Saldana, Lisa; Roles, Jennifer; Holmes, Lisa; Ward, Harriet; Soper, Jean; Reid, John; Landsverk, John

    2011-01-01

    In decisions to adopt and implement new practices or innovations in child welfare, costs are often a bottom-line consideration. The cost calculator, a method developed in England that can be used to calculate unit costs of core case work activities and associated administrative costs, is described as a potentially helpful tool for assisting child welfare administrators to evaluate the costs of current practices relative to their outcomes and could impact decisions about whether to implement new practices. The process by which the cost calculator is being adapted for use in US child welfare systems in two states is described and an illustration of using the method to compare two intervention approaches is provided.

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A.

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  18. Evaluation of Pure Oxygen Systems at the Umatilla Hatchery: Task 1-Review and Evaluation of Supplemental O2 Systems, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fish Factory

    1991-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council has established a goal of doubling the size of salmon runs in the Columbia River Basin. The achievement of this important goal is largely dependent upon expanding the production of hatchery fish. Pure oxygen has been commonly used to increase the carrying capacity of private sector salmonid hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest. The use of supplemental oxygen to increase hatchery production is significantly less expensive than the construction of new hatcheries and might save up to $500 million in construction costs.

  19. Distribution, migration behavior, habitat use, and species interactions of fall-released juvenile hatchery spring Chinook salmon in the Deschutes River, Oregon, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reagan, R.E.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.; Fitzgerald, G.; Spateholts, R.; Hoffman, T.; Olson, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    In a review of National Fish Hatcheries (NFH), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) identified the need to assess the fate of hatchery-reared fish and their potential effect on the aquatic community (USFWS 1998). Additionally, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) recommended monitoring and evaluating ecological interactions between hatchery and wild fish (NMFS 1999; Columbia River Biological Opinion). In 2003, a study was designed to investigate the fate of hatchery-reared fish and to assess habitat use and fish interactions in the Deschutes River, Oregon.

  20. Adapting the Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) approach to explore the acceptability and feasibility of nutrition and parenting recommendations: what works for low-income families?

    PubMed

    Dickin, Katherine L; Seim, Gretchen

    2015-10-01

    Interventions to prevent childhood obesity must consider not only how child feeding behaviours are related to child weight status but also which behaviours parents are willing and able to change. This study adapted Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) to assess acceptability and feasibility of nutrition and parenting recommendations, using in-depth interviews and household trials to explore families' experiences over time. A diverse sample of 23 low-income parents of 3-11-year-olds was recruited following participation in nutrition and parenting education. Parents chose nutrition and parenting practices to try at home and were interviewed 2 weeks and 4-6 months later about behaviour change efforts. Qualitative analysis identified emergent themes, and acceptability and feasibility were rated based on parents' willingness and ability to try new practices. The nutrition goal parents chose most frequently was increasing children's vegetable intake, followed by replacing sweetened beverages with water or milk, and limiting energy-dense foods. Parents were less inclined to reduce serving sizes. The parenting practices most often selected as applicable to nutrition goals were role-modelling; shaping home environments, often with other adults; involving children in decisions; and providing positive feedback. Most recommendations were viewed as acceptable by meaningful numbers of parents, many of whom tried and sustained new behaviours. Food preferences, habits and time were common barriers; family resistance or food costs also constrained some parents. Despite challenges, TIPs was successfully adapted to evaluate complex nutrition and parenting practices. Information on parents' willingness and ability to try practices provides valuable guidance for childhood obesity prevention programmes.

  1. Angler harvest, hatchery return, and tributary stray rates of recycled adult summer steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Gleizes, Chris; Dammers, Wolf; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    Hatchery ‘recycling’ programs have been used to increase angling opportunities by re-releasing fish into a river after they returned to a hatchery or fish trap. Recycling is intended to increase opportunities for fishermen, but this strategy could affect wild fish populations if some recycled fish remain in the river and interact with wild fish populations. To quantify hatchery return and angler harvest rates of recycled steelhead, we conducted a 2-year study on the Cowlitz River, Washington. A total of 1051 steelhead were recycled, including 218 fish that were radio-tagged. Fates of recycled steelhead were similar between years: 48.4% returned to the hatchery, 19.2% were reported captured by anglers, and 32.4% remained in the river. A multistate model quantified the effects of covariates on hatchery return and angler harvest rates, which were positively affected by river discharge and negatively affected by time since release. However, hatchery return rates increased and angler harvest rates decreased during periods of increasing discharge. A total of 21.1% (46 fish) of the radio-tagged steelhead failed to return to the hatchery or be reported by anglers, but nearly half of those fish (20 fish) appeared to be harvested and not reported. The remaining tagged fish (11.9% of the radio-tagged population) were monitored into the spawning period, but only five fish (2.3% of the radio-tagged population) entered tributaries where wild steelhead spawning occurs. Future research focused on straying behaviour, and spawning success of recycled steelhead may further advance the understanding of the effects of recycling as a management strategy.

  2. “Queremos Aprender”: Latino Immigrants’ Call to Integrate Cultural Adaptation with Best Practice Knowledge in a Parenting Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Parra Cardona, José; Holtrop, Kendal; Córdova, David; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocio; Horsford, Sheena; Tams, Lisa; Villarruel, Francisco A.; Villalobos, Graciela; Dates, Brian; Anthony, James C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the unique and challenging circumstances confronting Latino immigrant families, debate still exists as to the need to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions for dissemination with this population. Following the grounded theory approach, the current qualitative investigation utilized focus group interviews with 83 Latino immigrant parents to explore the relevance of culturally adapting an evidence-based parenting intervention to be disseminated within this population. Findings from this study indicate that Latino immigrant parents want to participate in a culturally adapted parenting intervention as long as it is culturally relevant, respectful, and responsive to their life experiences. Research results also suggest that the parenting skills participants seek to enhance are among those commonly targeted by evidence-based parenting interventions. This study contributes to the cultural adaptation/fidelity balance debate by highlighting the necessity of exploring ways to develop culturally adapted interventions characterized by high cultural relevance, as well as high fidelity to the core components that have established efficacy for evidence-based parenting interventions. PMID:19579906

  3. "Queremos aprender": Latino immigrants' call to integrate cultural adaptation with best practice knowledge in a parenting intervention.

    PubMed

    Cardona, José Parra; Holtrop, Kendal; Córdova, David; Escobar-Chew, Ana Rocio; Horsford, Sheena; Tams, Lisa; Villarruel, Francisco A; Villalobos, Graciela; Dates, Brian; Anthony, James C; Fitzgerald, Hiram E

    2009-06-01

    Despite the unique and challenging circumstances confronting Latino immigrant families, debate still exists as to the need to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions for dissemination with this population. Following the grounded theory approach, the current qualitative investigation utilized focus group interviews with 83 Latino immigrant parents to explore the relevance of culturally adapting an evidence-based parenting intervention to be disseminated within this population. Findings from this study indicate that Latino immigrant parents want to participate in a culturally adapted parenting intervention as long as it is culturally relevant, respectful, and responsive to their life experiences. Research results also suggest that the parenting skills participants seek to enhance are among those commonly targeted by evidence-based parenting interventions. This study contributes to the cultural adaptation/fidelity balance debate by highlighting the necessity of exploring ways to develop culturally adapted interventions characterized by high cultural relevance, as well as high fidelity to the core components that have established efficacy for evidence-based parenting interventions.

  4. Adaptive modulation of bilateral filtering based on a practical noise model for streaking and noise reduction in multi-slice CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lifeng; Manduca, Armando; Jacobsen, Megan; Trzasko, Joshua D.; Fletcher, Joel G.; DeLone, David R.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2010-04-01

    We have recently developed a locally-adaptive method for noise control in CT based upon bilateral filtering. Different from the previous adaptive filters, which were locally adaptive by adjusting the filter strength according to local photon statistics, our use of bilateral filtering in projection data incorporates a practical CT noise model and takes into account the local structural characteristics, and thus can preserve edge information in the projection data and maintain the spatial resolution. Despite the incorporation of the CT noise model and local structural characteristics in the bilateral filtering, the noise-resolution properties of the filtered image are still highly dependent on predefined parameters that control the weighting factors in the bilateral filtering. An inappropriate selection of these parameters may result in a loss of spatial resolution or an insufficient reduction of noise. In this work, we employed an adaptive strategy to modulate the bilateral filtering strength according to the noise-equivalent photon numbers determined from each projection measurement. We applied the proposed technique to head/neck angiographic CT exams, which had highly non-uniform attenuation levels during the scan. The results demonstrated that the technique can effectively reduce the noise and streaking artifacts caused by high attenuation, while maintaining the reconstruction accuracy in less attenuating regions.

  5. Adaptation and Evaluation of Online Self-learning Modules to Teach Critical Appraisal and Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing: An International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Johanne; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Buteau, Rose-Anne; Azizah, Ginette Mbourou; Jetté, Sylvie; Lampron, Amélie; Simonyan, David; Asua, José; Reviriego, Eva

    2015-07-01

    Healthcare professionals need to update their knowledge and acquire skills to continually inform their practice based on scientific evidence. This study was designed to evaluate online self-learning modules on critical appraisal skills to promote the use of research in clinical practice among nurses from Quebec (Canada) and the Basque Country (Spain). The teaching material was developed in Quebec and adapted to the Basque Country as part of an international collaboration project. A prospective pre-post study was conducted with 36 nurses from Quebec and 47 from the Basque Country. Assessment comprised the administration of questionnaires before and after the course in order to explore the main intervention outcomes: knowledge acquisition and self-learning readiness. Satisfaction was also measured at the end of the course. Two of the three research hypotheses were confirmed: (1) participants significantly improved their overall knowledge score after the educational intervention; and (2) they were, in general, satisfied with the course, giving it a rating of seven out of 10. Participants also reported a greater readiness for self-directed learning after the course, but this result was not significant in Quebec. The study provides unique knowledge on the cultural adaptation of online self-learning modules for teaching nurses about critical appraisal skills and evidence-based practice.

  6. "Computerized Adaptive Testing: Theory and Practice." Wim J. van der Linden and Cees A. W. Glas, Eds. [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reise, Steven P.

    2001-01-01

    This book contains a series of research articles about computerized adaptive testing (CAT) written for advanced psychometricians. The book is divided into sections on: (1) item selection and examinee scoring in CAT; (2) examples of CAT applications; (3) item banks; (4) determining model fit; and (5) using testlets in CAT. (SLD)

  7. Building Adaptive Expertise and Practice-Based Evidence: Applying the Implementation Stages Framework to Special Education Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Williams, Loretta; Frederick, Jacqueline R.; Mulcahy, Candace A.

    2015-01-01

    Preparing pre-service special educators to meet classroom demands requires teacher preparation programs to design experiences for students to demonstrate routine expertise, while also building adaptive expertise. In this article, the authors describe a capstone project that meets these needs and prepares pre-service special educators for their…

  8. Growth, smoltification, and smolt-to-adult return of spring chinook salmon from hatcheries on the Deschutes river, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, B.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Zaugg, W.S.; Sharpe, C.; Hirtzel, S.; Schrock, R.; Larsen, D.A.; Ewing, R.D.; Palmisano, A.; Schreck, C.B.; Mahnken, C.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between smoltification and smolt-to-adult return (SAR) of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Deschutes River, Oregon, was examined for four release groups in each of three successive years. Fish were reared, marked with coded wire tags, and released from Round Butte Hatchery, Pelton Ladder rearing facility, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery. Smolt releases occurred in nearly the same place at similar times, allowing a direct comparison of SAR to several characters representing smolt quality. Return rates varied significantly among facilities, varying over an order of magnitude each year. The highest average SAR was from Pelton Ladder, the lowest was from Warm Springs. Each of the characters used as metrics of smoltification - fish size, spring growth rate (February-April), condition factor, plasma hormone concentration (thyroxine, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I]), stress challenge, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and liver glycogen concentration - varied significantly among facilities and seasonally within hatchery groups. However, only spring growth rate, gill ATPase activity, and plasma IGF-I concentration showed significant relationships to SAR. These characters and SAR itself were consistently lower for fish released from Warm Springs Hatchery than for fish from Round Butte Hatchery and Pelton Ladder. This demonstrates that differences in the quality of fish released by facilities may have profound effects on subsequent survival and suggests that manipulations of spring growth rate may be used to influence the quality of smolts released from facilities.

  9. Feeding response by northern squawfish to a hatchery release of juvenile salmonids in the Clearwater River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shively, R.S.; Poe, T.P.; Sauter, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    We collected gut contents from northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis captured in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 0–6 km from its confluence with the Snake River, following the release of 1.1 million yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery. Before the hatchery release, northern squawfish gut contents (by weight) in the study area were 38% crayfish Pacifastacus spp., 26% insects, 19% nonsalmonid fish, and 16% wheat kernels Triticum spp. Juvenile salmonids constituted 54% of gut contents about 24 h after the hatchery release, 78% after 5 d, and 86% after 7 d. The mean number of salmonids per gut (1.2) after release was higher than typically seen in guts from northern squawfish collected in mid-reservoir areas away from hydroelectric dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Length-frequency distributions of juvenile salmonids eaten and those captured in a scoop trap 4 km upstream of the study area indicated that northern squawfish were selectively feeding on the smaller individuals. We attribute the high rates of predation in the study area to the artificially high density of juvenile salmonids resulting from the hatchery release and to the physical characteristics of the study area in which the river changed from free flowing to impounded. Our results suggest that northern squawfish can quickly exploit hatchery releases of juvenile salmonids away from release sites in the Columbia River basin.

  10. Habitat-related predation on juvenile wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Stunz, G W.; Minello, T J.

    2001-05-31

    We examined the patterns of habitat-specific mortality for newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) using an experimental mesocosm approach. Experiments were designed to analyze prey vulnerability and fish rearing-type (wild-caught or hatchery-reared) in estuarine habitats of varying structural complexity including marsh (Spartina alterniflora Loisel), oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin), seagrass (Halodule wrightii Aschers), and nonvegetated sand bottom. We used two different predators, pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides Linnaeus) and spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus Cuvier). For both predators, vulnerability of wild-caught red drum was significantly lower in structurally complex habitats such as seagrass and oyster reef; the highest vulnerability was associated with the nonvegetated bottom. This habitat effect was not apparent for hatchery-reared prey. In trials using a combination of both rearing-types, there was no significant habitat effect on prey selection, but hatchery-reared red drum suffered higher overall mortality than wild-caught fish from pinfish predators. In these trials, spotted seatrout did not select for either prey type. Differences we observed in prey vulnerability were likely caused by behavioral differences between wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum. Our results reinforce the conclusion that structural complexity in estuarine habitats increases survival of newly settled fishes. Our data also suggest that hatchery-reared red drum may be more vulnerable to predation than natural fishes, and that survival of stocked fish may be enhanced through habitat-related behavior modification.

  11. Assessing genetic diversity of wild and hatchery samples of the Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) by the mitochondrial DNA control region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayun; Wu, Bo; Hou, Feixia; Chen, Yongbai; Li, Chong; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-01-01

    To restore the natural populations of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus), a hatchery release program has been underway for nearly 10 years. Using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region, we assessed the genetic diversity and genetic structure among samples collected from three sites of the wild population as well as from three hatcheries. The haplotype diversity of the wild samples (h = 0.899-0.975) was significantly higher than that of the hatchery ones (h = 0.296-0.666), but the nucleotide diversity was almost identical between them (π = 0.0170-0.0280). Relatively high gene flow was detected between the hatchery and wild samples. Analysis of effective population size indicated that M. asiaticus living in the Yangtze River has been expanding following a bottleneck in the recent past. Our results suggest the hatchery release programs for M. asiaticus have not reduced the genetic diversity, but have influenced the genetic structure of the species in the upper Yangtze River.

  12. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1990 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-03-01

    Rehabilitation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka in Lake Pend Oreille met with some success in 1990, but unexpected results have raised new questions. Estimated kokanee abundance during late August of 1990 was about 6.9 million fish. This is a decline of 19% from 1989, a continued decrease since 1988. The decreased population was attributed to low stocking of hatchery fry (7.3 million), lower wild fry survival in 1990 (1.5%), and exceptionally poor survival of fish ages 3+ and 4+. Average survival of the older fish was only 11% in 1990 compared to 72% in prior years. Compensatory survival was noted for kokanee ages 1+ and 2+, with an average of 81% in 1990 compared to 44% in 1989. Hatchery fry comprised 47% of the total kokanee fry recruitment in 1990 (80% of fry biomass). This contribution ranked third behind 1988 and 1989 since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. Survival of hatchery fry was 20%, the second highest since this investigation began. Findings of 1990 indicate a more comprehensive approach to managing kokanee must take into account predator stockings and predator/prey interaction. An unexpected low adult escapement was responsible for an egg-take of only 5.6 million eggs in 1990, 58% of the previous year, which will limit experimental stocking in 1991. Modification of the fish ladder at the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery to improve adult escapement is strongly recommended to increase egg-take. 27 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Inter-population differences in salinity tolerance and osmoregulation of juvenile wild and hatchery-born Sacramento splittail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verhille, Christine E.; Dabruzzi, Theresa F.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Mahardja, Brian; Feyrer, Frederick V.; Foin, Theodore C.; Baerwald, Melinda R.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2016-01-01

    The Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus) is a minnow endemic to the highly modified San Francisco Estuary of California, USA and its associated rivers and tributaries. This species is composed of two genetically distinct populations, which, according to field observations and otolith strontium signatures, show largely allopatric distribution patterns as recently hatched juveniles. Juvenile Central Valley splittail are found primarily in the nearly fresh waters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and their tributaries, whereas San Pablo juveniles are found in the typically higher-salinity waters (i.e. up to 10‰) of the Napa and Petaluma Rivers. As the large salinity differences between young-of-year habitats may indicate population-specific differences in salinity tolerance, we hypothesized that juvenile San Pablo and Central Valley splittail populations differ in their response to salinity. In hatchery-born and wild-caught juvenile San Pablo splittail, we found upper salinity tolerances, where mortalities occurred within 336 h of exposure to 16‰ or higher, which was higher than the upper salinity tolerance of 14‰ for wild-caught juvenile Central Valley splittail. This, in conjunction with slower recovery of plasma osmolality, but not ion levels, muscle moisture or gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, in Central Valley relative to San Pablo splittail during osmoregulatory disturbance provides some support for our hypothesis of inter-population variation in salinity tolerance and osmoregulation. The modestly improved salinity tolerance of San Pablo splittail is consistent with its use of higher-salinity habitats. Although confirmation of the putative adaptive difference through further studies is recommended, this may highlight the need for population-specific management considerations.

  14. Inter-population differences in salinity tolerance and osmoregulation of juvenile wild and hatchery-born Sacramento splittail

    PubMed Central

    Verhille, Christine E.; Dabruzzi, Theresa F.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Mahardja, Brian; Feyrer, Frederick; Foin, Theodore C.; Baerwald, Melinda R.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2016-01-01

    The Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus) is a minnow endemic to the highly modified San Francisco Estuary of California, USA and its associated rivers and tributaries. This species is composed of two genetically distinct populations, which, according to field observations and otolith strontium signatures, show largely allopatric distribution patterns as recently hatched juveniles. Juvenile Central Valley splittail are found primarily in the nearly fresh waters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and their tributaries, whereas San Pablo juveniles are found in the typically higher-salinity waters (i.e. up to 10‰) of the Napa and Petaluma Rivers. As the large salinity differences between young-of-year habitats may indicate population-specific differences in salinity tolerance, we hypothesized that juvenile San Pablo and Central Valley splittail populations differ in their response to salinity. In hatchery-born and wild-caught juvenile San Pablo splittail, we found upper salinity tolerances, where mortalities occurred within 336 h of exposure to 16‰ or higher, which was higher than the upper salinity tolerance of 14‰ for wild-caught juvenile Central Valley splittail. This, in conjunction with slower recovery of plasma osmolality, but not ion levels, muscle moisture or gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, in Central Valley relative to San Pablo splittail during osmoregulatory disturbance provides some support for our hypothesis of inter-population variation in salinity tolerance and osmoregulation. The modestly improved salinity tolerance of San Pablo splittail is consistent with its use of higher-salinity habitats. Although confirmation of the putative adaptive difference through further studies is recommended, this may highlight the need for population-specific management considerations. PMID:27293743

  15. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303,769 hatchery

  16. A survey of chemical constituents in National Fish Hatchery fish feed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, Alec G.; Gannam, Ann; Davis, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that various fish feeds contain significant concentrations of contaminants, many of which can bioaccumulate and bioconcentrate in fish. It appears that numerous organochlorine (OC) contaminants are present in the fish oils and fish meals used in feed manufacture, and some researchers speculate that all fish feeds contain measurable levels of some contaminants. To determine the presence and concentration of contaminants in feeds used in National Fish Hatcheries managed by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, we systematically collected samples of feed from 11 hatcheries that raise cold-water species, and analyzed them for a suite of chemical contaminants. All of the samples (collected from October 2001 to October 2003) contained measurable concentrations of at least one dioxin, furan, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite. All samples which were assayed for all contaminants contained one or more of those classes of compounds and most contained more than one; dioxin was detected in 39 of the 55 samples for which it was assayed, 24 of 55 contained furans and 24 of 55 samples contained DDT or its metabolites. There with 10- to 150-fold differences in the range in concentrations of the additive totals for PCBs, dioxins, furans and DDT. Although PCBs were the most commonly detected contaminant in our study (all samples in which it was assayed), the concentrations (range: 0.07 to 10.46 ng g·1 wet weight) were low compared to those reported previously. In general, we also found lower levels of organochlorine contaminants than have been reported previously in fish feed. Perhaps most notable is the near absence of OC pesticides~xcept for DDT (and its metabolites) and just two samples containing benzene hexachloride (Lindane). While contaminant concentrations were generally low, the ecological impacts can not be determined without a measure of the bioaccumulation of these compounds in the

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  18. Application of a bioenergetics model for hatchery production: Largemouth bass fed commercial diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Csargo, Isak J.; Michael L. Brown,; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Fish bioenergetics models based on natural prey items have been widely used to address research and management questions. However, few attempts have been made to evaluate and apply bioenergetics models to hatchery-reared fish receiving commercial feeds that contain substantially higher energy densities than natural prey. In this study, we evaluated a bioenergetics model for age-0 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoidesreared on four commercial feeds. Largemouth bass (n ≈ 3,504) were reared for 70 d at 25°C in sixteen 833-L circular tanks connected in parallel to a recirculation system. Model performance was evaluated using error components (mean, slope, and random) derived from decomposition of the mean square error obtained from regression of observed on predicted values. Mean predicted consumption was only 8.9% lower than mean observed consumption and was similar to error rates observed for largemouth bass consuming natural prey. Model evaluation showed that the 97.5% joint confidence region included the intercept of 0 (−0.43 ± 3.65) and slope of 1 (1.08 ± 0.20), which indicates the model accurately predicted consumption. Moreover model error was similar among feeds (P = 0.98), and most error was probably attributable to sampling error (unconsumed feed), underestimated predator energy densities, or consumption-dependent error, which is common in bioenergetics models. This bioenergetics model could provide a valuable tool in hatchery production of largemouth bass. Furthermore, we believe that bioenergetics modeling could be useful in aquaculture production, particularly for species lacking historical hatchery constants or conventional growth models.

