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Sample records for adaptive behavior scales-ii

  1. Use of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II in Children with Autism--An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohari, S. M.; Raman, Vijaya; Ashok, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Edition 2005 (Vineland-II) is useful in assessing abilities in autism spectrum disorder, where an accurate assessment of intelligence using standardized tools is difficult both due to the unique social and communication difficulties that these children present with and the behavioral issues that occur as…

  2. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: II Profile of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sabrina; Paynter, Jessica M.; Gilmore, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour is a crucial area of assessment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study examined the adaptive behaviour profile of 77 young children with ASD using the Vineland-II, and analysed factors associated with adaptive functioning. Consistent with previous research with the original Vineland a distinct autism…

  3. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: II Profile of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sabrina; Paynter, Jessica M; Gilmore, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour is a crucial area of assessment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study examined the adaptive behaviour profile of 77 young children with ASD using the Vineland-II, and analysed factors associated with adaptive functioning. Consistent with previous research with the original Vineland a distinct autism profile of Vineland-II age equivalent scores, but not standard scores, was found. Highest scores were in motor skills and lowest scores were in socialisation. The addition of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule calibrated severity score did not contribute significant variance to Vineland-II scores beyond that accounted for by age and nonverbal ability. Limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed.

  4. The Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale-II with non-elderly veterans.

    PubMed

    Shura, Robert D; Rowland, Jared A; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E

    2014-08-01

    The Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale-II (BDS-II) is a unique test of frontal lobe function. Although the test was created for use in geriatric populations, it can add useful data to assessments of non-elderly patients. The original scoring system for the BDS was characterized by a low ceiling, limiting its use with higher functioning populations. The BDS-II scoring system was created to address this issue; however, new normative data were not published. This study used a non-elderly Veteran sample to compare the psychometric properties of the BDS and BDS-II scoring systems. The BDS-II showed improved psychometric properties (reductions in skewness and kurtosis) and was significantly more reliable than the BDS. Normative data using both the total sample, as well as the subsample of healthy individuals, are provided for clinical use.

  5. Factor structure and construct validity of the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale-II.

    PubMed

    Shura, Robert D; Rowland, Jared A; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    The Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale-II (BDS-II) was developed as an improved scoring method to the original BDS, which was designed to evaluate the capacity for independent regulation of behavior and attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure and construct validity of the BDS-II, which had not been adequately re-examined since the development of the new scoring system. In a sample of 164 Veterans with a mean age of 35 years, exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate BDS-II latent factor structure. Correlations and regressions were used to explore validity against 22 psychometrically sound neurocognitive measures across seven neurocognitive domains of sensation, motor output, processing speed, attention, visual-spatial reasoning, memory, and executive functions. Factor analysis found a two-factor solution for this sample which explained 41% of the variance in the model. Validity analyses found significant correlations among the BDS-II scores and all other cognitive domains except sensation and language (which was not evaluated). Hierarchical regressions revealed that PASAT performance was strongly associated with all three BDS-II scores; dominant hand Finger Tapping Test was also associated with the Total score and Factor 1, and CPT-II Commissions was also associated with Factor 2. These results suggest the BDS-II is both a general test of cerebral functioning, and a more specific test of working memory, motor output, and impulsivity. The BDS-II may therefore show utility with younger populations for measuring frontal lobe abilities and might be very sensitive to neurological injury.

  6. Adaptive capture of expert behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

  7. Adaptive Behavior Profiles of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditterline, Jeffrey; Banner, Diane; Oakland, Thomas; Becton, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of adaptive behavior traditionally has been associated with the identification of individuals with mental retardation. Information on adaptive behavior increasingly is being used for comprehensive assessment, treatment planning, intervention, and program evaluation for individuals with various disorders. Data from the normative samples…

  8. Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior: II. Scales of Social Adaption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Earl E.

    The Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior II (BSAB-II) provides a system for program development and evaluation and for social behavior assessment of profoundly and severely mentally retarded individuals as well as of the younger less retarded and emotionally disturbed individuals. The specimen set consists of six parts: a Manual, a Tally Sheet…

  9. Complex adaptive behavior and dexterous action

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Steven J.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dexterous action, as conceptualized by Bernstein in his influential ecological analysis of human behavior, is revealed in the ability to flexibly generate behaviors that are adaptively tailored to the demands of the context in which they are embedded. Conceived as complex adaptive behavior, dexterity depends upon the qualities of robustness and degeneracy, and is supported by the functional complexity of the agent-environment system. Using Bernstein’s and Gibson’s ecological analyses of behavior situated in natural environments as conceptual touchstones, we consider the hypothesis that complex adaptive behavior capitalizes upon general principles of self-organization. Here, we outline a perspective in which the complex interactivity of nervous-system, body, and environment is revealed as an essential resource for adaptive behavior. From this perspective, we consider the implications for interpreting the functionality and dysfunctionality of human behavior. This paper demonstrates that, optimal variability, the topic of this special issue, is a logical consequence of interpreting the functionality of human behavior as complex adaptive behavior. PMID:26375932

  10. Complex Adaptive Behavior and Dexterous Action.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Steven J; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Dexterous action, as conceptualized by Bernstein in his influential ecological analysis of human behavior, is revealed in the ability to flexibly generate behaviors that are adaptively tailored to the demands of the context in which they are embedded. Conceived as complex adaptive behavior, dexterity depends upon the qualities of robustness and degeneracy, and is supported by the functional complexity of the agent-environment system. Using Bernstein's and Gibson's ecological analyses of behavior situated in natural environments as conceptual touchstones, we consider the hypothesis that complex adaptive behavior capitalizes upon general principles of self-organization. Here, we outline a perspective in which the complex interactivity of nervous-system, body, and environment is revealed as an essential resource for adaptive behavior. From this perspective, we consider the implications for interpreting the functionality and dysfunctionality of human behavior. This paper demonstrates that, optimal variability, the topic of this special issue, is a logical consequence of interpreting the functionality of human behavior as complex adaptive behavior.

  11. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  12. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  13. Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Ceddia, M. G.; Chowell, Gerardo; Parra, Paula A. Gonzalez; Hickling, Graham J.; Holloway, Garth; Horan, Richard; Morin, Benjamin; Perrings, Charles; Springborn, Michael; Velazquez, Leticia; Villalobos, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits. The cost–benefit trade-offs that shape contact behavior, and hence the course of epidemics, are often only implicitly incorporated in epidemiological models. This approach creates difficulty in parsing out the effects of adaptive behavior. We use an epidemiological–economic model of disease dynamics to explicitly model the trade-offs that drive person-to-person contact decisions. Results indicate that including adaptive human behavior significantly changes the predicted course of epidemics and that this inclusion has implications for parameter estimation and interpretation and for the development of social distancing policies. Acknowledging adaptive behavior requires a shift in thinking about epidemiological processes and parameters. PMID:21444809

  14. Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Ceddia, M G; Chowell, Gerardo; Parra, Paula A Gonzalez; Hickling, Graham J; Holloway, Garth; Horan, Richard; Morin, Benjamin; Perrings, Charles; Springborn, Michael; Velazquez, Leticia; Villalobos, Cristina

    2011-04-12

    The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits. The cost-benefit trade-offs that shape contact behavior, and hence the course of epidemics, are often only implicitly incorporated in epidemiological models. This approach creates difficulty in parsing out the effects of adaptive behavior. We use an epidemiological-economic model of disease dynamics to explicitly model the trade-offs that drive person-to-person contact decisions. Results indicate that including adaptive human behavior significantly changes the predicted course of epidemics and that this inclusion has implications for parameter estimation and interpretation and for the development of social distancing policies. Acknowledging adaptive behavior requires a shift in thinking about epidemiological processes and parameters.

  15. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K. N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  16. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y; An, K N; Yang, G; Huang, J P

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  17. Sex differences in autism spectrum disorders: does sex moderate the pathway from clinical symptoms to adaptive behavior?

    PubMed

    Mandic-Maravic, Vanja; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Kostic, Milutin; Aleksic-Hil, Olivera; Radosavljev-Kircanski, Jelena; Mincic, Teodora; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

    2015-05-19

    We explored sex differences in diagnostic categories, clinical symptoms and adaptive behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders, as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical and adaptive caracteristics. The study involved 108 patients (83 males, 6.73 ± 4.33 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment included ADI-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. Males were more often diagnosed with typical autism. There were no sex differences in the autistic symptoms, while females showed better functioning in Daily living skills, without reaching statistically significant difference (p = 0.062). We have found different associations of autistic symptoms with different aspects of adaptive behavior in males and females. Social reciprocity in females correlated with social domain of adaptive behavior, in a positive direction. Our findings have shown that although there are no sex differences in autistic symptoms, females tend to be somewhat more functional, and are also less frequently diagnosed with typical autism. Our results have also shown that sex might moderate the way clinical symptoms are expressed in adaptive behavior. Social reciprocity might be the core feature regarding sex differences in ASD. Our findings might have diagnostic and therapeutical implications, pointing out to the need for individualized, sex-specific treatment in this group of disorders.

  18. Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

  19. Patterns of Adaptive Behavior in Very Young Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Ousley, Opal Y.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Hogan, Kerry L.; Brown, Christia S.

    1999-01-01

    A study used the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to investigate patterns of adaptive behavior in 30 children with autism who were under 3 years. Relative to controls, participants demonstrated weaker socialization and communication skills and greater discrepancies between adaptive behavior and mental age. The utility of the scales is discussed.…

  20. Visualizing Search Behavior with Adaptive Discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert G.; Qadri, Muhammad A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined different aspects of the visual search behavior of a pigeon using an open-ended, adaptive testing procedure controlled by a genetic algorithm. The animal had to accurately search for and peck a gray target element randomly located from among a variable number of surrounding darker and lighter distractor elements. Display composition was controlled by a genetic algorithm involving the multivariate configuration of different parameters or genes (number of distractors, element size, shape, spacing, target brightness, and distractor brightness). Sessions were composed of random displays, testing randomized combinations of these genes, and selected displays, representing the varied descendants of displays correctly identified by the pigeon. Testing a larger number of random displays than done previously, it was found that the bird’s solution to the search task was highly stable and did not change with extensive experience in the task. The location and shape of this attractor was visualized using multivariate behavioral surfaces in which element size and the number of distractors were the most important factors controlling search accuracy and search time. The resulting visualizations of the bird’s search behavior are discussed with reference to the potential of using adaptive, open-ended experimental techniques for investigating animal cognition and their implications for Bond and Kamil’s innovative development of virtual ecologies using an analogous methodology. PMID:24370702

  1. Risperidone and Adaptive Behavior in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan K.; Scahill, Lawrence; Vitiello, Benedetto; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Ritz, Louise; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Hollway, Jill; Cronin, Pegeen; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Wheeler, Courtney; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of risperidone on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder who have serious behavior problems and to examine different methods of scoring the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to measure change. Method: Forty-eight children (5 years to 16 years, 5 months) who showed behavioral improvement during acute…

  2. Nonbiased Assessment of Adaptive Behavior: Comparison of Three Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slate, Neldea M.

    1983-01-01

    A study involving 157 fourth graders revealed that the Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children discriminated between adaptive and maladaptive behaviors among retarded and nonretarded Ss, while the Vineland produced significantly different scores for Anglos and Blacks. The Behavior Rating Profile did not discriminate between behavior of retarded…

  3. Adaptive locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

  4. Adaptive Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish. PMID:21909325

  5. Spatial perception and adaptive sonar behavior.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, Murat; Mao, Beatrice; Moss, Cynthia F

    2010-12-01

    Bat echolocation is a dynamic behavior that allows for real-time adaptations in the timing and spectro-temporal design of sonar signals in response to a particular task and environment. To enable detailed, quantitative analyses of adaptive sonar behavior, echolocation call design was investigated in big brown bats, trained to rest on a stationary platform and track a tethered mealworm that approached from a starting distance of about 170 cm in the presence of a stationary sonar distracter. The distracter was presented at different angular offsets and distances from the bat. The results of this study show that the distance and the angular offset of the distracter influence sonar vocalization parameters of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Specifically, the bat adjusted its call duration to the closer of two objects, distracter or insect target, and the magnitude of the adjustment depended on the angular offset of the distracter. In contrast, the bat consistently adjusted its call rate to the distance of the insect, even when this target was positioned behind the distracter. The results hold implications for understanding spatial information processing and perception by echolocation.

  6. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  7. Anomalous human behavior detection: an adaptive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Coen; Halma, Arvid; Schutte, Klamer

    2013-05-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous behavior in videos from DARPA's Mind's Eye program, containing a variety of human activities. In this semi-unsupervised task a set of normal instances is provided for training, after which unknown abnormal behavior has to be detected in a test set. The features extracted from the video data have high dimensionality, are sparse and inhomogeneously distributed in the feature space making it a challenging task. Given these characteristics a distance-based method is preferred, but choosing a threshold to classify instances as (ab)normal is non-trivial. Our novel aproach, the Adaptive Outlier Distance (AOD) is able to detect outliers in these conditions based on local distance ratios. The underlying assumption is that the local maximum distance between labeled examples is a good indicator of the variation in that neighborhood, and therefore a local threshold will result in more robust outlier detection. We compare our method to existing state-of-art methods such as the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) and the Local Distance-based Outlier Factor (LDOF). The results of the experiments show that our novel approach improves the quality of the anomaly detection.

  8. Herd behavior in a complex adaptive system

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yu; Huang, J. P.; Ohashi, Hirotada; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics. PMID:21876133

  9. Herd behavior in a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yu; Huang, J P; Ohashi, Hirotada; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-09-13

    In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics.

  10. Cross-National Assessment of Adaptive Behavior in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Iliescu, Dragos; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Juliet Honglei

    2013-01-01

    Measures of adaptive behaviors provide an important tool in the repertoire of clinical and school/educational psychologists. Measures that assess adaptive behaviors typically have been built in Western cultures and developed in light of behaviors common to them. Nevertheless, these measures are used elsewhere despite a paucity of data that examine…

  11. Adaptive Behavior in Children with Fragile X Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Deborah D.; Wheeler, Anne C.; Skinner, Martie L.; Bailey, Donald B.; Sullivan, Kelly M.; Roberts, Jane E.; Mirrett, Penny; Clark, Renee D.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive behavior was measured over time in 70 children, ages 1 to 12 years, with fragile X syndrome. With a mean of 4.4 assessments per child, adaptive behavior skills increased steadily and gradually over time. Children with less autistic behavior and higher percentages of the fragile X mental retardation gene protein showed better performance…

  12. Trust-Guided Behavior Adaptation Using Case-Based Reasoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    trustworthiness and adapt its behavior ac- cordingly. As behavior adaptation is performed, us- ing case-based reasoning (CBR), information about the...complete set of rules for trustwor- thy behavior if the robot is expected to handle changes in teammates, environments, or mission contexts. The way

  13. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tassé, Marc J; Schalock, Robert L; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry Hank; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT modeling and a nationally representative standardization sample, the item set was reduced to 75 items that provide the most precise adaptive behavior information at the cutoff area determining the presence or not of significant adaptive behavior deficits across conceptual, social, and practical skills. The standardization of the DABS is described and discussed.

  14. Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

    1998-01-01

    States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

  15. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  16. Panel V: Adaptive Health Behaviors Among Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Shirley P.; Angel, Ronald; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Liu, William; Schinke, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Race, ethnicity, and cultural attitudes and practices are among the variables that influence health behaviors, including adaptive health behaviors. The following discussions highlight the important role of social conditions in shaping health behaviors and the central role of family in promoting health across the Asian, Hispanic, Native American, and African American ethnic groups. Factors that may lead to health-damaging behaviors are also discussed. The need for additional research that identifies correlations among physiological, social, and behavioral factors and health behaviors, as well as underlying mechanisms, is called for. PMID:8654341

  17. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  18. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-29

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality.

  19. Offsetting Behavior and Adaptation: How Students Respond to Hard Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Laura E.; Delmontagne, Emma M.; Wood, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Do students engage in offsetting behavior, adapting their study effort to the difficulty of learning? The authors present the results of survey research intended to test for the presence of offsetting behavior at a regional university. Instead of trying to determine whether students study less when learning is easier, we check to see whether…

  20. Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    2010 Northrop Grumman 14 Manager Leadership Behaviors of Managers Visionary Leadership Motivates and Encourages Promotes Organizational Learning Behaviors...most © Copyright 2009 Northrop GrummanCopyright 2010 Northrop Grumman 19 vulnerable? The Manager: Promotes Organizational Learning • Promotes...emphasize collaboration, team empowerment, trust, and organizational learning • Train managers in the practices that works best in adaptive environments

  1. Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Castro, Felipe G.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Toobert, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the article are to (a) describe…

  2. Comparison of Adaptive Behavior Measures for Children with HFASDs

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachael A.; Volker, Martin A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Lee, Gloria K.; McDonald, Christin A.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive behavior rating scales are frequently used to gather information on the adaptive functioning of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), yet little is known about the extent to which these measures yield comparable results. This study was conducted to (a) document the parent-rated VABS-II, BASC-2, and ABAS-II adaptive behavior profiles of 6- to 11-year-olds with HFASDs (including relative strengths and weaknesses); (b) examine the extent to which these measures yielded similar scores on comparable scales; and (c) assess potential discrepancies between cognitive ability and adaptive behavior across the measures. All three adaptive measures revealed significant deficits overall for the sample, with the VABS-II and ABAS-II indicating relative weaknesses in social skills and strengths in academic-related skills. Cross-measure comparisons indicated significant differences in the absolute magnitude of scores. In general, the VABS-II yielded significantly higher scores than the BASC-2 and ABAS-II. However, the VABS-II and ABAS-II yielded scores that did not significantly differ for adaptive social skills which is a critical area to assess for children with HFASDs. Results also indicated significant discrepancies between the children's average IQ score and their scores on the adaptive domains and composites of the three adaptive measures. PMID:23819048

  3. Mouse Behavior: Conjectures about Adaptations for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rop, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Presents an experiment on mouse behavior in which students learn to observe, pay attention to details, record field notes, and ask questions about their observations. Uses a white mouse to eliminate the risk of disease that a wild rodent might carry. Lists materials, set up, and procedure. (YDS)

  4. Linking Individual and Collective Behavior in Adaptive Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive social structures are known to promote the evolution of cooperation. However, up to now the characterization of the collective, population-wide dynamics resulting from the self-organization of individual strategies on a coevolving, adaptive network has remained unfeasible. Here we establish a (reversible) link between individual (micro)behavior and collective (macro)behavior for coevolutionary processes. We demonstrate that an adaptive network transforms a two-person social dilemma locally faced by individuals into a collective dynamics that resembles that associated with an N -person coordination game, whose characterization depends sensitively on the relative time scales between the entangled behavioral and network evolutions. In particular, we show that the faster the relative rate of adaptation of the network, the smaller the critical fraction of cooperators required for cooperation to prevail, thus establishing a direct link between network adaptation and the evolution of cooperation. The framework developed here is general and may be readily applied to other dynamical processes occurring on adaptive networks, notably, the spreading of contagious diseases or the diffusion of innovations.

  5. Behavioral and neural Darwinism: selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J

    2010-05-01

    An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptive behavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail.

  6. Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

  7. Endogenous Nuclear RNAi Mediates Behavioral Adaptation to Odor

    PubMed Central

    Juang, Bi-Tzen; Gu, Chen; Starnes, Linda; Palladino, Francesca; Goga, Andrei; Kennedy, Scott; L'Etoile, Noelle D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Most eukaryotic cells express small regulatory RNAs. The purpose of one class, the somatic endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) remains unclear. Here we show the endo-siRNA pathway promotes odor adaptation in C. elegans AWC olfactory neurons. In adaptation, the nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3, which acts in AWC, is loaded with siRNAs targeting odr-1, a gene who's down regulation is required for adaptation. Concomitant with increased odr-1 siRNA in AWC, we observe increased binding of the HP1 homolog HPL-2 at the odr-1 locus in AWC and reduced odr-1 mRNA in adapted animals. Phosphorylation of HPL-2, an in vitro substrate of the EGL-4 kinase that promotes adaption, is necessary and sufficient for behavioral adaptation. Thus, environmental stimulation amplifies an endo-siRNA negative feedback loop to dynamically repress cognate gene expression and shape behavior. This class of siRNA may act broadly as a rheostat allowing prolonged stimulation to dampen gene expression and promote cellular memory formation. PMID:23993094

  8. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  9. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Introduction to Psychosocial and Behavioral Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, R. Leigh; Decker, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioral adaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…

  10. Coping with Information Overload as Adaptive Behavior in Competitive Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig A.

    When the amount of available information exceeds the ability of the user to process it, "information overload" is created. In an attempt to maintain some control over the quantity of arguments they may face, debaters have developed adaptive behavior, primarily through the generic argument--any argument within a "deliverative"…

  11. Adaptive Behavior in Toddlers under Two with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Loomis, Rebecca; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was administered to 54 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before age 2, and a matching group of 18 toddlers with developmental delay (DD). The group with ASD was more impaired on all scales of the Vineland than DD peers. When 18 ASD/DD pairs very closely matched on age, verbal and nonverbal…

  12. Shaping Embodied Neural Networks for Adaptive Goal-directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Zenas C.; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Potter, Steve M.