  19. Labor-Force Participation, Policies & Practices in an Aging America: Adaptation Essential for a Healthy & Resilient Population.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Lisa F; Börsch-Supan, Axel; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Population aging in the United States poses challenges to societal institutions while simultaneously creating opportunities to build a more resilient, successful, and cohesive society. Work organization and labor-force participation are central to both the opportunities and challenges posed by our aging society. We argue that expectations about old age have not sufficiently adapted to the reality of aging today. Our institutions need more adaptation in order to successfully face the consequences of demographic change. Although this adaptation needs to focus especially on work patterns among the "younger elderly," our society has to change its general attitudes toward work organization and labor-force participation, which will have implications for education and health care. We also show that work's beneficial effects on well-being in older ages are often neglected, while the idea that older workers displace younger workers is a misconception emerging from the "lump of labor" fallacy. We conclude, therefore, that working at older ages can lead to better quality of life for older people and to a more productive and resilient society overall.

  20. Labor-Force Participation, Policies & Practices in an Aging America: Adaptation Essential for a Healthy & Resilient Population

    PubMed Central

    Berkman, Lisa F.; Börsch-Supan, Axel; Avendano, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Population aging in the United States poses challenges to societal institutions while simultaneously creating opportunities to build a more resilient, successful, and cohesive society. Work organization and labor-force participation are central to both the opportunities and challenges posed by our aging society. We argue that expectations about old age have not sufficiently adapted to the reality of aging today. Our institutions need more adaptation in order to successfully face the consequences of demographic change. Although this adaptation needs to focus especially on work patterns among the “younger elderly,” our society has to change its general attitudes toward work organization and labor-force participation, which will have implications for education and health care. We also show that work’s beneficial effects on well-being in older ages are often neglected, while the idea that older workers displace younger workers is a misconception emerging from the “lump of labor” fallacy. We conclude, therefore, that working at older ages can lead to better quality of life for older people and to a more productive and resilient society overall. PMID:28042166

  1. Genetic variation in wild and hatchery population of Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822) analyzed through mtDNA cytochrome b region.

    PubMed

    Behera, Bijay Kumar; Kunal, Swaraj Priyaranjan; Baisvar, Vishwamitra Singh; Meena, Dharmendra Kumar; Panda, Debarata; Pakrashi, Sudip; Paria, Prasenjit; Das, Pronob; Debnath, Dipesh; Parida, Pranaya Kumar; Das, Basanta Kumar; Jena, Joykrushna

    2017-01-10

    Catla (Catla catla) is a one of the most harvested Indian major carps and is widely cultured fish species in Indian subcontinent. In the present study, genetic variability between hatchery and wild stocks of Catla was surveyed using sequence data of mitochondrial DNA of partial 307 bp of cytochrome b region. A total of 174 Catla individuals were examined from three different river basins and hatcheries. Significant genetic heterogeneity was observed for the sequence data (FST = 0.308, p ≤ 0.001). However, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) resulted in insignificant genetic differentiation among the samples of three rivers and culture zones (FCT = -0.10, p = 0.44). The result suggested a significant genetic variation within different riverine system, low genetic differentiation among samples from river basins and a lack of genetic variation in hatchery populations.

  2. Data in support of manuscript "Evaluation of Chemical Control for Invasive Crayfish at a Warmwater Fish Production Hatchery"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allert, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Invasive crayfish are known to displace native crayfish species, alter aquatic habitat and community structure and function, and are serious pests for fish hatcheries. White River Crawfish (WRC; Procambarus acutus) were inadvertently introduced to a warm-water fish hatchery in Missouri, USA, possibly in an incoming fish shipment. We evaluated the use of chemical control for crayfish to ensure incoming and outgoing fish shipments from hatcheries do not contain live crayfish. We conducted acute (less than or equal to 24 hr) static toxicity tests to determine potency, dose-response, and selectivity of pesticides to WRC, Virile Crayfish (VC; Orconectes virilis), and Fathead Minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas). Data included are: Collection location and size of test organisms; Test chemical concentrations and recovery; Mortality and effect-based responses of test organisms; Water quality of test solutions

  3. Contaminant levels in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, and their diets from Missouri coldwater hatcheries.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael J; Kromrey, George B; May, Thomas W; Orazio, Carl E

    2008-05-01

    Organochlorine and metal contaminants often occur in commercial fish diets and can accumulate in fish to levels of concern for human consumption. Contaminant levels were investigated in diet and rainbow trout fillets from Missouri coldwater hatcheries used in "put and take" fisheries. The average fillet:diet ratio was <0.1 for lead and cadmium, 0.4-0.6 for organochlorine compounds, and about 0.8 for mercury. Trout fillet concentrations for all contaminants were low (<50 ng/g) and below Missouri's fish consumption advisory trigger levels.

  4. On the Frontline: Tracking Ocean Acidification in an Alaskan Shellfish Hatchery.

    PubMed

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the ocean is shifting the marine carbonate system such that saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals are decreasing, and this is having a detrimental impact on early life stages of select shellfish species. The global, secular decrease in CaCO3 saturation states is occurring on top of a backdrop of large natural variability in coastal settings; progressively shifting the envelope of variability and leading to longer and more frequent exposure to adverse conditions. This is a great concern in the State of Alaska, a high-latitude setting vulnerable to rapid changes in the marine carbonate system, where an emerging shellfish industry plans major growth over the coming decades. Currently, the Alutiiq Pride Shellfish Hatchery (APSH) in Seward, Alaska is the only hatchery in the state, and produces many shellfish species with early life stages known to be sensitive to low CaCO3 saturation states. Here we present the first land-based OA measurements made in an Alaskan shellfish hatchery, and detail the trends in the saturation state of aragonite (Ωarag), the more soluble form of CaCO3, over a 10-month period in the APSH seawater supply. These data indicate the largest changes are on the seasonal time scale, with extended periods of sub-optimal Ωarag levels (Ωarag < 1.5) in winter and autumn associated with elevated water column respiration and short-lived runoff events, respectively. The data pinpoint a 5-month window of reprieve with favorable Ωarag conditions above the sub-optimal Ωarag threshold, which under predicted upper-bound CO2 emissions trajectories is estimated to close by 2040. To date, many species in production at APSH remain untested in their response to OA, and the data presented here establish the current conditions at APSH as well as provide a framework for hatchery-based measurements in Alaska. The current and expected conditions seen at APSH are essential to consider for this

  5. On the Frontline: Tracking Ocean Acidification in an Alaskan Shellfish Hatchery

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the ocean is shifting the marine carbonate system such that saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals are decreasing, and this is having a detrimental impact on early life stages of select shellfish species. The global, secular decrease in CaCO3 saturation states is occurring on top of a backdrop of large natural variability in coastal settings; progressively shifting the envelope of variability and leading to longer and more frequent exposure to adverse conditions. This is a great concern in the State of Alaska, a high-latitude setting vulnerable to rapid changes in the marine carbonate system, where an emerging shellfish industry plans major growth over the coming decades. Currently, the Alutiiq Pride Shellfish Hatchery (APSH) in Seward, Alaska is the only hatchery in the state, and produces many shellfish species with early life stages known to be sensitive to low CaCO3 saturation states. Here we present the first land-based OA measurements made in an Alaskan shellfish hatchery, and detail the trends in the saturation state of aragonite (Ωarag), the more soluble form of CaCO3, over a 10-month period in the APSH seawater supply. These data indicate the largest changes are on the seasonal time scale, with extended periods of sub-optimal Ωarag levels (Ωarag < 1.5) in winter and autumn associated with elevated water column respiration and short-lived runoff events, respectively. The data pinpoint a 5-month window of reprieve with favorable Ωarag conditions above the sub-optimal Ωarag threshold, which under predicted upper-bound CO2 emissions trajectories is estimated to close by 2040. To date, many species in production at APSH remain untested in their response to OA, and the data presented here establish the current conditions at APSH as well as provide a framework for hatchery-based measurements in Alaska. The current and expected conditions seen at APSH are essential to consider for this

  6. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaugh L.

    1994-07-01

    Lake Pend Oreille once provided the most popular kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka fishery in northern Idaho. A dramatic decline in the population occurred from the mid-1960s to 1970s. Restoration efforts included construction of the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery to supplement the wild population and restore the fishery. In this study, hatchery-reared age 0 kokanee were stocked into Lake Pend Oreille from 1986 through 1992. Seven experimental stocking strategies for kokanee were tested using five locations and two time periods (early May through early June or late July). In 1985, the age 3 and older kokanee totaled about 0.35 million, but rose to 0.78 million in 1986, was stable, was then followed by a decline in 1990 to 0.53 million, then improved to 1.75 million in 1992. Much of the annual variation in total numbers of kokanee, ranging from 4.5 million to 10.2 million, was due to hatchery stockings of age 0 fish. Standing stocks of kokanee remained stable and ranged from 8 to 10 kg/hectare de spite dramatic changes in density due to age 0 fish. Prior to this study (1985), standing stocks were substantially higher (mean = 13.6 kg/hectare), indicating that the population may be operating below carrying capacity. The authors found survival of age 0 hatchery kokanee by each release season to range from 3% in 1986 to 39% in 1992, while the mean from 1987 through 1992 was 23%. They found significant (P=0.05) differences in survival between years, but they could not detect differences between stocking locations (P>0.71). Their analysis of survival between time (early vs late) and location was weak and inconclusive because after 1989 they had fewer fish to stock and could not repeat testing of some release strategies. They believe some of the variation in survival between release groups each year was due to the length of time between release in the lake and trawling.

  7. Contaminant levels in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and their diets from Missouri coldwater hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, M.J.; Kromrey, G.B.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorine and metal contaminants often occur in commercial fish diets and can accumulate in fish to levels of concern for human consumption. Contaminant levels were investigated in diet and rainbow trout fillets from Missouri coldwater hatcheries used in 'put and take' fisheries. The average fillet:diet ratio was <0.1 for lead and cadmium, 0.4-0.6 for organochlorine compounds, and about 0.8 for mercury. Trout fillet concentrations for all contaminants were low (<50 ng/g) and below Missouri's fish consumption advisory trigger levels. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. Open-jaw syndrome in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at a hatchery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crouch, Dennis E.; Yasutake, William T.; Rucker, Robert R.

    1973-01-01

    Nearly 0.5% of the yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at a national fish hatchery were observed with mouth agape, the condition occurring in two of 16 ponds. X-radiographs and histological preparations indicated that the articular bone of the lower jaw was malformed and dislocated dorsal and posterior to its normal point of attachment. The bone appeared to be embedded in the mandibular muscle and surrounded by an extensive fibrous tissue network. Genetic aberration, environmental interaction, and teratogenic substances are discussed as possible causes of the anomaly.

  9. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project : Combined-Planning & Design and Operations & Maintenance Reports, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.

    2002-12-31

    Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2000 Combined Maintenance and Operations (O&M) and Planning and Design (P&D) contract is hereby completed based on this annual report patterned after the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration. Primary project activities focused on completion of the Northwest Power Planning Council Step-3 process that: (1) Accepted final design, (2) Authorized a capital construction amount of $16,050,000, and (3) Authorized contractor selection, and (4) Provided construction site dedication, and (5) Implemented construction activities over an anticipated 2-year period of July 2000 through October 2002.

  10. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1987 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1988-05-01

    Estimated kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka abundance in Lake Pend Oreille was 6.01 million during late summer 1987. This estimate is 40% higher than the 1986 estimate and is the second largest population estimate since 1977. Higher abundance is predominantly a result of enhanced fry survival and recruitment. Hatchery-reared fry contribution was 22% of total fry recruitment in 1987, compared to 8% in 1986, and resulted from a fivefold increase in survival. Much of this improvement can be attributed to the large (52 mm) fry produced at Cabinet Gorge Hatchery in 1987 and represents the first measurable contribution of the new hatchery to the kokanee rehabilitation program. Survival of hatchery-reared fry released into Clark Fork River was nearly one-half that of fry released into Sullivan Springs due to poor flow conditions and potentially high predation during migration from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery to Lake Pend Oreille. Wild fry survival was enhanced by early availability of forage (cladocern zooplankton) during fry emergence in late spring. Cladoceran production began three weeks earlier in 1987 than 1986, which resulted from reduced Mysis abundance and earlier thermal stratification of Lake Pend Oreille, which helped segregate cladocerans from mysid predation. Kokanee dry otolith coding was evaluated to provide a reliable long-term mark. Analysis of daily growth increments on otoliths was used successfully in 1987 to differentiate fry from various release sites. The technique will be refined during 1988 to include coding fry otoliths with water temperature fluctuations during hatchery residence. 23 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Influences of Contrasting Types of Training on Practitioners' and Parents' Use of Assistive Technology and Adaptations with Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers with Disabilities. Practical Evaluation Reports, Volume 3, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Meter, Diana; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of different types of practices for promoting practitioner and parent adoption of different kinds of assistive technology and adaptations with young children birth to 105 months of age was the focus of a meta-analysis. Six operationally defined adult learning method characteristics and between 2 and 5 practices for each…

  12. Effects of hatchery fish density on emigration, growth, survival, and predation risk of natural steelhead parr in an experimental stream channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatara, Christopher P.; Riley, Stephen C.; Berejikian, Barry A.

    2011-01-01

    Hatchery supplementation of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss raises concerns about the impacts on natural populations, including reduced growth and survival, displacement, and increased predation. The potential risks may be density dependent.We examined how hatchery stocking density and the opportunity to emigrate affect the responses of natural steelhead parr in an experimental stream channel and after 15 d found no density-dependent effects on growth, emigration, or survival at densities ranging from 1-6 hatchery parr/m2. The opportunity for steelhead parr to emigrate reduced predation by coastal cutthroat trout O. clarkii clarkii on both hatchery and natural steelhead parr. The cutthroat trout exhibited a type-I functional response (constant predation rate with increased prey density) for the hatchery and composite populations. In contrast, the predation rate on natural parr decreased as hatchery stocking density increased. Supplementation with hatchery parr at any experimental stocking density reduced the final natural parr density. This decline was explained by increased emigration fromthe supplemented groups. Natural parr had higher mean instantaneous growth rates than hatchery parr. The proportion of parr emigrating decreased as parr size increased over successive experimental trials. Smaller parr had lower survival and suffered higher predation. The final density of the composite population, a measure of supplementation effectiveness, increased with the hatchery steelhead stocking rate. Our results indicate that stocking larger hatchery parr (over 50 d postemergence) at densities within the carrying capacity would have low short-term impact on the growth, survival, and emigration of natural parr while increasing the density of the composite population; in addition, a stocking density greater than 3 fish/m2 might be a good starting point for the evaluation of parr stocking in natural streams.

  13. Quality Assurance: Adapting SERVQUAL to Measure the Perceived Quality of Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Practice Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Henry; Koeberg, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a work in progress study which extends traditional quality assurance mechanisms through the application of the SERVQUAL instrument. It assesses the difference between pre-service teacher expectations and actual experience during a Teaching Practice period. Anecdotal evidence points to students being the recipients of poor…

  14. The Relationship of Parental Practices and Knowledge to School Adaptation for Immigrant and Nonimmigrant High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birman, Dina; Espino, Susan Ryerson

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of parent practices and knowledge of school on school success for a sample of 240 immigrant and nonimmigrant high school students and their parents. Immigrant parents from the former Soviet Union were less knowledgeable about and had less contact with the school, and allowed less autonomy than U.S.-born parents. Some…

  15. The Challenge of Developing Creativity in a Chinese Context: The Effectiveness of Adapting Western Creative Pedagogy to Inform Creative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Rebecca Hun Ping

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how teachers deal with a pedagogical framework developed in the West which aimed at supporting Chinese teachers' creativity-fostering pedagogy and the impacts of the framework in regard to teachers' pedagogical practice. Three Chinese preschool teachers were followed for six months. Interviews,…

  16. Newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh: Implications for the adaptation of kangaroo mother care for community-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Erin C; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Shah, Rashed; Farzin, Azadeh; Cristofalo, Elizabeth A; Akhter, Sadika; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2014-12-01

    Bangladesh has one of the world's highest rates of low birth weight along with prevalent traditional care practices that leave newborns highly vulnerable to hypothermia, infection, and early death. We conducted formative research to explore existing newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh with an emphasis on thermal protection, and to identify potential facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for the community level delivery of kangaroo mother care (CKMC). Forty in-depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions were conducted between September and December 2012. Participants included pregnant women and mothers, husbands, maternal and paternal grandmothers, traditional birth attendants, village doctors, traditional healers, pharmacy men, religious leaders, community leaders, and formal healthcare providers. Audio recordings were transcribed and translated into English, and the textual data were analyzed using the Framework Approach. We find that harmful newborn care practices, such as delayed wrapping and early initiation of bathing, are changing as more biomedical advice from formal healthcare providers is reaching the community through word-of-mouth and television campaigns. While the goal of CKMC was relatively easily understood and accepted by many of the participants, logistical and to a lesser extent ideological barriers exist that may keep the practice from being adopted easily. Women feel a sense of inevitable responsibility for household duties despite the desire to provide the best care for their new babies. Our findings showed that participants appreciated CKMC as an appropriate treatment method for ill babies, but were less accepting of it as a protective method of caring for seemingly healthy newborns during the first few days of life. Participants highlighted the necessity of receiving help from family members and witnessing other women performing CKMC with positive outcomes if they are to adopt the behavior themselves. Focusing intervention

  17. [Bariatric surgery, stomas and other digestive tract reductions: Insufficient data and recommendations to adapt medicines regimens in therapeutic practice].

    PubMed

    Bernard, Élodie; Charpiat, Bruno; Mabrut, Jean-Yves; Dode, Xavier; Garcia, Stephan; Le Duff, Michel; Rose, François-Xavier; Ducerf, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Surgery modifying digestive tract may alter drugs pharmacokinetics. To maintain concentrations of active substance in their therapeutic ranges, a dosage adjustment or change of drug may be necessary. This is particularly important when no pharmacological or pharmacodynamic parameter reflecting the medication effectiveness is easily measurable. Our objective was to gather the information and documentary tools that can guide prescription in these patients with rearranged digestive tract. We searched information on the documentary portals of French agencies, on gray literature, on MEDLINE and in the summaries product characteristics. No information was found on the website of French agencies, sparse data were identified in gray literature. Some document are discordant, most are imprecise. One hundred and ten studies or case reports referenced on MEDLINE describe 79 medications pharmacokinetics after gastrointestinal surgery. Four are not available in France. Six literature reviews were found. Four summaries of product characteristics provided information related to drug absorption. No documentary tool adapted to clinical routine exists. This unsatisfactory situation is a barrier to optimal patients care. Information is available. It is however necessary to gather under an ergonomic shape adapted to clinical routine, bringing the surgery type, pharmacokinetic changes induced and what to do about the dose adjustment.

  18. Pathogenicity testing of shellfish hatchery bacterial isolates on Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae.

    PubMed

    Estes, Robyn M; Friedman, Carolyn S; Elston, Ralph A; Herwig, Russell P

    2004-03-10

    Bacterial diseases are a major cause of larval mortality in shellfish hatcheries. Even with proper sanitation measures, bacterial pathogens cannot be eliminated in all cases. The pathogenicity of bacteria isolated from Pacific Northwest shellfish hatcheries to Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas larvae was investigated. We found 3 highly pathogenic strains and 1 mildly pathogenic strain among 33 isolates tested. These strains appear to be members of the genus Vibrio. Although there have been many studies of bivalve bacterial pathogens, a standard method to assess bacterial pathogenicity in bivalve larvae is needed. Thus, we developed 2 methods using either 15 ml conical tubes or tissue culture plates that were employed for rapidly screening bacterial strains for pathogenicity to Pacific oyster larvae. The tissue culture plates worked well for screening both mildly pathogenic strains and LD50 (lethal dose) assays. This method allowed for non-intrusive and non-destructive observation of the oyster larvae with a dissecting microscope. The LD50 for the 3 highly pathogenic strains ranged between 1.6 and 3.6 x 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) ml(-1) after 24 h and between 3.2 x 102 and 1.9 x 10(3) CFU ml(-1) after 48 h.

  19. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Toms C; James, Roswin; Anbu Rajan, L; Surendran, P K; Lalitha, K V

    2015-09-01

    Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV), Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV) in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection) was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae.

  20. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Toms C.; James, Roswin; Anbu Rajan, L.; Surendran, P.K.; Lalitha, K.V.

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV), Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV) in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection) was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae. PMID:26217783

  1. Characterization of estuary use by Nisqually Hatchery Chinook based on Otolith analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind-Null, Angie M.; Larsen, Kim A.; Reisenbichler, Reg

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). Preservation and extensive restoration of the Nisqually delta ecosystem are planned to assist in recovery of the stock. A pre-restoration baseline including life history types, estuary residence time, growth rates, and habitat use are needed to evaluate the potential response of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon to restoration. Otolith analysis has been selected as a means to examine Chinook salmon life history, growth, and residence in the Nisqually estuary. Over time, the information from the otolith analyses will be used to: 1) determine if estuary restoration actions cause changes to the population structure (i.e. frequency of the different life history trajectories) for Nisqually River Chinook, 2) compare pre- and post- restoration residence times and growth rates, 3) suggest whether estuary restoration yields substantial benefits for Chinook salmon through (1) and (2), and 4) compare differences in habitat use between hatchery and wild Chinook to further protect ESA listed stock. Otoliths are calcium carbonate structures in the inner ear that grow in proportion to the overall growth of the fish. Daily growth increments can be measured so date and fish size at various habitat transitions can be back-calculated. Careful analysis of otolith microstructure can be used to determine the number of days that a fish resided in the estuary as a juvenile (increment counts), size at entrance to the estuary, size at egress, and the amount that the fish grew while in the estuary. Juvenile hatchery Chinook salmon are generally released as smolts that move quickly through the delta with much shorter residence times than for many wild fish and are not dependent on the delta as nursery habitat (Myers and Horton 1982; Mace 1983; Levings et al. 1986). The purpose of this study is to use and

  2. Envisioning engineering education and practice in the coming intelligence convergence era — a complex adaptive systems approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2013-12-01

    Some of the recent attempts for improving and transforming engineering education are reviewed. The attempts aim at providing the entry level engineers with the skills needed to address the challenges of future large-scale complex systems and projects. Some of the frontier sectors and future challenges for engineers are outlined. The major characteristics of the coming intelligence convergence era (the post-information age) are identified. These include the prevalence of smart devices and environments, the widespread applications of anticipatory computing and predictive / prescriptive analytics, as well as a symbiotic relationship between humans and machines. Devices and machines will be able to learn from, and with, humans in a natural collaborative way. The recent game changers in learnscapes (learning paradigms, technologies, platforms, spaces, and environments) that can significantly impact engineering education in the coming era are identified. Among these are open educational resources, knowledge-rich classrooms, immersive interactive 3D learning, augmented reality, reverse instruction / flipped classroom, gamification, robots in the classroom, and adaptive personalized learning. Significant transformative changes in, and mass customization of, learning are envisioned to emerge from the synergistic combination of the game changers and other technologies. The realization of the aforementioned vision requires the development of a new multidisciplinary framework of emergent engineering for relating innovation, complexity and cybernetics, within the future learning environments. The framework can be used to treat engineering education as a complex adaptive system, with dynamically interacting and communicating components (instructors, individual, small, and large groups of learners). The emergent behavior resulting from the interactions can produce progressively better, and continuously improving, learning environment. As a first step towards the realization of

  3. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Eneli, Ihuoma U; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Lumeng, Julie C

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., age, education, ethnicity, and body mass index) examined mothers' intuitive eating and eating competence as predictors of four feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, and dividing feeding responsibilities with their child). Mothers who gave themselves unconditional permission to eat were less likely to restrict their child's food intake. Mothers who ate for physical (rather than emotional) reasons and had eating-related contextual skills (e.g., mindfulness when eating, planning regular and nutritious eating opportunities for themselves) were more likely to monitor their child's food intake. Mothers who had eating-related contextual skills were more likely to divide feeding responsibilities with their child. No maternal eating behavior predicted pressure to eat. Interventions to help mothers develop their eating-related contextual skills and eat intuitively, in particular, may translate into a more positive feeding environment for their young children.