    2008-01-01

    The acts of learning and memory are thought to emerge from the modifications of synaptic connections between neurons, as guided by sensory feedback during behavior. However, much is unknown about how such synaptic processes can sculpt and are sculpted by neuronal population dynamics and an interaction with the environment. Here, we embodied a simulated network, inspired by dissociated cortical neuronal cultures, with an artificial animal (an animat) through a sensory-motor loop consisting of structured stimuli, detailed activity metrics incorporating spatial information, and an adaptive training algorithm that takes advantage of spike timing dependent plasticity. By using our design, we demonstrated that the network was capable of learning associations between multiple sensory inputs and motor outputs, and the animat was able to adapt to a new sensory mapping to restore its goal behavior: move toward and stay within a user-defined area. We further showed that successful learning required proper selections of stimuli to encode sensory inputs and a variety of training stimuli with adaptive selection contingent on the animat's behavior. We also found that an individual network had the flexibility to achieve different multi-task goals, and the same goal behavior could be exhibited with different sets of network synaptic strengths. While lacking the characteristic layered structure of in vivo cortical tissue, the biologically inspired simulated networks could tune their activity in behaviorally relevant manners, demonstrating that leaky integrate-and-fire neural networks have an innate ability to process information. This closed-loop hybrid system is a useful tool to study the network properties intermediating synaptic plasticity and behavioral adaptation. The training algorithm provides a stepping stone towards designing future control systems, whether with artificial neural networks or biological animats themselves. PMID:18369432

  13. Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Outcomes of Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldevik, Sigmund; Jahr, Erik; Eikeseth, Svein; Hastings, Richard P.; Hughes, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    Data from Norway were analyzed to evaluate early behavioral intervention for children with intellectual disabilities. The intervention group (n = 11) received approximately 10 hours per week of behavioral intervention; the eclectic comparison group (n = 14) received treatment as usual. After 1 year, changes in intelligence and adaptive behavior…

  14. Information theory of adaptation in neurons, behavior, and mood

    PubMed Central

    Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Calhoun, Adam J.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make accurate predictions of future stimuli and consequences of one’s actions are crucial for the survival and appropriate decision-making. These predictions are constantly being made at different levels of the nervous system. This is evidenced by adaptation to stimulus parameters in sensory coding, and in learning of an up-to-date model of the environment at the behavioral level. This review will discuss recent findings that actions of neurons and animals are selected based on detailed stimulus history in such a way as to maximize information for achieving the task at hand. Information maximization dictates not only how sensory coding should adapt to various statistical aspects of stimuli, but also that reward function should adapt to match the predictive information from past to future. PMID:24709600

  15. Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment.

  16. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Peter; Rosenior-Patten, Onayomi; Dahmen, Johannes C; Bell, Olivia; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The brain possesses a remarkable capacity to compensate for changes in inputs resulting from a range of sensory impairments. Developmental studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation to asymmetric hearing loss can be achieved either by reinterpreting altered spatial cues or by relying more on those cues that remain intact. Adaptation to monaural deprivation in adulthood is also possible, but appears to lack such flexibility. Here we show, however, that appropriate behavioral training enables monaurally-deprived adult humans to exploit both of these adaptive processes. Moreover, cortical recordings in ferrets reared with asymmetric hearing loss suggest that these forms of plasticity have distinct neural substrates. An ability to adapt to asymmetric hearing loss using multiple adaptive processes is therefore shared by different species and may persist throughout the lifespan. This highlights the fundamental flexibility of neural systems, and may also point toward novel therapeutic strategies for treating sensory disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12264.001 PMID:27008181

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior…

  18. Adaptive neural coding: from biological to behavioral decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Kenway; Glimcher, Paul W.; Webb, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Empirical decision-making in diverse species deviates from the predictions of normative choice theory, but why such suboptimal behavior occurs is unknown. Here, we propose that deviations from optimality arise from biological decision mechanisms that have evolved to maximize choice performance within intrinsic biophysical constraints. Sensory processing utilizes specific computations such as divisive normalization to maximize information coding in constrained neural circuits, and recent evidence suggests that analogous computations operate in decision-related brain areas. These adaptive computations implement a relative value code that may explain the characteristic context-dependent nature of behavioral violations of classical normative theory. Examining decision-making at the computational level thus provides a crucial link between the architecture of biological decision circuits and the form of empirical choice behavior. PMID:26722666

  19. Adaptive Behavior of Primary School Students with Visual Impairments: The Impact of Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsiou, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the adaptive behavior of primary school students with visual impairments, as well as the impact of educational setting on their adaptive behavior. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Participants were 36 primary school students with visual impairments. The educational…

  20. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Profiles in Children with Autism and Moderate to Severe Developmental Delay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Gemma; D'Ardia, Caterina; Valente, Donatella; Vecchio, Ilaria del; Fabrizi, Anna; Bernabei, Paola

    2003-01-01

    A study examined adaptive behavior profiles in children (ages 21-108 months) with moderate to severe developmental delay and autism (n=23) and without autism (n=27). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales was administered, and contrary to initial predictions, the sample presented fairly homogeneous adaptive behavior profiles. (Contains references.)…

  1. Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Staci C.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the…

  2. Physiological, behavioral and biochemical adaptations of intertidal fishes to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jeffrey G

    2011-01-15

    Hypoxia survival in fish requires a well-coordinated response to either secure more O(2) from the hypoxic environment or to limit the metabolic consequences of an O(2) restriction at the mitochondria. Although there is a considerable amount of information available on the physiological, behavioral, biochemical and molecular responses of fish to hypoxia, very little research has attempted to determine the adaptive value of these responses. This article will review current attempts to use the phylogenetically corrected comparative method to define physiological and behavioral adaptations to hypoxia in intertidal fish and further identify putatively adaptive biochemical traits that should be investigated in the future. In a group of marine fishes known as sculpins, from the family Cottidae, variation in hypoxia tolerance, measured as a critical O(2) tension (P(crit)), is primarily explained by variation in mass-specific gill surface area, red blood cell hemoglobin-O(2) binding affinity, and to a lesser extent variation in routine O(2) consumption rate (M(O(2))). The most hypoxia-tolerant sculpins consistently show aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and aerial emergence behavior during hypoxia exposure, but no phylogenetically independent relationship has been found between the thresholds for initiating these behaviors and P(crit). At O(2) levels below P(crit), hypoxia survival requires a rapid reorganization of cellular metabolism to suppress ATP consumption to match the limited capacity for O(2)-independent ATP production. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that the degree of metabolic rate suppression and the quantity of stored fermentable fuel is strongly selected for in hypoxia-tolerant fishes; however, these assertions have not been tested in a phylogenetic comparative model.

  3. Human Adaptive Behavior in Common Pool Resource Systems

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Gunnar; Merico, Agostino; Vollan, Björn; Schlüter, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users’ expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users’ current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users’ perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns. PMID:23285180

  4. Adaptive behavior among adults with intellectual disabilities and its relationship to community independence.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System--Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003 ) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and residential independence. The participants' adaptive behavior accounted for 40%-43% of the variance in their work and residence independence. The results from this field-based study indicated that participants who displayed higher levels of adaptive behavior generally worked and lived more independently. Participants with the lowest general adaptive behavior required the highest degree of community supports. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Using Behavioral Questionnaires to Identify Adaptive Deficits in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Lachar, David

    1994-01-01

    Obtained responses to Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and revised Personality Inventory for Children (PIC-R) for 88 elementary-age boys. Used CBCL and PIC-R scales to predict three domain scales and Adaptive Behavior Composite from Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Results suggest that behavioral questionnaires can be used to efficiently identify…

  6. Longitudinal Examination of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Executive Function.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Cara E; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Strang, John F; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L; Naiman, Daniel Q; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2016-02-01

    This study characterizes longitudinal change in adaptive behavior in 64 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability evaluated on multiple occasions, and examines whether prior estimate of executive function (EF) problems predicts future adaptive behavior scores. Compared to standardized estimates for their developmental stage, adaptive behavior in most participants was impaired and did not improve over time. Prior EF predicted later adaptive behavior in daily living skills and socialization domains after controlling for age and IQ. Self-monitoring behaviors robustly predicted later adaptive behavior in all domains (d = 0.60-0.94). Results support targeting treatment of adaptive skills in ASD, as well as the importance of assessing for EF problems that may contribute to adaptive behavior difficulties.

  7. Behavior of an adaptive bio-inspired spider web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lingyue; Behrooz, Majid; Huie, Andrew; Hartman, Alex; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of an artificial adaptive spider web with comparable behavior to a real spider web. First, the natural frequency and energy absorption ability of a passive web is studied. Next, a control system that consists of stepper motors, load cells and an Arduino, is constructed to mimic a spider's ability to control the tension of radial strings in the web. The energy related characteristics in the artificial spider web is examined while the pre-tension of the radial strings are varied. Various mechanical properties of a damaged spider web are adjusted to study their effect on the behavior of the web. It is demonstrated that the pre-tension and stiffness of the web's radial strings can significantly affect the natural frequency and the total energy of the full and damaged webs.

  8. Personality traits, future time perspective and adaptive behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gomes Carvalho, Renato Gil; Novo, Rosa Ferreira

    2015-04-24

    Several studies provide evidence of the importance of future time perspective (FTP) for individual success. However, little research addresses the relationship between FTP and personality traits, particularly if FTP can mediate their influence on behavior. In this study we analyze the mediating of FTP in the influence of personality traits on the way adolescents live their life at school. Sample consisted in 351 students, aged from 14 to 18 years-old, at different schooling levels. Instruments were the Portuguese version of the MMPI-A, particularly the PSY-5 dimensions (Aggressiveness, Psychoticism, Disconstraint, Neuroticism, Introversion), a FTP questionnaire, and a survey on school life, involving several indicators of achievement, social integration, and overall satisfaction. With the exception of Neuroticism, the results show significant mediation effects (p < .001) of FTP on most relationships between PSY-5 dimensions and school life variables. Concerning Disconstraint, FTP mediated its influence on overall satisfaction (β = -.125) and school achievement (β = -.106). In the case of Introversion, significant mediation effects occurred for interpersonal difficulties (β = .099) and participation in extracurricular activities (β = -.085). FTP was also a mediator of Psychoticism influence in overall satisfaction (β = -.094), interpersonal difficulties (β = .057), and behavior problems (β = .037). Finally, FTP mediated the influence of Aggressiveness on overall satisfaction (β = -.061), interpersonal difficulties (β = .040), achievement (β = -.052), and behavior problems (β = .023). Results are discussed considering the importance of FTP in the impact of some personality structural characteristics in students' school adaptation.

  9. Memory and adaptive behavior in population dynamics: anti-predator behavior as a case study.

    PubMed

    Pimenov, Alexander; Kelly, Thomas C; Korobeinikov, Andrei; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Rachinskii, Dmitrii

    2016-10-04

    Memory allows organisms to forecast the future on the basis of experience, and thus, in some form, is important for the development of flexible adaptive behavior by animal communities. To model memory, we use the concept of hysteresis, which mathematically is described by the Preisach operator. As a case study, we consider anti-predator adaptation in the classic Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. Despite its simplicity, the model allows us to naturally incorporate essential features of an adaptive system and memory. Our analysis and simulations show that a system with memory can have a continuum of equilibrium states with non-trivial stability properties. The main factor that determines the actual equilibrium state to which a trajectory converges is the maximal number achieved by the population of predator along this trajectory.

  10. Learning about stress: neural, endocrine and behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Richard

    2016-09-01

    In this review, nonassociative learning is advanced as an organizing principle to draw together findings from both sympathetic-adrenal medullary and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to chronic intermittent exposure to a variety of stressors. Studies of habituation, facilitation and sensitization of stress effector systems are reviewed and linked to an animal's prior experience with a given stressor, the intensity of the stressor and the appraisal by the animal of its ability to mobilize physiological systems to adapt to the stressor. Brain pathways that regulate physiological and behavioral responses to stress are discussed, especially in light of their regulation of nonassociative processes in chronic intermittent stress. These findings may have special relevance to various psychiatric diseases, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  11. Neuropsychological predictors of adaptive kitchen behavior in geriatric psychiatry inpatients.

    PubMed

    Benedict, R H; Goldstein, M Z; Dobraski, M; Tannenhaus, J

    1997-10-01

    This study examined the degree to which demographic variables, psychiatric diagnosis, depression rating, and neuropsychological test performance predict adaptive kitchen behavior in geriatric psychiatry patients and normal elderly volunteers. Amixed group of 27 participants including 8 normal volunteers and 19 geriatric psychiatry inpatients underwent psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and a kitchen skills assessment conducted in a natural setting. Both depression and dementia were prevalent among patients. The kitchen skills assessment was abnormal in 69% of patients, compared to none of the normal volunteers. Estimated premorbid IQs, psychiatric diagnosis, and neuropsychological test scores significantly predicted the pass/fail status on the kitchen skills assessment, but there was no effect for age, education, gender, or depression. The discriminant function analysis classified 92% of cases, and the canonical correlation coefficient was .84. Of the neuropsychological tests employed in the study, two tests involving visuospatial processing and attention were retained in the discriminant function analysis. The results are consistent with previous studies that suggest that visuospatial tasks are more predictive of instrumental activities of daily living than are cognitive tasks emphasizing verbal and memory abilities. In addition, we conclude that neuropsychological test data are useful and valid for the purpose of guiding clinical judgments regarding activities of daily living in geriatric psychiatry patients.

  12. Adaptive Behavior among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Relationship to Community Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…

  13. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…

  14. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  15. Exploring the Structure of Adaptive Behavior: Project Report Number 87-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruininks, Robert H.; McGrew, Kevin

    This report presents results from three research studies that were designed to explore both the definition and the structure of the adaptive behavior construct. The first study investigated the structure of adaptive behavior as a function of age, developmental level, and type of handicap through an exploratory factor analysis of both the…

  16. Longitudinal Examination of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This study characterizes longitudinal change in adaptive behavior in 64 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability evaluated on multiple occasions, and examines whether prior estimate of executive function (EF) problems predicts future adaptive behavior scores. Compared to standardized estimates…

  17. DO CHILDREN WITH FRAGILE X SYNDROME SHOW DECLINES OR PLATEAUS IN ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR?

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Laura J.; Brady, Nancy C.; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace K.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores if children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) show advances, declines, or plateaus in adaptive behavior over time and the relationship of nonverbal cognitive abilities and autistic behavior on these trajectories. Parents of 55 children with FXS completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales between 3 and 6 times from 2 to 10 years of age. Using raw scores, results indicate that about half of the sample showed advances in adaptive behavior, while the other half showed declines, indicating a regression in skills. Children who were more cognitively advanced and had less autistic behaviors had higher trajectories. Understanding the developmental course of adaptive behavior in FXS has implications for educational planning and intervention, especially for those children showing declines. PMID:26322389

  18. Engaging African American Fathers in Behavioral Parent Training: To Adapt or Not Adapt

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Seay, Kristen D.

    2015-01-01

    The Positive Parenting Program, Triple P, is an evidence-based parenting program with strong empirical support that increases parenting skills and decreases child behavior problems. Few studies on Triple P include fathers or African American fathers. This study was undertaken to determine if adaptation to Triple P level 4 is necessary to ensure fit with urban African American fathers. Qualitative focus groups and interviews were conducted with African American fathers. Some received a brief overview of the program before giving feedback (series A) and others received the entire intervention (series B). Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze transcripts and codebooks were developed through an iterative process. Series B fathers had fewer negative perceptions and a more detailed perspective. Limited exposure to an intervention may cause participants to provide inaccurate data on intervention acceptability. The fathers’ initial perceptions of interventions, regardless of accuracy, will affect recruitment and engagement and must be addressed. One strategy is to tailor program examples and language to reflect the experiences of African American fathers. PMID:26190952

  19. Treating Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors With Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:23914278

  20. Linking Screening for Emotional and Behavioral Problems to Problem-Solving Efforts: An Adaptive Model of Behavioral Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses several objectives of the special issue on universal screening by addressing gaps in the current research base concerning universal screening for mental, emotional, and behavioral health and by providing a framework for addressing the limitations of extant approaches. Specifically, an adaptive model of behavioral assessment…

  1. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  2. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  3. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  4. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  5. Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Self-injurious Thoughts and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Darren B; Flament, Martine F

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore clinical changes observed in suicidal adolescents treated with an adapted form of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for adolescents (A-DBT-A) in a tertiary care setting. We conducted an open-label naturalistic study including 61 adolescents with self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and associated features of borderline personality disorder, who underwent a 15-week course of A-DBT-A. Pre- and post-treatment measures were administered, the primary outcome being the total score on the Suicidal Ideas Questionnaire. Self-harm, symptoms of borderline personality disorder, resiliency measures, predictors of response, and predictors of attrition were also explored. Among participants who completed post-treatment measures, we found a significant reduction in suicidal ideation (n = 31, p < 0.001). Secondary outcomes also suggested improvement. Baseline substance use predicted attrition (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.03-6.14; p < 0.05), as did baseline impulsivity score on the Life Problems Inventory (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.004-1.06; p < 0.05). Overall, we observed clinical improvements in adolescents receiving A-DBT-A.

  6. A Critical Analysis of the Behavioral Adaptation Explanation of the Probing Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; McCornack, Steven A.

    1996-01-01

    Documents three problems with the behavioral adaption explanation (BAE) that, taken together, suggest that it cannot account for the probing effect, i.e., the finding that sources interrogatively probed appear more honest to message recipients than nonprobed sources. (TB)

  7. Can Behavioral Adaptation Explain the Probing Effect? Rejoinder to Buller et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; McCornack, Steven A.

    1996-01-01

    Responds to David Buller's defense of Behavioral Adaption Explanation (BAE), which was, in turn, written in response to the authors' critical analysis of BAE as an explanation for the probing effect. (TB)

  8. Adapting Autonomous Behavior Based on an Estimate of an Operator’s Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    teammate’s trust and adapt to it, and also pro- vide directions for this work. 2 Inverse Trust and Behavior Adaptation Traditional trust metrics measure how...looking at an inverse trust metric where an agent (the robot) estimates how much trust another agent has in it. One option would be to get direct feedback...trustworthy behaviors from previous adap- tations (Floyd, Drinkwater, and Aha 2014b). 3 Discussion Our work has focused on an approach for inverse trust

  9. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2 to 7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies,…

  10. The Relation between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…

  11. A Pilot Study of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Hispanics with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interian, Alejandro; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Escobar, Javier I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All…

  12. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  13. Someone has to give in: theta oscillations correlate with adaptive behavior in social bargaining

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Francisco; López, Tamara; Rodriguez, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    During social bargain, one has to both figure out the others’ intentions and behave strategically in such a way that the others’ behaviors will be consistent with one’s expectations. To understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors, we used electroencephalography while subjects played as proposers in a repeated ultimatum game. We found that subjects adapted their offers to obtain more acceptances in the last round and that this adaptation correlated negatively with prefrontal theta oscillations. People with higher prefrontal theta activity related to a rejection did not adapt their offers along the game to maximize their earning. Moreover, between-subject variation in posterior theta oscillations correlated positively with how individual theta activity influenced the change of offer after a rejection, reflecting a process of behavioral adaptation to the others’ demands. Interestingly, people adapted better their offers when they knew that they where playing against a computer, although the behavioral adaptation did not correlate with prefrontal theta oscillation. Behavioral changes between human and computer games correlated with prefrontal theta activity, suggesting that low adaptation in human games could be a strategy. Taken together, these results provide evidence for specific roles of prefrontal and posterior theta oscillations in social bargaining. PMID:24493841

  14. Someone has to give in: theta oscillations correlate with adaptive behavior in social bargaining.

    PubMed

    Billeke, Pablo; Zamorano, Francisco; López, Tamara; Rodriguez, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    During social bargain, one has to both figure out the others' intentions and behave strategically in such a way that the others' behaviors will be consistent with one's expectations. To understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors, we used electroencephalography while subjects played as proposers in a repeated ultimatum game. We found that subjects adapted their offers to obtain more acceptances in the last round and that this adaptation correlated negatively with prefrontal theta oscillations. People with higher prefrontal theta activity related to a rejection did not adapt their offers along the game to maximize their earning. Moreover, between-subject variation in posterior theta oscillations correlated positively with how individual theta activity influenced the change of offer after a rejection, reflecting a process of behavioral adaptation to the others' demands. Interestingly, people adapted better their offers when they knew that they where playing against a computer, although the behavioral adaptation did not correlate with prefrontal theta oscillation. Behavioral changes between human and computer games correlated with prefrontal theta activity, suggesting that low adaptation in human games could be a strategy. Taken together, these results provide evidence for specific roles of prefrontal and posterior theta oscillations in social bargaining.

  15. Comparison of Measures of Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Linda I.; Servos, Andria B.

    1978-01-01

    Nonproblem and problem children were compared on Minnesota Child Development Inventory, Classroom Adjustment Rating Scale, Ottawa School Behavior Survey, AML Behavior Rating Scale, Teacher Rating Scale, and Denver Developmental Screening Test. Problem children scored significantly lower than nonproblem children on all measures. Minnesota Child…

  16. Effects of the emotion system on adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Giske, Jarl; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Fiksen, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Per J; Aksnes, Dag L; Jørgensen, Christian; Mangel, Marc

    2013-12-01

    A central simplifying assumption in evolutionary behavioral ecology has been that optimal behavior is unaffected by genetic or proximate constraints. Observations and experiments show otherwise, so that attention to decision architecture and mechanisms is needed. In psychology, the proximate constraints on decision making and the processes from perception to behavior are collectively described as the emotion system. We specify a model of the emotion system in fish that includes sensory input, neuronal computation, developmental modulation, and a global organismic state and restricts attention during decision making for behavioral outcomes. The model further includes food competition, safety in numbers, and a fluctuating environment. We find that emergent strategies in evolved populations include common emotional appraisal of sensory input related to fear and hunger and also include frequency-dependent rules for behavioral responses. Focused attention is at times more important than spatial behavior for growth and survival. Spatial segregation of the population is driven by personality differences. By coupling proximate and immediate influences on behavior with ultimate fitness consequences through the emotion system, this approach contributes to a unified perspective on the phenotype, by integrating effects of the environment, genetics, development, physiology, behavior, life history, and evolution.