  4. The new physician as unwitting quantum mechanic: is adapting Dirac's inference system best practice for personalized medicine, genomics, and proteomics?

    PubMed

    Robson, Barry

    2007-08-01

    What is the Best Practice for automated inference in Medical Decision Support for personalized medicine? A known system already exists as Dirac's inference system from quantum mechanics (QM) using bra-kets and bras where A and B are states, events, or measurements representing, say, clinical and biomedical rules. Dirac's system should theoretically be the universal best practice for all inference, though QM is notorious as sometimes leading to bizarre conclusions that appear not to be applicable to the macroscopic world of everyday world human experience and medical practice. It is here argued that this apparent difficulty vanishes if QM is assigned one new multiplication function @, which conserves conditionality appropriately, making QM applicable to classical inference including a quantitative form of the predicate calculus. An alternative interpretation with the same consequences is if every i = radical-1 in Dirac's QM is replaced by h, an entity distinct from 1 and i and arguably a hidden root of 1 such that h2 = 1. With that exception, this paper is thus primarily a review of the application of Dirac's system, by application of linear algebra in the complex domain to help manipulate information about associations and ontology in complicated data. Any combined bra-ket can be shown to be composed only of the sum of QM-like bra and ket weights c(), times an exponential function of Fano's mutual information measure I(A; B) about the association between A and B, that is, an association rule from data mining. With the weights and Fano measure re-expressed as expectations on finite data using Riemann's Incomplete (i.e., Generalized) Zeta Functions, actual counts of observations for real world sparse data can be readily utilized. Finally, the paper compares identical character, distinguishability of states events or measurements, correlation, mutual information, and orthogonal character, important issues in data mining

  5. Evaluating the impact of geologic heritage on Earth science literacy: Adapting best practices from pedagogy and interpretation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semken, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    How might we authentically and practically evaluate the effects of a geologic heritage place or program on public Earth science literacy? This pedagogical form of evaluation is distinct from the evaluation of a place for its geological importance, heritage value, economic or cultural impact, and so on. Best evaluation practices from the realms of formal education, informal education, and interpretation start with a coherent set of evaluable learning outcomes, ideally recapitulated in one or more 'big ideas' that capture the essential attributes of the place or program. Learning outcomes may be classified as cognitive, affective, or psychomotor. Cognitive learning outcomes in a geoheritage context are the Earth-science concepts a visitor or student would be expected to uncover through on-site or virtual exploration of the stratigraphy, structure, landforms, and processes in a place. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP), and similar literacy documents relating to atmosphere, oceans, and climate; offer a template for mapping localized concepts onto more global ones. Quantitative instruments to evaluate understanding of the ESLP are in development, and the ESLP also map directly onto measures used in formal educational assessment, notably the Next Generation Science Standards in the USA. Nongeological place meanings (a component of sense of place) may suggest other cognitive outcomes. Affective learning outcomes for visitors and students in geoheritage sites are less readily defined, but may include place attachment (also a component of sense of place), attitudes, and interest. Multiple quantitative and qualitative methods of evaluating these outcomes exist. Psychomotor learning outcomes are even muddier, but accessibility (defined by statutes) offers a potential starting point. In practice, evaluation may be conducted synchronously or asynchronously with visitors' or students' interaction with the geoheritage place or program. Evaluation programs are typically

  6. Performance Characterization of Influent and Effluent Treatment Systems: A Case Study at Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study characterizes the performance of influent and effluent disinfection systems at Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) restoration facility in East Orland, ME. Influent treatment of the hatchery’s water supply limits fish ...

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Flavobacterium psychrophilum Strains Isolated from Coldwater Disease Outbreaks at Three Production Hatcheries

    PubMed Central

    Neiger, Regg; Thomas, Milton; Das, Seema; Barnes, Michael; Fletcher, Brian; Snekvik, Kevin; Thompson, Jim

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequences of three Flavobacterium psychrophilum strains causing a bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) outbreak, isolated from infected rainbow trout from hatcheries in Montana and South Dakota. The availability of these virulent outbreak-causing strain genome sequences will help further understand the pathogenesis of BCWD. PMID:26966210

  8. How much does inbreeding contribute to the reduced fitness of hatchery-born steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the wild?

    PubMed

    Christie, Mark R; French, Rod A; Marine, Melanie L; Blouin, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Many declining populations are supplemented with captive-born individuals that are released directly into the wild. Because captive-born individuals can have lower fitness in the wild than their wild-born counterparts, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the reduced fitness of these individuals is required for appropriate conservation and management decisions. Inbreeding among captive-born individuals is one plausible mechanism because captive breeding programs frequently use small numbers of breeders to create large numbers of siblings that are subsequently released together into the wild. We tested this hypothesis in a supplementation program for steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Hood River, Oregon, for which first-generation hatchery fish were demonstrated to have lower fitness in the wild than their wild-born counterparts. To determine the contribution of inbreeding to this fitness decline, we first assigned 11 run-years of hatchery steelhead (3005 fish) back to their broodstock parents (462 fish) using 8 polymorphic microsatellite loci. By combining pedigree analyses with species-specific estimates of genetic load, we found that inbreeding could at most account for a 1-4% reduction in the fitness of hatchery fish relative to wild fish. Thus, inbreeding alone cannot adequately explain the 15% average fitness decline observed in first-generation hatchery fish from this population.

  9. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    PubMed

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the "naïve" treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the "exposed" treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles.

  10. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1985 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1986-07-01

    Mid-water trawling techniques were used during September to estimate kokanee population abundance, structure and survival. Abundance in 1985 was estimated at 4.5 million fish (198 per hectare), down from over 12 million kokanee in 1974 when the population was first monitored. Hatchery fry production (<6 million annually) has stabilized kokanee abundance since its initial decline in the late 1960s. Wild fry recruitment has remained relatively stable at 1.8 million since 1978; whereas recruitment of hatchery-reared fry has ranged from 0.09 to 1.98 million. The 1985 creel survey indicated that kokanee harvest rates remain low, with approximately one kokanee harvested per hour of effort from April to August. Catch rates were as high as 3.5 fish per hour during the mid-1960s. The zooplankton community was monitored with periodic plankton tows. Zooplankton composition in 1985 was similar to previous years and appears to have stabilized following the introduction of mysids, with peak cladoceran production occurring several weeks after peak kokanee emergence. Delayed release of hatchery fry resulted in higher survival of hatchery (7.3%) than wild (0.43%) kokanee fry. Other release strategies will be tested as more fry become available.

  11. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus)

    PubMed Central

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the “naïve” treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the “exposed” treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles. PMID:27560932

  12. How do hatcheries influence embryonic development of sea turtle eggs? Experimental analysis and isolation of microorganisms in leatherback turtle eggs.

    PubMed

    Patino-Martinez, Juan; Marco, Adolfo; Quiñones, Liliana; Abella, Elena; Abad, Roberto Muriel; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Many conservation programs consider translocation of turtle nests to hatcheries as a useful technique. The repeated use of the same incubation substrate over several seasons in these hatcheries could, however, be harmful to embryos if pathogens were able to accumulate or if the physical and chemical characteristics of the incubation environment were altered. However, this hypothesis has yet to be tested. We conducted two field experiments to evaluate the effects of hatchery sand and eggshell decay on the embryonic development of leatherback sea turtle eggs in Colombia. We identified the presence of both fungi and bacteria species on leatherback turtle eggs. Sea turtle eggs exposed to previously used hatchery substrates or to decaying eggshells during the first and middle third of the embryonic development produced hatchlings that were smaller and/or weighed less than control eggs. However, this did not negatively influence hatching success. The final third of embryonic development seems to be less susceptible to infection by microorganisms associated with decaying shells. We discuss the mechanisms that could be affecting sea turtle egg development when in contact with fungi. Further studies should seek to understand the infection process and the stages of development in which the fungi are more virulent to the eggs of this critically endangered species.

  13. Adaptive 84.44-190 Mbit/s phosphor-LED wireless communication utilizing no blue filter at practical transmission distance.

    PubMed

    Yeh, C H; Chow, C W; Chen, H Y; Chen, J; Liu, Y L

    2014-04-21

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a white-light phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC) system with an adaptive 84.44 to 190 Mbit/s 16 quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) signal utilizing bit-loading method. Here, the optimal analogy pre-equalization design is performed at LED transmitter (Tx) side and no blue filter is used at the Rx side. Hence, the ~1 MHz modulation bandwidth of phosphor-LED could be extended to 30 MHz. In addition, the measured bit error rates (BERs) of < 3.8 × 10(-3) [forward error correction (FEC) threshold] at different measured data rates can be achieved at practical transmission distances of 0.75 to 2 m.

  14. Genetic adaptation to captivity can occur in a single generation.

    PubMed

    Christie, Mark R; Marine, Melanie L; French, Rod A; Blouin, Michael S

    2012-01-03

    Captive breeding programs are widely used for the conservation and restoration of threatened and endangered species. Nevertheless, captive-born individuals frequently have reduced fitness when reintroduced into the wild. The mechanism for these fitness declines has remained elusive, but hypotheses include environmental effects of captive rearing, inbreeding among close relatives, relaxed natural selection, and unintentional domestication selection (adaptation to captivity). We used a multigenerational pedigree analysis to demonstrate that domestication selection can explain the precipitous decline in fitness observed in hatchery steelhead released into the Hood River in Oregon. After returning from the ocean, wild-born and first-generation hatchery fish were used as broodstock in the hatchery, and their offspring were released into the wild as smolts. First-generation hatchery fish had nearly double the lifetime reproductive success (measured as the number of returning adult offspring) when spawned in captivity compared with wild fish spawned under identical conditions, which is a clear demonstration of adaptation to captivity. We also documented a tradeoff among the wild-born broodstock: Those with the greatest fitness in a captive environment produced offspring that performed the worst in the wild. Specifically, captive-born individuals with five (the median) or more returning siblings (i.e., offspring of successful broodstock) averaged 0.62 returning offspring in the wild, whereas captive-born individuals with less than five siblings averaged 2.05 returning offspring in the wild. These results demonstrate that a single generation in captivity can result in a substantial response to selection on traits that are beneficial in captivity but severely maladaptive in the wild.

  15. Genetic adaptation to captivity can occur in a single generation

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Mark R.; Marine, Melanie L.; French, Rod A.; Blouin, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Captive breeding programs are widely used for the conservation and restoration of threatened and endangered species. Nevertheless, captive-born individuals frequently have reduced fitness when reintroduced into the wild. The mechanism for these fitness declines has remained elusive, but hypotheses include environmental effects of captive rearing, inbreeding among close relatives, relaxed natural selection, and unintentional domestication selection (adaptation to captivity). We used a multigenerational pedigree analysis to demonstrate that domestication selection can explain the precipitous decline in fitness observed in hatchery steelhead released into the Hood River in Oregon. After returning from the ocean, wild-born and first-generation hatchery fish were used as broodstock in the hatchery, and their offspring were released into the wild as smolts. First-generation hatchery fish had nearly double the lifetime reproductive success (measured as the number of returning adult offspring) when spawned in captivity compared with wild fish spawned under identical conditions, which is a clear demonstration of adaptation to captivity. We also documented a tradeoff among the wild-born broodstock: Those with the greatest fitness in a captive environment produced offspring that performed the worst in the wild. Specifically, captive-born individuals with five (the median) or more returning siblings (i.e., offspring of successful broodstock) averaged 0.62 returning offspring in the wild, whereas captive-born individuals with less than five siblings averaged 2.05 returning offspring in the wild. These results demonstrate that a single generation in captivity can result in a substantial response to selection on traits that are beneficial in captivity but severely maladaptive in the wild. PMID:22184236

  16. Micro practices of coordination based on complex adaptive systems: user needs and strategies for coordinating public health in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Wittrup, Inge; Burau, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many highly formalised approaches to coordination poorly fit public health and recent studies call for coordination based on complex adaptive systems. Our contribution is two-fold. Empirically, we focus on public health, and theoretically we build on the patient perspective and treat coordination as a process of contingent, two-level negotiations of user needs. Theory and Methods The paper draws on the concept of user needs-based coordination and sees coordination as a process, whereby needs emerging from the life world of the user are made amenable to the health system through negotiations. The analysis is based on an explorative case study of a health promotion initiative in Denmark. It adopts an anthropological qualitative approach and uses a range of qualitative data. Results The analysis identifies four strategies of coordination: the coordinator focusing on the individual user or on relations with other professionals; and the manager coaching the coordinator or providing structural support. Crucially, the coordination strategies by management remain weak as they do not directly relate to specific user needs. Discussion In process of bottom-up negotiations user needs become blurred and this is especially a challenge for management. The study therefore calls for an increased focus on the level nature of negotiations to bridge the gap that currently weakens coordination strategies by management. PMID:26528097

  17. Demarcation of coastal transition zone in Gulf of Guayaquil (Ecuador) for agriculture crops and bioaquatic hatcheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Wilson; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Belen Vicente, Ana; Jordan, Manuel Miguel; Bech, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The Gulf of Guayaquil (Ecuador) is the largest estuary in the South American Pacific coast. It has special characteristics which make it to have a great diversity of agricultural crops and bioaquatic hatcheries.The study was focused on demarcating of Coastal Transition Zone in Gulf of Guayaquil for agriculture crops and bioaquatic hatcheries, based on salinity indexes and characterization of physicochemical properties of soils in order to establish similarities and differences between groups using multivariate analysis. In this paper, cluster analysis of 12 parameters (conductivity, pH, anions, cations, metals and organic matter) was carried on. 15 transects towards the coastline were performed, each consisting of 6 stations equidistant sampling 1 km covering a distance of 5 km from the margin of mangrove inland a total of 90 stations. The sampling points were established as a representative area because of its hydrological characteristics and tidal influence. Soils were sampled between 0 and 20 cm of depth (Topsoil). The salinity analysis was performed by the method of the saturation extract, the pH was measured with a potentiometer, chemical analysis was carried by colorimetry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the organic matter was determined by the method of Walkley and Black. The cluster analysis allowed to establish suitable and restrictive zones for shrimp farming and agricultural crops. It has been established that the coastal transition zone of the Gulf of Guayaquil is located at 4.2 km from the mangroves with a soil salinity of 4 mS / cm. There is a suitable zone for shrimp farming with a salinity of 13.5 mS / cm from the edge of the mangrove to 2.8 km, then the concentration of salinity prevents its use for bioaquatic hatcheries to 4.2 km. The area for agriculture crops is limited from a restricted area using a salinity value from 2mS/cm to 4 mS / cm. The characterization of the coastal transition zone using multivariate analysis established

  18. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maskill, Mark

    2003-03-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 150,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in July 2001 for this objective. Another 120,000 westslope cutthroat eggs were taken from feral fish at Rogers Lake in May of 2001 by the Creston Hatchery crew. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 50,500 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Arlee State Fish Hatchery in December 2001 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring.

  19. Genetic diversity of wild and hatchery lake trout populations: Relevance for management and restoration in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Burnham-Curtis, M.

    2004-01-01

    The biological diversity of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the upper Great Lakes was historically high, consisting of many recognizable morphological types and discrete spawning populations. During the 1950s and 1960s, lake trout populations were extirpated from much of the Great Lakes primarily as a result of overfishing and predation by the parasitic sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Investigations of how genetic diversity is partitioned among remnant wild lake trout populations and hatchery broodstocks have been advocated to guide lake trout management and conservation planning. Using microsatellite genetic markers, we estimated measures of genetic diversity and the apportionment of genetic variance among 6 hatchery broodstocks and 10 wild populations representing three morphotypes (lean, humper, and siscowet). Analyses revealed that different hatchery broodstocks and wild populations contributed disproportionally to the total levels of genetic diversity. The genetic affinities of hatchery lake trout reflected the lake basins of origin of the wild source populations. The variance in allele frequency over all sampled extant wild populations was apportioned primarily on the basis of morphotype (??MT = 0.029) and secondarily among geographically dispersed populations within each morphotype (??ST = 0.024). The findings suggest that the genetic divergence reflected in recognized morphotypes and the associated ecological and physiological specialization occurred prior to the partitioning of large proglacial lakes into the Great Lakes or as a consequence of higher contemporary levels of gene flow within than among morphotypes. Information on the relative contributions of different broodstocks to total gene diversity within the regional hatchery program can be used to prioritize the broodstocks to be retained and to guide future stocking strategies. The findings highlight the importance of ecological and phenotypic diversity in Great Lakes fish communities and

  20. Evaluation of the Contribution of Chinook Salmon reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1984-12-01

    The distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook on the Columbia River was determined. Total returns of fall chinook to Columbia River facilities in 1984 were 74,401. This was the second smallest return over the past five years. Returns to Bonneville, Spring Creek, Little White Salmon, Klickitat and Klaskanine hatcheries were smaller than any previous year during this study. However, returns to Priest Rapids and Sea Resources hatcheries were greater than in previous years. Final estimated catch values are available through 1982 for British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and Columbia River fisheries. Fall chinook from the Columbia River hatcheries are predominately recovered in these fisheries. The percentages of the 1978-brood fish caught in these fisheries was 40.3, 35.0, 7.5 and 17.2 respectively. Contributions to the fisheries per 1000 fish released for all hatcheries combined were 2.6 and 3.0 for the 1978 and 1979 broods respectively. Three years (1980 to 1982) were included in the contribution values for the 1978 brood and two years (1981 and 1982) for the 1979 brood. Spring Creek Hatchery had the greatest contribution to the fisheries of 8.2 and 12.7 fish per 1000 fish released for the 1978 and 1979-broods respectively. The Spring Creek contribution was followed by Stayton Pond, Abernathy, Bonneville and Big Creek at 6.3, 4.1, 2.9 and 2.6 respectively for the 1978 brood and Big Creek, Stayton Pond and Abernathy at 7.4, 6.2 and 3.9 respectively for the 1979 brood. Other facilities had contributions per 1000 releases of less than 2. These contributions are minimums since all possible catch years are not included. 2 figs., 36 tabs.

  1. On-farm research in Western Siberia: Potential of adapted management practices for sustainable intensification of crop production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühling, Insa; Trautz, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Western Siberia is of global significance in terms of agricultural production, carbon sequestration and biodiversity preservation. Abandonment of arable land and changes in the use of permanent grasslands were triggered by the dissolution of the Soviet Union in and the following collapse of the state farm system. The peatlands, forests and steppe soils of Western Siberia are one of the most important carbon sinks worldwide. These carbon stocks are, if deteriorated, an important source of radiative forcing even in comparison to anthropogenic emissions. This situation is aggravated by recent and future developments in agricultural land use in the southern part of Western Siberia, in particular in Tyumen province. The increase of drought risk caused by climate change will led to more challenges in these water-limited agricultural production systems. The German-Russian interdisciplinary research project "SASCHA" aims to provide sustainable land management practices to cope with these far-reaching changes for Tyumen province. In particular, on farm scale agricultural strategies are being developed for increased efficiencies in crop production systems. Therefore a 3-factorial field trial with different tillage and seeding operations was installed with spring wheat on 10 ha under practical conditions in 2013. Within all combinations of tillage (no-till/conventional), seed rate (usual/reduced) and seed depth (usual/shallower) various soil parameters as well as plant development and yield components were intensively monitored during the growing seasons. Results after 2-years show significant impacts of the tillage operation on soil moisture and soil temperature. Also a higher trend in nitrogen mineralization could be observed without tillage. Plant development in terms of phenological growth stages took place simultaneously in all variants. Under no-till regime we measured slightly higher grain yields and significant advantages in protein yields. In conjunction with

  2. Crocodilian Nest in a Late Cretaceous Sauropod Hatchery from the Type Lameta Ghat Locality, Jabalpur, India

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rahul; Patnaik, Rajeev; Shukla, U. K.; Sahni, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    The well-known Late Cretaceous Lameta Ghat locality (Jabalpur, India) provides a window of opportunity to study a large stable, near shore sandy beach, which was widely used by sauropod dinosaurs as a hatchery. In this paper, we revisit the eggs and eggshell fragments previously assigned to lizards from this locality and reassign them to crocodylomorphs. Several features point to a crocodilian affinity, including a subspherical to ellipsoidal shape, smooth, uneven external surface, discrete trapezoid shaped shell units with wide top and narrow base, basal knobs and wedge shaped crystallites showing typical inverted triangular extinction under crossed nicols. The crocodylomorph eggshell material presented in this paper adds to the skeletal data of these most probably Cretaceous-Eocene dryosaurid crocodiles. PMID:26641665

  3. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project; Operations and Maintenance and Planning and Design, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.; Penney, Aaron K.

    2005-12-01

    This report fulfills the contract obligations based on the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2002 annual report combines information from two contracts with a combined value of $3,036,014. Bonneville Power Administration identifies them as follows; (1) Part I--Operations and Maintenance--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4504, and $2,682,635 which includes--Equipment costs of $1,807,105. (2) Part II--Planning and Design--Project No. 1983-35-04, Contract No. 4035, $352,379 for Clearwater Coho Restoration Master Plan development Based on NPPC authorization for construction and operation of NPTH, the annual contracts were negotiated for the amounts shown above under (1) and (2). Construction contracts were handled by BPA until all facilities are completed and accepted.

  4. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-04-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  5. New technique for fertilizing eggs of burbot, asp and ide under hatchery conditions.

    PubMed

    Kucharczyk, Dariusz; Nowosad, Joanna; Łuczyński, Marek J; Targońska, Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    The development of a new protocol for egg fertilization may increase embryo survival and benefit the aquaculture process. In the present study, a new technique of partially adding sperm to activated eggs in the artificial fertilization of burbot (Lota lota), ide (Leuciscus idus) and asp (Aspius aspius) eggs was evaluated. If the same volume of sperm was divided into two or three parts and added to eggs in 30-60s intervals, it significantly improved embryo survival at the eyed-egg-stage of development. In the present study, the periodic addition of spermatozoa to eggs affected fertilization (ide and asp) and embryo survival rates (ide, asp and burbot) and might be successfully applied under hatchery conditions.

  6. Recoveries of tagged, hatchery-reared lake trout from Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buettner, Howard J.

    1961-01-01

    Plantings that totaled 13,384 tagged, hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)—18, 25, 30, or 37 months old—were made at four Lake Superior localities in 1955-57 to: measure possible increases of return from rearing to greater size and age; study the effect of season of planting on the rate of return; compare returns from different types of tags; and follow the movements of hatchery-reared fish. The great advantage of spring over fall planting, demonstrated for fingerling lake trout in earlier experiments, did not hold for fish planted at ages of 18 to 37 months. The improvement of recovery rates with increase of age over the same 18- to 37-month interval appears to be too small to justify the cost of rearing to the higher ages. The recovery rates were closely similar (3.9 to 4.8 percent) for lower-jaw tags and two types of nylon-streamer tags but were much lower than the rate for Petersen tags (12.4 percent). The pins of Petersen tags render the fish highly vulnerable to entanglement in the webbing of gill nets, the principal gear in Lake Superior. Recoveries of Petersen tags also came earlier after planting than did those of other tags. The time between planting and recovery and the distance traveled by the fish were clearly but not closely correlated. Mean distance between points of planting and recovery increased with time out, and average time out increased with the number of miles traveled. More than half of the recoveries of fish that had been at liberty over 2 years were made within 25 miles of the point of release.