  17. Kindergarten Children's Perceptions of "Anthropomorphic Artifacts" with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Asi; Mioduser, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, children from a kindergarten in central Israel have been exposed to learning experiences in technology as part of the implementation of a curriculum based on technological thinking, including topics related to behaving-adaptive-artifacts (e.g., robots). This study aims to unveil children's stance towards behaving artifacts:…

  18. Predicting Adaptive Behavior from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotard, Stephen; McWhirter, Richard

    To examine the proportion of variance in adaptive functioning predictable from mental ability, chronological age, I.Q., evidence of brain malfunction, seizure medication, and receptive and expressive language scores, 25 severely and profoundly retarded institutionalized persons (2-19 years old) were administered the Bayley Infant Scale Mental…

  19. Interpreting problematic behavior: systematic compensatory adaptations as emergent phenomena in autism.

    PubMed

    Damico, Jack S; Nelson, Ryan L

    2005-01-01

    Based upon an emergent account of pragmatic ability and disability, this article provides theoretical and empirical support for a conceptually deeper understanding of some systematic behaviors that have served as diagnostic indices in communicatively impaired populations. Specifically, by employing conversation analysis, several examples of problematic behaviors in autism are analysed as a specific type of compensatory adaptation. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  20. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for the Vocational Rehabilitation of Significantly Disabled Mentally Ill Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…

  1. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  2. Making Sense by Building Sense: Kindergarten Children's Construction and Understanding of Adaptive Robot Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mioduser, David; Levy, Sharona T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores young children's ability to construct and explain adaptive behaviors of a behaving artifact, an autonomous mobile robot with sensors. A central component of the behavior construction environment is the RoboGan software that supports children's construction of spatiotemporal events with an a-temporal rule structure. Six…

  3. Boldness behavior and stress physiology in a novel urban environment suggest rapid correlated evolutionary adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gonçalo C.; Whittaker, Danielle J.; Campbell-Nelson, Samuel; Robertson, Kyle W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2012-01-01

    Novel or changing environments expose animals to diverse stressors that likely require coordinated hormonal and behavioral adaptations. Predicted adaptations to urban environments include attenuated physiological responses to stressors and bolder exploratory behaviors, but few studies to date have evaluated the impact of urban life on codivergence of these hormonal and behavioral traits in natural systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid adaptive shifts in both stress physiology and correlated boldness behaviors in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco, following its colonization of a novel urban environment. We compared elevation in corticosterone (CORT) in response to handling and flight initiation distances in birds from a recently established urban population in San Diego, California to birds from a nearby wildland population in the species' ancestral montane breeding range. We also measured CORT and exploratory behavior in birds raised from early life in a captive common garden study. We found persistent population differences for both reduced CORT responses and bolder exploratory behavior in birds from the colonist population, as well as significant negative covariation between maximum CORT and exploratory behavior. Although early developmental effects cannot be ruled out, these results suggest contemporary adaptive evolution of correlated hormonal and behavioral traits associated with colonization of an urban habitat. PMID:22936840

  4. Visual Behaviors and Adaptations Associated with Cortical and Ocular Impairment in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, J. E.; Groenveld, M.

    1993-01-01

    This article shows the usefulness of understanding visual behaviors in the diagnosis of various types of visual impairments that are due to ocular and cortical disorders. Behaviors discussed include nystagmus, ocular motor dyspraxia, head position, close viewing, field loss adaptations, mannerisms, photophobia, and abnormal color perception. (JDD)

  5. Studying adaptation and homeostatic behaviors of kinetic networks by using MATLAB.

    PubMed

    Drengstig, Tormod; Kjosmoen, Thomas; Ruoff, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Organisms have the ability to counteract environmental perturbations and keep certain components within a cell homeostatically regulated. Closely related to homeostasis is the behavior of perfect adaptation where an organism responds to a step-wise perturbation by regulating some of its components, after a transient period, to their original pre-perturbation values. A particular interesting type of model relates to the so-called robust behavior where the homeostatic or perfect adaptation property is independent of the magnitude of the applied step-wise perturbation. It has been shown that this type of behavior is related to the control-theoretic concept of integral feedback (or integral control). Using downloadable MATLAB examples, we demonstrate how robust perfect adaptation sites can be identified in reaction kinetic networks by linearizing the system, applying the Laplace transform and inspecting the transfer function. We also show how the homeostatic set point in perfect adaptation is related to the presence of zero-order fluxes.

  6. Adaptive and maladaptive behavior in children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Staci C; Wolters, Pamela L; Smith, Ann C M

    2006-05-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Cognitive functioning was evaluated with an age-appropriate test. Children scored below average on VABS Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization scales. Learning problems and hyperactivity scales on the Conner's Parent Rating Scale were elevated, and girls were more impulsive than boys. Stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors were present in all children. Cognitive functioning was delayed and consistent with communication and daily living skills, while socialization scores were higher than IQ.

  7. Increasing adaptive behavior skill deficits from childhood to adolescence in autism spectrum disorder: role of executive function.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Cara E; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2015-06-01

    Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive behavior, with specific attention to the role of executive function (EF) in youth with HFASD aged 4-23. There was a negative relationship between age and adaptive behavior and the discrepancy between IQ and adaptive behavior increased with age. EF problems contributed to lower adaptive behavior scores across domains. As such, it is important to target adaptive skills, and the EF problems that may contribute to them, in youth with HFASD.

  8. Literacy and cultural adaptations for cognitive behavioral therapy in a rural pain population.

    PubMed

    Kuhajda, Melissa C; Thorn, Beverly E; Gaskins, Susan W; Day, Melissa A; Cabbil, Chalanda M

    2011-06-01

    Low literacy and chronic pain have been identified as significant problems in the rural USA. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a widely used efficacious psychosocial treatment for chronic pain; adaptations for low-literacy rural populations are lacking. This paper reports on preparatory steps implemented to address this deficit. Adapting an existing group, CBT patient workbook for rural adults with low literacy is described, and adaptations to reduce cognitive demand inherent in CBT are explained via cognitive load theory. Adhering to health literacy guidelines, the patient workbook readability was lowered to the fifth grade. Two key informant interviews and four focus groups provided the impetus for structural and procedural adaptations. Using health literacy guidelines and participant feedback, the patient workbook and treatment approach were adapted for implementation in low-literacy rural adult chronic pain populations, setting the stage for proceeding with a larger trial using the adapted materials.

  9. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Teacher Form, Ages 5 to 21, of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aricak, O. Tolga; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model that highlighted 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II) was designed to be consistent with these models.…

  10. Aggression and Adaptive Functioning: The Bright Side to Bad Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Patricia H.; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that effective children and adolescents can engage in socially undesirable behavior to attain personal goals at relatively little personal or interpersonal cost, implying that relations between adjustment and aggression may not be optimally described by standard linear models. Suggests that if researchers recognize that some aggression…

  11. Musical Aptitude and Adaptive Behavior of People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leon K.; Monroe, Melinda J.

    1990-01-01

    Musical aptitude and behavioral adjustment were assessed in 16 mentally retarded adults nominated as having special musical interests and/or skills. Evidence of difficulties in adjustment associated with musical skill or interest was mixed, though results suggested no pervasive maladjustment among those with exceptional skill combined with mental…

  12. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2–7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies, methods to develop adaptations, and adaptations that have been implemented. Seven studies were identified. Parental engagement varied across and within studies. Only one study examined whether adaptations improved engagement compared to non-adapted intervention. Frequent methods to develop adaptations were building partnerships or conducting interviews/focus groups with minority parents or community members. Adaptations included addressing cultural beliefs (perceptions of parenting skills), values (interdependence), or experiences (immigration) that affect parenting or receptivity to interventions; ensuring racial/ethnic diversity of interventionists; and addressing cultural relevancy and literacy level of materials. Future research should examine engagement in adapted interventions compared to non-adapted interventions and examine factors (e.g., immigration status) that may moderate impact on engagement. PMID:27429537

  13. Adaptive Control Responses to Behavioral Perturbation Based Upon the Insect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    autonomous robot Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 31: :176.110 Harley CM, Predina JD, Ritzmann RE (2006) Responses to incomplete sensory information in cockroach...climbing behavior. Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 32:449.412 Hess D, Buschges A (1999) Role of proprioceptive signals from an insect femur-tibia joint in...Altered joint reflexes in the cockroach may lead to 17 directional changes in leg extension. Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 32:449.411 Pollack AJ

  14. Adapting Autonomous Behavior Using an Inverse Trust Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    to achieve team goals. Trustworthy behavior is not something that can be programmed into an agent in advance since how humans measure trust may be task...Inverse Trust Estimation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...wheeled unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) and uses eBotwork’s built-in natural language processing (for interpreting user commands), locomotion, and path

  15. Cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral features in Joubert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bulgheroni, Sara; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Signorini, Sabrina; Briguglio, Marilena; Di Sabato, Maria Lucia; Casarano, Manuela; Mancini, Francesca; Romani, Marta; Alfieri, Paolo; Battini, Roberta; Zoppello, Marina; Tortorella, Gaetano; Bertini, Enrico; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Valente, Enza Maria; Riva, Daria

    2016-12-01

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is a recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive cerebellar and brainstem malformation recognizable on brain imaging, the so-called molar tooth sign. The full spectrum of cognitive and behavioral phenotypes typical of JS is still far from being elucidated. The aim of this multicentric study was to define the clinical phenotype and neurobehavioral features of a large cohort of subjects with a neuroradiologically confirmed diagnosis of JS. Fifty-four patients aged 10 months to 29 years were enrolled. Each patient underwent a neurological evaluation as well as psychiatric and neuropsychological assessments. Global cognitive functioning was remarkably variable with Full IQ/General Quotient ranging from 32 to 129. Communication skills appeared relatively preserved with respect to both Daily Living and Socialization abilities. The motor domain was the area of greatest vulnerability, with a negative impact on personal care, social, and academic skills. Most children did not show maladaptive behaviors consistent with a psychiatric diagnosis but approximately 40% of them presented emotional and behavioral problems. We conclude that intellectual disability remains a hallmark but cannot be considered a mandatory diagnostic criterion of JS. Despite the high variability in the phenotypic spectrum and the extent of multiorgan involvement, nearly one quarter of JS patients had a favorable long-term outcome with borderline cognitive deficit or even normal cognition. Most of JS population also showed relatively preserved communication skills and overall discrete behavioral functioning in everyday life, independently from the presence and/or level of intellectual disability. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect.

  17. Adaptive behaviors in multi-agent source localization using passive sensing

    PubMed Central

    Shaukat, Mansoor; Chitre, Mandar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the role of adaptive group cohesion in a cooperative multi-agent source localization problem is investigated. A distributed source localization algorithm is presented for a homogeneous team of simple agents. An agent uses a single sensor to sense the gradient and two sensors to sense its neighbors. The algorithm is a set of individualistic and social behaviors where the individualistic behavior is as simple as an agent keeping its previous heading and is not self-sufficient in localizing the source. Source localization is achieved as an emergent property through agent’s adaptive interactions with the neighbors and the environment. Given a single agent is incapable of localizing the source, maintaining team connectivity at all times is crucial. Two simple temporal sampling behaviors, intensity-based-adaptation and connectivity-based-adaptation, ensure an efficient localization strategy with minimal agent breakaways. The agent behaviors are simultaneously optimized using a two phase evolutionary optimization process. The optimized behaviors are estimated with analytical models and the resulting collective behavior is validated against the agent’s sensor and actuator noise, strong multi-path interference due to environment variability, initialization distance sensitivity and loss of source signal. PMID:28018121

  18. Adaptive behaviors in multi-agent source localization using passive sensing.

    PubMed

    Shaukat, Mansoor; Chitre, Mandar

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the role of adaptive group cohesion in a cooperative multi-agent source localization problem is investigated. A distributed source localization algorithm is presented for a homogeneous team of simple agents. An agent uses a single sensor to sense the gradient and two sensors to sense its neighbors. The algorithm is a set of individualistic and social behaviors where the individualistic behavior is as simple as an agent keeping its previous heading and is not self-sufficient in localizing the source. Source localization is achieved as an emergent property through agent's adaptive interactions with the neighbors and the environment. Given a single agent is incapable of localizing the source, maintaining team connectivity at all times is crucial. Two simple temporal sampling behaviors, intensity-based-adaptation and connectivity-based-adaptation, ensure an efficient localization strategy with minimal agent breakaways. The agent behaviors are simultaneously optimized using a two phase evolutionary optimization process. The optimized behaviors are estimated with analytical models and the resulting collective behavior is validated against the agent's sensor and actuator noise, strong multi-path interference due to environment variability, initialization distance sensitivity and loss of source signal.

  19. Complex Features in Lotka-Volterra Systems with Behavioral Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebaldi, Claudio; Lacitignola, Deborah

    Lotka-Volterra systems have played a fundamental role for mathematical modelling in many branches of theoretical biology and proved to describe, at least qualitatively, the essential features of many phenomena, see for example Murray [Murray 2002]. Furthermore models of that kind have been considered successfully also in quite different and less mathematically formalized context: Goodwin' s model of economic growth cycles [Goodwin 1967] and urban dynamics [Dendrinos 1992] are only two of a number of examples. Such systems can certainly be defined as complex ones and in fact the aim of modelling was essentially to clarify mechanims rather than to provide actual precise simulations and predictions. With regards to complex systems, we recall that one of their main feature, no matter of the specific definition one has in mind, is adaptation, i. e. the ability to adjust.

  20. Lateral cascade of indirect effects in food webs with different types of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Kamran-Disfani, Ahmad R; Golubski, Antonio J

    2013-12-21

    It is widely recognized that indirect effects due to adaptive behaviors can have important effects on food webs. One consequence may be to change how readily perturbations propagate through the web, because species' behaviors as well as densities may respond to perturbations. It is not well understood which types of behavior are more likely to facilitate versus inhibit propagation of disturbances through a food web, or how this might be affected by the shape of a food web or the patterns of interaction strengths within it. We model two simple, laterally expanded food webs (one with three trophic levels and one with four), and compare how various adaptive behaviors affect the potential for a newly introduced predator to change the equilibrium densities of distant species. Patterns of changes in response to the introduction were qualitatively similar across most models, as were the ways in which patterns of direct interaction strengths affected those responses. Depending on both the web structure and the specific adaptive behavior, the potential for density changes to propagate through the web could be either increased or diminished relative to the no-behavior model. Two behaviors allowed density changes to propagate through a four-level web that precluded such propagation in the no-behavior model, and each of these two behaviors led to qualitatively different patterns of density changes. In the one model (diet choice) in which density changes were able to propagate in both web structures, patterns of density changes differed qualitatively between webs. Some of our results flowed from the fact that behaviors did not interact directly in the systems we considered, so that indirect effects on distant species had to be at least partly density-mediated. Our models highlight this as an inherent limitation of considering in isolation behaviors that are strictly foraging-related or strictly defense-related, making a case for the value of simultaneously considering multiple

  1. The adaptive trade-off between detection and discrimination in cortical representations and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ollerenshaw, Douglas R; Zheng, He J V; Millard, Daniel C; Wang, Qi; Stanley, Garrett B

    2014-03-05

    It has long been posited that detectability of sensory inputs can be sacrificed in favor of improved discriminability and that sensory adaptation may mediate this trade-off. The extent to which this trade-off exists behaviorally and the complete picture of the underlying neural representations that likely subserve the phenomenon remain unclear. In the rodent vibrissa system, an ideal observer analysis of cortical activity measured using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in anesthetized animals was combined with behavioral detection and discrimination tasks, thalamic recordings from awake animals, and computational modeling to show that spatial discrimination performance was improved following adaptation, but at the expense of the ability to detect weak stimuli. Together, these results provide direct behavioral evidence for the trade-off between detectability and discriminability, that this trade-off can be modulated through bottom-up sensory adaptation, and that these effects correspond to important changes in thalamocortical coding properties.

  2. Measuring adaptations of motivational interviewing: the development and validation of the behavior change counseling index (BECCI).

    PubMed

    Lane, Claire; Huws-Thomas, Michelle; Hood, Kerenza; Rollnick, Stephen; Edwards, Karen; Robling, Michael

    2005-02-01

    One of the most common challenges faced by health professionals is encouraging patients to change their behavior to improve their health. This paper reports the development of a checklist, the behavior change counseling index (BECCI). This aims to measure practitioner competence in behavior change counseling (BCC), an adaptation of motivational interviewing suitable for brief consultations in healthcare settings. The checklist has demonstrated acceptable levels of validity, reliability and responsiveness, and aims to assist trainers and researchers in assessing change in practitioner behavior before, during and after training in BCC. BECCI will also provide valuable information about the standard of BCC that practitioners were trained to deliver in studies of BCC as an intervention.

  3. ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A UNIQUE CULTURAL COMPARISON IN ITALY

    PubMed Central

    Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Axia, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors. PMID:21532914

  4. Mobile and Wireless Technologies in Health Behavior and the Potential for Intensively Adaptive Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Riley, William T.; Serrano, Katrina J.; Nilsen, Wendy; Atienza, Audie A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in mobile and wireless technologies have made real-time assessments of health behaviors and their influences possible with minimal respondent burden. These tech-enabled real-time assessments provide the basis for intensively adaptive interventions (IAIs). Evidence of such studies that adjust interventions based on real-time inputs is beginning to emerge. Although IAIs are promising, the development of intensively adaptive algorithms generate new research questions, and the intensive longitudinal data produced by IAIs require new methodologies and analytic approaches. Research considerations and future directions for IAIs in health behavior research are provided. PMID:26086033

  5. Mobile and Wireless Technologies in Health Behavior and the Potential for Intensively Adaptive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Serrano, Katrina J; Nilsen, Wendy; Atienza, Audie A

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances in mobile and wireless technologies have made real-time assessments of health behaviors and their influences possible with minimal respondent burden. These tech-enabled real-time assessments provide the basis for intensively adaptive interventions (IAIs). Evidence of such studies that adjust interventions based on real-time inputs is beginning to emerge. Although IAIs are promising, the development of intensively adaptive algorithms generate new research questions, and the intensive longitudinal data produced by IAIs require new methodologies and analytic approaches. Research considerations and future directions for IAIs in health behavior research are provided.

  6. Using practical and social information to influence flood adaptation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaire, Maura C.

    2016-08-01

    As the prospect for more frequent and severe extreme weather events gains scientific support, many nations are evaluating mitigation and adaptation options. Insurance and home retrofits could reduce household welfare losses due to flood events. Yet even after disasters, households often fail to take risk mitigation actions. This paper presents the first randomized field experiment that tests the effect of information provision on household uptake of flood insurance and home retrofits. A sample of 364 flood-prone households in Bangkok was randomly split into treatment and control groups. The treatment group received practical details on home retrofits and flood insurance as well as social information regarding the insurance purchase decisions of peers. Results indicate that the information intervention increased insurance purchases by about five percentage points, while no effect was detected for home retrofits. This effect is nearly equal to the increase in uptake that the national insurance program in Thailand has achieved through all other means since its establishment in 2012. If scaled up to include all uninsured, flood-prone households in Bangkok, nearly 70,000 additional households could be insured. The results suggest that well-designed information interventions could increase uptake of flood insurance, without additional premium subsidies or mandates.

  7. Group Selection as Behavioral Adaptation to Systematic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J.; Lo, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form “groups”, even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution—selection with correlated reproductive risk–that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon. PMID:25353167

  8. Adaptation of community health worker-delivered behavioral activation for torture survivors in Kurdistan, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, J. F.; Lejuez, C. W.; Kamal, T.; Blevins, E. J.; Murray, L. K.; Bass, J. K.; Bolton, P.; Pagoto, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Growing evidence supports the use of Western therapies for the treatment of depression, trauma, and stress delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in conflict-affected, resource-limited countries. A recent randomized controlled trial (Bolton et al. 2014a) supported the efficacy of two CHW-delivered interventions, cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD), for reducing depressive symptoms and functional impairment among torture survivors in the Kurdish region of Iraq. Methods This study describes the adaptation of the CHW-delivered BATD approach delivered in this trial (Bolton et al.2014a), informed by the Assessment–Decision–Administration-Production–Topical experts–Integration–Training–Testing (ADAPT–ITT) framework for intervention adaptation (Wingood & DiClemente, 2008). Cultural modifications, adaptations for low-literacy, and tailored training and supervision for non-specialist CHWs are presented, along with two clinical case examples to illustrate delivery of the adapted intervention in this setting. Results Eleven CHWs, a study psychiatrist, and the CHW clinical supervisor were trained in BATD. The adaptation process followed the ADAPT–ITT framework and was iterative with significant input from the on-site supervisor and CHWs. Modifications were made to fit Kurdish culture, including culturally relevant analogies, use of stickers for behavior monitoring, cultural modifications to behavioral contracts, and including telephone-delivered sessions to enhance feasibility. Conclusions BATD was delivered by CHWs in a resource-poor, conflict-affected area in Kurdistan, Iraq, with some important modifications, including low-literacy adaptations, increased cultural relevancy of clinical materials, and tailored training and supervision for CHWs. Barriers to implementation, lessons learned, and recommendations for future efforts to adapt behavioral therapies for resource

  9. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed <4, 4–7, and >7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing <4 adaptation behaviors during heat waves had the highest risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health

  10. Compensatory Expressive Behavior for Facial Paralysis: Adaptation to Congenital or Acquired Disability

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Kathleen R.; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Ambady, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective Although there has been little research on the adaptive behavior of people with congenital compared to acquired disability, there is reason to predict that people with congenital conditions may be better adapted because they have lived with their conditions for their entire lives (Smart, 2008). We examined whether people with congenital facial paralysis (FP), compared to people with acquired FP, compensate more for impoverished facial expression by using alternative channels of expression (i.e. voice and body). Research Method/Design Participants with congenital (n = 13) and acquired (n = 14) FP were videotaped while recalling emotional events. Main Outcome Measures Expressive verbal behavior was measured using the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (Pennebaker, Booth & Francis, 2007). Nonverbal behavior and FP severity were rated by trained coders. Results People with congenital FP, compared to acquired FP, used more compensatory expressive verbal and nonverbal behavior in their language, voices, and bodies. The extent of FP severity had little effect on compensatory expressivity. Conclusions/Implications This study provides the first behavioral evidence that people with congenital FP use more adaptations to express themselves than people with acquired FP. These behaviors could inform social functioning interventions for people with FP. PMID:22369116

  11. Dissociation of the behavioral and subjective components of nitrogen narcosis and diver adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, K; Laliberté, M F; Fowler, B

    1995-03-01

    We investigated adaptation to nitrogen narcosis by compressing 11 highly experienced divers in a hyperbaric chamber to the equivalent of 54.6 meters of seawater once a day for 5 consecutive days. The behavioral component of narcosis was assessed with a serial choice-reaction time (RT) task, and the subjective component with a global magnitude estimate. Supplementary magnitude estimates were obtained with adjectives describing work effectiveness and body sensations. The results showed that there was no adaptation on the RT task, although learning was evident. In contrast, the global estimate dissociated from RT and showed clear adaptation by Day 3. The work effectiveness adjectives followed RT and did not show adaptation. Some body sensation adjectives showed clear adaptation, but others did not. These results lead to the conclusion that the anecdotal reports of adaptation by divers can probably be attributed to the subjective rather than the behavioral component of narcosis. Dissociation of these components suggests mediation by different brain mechanisms, and it is speculated that the gamma-aminobutyric acidA/benzodiazepine receptor complex, which has been implicated in both the anesthetic and anxiolytic properties of agents such as nitrous oxide, may be involved.

  12. State Norms for IQ, Adaptive Behavior, and Sociocultural Status: Implications for Nonbiased Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J.; And Others

    Findings from the Iowa Assessment Project are examined regarding the assessment and use of information on adaptive behavior and sociocultural background in decisions about students with mild mental retardation. Background aspects reviewed include terminology regarding mild retardation; research, litigation, and legislation on the topic during the…

  13. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  14. Intelligence, Parental Depression, and Behavior Adaptability in Deaf Children Being Considered for Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Krull, Kevin; Hannay, Julia; Mehta, Paras; Caudle, Susan; Oghalai, John

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive ability and behavioral adaptability are distinct, yet related, constructs that can impact childhood development. Both are often reduced in deaf children of hearing parents who do not provide sufficient language and communication access. Additionally, parental depression is commonly observed due to parent-child communication difficulties…

  15. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  16. Adaptive Interventions and SMART Designs: Application to Child Behavior Research in a Community Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Kelley M.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity between and within people necessitates the need for sequential personalized interventions to optimize individual outcomes. Personalized or adaptive interventions (AIs) are relevant for diseases and maladaptive behavioral trajectories when one intervention is not curative and success of a subsequent intervention may depend on…

  17. Adaptive Responses to Prochloraz Exposure That Alter Dose-Response and Time-Course Behaviors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose response and time-course (DRTC) are, along with exposure, the major determinants of health risk. Adaptive changes within exposed organisms in response to environmental stress are common, and alter DRTC behaviors to minimize the effects caused by stressors. In this project, ...

  18. Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…

  19. Behavioral Adaptation in Deceptive Transactions: Fact or Fiction: Reply to Levine and McCornack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Takes issue with the findings of T. Levine, and S. McCornack, which suggest that behavioral adaption explanation (BAE) cannot account for the probing effect, the effect that sources interrogatively probed appear more honest to message recipients than nonprobed sources. (TB)

  20. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome: Interim Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)

  1. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Rebecca M.; Martens, Marilee A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months – 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007 to 2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3%) of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self-care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills. PMID:27199832

  2. Future Time Perspective as a Predictor of Adolescents' Adaptive Behavior in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Renato Gil Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents' development across different contexts. However, the extent to which FTP influences adaptation needs additional understanding. In this study, we analysed the relationship between FTP and adolescents' behavior in school, as expressed in several indicators of…

  3. Rapid Assessment of the Effects of Restraint on Self-Injury and Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michele D.; Iwata, Brian A.; Zhou, Liming; Goff, Gerald A.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of restraint on occurrences of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and adaptive responses exhibited by two individuals with profound mental retardation across eight response-effort conditions with varying degrees of physical restraint. Analysis identified a restraint level for each individual that reduced SIB but did not…

  4. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals…

  5. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behaviors of Movers and Stayers: Findings from a Controlled Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Paul; Apgar, Dawn Hall; Jordan,Tameeka

    2005-01-01

    Reviews of research on deinstitutionalization show that investigators have focused primarily on adaptive behavior changes of "movers," while paying minimal attention to "stayers." Analysis of their research also revealed some methodological problems. We assessed 150 movers and 150 stayers in 1994, before deinstitutionalization began in 1997. We…

  6. Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Charles R.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2005-01-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Adaptive Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Sofia; Morato, Pedro; Luckasson, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive behavior construct has gained prominent attention in human services over the last several years in Portugal, and its measurement has become an integral part of the assessment of populations with intellectual disability. In Portugal, diagnosis remains exclusively based on IQ measures, although some attention recently has been given to…

  8. A Post-Genomic View of Behavioral Development and Adaptation to the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFreniere, Peter; MacDonald, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics are reviewed that have major implications for the bio-behavioral sciences and for understanding how organisms adapt to their environments at both phylogenetic and ontogenic levels. From a post-genomics perspective, the environment is as crucial as the DNA sequence for constructing the…

  9. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and Cortical Adaptation in Habituation of Odor-Guided Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadon, Carly A.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2005-01-01

    Decreases in behavioral investigation of novel stimuli over time may be mediated by a variety of factors including changes in attention, internal state, and motivation. Sensory cortical adaptation, a decrease in sensory cortical responsiveness over prolonged stimulation, may also play a role. In olfaction, metabotropic glutamate receptors on…

  10. Studying the Genetics of Behavior and Evolution by Adaptation and Natural Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Jules

    1998-01-01

    Provides an exercise designed to give students an appreciation for the genetic basis of behavior. Employs the phenomenon of glucose aversion as an example of evolution by mutation and accelerated natural selection, thereby revealing one of the ways in which organisms adapt to human interference. (DDR)

  11. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    PubMed Central

    Mhaidat, Fatin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades) enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure) and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. PMID:27175098

  12. Social stratification, classroom climate, and the behavioral adaptation of kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W Thomas; Obradovic, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Kim, Young Shin; Adler, Nancy

    2012-10-16

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is the single most potent determinant of health within human populations, from infancy through old age. Although the social stratification of health is nearly universal, there is persistent uncertainty regarding the dimensions of SES that effect such inequalities and thus little clarity about the principles of intervention by which inequalities might be abated. Guided by animal models of hierarchical organization and the health correlates of subordination, this prospective study examined the partitioning of children's adaptive behavioral development by their positions within kindergarten classroom hierarchies. A sample of 338 5-y-old children was recruited from 29 Berkeley, California public school classrooms. A naturalistic observational measure of social position, parent-reported family SES, and child-reported classroom climate were used in estimating multilevel, random-effects models of children's adaptive behavior at the end of the kindergarten year. Children occupying subordinate positions had significantly more maladaptive behavioral outcomes than their dominant peers. Further, interaction terms revealed that low family SES and female sex magnified, and teachers' child-centered pedagogical practices diminished, the adverse influences of social subordination. Taken together, results suggest that, even within early childhood groups, social stratification is associated with a partitioning of adaptive behavioral outcomes and that the character of larger societal and school structures in which such groups are nested can moderate rank-behavior associations.

  13. Treating Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors with Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in…

  14. Assessing measurement invariance of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II among Hispanics, African Americans, and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Shigemoto, Yuki; Thoen, Megan A; Robitschek, Christine; Ashton, Matthew W

    2015-07-01

    This study tested the cross-cultural validity of scores on the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (PGIS-II; Robitschek et al., 2012) with Hispanic, African American, and European American community samples. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses were performed on data from 218 Hispanics, 129 African Americans, and 552 European Americans to examine measurement equivalence among these groups. Measurement invariance of the PGIS-II was established with the original 4 factors of readiness for change, planfulness, using resources, and intentional behavior. These findings suggest the PGIS-II can be administered across these groups and provide meaningful comparisons and interpretations. All samples yielded good internal consistency estimates. The African American sample reported higher means than Hispanic and European American samples for all subscale and total mean scores, and Hispanics scored higher in planfulness, readiness for change, and total score than European Americans, indicating potential cultural factors influencing the scores. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  15. Adaptive Behavior Ratings Correlate with Symptomatology and IQ among Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Harms, Madeline B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    Caregiver report on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptive behavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…

  16. Health-related quality of life and adaptive behaviors of adolescents with sickle cell disease: stress processing moderators.

    PubMed

    Ziadni, Maisa S; Patterson, Chavis A; Pulgarón, Elizabeth R; Robinson, M Renée; Barakat, Lamia P

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine resilience among adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD), focusing on the interaction of health-related quality of life with stress processing to explain adaptive behavior. Forty-four adolescents with SCD completed paper-and-pencil measures of health-related quality of life, appraisals (hope), pain coping strategies (e.g. adherence), and adaptive behavior. Self-reported health-related quality of life was significantly associated with adaptive behavior, as was adherence. Findings for moderation were mixed. Pain coping strategies moderated the association of health-related quality of life with adaptive behavior such that at lower levels of Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) Adherence, better quality of life was associated with higher adaptive behavior. Similarly, at higher levels of hope, better quality of life was associated with higher adaptive behavior, and poorer quality of life was associated with lower adaptive behavior. Adolescents with SCD showed resilience, particularly in terms of personal adjustment, that may be explained by their appraisals and stress processing strategies. Interventions to support an optimistic or hopeful outlook and improve adherence to recommendations for medical management of sickle cell pain may result in improved resilience/adaptive behavior.

  17. Increasing Adaptive Behavior Skill Deficits from Childhood to Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Role of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive…

  18. Behaviorally Mediated, Warm Adaptation: A Physiological Strategy When Mice Are Allowed to Behaviorally Thermoregulate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of -22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller int...

  19. Frontal theta links prediction errors to behavioral adaptation in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Frank, Michael J; Klein, Theresa J; Allen, John J B

    2010-02-15

    Investigations into action monitoring have consistently detailed a frontocentral voltage deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) following the presentation of negatively valenced feedback, sometimes termed the feedback-related negativity (FRN). The FRN has been proposed to reflect a neural response to prediction errors during reinforcement learning, yet the single-trial relationship between neural activity and the quanta of expectation violation remains untested. Although ERP methods are not well suited to single-trial analyses, the FRN has been associated with theta band oscillatory perturbations in the medial prefrontal cortex. Mediofrontal theta oscillations have been previously associated with expectation violation and behavioral adaptation and are well suited to single-trial analysis. Here, we recorded EEG activity during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task and fit the performance data to an abstract computational model (Q-learning) for calculation of single-trial reward prediction errors. Single-trial theta oscillatory activities following feedback were investigated within the context of expectation (prediction error) and adaptation (subsequent reaction time change). Results indicate that interactive medial and lateral frontal theta activities reflect the degree of negative and positive reward prediction error in the service of behavioral adaptation. These different brain areas use prediction error calculations for different behavioral adaptations, with medial frontal theta reflecting the utilization of prediction errors for reaction time slowing (specifically following errors), but lateral frontal theta reflecting prediction errors leading to working memory-related reaction time speeding for the correct choice.

  20. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Li, Deshi

    2015-09-16

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness.

  1. Adaptive behavior of bacterial mechanosensitive channels is coupled to membrane mechanics.

    PubMed

    Belyy, Vladislav; Kamaraju, Kishore; Akitake, Bradley; Anishkin, Andriy; Sukharev, Sergei

    2010-06-01

    Mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS), a tension-driven osmolyte release valve residing in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli, exhibits a complex adaptive behavior, whereas its functional counterpart, mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL), was generally considered nonadaptive. In this study, we show that both channels exhibit similar adaptation in excised patches, a process that is completely separable from inactivation prominent only in MscS. When a membrane patch is held under constant pressure, adaptation of both channels is manifested as a reversible current decline. Their dose-response curves recorded with 1-10-s ramps of pressure are shifted toward higher tension relative to the curves measured with series of pulses, indicating decreased tension sensitivity. Prolonged exposure of excised patches to subthreshold tensions further shifts activation curves for both MscS and MscL toward higher tension with similar magnitude and time course. Whole spheroplast MscS recordings performed with simultaneous imaging reveal activation curves with a midpoint tension of 7.8 mN/m and the slope corresponding to approximately 15-nm(2) in-plane expansion. Inactivation was retained in whole spheroplast mode, but no adaptation was observed. Similarly, whole spheroplast recordings of MscL (V23T mutant) indicated no adaptation, which was present in excised patches. MscS activities tried in spheroplast-attached mode showed no adaptation when the spheroplasts were intact, but permeabilized spheroplasts showed delayed adaptation, suggesting that the presence of membrane breaks or edges causes adaptation. We interpret this in the framework of the mechanics of the bilayer couple linking adaptation of channels in excised patches to the relaxation of the inner leaflet that is not in contact with the glass pipette. Relaxation of one leaflet results in asymmetric redistribution of tension in the bilayer that is less favorable for channel opening.

  2. [Adaptation of vigilance behavior in ex situ conservation of Tibetan antelope].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Yu, Hong-Hao; Zhao, Xin-Quan; Wang, De-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni) are an endemic and endangered species of the Tibetan Plateau. Ex situ conservation may represent an important way to protect Tibetan antelope; however, this process may influence aspects of their behavior. To investigate the ability of these antelopes to adapt to new environments, a study on the vigilance behavior of captive antelope in different seasons was conducted. Using instantaneous scan sampling, focal animal sampling, and all-occurrence recording methods, the vigilance rate and vigilance time of captive male and female Tibetan antelope during cold and warm seasons were recorded and analyzed. Very significant sex differences in vigilance behavior were observed during the warm season, but were not observed in the cold season. Interestingly, vigilance behavior showed seasonal variation as there were significant differences in vigilance time and vigilance rate between cold and warm seasons in both males and females. Specifically, males and females showed more vigilance during the cold than warm season. No interaction between season and sex was found in the vigilance behavior of antelope. Comparing vigilance behavioral characteristic with the Kekexili Tibetan antelope indicated that captive antelope could adapt to a new environment.

  3. Neurocognitive, Social-Behavioral, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children with Mild to Moderate Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Gerson, Arlene C.; Johnson, Rebecca J.; Mendley, Susan R.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lande, Marc B.; Matheson, Matthew B.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Morgenstern, Bruce; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The negative impact of End Stage Kidney Disease on cognitive function in children is well established, but no studies have examined the neurocognitive, social-behavioral, and adaptive behavior skills of preschool children with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Participants included 124 preschool children with mild to moderate CKD, ages 12-68 months (median=3.7 years), and an associated mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 50.0 ml/min per 1.73m2. In addition to level of function and percent of participants scoring≥1SD below the test mean, regression models examined the associations between biomarkers of CKD (GFR, anemia, hypertension, seizures, abnormal birth history), and Developmental Level/IQ, attention regulation, and parent ratings of executive functions, social-behavior, and adaptive behaviors. Results Median scores for all measures were in the average range; however, 27% were deemed at-risk for a Developmental Level/IQ<85, 20% were at-risk for attention variability, and parent ratings indicated 30% and 37% to be at-risk for executive dysfunction and adaptive behavior problems, respectively. Approximately 43% were deemed at-risk on two or more measures. None of the disease-related variables were significantly associated with these outcomes, although the presence of hypertension approached significance for attention variability (p<.09). Abnormal birth history and lower maternal education were significantly related to lower Developmental Level/IQ; seizures were related to lower parental ratings of executive function and adaptive behavior; and abnormal birth history was significantly related to lower ratings of adaptive behavior. When predicting risk status, the logistic regression did evidence both higher GFR and the lack of anemia to be associated with more intact Developmental Level/IQ. Conclusions These findings suggest relatively intact functioning for preschool children with mild to moderate CKD, but the need for ongoing

  4. AgRP Neural Circuits Mediate Adaptive Behaviors in the Starved State

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Stephanie L.; Qiu, Jian; Soden, Marta E.; Sanz, Elisenda; Nestor, Casey C; Barker, Forrest D.; Quintana, Albert; Zweifel, Larry S.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    In the face of starvation animals will engage in high-risk behaviors that would normally be considered maladaptive. Starving rodents for example will forage in areas that are more susceptible to predators and will also modulate aggressive behavior within a territory of limited or depleted nutrients. The neural basis of these adaptive behaviors likely involves circuits that link innate feeding, aggression, and fear. Hypothalamic AgRP neurons are critically important for driving feeding and project axons to brain regions implicated in aggression and fear. Using circuit-mapping techniques, we define a disynaptic network originating from a subset of AgRP neurons that project to the medial nucleus of the amygdala and then to the principle bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which plays a role in suppressing territorial aggression and reducing contextual fear. We propose that AgRP neurons serve as a master switch capable of coordinating behavioral decisions relative to internal state and environmental cues. PMID:27019015

  5. Improving the reliability of autism diagnoses: examining the utility of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Tomanik, Stacey S; Pearson, Deborah A; Loveland, Katherine A; Lane, David M; Bryant Shaw, J

    2007-05-01

    The classification agreement of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) was examined in 129 children and adolescents (aged 7-18 years) who were evaluated for autism. Participants received a diagnosis of autism or non-autism based on the ADI-R. Linear discriminant analysis revealed adequate concordance between the ADI-R and ADOS, with 75% of the participants being correctly classified using the ADOS. Classification accuracy significantly improved to 84% when a measure of adaptive functioning (i.e., the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales) was included in the analysis. The findings suggest that when clinicians obtain discrepant information on the ADI-R and ADOS, assessment of an individual's adaptive functioning may reduce diagnostic errors.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of vibration nonlinearity on convergence behavior of adaptive higher harmonic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molusis, J. A.; Mookerjee, P.; Bar-Shalom, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Effect of nonlinearity on convergence of the local linear and global linear adaptive controllers is evaluated. A nonlinear helicopter vibration model is selected for the evaluation which has sufficient nonlinearity, including multiple minimum, to assess the vibration reduction capability of the adaptive controllers. The adaptive control algorithms are based upon a linear transfer matrix assumption and the presence of nonlinearity has a significant effect on algorithm behavior. Simulation results are presented which demonstrate the importance of the caution property in the global linear controller. Caution is represented by a time varying rate weighting term in the local linear controller and this improves the algorithm convergence. Nonlinearity in some cases causes Kalman filter divergence. Two forms of the Kalman filter covariance equation are investigated.

  7. Evolutionary Influences of Plastic Behavioral Responses Upon Environmental Challenges in an Adaptive Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Susan A.; Wund, Matthew A.; Baker, John A.

    2015-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century, the suggestion was made by several scientists, including J. M. Baldwin, that behavioral responses to environmental change could both rescue populations from extinction (Baldwin Effect) and influence the course of subsequent evolution. Here we provide the historical and theoretical background for this argument and offer evidence of the importance of these ideas for understanding how animals (and other organisms that exhibit behavior) will respond to the rapid environmental changes caused by human activity. We offer examples from long-term research on the evolution of behavioral and other phenotypes in the adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a radiation in which it is possible to infer ancestral patterns of behavioral plasticity relative to the post-glacial freshwater radiation in northwestern North America, and to use patterns of parallelism and contemporary evolution to understand adaptive causes of responses to environmental modification. Our work offers insights into the complexity of cognitive responses to environmental change, and into the importance of examining multiple aspects of the phenotype simultaneously, if we are to understand how behavioral shifts contribute to the persistence of populations and to subsequent evolution. We conclude by discussing the origins of apparent novelties induced by environmental shifts, and the importance of accounting for geographic variation within species if we are to accurately anticipate the effects of anthropogenic environmental modification on the persistence and evolution of animals. PMID:26163679

  8. Evolutionary Influences of Plastic Behavioral Responses Upon Environmental Challenges in an Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Foster, Susan A; Wund, Matthew A; Baker, John A

    2015-09-01

    At the end of the 19th century, the suggestion was made by several scientists, including J. M. Baldwin, that behavioral responses to environmental change could both rescue populations from extinction (Baldwin Effect) and influence the course of subsequent evolution. Here we provide the historical and theoretical background for this argument and offer evidence of the importance of these ideas for understanding how animals (and other organisms that exhibit behavior) will respond to the rapid environmental changes caused by human activity. We offer examples from long-term research on the evolution of behavioral and other phenotypes in the adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a radiation in which it is possible to infer ancestral patterns of behavioral plasticity relative to the post-glacial freshwater radiation in northwestern North America, and to use patterns of parallelism and contemporary evolution to understand adaptive causes of responses to environmental modification. Our work offers insights into the complexity of cognitive responses to environmental change, and into the importance of examining multiple aspects of the phenotype simultaneously, if we are to understand how behavioral shifts contribute to the persistence of populations and to subsequent evolution. We conclude by discussing the origins of apparent novelties induced by environmental shifts, and the importance of accounting for geographic variation within species if we are to accurately anticipate the effects of anthropogenic environmental modification on the persistence and evolution of animals.

  9. The Influence of Cultural Adaptation and Sexual Risk Behaviors on Cervical Cytology in a Hispanic Population

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kristy K.; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if the level of cultural adaptation (acculturation) of Hispanic women is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors and cervical cytological abnormalities. METHODS Hispanic women 18 to 55 years of age (mean = 30.5 ± 8.32) underwent routine Papanicoulaou (Pap) testing and completed a comprehensive survey (N=3149). Acculturation (cultural adaptation) was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test a mediation model. RESULTS Highly acculturated women engaged in a greater number of sexual risk behaviors and were more likely to have an abnormal Pap test when compared to less acculturated Hispanic women (p < .001). CONCLUSION Acculturation is related to sexual risk taking and abnormal cervical cytology. Determination of acculturation level as part of culturally competent healthcare will aid in tailoring patient communication and counseling on the prevention of cervical cancer among Hispanic women. PMID:20864073

  10. Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

  11. The Association of Intelligence, Visual-Motor Functioning, and Personality Characteristics With Adaptive Behavior in Individuals With Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Trista J; Lincoln, Alan J; Bellugi, Ursula; Searcy, Yvonne M

    2015-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with deficits in adaptive behavior and an uneven adaptive profile. This study investigated the association of intelligence, visual-motor functioning, and personality characteristics with the adaptive behavior in individuals with WS. One hundred individuals with WS and 25 individuals with developmental disabilities of other etiologies were included in this study. This study found that IQ and visual-motor functioning significantly predicted adaptive behavior in individuals of WS. Visual-motor functioning especially predicted the most amount of unique variance in overall adaptive behavior and contributed to the variance above and beyond that of IQ. Present study highlights the need for interventions that address visual-motor and motor functioning in individuals with WS.