  7. Chemical contaminants in fish feeds used in federal salmonid hatcheries in the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Gannam, A.L.; Davis, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that fish feeds contain significant concentrations of contaminants, many of which can bioaccumulate and bioconcentrate in fish. Organochlorine (OC) contaminants are present in the fish oils and fish meals used in feed manufacture, and some researchers speculate that all fish feeds contain measurable levels of some contaminants. To determine the concentration of contaminants in feeds used in US Fish and Wildlife Service's National Fish Hatcheries, we systematically collected samples of feed from 11 cold-water fish hatcheries. All samples (collected from October 2001 to October 2003) contained at least one polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite. Of the 55 samples in which they were analyzed 39 contained PCDDs, 24 contained PCDFs and 24 contained DDT or its metabolites. There were 10- to 150-fold differences in concentrations of total PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs and DDT. Although PCBs were the most commonly detected contaminant in our study, concentrations (range: 0.07-10.46 ng g-1 wet weight) were low compared to those reported previously. In general, we also found lower levels of OCs than reported previously in fish feed. Perhaps most notable was the near absence of OC pesticides - except for DDT or its metabolites, and two samples containing hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). While contaminant concentrations were generally low, the ecological impacts can not be determined without a measure of the bioaccumulation of these compounds in the fish and the fate of these compounds after the fish are released. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, S. K.; Rath, N. C.; Packialakshmi, B.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Huff, G. R.; Donoghue, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  9. Migration of precocious male hatchery chinook salmon in the Umatilla River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, C.E.; Stonecypher, R.W.; Hayes, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Between 1993 and 2000, precocious yearling males of hatchery-produced fall and spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha composed 3.6-82.1% of chinook salmon runs to the Umatilla River, Oregon. These yearling males are smaller than typical jack salmon, which spend a full winter in the ocean, and are commonly referred to as "mini jacks." Minijack fall chinook salmon are characterized by enlarged testes and an increased gonadosomatic index. Our goal was to determine if minijacks migrated to saltwater between the time they are released from the hatchery and the time they return to the Umatilla River, a period of 4-6 months. During 1999-2000, we collected otoliths from an adult male fall chinook salmon, 12 spring chinook salmon minijacks, and 10 fall chinook salmon minijacks. We measured strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios from the age-1 annulus to the edge of the otolith to determine whether these fish had migrated to the ocean. The Sr:Ca ratios increased from low values near the age-1 annulus, similar to ratios expected from freshwaters, to higher values near the edge of the otolith. The Sr:Ca ratios increased to levels similar to ratios expected in saltwater, indicating that these fish had migrated to saltwater before returning to the Umatilla River. Analysis of published water chemistry data from the Columbia and Snake rivers and rearing experiments in the main-stem Columbia River confirmed that high Sr:Ca ratios measured in otoliths were not the result of high strontium levels encountered in the freshwater environment. Previously assumed to remain within freshwater and near the point of release, our results suggest these minijack salmon migrated at least 800 km and past three hydroelectric dams to reach saltwater and return to the Umatilla River.

  10. Spring Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon; 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Blenden, Michael L.; Veach, Eric R.; Kucera, Paul A.

    1998-10-01

    For the fourth consecutive year, the Nez Perce Tribe, in conjunction with the Fish Passage Center, participated in the smolt monitoring program in the Imnaha River. A screw trap was used to collect emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Uncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from February 25 to June 27, 1997. A total of 270 natural chinook salmon, 10,616 hatchery chinook salmon, 864 natural steelhead trout (and 13 natural steelhead parr), and 7,345 hatchery steelhead trout smolts were captured during emigration studies on the Imnaha River. Mortality associated with trapping, handling and tagging was low: 0.37% for natural chinook, 0.11% for hatchery chinook, 0.11% for natural steelhead, and 0.39% for hatchery steelhead trout smolts. Natural chinook salmon smolts emigrated from the Imnaha River from February 25 to June 10 and had a mean length of 108 mm, average weight of 13 g, and mean condition factor of 1.02. The peak period of natural chinook smolt emigration, based on number of fish collected, occurred between March 25 and April 30. Hatchery reared chinook salmon smolts were collected from April 9 to May 9, with 99% of the smolts being caught within 10 days after release. Hatchery chinook smolts mean length, weight, and condition factor were 131 mm, 25.4 g, and 1.12, respectively. Emigration of natural steelhead smolts in the Imnaha River occurred between March 14 and June 25. Peak emigration occurred from May 1 to May 15. Natural steelhead smolts averaged 175 mm in fork length, 55.8 g in weight and had a mean condition factor of 1 .OO. Hatchery steelhead smolts emigrated from the Imnaha River between April 15 and June 27. Hatchery steelhead smolts averaged 210 mm in fork length, 88 g in weight and had a mean condition factor of 0.93. Spring runoff water conditions in 1997 provided above average flows for emigrating anadromous salmonid smolts. Imnaha River mean daily discharge during spring emigration ranged from 7

  11. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume IV of V; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, Larry

    1993-04-01

    Operational plans for Cowlitz, Elokomin, Grays River, Kalama Falls, Lewis River and Speelyai, Lower Kalama, Lyons Ferry, Methow, Priest Rapids, Ringold Springs, Rock Island, Toutle, Washougal, and Wells Salmon Hatcheries are individually described.

  12. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.; Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Hatchery Evaluation Studies (LSRCP) and the Imnaha Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 1999 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies were designed and closely coordinated to provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) biological characteristics, behavior and emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Data collected from these studies are shared with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). These data are essential to quantify smolt survival rates under the current passage conditions and to evaluate the future recovery strategies that seek to optimize smolt survival through the hydroelectric system. Information shared with the FPC assists with in-season shaping of flow and spill management requests in the Snake River reservoirs. The Bonneville Power Administration and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service contracted the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) to monitor emigration timing and tag 21,200 emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River during the spring emigration period (March 1-June 15) with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. The completion of trapping in the spring of 1999 marked the eighth year of emigration studies on the Imnaha River and the sixth year of participating in the FPC smolt monitoring program. Monitoring and evaluation objectives were to: (1) Determine spring emigration timing of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River trap. (2) Evaluate effects of flow, temperature and other environmental factors on emigration timing. (3) Monitor the daily catch and biological characteristics of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River screw trap. (4) Determine emigration timing, travel time, and in

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the modified FRESNO Test to evaluate the competence in evidence based practice by physical therapists

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anderson M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L.; Padula, Rosimeire S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Modified Fresno Test was developed to assess knowledge and skills of both physical therapy (PT) professionals and students to use evidence-based practice (EBP). OBJECTIVES: To translate the Modified Fresno Test into Brazilian-Portuguese and to evaluate the test's reproducibility. METHOD: The first step consisted of adapting the instrument into the Brazilian-Portuguese language. Then, a total of 57 participants, including PT students, PT professors and PT practitioners, completed the translated instrument. The responses from the participants were used to evaluate reproducibility of the translated instrument. Internal consistency was calculated using the Cronbach's alpha. Reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous variables, and the Kappa coefficient (K) for categorical variables. The agreement was assessed using the standard error of the measurement (SEM). RESULTS: The cross-cultural adaptation process was appropriate, providing an adequate Brazilian-Portuguese version of the instrument. The internal consistency was good (α=0.769). The reliability for inter- and intra-rater assessment were ICC=0.89 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.93); for evaluator 1 was ICC=0.85 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.93); and for evaluator 2 was ICC=0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). The SEM was 13.04 points for inter-rater assessment, 12.57 points for rater 1 and 4.59 points for rater 2. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian-Portuguese language version of the Modified Fresno Test showed satisfactory results in terms of reproducibility. The Modified Fresno Test will allow physical therapy professionals and students to be evaluated on the use of understanding EBP. PMID:26786079

  14. Presence and significance of chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and other amphibian pathogens at warm-water fish hatcheries in southeastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D. Earl; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether diseases known to have detrimental effects on amphibians (ranavirus, BD, mesomycetozoa, protozoa and helminths) are present in amphibian larvae living in warm-water fish hatcheries in the southeastern United States. We further examined hatchery records to assess the extent to which amphibian larvae have been transported throughout various regions and potentially contribute to spreading emerging infectious diseases. 

  15. Source-sink estimates of genetic introgression show influence of hatchery strays on wild chum salmon populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Jasper, James R; Habicht, Christopher; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Rich; Marsh, Jennifer; Lewis, Bert; Creelman Fox, Elisabeth; Grauvogel, Zac; Rogers Olive, Serena D; Grant, W Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Historical population structure was inferred from the analysis of DNA from fish scales, which had been archived since the late 1960's for several populations in PWS. Parallel analyses with microsatellites and a test based on Hardy-Weinberg proportions showed that about 50% of the fish-scale DNA was cross-contaminated with DNA from other fish. These samples were removed from the analysis. We used a novel application of the classical source-sink model to compare SNP allele frequencies in these archived fish-scales (1964-1982) with frequencies in contemporary samples (2008-2010) and found a temporal shift toward hatchery allele frequencies in some wild populations. Other populations showed markedly less introgression, despite moderate amounts of hatchery straying. The extent of introgression may reflect similarities in spawning time and life-history traits between hatchery and wild fish, or the degree that hybrids return to a natal spawning area. The source-sink model is a powerful means of detecting low levels of introgression over several generations.

  16. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume III of III; Disease and Physiology Supplements, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Slatick, Emil; Gilbreath, Lyle G.; Harmon, Jerrel R.

    1988-02-03

    The main functions of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Aquaculture Task biologists and contractual scientists involved in the 1978 homing studies were primarily a surveillance of fish physiology, disease, and relative survival during culture in marine net-pens, to determine if there were any unusual factors that might affect imprinting and homing behavior. The studies were conducted with little background knowledge of the implications of disease and physiology on imprinting and homing in salmonids. The health status of the stocks was quite variable as could be expected. The Dworshak and Wells Hatcheries steelhead suffered from some early stresses in seawater, probably osmoregulatory. The incidences of latent BKD in the Wells and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead and Kooskia Hatchery spring chinook salmon were extremely high, and how these will affect survival in the ocean is not known. Gill enzyme activity in the Dworshak and Chelan Hatcheries steelhead at release was low. Of the steelhead, survival in the Tucannon Hatchery stock will probably be the highest, with Dworshak Hatchery stock the lowest. This report contains five previously published papers.

  17. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery-and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, S.L.; Knudsen, C.M.; Rau, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the Yakima Spring Chinook supplementation program, wild fish are brought into the Cle Elum Hatchery, artificially crossed, reared, transferred to acclimation sites, and released into the upper Yakima River as smolts. When these fish mature and return to the Yakima River most of them will be allowed to spawn naturally; a few, however, will be brought back to the hatchery and used for research purposes. In order for this supplementation approach to be successful, hatchery-origin fish must be able to spawn and produce offspring under natural conditions. Recent investigations on salmonid fishes have indicated that exposure to hatchery environments during juvenile life may cause significant behavioral, physiological, and morphological changes in adult fish. These changes appear to reduce the reproductive competence of hatchery fish. In general, males are more affected than females; species with prolonged freshwater rearing periods are more strongly impacted than those with shorter rearing periods; and stocks that have been exposed to artificial culture for multiple generations are more impaired than those with a relatively short exposure history to hatchery conditions.

  18. Teaching and Learning Resilience: Building Adaptive Capacity for Rural Practice. A Report and Subsequent Analysis of a Workshop Conducted at the Rural Medical Educators Conference, Savannah, Georgia, May 18, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Randall; Zink, Therese; Florence, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Resilience, the capacity to endure and overcome hardship, has been suggested as a basic competency for rural medical practice. Unfortunately for physician educators, the medical education literature offers only limited guidance for nurturing this adaptive capacity. We describe the process and subsequent analysis of a daylong curriculum…

  19. Screening, Assessment, and Management of Fatigue in Adult Survivors of Cancer: An American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Julienne E.; Bak, Kate; Berger, Ann; Breitbart, William; Escalante, Carmelita P.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Schnipper, Hester Hill; Lacchetti, Christina; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Lyman, Gary H.; Ogaily, Mohammed S.; Pirl, William F.; Jacobsen, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This guideline presents screening, assessment, and treatment approaches for the management of adult cancer survivors who are experiencing symptoms of fatigue after completion of primary treatment. Methods A systematic search of clinical practice guideline databases, guideline developer Web sites, and published health literature identified the pan-Canadian guideline on screening, assessment, and care of cancer-related fatigue in adults with cancer, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Practice Guidelines In Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Cancer-Related Fatigue and the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship. These three guidelines were appraised and selected for adaptation. Results It is recommended that all patients with cancer be evaluated for the presence of fatigue after completion of primary treatment and be offered specific information and strategies for fatigue management. For those who report moderate to severe fatigue, comprehensive assessment should be conducted, and medical and treatable contributing factors should be addressed. In terms of treatment strategies, evidence indicates that physical activity interventions, psychosocial interventions, and mind-body interventions may reduce cancer-related fatigue in post-treatment patients. There is limited evidence for use of psychostimulants in the management of fatigue in patients who are disease free after active treatment. Conclusion Fatigue is prevalent in cancer survivors and often causes significant disruption in functioning and quality of life. Regular screening, assessment, and education and appropriate treatment of fatigue are important in managing this distressing symptom. Given the multiple factors contributing to post-treatment fatigue, interventions should be tailored to each patient's specific needs. In particular, a number of nonpharmacologic treatment approaches have demonstrated efficacy in cancer survivors. PMID:24733803

  20. Behavioural type in newly emerged steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss does not predict growth rate in a conventional hatchery rearing environment.

    PubMed

    Conrad, J L; Sih, A

    2009-10-01

    Behavioural assays were conducted on newly emerged steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss to investigate the presence of behavioural syndromes and to determine whether behavioural type in young fish predicts growth rate in a conventional hatchery rearing environment. Individual fry were consistent in their position choice and activity behaviours across safe and unsafe contexts, as well as among assays conducted on different days. Position choice and activity behaviours, however, were not necessarily correlated to each other. Both behaviours predicted feeding rates during behavioural assays, but there was no relationship between fry behaviour and subsequent growth rate or survival during the first 3 months of hatchery rearing. These results support the hypothesis that selection in captivity may be relaxed with respect to behavioural type rather than directional, allowing for increased behavioural variance in domesticated populations. Modest magnitudes of correlations among fry behaviours, however, suggest that behavioural type may be unstable at the onset of the juvenile feeding stage.

  1. Inbreeding and genetic diversity analysis in a hatchery release population and clones of Rhopilema esculentum based on microsatellite markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Tao; Chen, Zaizhong; Wang, Mosang; Hu, Yulong; Wang, Weiji

    2016-07-01

    Ten microsatellite markers were used to analyze the levels of genetic diversity and inbreeding in a hatchery release population of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomatidae). A total of 85 alleles were detected in 600 individuals. Within-population levels of observed (H o) and expected (H e) heterozygosity ranged from 0.152 to 0.839 (mean=0.464) and from 0.235 to 0.821 (mean=0.618), respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of each marker ranged from 0.207 to 0.795 with an average of 0.580, indicating that the hatchery population maintained a high level of genetic diversity. Inbreeding levels were estimated in the hatchery population and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.203. This result revealed that a certain level of inbreeding occurred within the population. Meanwhile, we also determined genetic diversity at the clone level. Several polyps from the same scyphistomae were genotyped at the ten microsatellite loci and there was virtually no difference in their genotypes. Furthermore, we calculated the probabilities of exclusion. When both parents were known, the average exclusion probability of ten loci was 99.99%. Our data suggest that the ten microsatellite markers can not only be used to analyze the identity of individuals but they can also be applied to parentage identification. Our research provides a theoretical basis and technical support for genetic diversity detection and reasonable selection of R. esculentum hatchery populations. These findings support the use of releasing studies and conservation of R. esculentum germplasm resources.

  2. Limestone fluidized bed treatment of acid-impacted water at the Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.J.; Haines, T.A.; Spaulding, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    Decades of atmospheric acid deposition have resulted in widespread lake and river acidification in the northeastern U.S. Biological effects of acidification include increased mortality of sensitive aquatic species such as the endangered Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a limestone-based fluidized bed system for the treatment of acid-impacted waters. The treatment system was tested at the Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery in East Orland, Maine over a period of 3 years. The product water from the treatment system was diluted with hatchery water to prepare water supplies with three different levels of alkalinity for testing of fish health and survival. Based on positive results from a prototype system used in the first year of the study, a larger demonstration system was used in the second and third years with the objective of decreasing operating costs. Carbon dioxide was used to accelerate limestone dissolution, and was the major factor in system performance, as evidenced by the model result: Alk = 72.84 ?? P(CO2)1/2; R2 = 0.975. No significant acidic incursions were noted for the control water over the course of the study. Had these incursions occurred, survivability in the untreated water would likely have been much more severely impacted. Treated water consistently provided elevated alkalinity and pH above that of the hatchery source water. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Installation of a Marine Thruster as a Hydroelectric Turbine at Eagle Creek National Fish Hatchery : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Resource Engineering

    1986-11-15

    A 70kW hydroelectric plant utilizing a marine thruster and an induction generator was commissioned on May 15, 1985 at the Eagle Creek National Fish Hatchery near Estacada, OR as a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) demonstration project. The marine thruster, normally used to maneuver large ships, was run ''backwards'' to produce electricity. The plant was completed and tested by J.F. Sato and Associates, Inc. (JFSA). The marine thruster was seen as a method for reducing the capital cost of small, low head hydro projects by utilizing readily available, off-the-shelf equipment. The owner of the hatchery, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USF and WS), has an active energy conservation program and looked hopefully at a match of inexpensive hydroelectric technology and an available site at the hatchery to offset their annual 650,000-kWh usage. The preliminary results of the testing program indicated a water-to-wire efficiency in the mid-70 percent range and a turbine efficiency in the low-80 percent range. Total gross head was 19 feet with a maximum flow of 65 cubic feet per second. The unit was tested at four different speeds by varying sheave diameters on the drive system. Flow measurements were taken using the Venturi principle at a reducer in the penstock. A downstream weir was constructed to correct low tailwater conditions. 7 refs., 44 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Upwelling of Acidified Water: Not Just an Issue for Shellfish Hatcheries on the West Coast of the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poach, M.; Munroe, D.; Abrahamsen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Periodic upwelling events are known to occur off the coast of New Jersey during the summer. As with upwelling off the US West Coast, these events can transport acidified water to the surface and shoreward. To determine if upwelling events have the potential to impact shellfish hatcheries in New Jersey, a monitoring study was conducted at the Aquaculture Innovation Center (AIC) of Rutgers University. The AIC is an important hatchery supporting the New Jersey oyster aquaculture industry through the production of disease resistant seed oysters. Starting in June of 2014, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously monitored at the AIC's intake pipe. Periodic grab samples were also collected at the intake and at locations within the facility. Grab samples were preserved and analyzed for pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). DIC and pH were used to calculate the aragonite saturation state of the sampled water. During an upwelling event in early July a drop in pH was measured at the intake. Grab samples showed that water of lower pH and aragonite saturation was entering the facility. These results show that hatcheries along the NJ coast need to be aware that upwelling events may bring conditions detrimental for shellfish production.

  5. Effect of dietary salt on migration and survival of yearling steelhead produced at Iron Gate Hatchery, Klamath River, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juhnke, S.; Hansel, H.; Wright,; Hetrick,

    2011-01-01

    We surgically implanted radio transmitters into 30 hatchery yearling steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) released from Iron Gate Hatchery during the spring of 2009 to improve our understanding of the effect of dietary salt on their out-migration and survival. Steelhead yearlings were divided into two feed treatments to test the efficacy of a salt-enriched feed in promoting out-migration. Fish were fed either their regular diet (control treatment) or a salt-enriched diet (test treatment) for 38 d prior to their release. We implanted 15 fish of each treatment with radio transmitters for a total of 30 tagged individuals. Nine of the radio-tagged steelhead (four of the control treatment; five of the test treatment) completed their downstream migration to the estuary within the 60-d operational period of the tags. Tagged fish migrated from the hatchery release site to the estuary in an average of 45 d. Neither migration nor survival differed between diet treatments, but small sample size and the relatively short duration of this study limit the conclusiveness of our findings.

  6. Comparison of hatchery-reared lake trout stocked as fall fingerlings and as spring yearlings in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; Ostergaard, David E.; Schneider, Clifford P.

    1988-01-01

    We made 16 paired releases of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush of four year classes (1979–1982) at five locations to compare survival and growth of hatchery-reared fish stocked as fall fingerlings (FF) and as spring yearlings (SY). Comparisons were based on fish at ages 2–8 recovered with bottom trawls, with gill nets, and from anglers' catches. Mean lengths and weights were greater for SY than for FF at all ages, and SY attained sexual maturity at an earlier age than FF. The survival of FF may have been affected by average size at stocking and by the severity of the weather during the first winter after stocking. Survival ratios of SY to FF lake trout from stocking to age 2 ranged from 1.32:1 to 6.80:1, and a ratio of 2.41:1 was considered to be typical. Stocking cost per 1,000 fish was US$21.76 for FF and $35.45 for SY. Under the most cost-effective hatchery regime for producing lake trout (the maximum number of SY plus some FF to fully utilize hatchery space and personnel year round), rearing cost per 1,000 fish was estimated to be $235.41 for SY and $38.75 for FF.

  7. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1989 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelscher, Brian

    1990-04-01

    The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka rehabilitation program for Lake Pend Oreille continued to show progress during 1989. Estimated kokanee abundance in late August was 7.71 million fish. Decreased population size is the result of lower hatchery and wild fry recruitment and low age 1+ survival. Lower recruitment of wild fry in 1989 resulted from a smaller parental escapement in 1988 and lower wild fry survival. Six fry release strategies were evaluated in 1989. Two groups were released in Clark Fork River to help improve a spawning run to Cabinet Gorge Hatchery. Survival from the mid-summer release, which was barged down Clark Fork River to avoid low flow problems, was not significantly different from the early release. The final assessment of these release strategies will be evaluated when adults return to Cabinet gorge Hatchery in 1992 and 1993. Fry released to support the Sullivan Springs Creek spawning run also survived will in 1989. Two open-water releases were made during early and mid-summer. 30 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Comparison of the localization of tetrodotoxin between wild pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with tetrodotoxin administration.

    PubMed

    Okita, Kogen; Takatani, Tomohiro; Nakayasu, Junichi; Yamazaki, Hideki; Sakiyama, Kazutaka; Ikeda, Koichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Sakakura, Yoshitaka

    2013-09-01

    To reveal the accumulation profile of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in pufferfish Takifugu rubripes juveniles, we compared the localization of TTX in various tissues among wild juveniles and hatchery-reared juveniles with or without TTX administration using immunohistochemical technique with anti-TTX monoclonal antibody. Immuno-positive reaction was observed in hepatic tissue, basal cell of skin and olfactory, olfactory epithelium, optic nerve and brain (optic tectum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata) of wild juveniles (body length: BL, 4.7-9.4 cm). TTX was detected in the same tissues as wild juveniles and epithelial cell layer of intestine of hatchery-reared juveniles (BL, 5.0-5.3 cm) to which TTX was orally administrated. No positive reaction was observed from the tissues of hatchery-reared juveniles without TTX administration. These results suggest that orally administrated TTX to the non-toxic cultured juveniles is accumulated in the same manner of wild juveniles. In addition, our study revealed that pufferfish accumulates TTX in the central nervous system.

  9. Dispersal of three strains of hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of dispersal and resultant geographical distributions were determined for three strains of hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stocked at six sites in U.S. waters of Lake Ontario. The strains were Lake Superior (SUP); Clearwater Lake, Manitoba (CWL); and Seneca Lake, New York (SEN). The fish were recovered with bottom trawls fished during July and August 1980-1985 at 16 locations, extending from Toronto southward and eastward along the south shore to Dablon Point at the east end of the lake. For SUP fish stocked as spring yearlings, the mean distances from stocking site to capture location 2, 14, and 26 months after stocking were 12, 57, and 62 km, respectively, for fish released at four south-shore sites and 5, 34, and 38 km for fish released at two eastern outlet basin sites. Rates of dispersal for the CWL fish were similar to those of the SUP strain for fish stocked at the four south-shore sites, but were considerably less for fish stocked in the eastern outlet basin. The SEN strain was stocked only in the eastern outlet basin; their dispersal was similar to that of the SUP strain. For fish of the same age, SUP fish stocked as fall fingerlings became more widely dispersed than those stocked as spring yearlings. Movement of lake trout between the eastern outlet basin and the lake proper was limited. Large numbers of fish were captured on the Niagara Bar, but few moved past there into the west end of the lake. Movements of lake trout from stocking sites were generally with the prevailing currents. Differences between geographical distributions of the SUP and CWL strains were probably due to the influence of different current regimes at the depths they occupied. These results will be useful in selecting the best genetic strains of lake trout for rehabilitating the species in Lake Ontario, as well as for identifying the best stocking sizes and maximizing post-stocking survival of hatchery-reared fish.

  10. Development of a carbon filter system for removing malachite green from hatchery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Marking, L.L. ); Leith, D. ); Davis, J. )

    1990-04-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service was granted an investigational New Animal Drug permit by the US Food and Drug Administration for the use of malachite green as a fungicide at selected state and federal fish hatcheries. However, the permit required that the fungicide be removed from all treated water after March 1989. A study was designed to (1) determine the type of filter and kind of carbon that was most efficient for removal of malachite green and (2) demonstrate that carbon filters can be used to remove malachite green from water used for egg incubation or to hold adult salmon before spawning. Minicolumn simulation studies showed that 8 {times} 30-mesh granular carbon was effective for continuously removing malachite green from water for 230 d at a flow rate of 500 gal/min and for only 62 d at a flow rate of 1,000 gal/min. The removal capacity at the slower flow rate was 1.1 oz of malachite green per pound of carbon. A filter system that contained 20,000 lb of activated carbon in each of two chambers was effective for removal of malachite green from treated water in adult salmon holding ponds at flows of 500 gal/min (6.4 gal/min per ft{sup 2}) and greater. The removal efficiency was 99.8% after 105 h of operation, and the adsorption capacity of the system was projected to be sufficient for 20 or more years of routine hatchery operation. A filter system that contained 2,000 lb of activated carbon in each of two chambers was effective for removal of malachite green from treated water in salmon egg incubation units at the designated flow rate of 50 gal/min (4.0 gal/min per ft{sup 2}) and also at faster flow rates. Removal efficiency decreased only slightly for faster flows in both filter systems, and the efficiency improved when treated water was passed through two filter chambers in series.

  11. Effect of size of unfed fry at release on survival and growth of juvenile steelhead in streams and a hatchery (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery, Silver Creek, and Twenty-Mile Creek; Stock: Dworshak hatchery; Year classes: 1996 and 1999): Chapter 7

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether differences in size of unfed fry at release affected survival and growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in hatchery ponds and streams. Differences in fry size were produced by selecting and spawning females that differed in the mean size of their eggs. Experiments were initiated in 1996 and 1999 with hatchery steelhead returning to the Clearwater River, Idaho. Fry size groups were small (mean fork length=26.7 mm, mean weight=0.149 g) and large (28.1 mm, 0.197 g) in 1996 and small (27.5 mm, 0.159 g), medium (28.2 mm, 0.190 g), and large (28.9 mm, 0.201 g) in 1999. Survival in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period and in streams to late summer, three months after release, was higher for the large than for the small group in 1996 but was similar among groups in 1999. Survival in streams to age - 1 appeared to show the same pattern (large>small in 1996; no difference in 1999), but differences among fry size groups in emigration as well as mortality may have been involved. The inconsistency between years may have resulted because some 1996 female parents of the small group had exceptionally small eggs and were a year younger than the other 1996 females and all 1999 females. Growth in the hatchery was similar among groups in both years whereas growth in streams was faster for the large than for the small group in both years and intermediate for the medium group in 1999. Growth in streams appeared to be limited by food availability. Initially large fry probably out - competed smaller fry for limited food; however, we found no evidence that dispersal from release sites or emigration from streams was caused by competitive displacement of small by larger fish. 

  12. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via microsatellite-based pedigree

  13. New disease records for hatchery-reared sturgeon. II. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Veronaea botryosa.

    PubMed

    Steckler, Natalie K; Yanong, Roy P E; Pouder, Deborah B; Nyaoke, Akinyi; Sutton, Deanna A; Lindner, Jonathan R; Wickes, Brian L; Frasca, Salvatore; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2014-10-16

    A series of fungal cases in hatchery-reared juvenile and young adult Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii and white sturgeon A. transmontanus occurred at production facilities in Florida and California, USA, respectively. Affected fish exhibited abnormal orientation and/or buoyancy, emaciation, coelomic distension, exophthalmos, cutaneous erythema, and ulcerative skin and eye lesions. Necropsies revealed haemorrhage throughout the coelom, serosanguinous coelomic effusion and organomegaly with nodular or cystic lesions in multiple organs. Fungal hyphae were observed in 27 fish (24 A. baerii and 3 A. transmontanus) via microscopic examination of tissue wet mounts and on slides prepared from colonies grown on culture media. Histopathological examination of these infected tissues revealed extensive infiltration by melanised fungal hyphae that were recovered in culture. Phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the fungal isolates with the use of the internal transcribed spacer region and 28S rRNA gene confirmed the aetiological agent as Veronaea botryosa. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of V. botryosa infection in fish, although melanised fungi of the closely related genus Exophiala are well-known pathogens of freshwater and marine fishes.

  14. Tradeoffs between homing and habitat quality for spawning site selection by hatchery-origin Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cram, Jeremy M.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Klett, Ryan S.; Pess, George R.; May, Darran; Pearsons, Todd N.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Spawning site selection by female salmon is based on complex and poorly understood tradeoffs between the homing instinct and the availability of appropriate habitat for successful reproduction. Previous studies have shown that hatchery-origin Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released from different acclimation sites return with varying degrees of fidelity to these areas. To investigate the possibility that homing fidelity is associated with aquatic habitat conditions, we quantified physical habitat throughout 165 km in the upper Yakima River basin (Washington, USA) and mapped redd and carcass locations from 2004 to 2008. Principal components analysis identified differences in substrate, cover, stream width, and gradient among reaches surrounding acclimation sites, and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that these differences in habitat characteristics were associated with spatial patterns of spawning (p < 0.01). These analyses indicated that female salmon may forego spawning near their acclimation area if the surrounding habitat is unsuitable. Evaluating the spatial context of acclimation areas in relation to surrounding habitat may provide essential information for effectively managing supplementation programs and prioritizing restoration actions.

  15. Anchor and visible implant elastomer tag retention by hatchery rainbow trout stocked into an Ozark stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, M.G.; Winkelman, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a study to evaluate the stocking of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in an Oklahoma Ozark stream, we tagged 2,542 hatchery-reared rainbow trout (123-366 mm total length) with individually numbered Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant fluorescent elastomer (VIE) tags. We experimentally stocked double-marked rainbow trout into a small northeastern Oklahoma stream from November 2001 to March 2002 and resampled them monthly from December 2001 to October 2002 by electrofishing. Anchor tag retention was 91% through 6 months, and VIE tag retention was 96% through 6 months despite extensive handling of fish within 24 h of tagging. Based on the ease of application, high visibility, and high retention observed in this study, we recommend the use of VIE tags as a batch mark in similarly sized, similarly pigmented fish. The retention of VIE tags was slightly higher than that of anchor tags, and cost per fish was less for VIE than for anchor tags. However, VIE tags would have limited utility if numerous individual tags are necessary; therefore, we recommend anchor tags as individual marks in similarly sized salmonids. Retention for both tag types was relatively high and could be corrected for when estimating population parameters from tagging data.

  16. Natural Reproductive Success and Demographic Effects of Hatchery-Origin Steelhead in Abernathy Creek, Washington : Annual Report 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Abernathy Fish Technology Center

    2008-12-01

    Many hatchery programs for steelhead pose genetic or ecological risks to natural populations because those programs release or outplant fish from non-native stocks. The goal of many steelhead programs has been to simply provide 'fishing opportunities' with little consideration given to conservation concerns. For example, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has widely propagated and outplanted one stock of winter-run steelhead (Chambers Creek stock) and one stock of summer-run steelhead (Skamania stock) throughout western Washington. Biologists and managers now recognize potential negative effects can occur when non-native hatchery fish interact biologically with native populations. Not only do non-native stocks pose genetic and ecological risks to naturally spawning populations, but non-native fish stray as returning adults at a much higher rate than do native fish (Quinn 1993). Biologists and managers also recognize the need to (a) maintain the genetic resources associated with naturally spawning populations and (b) restore or recover natural populations wherever possible. As a consequence, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the NOAA Fisheries have been recommending a general policy that discourages the use of non-native hatchery stocks and encourages development of native broodstocks. There are two primary motivations for these recommendations: (1) reduce or minimize potential negative biological effects resulting from genetic or ecological interactions between hatchery-origin and native-origin fish and (2) use native broodstocks as genetic repositories to potentially assist with recovery of naturally spawning populations. A major motivation for the captive-rearing work described in this report resulted from NOAA's 1998 Biological Opinion on Artificial Propagation in the Columbia River Basin. In that biological opinion (BO), NOAA concluded that non-native hatchery stocks of steelhead jeopardize the continued existence of U

  17. On Teaching Adaptively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corno, Lyn

    2008-01-01

    New theory on adaptive teaching reflects the social dynamics of classrooms to explain what practicing teachers do to address student differences related to learning. In teaching adaptively, teachers respond to learners as they work. Teachers read student signals to diagnose needs on the fly and tap previous experience with similar learners to…

  18. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for survival, growth, dispersal, and male maturation in a natural stream (Study site: Twenty-Mile Creek; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Leonetti,; Stenberg, Karl D.; Slatton, Stacey L.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study was initiated in the early 1990s to provide managers with data comparing genetic fitness for natural rearing, as measured by survival of juveniles in freshwater, between steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho. We artificially spawned hatchery steelhead and wild steelhead from the Selway River, a Clearwater River tributary, released the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) as unfed fry in a second order tributary of the South Fork Clearwater River, and monitored fish residing in the stream or emigrating from it for five years. Barrier falls prevented access to the stream by naturally produced steelhead. Over 90% of the emigrants were one or two years of age and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 103 mm). Per fry released, the HxH cross produced 0.64-0.83 times as many emigrants as the WxW cross (P<0.05). The HxH cross produced 0.63 times as many age-4 residuals as the WxW cross for one year-class (P=0.051) and 0.68 times as many for the other (ns). Survival from age-1 to age-4 was lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of one year-class (P<0.05) and survival from age-2 to age-4 may have been lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of the other (P=0.062). Collectively, these results indicate lower survival for HxH than for WxW fish. Size was often greater for HxH than for WxW fish indicating faster growth for the former, and condition factor was also usually greater for HxH than for WxW fish. Dispersal of fry from release sites and emigration of one- and two-year olds from the study stream were greater for WxW than for HxH fish, and apparently neither was from competitive displacement of small by larger fish. Incidence of flowing milt was higher for HxH than for WxW fish at age-2. Peak incidence of flowing milt for older residuals was similar among crosses (about 50%), but the peak

  19. Early ocean survival and marine movements of hatchery and wild steelhead trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) determined by an acoustic array: Queen Charlotte Strait, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, David W.; Ward, Bruce R.; Batten, Sonia D.

    2004-03-01

    Early ocean movements, residency, and survival of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined in Queen Charlotte Strait, a large (20×100 km2) marine area separating Vancouver Island from the mainland. The results provide the first detailed data on the ocean biology of hatchery and wild steelhead smolts. Initial ocean movements were not strongly directed, with most smolts swimming in the range of 0.2-0.5 body length (BL) s-1. The majority (78%) vacated Queen Charlotte Strait within 1 week of release in freshwater. Relative marine survival of hatchery smolts surgically implanted 1 month prior to release was identical to that of wild smolts implanted on the day of release; survival of hatchery smolts transported to the study site, implanted, and released all on the same day was significantly lower. The results suggest that the early marine survival of hatchery and wild smolts may be fundamentally similar, but that the cumulative stress of transportation and surgery may reduce post-surgery survival. Hatchery smolts moved at higher average swimming speeds than wild smolts, but the difference was not statistically significant. Early marine survival within the study region appears to be relatively high (⩾55%), contradicting assumptions that the early marine phase is the critical period for determining salmon recruitment.

  20. Microhabitat use and seasonal movements of hatchery-reared and wild shortnose sturgeon in the Savannah River, South Carolina--Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trested, D.G.; Ware, K.M.; Bakal, R.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Radio and acoustic telemetry were used to monitor the seasonal movement of hatchery-reared and wild shortnose sturgeon (622-927 mm total length) in the Savannah River. Diploid, and sterile hatchery-reared shortnose sturgeon, and wild shortnose sturgeon showed apparent similar seasonal patterns of movement within the river. We were unable to detect any significant differences in the seasonal mean river location, minimum daily distance moved, absolute distance moved, displacement or mean territory size among treatments. Fish moved throughout the brackish and freshwater interface area of the Savannah River during the summer months. Coinciding with decreasing fall temperatures, fish of all treatment groups moved downriver into brackish areas of the upper estuary, residing in the Front, Middle, and Back Rivers, where they remained through winter. Upriver movements of some hatchery-reared and wild groups began in early February as river temperatures began to increase. Shortnose sturgeon from each group selected apparent similar thermal, salinity and water depth conditions throughout the year. Hatchery-reared fish may be useful as surrogates for wild fish in behavioural studies. Triploid or surgically-sterilized fish may be used in situ behavioural studies where genetic contamination is a concern. It may be possible to monitor habitats used by released hatchery-reared fish to locate or verify remnant populations of rare or endangered species in systems where they are thought to be extirpated.

  1. The effects of river impoundment and hatchery rearing on the migration behavior of juvenile steelhead in the Lower Snake River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumb, J.M.; Perry, R.W.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry to monitor the migration behavior of juvenile hatchery and wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss as they migrated through Lower Granite Reservoir and Dam on the lower Snake River, Washington. From 1996 to 2001, we surgically implanted radio transmitters in 1,540 hatchery steelhead and 1,346 wild steelhead. For analysis, we used the inverse Gaussian distribution to describe travel time distributions for cohorts (>50 fish) of juvenile steelhead as they migrated downriver. Mean travel rates were significantly related to reach- and discharge-specific water velocities. Also, mean travel rates near the dam were slower for a given range of water velocities than were mean travel rates through the reservoir, indicating that the presence of the dam caused delay to juvenile steelhead over and above the effect of water velocity. Hatchery steelhead took about twice as long as wild steelhead to pass the dam as a result of the higher proportions of hatchery steelhead traveling upriver from the dam. Because upriver travel and the resulting migration delay might decrease survival, it is possible that hatchery steelhead survive at lower rates than wild steelhead. Our analysis identified a discharge threshold (???2,400 m3/s) below which travel time and the percentage of fish traveling upriver from the dam increased rapidly, providing support for the use of minimum flow targets to mitigate for fish delay and possibly enhance juvenile steelhead survival.

  2. Spatial and temporal use of a spawning site in the middle green river by wild and hatchery-reared razorback suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modde, T.; Bowen, Z.H.; Kitcheyan, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    The population of endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus in the middle Green River (upper Colorado River basin) has declined during the last 40 years. The apparent cause for this decline is a lack of successful recruitment. This study used radiotelemetry to evaluate the ability of hatchery-reared razorback suckers to locate spawning areas where wild fish congregate during the ascending hydrographic limb of the snowmelt runoff. Hatchery-reared razorback suckers appeared to show similar reproductive behavior to wild fish. Both wild and hatchery-reared fish were found near the middle Green River spawning area between 1 and 25 May 2000. Hatchery fish occupied the same areas on the spawning site as wild fish, and remained on the spawning site during both nocturnal and diurnal hours. Males were more abundant on the spawning area than females, but the few females captured tended to stage away from the primary spawning area. The results from this study suggest hatchery-reared fish are capable of responding to natural cues that prompt spawning aggregations and are successful in locating existing spawning aggregations of wild fish. Given attention to stocking criteria, including genetic diversity and the size and time of stocking, the challenges of recovering razorback suckers will center on those factors that led to the population declines, particularly the survival of early life stages in off-channel habitats. ?? American Fisheries Society 2005.

  3. Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent/Primary Caregiver Form: Ages 0-5--Its Factor Structure and Other Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

    2011-01-01

    A child's acquisition of adaptive behavior and skills may constitute his or her most important goal during infancy and early childhood. In addition, adaptive behavior data often are required when making decisions under Part C of the 2004 Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act. This study reports the results of a factor analysis of…

  4. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  5. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-01-01

    Initially, rehabilitation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka met with apparent success reaching a peak abundance of 10.2 million fishTl988. However, a decline of 47% followed from 1988 through 1991 to 5.4 million fish. The decreased population was attributed to poor recruitment of wild fish, poor egg take, thus, low stocking of hatchery fry (7.3 million in 1990 and 5.0 million in 1991 compared to about 13.0 million in 1981), and poor survival of fish ages 3 and 4 (average survival of the older fish was only 35% in 1990 compared to 72% in prior years but it was 68% in 1991). In addition, standing stocks of kokanee have remained relatively stable (x = 8.6 kg/hectare) since 1986 despite the dramatic changes in density. Prior to this study (1985) standing stocks were substantially higher (x = 13.6 kg/hectare). The kokanee population is probably operating below carrying capacity. Hatchery fry comprised 59% of the total kokanee recruitment in 1991 (93% of fry biomass). This contribution of 1.06 million fry ranked fifth behind 1988 (3.74 million), 1989 (2.25 million), 1982 (1.89 million), and 1990 (1.56 million) since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. Survival of hatchery fry was 21% in 1991, the second highest since this investigation began. Two release strategies were tested in 1991 of which the best survival was recorded for the Sullivan Springs release at 23% while the early Clark Fork River release continued to have lowest survival at 18%. Survival of hatchery reared kokanee fry is still below the goal of 30% and it appears that this goal may not be attainable most years. Statistical analysis between number of days from fry release to recapture day and fry survival did not reveal a relationship (P = 0.43). Survival of fry from late releases is higher (P = 0.05) than early releases but no difference (P L 0.71) was detected between stocking locations. Good survival of fry from the Sullivan Springs releases was attributed to large size of kokanee fry (55 mm), warm

  6. Preservation of hatchery waste by lactic acid fermentation. 2. Large-scale fermentation and feeding trial to evaluate feeding value.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, A C; Patterson, P H

    1997-09-01

    Two waste streams from a Leghorn hatchery were preserved and recycled by fermentation with a by-product carbohydrate and extrusion processing into new feed ingredients that were evaluated with broiler chickens. Cockerel chicks (CC) and a 60:40 ratio of CC:shell waste (CC:SW) were fermented in 189-L barrels for 21 d following grinding, then mixing with a liquid culture (0.2%) and carbohydrate source at 15 and 16.66%, respectively. At 2 wk, pH was 4.44 and 5.09 for the CC and CC:SW products compared with higher values of 6.54 and 6.98 for the raw ingredients at the onset. Negligible hydrogen sulfide and no ammonia gas were recorded during the fermentation period. At 21 d, the fermented CC and CC:SW were extruded, dried, and ground to meals containing CP and TMEn levels of 47.4%, 3,187 kcal/kg, and 33.1%, 2,696 kcal/kg, respectively. Broiler chickens were fed a control diet and the CC (5 and 10%) and CC:SW (2.5 and 5%) ingredient diets with corn and soybean meal for 6 wk to evaluate feeding value and carcass yield. Body weight, gain and feed conversion at 42 d for birds fed diets supplemented with CC or CC:SW at all levels were comparable to those of the control. Diets supplemented with hatchery by-product had no negative effect on carcass measurements except ready to cook carcass and wing yield, which were significantly greater for the 10% CC:SW birds than for the control. These data indicate that nutrient dense hatchery by-products can be preserved with fermentation up to 21 d and support broiler live performance and carcass yield as dietary ingredients equal to or better than a corn-soybean meal control.

  7. Inorganic carbon dynamics in the upwelling system off the Oregon coast and implications for commercial shellfish hatcheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, J. M.; Hales, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the global ocean and concomitant decrease in pH will alter seawater carbonate chemistry in ways that may negatively impact calcifying organisms. In particular, the change in saturation state (Ω) of calcium carbonate minerals calcite and aragonite may be energetically unfavorable for shell formation while favoring shell dissolution. Eastern boundary upwelling systems may provide insights into how ecosystems respond to future conditions of ocean acidification when deep water with high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), low pH and low Ω is forced toward the surface. Mortality in commercial seed stock and reduced wild set of the oyster Crassostrea gigas in the northeast Pacific during 2005-2009 reinforced the need for understanding biological responses to acidified ocean water. In response, a long-term strategy to understand local carbonate chemistry dynamics, seasonal perturbations and the effects on development of calcifying bivalves was developed. At present, a time-series of pCO2 measurements was implemented in April 2010 in Netarts Bay, Oregon at Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery (WCH). The intake sits at a depth of 0.5-8ft and water is pumped in at 100gpm. A line taken off the intake is run continuously through a thermosalinograph at approximately 1.5gpm into a showerhead style equilibrator in which the headspace is recirculated by aerating the water for enhanced gas exchange. CO2 in equilibrated air is analyzed by NDIR. Additionally two discrete samples of intake seawater were taken across tidal cycles weekly and analyzed for total CO2 (TCO2) according to the methods of Hales et al. (2004) and pCO2 for quality control. The pCO2 in the bay exhibits a diurnal cycle representative of daytime photosynthesis and nighttime respiration. However, the phasing and profiles of these cycles are dominated by tidal mixing and are affected by the introduction of high pCO2 water during upwelling events. Diurnal pCO2 during

  8. Evaluation of the Contribution of Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1985-10-01

    FY 1985 was the seventh year of an eight-year study to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook on the Columbia River. Tagging of hatchery fall chinook was completed in FY81. Sampling of sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and Columbia River hatcheries and adjacent streams occurred in 1985 as planned. Returns of fall chinook to Columbia River facilities as of September 30, 1985 are 85,222. This return is already larger than three of the past five years. Estimated Catches of coded wire tagged salmonids are available through 1983 for all fisheries except Alaska in 1981 and Washington in 1983. Catch proportions by fishery for the 1978 brood are .01, .41, .34, .07, 0, and .17 for the Alaska, Canada, Washington, Oregon, California, and Columbia River fisheries respectively. The proportion of recoveries for the four age groups of 1978-brook fish caught are .05, .63, .30, .01 for the two-through five-year-old chinook respectively. Contributions to the fisheries per 1000 fish released for all hatcheries combined are 2.7 and 3.6 for the 1978 and 1979 broods respectively. Four years (1980 to 1983) are included in the contribution values for the 1978 brood and three years (1981 to 1983) for the 1970 brood. Spring Creek Hatchery has the greatest contribution to the fisheries of 8.3 and 12.8 fish per 1000 fish released for the 1978 and 1979 broods respectively. The Spring Creek contribution is followed by Stayton Pond, Abernathy, Bonneville and Big Creek at 6.5, 4.2, 2.9 and 2.6 respectively for the 1978 brood and Big Creek, Stayton Pond and Abernathy at 8.4, 6.7 and 4.7 respectively for the 1979 brood. Other facilities have contributions per 1000 releases of approximately 2 or less. These contributions are minimums since all possible fisheries and catch years are not yet included.

  9. Temperature seasonality during fry out-migration influences the survival of hatchery-reared chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Nakashima, A

    2015-10-01

    Among years, fry-to-adult survival of hatchery-reared chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta was positively correlated with the length (in days) of the fry out-migration period with temperatures suitable for migration. Furthermore, survival decreased with increasing difference in mean temperature between May and June. Thus, prolonged out-migration periods increased the probability of survival from fry to adult, lending support to the hypothesis that long migration periods decrease the risk of mortality (bet-hedging), and increase the probability of migration when environmental conditions in fresh water and the ocean are suitable (match-mismatch).