  12. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  13. Toward a mechanics of adaptive behavior: evolutionary dynamics and matching theory statics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J; Popa, Andrei

    2010-09-01

    One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm. The behavior of virtual organisms animated by this theory may be studied in any experimental environment. The evolutionary theory was tested by comparing the steady-state behavior it generated on concurrent schedules to the description of steady state behavior provided by modern matching theory. Ensemble fits of modern matching theory that enforced its constant-k requirement and the parametric identities required by its equations, accounted for large proportions of data variance, left random residuals, and yielded parameter estimates with values and properties similar to those obtained in experiments with live organisms. These results indicate that the dynamics of the evolutionary theory and the statics of modern matching theory together constitute a good candidate for a mechanics of adaptive behavior.

  14. Toward a Mechanics of Adaptive Behavior: Evolutionary Dynamics and Matching Theory Statics

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, J.J; Popa, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm. The behavior of virtual organisms animated by this theory may be studied in any experimental environment. The evolutionary theory was tested by comparing the steady-state behavior it generated on concurrent schedules to the description of steady state behavior provided by modern matching theory. Ensemble fits of modern matching theory that enforced its constant-k requirement and the parametric identities required by its equations, accounted for large proportions of data variance, left random residuals, and yielded parameter estimates with values and properties similar to those obtained in experiments with live organisms. These results indicate that the dynamics of the evolutionary theory and the statics of modern matching theory together constitute a good candidate for a mechanics of adaptive behavior. PMID:21451751

  15. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement.

  16. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  17. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot.

    PubMed

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles

  18. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot

    PubMed Central

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles

  19. Changes in cortical activity associated with adaptive behavior during repeated balance perturbation of unpredictable timing

    PubMed Central

    Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2015-01-01

    The compensation for a sudden balance perturbation, unpracticed and unpredictable in timing and magnitude is accompanied by pronounced postural instability that is suggested to be causal to falls. However, subsequent presentations of an identical perturbation are characterized by a marked decrease of the amplitude of postural reactions; a phenomenon called adaptation or habituation. This study aimed to identify cortical characteristics associated with adaptive behavior during repetitive balance perturbations based on single-trial analyses of the P1 and N1 perturbation-evoked potentials. Thirty-seven young men were exposed to ten transient balance perturbations while balancing on the dominant leg. Thirty two-channel electroencephalography (EEG), surface electromyography (EMG) of the ankle plantar flexor muscles and postural sway (i.e., Euclidean distance of the supporting platform) were recorded simultaneously. The P1 and N1 potentials were localized and the amplitude/latency was analyzed trial by trial. The best match sources for P1 and N1 potentials were located in the parietal (Brodmann area (BA) 5) and midline fronto-central cortex (BA 6), respectively. The amplitude and latency of the P1 potential remained unchanged over trials. In contrast, a significant adaptation of the N1 amplitude was observed. Similar adaptation effects were found with regard to postural sway and ankle plantarflexors EMG activity of the non-dominant (free) leg; i.e., an indicator for reduced muscular co-contraction and/or less temporary bipedal stance to regain stability. Significant but weak correlations were found between N1 amplitude and postural sway as well as EMG activity. These results highlight the important role of the midline fronto-central cortex for adaptive behavior associated with balance control. PMID:26528154

  20. Changes in cortical activity associated with adaptive behavior during repeated balance perturbation of unpredictable timing.

    PubMed

    Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Strüder, Heiko K

    2015-01-01

    The compensation for a sudden balance perturbation, unpracticed and unpredictable in timing and magnitude is accompanied by pronounced postural instability that is suggested to be causal to falls. However, subsequent presentations of an identical perturbation are characterized by a marked decrease of the amplitude of postural reactions; a phenomenon called adaptation or habituation. This study aimed to identify cortical characteristics associated with adaptive behavior during repetitive balance perturbations based on single-trial analyses of the P1 and N1 perturbation-evoked potentials. Thirty-seven young men were exposed to ten transient balance perturbations while balancing on the dominant leg. Thirty two-channel electroencephalography (EEG), surface electromyography (EMG) of the ankle plantar flexor muscles and postural sway (i.e., Euclidean distance of the supporting platform) were recorded simultaneously. The P1 and N1 potentials were localized and the amplitude/latency was analyzed trial by trial. The best match sources for P1 and N1 potentials were located in the parietal (Brodmann area (BA) 5) and midline fronto-central cortex (BA 6), respectively. The amplitude and latency of the P1 potential remained unchanged over trials. In contrast, a significant adaptation of the N1 amplitude was observed. Similar adaptation effects were found with regard to postural sway and ankle plantarflexors EMG activity of the non-dominant (free) leg; i.e., an indicator for reduced muscular co-contraction and/or less temporary bipedal stance to regain stability. Significant but weak correlations were found between N1 amplitude and postural sway as well as EMG activity. These results highlight the important role of the midline fronto-central cortex for adaptive behavior associated with balance control.

  1. Adapting Dialectical Behavior Therapy for the Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Foote, Brad; Van Orden, Kim

    2016-12-31

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), created by Marsha Linehan, has been shown to be an effective therapy for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and for suicidal and self-harming behavior. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex post-traumatic disorder which is highly comorbid with BPD, shares a number of clinical features with BPD, and which like BPD features a high degree of suicidality. The DID treatment literature emphasizes the importance of a staged approach, beginning with the creation of a safe therapeutic frame prior to addressing traumatic material; DBT is also a staged treatment, in which behavioral and safety issues are addressed in Stage 1, and trauma work reserved for Stage 2. The authors describe adapting DBT, and especially its techniques for Stage 1 safety work, for work with DID patients. Basic theoretical principles are described and illustrated with a case example.

  2. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  3. Iron Supplementation in Infancy Contributes to More Adaptive Behavior at 10 Years of Age1234

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M.; Smith, Julia B.; Sturza, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14–0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

  4. Fractal behavior of traffic volume on urban expressway through adaptive fractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-di; Wang, Jun-li; Wei, Hai-rui; Ye, Cheng; Ding, Yi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fractal behavior of traffic volume in urban expressway based on a newly developed adaptive fractal analysis (AFA), which has a number of advantages over traditional method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Before fractal analysis, autocorrelation function was first adopted on traffic volume data and the long-range correlation behavior was found to be existed in both on-ramp and off-ramp situations. Then AFA as well as DFA was applied to further examine the fractal behavior. The results showed that the multifractality and the long-range anti-persistent behavior existed on both on-ramp and off-ramp. Additionally, multifractal analysis on weekdays and weekends are performed respectively and the results show that the degree of multifractality on weekdays is higher than that on weekends, implying that long-range correlation behaviors were more obvious on weekdays. Finally, the source of multifractality is examined with randomly shuffled and the surrogated series. Long-range correlation behaviors are identified in both on-ramp and off-ramp situations and fat-tail distributions were found to make little in the contributions of multifractality.

  5. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals.

  6. International adoption: assessment of adaptive and maladaptive behavior of adopted minors in Spain.

    PubMed

    Barcons-Castel, Natalia; Fornieles-Deu, Albert; Costas-Moragas, Carme

    2011-05-01

    Research on adjustment of internationally adopted children indicates that, although they have adequate development, more emotional and behavioral problems are detected compared with nonadopted children. In this research, emotional and behavioral characteristics of a sample of 52 internationally adopted minors were examined with the BASC (Parent Rating Scales and Self-Report of Personality), comparing the outcomes with 44 nonadopted minors, all of them of ages between 6 and 11 years (mean age = 8.01 years). Results indicate differences between adopted and nonadopted children related to somatization, adopted minors are those that obtain lower scores in the scale, and in the adaptability scale, where nonadopted minors obtain higher scores. Significant differences were found in the adaptive abilities scales, suggesting that nonadopted boys show better abilities than adopted ones, and no differences were found among girls. In general, boys present higher scores in externalizing symptomatology and depression than girls. Among adopted children, time spent in an institution is a variable that has negative impact on the onset of externalizing and internalizing problems. Minors coming from Eastern Europe display more attentional problems, poorer adaptive abilities and poorer interpersonal relations than the rest of the minors. According to the age at placement, attentional problems appear in minors adopted after the age of 3 years.

  7. Sensory processing, school performance, and adaptive behavior of young school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Kartin, Deborah

    2008-05-01

    This study described sensory processing behaviors and sensory-motor abilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and explored their relationship to home and school function. A clinic-referred sample of 25 children with FASD, ages 5 to 8 years, was compared with 26 children with typical development, balanced for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, on standardized tests examining sensory processing, sensory-motor performance, school performance, and adaptive behavior. Children with FASD scored significantly more poorly on sensory processing, sensory-motor, adaptive, and academic achievement measures, and demonstrated more problem behaviors at home and school. Correlations were significant between measures of sensory processing and sensory-motor performance, adaptive behavior, and some aspects of academic performance. Sensory processing and related foundational sensory-motor impairments should be considered when determining the developmental needs of children with FASD. These impairments may co-occur with and contribute, at least in part, to decreased adaptive and school function.

  8. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  9. Treatment Sequencing for Childhood ADHD: A Multiple-Randomization Study of Adaptive Medication and Behavioral Interventions.

    PubMed

    Pelham, William E; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waxmonsky, James G; Greiner, Andrew R; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Coxe, Stefany; Verley, Jessica; Bhatia, Ira; Hart, Katie; Karch, Kathryn; Konijnendijk, Evelien; Tresco, Katy; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Murphy, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and pharmacological treatments for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were evaluated to address whether endpoint outcomes are better depending on which treatment is initiated first and, in case of insufficient response to initial treatment, whether increasing dose of initial treatment or adding the other treatment modality is superior. Children with ADHD (ages 5-12, N = 146, 76% male) were treated for 1 school year. Children were randomized to initiate treatment with low doses of either (a) behavioral parent training (8 group sessions) and brief teacher consultation to establish a Daily Report Card or (b) extended-release methylphenidate (equivalent to .15 mg/kg/dose bid). After 8 weeks or at later monthly intervals as necessary, insufficient responders were rerandomized to secondary interventions that either increased the dose/intensity of the initial treatment or added the other treatment modality, with adaptive adjustments monthly as needed to these secondary treatments. The group beginning with behavioral treatment displayed significantly lower rates of observed classroom rule violations (the primary outcome) at study endpoint and tended to have fewer out-of-class disciplinary events. Further, adding medication secondary to initial behavior modification resulted in better outcomes on the primary outcomes and parent/teacher ratings of oppositional behavior than adding behavior modification to initial medication. Normalization rates on teacher and parent ratings were generally high. Parents who began treatment with behavioral parent training had substantially better attendance than those assigned to receive training following medication. Beginning treatment with behavioral intervention produced better outcomes overall than beginning treatment with medication.

  10. Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

  11. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  12. Criticality as a Set-Point for Adaptive Behavior in Neuromorphic Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Stepp, Nigel D.; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware are designed by drawing inspiration from biology to overcome limitations of current computer architectures while forging the development of a new class of autonomous systems that can exhibit adaptive behaviors. Several designs in the recent past are capable of emulating large scale networks but avoid complexity in network dynamics by minimizing the number of dynamic variables that are supported and tunable in hardware. We believe that this is due to the lack of a clear understanding of how to design self-tuning complex systems. It has been widely demonstrated that criticality appears to be the default state of the brain and manifests in the form of spontaneous scale-invariant cascades of neural activity. Experiment, theory and recent models have shown that neuronal networks at criticality demonstrate optimal information transfer, learning and information processing capabilities that affect behavior. In this perspective article, we argue that understanding how large scale neuromorphic electronics can be designed to enable emergent adaptive behavior will require an understanding of how networks emulated by such hardware can self-tune local parameters to maintain criticality as a set-point. We believe that such capability will enable the design of truly scalable intelligent systems using neuromorphic hardware that embrace complexity in network dynamics rather than avoiding it. PMID:26648839

  13. Clark's Nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) Flexibly Adapt Caching Behavior to a Cooperative Context.

    PubMed

    Clary, Dawson; Kelly, Debbie M

    2016-01-01

    Corvids recognize when their caches are at risk of being stolen by others and have developed strategies to protect these caches from pilferage. For instance, Clark's nutcrackers will suppress the number of caches they make if being observed by a potential thief. However, cache protection has most often been studied using competitive contexts, so it is unclear whether corvids can adjust their caching in beneficial ways to accommodate non-competitive situations. Therefore, we examined whether Clark's nutcrackers, a non-social corvid, would flexibly adapt their caching behaviors to a cooperative context. To do so, birds were given a caching task during which caches made by one individual were reciprocally exchanged for the caches of a partner bird over repeated trials. In this scenario, if caching behaviors can be flexibly deployed, then the birds should recognize the cooperative nature of the task and maintain or increase caching levels over time. However, if cache protection strategies are applied independent of social context and simply in response to cache theft, then cache suppression should occur. In the current experiment, we found that the birds maintained caching throughout the experiment. We report that males increased caching in response to a manipulation in which caches were artificially added, suggesting the birds could adapt to the cooperative nature of the task. Additionally, we show that caching decisions were not solely due to motivational factors, instead showing an additional influence attributed to the behavior of the partner bird.

  14. Clark’s Nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) Flexibly Adapt Caching Behavior to a Cooperative Context

    PubMed Central

    Clary, Dawson; Kelly, Debbie M.

    2016-01-01

    Corvids recognize when their caches are at risk of being stolen by others and have developed strategies to protect these caches from pilferage. For instance, Clark’s nutcrackers will suppress the number of caches they make if being observed by a potential thief. However, cache protection has most often been studied using competitive contexts, so it is unclear whether corvids can adjust their caching in beneficial ways to accommodate non-competitive situations. Therefore, we examined whether Clark’s nutcrackers, a non-social corvid, would flexibly adapt their caching behaviors to a cooperative context. To do so, birds were given a caching task during which caches made by one individual were reciprocally exchanged for the caches of a partner bird over repeated trials. In this scenario, if caching behaviors can be flexibly deployed, then the birds should recognize the cooperative nature of the task and maintain or increase caching levels over time. However, if cache protection strategies are applied independent of social context and simply in response to cache theft, then cache suppression should occur. In the current experiment, we found that the birds maintained caching throughout the experiment. We report that males increased caching in response to a manipulation in which caches were artificially added, suggesting the birds could adapt to the cooperative nature of the task. Additionally, we show that caching decisions were not solely due to motivational factors, instead showing an additional influence attributed to the behavior of the partner bird. PMID:27826273

  15. Adapting cognitive behavioral therapy to meet the needs of Chinese clients: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Hanley, Terry

    2015-06-01

    With the growing influence of China (Chinese people/culture) on the world's politics, economy, and culture, the psychological wellbeing of Chinese people is becoming increasingly important for both researchers and practitioners. Despite this, the cultural responsiveness of many conventional psychotherapeutic models has often been brought into question. In contrast, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is rapidly becoming one of the most popular approaches in the mental health service industry and has been successfully adapted into many different cultural contexts. The current article is a theoretical discussion of the opportunities and challenges that CBT faces with respect to how it might meet the cultural needs and preferences of Chinese clients. Suggestions for successful cultural adaptation are offered based on existing research and practices. It is concluded that many features of CBT appear to match well with the Chinese cultural perspective. However, despite this promising start further work is needed to focus specifically on its practical effectiveness for Chinese clients.

  16. Feed-forward mechanisms: addiction-like behavioral and molecular adaptations in overeating.

    PubMed

    Alsiö, Johan; Olszewski, Pawel K; Levine, Allen S; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2012-04-01

    Food reward, not hunger, is the main driving force behind eating in the modern obesogenic environment. Palatable foods, generally calorie-dense and rich in sugar/fat, are thus readily overconsumed despite the resulting health consequences. Important advances have been made to explain mechanisms underlying excessive consumption as an immediate response to presentation of rewarding tastants. However, our understanding of long-term neural adaptations to food reward that oftentimes persist during even a prolonged absence of palatable food and contribute to the reinstatement of compulsive overeating of high-fat high-sugar diets, is much more limited. Here we discuss the evidence from animal and human studies for neural and molecular adaptations in both homeostatic and non-homeostatic appetite regulation that may underlie the formation of a "feed-forward" system, sensitive to palatable food and propelling the individual from a basic preference for palatable diets to food craving and compulsive, addiction-like eating behavior.

  17. Facets and mechanisms of adaptive pain behavior: predictive regulation and action

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, India; Perini, Irene; Dunham, James

    2013-01-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying nociception and pain perception are considered to serve the ultimate goal of limiting tissue damage. However, since pain usually occurs in complex environments and situations that call for elaborate control over behavior, simple avoidance is insufficient to explain a range of mammalian pain responses, especially in the presence of competing goals. In this integrative review we propose a Predictive Regulation and Action (PRA) model of acute pain processing. It emphasizes evidence that the nervous system is organized to anticipate potential pain and to adjust behavior before the risk of tissue damage becomes critical. Regulatory processes occur on many levels, and can be dynamically influenced by local interactions or by modulation from other brain areas in the network. The PRA model centers on neural substrates supporting the predictive nature of pain processing, as well as on finely-calibrated yet versatile regulatory processes that ultimately affect behavior. We outline several operational categories of pain behavior, from spinally-mediated reflexes to adaptive voluntary action, situated at various neural levels. An implication is that neural processes that track potential tissue damage in terms of behavioral consequences are an integral part of pain perception. PMID:24348358

  18. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  19. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459

  20. Behavior Change Interventions to Improve the Health of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: A Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Emma M; Liu, Jing Jing; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark RD; Netto, Gina; Wabnitz, Cecile; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Context Adapting behavior change interventions to meet the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations has the potential to enhance their effectiveness in the target populations. But because there is little guidance on how best to undertake these adaptations, work in this field has proceeded without any firm foundations. In this article, we present our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches as a framework for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers interested in delivering behavior change interventions to ethnically diverse, underserved populations in the United Kingdom. Methods We undertook a mixed-method program of research on interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and promoting healthy eating that had been adapted to improve salience and acceptability for African-, Chinese-, and South Asian–origin minority populations. This program included a systematic review (reported using PRISMA criteria), qualitative interviews, and a realist synthesis of data. Findings We compiled a richly informative data set of 161 publications and twenty-six interviews detailing the adaptation of behavior change interventions and the contexts in which they were undertaken. On the basis of these data, we developed our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches, which contains (1) a forty-six-item Typology of Adaptation Approaches; (2) a Pathway to Adaptation, which shows how to use the Typology to create a generic behavior change intervention; and (3) RESET, a decision tool that provides practical guidance on which adaptations to use in different contexts. Conclusions Our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches provides the first evidence-derived suite of materials to support the development, design, implementation, and reporting of health behavior change interventions for minority groups. The Tool Kit now needs prospective, empirical evaluation in a range of intervention and population settings. PMID:24320170

  1. Vibrational behavior of adaptive aircraft wing structures modelled as composite thin-walled beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, O.; Librescu, L.; Rogers, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vibrational behavior of cantilevered aircraft wings modeled as thin-walled beams and incorporating piezoelectric effects is studied. Based on the converse piezoelectric effect, the system of piezoelectric actuators conveniently located on the wing yield the control of its associated vertical and lateral bending eigenfrequencies. The possibility revealed by this study enabling one to increase adaptively the eigenfrequencies of thin-walled cantilevered beams could play a significant role in the control of the dynamic response and flutter of wing and rotor blade structures.

  2. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    PubMed

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  3. The changing brain--insights into the mechanisms of neural and behavioral adaptation to the environment.

    PubMed

    Bergersen, L H; Bramham, C R; Hugdahl, K; Sander, M; Storm-Mathisen, J

    2013-09-05

    The Kavli Prize in Neuroscience was awarded for the third time in September 2012, by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters in Oslo. The accompanying Kavli Prize Symposium on Neuroscience, held in Bergen and Trondheim, was a showcase of excellence in neuroscience research. The common theme of the Symposium presentations was the mechanisms by which animals adapt to their environment. The symposium speakers--Michael Greenberg, Erin Schuman, Chiara Cirelli, Michael Meaney, Catherine Dulac, Hopi Hoekstra, and Stanislas Dehaene--covered topics ranging from the molecular and cellular levels to the systems level and behavior. Thus a single amino acid change in a transcriptional repressor can disrupt gene regulation through neural activity (Greenberg). Deep sequencing analysis of the neuropil transcriptome indicates that a large fraction of the synaptic proteome is synthesized in situ in axons and dendrites, permitting local regulation (Schuman). The nature of the 'reset' function that makes animals dependent of sleep is being revealed (Cirelli). Maternal behavior can cause changes in gene expression that stably modify behavior in the offspring (Meaney). Removal of a single sensory channel protein in the vomero-nasal organ can switch off male-specific and switch on female-specific innate behavior of mice in response to environmental stimulation (Dulac). Innate behaviors can be stably transmitted from parent to offspring through generations even when those behaviors cannot be expressed, as illustrated by the elaborate burrowing behavior in a rodent species, in which independent genetic regions regulate distinct modules of the burrowing pattern (Hoekstra). Finally, at the other extreme of the nature-nurture scale, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis in children and adults identified a brain area specifically involved in reading (Dehaene). As the area must originally have developed for a purpose other than reading, such as shape recognition, this

  4. [Translation and adaptation of the Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire: a Brazilian version].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Roberta Paula Schell; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Machado, Mônica; Williams, Anna Virginia; Matte, Breno Córdova; Pechansky, Flavio; Rohde, Luis Augusto Paim; Szobot, Claudia Maciel

    2012-06-01

    Traffic accidents are a leading cause of death in young adults. In Brazil, traffic accidents are proportionally more prevalent among motorcyclists as compared to automobile drivers. Although numerous data indicate that individual characteristics are involved in traffic accident risk, there is no instrument in Brazil to assess motorcyclists' traffic behavior. The authors thus proposed to perform translation and cultural adaptation of the Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ) into Brazilian Portuguese. The translation process consisted of: two independent translations into Brazilian Portuguese; unification of the translations; back-translation into English; formal assessment of semantic equivalence; application of a summary version in a convenience sample of motorcyclists; generation of a final version; and back-translation and submission to the original author, who approved this version. The Brazilian version maintained its semantic equivalence and was accepted by the convenience sample, an important characteristic for a self-completed instrument. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the questionnaire's psychometric properties in the Brazilian cultural context.

  5. Children with Autism and Attention Difficulties: A Pilot Study of the Association between Sensory, Motor, and Adaptive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mattard-Labrecque, Carolanne; Ben Amor, Leila; Couture, Mélanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study aimed to compare sensory processing, motor skills and adaptive behaviors in children with a double diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (ASD+ADHD) with children with ADHD alone and to examine the association of sensory processing and motor skills with adaptive behaviors (self-care). Method: Thirty children aged 5–14 years diagnosed with ASD+ADHD (n = 13) or ADHD (n = 17) were evaluated on their sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Analysis of covariance compared the groups on these dimensions. Correlation analyses examined the association between sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Results: Compared to children with ADHD alone, children with ASD+ADHD had poorer skills in sensory processing (p < 0.001), motor (p = 0.001) and adaptive behaviors (p < 0.001). For all children, increased autonomy in self-care was correlated with better sensory processing (p < 0.001) and motor skills (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Children with ASD+ADHD have poorer sensory processing, motor and adaptive skills than those with ADHD alone. Sensory processing and motor deficits were negatively associated with autonomy in self-care. Interventions aiming to improve sensory processing and motor skills and autonomy in self-care should become important targets for these children. PMID:23667360

  6. Cognitive Abilities, Social Adaptation, and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: Specific Cascade Effects Across Development.

    PubMed

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H

    2016-11-04

    Children's and adolescents' cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors are broadly associated with each other at the bivariate level; however, the direction, ordering, and uniqueness of these associations have yet to be identified. Developmental cascade models are particularly well-suited to (1) discern unique pathways among psychological domains and (2) model stability in and covariation among constructs, allowing for conservative tests of longitudinal associations. The current study aimed to identify specific cascade effects among children's cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors, beginning in preschool and extending through adolescence. Children (46.2 % female) and mothers (N = 351 families) provided data when children were 4, 10, and 14 years old. Cascade effects highlighted significant stability in these domains. Unique longitudinal associations were identified between (1) age-10 cognitive abilities and age-14 social adaptation, (2) age-4 social adaptation and age-10 externalizing behavior, and (3) age-10 externalizing behavior and age-14 social adaptation. These findings suggest that children's social adaptation in preschool and externalizing behavior in middle childhood may be ideal intervention targets to enhance adolescent well-being.

  7. Brief Report: Examination of Correlates of Adaptive Behavior in Children with HFASD using the BASC-2 Parent Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Christin A; Donnelly, James P; Rodgers, Jonathan D; Thomeer, Marcus L; Lopata, Christopher; Jordan, Allyson K

    2017-02-10

    This study extended the research on correlates of adaptive functioning of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2). Specifically, this study investigated the relationships between adaptive behavior and age, IQ, and ASD symptomology, in a well-characterized sample of 119 children with HFASD, ages 6-11 years. Results revealed age and IQ were not significantly correlated with adaptive ability. However, total autism symptoms [measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)], as well as ASD-social symptoms were negatively correlated with adaptive ability. Mean comparisons revealed that participants falling into the clinically-significant range of the BASC-2 Adaptive Skills Composite (ASC) displayed significantly greater levels of both overall and social ASD symptoms.

  8. Cold microgradients elicit adaptive behavior in isotropically cooled, inert populations of Oxytricha bifaria (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida).

    PubMed

    Barbanera, F; Erra, F; Ricci, N

    2000-01-01

    To complete our investigations on the oriented behavioral response of isotropically cooled, inert populations of Oxytricha bifaria to a warm thermal gradient, their physiological potentialities under cold microgradient conditions arising at 8.5 degrees C were studied. We monitored the behavior of the experimental populations, both at the level of the passing cold wave front, and afterwards when the thermal gradient stabilized, evaluating (i) their distribution in general, (ii) their relative centroids, (iii) the percentage of both backward creeping and immobile ciliates, and (iv) the numerical indices and rates of their creeping tracks. At the arrival of the cold wave front, the oxytrichas react immediately to the thermal stimulus, creep backwards at very high velocity along uninterrupted linear tracks, and thus move away from the cooling source. No specific behavioral response was ever observed in the static microgradient conditions. At 8.5 degrees C, despite their inertness, the ciliates are still able to behave adaptively, reacting immediately and orientatedly, once a directional factor (the cold-repelling thermal gradient) arises in an isotropic environment. This is similar to their behavior in the symmetric warm attracting thermal gradient.

  9. Genomic Response to Selection for Predatory Behavior in a Mammalian Model of Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Konczal, Mateusz; Koteja, Paweł; Orlowska-Feuer, Patrycja; Radwan, Jacek; Sadowska, Edyta T; Babik, Wiesław

    2016-09-01

    If genetic architectures of various quantitative traits are similar, as studies on model organisms suggest, comparable selection pressures should produce similar molecular patterns for various traits. To test this prediction, we used a laboratory model of vertebrate adaptive radiation to investigate the genetic basis of the response to selection for predatory behavior and compare it with evolution of aerobic capacity reported in an earlier work. After 13 generations of selection, the proportion of bank voles (Myodes [=Clethrionomys] glareolus) showing predatory behavior was five times higher in selected lines than in controls. We analyzed the hippocampus and liver transcriptomes and found repeatable changes in allele frequencies and gene expression. Genes with the largest differences between predatory and control lines are associated with hunger, aggression, biological rhythms, and functioning of the nervous system. Evolution of predatory behavior could be meaningfully compared with evolution of high aerobic capacity, because the experiments and analyses were performed in the same methodological framework. The number of genes that changed expression was much smaller in predatory lines, and allele frequencies changed repeatably in predatory but not in aerobic lines. This suggests that more variants of smaller effects underlie variation in aerobic performance, whereas fewer variants of larger effects underlie variation in predatory behavior. Our results thus contradict the view that comparable selection pressures for different quantitative traits produce similar molecular patterns. Therefore, to gain knowledge about molecular-level response to selection for complex traits, we need to investigate not only multiple replicate populations but also multiple quantitative traits.

  10. LABRADOR: a learning autonomous behavior-based robot for adaptive detection and object retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Brian; Moseley, Mark; Brookshire, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the TARDEC-funded CANINE (Cooperative Autonomous Navigation in a Networked Environment) Program, iRobot developed LABRADOR (Learning Autonomous Behavior-based Robot for Adaptive Detection and Object Retrieval). LABRADOR was based on the rugged, man-portable, iRobot PackBot unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with an explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) manipulator arm and a custom gripper. For LABRADOR, we developed a vision-based object learning and recognition system that combined a TLD (track-learn-detect) filter based on object shape features with a color-histogram-based object detector. Our vision system was able to learn in real-time to recognize objects presented to the robot. We also implemented a waypoint navigation system based on fused GPS, IMU (inertial measurement unit), and odometry data. We used this navigation capability to implement autonomous behaviors capable of searching a specified area using a variety of robust coverage strategies - including outward spiral, random bounce, random waypoint, and perimeter following behaviors. While the full system was not integrated in time to compete in the CANINE competition event, we developed useful perception, navigation, and behavior capabilities that may be applied to future autonomous robot systems.

  11. Model-on-Demand Predictive Control for Nonlinear Hybrid Systems With Application to Adaptive Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a data-centric modeling and predictive control approach for nonlinear hybrid systems. System identification of hybrid systems represents a challenging problem because model parameters depend on the mode or operating point of the system. The proposed algorithm applies Model-on-Demand (MoD) estimation to generate a local linear approximation of the nonlinear hybrid system at each time step, using a small subset of data selected by an adaptive bandwidth selector. The appeal of the MoD approach lies in the fact that model parameters are estimated based on a current operating point; hence estimation of locations or modes governed by autonomous discrete events is achieved automatically. The local MoD model is then converted into a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) system representation which can be used directly in a model predictive control (MPC) law for hybrid systems using multiple-degree-of-freedom tuning. The effectiveness of the proposed MoD predictive control algorithm for nonlinear hybrid systems is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive behavioral intervention problem inspired by Fast Track, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can be useful for adaptive intervention problems exhibiting both nonlinear and hybrid character. PMID:21874087

  12. A Novel Model Predictive Control Formulation for Hybrid Systems With Application to Adaptive Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel model predictive control (MPC) formulation for linear hybrid systems. The algorithm relies on a multiple-degree-of-freedom formulation that enables the user to adjust the speed of setpoint tracking, measured disturbance rejection and unmeasured disturbance rejection independently in the closed-loop system. Consequently, controller tuning is more flexible and intuitive than relying on move suppression weights as traditionally used in MPC schemes. The formulation is motivated by the need to achieve robust performance in using the algorithm in emerging applications, for instance, as a decision policy for adaptive, time-varying interventions used in behavioral health. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive intervention problem inspired by the Fast Track program, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results in the presence of simultaneous disturbances and significant plant-model mismatch are presented. These demonstrate that a hybrid MPC-based approach for this class of interventions can be tuned for desired performance under demanding conditions that resemble participant variability that is experienced in practice when applying an adaptive intervention to a population. PMID:20830213

  13. Neocortical Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine promotes rapid behavioral adaptation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Widagdo, Jocelyn; Baker-Andresen, Danay; Flavell, Charlotte R; D'Alessio, Ana; Zhang, Yi; Bredy, Timothy W

    2014-05-13

    5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a novel DNA modification that is highly enriched in the adult brain and dynamically regulated by neural activity. 5-hmC accumulates across the lifespan; however, the functional relevance of this change in 5-hmC and whether it is necessary for behavioral adaptation have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, although the ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of enzymes is known to be essential for converting methylated DNA to 5-hmC, the role of individual Tet proteins in the adult cortex remains unclear. Using 5-hmC capture together with high-throughput DNA sequencing on individual mice, we show that fear extinction, an important form of reversal learning, leads to a dramatic genome-wide redistribution of 5-hmC within the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Moreover, extinction learning-induced Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hmC is associated with the establishment of epigenetic states that promote gene expression and rapid behavioral adaptation.

  14. Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: behavioral health.

    PubMed

    Goel, Namni; Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill; Kornstein, Susan G; Leon, Gloria R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stuster, Jack W; Dinges, David F

    2014-11-01

    This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space." It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup-consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector-investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight.

  15. Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Behavioral Health

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Tracy L.; Epperson, C. Neill; Kornstein, Susan G.; Leon, Gloria R.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stuster, Jack W.; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, “The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space.” It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, “Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era,” which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup—consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector—investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

  16. Adaptive and Context-Aware Reconciliation of Reactive and Pro-active Behavior in Evolving Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajcevski, Goce; Scheuermann, Peter

    One distinct characteristics of the context-aware systems is their ability to react and adapt to the evolution of the environment, which is often a result of changes in the values of various (possibly correlated) attributes. Based on these changes, reactive systems typically take corrective actions, e.g., adjusting parameters in order to maintain the desired specifications of the system's state. Pro-active systems, on the other hand, may change the mode of interaction with the environment as well as the desired goals of the system. In this paper we describe our (ECA)2 paradigm for reactive behavior with proactive impact and we present our ongoing work and vision for a system that is capable of context-aware adaptation, while ensuring the maintenance of a set of desired behavioral policies. Our main focus is on developing a formalism that provides tools for expressing normal, as well as defeasible and/or exceptional specification. However, at the same time, we insist on a sound semantics and the capability of answering hypothetical "what-if" queries. Towards this end, we introduce the high-level language L_{ EAR} that can be used to describe the dynamics of the problem domain, specify triggers under the (ECA)2 paradigm, and reason about the consequences of the possible evolutions.

  17. Adaptation and Implementation of a Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Girls in Child Welfare.

    PubMed

    Auslander, Wendy; McGinnis, Hollee; Tlapek, Sarah; Smith, Penny; Foster, April; Edmond, Tonya; Dunn, Jerry

    2016-12-15

    This study describes the process of adapting and implementing Girls Aspiring toward Independence (GAIN), a trauma-focused, group-based therapy adapted from Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) for girls in child welfare. Descriptive data were examined on 3 outcomes: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and social problem-solving skills among adolescent girls in the child welfare system. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to inform the adaptation of the CBITS intervention, evaluate feasibility, treatment fidelity, and acceptability, and to test the effects of the intervention. Girls ages 12 to 18 (N = 27) were randomly assigned to the experimental and usual care conditions. Participants' symptoms of PTSD and depression and social problem-solving skills were evaluated at pre, post- (3 months), and follow-up (6 months) assessments. Adaptations for GAIN were primarily related to program structure. Data indicated that the program was receptive to girls in child welfare and that it was feasible to recruit, randomize, assess outcomes, and implement with adequate fidelity. Retention was more successful among younger girls. Descriptive initial data showed greater reductions in the percentage of girls with PTSD and depression, and modest increases in social problem-solving skills in the experimental versus usual care condition. Despite the growth of knowledge in dissemination and implementation research, the application of trauma-focused empirically supported treatment to child welfare populations lags behind. A large-scale RCT is needed to determine if GAIN is effective in reducing mental health problems and social problem-solving in the child welfare population. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. An analysis of the impact of auditory-nerve adaptation on behavioral measures of temporal integration in cochlear implant recipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J.; Brown, Carolyn J.; Abbas, Paul J.

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact that auditory-nerve adaptation has on behavioral measures of temporal integration in Nucleus 24 cochlear implant recipients. It was expected that, because the auditory nerve serves as the input to central temporal integrator, a large degree of auditory-nerve adaptation would reduce the amount of temporal integration. Neural adaptation was measured by tracking amplitude changes of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) in response to 1000-pps biphasic pulse trains of varying durations. Temporal integration was measured at both suprathreshold and threshold levels by an adaptive procedure. Although varying degrees of neural adaptation and temporal integration were observed across individuals, results of this investigation revealed no correlation between the degree of neural adaptation and psychophysical measures of temporal integration.

  19. An analysis of the impact of auditory-nerve adaptation on behavioral measures of temporal integration in cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J; Brown, Carolyn J; Abbas, Paul J

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact that auditory-nerve adaptation has on behavioral measures of temporal integration in Nucleus 24 cochlear implant recipients. It was expected that, because the auditory nerve serves as the input to central temporal integrator, a large degree of auditory-nerve adaptation would reduce the amount of temporal integration. Neural adaptation was measured by tracking amplitude changes of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) in response to 1000-pps biphasic pulse trains of varying durations. Temporal integration was measured at both suprathreshold and threshold levels by an adaptive procedure. Although varying degrees of neural adaptation and temporal integration were observed across individuals, results of this investigation revealed no correlation between the degree of neural adaptation and psychophysical measures of temporal integration.

  20. The contribution of children's self-regulation and classroom quality to children's adaptive behaviors in the kindergarten classroom.

    PubMed

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Curby, Tim W; Grimm, Kevin J; Nathanson, Lori; Brock, Laura L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which children's self-regulation upon kindergarten entrance and classroom quality in kindergarten contributed to children's adaptive classroom behavior. Children's self-regulation was assessed using a direct assessment upon entrance into kindergarten. Classroom quality was measured on the basis of multiple classroom observations during the kindergarten year. Children's adaptive classroom behavior in kindergarten was assessed through teacher report and classroom observations: Teachers rated children's cognitive and behavioral self-control and work habits during the spring of the kindergarten year; observers rated children's engagement and measured off-task behavior at 2-month intervals from November to May. Hierarchical linear models revealed that children's self-regulation upon school entry in a direct assessment related to teachers' report of behavioral self-control, cognitive self-control, and work habits in the spring of the kindergarten year. Classroom quality, particularly teachers' effective classroom management, was linked to children's greater behavioral and cognitive self-control, children's higher behavioral engagement, and less time spent off-task in the classroom. Classroom quality did not moderate the relation between children's self-regulation upon school entry and children's adaptive classroom behaviors in kindergarten. The discussion considers the implications of classroom management for supporting children's early development of behavioral skills that are important in school settings.

  1. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  2. The Treatment of Severe Self-Injurious Behavior by the Systematic Fading of Restraints: Effects of Self-Injury, Self-Restraint, Adaptive Behavior, and Behavioral Correlates of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott; Hales, Jackie; Watts, Derek; Murphy, Glynis

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effects of introducing flexion into a straight-arm splint, on self-injurious behavior (SIB), self-restraint, adaptive behavior, and behavioral correlates of affect for three individuals with severe mental retardation. For two individuals, SIB was reduced to zero, while overall level of restriction was also significantly…

  3. Distributed recurrent neural forward models with synaptic adaptation and CPG-based control for complex behaviors of walking robots

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like stick insects, cockroaches or ants, demonstrate a fascinating range of locomotive abilities and complex behaviors. The locomotive behaviors can consist of a variety of walking patterns along with adaptation that allow the animals to deal with changes in environmental conditions, like uneven terrains, gaps, obstacles etc. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors are a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanism thus representing the true nature of embodied interactions. While the biomechanics helps maintain flexibility and sustain a variety of movements, the neural mechanisms generate movements while making appropriate predictions crucial for achieving adaptation. Such predictions or planning ahead can be achieved by way of internal models that are grounded in the overall behavior of the animal. Inspired by these findings, we present here, an artificial bio-inspired walking system which effectively combines biomechanics (in terms of the body and leg structures) with the underlying neural mechanisms. The neural mechanisms consist of (1) central pattern generator based control for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated movements, (2) distributed (at each leg) recurrent neural network based adaptive forward models with efference copies as internal models for sensory predictions and instantaneous state estimations, and (3) searching and elevation control for adapting the movement of an individual leg to deal with different environmental conditions. Using simulations we show that this bio-inspired approach with adaptive internal models allows the walking robot to perform complex locomotive behaviors as observed in insects, including walking on undulated terrains, crossing large gaps, leg damage adaptations, as well as climbing over high obstacles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the newly developed recurrent network based approach to online forward models outperforms the adaptive neuron forward models

  4. Matched Behavioral and Neural Adaptations for Low Sound Level Echolocation in a Gleaning Bat, Antrozous pallidus

    PubMed Central

    Measor, Kevin R.; Leavell, Brian C.; Brewton, Dustin H.; Rumschlag, Jeffrey; Barber, Jesse R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In active sensing, animals make motor adjustments to match sensory inputs to specialized neural circuitry. Here, we describe an active sensing system for sound level processing. The pallid bat uses downward frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps as echolocation calls for general orientation and obstacle avoidance. The bat’s auditory cortex contains a region selective for these FM sweeps (FM sweep-selective region, FMSR). We show that the vast majority of FMSR neurons are sensitive and strongly selective for relatively low levels (30-60 dB SPL). Behavioral testing shows that when a flying bat approaches a target, it reduces output call levels to keep echo levels between ∼30 and 55 dB SPL. Thus, the pallid bat behaviorally matches echo levels to an optimized neural representation of sound levels. FMSR neurons are more selective for sound levels of FM sweeps than tones, suggesting that across-frequency integration enhances level tuning. Level-dependent timing of high-frequency sideband inhibition in the receptive field shapes increased level selectivity for FM sweeps. Together with previous studies, these data indicate that the same receptive field properties shape multiple filters (sweep direction, rate, and level) for FM sweeps, a sound common in multiple vocalizations, including human speech. The matched behavioral and neural adaptations for low-intensity echolocation in the pallid bat will facilitate foraging with reduced probability of acoustic detection by prey. PMID:28275715

  5. Cultural adaptation of an intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors among patients attending a STI clinic in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Grau, Lauretta E; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Kozlov, Andrei P; Abdala, Nadia

    2013-08-01

    Cultural adaptation is an important step in the process of implementing health promotion interventions that, having been proven to be effective in one culture, are being applied in another. This study describes the results of a formative investigation to culturally adapt a STI/HIV risk reduction intervention for use in St. Petersburg, Russia. Analyses of data from brief elicitation interviews, focus groups, community experts, and a pilot test of the adapted intervention identified environmental, cognitive-information processing, and affect-motivation factors that needed to be addressed during the adaptation process. The participant/counselor relationship was adapted to reflect a hierarchical (cf. collaborative) relationship in order to accommodate Russian expectations about patient interactions with healthcare experts. Key skills building activities (e.g., identification of personal risk behaviors, role-playing) were approached gradually or indirectly in order to maintain participants' engagement in the intervention, and close-ended questions were added to assist participants in understanding unfamiliar concepts such as "triggers" and self-efficacy. Information about the prevalence of HIV/STI infections and alcohol use included data specific to St. Petersburg to increase the personal relevance of these materials and messages. Intervention components were tailored to participants' risk reduction and informational needs. No gender differences that would have justified adaptation of the intervention approach or content were noted. Examples of specific adaptations and the key issues to attend to when adapting behavioral interventions for use in Russian clinical settings are discussed.

  6. Behavioral buffering of global warming in a cold-adapted lizard.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Zaida; Mencía, Abraham; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-07-01

    Alpine lizards living in restricted areas might be particularly sensitive to climate change. We studied thermal biology of Iberolacerta cyreni in high mountains of central Spain. Our results suggest that I. cyreni is a cold-adapted thermal specialist and an effective thermoregulator. Among ectotherms, thermal specialists are more threatened by global warming than generalists. Alpine lizards have no chance to disperse to new suitable habitats. In addition, physiological plasticity is unlikely to keep pace with the expected rates of environmental warming. Thus, lizards might rely on their behavior in order to deal with ongoing climate warming. Plasticity of thermoregulatory behavior has been proposed to buffer the rise of environmental temperatures. Therefore, we studied the change in body and environmental temperatures, as well as their relationships, for I. cyreni between the 1980s and 2012. Air temperatures have increased more than 3.5°C and substrate temperatures have increased by 6°C in the habitat of I. cyreni over the last 25 years. However, body temperatures of lizards have increased less than 2°C in the same period, and the linear relationship between body and environmental temperatures remains similar. These results show that alpine lizards are buffering the potential impact of the increase in their environmental temperatures, most probably by means of their behavior. Body temperatures of I. cyreni are still cold enough to avoid any drop in fitness. Nonetheless, if warming continues, behavioral buffering might eventually become useless, as it would imply spending too much time in shelter, losing feeding, and mating opportunities. Eventually, if body temperature exceeds the thermal optimum in the near future, fitness would decrease abruptly.