  10. Anatomy and Taxonomic Status of the Chasmosaurine Ceratopsid Nedoceratops hatcheri from the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A

    PubMed Central

    Farke, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The validity of Nedoceratops hatcheri, a chasmosaurine ceratopsid dinosaur known from a single skull recovered in the Lance Formation of eastern Wyoming, U.S.A., has been debated for over a century. Some have argued that the taxon is an aberrant Triceratops, and most recently it was proposed that N. hatcheri represents an intermediate ontogenetic stage between “young adult” and “old adult” forms of a single taxon previously split into Triceratops and Torosaurus. Methodology/Principal Findings The holotype skull of Nedoceratops hatcheri was reexamined in order to map reconstructed areas and compare the specimen with other ceratopsids. Although squamosal fenestrae are almost certainly not of taxonomic significance, some other features are unique to N. hatcheri. These include a nasal lacking a recognizable horn, nearly vertical postorbital horncores, and relatively small parietal fenestrae. Thus, N. hatcheri is tentatively considered valid, and closely related to Triceratops spp. The holotype of N. hatcheri probably represents an “old adult,” based upon bone surface texture and the shape of the horns and epiossifications on the frill. In this study, Torosaurus is maintained as a genus distinct from Triceratops and Nedoceratops. Synonymy of the three genera as ontogenetic stages of a single taxon would require cranial changes otherwise unknown in ceratopsids, including additions of ossifications to the frill and repeated alternation of bone surface texture between juvenile and adult morphotypes. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops, Torosaurus, and likely Nedoceratops, are all distinct taxa, indicating that species richness for chasmosaurine ceratopsids in the Lance Formation just prior to the Cretaceous-Paleocene extinction was roughly equivalent to that earlier in the Cretaceous. PMID:21283763

  11. Microsatellite DNA markers: evaluating their potential for estimating the proportion of hatchery-reared offspring in a stock enhancement programme.

    PubMed

    Bravington, M V; Ward, R D

    2004-05-01

    We describe a statistical method for estimating the effectiveness of a stock enhancement programme using nuclear DNA loci. It is based on knowing the population allele frequencies and the genotypes of the hatchery parents (mother only, or mother and father), and on determining the probability that a wild-born animal will by chance have a genotype consistent with hatchery origin. We show how to estimate the proportion of released animals in the wild population, and its standard error. The method is applied to a data set of eight microsatellite loci in brown tiger prawns (Penaeus esculentus), prior to the start of a possible enhancement programme. We conclude that, for this particular data set, the effectiveness of such an enhancement programme could be quantified accurately if both maternal and paternal genotypes are known, but not if maternal genotypes only are known. Full paternal genotyping would require offspring genotyping and thus would be expensive, but a partly typed paternal genotype from a mass homogenate of offspring would be almost as effective and much cheaper. The experiment would become feasible based on maternal genotypes alone, if a further three typical microsatellite loci could be found to add to the existing panel of eight. The methods detailed should be of interest to any enhancement project that relies on nuclear DNA markers to provide tags.

  12. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume I of III; Narrative, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Slatick, Emil; Gilbreath, Lyle G.; Harmon, Jerrel R.

    1988-02-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service began conducting homing research on Pacific salmon and steelhead. Over 4 million juvenile salmon and steelhead were marked and released, and 23 individual experiments were conducted. The research had the following objectives: (1) develop the techniques for imprinting homing cues while increasing survival of hatchery reared salmonids and (2) provide fishery managers with the information necessary to increase the returns of salmon and steelhead to the Columbia River system and to effectively distribute these fish to the various user groups. Our imprint methods were grouped into three general categories: (1) natural migration imprint from a hatchery of origin or an alternate homing site (by allowing fish to volitionally travel downstream through the river on their seaward journey), (2) single exposure imprinting (cueing fish to a single unique water supply with or without mechanical stimuli prior to transport and release), and (3) sequential exposure imprinting (cueing fish to two or more water sources in a step-by-step process to establish a series of signposts for the route ''home''). With variations, all three techniques were used with all salmonid groups tested: coho salmon, spring and fall chinook salmon, and steelhead. For the single and sequential imprint, fish were transported around a portion of their normal migration route before releasing them into the Columbia River.

  13. Elemental signatures in otoliths of hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Distinctiveness and utility fo detecting origins and movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibson-Reinemer, D. K.; Johnson, B.M.; Martinez, P.J.; Winkelman, D.L.; Koenig, A.E.; Woodhead, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Otolith chemistry in freshwater has considerable potential to reveal patterns of origin and movement, which would benefit traditional fisheries management and provide a valuable tool to curb the spread of invasive and illicitly stocked species. We evaluated the relationship between otolith and water chemistry for five markers (Ba/Ca, Mn/Ca, Sr/ Ca, Zn/Ca, and 87Sr/86Sr) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using the existing hatchery system in Colorado and Wyoming, USA, to provide controlled, seminatural conditions. Otolith Ba/Ca, Sr/Ca, and 87Sr/86Sr reflected ambient levels, whereas Mn/Ca and Zn/Ca did not. Using only the markers correlated with water chemistry, we classified fish to their hatchery of origin with up to 96% accuracy when element and isotope data were used together. Large changes in 87Sr/Sr were evident in otolith transects, although subtler changes in Sr/Ca were also detectable. Our results suggest the relatively few otolith markers that reflect ambient chemistry can discriminate among locations and track movements well enough to provide valuable insight in a variety of applied contexts.

  14. Seasonal changes in androgen levels in stream- and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon parr and their relationship to smolting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shrimpton, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    2002-01-01

    In stream-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, plasma androgens were significantly greater in mature male parr than immature males and females in October, but had declined by January and did not differ significantly from immature fish throughout the spring. Immature fish in March were significantly larger and had greater gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity than their previously mature counterparts. Bimodal growth distribution was seen in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon and a proportion of the male fish in the lower mode matured. Plasma testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were significantly elevated from September to December in mature male (1+ year) parr. In January, plasma androgens had declined in mature males and did not differ significantly from immature fish. By May all the hatchery fish were large enough to smolt and a proportion of the previously mature males had increased gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Therefore elevated androgens in the previous autumn do not prevent smolting. Parr with higher plasma T and 11-KT in April and May, that are presumably beginning to mature, had lower gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, indicating that future maturation and associated increases in androgens may inhibit smolting. ?? 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Migration Years 1996-1998 Mark/Recapture Activities, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, Thomas J.; Basham, Larry R.

    2000-10-01

    The Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) is a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to measure the smolt-to-adult survival rates of hatchery spring and summer chinook at major production hatcheries in the Snake River basin and at selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates for Snake River basin chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Estimates of smolt-to-adult survival rates will be made both from Lower Granite Dam back to Lower Granite Dam (upriver stocks) and from the hatchery back to the hatchery (upriver and downriver stocks). This status report covers the first three migration years, 1996 to 1998, of the study. Study fish were implanted with a PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tag which allows unique identification of individual fish. Beginning in 1997, a predetermined proportion of the PIT tagged study fish in the collection/bypass channel at the transportation sites, such as Lower Granite and Little Goose dams, was purposely routed to the raceways for transportation and the rest was routed back to the river. Two categories of in-river migrating fish are used in this study. The in-river group most representative of the non-tagged fish are fish that migrate past Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental dams undetected in the bypass systems. This is because all non-tagged fish collected at these three dams are currently being transported. The other in-river group contains those fish remaining in-river below Lower Monumental Dam that had previously been detected at one or more dams. The number of fish starting at Lower Granite dam that are destined to one of these two in-river groups must be estimated. The Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methodology was used for that purpose. Adult (including jacks) study fish returning to the hatcheries in the Snake River basin were sampled at the Lower Granite Dam adult trap. There the PIT

  16. Human heat adaptation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S

    2014-01-01

    In this overview, human morphological and functional adaptations during naturally and artificially induced heat adaptation are explored. Through discussions of adaptation theory and practice, a theoretical basis is constructed for evaluating heat adaptation. It will be argued that some adaptations are specific to the treatment used, while others are generalized. Regarding ethnic differences in heat tolerance, the case is put that reported differences in heat tolerance are not due to natural selection, but can be explained on the basis of variations in adaptation opportunity. These concepts are expanded to illustrate how traditional heat adaptation and acclimatization represent forms of habituation, and thermal clamping (controlled hyperthermia) is proposed as a superior model for mechanistic research. Indeed, this technique has led to questioning the perceived wisdom of body-fluid changes, such as the expansion and subsequent decay of plasma volume, and sudomotor function, including sweat habituation and redistribution. Throughout, this contribution was aimed at taking another step toward understanding the phenomenon of heat adaptation and stimulating future research. In this regard, research questions are posed concerning the influence that variations in morphological configuration may exert upon adaptation, the determinants of postexercise plasma volume recovery, and the physiological mechanisms that modify the cholinergic sensitivity of sweat glands, and changes in basal metabolic rate and body core temperature following adaptation.

  17. A Lesson Plan for the Enhancement of Training and Research in Academia by the Adaptation and Adoption of Good Laboratory Practice Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of good laboratory practices (GLPs) is recognized by the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries as being critical for ensuring the international acceptability of products. However, as universities and colleges (and research organizations) do not necessarily work under similar constraints, actual laboratory practices vary…

  18. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, Appendix, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    This document contains 43 appendices for the Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries'' report. This study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall Chinook Salmon from the Columbia River.

  19. INDIVIDUAL TISSUE TO TOTAL BODY-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS AND TOTAL, POLAR, AND NON-POLAR LIPIDS IN TISSUES OF HATCHERY LAKE TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tissue body weight relaltionships, total lipid, and major lipid subclasses were measured in 20 adult hatchery lake trout to obtain a more in-depth understanding of the major lipid compartments of the "lean" lake trout for use in modeling the disposition of xenobiotics. It is sug...

  20. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 3 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, Curtis

    2004-05-01

    This is the third in a series of annual reports that address reproductive ecological research and comparisons of hatchery and wild origin spring chinook in the Yakima River basin. Data have been collected prior to supplementation to characterize the baseline reproductive ecology, demographics and phenotypic traits of the unsupplemented upper Yakima population, however this report focuses on data collected on hatchery and wild spring chinook returning in 2003; the third year of hatchery adult returns. This report is organized into three chapters, with a general introduction preceding the first chapter and summarizes data collected between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2004 in the Yakima basin. Summaries of each of the chapters in this report are included below. A major component of determining supplementation success in the Yakima Klickitat Fishery Project's spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) program is an increase in natural production. Within this context, comparing upper Yakima River hatchery and wild origin fish across traits such as sex ratio, age composition, size-at-age, fecundity, run timing and gamete quality is important because these traits directly affect population productivity and individual fish fitness which determine a population's productivity.

  1. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, S.L.; Pearsons, T.N.; Knudsen, C.M.

    2006-05-01

    Reproductive success in wild- and first generation hatchery-origin spring Chinook males was examined by allowing the fish to compete for spawning opportunities in two sections of an observation stream. Behavioral observations were used to characterize the frequency of aggression and courting activities. Microsatellite DNA from each male and fry collected from the observation stream were used in pedigree analyses to estimate reproductive success. The coefficient of variation in male reproductive success equaled 116 and 86% in the two populations. No differences were detected in reproductive success due to hatchery or wild origin. Nor were any behavioral differences found between hatchery and wild males. Although statistical power was low due to intrinsic variation a great deal of overlap existed in the reproductive success values of hatchery and wild males. Significant disparities existed among the males on their ability to produce offspring. Males achieving high reproductive success mated with numerous females, were socially dominant, aggressive, and tended to stay in localized areas, courting and spawning with females that were adjacent to one another.

  2. 'One Health' investigation: outbreak of human Salmonella Braenderup infections traced to a mail-order hatchery - United States, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Nakao, J H; Pringle, J; Jones, R W; Nix, B E; Borders, J; Heseltine, G; Gomez, T M; McCLUSKEY, B; Roney, C S; Brinson, D; Erdman, M; McDANIEL, A; Behravesh, C Barton

    2015-07-01

    Human salmonellosis linked to contact with live poultry is an increasing public health concern. In 2012, eight unrelated outbreaks of human salmonellosis linked to live poultry contact resulted in 517 illnesses. In July 2012, PulseNet, a national molecular surveillance network, reported a multistate cluster of a rare strain of Salmonella Braenderup infections which we investigated. We defined a case as infection with the outbreak strain, determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with illness onset from 25 July 2012-27 February 2013. Ill persons and mail-order hatchery (MOH) owners were interviewed using standardized questionnaires. Traceback and environmental investigations were conducted. We identified 48 cases in 24 states. Twenty-six (81%) of 32 ill persons reported live poultry contact in the week before illness; case-patients named 12 different MOHs from eight states. The investigation identified hatchery D as the ultimate poultry source. Sampling at hatchery D yielded the outbreak strain. Hatchery D improved sanitation procedures and pest control; subsequent sampling failed to yield Salmonella. This outbreak highlights the interconnectedness of humans, animals, and the environment and the importance of industry knowledge and involvement in solving complex outbreaks. Preventing these infections requires a 'One Health' approach that leverages expertise in human, animal, and environmental health.

  3. "Here the Scientists Explain What I Said." Coordination Practices Elicited during the Enactment of the Results and Discussion Sections of Adapted Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Adapted primary literature (APL) is a novel text genre that retains the authentic characteristics of primary literature. Learning through APL represents an educational intervention with an authentic scientific context. In this case study, we analyzed the 80-min discourse developed during the enactment of an article from an APL-based curriculum in…

  4. Computer Access in Higher Education for Students with Disabilities: A Practical Guide to the Selection and Use of Adapted Computer Technology. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carl; And Others

    The manual provides a review of trends in adapted computer technology as well as guidelines to the selection and use of computer technology in college programs serving disabled students. Changes in the second edition include a new section dealing with the computer access needs of the severely disabled, an enlarged product guide, a curriculum guide…

  5. Re-Fitting for a Different Purpose: A Case Study of Item Writer Practices in Adapting Source Texts for a Test of Academic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anthony; Hawkey, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The important yet under-researched role of item writers in the selection and adaptation of texts for high-stakes reading tests is investigated through a case study involving a group of trained item writers working on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS). In the first phase of the study, participants were invited to reflect in…

  6. Migratory patterns of hatchery and stream-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the Connecticut River, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    McCormick, S D; Haro, A; Lerner, D T; O'Dea, M F; Regish, A M

    2014-10-01

    The timing of downstream migration and detection rates of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts and stream-reared smolts (stocked 2 years earlier as fry) were examined in the Connecticut River (U.S.A.) using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted into fish and then detected at a downstream fish bypass collection facility at Turners Falls, MA (river length 192 km). In two successive years, hatchery-reared smolts were released in mid-April and early May at two sites: the West River (river length 241 km) or the Passumpsic (river length 450 km). Hatchery-reared smolts released higher in the catchment arrived 7 to 14 days later and had significantly lower detection rates than smolts stocked lower in the catchment. Hatchery-reared smolts released 3 weeks apart at the same location were detected downstream at similar times, indicating that early-release smolts had a lower average speed after release and longer residence time. The size and gill Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (NKA) activity of smolts at the time of release were significantly greater for detected fish (those that survived and migrated) than for those that were not detected. Stream-reared pre-smolts (>11·5 cm) from four tributaries (length 261-551 km) were tagged in autumn and detected during smolt migration the following spring. Stream-reared smolts higher in the catchment arrived later and had significantly lower detection rates. The results indicate that both hatchery and stream-reared smolts from the upper catchment will arrive at the mouth of the river later and experience higher overall mortality than fish from lower reaches, and that both size and gill NKA activity are related to survival during downstream migration.

  7. Migratory patterns of hatchery and stream-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the Connecticut River, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Stephen D.; Haro, Alexander; Lerner, Darren T.; O'Dea, Michael F.; Regish, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    The timing of downstream migration and detection rates of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts and stream-reared smolts (stocked 2 years earlier as fry) were examined in the Connecticut River (U.S.A.) using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted into fish and then detected at a downstream fish bypass collection facility at Turners Falls, MA (river length 192 km). In two successive years, hatchery-reared smolts were released in mid-April and early May at two sites: the West River (river length 241 km) or the Passumpsic (river length 450 km). Hatchery-reared smolts released higher in the catchment arrived 7 to 14 days later and had significantly lower detection rates than smolts stocked lower in the catchment. Hatchery-reared smolts released 3 weeks apart at the same location were detected downstream at similar times, indicating that early-release smolts had a lower average speed after release and longer residence time. The size and gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity of smolts at the time of release were significantly greater for detected fish (those that survived and migrated) than for those that were not detected. Stream-reared pre-smolts (>11·5 cm) from four tributaries (length 261–551 km) were tagged in autumn and detected during smolt migration the following spring. Stream-reared smolts higher in the catchment arrived later and had significantly lower detection rates. The results indicate that both hatchery and stream-reared smolts from the upper catchment will arrive at the mouth of the river later and experience higher overall mortality than fish from lower reaches, and that both size and gill NKA activity are related to survival during downstream migration.

  8. Survival of Hatchery Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-Flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1998-2001 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.

    2002-09-01

    We report results from four years (1998-2001) of an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. We report analyses of associations among river conditions and survival and travel time estimates, which include data from 1995 through 1997. At weekly intervals from early June to early July each year (mid-May to late June in 2001), hatchery-reared subyearling fall chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released above Lower Granite Dam at Pittsburgh Landing and Billy Creek on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Each year, a small proportion of fish released were not detected until the following spring. However, the number that overwintered in the river and migrated seaward as yearlings the following spring was small and had minimal effect on survival estimates. Concurrent with our studies, a number of subyearling fall chinook salmon that reared naturally in the Snake River were caught by beach seine, PIT tagged, and released. We compared a number of characteristics of hatchery and wild fish. Hatchery and wild fish were similar in 2001, and from 1995 through 1997. Results for 1998 through 2000 showed some relatively large differences between hatchery and wild fish. However, recent information suggests that a considerable proportion of wild subyearling chinook salmon migrating in a given year may actually be stream-type (spring/summer), rather than ocean-type (fall) fish, which may account for some of the differences we have observed.

  9. Visual Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems continuously mold themselves to the widely varying contexts in which they must operate. Studies of these adaptations have played a long and central role in vision science. In part this is because the specific adaptations remain a powerful tool for dissecting vision, by exposing the mechanisms that are adapting. That is, “if it adapts, it's there.” Many insights about vision have come from using adaptation in this way, as a method. A second important trend has been the realization that the processes of adaptation are themselves essential to how vision works, and thus are likely to operate at all levels. That is, “if it's there, it adapts.” This has focused interest on the mechanisms of adaptation as the target rather than the probe. Together both approaches have led to an emerging insight of adaptation as a fundamental and ubiquitous coding strategy impacting all aspects of how we see. PMID:26858985

  10. Application of hypervariable genetic markers to forensic identification of 'wild' from hatchery-raised red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, M A; Saillant, E; Broughton, R E; Gold, J R

    2006-01-06

    Forensic identification of 'wild' versus hatchery-produced (cultured) red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), an economically important marine fish in the southern United States, was assessed using hypervariable nuclear-encoded microsatellites and sequences of mitochondrial DNA. Both genotype exclusion and likelihood-ratio tests successfully identified 'wild' and 'cultured' individuals within requisite error bounds and within the context of complete parental sampling. Of the two, genotype exclusion was more effective, producing satisfactory results with fewer microsatellites and larger allowable error rates. Assignment tests proved ineffective, most likely because of the low level of genetic divergence between the sampled populations. An optimal, minimum set of ten markers that will reduce potential genotyping costs is identified. Results of the study should allay concerns regarding identification of 'wild'-caught fish sold illegally.

  11. Multiple typing for the epidemiological study of the contamination of broilers with Salmonella from the hatchery to the slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Heyndrickx, M; Herman, L; Vlaes, L; Butzler, J P; Wildemauwe, C; Godard, C; De Zutter, L

    2007-02-01

    Eighteen Belgian broiler flocks were followed from the hatchery to the slaughterhouse by a multiple typing approach (sero-, geno-, and phage types) for the investigation of the transmission of Salmonella and its subtypes. For 12 of the 18 flocks, there was no correlation between the serotypes found preharvest and those isolated from the feces in the transport crates and on the carcasses in the slaughterhouse. Serotypes found in the crates were usually also found on the carcasses. In 5 of the 10 flocks with Salmonella-positive broilers, complex contamination patterns with the involvement of different serotypes, genotypes, or both were revealed. In two of these flocks (flocks 8 and 9), the Salmonella Enteritidis contamination of the broilers could be traced to the hatchery. In flock 9, evidence was found for the acquisition, during rearing, of a megaplasmid in the Salmonella Enteritidis strain. In the other three positive flocks (flocks 6, 7, and 10), the environment and movable material (e.g., footwear) played a determining role in the infection and shedding pattern of the broilers. For flocks 6 and 7, reared consecutively in the same broiler house, a persistent Salmonella Hadar geno/phage type predominated in the preharvest period, while another Salmonella Hadar geno/phage type was found in the house or the environment but never in the broilers. Only for the above-mentioned five flocks were the same strains that were found preharvest also recovered from the carcasses, although these strains were not predominant on the carcasses, with the exception of one flock (flock 10). In conclusion, it can be said that most of the time, Salmonella strains that contaminate Belgian broiler carcasses do not predominate in the preharvest environment.

  12. Survival, movement, and health of hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers within a mesocosm in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, Danielle M.; Burdick, Summer M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Conway, Carla M.; Harris, Alta C.

    2016-01-28

    The recovery of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) in Upper Klamath Lake is limited by poor juvenile survival and failure to recruit into the adult population. Poor water quality, degradation of rearing habitat, and toxic levels of microcystin are hypothesized to contribute to low juvenile survival. Studies of wild juvenile suckers are limited in that capture rates are low and compromised individuals are rarely captured in passive nets. The goal of this study was to assess the use of a mesocosm for learning about juvenile survival, movement, and health. Hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers were PIT (passive integrated transponder) tagged and monitored by three vertically stratified antennas. Fish locations within the mesocosm were recorded at least every 30 minutes and were assessed in relation to vertically stratified water-quality conditions. Vertical movement patterns were analyzed to identify the timing of mortality for each fish. Most mortality occurred from July 28 to August 16, 2014. Juvenile suckers spent daylight hours near the benthos and moved throughout the entire water column during dark hours. Diel movements were not in response to dissolved-oxygen concentrations, temperature, or pH. Furthermore, low dissolved-oxygen concentrations, high temperatures, high pH, high un-ionized ammonia, or high microcystin levels did not directly cause mortality, although indirect effects may have occurred. However, water-quality conditions known to be lethal to juvenile Lost River suckers did not occur during the study period. Histological assessment revealed severe gill hyperplasia and Ichthyobodo sp. infestations in most moribund fish. For these fish, Ichthyobodo sp. was likely the cause of mortality, although it is unclear if this parasite originated in the rearing facility because fish were not screened for this parasite prior to introduction. This study has demonstrated that we can effectively use a mesocosm equipped with antennas to learn

  13. Patterns of hybridization of nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout with native redband trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neville, Helen M.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the greatest threats to native fishes. Threats from hybridization are particularly important for native trout species as stocking of nonnative trout has been widespread within the ranges of native species, thus increasing the potential for hybridization. While many studies have documented hybridization between native cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and nonnative rainbow trout O. mykiss, fewer have focused on this issue in native rainbow trout despite widespread threats from introductions of both nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout. Here, we describe the current genetic (i.e., hybridization) status of native redband trout O. mykiss gairdneri populations in the upper Boise River, Idaho. Interspecific hybridization was widespread (detected at 14 of the 41 sampled locations), but high levels of hybridization between nonnative cutthroat trout and redband trout were detected in only a few streams. Intraspecific hybridization was considerably more widespread (almost 40% of sampled locations), and several local populations of native redband trout have been almost completely replaced with hatchery coastal rainbow trout O. mykiss irideus; other populations exist as hybrid swarms, some are in the process of being actively invaded, and some are maintaining genetic characteristics of native populations. The persistence of some redband trout populations with high genetic integrity provides some opportunity to conserve native genomes, but our findings also highlight the complex decisions facing managers today. Effective management strategies in this system may include analysis of the specific attributes of each site and population to evaluate the relative risks posed by isolation versus maintaining connectivity, identifying potential sites for control or eradication of nonnative trout, and long-term monitoring of the genetic integrity of remaining redband trout populations to track changes in their status.