  7. Adaptation and implementation of cognitive behavioral intervention for trauma in schools with American Indian youth.

    PubMed

    Goodkind, Jessica R; Lanoue, Marianna D; Milford, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    American Indian adolescents experience higher rates of suicide and psychological distress than the overall U.S. adolescent population, and research suggests that these disparities are related to higher rates of violence and trauma exposure. Despite elevated risk, there is limited empirical information to guide culturally appropriate treatment of trauma and related symptoms. We report a pilot study of an adaptation to the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools in a sample of 24 American Indian adolescents. Participants experienced significant decreases in anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and avoidant coping strategies, as well as a marginally significant decrease in depression symptoms. Improvements in anxiety and depression were maintained 6 months postintervention; improvements in posttraumatic stress disorder and avoidant coping strategies were not.

  8. Adaptation and Implementation of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools with American Indian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; LaNoue, Marianna D.; Milford, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents experience higher rates of suicide and psychological distress than the overall U.S. adolescent population, and research suggests that these disparities are related to higher rates of violence and trauma exposure. Despite elevated risk, there is limited empirical information to guide culturally appropriate treatment of trauma and related symptoms. We report a pilot study of an adaptation to the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools in a sample of 24 AI adolescents. Participants experienced significant decreases in anxiety and PTSD symptoms, and avoidant coping strategies, as well as a marginally significant decrease in depression symptoms. Improvements in anxiety and depression were maintained 6 months post-intervention; improvements in PTSD and avoidant coping strategies were not. Feasibility, appropriateness, and acceptability of CBITS are discussed in the context of efforts to develop culturally sensitive interventions for AI youth. PMID:21058132

  9. Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed

  10. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of

  11. Adaptive pattern of nectar volume within inflorescences: bumblebee foraging behavior and pollinator-mediated natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhigang; Lu, Ningna; Conner, Jeffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    Larger floral displays increase pollinator visitation as well as among-flower self-pollination (geitonogamy) in self-compatible species. Dichogamy (temporal separation of gender expression) can limit geitonogamy and increase outcrossing but this depends on pollinator behavior within inflorescences. Declining nectar volume from lower to upper flowers is a hypothesized adaptation to increase outcrossing and pollen export by encouraging the upward movment of pollinators from female to male flowers and by reducing the number of flowers probed per inflorescence, but supporting evidence has been equivocal. We tested this hypothesis in Aconitum gymnandrum by studying floral display and rewards, pollinator visitation, and pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits. We found that larger inflorescences of A. gymnandrum attracted more pollinators, but did not increase the number of flowers probed per visit. Nectar production declined with increasing flower height on average, but the opposite pattern was also common. Bumblebees responded strongly to the nectar pattern, moving from higher to lower nectar concentration. Finally, there was significant pollinator-mediated direct selection for this pattern of declining nectar volume after correcting for correlations with flower size, number, and mean nectar volume. Together, the results strongly suggest that declining nectar production in higher flowers is an adaptation to enhance outcrossing in A. gymnandrum. PMID:27687244

  12. Antenatal Glucocorticoid Treatment Induces Adaptations in Adult Midbrain Dopamine Neurons, which Underpin Sexually Dimorphic Behavioral Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Virdee, Kanwar; McArthur, Simon; Brischoux, Frédéric; Caprioli, Daniele; Ungless, Mark A; Robbins, Trevor W; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Gillies, Glenda E

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that antenatal glucocorticoid treatment (AGT, gestational days 16–19) altered the size and organization of the adult rat midbrain dopaminergic (DA) populations. Here we investigated the consequences of these AGT-induced cytoarchitectural disturbances on indices of DA function in adult rats. We show that in adulthood, enrichment of striatal DA fiber density paralleled AGT-induced increases in the numbers of midbrain DA neurons, which retained normal basal electrophysiological properties. This was co-incident with changes in (i) striatal D2-type receptor levels (increased, both sexes); (ii) D1-type receptor levels (males decreased; females increased); (iii) DA transporter levels (males increased; females decreased) in striatal regions; and (iv) amphetamine-induced mesolimbic DA release (males increased; females decreased). However, despite these profound, sexually dimorphic changes in markers of DA neurotransmission, in-utero glucocorticoid overexposure had a modest or no effect on a range of conditioned and unconditioned appetitive behaviors known to depend on mesolimbic DA activity. These findings provide empirical evidence for enduring AGT-induced adaptive mechanisms within the midbrain DA circuitry, which preserve some, but not all, functions, thereby casting further light on the vulnerability of these systems to environmental perturbations. Furthermore, they demonstrate these effects are achieved by different, often opponent, adaptive mechanisms in males and females, with translational implications for sex biases commonly found in midbrain DA-associated disorders. PMID:23929547

  13. Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context.

    PubMed

    Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Försterling, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent behaviour. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more emotional intelligence than maladaptive emotions which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behaviour. We hypothesize that semantically similar emotions (e.g. annoyance and rage) lead to different behavioural reactions and have a different functionality in an organizational context. The results of scenario experiments using organizational vignettes confirm the central assumptions of Ellis' appraisal theory and support our hypotheses of a correspondence between adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behaviour. Additionally, we find evidence that irrational job-related attitudes result in reduced work (but not life) satisfaction.

  14. Cognitive Adaptations for n-person Exchange: The Evolutionary Roots of Organizational Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda; Price, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations are composed of stable, predominantly cooperative interactions or n-person exchanges. Humans have been engaging in n-person exchanges for a great enough period of evolutionary time that we appear to have evolved a distinct constellation of species-typical mechanisms specialized to solve the adaptive problems posed by this form of social interaction. These mechanisms appear to have been evolutionarily elaborated out of the cognitive infrastructure that initially evolved for dyadic exchange. Key adaptive problems that these mechanisms are designed to solve include coordination among individuals, and defense against exploitation by free riders. Multi-individual cooperation could not have been maintained over evolutionary time if free riders reliably benefited more than contributors to collective enterprises, and so outcompeted them. As a result, humans evolved mechanisms that implement an aversion to exploitation by free riding, and a strategy of conditional cooperation, supplemented by punitive sentiment towards free riders. Because of the design of these mechanisms, how free riding is treated is a central determinant of the survival and health of cooperative organizations. The mapping of the evolved psychology of n-party exchange cooperation may contribute to the construction of a principled theoretical foundation for the understanding of human behavior in organizations. PMID:23814325

  15. Sex-based differences in the adaptive value of social behavior contrasted against morphology and environment.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, E; Festa-Bianchet, M; Réale, D; Coltman, D W; Pelletier, F

    2015-03-01

    The adaptive nature of sociality has long been a central question in ecology and evolution. However, the relative importance of social behavior for fitness, compared to morphology and environment, remains largely unknown. We assessed the importance of sociality for fitness (lamb production and survival) in a population of mark6d bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) over 16 years (n = 1022 sheep-years). We constructed social networks from observations (n = 38,350) of group membership (n = 3150 groups). We then tested whether consistent individual differences in social behavior (centrality) exist and evaluated their relative importance compared to factors known to affect fitness: mass, age, parental effects, and population density. Sheep exhibited consistent individual differences in social centrality. Controlling for maternal carryover effects and age, the positive effect of centrality in a social network on adult female lamb production and survival was equal or greater than the effect of body mass or population density. Social centrality had less effect on male survival and no effect on adult male lamb production or lamb survival. Through its effect on lamb production and survival, sociality in fission-fusion animal societies may ultimately influence population dynamics equally or more than morphological or environmental effects.

  16. Frontostriatal and behavioral adaptations to daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Burger, Kyle S

    2017-03-01

    Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response.Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli.Design: We performed an experiment with 20 healthy-weight individuals who were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 sugar-sweetened beverages daily for 21 d, underwent 2 functional MRI sessions, and completed behavioral and explicit hedonic assessments.Results: Consistent with preclinical experiments, daily beverage consumption resulted in decreases in dorsal striatal response during receipt of the consumed beverage (r = -0.46) and decreased ventromedial prefrontal response during logo-elicited anticipation (r = -0.44). This decrease in the prefrontal response correlated with increases in behavioral disinhibition toward the logo of the consumed beverage (r = 0.54; P = 0.02). Daily beverage consumption also increased precuneus response to both juice logos compared with a tasteless control (r = 0.45), suggesting a more generalized effect toward beverage cues. Last, the repeated consumption of 1 beverage resulted in an explicit hedonic devaluation of a similar nonconsumed beverage (P < 0.001).Conclusions: Analogous to previous reports, these initial results provide convergent data for a role of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake in altering neurobehavioral responses to the regularly consumed beverage that may also extend to other beverage stimuli. Future research is required to provide evidence of replication in a larger sample and to establish whether the neurobehavioral adaptations observed herein are

  17. [Abnormal behavior and adaptation problems in dogs and cats and their pharmacologic control].

    PubMed

    Jöchle, W

    1998-11-01

    Small animal practitioners are increasingly confronted with patients showing adaptation related problems (ARP) which are expressed as disturbed or abnormal behavior (DAB). As a result, practitioners are asked increasingly to euthanize animals which seemingly cannot be socialized. In healthy dogs and cats, three main causes for DAB can be detected: refusal of obedience because of the drive for dominance; anxiety and frustration; and geriatric DAB. Increasingly, disease conditions not readily diagnosed can cause DAB, especially hypothyroidism. Influencing and contributing factors to DAB are breed, sex, experiences as a puppy, behavior of owners, changes in the pet's environment. ARPs may also cause disturbances in the condition of skin and fur, e.g. atopic dermatitis, pruritus sine materia, lick granuloma, and of the intestinal organs (vomiting, irritated bowel syndrome) and may result in an immune deficiency. Therapeutic approaches include behavioral therapy, surgical or hormonal castration with progestins or antiandrogens, substitution with thyroxin in cases with hypothyroidism, and/or the use of psychopharmaca, most prominently of modern antidepressiva like amitriptyline; buspirone; clomipramine and fluoxetine, but also of selegiline, a mono-aminoxydase inhibitor. These compounds, among other effects, are elevating prolactin levels. This seems to allow to formulate a working hypothesis: in the canine species, prolactin is obviously a hormone enabling socialization; hence all drugs which safely cause an increase in prolactin production might be suitable to manage or control ARPs and DAB in the dog, but also in the cat. Higher levels of prolactin than those required for socialization, as seen in nursing bitches or some clinically overt cases of pseudopregnancy, may cause maternal aggression and can be controlled with prolactin inhibitors, if needed.

  18. Validation of the Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II) using a panel research design.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Libby O; Wang, Chang-Hwai

    2006-11-01

    To examine the utility of a self-report scale of sexual assault trauma, 223 female victims were interviewed with the 43-item Sexual Assault Symptom Scale II (SASS II) at 1, 3, 7, 11, and 15 months postassault. Factor analyses using principal-components extraction with an oblimin rotation yielded 7 common factors with 31 items. The internal consistency was high for 4 factors and moderate for 2 factors. The multitrait-multimethod matrix, correlating the factor subscale scores of self-reported trauma and clinical assessment ratings, demonstrated both convergent and discriminant validity, indicating that the SASS II has construct validity. Correlations between the SASS II subscales and the intrusion subscale of the Impact of Events Scale also indicated the convergent and discriminant validity of the SASS II. Significant positive correlations between current and prior trauma levels further evidence the validity of the SASS.

  19. A Review: Development of a Microdose Model for Analysis of Adaptive Response and Bystander Dose Response Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Bobby E.

    2008-01-01

    Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type 125I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite

  20. Two Children with Multiple Disabilities Increase Adaptive Object Manipulation and Reduce Inappropriate Behavior via a Technology-Assisted Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Persons with severe to profound multiple disabilities, such as intellectual, visual, and motor disabilities, may be characterized by low levels of adaptive engagement with the environment. They may also display forms of inappropriate, stereotypical behavior (like hand mouthing, that is, putting their fingers into or over their mouths) or…

  1. The Contribution of Children's Self-Regulation and Classroom Quality to Children's Adaptive Behaviors in the Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Curby, Tim W.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Brock, Laura L.; Nathanson, Lori

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which children's self-regulation upon kindergarten entrance and classroom quality in kindergarten contributed to children's adaptive classroom behavior. Children's self-regulation was assessed using a direct assessment upon entrance into kindergarten. Classroom quality was measured on the basis of…

  2. Two Boys with Multiple Disabilities Increasing Adaptive Responding and Curbing Dystonic/Spastic Behavior via a Microswitch-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Adaptive Success of Nurses Caring for People with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerits, Linda; Derksen, Jan J. L.; Verbruggen, Antoine B.

    2004-01-01

    The emotional intelligence profiles, gender differences, and adaptive success of 380 Dutch nurses caring for people with mental retardation and accompanying severe behavior problems are reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Utrecht-Coping List, Utrecht-Burnout Scale, MMPI-2, and GAMA. Absence due to illness…

  4. An Overview of Intervention Options for Promoting Adaptive Behavior of Persons with Acquired Brain Injury and Minimally Conscious State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bosco, Andrea; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the studies directed at helping post-coma persons with minimally conscious state improve their adaptive behavior. Twenty-one studies were identified for the 2000-2010 period (i.e., a period in which an intense debate has occurred about diagnostic, rehabilitative, prognostic, and ethical issues concerning people…

  5. Adapting Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children with Down Syndrome Based on the Behavioral Phenotype: A Promising Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Christopher J.; King, Seth A.; Davidson, Kimberly A.; Puranik, Cynthia S.; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down…

  6. The Relationship between Parent Report of Adaptive Behavior and Direct Assessment of Reading Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli. Joanne; Stevens, Kirsten; Trembath, David; Simpson, Ian Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to shed light on the profile of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A key aim was to examine the relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in these children. Method: The authors investigated children's reading ability using the Wide…

  7. The roles of life-history selection and sexual selection in the adaptive evolution of mating behavior in a beetle.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Cayetano, Luis; Brooks, Robert C; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2010-05-01

    Although there is continuing debate about whether sexual selection promotes or impedes adaptation to novel environments, the role of mating behavior in such adaptation remains largely unexplored. We investigated the evolution of mating behavior (latency to mating, mating probability and duration) in replicate populations of seed beetles Callosobruchus maculatus subjected to selection on life-history ("Young" vs. "Old" reproduction) under contrasting regimes of sexual selection ("Monogamy" vs. "Polygamy"). Life-history selection is predicted to favor delayed mating in "Old" females, but sexual conflict under polygamy can potentially retard adaptive life-history evolution. We found that life-history selection yielded the predicted changes in mating behavior, but sexual selection regime had no net effect. In within-line crosses, populations selected for late reproduction showed equally reduced early-life mating probability regardless of mating system. In between-line crosses, however, the effect of life-history selection on early-life mating probability was stronger in polygamous lines than in monogamous ones. Thus, although mating system influenced male-female coevolution, removal of sexual selection did not affect the adaptive evolution of mating behavior. Importantly, our study shows that the interaction between sexual selection and life-history selection can result in either increased or decreased reproductive divergence depending on the ecological context.

  8. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  9. Promoting Adaptive Behavior in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury, Extensive Motor and Communication Disabilities, and Consciousness Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…

  10. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  11. Adaptive evolution of a derived radius morphology in manakins (Aves, Pipridae) to support acrobatic display behavior.

    PubMed

    Friscia, Anthony; Sanin, Gloria D; Lindsay, Willow R; Day, Lainy B; Schlinger, Barney A; Tan, Josh; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The morphology of the avian skeleton is often studied in the context of adaptations for powered flight. The effects of other evolutionary forces, such as sexual selection, on avian skeletal design are unclear, even though birds produce diverse behaviors that undoubtedly require a variety of osteological modifications. Here, we investigate this issue in a family of passerine birds called manakins (Pipridae), which have evolved physically unusual and elaborate courtship displays. We report that, in species within the genus Manacus, the shaft of the radius is heavily flattened and shows substantial solidification. Past work anecdotally notes this morphology and attributes it to the species' ability to hit their wings together above their heads to produce loud mechanical sonations. Our results show that this feature is unique to Manacus compared to the other species in our study, including a variety of taxa that produce other sonations through alternate wing mechanisms. At the same time, our data reveal striking similarities across species in total radius volume and solidification. Together, this suggests that supposedly adaptive alterations in radial morphology occur within a conserved framework of a set radius volume and solidness, which in turn is likely determined by natural selection. Further allometric analyses imply that the radius is less constrained by body size and the structural demands that underlie powered flight, compared to other forelimb bones that are mostly unmodified across taxa. These results are consistent with the idea that the radius is more susceptible to selective modification by sexual selection. Overall, this study provides some of the first insight into the osteological evolution of passerine birds, as well as the way in which opposing selective forces can shape skeletal design in these species. J. Morphol. 277:766-775, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of risperidone and parent training on adaptive functioning in children with pervasive developmental disorders and serious behavioral problems

    PubMed Central

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Ritz, Louise; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patrcia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have deficits in social interaction, delayed communication and repetitive behavior as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show decline in adaptive skills compared to age mates over time. Method This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial randomized 124 children (4 through 13 years of age) with PDDs and serious behavior problems to medication alone (MED; N=49; risperidone 0.5 to 3.5 mg/day (if ineffective, switch to aripiprazole was permitted) or medication plus parent training (PT) (COMB; N=75). Parents of children in COMB received an average of 11.4 PT sessions. Standard scores and Age Equivalent scores on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were the outcome measures of primary interest. Results Seventeen subjects did not have a post-randomization Vineland. Thus, we used a mixed model with outcome conditioned on the baseline Vineland scores. Both groups showed improvement over the 24-week trial on all Vineland domains. Compared to MED, Vineland Socialization and Adaptive Composite Standard scores showed greater improvement in the COMB group (p = 0.01 and 0.05; effect sizes = 0.35.and 0.22, respectively). On Age Equivalent scores, Socialization and Communication domains showed greater improvement in COMB versus MED (p=0.03, 0.05; effect sizes = 0.33 and 0.14 respectively). Using logistic regression, children in the COMB group were twice as likely to make at least 6 months gain (equal to the passage of time) in the Vineland Communication Age Equivalent score compared to MED (p = 0.02). After controlling for IQ, this difference was no longer significant. Conclusion Reduction of serious maladaptive behavior promotes improvement in adaptive behavior. Medication plus PT shows modest additional benefit over medication alone. PMID:22265360

  13. Stress or no stress: mineralocorticoid receptors in the forebrain regulate behavioral adaptation.

    PubMed

    ter Horst, J P; van der Mark, M H; Arp, M; Berger, S; de Kloet, E R; Oitzl, M S

    2012-07-01

    Corticosteroid effects on cognitive abilities during behavioral adaptation to stress are mediated by two types of receptors. While the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is mainly involved in the consolidation of memory, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mediates appraisal and initial responses to novelty. Recent findings in humans and mice suggest that under stress, the MR might be involved in the use of different learning strategies. Here, we used male mice lacking the MR in the forebrain (MR(CaMKCre)), which were subjected to 5-10 min acute restraint stress, followed 30 min later by training trials on the circular hole board. Mice had to locate an exit hole using extra- and intra-maze cues. We assessed performance and the use of spatial and stimulus-response strategies. Non-stressed MR(CaMKCre) mice showed delayed learning as compared to control littermates. Prior stress impaired performance in controls, but did not further deteriorate learning in MR(CaMKCre) mice. When stressed, 20-30% of both MR(CaMKCre) and control mice switched from a spatial to a stimulus-response strategy, which rescued performance in MR(CaMKCre) mice. Furthermore, MR(CaMKCre) mice showed increased GR mRNA expression in all CA areas of the hippocampus and an altered basal and stress-induced corticosterone secretion, which supports their role in the modulation of neuroendocrine activity. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for the critical role of MR in the fast formation of spatial memory. In the absence of forebrain MR spatial learning performance was under basal circumstances impaired, while after stress further deterioration of performance was rescued by switching behavior increasingly to a stimulus-response strategy.

  14. Some psychophysiological and behavioral aspects of adaptation to simulated autonomous Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gushin, V.; Shved, D.; Vinokhodova, A.; Vasylieva, G.; Nitchiporuk, I.; Ehmann, B.; Balazs, L.

    2012-01-01

    “Mars-105” experiment was executed in March-July 2009 in Moscow, at the Institute for Bio-Medical Problems (IBMP) with participation of European Space Agency (ESA) to simulate some specific conditions of future piloted Mars mission. In the last 35 days of isolation, in order to simulate autonomous flight conditions, some serious restrictions were established for the crew resupply and communication with Mission Control (MC). The objective of the study was to investigate psychophysiological and behavioral aspects (communication) of adaptation during this period of “high autonomy”. We used computerized analysis of the crew written daily reports to calculate the frequencies of utilization of certain semantic units, expressing different psychological functions. To estimate the level of psycho-physiological stress, we measured the concentration of urinal cortisol once in two weeks. To investigate psycho-emotional state, we used the questionnaire SAN, estimating Mood, Activity and Health once in two weeks.During the simulation of autonomous flight, we found out the different tendencies of communicative behavior. One group of subjects demonstrated the tendency to “activation and self-government” under “high autonomy” conditions. The other subjects continued to use communicative strategy that we called “closing the communication channel”. “Active” communication strategy was accompanied by increasing in subjective scores of mood and activity. The subjects, whose communication strategy was attributed as “closing”, demonstrated the considerably lower subjective scores of mood and activity. Period of high autonomy causes specific changes in communication strategies of the isolated crew.