  14. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  15. Musical practice and cognitive aging: two cross-sectional studies point to phonemic fluency as a potential candidate for a use-dependent adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Mutlu, Justine; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M.; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Platel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Because of permanent use-dependent brain plasticity, all lifelong individuals' experiences are believed to influence the cognitive aging quality. In older individuals, both former and current musical practices have been associated with better verbal skills, visual memory, processing speed, and planning function. This work sought for an interaction between musical practice and cognitive aging by comparing musician and non-musician individuals for two lifetime periods (middle and late adulthood). Long-term memory, auditory-verbal short-term memory, processing speed, non-verbal reasoning, and verbal fluencies were assessed. In Study 1, measures of processing speed and auditory-verbal short-term memory were significantly better performed by musicians compared with controls, but both groups displayed the same age-related differences. For verbal fluencies, musicians scored higher than controls and displayed different age effects. In Study 2, we found that lifetime period at training onset (childhood vs. adulthood) was associated with phonemic, but not semantic, fluency performances (musicians who had started to practice in adulthood did not perform better on phonemic fluency than non-musicians). Current frequency of training did not account for musicians' scores on either of these two measures. These patterns of results are discussed by setting the hypothesis of a transformative effect of musical practice against a non-causal explanation. PMID:25346684

  16. Prism Adaptation in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Nirav O.; Turner, Beth M.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Paulsen, Jane S.; O'Leary, Daniel S.; Ho, Beng-Choon

    2006-01-01

    The prism adaptation test examines procedural learning (PL) in which performance facilitation occurs with practice on tasks without the need for conscious awareness. Dynamic interactions between frontostriatal cortices, basal ganglia, and the cerebellum have been shown to play key roles in PL. Disruptions within these neural networks have also…

  17. To Adapt or Not to Adapt: Navigating an Implementation Conundrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leko, Melinda M.

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing the effectiveness of evidence-based practices (EBPs) requires an optimal balance of implementation fidelity and adaptation so EBPs fit local contexts and meet the individual learning needs of students with disabilities. The framework for classifying adaptations presented in this article can help educators make decisions about whether…

  18. Abundance of host fish and frequency of glochidial parasitism in fish assessed in field and laboratory settings and frequency of juvenile mussels or glochidia recovered from hatchery-held fish, central and southeastern Texas, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Stevens, Charrish L.; Echo-Hawk, Patricia D.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Moring, James B.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 19 fish species collected at nine sites was submitted to the hatchery in 2013, and 14 of these species had juvenile mussels or glochidia that were recovered at the hatchery. The three most productive species, in terms of the average number of juvenile mussels or glochidia recovered, were longear sunfish, spotted bass, and largemouth bass, each of which averaged more than two juvenile mussels or glochidia recovered per individual.

  19. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Operations Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Volume V of V; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Weld, Enair

    1993-04-01

    Virtually all fishery resources of the Columbia River Basin are affected by water resource development initiatives. Mitigation is an action taken to lessen or reduce impacts of projects on fishery resources. The Washington Department of Wildlife`s (WDW) mitigation goal has been one that replaces in-kind or substitutes fishery resources of equal value for those impacted. WDW mitigation efforts have focused on providing hatchery-reared fish of the proper strains needed to compensate for loss of naturally produced stocks. Stewardship of these resources is based on existing WDW policies. WDW policies are written statements designed to resolve a recurring management need or problem. They do not include program goals or organization statements. The existing policies which affect fish hatchery operations are described herein.

  20. Fish Research Project, Oregon : Evaluation of the Success of Supplementing Imnaha River Steelhead with Hatchery Reared Smolts: Phase One : Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.; Whitesel, Timothy A.; Jonasson, Brian C.

    1995-08-01

    Two streams in the Imnaha River subbasin (Camp Creek and Little Sheep Creek) and eight streams in the Grande Ronde River subbasin (Catherine, Deer, Five Points, Fly, Indian, Lookingglass, Meadow, and Sheep creeks) were selected as study streams to evaluate the success and impacts of steelhead supplementation in northeast Oregon. The habitat of the study streams was inventoried to compare streams and to evaluate whether habitat might influence the performance parameters we will measure in the study. The mean fecundity of hatchery and natural steelhead 1-salts returning to Little Sheep Creek fish facility in 1990 and 1991 ranged from 3,550 to 4,663 eggs/female; the mean fecundity of hatchery and natural steelhead 2-salts ranged from 5,020 to 5,879 eggs/female. Variation in length explained 57% of the variation in fecundity of natural steelhead, but only 41% to 51% of the variation in fecundity of hatchery steelhead. Adult steelhead males had an average spermatocrit of 43.9% at spawning. We were also able to stain sperm cells so that viable cells could be distinguished from dead cells. Large, red disc tags may be the most useful for observing adults on the spawning grounds. The density of wild, juvenile steelhead ranged from 0 fish/l00{sup 2} to 35.1 (age-0) and 14.0 (age-1) fish/l00m{sup 2}. Evidence provided from the National Marine Fisheries Service suggests that hatchery and wild fish within a subbasin are genetically similar. The long-term experimental design is presented as a component of this report.

  1. Effective population size of steelhead trout: influence of variance in reproductive success, hatchery programs, and genetic compensation between life-history forms.

    PubMed

    Araki, Hitoshi; Waples, Robin S; Ardren, William R; Cooper, Becky; Blouin, Michael S

    2007-03-01

    The effective population size is influenced by many biological factors in natural populations. To evaluate their relative importance, we estimated the effective number of breeders per year (Nb) and effective population size per generation (Ne) in anadromous steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Hood River, Oregon (USA). Using demographic data and genetic parentage analysis on an almost complete sample of all adults that returned to the river over 15 years (>15,000 individuals), we estimated Nb for 13 run years and Ne for three entire generations. The results are as follows: (i) the ratio of Ne to the estimated census population size (N) was 0.17-0.40, with large variance in reproductive success among individuals being the primary cause of the reduction in Ne/N; (ii) fish from a traditional hatchery program (Htrad: nonlocal, multiple generations in a hatchery) had negative effects on Nb, not only by reducing mean reproductive success but also by increasing variance in reproductive success among breeding parents, whereas no sign of such effects was found in fish from supplementation hatchery programs (Hsupp: local, single generation in a hatchery); and (iii) Nb was relatively stable among run years, despite the widely fluctuating annual run sizes of anadromous adults. We found high levels of reproductive contribution of nonanadromous parents to anadromous offspring when anadromous run size is small, suggesting a genetic compensation between life-history forms (anadromous and nonanadromous). This is the first study showing that reproductive interaction between different life-history forms can buffer the genetic impact of fluctuating census size on Ne.

  2. Molecular epidemiology reveals emergence of a virulent infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus strain in wild salmon and its transmission to hatchery fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Eric D.; Engelking, H. Mark; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Kurath, Gael

    2000-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) has been known to be a significant salmonid pathogen in the Pacific Northwest of North America for decades. The goal of this study was to characterize the IHNV genetic heterogeneity and viral traffic over time at a study site in the Deschutes River watershed in Oregon, with an emphasis on the epidemiology of IHNV types causing epidemics in wild kokanee Oncorhynchus nerkabetween 1991 and 1995. The study site included kokanee spawning grounds in the Metolius River and Lake Billy Chinook downstream, in which the IHNV epidemics occurred in 2- and 3-year-old kokanee, and the Round Butte Fish Hatchery at the outflow of the lake. Forty-two IHNV isolates collected from this area between 1975 and 1995 were characterized on a genetic basis by ribonuclease (RNase) protection fingerprint analyses of the virus nucleocapsid, glycoprotein, and nonvirion genes. Analysis of the 16 identified composite haplotypes suggested that both virus evolution and introduction of new IHNV strains contributed to the genetic diversity observed. The results indicated that the 1991–1995 epidemics in kokanee from Lake Billy Chinook were due to a newly introduced IHNV type that was first detected in spawning adult kokanee in 1988 and that this virus type was transmitted from the wild kokanee to hatchery fish downstream in 1991. Twelve IHNV haplotypes were found at Round Butte Fish Hatchery, indicating a series of virus displacement events during the 20-year period examined. This work shows that IHNV traffic can be much more complex than was previously recognized, and the results have implications for fisheries management at the hatchery and throughout the watershed.

  3. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  4. Aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in a laboratory flume and a comparison with observations in natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; Tatara, C.P.; Scheurer, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the aggression and feeding of naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry stocked into a laboratory flume with naturally reared fry or hatchery-reared fry from conventional and enriched rearing environments at three densities in the presence and absence of predators, and compared the aggression and feeding observed in the flume to that observed in two streams. Steelhead fry attack rate increased with density and was reduced in the presence of predators, but was not affected by rearing treatment. Threat rate appeared to increase with density and was significantly affected by rearing treatment combination, but was not significantly affected by predator presence. Feeding rate was not affected by density or rearing treatment, but was reduced in the presence of predators. The rate of aggression by steelhead fry in two streams was lower than that observed in the laboratory and did not increase with density. Rates of aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and wild steelhead fry were not significantly different in the streams. Overall, we found no evidence that hatchery rearing environments caused higher aggression in steelhead fry. Laboratory observations of salmonid aggression, particularly at high density, may not reflect aggression levels in the wild. ?? 2005 NRC.

  5. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  6. Reduced marine survival of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon post-smolts exposed to aluminium and moderate acidification in freshwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorstad, Eva B.; Uglem, Ingebrigt; Finstad, Bengt; Kroglund, Frode; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg Eir; Kristensen, Torstein; Diserud, Ola; Arechavala-Lopez, Pablo; Mayer, Ian; Moore, Andy; Nilsen, Rune; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; Økland, Finn

    2013-06-01

    Short-term Al-exposure and moderate acidification increased initial marine mortality in migrating post-smolts, and can thereby reduce viability of Atlantic salmon stocks. The delayed impact of short-term aluminium (Al) exposure on hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolt in moderately acidified freshwater (pH 5.88-5.98) was investigated during the first 37 km of the marine migration. Smolts were tagged with acoustic tags and exposed to low (28.3 ± 4.6 μg l-1 labile Al, 90 h) or high (48.5 ± 6.4 μg l-1 labile Al, 90 or 48 h) Al concentrations within the hatchery. Thereafter their movements, together with a control group, were monitored throughout the marine fjord. Al-exposure resulted in increased gill-Al and compromised hypoosmoregulatory capacity, as shown by elevated mortality in laboratory seawater challenge tests and reduced Na+, K+-ATPase activity levels. Further, Al-exposure resulted in decreased plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH), while the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) was unaffected. There was a significant mortality in the 90 h high-Al group during exposure, and those surviving until release died during the first 3.6 km of the marine migration. Physiological stress and mortality were not only a result of the Al-concentrations, but also dependent on exposure duration, as shown by results from the 48 h high-Al group. Elevated mortality was not recorded in freshwater or after entering the sea for this group, which highly contrasts to the 100% mortality in the 90 h high-Al group, despite both groups having similarly high gill-Al levels. The low-Al group showed a 20% higher mortality compared to the control group during the first 10 km of the marine migration, but during the next 28 km, mortality rates did not differ. Hence, post-smolts surviving the first 10 km subsequently showed no differences in mortality compared to controls. At least one third of the mortality in both the low-Al and control groups were due to predation by marine fishes

  7. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  8. Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids : Phase 1, Examination of Fish at Lookingglass Hatchery in 1996 : Addendum to Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Groberg, Warren J.

    1996-11-01

    This information is an addendum to the report 'Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids, Phase 1: Examination of Fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996' by Ralph Elston because there may be relevant observations included here. The author of this document participated in the examinations at Lower Granite Dam described in that report. Because of Endangered Species Act issues, the Rapid River stock of spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery on the Grande Ronde River in northeastern Oregon are annually being captured as returning adults at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River and trucked to Lookingglass. During the peak migration period they are held in an adult holding facility at Lower Granite for as long as 72 hours and then transported by truck to Lookingglass for holding in an adult pond for spawning. In 1996 a total of 572 adults were transported from Lower Granite Dam between May 3 and August 6. Two-hundred eighty-one of these were later transported from Lookingglass to Wallowa Hatchery for artificial spawning and the remaining 291 were held for spawning at Lookingglass. On May 21, 24, 30 and June 2, 1996 hatchery personnel identified a total of 32 off-loaded fish with lesions on the dorsal area of the head they described as having the appearance of blisters (Robert Lund personal communication). By date these are shown in Table 1 (fish with similar lesions were also observed on May 27 but the number of these was not recorded). Such lesions were not observed on fish offloaded on any other dates. On May 24, 1996 hatchery personnel took photographs of fish with these lesions but do to light-meter problems the photographs did not turn out. On June 28, 1996 personnel of the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Fish Pathology laboratory in La Grande were notified by James Lauman, ODFW Northeast Region supervisor, of discussions and concerns of head burn on returning adult chinook while he was on a visitation to Lower Granite Dam. That led

  9. Successful mitigation of viral disease based on a delayed exposure rearing strategy at a large-scale steelhead trout conservation hatchery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyta, R.; Samson, Corie; Blair, Marilyn; Black, Allison; Kurath, Gael

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the largest steelhead trout conservation hatchery in the state of Idaho, Dworshak National Fish Hatchery (NFH), lost over 50% of the juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population being reared for release. The causative agent of this high mortality was the viral pathogen infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). This was neither the first nor the worst epidemic of IHNV to occur at the hatchery, but it was the worst in over a decade. Genetic analysis of IHNV isolates taken from juveniles suffering epidemic IHN disease in 2009 revealed that the virus was of the M group of IHNV viruses, known to have high virulence for trout. The water supply for steelhead trout rearing at Dworshak NFH is untreated water taken directly from the Clearwater River. Further genetic analysis of IHNV isolates from adults spawned in 2009 indicated that adult steelhead trout in the river (in the hatchery water supply) were the most probable transmission source for the epidemic IHN disease in the juvenile fish. Previously, Dworshak NFH had been able to gain access to reservoir water from behind the Dworshak Dam for nursery egg incubation and the earliest stage of fry rearing, which nearly eliminated incidence of IHN disease in that stage of rearing. Additionally, the nearby Clearwater State Fish Hatchery (SFH), which operates entirely with reservoir water, has never had a case of IHN disease in juvenile steelhead trout. Therefore, staff at Dworshak NFH sought and obtained access to a limited supply of reservoir water for the first few months of outdoor rearing of juvenile steelhead trout, beginning in 2010. This strategy delayed the exposure of juvenile steelhead trout to river water for several months. The effects of this program change were: drastic reduction in IHN disease in juvenile steelhead trout; interruption in the transmission of highly virulent M group IHNV from adult steelhead trout; no interruption in the transmission of low virulent U group IHNV from

  10. Outbreak of enteric microsporidiosis of hatchery-bred juvenile groupers, Epinephelus spp., associated with a new intranuclear microporidian in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, L-W; Liu, X-H; Zhang, J-Y; Liu, G-F; Feng, J

    2017-02-01

    A new enteric microsporidian was found to be associated with the mass mortality of hatchery-bred juvenile groupers, Epinephelus spp., in China. The outbreak usually occurred during the rainy season between May and November when water temperature ranged from 26 to 30 °C and salinity from 28 to 34 ppt, although this microsporidian can be detected year round. External clinical signs included severe emaciation, white faeces syndrome, anorexia, sinking to the bottom of culture ponds and mass mortality (up to 90%). Upon necropsy, severe intestinal oedema and thin and transparent intestinal wall could be observed. The mature spores are tiny, measuring 1.3-1.5 (1.35 ± 0.13) × 1.6-2.4 (2.16 ± 0.31) μm and can be found in the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm of most enteric epithelial cells of host. Epidemiological investigation showed that this species was distributed throughout most of the culture area of grouper fingerlings in Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan and Guangxi provinces in China, with maximum prevalence of 95%. Molecular analysis based on the partial small subunit rRNA sequence (1045 bp) placed this species within the Enterocytozoonidae, but sequence identities to other species were below 90%. The exact taxonomic position warrants study of the ultrastructural characteristics of the developmental stages.

  11. Back to the Roots: The Integration of a Constructed Wetland into a Recirculating Hatchery - A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Buřič, Miloš; Bláhovec, Josef; Kouřil, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, accounting for around 50% of the world's food fish. Limited resources, together with climatic change, have stimulated the search for solutions to support and sustain the production of fish as a nutritious food. The integration of a constructed wetland (CW) into a recirculating hatchery (RHS) was evaluated with respect to its economic feasibility and environmental impact. The outcome of eight production cycles showed the potential of CW integration for expanded production without increased operation costs or environmental load. Concretely, the use of constructed wetland allows the rearing about 40% more fish biomass, resulting in higher production and profitability. The low requirements for space, fresh water, and energy enable the establishment of such systems almost anywhere. Constructed wetlands could enhance the productivity of existing small scale facilities, as well as larger systems, to address economic and environmental issues in aquaculture. Such systems have potential to be sustainable in the context of possible future climate change and resource limitations. PMID:25853416

  12. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Spring/Summer Chinook; Migration Years 1997-2000 Mark/Recapture Activities, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwes, Nick; Petrosky, Charlie; Schaller, Howard

    2002-02-01

    The Comparative Survival Study (CSS) was initiated in 1996 as a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to estimate survival rates over different life stages for spring and summer chinook (hereafter, chinook) produced in major hatcheries in the Snake River basin and from selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. Much of the information evaluated in the CSS is derived from fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. A comparison of survival rates of chinook marked in two different regions (which differ in the number of dams chinook have to migrate through) provides insight into the effects of the Snake/Columbia hydroelectric system (hydrosystem). The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) for Snake River chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Additional comparisons can be made within in-river experiences as well comparison between the different collector projects from which smolts are transported. CSS also compares these survival rates for wild Snake River spring and summer chinook. These comparisons generate information regarding the relative effects of the current management actions used to recover this listed species.Scientists and managers have recently emphasized the importance of delayed hydrosystem mortality to long-term management decisions. Delayed hydrosystem mortality may be related to the smolts. experience in the Federal Columbia River Power System, and could occur for both smolts that migrate in-river and smolts that are transported. The CSS PIT tag information on in-river survival rates and smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) of transported and in-river fish are relevant to estimation of ''D'', which partially describes delayed hydrosystem mortality. ''D'', or differential delayed mortality, is the differential survival rate of transported fish relative to fish that migrate in-river, as measured from below Bonneville Dam to adults returning to

  13. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Progam; Thyroid-Induced Chemical Imprinting in Early Life Stages and Assessment of Smoltification in Kokanee Salmon Implications for Operating Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Salmon Hatcheries; 1993 Supplement Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tilson, Mary Beth; Galloway, Heather; Scholz, Allan T.

    1994-06-01

    In 1991, two hatcheries were built to provide a kokanee salmon and rainbow trout fishery for Lake Roosevelt as partial mitigation for the loss of anadromous salmon and steelhead caused by construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Sherman Creek Hatchery, located on a tributary of Lake Roosevelt to provide an egg collection and imprinting site, is small with limited rearing capability. The second hatchery was located on the Spokane Indian Reservation because of a spring water source that supplied cold, pure water for incubating and rearing eggs.`The Spokane Tribal Hatchery thus serves as the production facility. Fish reared there are released into Sherman Creek and other tributary streams as 7-9 month old fry. However, to date, returns of adult fish to release sites has been poor. If hatchery reared kokanee imprint to the hatchery water at egg or swim up stages before 3 months of age, they may not be imprinting as 7-9 month old fry at the time of stocking. In addition, if these fish undergo a smolt phase in the reservoir when they are 1.5 years old, they could migrate below Grand Coulee Dam and out of the Lake Roosevelt system. In the present investigation, which is part of the Lake Roosevelt monitoring program to assess hatchery effectiveness, kokanee salmon were tested to determine if they experienced thyroxine-induced chemical imprinting and smoltification similar to anadromous salmonids. Determination of the critical period for olfactory imprinting was determined by exposing kokanee to different synthetic chemicals (morpholine or phenethyl alcohol) at different life stages, and then measuring the ability to discriminate the chemicals as sexually mature adults. Whole body thyroxine content and blood plasma thyroxine concentration was measured to determine if peak thyroid activity coincided with imprinting or other morphological, physiological or behavioral transitions associated with smoltification.

  14. Teacher Adaptation to Personalized Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deed, Craig; Lesko, Thomas M.; Lovejoy, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Personalized learning spaces are emerging in schools as a critical reaction to "industrial-era" school models. As the form and function of schools and pedagogy change, this places pressure on teachers to adapt their conventional practice. This paper addresses the question of how teachers can adapt their classroom practice to create…

  15. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  16. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, Steven L.; Knudsen, Curtis M.; Watson, Bruce D.

    2003-05-01

    In 2001 hatchery- and wild-origin spring chinook were placed into an observation stream located at the Cle Elum Supplementation Research Facility to compare their reproductive success. Two groups containing both wild- and hatchery fish of both sexes were brought into the stream and allowed to spawn. Their longevity, spawning participation, and reproductive success were assessed. In addition, wild- and hatchery-origin precocious males were also introduced into one of the sections and allowed to spawn. We found that hatchery and wild males generally lived longer than females. In one group hatchery and wild females lived for similar periods of time while in the other wild females lived longer than hatchery fish. Wild females were also more successful at burying their eggs and the eggs they buried had higher survival rates. This result occurred in both groups of fish. Spawning participation in males was estimated by using two statistics referred to as percent gonad depletion (PGD) and percent testes retention (PRT). Both of these measures assumed that loss of testes weight in males would reflect their spawning participation and therefore could be used to estimate reproductive success. Hatchery and wild males had similar PGD and PRT values. One of these measures, PRT, was negatively associated with male reproductive success, confirming the idea that reduction in testes weight can be used as a surrogate measure of a male's ability to produce offspring Fry from the observation stream were collected throughout the emergence period that ran from January through May. Proportionate sub-samples of these fish were removed and microsatellite DNA was extracted from them. Pedigree analyses were performed to ascertain which adult fish had produced them. These analyses disclosed that wild males were more successful at producing progeny in one of the groups. No difference occurred in the other group. Precocial males and jacks fathered fewer progeny than did fish maturing at ages 4

  17. Stasis and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Coiera, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Many of our most pressing societal challenges arise from our inability to move on from present practices and structures and do what is needed. Healthcare struggles to improve safety and quality. It resists adoption of best practices and persists in high levels of unwarranted variation in care delivery, and clings to financially unsustainable models of care. One explanation for this state of affairs is not a lack of will, but that we are experiencing system inertia--a consequence of the increasing complexity of our human systems. In this paper I explore three possible system level interventions that may help design systems that are less likely to approach inertia, as well as help change our current systems so that they again become adaptive, and move to the outcomes we desire. Firstly, I question our religious belief in the power of standards, an intervention designed to minimise adaptation and almost from first principles designed to lead to inertia. Next I explore the power of apoptosis, a process that sees existing structures and practices programmatically removed to free up resource for adaptation. Finally I explore a flexible but controversial approach to system management called market-based control. Whether any of these, together or in tandem, are a way out of inertia is an open question. However, it is time for us to engage with the challenge of system inertia, and find a way out.

  18. Implementation of genetic conservation practices in a muskellunge propagation and stocking program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Martin J.; Sloss, Brian L.; Hatzenbeler, Gene R.; Kampa, Jeffrey M.; Simonson, Timothy D.; Avelallemant, Steven P.; Lindenberger, Gary A.; Underwood, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation of genetic resources is a challenging issue for agencies managing popular sport fishes. To address the ongoing potential for genetic risks, we developed a comprehensive set of recommendations to conserve genetic diversity of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) in Wisconsin, and evaluated the extent to which the recommendations can be implemented. Although some details are specific to Wisconsin's muskellunge propagation program, many of the practical issues affecting implementation are applicable to other species and production systems. We developed guidelines to restrict future brood stock collection operations to lakes with natural reproduction and to develop a set of brood lakes to use on a rotational basis within regional stock boundaries, but implementation will require considering lakes with variable stocking histories. Maintaining an effective population size sufficient to minimize the risk of losing alleles requires limiting brood stock collection to large lakes. Recommendations to better approximate the temporal distribution of spawning in hatchery operations and randomize selection of brood fish are feasible. Guidelines to modify rearing and distribution procedures face some logistic constraints. An evaluation of genetic diversity of hatchery-produced fish during 2008 demonstrated variable success representing genetic variation of the source population. Continued evaluation of hatchery operations will optimize operational efficiency while moving toward genetic conservation goals.

  19. Implementation of genetic conservation practices in a muskellunge propagation and stocking program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Martin J.; Sloss, Brian L.; Hatzenbeler, Gene R.; Kampa, Jeffrey M.; Simonson, Timothy D.; Avelallemant, Steven P.; Lindenberger, Gary A.; Underwood, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation of genetic resources is a challenging issue for agencies managing popular sport fishes. To address the ongoing potential for genetic risks, we developed a comprehensive set of recommendations to conserve genetic diversity of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) in Wisconsin, and evaluated the extent to which the recommendations can be implemented. Although some details are specific to Wisconsin's muskellunge propagation program, many of the practical issues affecting implementation are applicable to other species and production systems. We developed guidelines to restrict future broodstock collection operations to lakes with natural reproduction and to develop a set of brood lakes to use on a rotational basis within regional stock boundaries, but implementation will require considering lakes with variable stocking histories. Maintaining an effective population size sufficient to minimize the risk of losing alleles requires limiting broodstock collection to large lakes. Recommendations to better approximate the temporal distribution of spawning in hatchery operations and randomize selection of brood fish are feasible. Guidelines to modify rearing and distribution procedures face some logistic constraints. An evaluation of genetic diversity of hatchery-produced fish during 2008 demonstrated variable success representing genetic variation of the source population. Continued evaluation of hatchery operations will optimize operational efficiency while moving toward genetic conservation goals.

  20. Evidence of local adaptation in westslope cutthroat trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drinan, Daniel P.; Zale, Alexander V.; Webb, Molly A.H.; Taper, Mark L.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the process of local adaptation would allow managers to better protect and conserve species. Many salmonids are in need of such efforts, and because they often persist in differing, isolated environments, they are useful organisms for studying local adaptation. In addition, the temperature sensitivity of salmonids provides a likely target for natural selection. We studied thermal adaptation in four wild populations and one hatchery stock of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi . The mean summer temperatures of source streams ranged from 6.7°C to 11.2°C. Embryos were collected from the wild, and embryonic development, embryonic survival, and juvenile growth were determined. A significant relationship between median embryonic survival and source stream temperature was detected. Based on a rank test, populations from colder streams had a greater decline in median embryonic survival at warm temperatures than populations from warmer streams. Embryonic development and juvenile growth did not appear to be influenced by source. These findings suggest that populations are thermally adapted to their source streams and this should be considered by managers. However, further study is necessary to sort out the potential confounding factors, whether genetic or epigenetic.

  1. The effect of hatchery release strategy on marine migratory behaviour and apparent survival of Seymour River steelhead smolts (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Balfry, Shannon; Welch, David W; Atkinson, Jody; Lill, Al; Vincent, Stephen

    2011-03-29

    Early marine migratory behaviour and apparent survival of hatchery-reared Seymour River steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts was examined over a four year period (2006-2009) to assess the impact of various management strategies on improving early marine survival. Acoustically tagged smolts were released to measure their survival using estuary and coastal marine receivers forming components of the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Early marine survival was statistically indistinguishable between releases of summer run and winter run steelhead races, night and day releases, and groups released 10 days apart. In 2009, the survival of summer run steelhead released into the river was again trialed against groups released directly into the ocean at a distance from the river mouth. Apparent survival was improved significantly for the ocean released groups. The health and physiological status of the various release groups were monitored in years 2007-2009, and results indicate that the fish were in good health, with no clinical signs of disease at the time of release. The possibility of a disease event contributing to early marine mortality was further examined in 2009 by vaccinating half of the released fish against common fish diseases (vibriosis, furunculosis). The results suggest that marine survival may be enhanced using this approach, although not to the extent observed when the smolts were transported away from the river mouth before release. In summary, direct experimental testing of different release strategies using the POST array to measure ocean survival accelerated the scientific process by allowing rapid collection of data which enabled the rejection of several existing theories and allowed tentative identification of several new alternative approaches that might improve early marine survival of Seymour River steelhead.

  2. To stock or not to stock? Assessing restoration potential of a remnant American shad spawning run with hatchery supplementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Michael M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Hatchery supplementation has been widely used as a restoration technique for American Shad Alosa sapidissima on the East Coast of the USA, but results have been equivocal. In the Penobscot River, Maine, dam removals and other improvements to fish passage will likely reestablish access to the majority of this species’ historic spawning habitat. Additional efforts being considered include the stocking of larval American Shad. The decision about whether to stock a river system undergoing restoration should be made after evaluating the probability of natural recolonization and examining the costs and benefits of potentially accelerating recovery using a stocking program. However, appropriate evaluation can be confounded by a dearth of information about the starting population size and age structure of the remnant American Shad spawning run in the river. We used the Penobscot River as a case study to assess the theoretical sensitivity of recovery time to either scenario (stocking or not) by building a deterministic model of an American Shad population. This model is based on the best available estimates of size at age, fecundity, rate of iteroparity, and recruitment. Density dependence was imposed, such that the population reached a plateau at an arbitrary recovery goal of 633,000 spawning adults. Stocking had a strong accelerating effect on the time to modeled recovery (as measured by the time to reach 50% of the recovery goal) in the base model, but stocking had diminishing effects with larger population sizes. There is a diminishing return to stocking when the starting population is modestly increased. With a low starting population (a spawning run of 1,000), supplementation with 12 million larvae annually accelerated modeled recovery by 12 years. Only a 2-year acceleration was observed if the starting population was 15,000. Such a heuristic model may aid managers in assessing the costs and benefits of stocking by incorporating a structured decision framework.

  3. Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

  4. Epidemiological characterization of VNNV in hatchery-reared and wild marine fish on Hainan Island, China, and experimental infection of golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongling; Wen, Weigeng; Su, Youlu; Feng, Juan; Xu, Liwen; Peng, Chao; Guo, Zhixun

    2015-12-01

    The current epidemiological situation of viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV) on Hainan Island was investigated. A total of 490 hatchery-reared fish and 652 wild fish were sampled for VNNV detection from March 2013 to May 2014. Positive detection rates of 84.53% (153/181) and 0.97 % (3/309) were obtained in diseased and healthy hatchery-reared samples, respectively, by conventional RT-PCR. However, using more-sensitive nested RT-PCR, the positive detection rates in healthy hatchery-reared fish reached up to 64.08% (198/309), suggesting that asymptomatic VNNV carriers commonly exist among larvae and juveniles breeding on Hainan Island. In wild-fish samples, 2.6% (17/652) and 34.2% (223/652) positive detection rates were observed using RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR, respectively, indicating that wild fish may be a potential reservoir for VNNV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 52 VNNV isolates from cultured fish belong to the RGNNV genotype, but 2 out of 48 VNNV isolates from wild fish samples were found to be of the SJNNV genotype. This study is the first to confirm the existence of SJNNV-genotype VNNV in China. Golden pompano, an important fish species for culture, was selected as a fish model to investigate the optimal conditions for RGNNV disease progression in artificial infection experiments. The effects of temperature, salinity, and fish size were evaluated. Results showed that 28 °C and 20 ‰ are the optimal infection temperature and salinity, respectively, and golden pompano juveniles with small body sizes are more susceptible to RGNNV. These findings are highly consistent with those conditions involved in the natural outbreak of RGNNV.

  5. Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian

    2004-02-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2002 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2003. We tagged 20,950 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,904 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 1 April 2003 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 15 April 2003. We tagged 20,820 Catherine Creek stock captive and conventional brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,628 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning during two acclimation periods. The volitional release for the early acclimation group began 12 March 2003, and all remaining fish were forced out of the ponds on 23 March 2003. The volitional release for the late acclimation group began 31 March 2003, and all remaining fish were forced out of the ponds on 14 April 2003. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2003, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Survival rates for the Imnaha River, Lostine River, and Catherine Creek stocks were 0.714, 0.557, and 0.350, respectively. We PIT-tagged 20,944 BY 2002 Imnaha River stock and 20,980 BY 2002 Catherine Creek stock captive and conventional brood progeny in October and November 2003 as part of the CSS for MY 2004. From tagging to January 28, 2004, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.16% and 0.04%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.19% and 0.06%, respectively.

  6. Unstructured mesh generation and adaptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of current unstructured mesh generation and adaptivity techniques is given. Basic building blocks taken from the field of computational geometry are first described. Various practical mesh generation techniques based on these algorithms are then constructed and illustrated with examples. Issues of adaptive meshing and stretched mesh generation for anisotropic problems are treated in subsequent sections. The presentation is organized in an education manner, for readers familiar with computational fluid dynamics, wishing to learn more about current unstructured mesh techniques.

  7. Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Supplementation in the Clearwater Subbasin ; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, Thomas; Sprague, Sherman; Bretz, Justin

    2009-06-10

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) program has the following goals (BPA, et al., 1997): (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Clearwater Subbasin anadromous fish resources; (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater Subbasin; (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project initiation; (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations; (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits; and (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal management of Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. The NPTH program was designed to rear and release 1.4 million fall and 625,000 spring Chinook salmon. Construction of the central incubation and rearing facility NPTH and spring Chinook salmon acclimation facilities were completed in 2003 and the first full term NPTH releases occurred in 2004 (Brood Year 03). Monitoring and evaluation plans (Steward, 1996; Hesse and Cramer, 2000) were established to determine whether the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery program is achieving its stated goals. The monitoring and evaluation action plan identifies the need for annual data collection and annual reporting. In addition, recurring 5-year program reviews will evaluate emerging trends and aid in the determination of the effectiveness of the NPTH program with recommendations to improve the program's implementation. This report covers the Migratory Year (MY) 2007 period of the NPTH Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) program. There are three NPTH spring Chinook salmon treatment streams: Lolo Creek, Newsome Creek, and Meadow Creek. In 2007, Lolo Creek received 140,284 Brood Year (BY) 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average weight of 34.9 grams per fish, Newsome Creek received 77,317 BY 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average of 24.9 grams

  8. Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida, causal agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish, from the tank effluent of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, D; Mooney, J; Ryan, D; Powell, E; Hiney, M; Smith, P R; Powell, R

    1994-01-01

    The fish pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida, could be detected only by bacteriological culture from the kidney of dead or moribund fish in one tank in a hatchery rearing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts. However, by using a DNA probe specific for this species, allied to a PCR assay, the pathogen could be detected in water, feces and effluent samples taken from this fish tank. Also, the presence of the pathogen was found in effluent samples from two fish tanks containing apparently healthy fish. Subsequently, the presence of pathogen in these tanks was confirmed by an increase in the daily mortality rate and by a plate culture from moribund fish. Images PMID:7527205

  9. Adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  10. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  11. In Their Own Words: Teachers' Reflections on Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Margaret; Parsons, Seth A.; Burrowbridge, Sarah Cohen; Weesner, Janice; Taylor, Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Current research explores adaptability by gathering teachers' reflections on their adaptations. However, the field knows little of what the term "adaptability" means to teachers who currently teach in today's educational context. In this article, adaptability is discussed from the perspectives of 3 practicing classroom educators,…

  12. Adaptation of adaptive optics systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yu; Zhao, Dazun; Li, Chen

    1997-10-01

    In the paper, a concept of an adaptation of adaptive optical system (AAOS) is proposed. The AAOS has certain real time optimization ability against the variation of the brightness of detected objects m, atmospheric coherence length rO and atmospheric time constant τ by means of changing subaperture number and diameter, dynamic range, and system's temporal response. The necessity of AAOS using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and some technical approaches are discussed. Scheme and simulation of an AAOS with variable subaperture ability by use of both hardware and software are presented as an example of the system.

  13. Results of a survey of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species and Ecological Services Field Offices, Refuges, Hatcheries, and Research Centers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gladwin, Douglas N.; Asherin, Duane A.; Manci, Karen M.

    1988-01-01

    The National Ecology Research Center (Center), as part of an ongoing research study on the effects of low altitude aircraft operations on fish and wildlife, conducted a survey in January 1987 of all U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) regional directors, research center directors, Ecological Services and Endangered Species field offices supervisors, refuge manager, and hatchery manager. The objective of the survey was to determine the nature and extent of aircraft-induced impacts on fish and wildlife species, populations, and habitat utilization. The field installation managers and biologists were asked to provide background information or data on fish and wildlife reactions to low-altitude aircraft disturbances, including physiological, behavioral, and reproductive/population effects. Specifically, the survey asked for information such as: (1) observations of animal reaction(s) to aircraft operations, e.g., desert bighorn sheep scare behavior in response to aircraft overflights and hatchery fish seizures and death following intense sonic booms; and instances of areas where aircraft noise is known or believed to be responsible for reduced population size, e.g. areas along heavily used aircraft flight corridors where breeding waterfowl densities are lower than in similar habitat away from the noise area.

  14. Mortality event involving larvae of the carpet shell clam Ruditapes decussatus in a hatchery: isolation of the pathogen Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus.

    PubMed

    Dubert, J; Aranda-Burgos, J A; Ojea, J; Barja, J L; Prado, S

    2017-01-17

    Diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio are a common, as yet unresolved, cause of mortality in shellfish hatcheries. In this study, we report the results of routine microbiological monitoring of larval cultures of the carpet shell clam Ruditapes decussatus in a hatchery in Galicia (NW Spain). Previous episodes of mortality with signs similar to those of vibriosis affecting other species in the installation indicated the possibility of bacterial infection and led to division of the culture at the early D-veliger larval stage. One batch was cultured under routine conditions, and the other was experimentally treated with antibiotic (chloramphenicol). Differences in larval survival were assessed, and culturable bacterial population in clams and sea water was evaluated, with particular attention given to vibrios. Severe mortalities were recorded from the first stages of culture onwards. The pathogen Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus was detected in both batches, mainly associated with larvae. Moreover, initial detection of the pathogen in the eggs suggested the vertical transmission from broodstock as a possible source. Experimental use of antibiotic reduced the presence and diversity of vibrios in sea water, but proved inefficient in controlling vibrios associated with larvae from early stages and it did not stop mortalities.

  15. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; Artificial Imprinting and Smoltification in Juvenile Kokanee Salmon Implications for Operating Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Salmon Hatcheries; 1994 Supplement Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tilson, Mary Beth; Scholz, Allan T.; White, Ronald J.

    1995-02-01

    At the kokanee salmon hatcheries on Lake Roosevelt, constructed as partial mitigation for effects from Grand Coulee Dam, adult returns have been poor. The reason may be in the imprinting or in the smoltification. A study was initiated in 1992 to determine if there was a critical period for thyroxine induced alfactory imprinting in kokanee salmon; experiments were conducted on imprinting to morpholine and phenethyl alcohol. Other results showed that chemical imprinting coincided with elevated thyroxine levels in 1991 kokanee exposed to synthetic chemicals in 1992. In this report, imprinting experiments were repeated; results showed that imprinting occurred concomitant with elevated thyroxine levels in 1991 kokanee exposed to synthetic chemicals in 1992 and tested in 1994 as age 3 spawners. Imprinting also occurred at the same time as thyroxine peaks in 1992 kokanee exposed to synthetic chemicals in 1993 and tested as age 2 spawners. In both groups fish that had the highest whole body thyroxine content (swimup stage) also had the highest percentage of fish that were attracted to their exposure odor in behavioral tests. So, kokanee salmon imprinted to chemical cues during two sensitive periods during development, at the alevin/swimup and smolt stages. A field test was conducted in Lake Roosevelt on coded wire tagged fish. Smoltification experiments were conducted from 1992 to 1994. Recommendations are made for the Lake Roosevelt kokanee hatcheries.

  16. Research Plan to Determine Timing, Location, Magnitude and Cause of Mortality for Wild and Hatchery Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts Above Lower Granite Dam. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lower Granite Migration Study Steering Committee

    1993-10-01

    From 1966 to 1968, Raymond estimated an average survival rate of 89% for yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrating from trap sites on the Salmon River to Ice Harbor Dam, which was then the uppermost dam on the Snake River. During the 1970s, the estimated survival rate declined as the proportion of hatchery fish increased and additional dams were constructed. Recent survival indices for yearling chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin indicate that substantial mortalities are occurring en route to Lower Granite Dam, now the uppermost dam on the Snake River. Detection rates for wild and hatchery PIT-tagged smolts at Lower Granite Dam have been much lower than expected. However, for wild fish, there is considerable uncertainty whether overwinter mortality or smolt loss during migration is the primary cause for low survival. Efforts to rebuild these populations will have a better chance of success after the causes of mortality are identified and addressed. Information on the migrational characteristics and survival of wild fish are especially needed. The goal of this initial planning phase is to develop a research plan to outline potential investigations that will determine the timing, location, magnitude, and cause of smolt mortality above Lower Granite Dam.

  17. Monitoring the Reproductive Success of Naturally Spawning Hatchery and Natural Spring Chinook Salmon in the Wenatchee River, 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Michael J.; Williamson, Kevin S.

    2009-05-28

    We investigated differences in the statistical power to assign parentage between an artificially propagated and wild salmon population. The propagated fish were derived from the wild population, and are used to supplement its abundance. Levels of genetic variation were similar between the propagated and wild groups at 11 microsatellite loci, and exclusion probabilities were >0.999999 for both groups. The ability to unambiguously identify a pair of parents for each sampled progeny was much lower than expected, however. Simulations demonstrated that the proportion of cases the most likely pair of parents were the true parents was lower for propagated parents than for wild parents. There was a clear relationship between parentage assignment ability and the degree of linkage disequilibrium, the estimated effective number of breeders that produced the parents, and the size of the largest family within the potential parents. If a stringent threshold for parentage assignment was used, estimates of relative fitness were biased downward for the propagated fish. The bias appeared to be largely eliminated by either fractionally assigning progeny among parents in proportion to their likelihood of parentage, or by assigning progeny to the most likely set of parents without using a statistical threshold. We used a DNA-based parentage analysis to measure the relative reproductive success of hatchery- and natural-origin spring Chinook salmon in the natural environment. Both male and female hatchery-origin fish produced far fewer juvenile progeny per parent when spawning naturally than did natural origin fish. Differences in age structure, spawning location, weight and run timing were responsible for some of the difference in fitness. Male size and age had a large influence on fitness, with larger and older males producing more offspring than smaller or younger individuals. Female size had a significant effect on fitness, but the effect was much smaller than the effect of size on

  18. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Spring/Summer Chinook; Migration Years 1997-2000 Mark/Recapture Activities and Bootstrap Analysis, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren Thomas J.; Franzoni, Henry; Basham, Larry R.

    2005-04-01

    The Comparative Survival Study (CSS) was initiated in 1996 as a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to estimate survival rates over different life stages for spring and summer chinook (hereafter, chinook) produced in major hatcheries in the Snake River basin and from selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. Much of the information evaluated in the CSS is derived from fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. A comparison of survival rates of chinook marked in two different regions (which differ in the number of dams chinook have to migrate through) provides insight into the effects of the Snake/Columbia hydroelectric system (hydrosystem). The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) for Snake River chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Additional comparisons can be made within in-river experiences as well comparison between the different collector projects from which smolts are transported. CSS also compares these survival rates for wild Snake River spring and summer chinook. These comparisons generate information regarding the relative effects of the current management actions used to recover this listed species. Scientists and managers have recently emphasized the importance of delayed hydrosystem mortality to long-term management decisions. Delayed hydrosystem mortality may be related to the smolts experience in the Federal Columbia River Power System, and could occur for both smolts that migrate in-river and smolts that are transported. The CSS PIT tag information on in-river survival rates and smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) of transported and in-river fish are relevant to estimation of ''D'', which partially describes delayed hydrosystem mortality. The parameter D is the differential survival rate of transported fish relative to fish that migrate in-river, as measured from below Bonneville Dam to adults returning to Lower Granite Dam. When D

  19. Adaptive passive fathometer processing.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Martin; Song, Heechun; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Hursky, Paul; Harrison, Chris

    2010-04-01

    Recently, a technique has been developed to image seabed layers using the ocean ambient noise field as the sound source. This so called passive fathometer technique exploits the naturally occurring acoustic sounds generated on the sea-surface, primarily from breaking waves. The method is based on the cross-correlation of noise from the ocean surface with its echo from the seabed, which recovers travel times to significant seabed reflectors. To limit averaging time and make this practical, beamforming is used with a vertical array of hydrophones to reduce interference from horizontally propagating noise. The initial development used conventional beamforming, but significant improvements have been realized using adaptive techniques. In this paper, adaptive methods for this process are described and applied to several data sets to demonstrate improvements possible as compared to conventional processing.

  20. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, October 20, 1999 to June 15, 2000 : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.

    2002-12-01

    This report details the smolt performance of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead from the Imnaha River to the Snake River and Columbia River dams during migration year 2000. Flow conditions in the Imnaha River and Snake River were appreciably lower during May and June in 2000, compared to historic levels at gauging stations, but flow conditions in the Imnaha and Snake River were above average during April. Overall, water conditions for the entire Columbia River were characterized by the Fish Passage Center as below normal levels. Spill occurred continuously at Lower Granite Dam (LGR), Little Goose Dam (LGO), and Lower Monumental Dam (LMO) from April 5, April 10, and April 4, respectively, to June 20, and encompassed the periods of migration of Imnaha River juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead, with a few exceptions. Outflow in the tailraces of LGR, LGO, and LMO decreased in May and June while temperatures increased. Chinook salmon and steelhead were captured using rotary screw traps at river kilometer (rkm) 74 and 7 during the fall from October 20 to November 24, 1999, and during the spring period from February 26 to June 15, 2000, at rkm 7. Spring trapping information was reported weekly to the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program. A portion of these fish were tagged weekly with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and were detected migrating past interrogation sites at Snake River and Columbia River dams. Survival of PIT tagged fish was estimated with the Survival Using Proportional Hazards model (SURPH model). Estimated survival of fall tagged natural chinook (with {+-} 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis) from the upper Imnaha (rkm 74) to LGR was 29.6% ({+-} 2.8 ). Natural chinook salmon tagged in the fall in the lower Imnaha River at rkm 7, which over wintered in the Snake River, had an estimated survival of 36.8% ({+-} 2.9%) to LGR. Spring tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower site had an estimated survival of 84