  15. Adaptive Behavior in Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: Microanalysis of Scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Miles, Stephanie; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred; Coflin, Megan; Booker, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a microanalysis of differences in adaptive functioning seen between well-matched groups of school-aged children with autism and those diagnosed as having Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, all of whom functioned in the mild to moderate range of intellectual impairment. Findings…

  16. Highly Dynamic and Adaptive Traffic Congestion Avoidance in Real-Time Inspired by Honey Bee Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedde, Horst F.; Lehnhoff, Sebastian; van Bonn, Bernhard; Bay, Z.; Becker, S.; Böttcher, S.; Brunner, C.; Büscher, A.; Fürst, T.; Lazarescu, A. M.; Rotaru, E.; Senge, S.; Steinbach, B.; Yilmaz, F.; Zimmermann, T.

    Traffic congestions have become a major problem in metropolitan areas world-wide, within and between cities, to an extent where they make driving and transportation times largely unpredictable. Due to the highly dynamic character of congestion building and dissolving this phenomenon appears even to resist a formal treatment. Static approaches, and even more their global management, have proven counterproductive in practice. Given the latest progress in VANET technology and the remarkable commercially driven efforts like in the European C2C consortium, or the VSC Project in the US, allow meanwhile to tackle various aspects of traffic regulation through VANET communication. In this paper we introduce a novel, completely decentralized multi-agent routing algorithm (termed BeeJamA) which we have derived from the foraging behavior of honey bees. It is highly dynamic, adaptive, robust, and scalable, and it allows for both avoiding congestions, and minimizing traveling times to individual destinations. Vehicle guidance is provided well ahead of every intersection, depending on the individual speeds. Thus strict deadlines are imposed on, and respected by, the BeeJamA algorithm. We report on extensive simulation experiments which show the superior performance of BeeJamA over conventional approaches.

  17. Learning from experience: Event-related potential correlates of reward processing, neural adaptation, and behavioral choice

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Matthew M.; Anderson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    To behave adaptively, we must learn from the consequences of our actions. Studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have been informative with respect to the question of how such learning occurs. These studies have revealed a frontocentral negativity termed the feedback-related negativity (FRN) that appears after negative feedback. According to one prominent theory, the FRN tracks the difference between the values of actual and expected outcomes, or reward prediction errors. As such, the FRN provides a tool for studying reward valuation and decision making. We begin this review by examining the neural significance of the FRN. We then examine its functional significance. To understand the cognitive processes that occur when the FRN is generated, we explore variables that influence its appearance and amplitude. Specifically, we evaluate four hypotheses: (1) the FRN encodes a quantitative reward prediction error; (2) the FRN is evoked by outcomes and by stimuli that predict outcomes; (3) the FRN and behavior change with experience; and (4) the system that produces the FRN is maximally engaged by volitional actions. PMID:22683741

  18. Behavioral adaptation of young and older drivers to an intersection crossing advisory system.

    PubMed

    Dotzauer, Mandy; de Waard, Dick; Caljouw, Simone R; Pöhler, Gloria; Brouwer, Wiebo H

    2015-01-01

    An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) provided information about the right of way regulation and safety to cross an upcoming intersection. Effects were studied in a longer-term study involving 18 healthy older drivers between the ages of 65 and 82 years and 18 healthy young drivers between the ages of 20 and 25 years. Participants repeatedly drove 25 km city routes in eight sessions on separate days over a period of two months in a driving simulator. In each age group, participants were randomly assigned to the control (no ADAS) and treatment (ADAS) group. The control group completed the whole experiment without the ADAS. The treatment group drove two sessions without (sessions 1 and 7) and six times with ADAS. Results indicate effects of ADAS on driving safety for young and older drivers, as intersection time and percentage of stops decreased, speed and critical intersection crossings increased, the number of crashes was lower for treatment groups than for control groups. The implications of results are discussed in terms of behavioral adaptation and safety.

  19. Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent/Primary Caregiver Form: Ages 0-5--Its Factor Structure and Other Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

    2011-01-01

    A child's acquisition of adaptive behavior and skills may constitute his or her most important goal during infancy and early childhood. In addition, adaptive behavior data often are required when making decisions under Part C of the 2004 Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act. This study reports the results of a factor analysis of…

  20. A Comparative Study of the Preliminary Effects in the Levels of Adaptive Behaviors: Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-sook; Yeo, Moon-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preliminary intervention effects of the adaptive behavior on the autism intervention program known as the Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA). The adaptive behavior scores of two groups of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were compared, with one group…

  1. Factorial and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of the Adaptive Behavior Scales (Part I & II) in a Population of Older People (50 Years +) with Severe Intellectual Impairment (Mental Handicap).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, S. C.; Hogg, J.

    1990-01-01

    Principal components analysis was employed on the Adaptive Behavior Scales with scores of 122 older (mean age 63.5) individuals with severe intellectual impairment living in England. The study found the structure of adaptive skills and interpersonal maladaptive behaviors similar to that found for younger retarded adults. Two factors, personal…

  2. Adaptive Optics with a Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon Spatial Light Modulator and Its Behavior in Retinal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Tomohiro; Takeno, Kohei; Arimoto, Hidenobu; Furukawa, Hiromitsu

    2009-07-01

    An adaptive optics system with a brand-new device of a liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator (SLM) and its behavior in in vivo imaging of the human retina are described. We confirmed by experiments that closed-loop correction of ocular aberrations of the subject's eye was successfully achieved at the rate of 16.7 Hz in our system to obtain a clear retinal image in real time. The result suggests that an LCOS SLM is one of the promising candidates for a wavefront corrector in a prospective commercial ophthalmic instrument with adaptive optics.

  3. How do people's perceptions and climatic disaster experiences influence their daily behaviors regarding adaptation to climate change? - A case study among young generations.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ying; Wang, Ming; Yousefpour, Rasoul

    2017-03-01

    Adaptation is a commonly applied strategy used to address individual behavior changes, in response to climate change. However, in-depth, evidence-based investigations of the relationships among individual perceptions, climatic disaster experiences, and daily behaviors regarding adaptation to climate change remain to be conducted. We obtained survey data from 488 respondents in southwestern China, a region prone to frequent and severe droughts, to assess factors that influence adaptive behaviors and to identify their pathways. We applied Construal Level Theory (CLT) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to differentiate between respondents' high-level abstract construals and their low-level concrete construals. We analyzed the influences of these two levels of perception, combined with drought experiences on water-saving behaviors. We developed a structural equation model to estimate the correlation coefficients of the latent and observed variables in the structural process linked to the respondents' adaptive behaviors. The results found that a concrete perception of saving water plays a more significant part than an abstract perception of climate change in prompting specific adaptive behaviors. Improving public perceptions of climate change might increase the desirability of adaptation, whereas improving perceptions of water saving might increase the feasibility of implementing adaptive measures. Experience influenced individual behaviors, but that influence was indirect through its effects on perceptions.

  4. Morphological adaptation of the skull for various behaviors in the tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hideki; Hikida, Tsutomu; Motokawa, Masaharu; Chou, Loke Ming; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Stafford, Brian J

    2003-08-01

    Skull size and shape were examined among 14 species of the tree shrews (Tupaia montana, T. picta, T. splendidula, T. mulleri, T. longipes, T. glis, T. javanica, T. minor, T. gracilis, T. dorsalis, T. tana, Dendrogale melanura, D. murina, and Ptilocercus lowii). The bones of face were rostro-caudally longer in T. tana and T. dorsalis, contrasting with T. minor and T. gracilis, D. melanura, D. murina and P. lowii which have smaller facial length ratios. The arbo-terrestrial species (T. longipes and T. glis) were similar to terrestrial species in length ratios of bones of face unlike the other arbo-terrestrial species (T. montana, T. picta, T. splendidula, and T. mulleri). We propose that T. longipes and T. glis have adapted to foraging for termites and ants as have T. tana and T. dorsalis. Additionally small body size in T. javanica may be the result of being isolated in Java. We separated the species into 5 groups from the measurment values of skulls: 1) Terrestrial species; T. tana and T. dorsalis, 2) Arboreal species; T. minor and T. gracilis, 3) Arbo-terrestrial species group 1: T. montana, T. splendidula, T. picta and T. mulleri, and T. javanica, 4) Arbo-terrestrial species group 2: T. glis and T. longipes, 5) Arboreal species of Dendrogale and Ptilocercus. Principal component analysis separated species into 8 clusters as follows: 1) T. tana, 2) T. dorsalis, 3) T. montana, T. splendidula, T. picta and T. mulleri, 4) T. glis and T. longipes, 5) T. javanica, 6) T. minor and T. gracilis, 7) D. melanura and D. murina, and 8) P. lowii. We suggest that these clusters correspond to behavioral strategies and peculiarities observed in foraging, feeding and locomotion in each species.

  5. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior.

    PubMed

    Fox-Rabinovich, German S; Yamamoto, Kenji; Beake, Ben D; Gershman, Iosif S; Kovalev, Anatoly I; Veldhuis, Stephen C; Aguirre, Myriam H; Dosbaeva, Goulnara; Endrino, Jose L

    2012-08-01

    Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a) nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b) an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation) with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality and high wear

  6. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fox-Rabinovich, German S; Yamamoto, Kenji; Beake, Ben D; Gershman, Iosif S; Kovalev, Anatoly I; Veldhuis, Stephen C; Aguirre, Myriam H.; Dosbaeva, Goulnara; Endrino, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a) nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b) an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation) with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality and high wear

  7. Promoting Classroom Learning for Head Start Children: The Importance of Identifying Early Behavior Problems and Fostering Adaptive Learning Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalon, Ximena Dominguez; Shearer, Rebecca Bulotsky; Greenfield, Daryl; Manrique, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    In partnership with a local Head Start program in the southeastern United States, this study sought to: (a) examine the influence of problem behaviors on preschool language and literacy and mathematics achievement and (b) identify mechanisms that explain why children with behavior problems have difficulty learning in the preschool classroom.…

  8. Adapting Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children With Down Syndrome Based on the Behavioral Phenotype: A Promising Approach?

    PubMed

    Lemons, Christopher J; King, Seth A; Davidson, Kimberly A; Puranik, Cynthia S; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J

    2015-08-01

    Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down syndrome would increase children's learning of phonological awareness, letter sounds, and words. Five children with Down syndrome, ages 6 to 8 years, participated in a multiple baseline across participants single case design experiment in which response to an adapted phonological awareness intervention was compared with response to the nonadapted program. Results indicate a functional relation between the adapted program and phonological awareness. Suggestions for future research and implications for practice are provided.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability testing of Polish adaptation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS)

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Łoboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Jaarsma, Tiny; Łoboz-Grudzień, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of simple instruments for determination of self-care levels in heart failure (HF) patients is a subject of ongoing research. One such instrument, gaining growing popularity worldwide, is the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS). The aim of this study was to adapt and to test reliability of the Polish version of EHFScBS. Method A standard guideline was used for translation and cultural adaptation of the English version of EHFScBS into Polish. The study included 100 Polish HF patients aged between 24 and 91 years, among them 67 men and 33 women. Cronbach’s alpha was used for analysis of the internal consistency of EHFScBS. Results Mean total self-care score in the study group was 34.2±8.1 points. Good or satisfactory level of self-care were documented in four out of 12 analyzed EHFScBS domains. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire questionnaire was 0.64. The value of Cronbach’s alpha after deletion of specific items ranged from 0.55 to 0.65. Conclusion Polish HF patients present significant deficits of self-care, which are to a large extent associated with inefficacy of the public health care system. Apart from cultural characteristics, the socioeconomic context of the target population should be considered during language adaptation of EHFScBS, as well as during interpretation of data obtained with this instrument. A number of self-care–related behaviors may be optimized as a result of appropriate educational activities, also those offered by nursing personnel. PMID:25382973

  10. Mexican American women's perspectives on a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help program for binge eating.

    PubMed

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary M; Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Wang, Sherry; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) among Latinas is comparable to those of the general population; however, few interventions and treatment trial research have focused on this group. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for binge eating related disorders. CBT-based guided self-help (CBTgsh)-a low-cost minimal intervention-has also been shown effective in improving binge eating related symptom, but the effectiveness of the CBTgsh among ethnic minority women is not well understood. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments can be an important step for promoting treatment accessibility and engagement among underserved groups. This qualitative study was part of a larger investigation that examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally adapted CBTgsh program among Mexican American women with binge eating disorders. Posttreatment focus groups were conducted with 12 Mexican American women with BN or BED who participated in the intervention. Data were analyzed with the grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Three themes emerged from the data: (a) eating behavior and body ideals are socially and culturally constructed, (b) multifaceted support system is crucial to Mexican American women's treatment engagement and success, and (c) the culturally adapted CBTgsh program is feasible and relevant to Mexican American women's experience, but it can be strengthened with increased family and peer involvement. The findings provide suggestions for further adaptation and refinement of the CBTgsh, and implications for future research as well as early intervention for disordered eating in organized care settings.

  11. Eco-evo-devo of the lemur syndrome: did adaptive behavioral plasticity get canalized in a large primate radiation?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Comprehensive explanations of behavioral adaptations rarely invoke all levels famously admonished by Niko Tinbergen. The role of developmental processes and plasticity, in particular, has often been neglected. In this paper, we combine ecological, physiological and developmental perspectives in developing a hypothesis to account for the evolution of ‘the lemur syndrome’, a combination of reduced sexual dimorphism, even adult sex ratios, female dominance and mild genital masculinization characterizing group-living species in two families of Malagasy primates. Results We review the different components of the lemur syndrome and compare it with similar adaptations reported for other mammals. We find support for the assertion that the lemur syndrome represents a unique set of integrated behavioral, demographic and morphological traits. We combine existing hypotheses about underlying adaptive function and proximate causation by adding a potential developmental mechanism linking maternal stress and filial masculinization, and outline an evolutionary scenario for its canalization. Conclusions We propose a new hypothesis linking ecological, physiological, developmental and evolutionary processes to adumbrate a comprehensive explanation for the evolution of the lemur syndrome, whose assumptions and predictions can guide diverse future research on lemurs. This hypothesis should also encourage students of other behavioral phenomena to consider the potential role of developmental plasticity in evolutionary innovation. PMID:26816515

  12. Adaptive behavior in autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: microanalysis of scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rhea; Miles, Stephanie; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred; Coflin, Megan; Booker, Shelley

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a microanalysis of differences in adaptive functioning seen between well-matched groups of school-aged children with autism and those diagnosed as having Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, all of whom functioned in the mild to moderate range of intellectual impairment. Findings indicate that the major area of difference between children with autism and those with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, was expressive communication; specifically, the use of elaborations in syntax and morphology and in pragmatic use of language to convey and to seek information in discourse. Linear discriminant function analysis revealed that scores on just three of these expressive communication item sets correctly identified subjects in the two diagnostic categories with 80% overall accuracy. Implications of these findings for both diagnosis and intervention with children with Autism Spectrum Disorders will be discussed.

  13. Behavioral and neural correlates of visuomotor adaptation observed through a brain-computer interface in primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Chase, Steven M; Kass, Robert E; Schwartz, Andrew B

    2012-07-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a defined link between neural activity and devices, allowing a detailed study of the neural adaptive responses generating behavioral output. We trained monkeys to perform two-dimensional center-out movements of a computer cursor using a BCI. We then applied a perturbation by randomly selecting a subset of the recorded units and rotating their directional contributions to cursor movement by a consistent angle. Globally, this perturbation mimics a visuomotor transformation, and in the first part of this article we characterize the psychophysical indications of motor adaptation and compare them with known results from adaptation of natural reaching movements. Locally, however, only a subset of the neurons in the population actually contributes to error, allowing us to probe for signatures of neural adaptation that might be specific to the subset of neurons we perturbed. One compensation strategy would be to selectively adapt the subset of cells responsible for the error. An alternate strategy would be to globally adapt the entire population to correct the error. Using a recently developed mathematical technique that allows us to differentiate these two mechanisms, we found evidence of both strategies in the neural responses. The dominant strategy we observed was global, accounting for ∼86% of the total error reduction. The remaining 14% came from local changes in the tuning functions of the perturbed units. Interestingly, these local changes were specific to the details of the applied rotation: in particular, changes in the depth of tuning were only observed when the percentage of perturbed cells was small. These results imply that there may be constraints on the network's adaptive capabilities, at least for perturbations lasting only a few hundreds of trials.

  14. Toward a Mechanics of Adaptive Behavior: Evolutionary Dynamics and Matching Theory Statics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, J. J.; Popa, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm.…

  15. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Theory, Treatment Adaptations, and Empirical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…

  16. Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF): Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simo-Pinatella, David; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Font-Roura, Josep; Gine, Climent; Matson, Johnny L.; Cifre, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities (ID) often engage in problem behaviors, such as verbal or physical aggression, property destruction, or self-injury. These behaviors become a challenge for the families and for professionals. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is a method used to identify variables that influence or maintain challenging…

  17. Effects of escape to alone versus escape to enriched environments on adaptive and aberrant behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Golonka, Z; Wacker, D; Berg, W; Derby, K M; Harding, J; Peck, S

    2000-01-01

    Escape-maintained aberrant behavior may be influenced by two outcomes: (a) a break from the activity and (b) subsequent access to preferred activities. To assess this hypothesis, a treatment was developed that analyzed response allocation across two break options: break alone and break with access to preferred social activities. The break with preferred activities decreased aberrant behavior and increased appropriate behavior. PMID:10885532

  18. VNTR-DAT1 and COMTVal158Met Genotypes Modulate Mental Flexibility and Adaptive Behavior Skills in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    del Hoyo, Laura; Xicota, Laura; Langohr, Klaus; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; de Sola, Susana; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael; Cuenca-Royo, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an aneuploidy syndrome that is caused by trisomy for human chromosome 21 resulting in a characteristic cognitive and behavioral phenotype, which includes executive functioning and adaptive behavior difficulties possibly due to prefrontal cortex (PFC) deficits. DS also present a high risk for early onset of Alzheimer Disease-like dementia. The dopamine (DA) system plays a neuromodulatory role in the activity of the PFC. Several studies have implicated trait differences in DA signaling on executive functioning based on genetic polymorphisms in the genes encoding for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMTVal158Met) and the dopamine transporter (VNTR-DAT1). Since it is known that the phenotypic consequences of genetic variants are modulated by the genetic background in which they occur, we here explore whether these polymorphisms variants interact with the trisomic genetic background to influence gene expression, and how this in turn mediates DS phenotype variability regarding PFC cognition. We genotyped 69 young adults of both genders with DS, and found that VNTR-DAT1 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium but COMTVal158Met had a reduced frequency of Met allele homozygotes. In our population, genotypes conferring higher DA availability, such as Met allele carriers and VNTR-DAT1 10-repeat allele homozygotes, resulted in improved performance in executive function tasks that require mental flexibility. Met allele carriers showed worse adaptive social skills and self-direction, and increased scores in the social subscale of the Dementia Questionnaire for People with Intellectual Disabilities than Val allele homozygotes. The VNTR-DAT1 was not involved in adaptive behavior or early dementia symptoms. Our results suggest that genetic variants of COMTVal158Met and VNTR-DAT1 may contribute to PFC-dependent cognition, while only COMTVal158Met is involved in behavioral phenotypes of DS, similar to euploid population. PMID:27799900

  19. Covert rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS): A hypothesis of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions for adaptive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jane X.; Cohen, Neal J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    Effective choices generally require memory, yet little is known regarding the cognitive or neural mechanisms that allow memory to influence choices. We outline a new framework proposing that covert memory processing of hippocampus interacts with action-generation processing of prefrontal cortex in order to arrive at optimal, memory-guided choices. Covert, rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS) is proposed here as a framework for understanding cognitive and/or behavioral choices, whereby prefrontal-hippocampal interactions quickly provide multiple simulations of potential outcomes used to evaluate the set of possible choices. We hypothesize that this CRAMS process is automatic, obligatory, and covert, meaning that many cycles of action-memory simulation occur in response to choice conflict without an individual’s necessary intention and generally without awareness of the simulations, leading to adaptive behavior with little perceived effort. CRAMS is thus distinct from influential proposals that adaptive memory-based behavior in humans requires consciously experienced memory-based construction of possible future scenarios and deliberate decisions among possible future constructions. CRAMS provides an account of why hippocampus has been shown to make critical contributions to the short-term control of behavior, and it motivates several new experimental approaches and hypotheses that could be used to better understand the ubiquitous role of prefrontal-hippocampal interactions in situations that require adaptively using memory to guide choices. Importantly, this framework provides a perspective that allows for testing decision-making mechanisms in a manner that translates well across human and nonhuman animal model systems. PMID:24752152

  20. VNTR-DAT1 and COMTVal158Met Genotypes Modulate Mental Flexibility and Adaptive Behavior Skills in Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Del Hoyo, Laura; Xicota, Laura; Langohr, Klaus; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; de Sola, Susana; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an aneuploidy syndrome that is caused by trisomy for human chromosome 21 resulting in a characteristic cognitive and behavioral phenotype, which includes executive functioning and adaptive behavior difficulties possibly due to prefrontal cortex (PFC) deficits. DS also present a high risk for early onset of Alzheimer Disease-like dementia. The dopamine (DA) system plays a neuromodulatory role in the activity of the PFC. Several studies have implicated trait differences in DA signaling on executive functioning based on genetic polymorphisms in the genes encoding for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMTVal158Met) and the dopamine transporter (VNTR-DAT1). Since it is known that the phenotypic consequences of genetic variants are modulated by the genetic background in which they occur, we here explore whether these polymorphisms variants interact with the trisomic genetic background to influence gene expression, and how this in turn mediates DS phenotype variability regarding PFC cognition. We genotyped 69 young adults of both genders with DS, and found that VNTR-DAT1 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium but COMTVal158Met had a reduced frequency of Met allele homozygotes. In our population, genotypes conferring higher DA availability, such as Met allele carriers and VNTR-DAT1 10-repeat allele homozygotes, resulted in improved performance in executive function tasks that require mental flexibility. Met allele carriers showed worse adaptive social skills and self-direction, and increased scores in the social subscale of the Dementia Questionnaire for People with Intellectual Disabilities than Val allele homozygotes. The VNTR-DAT1 was not involved in adaptive behavior or early dementia symptoms. Our results suggest that genetic variants of COMTVal158Met and VNTR-DAT1 may contribute to PFC-dependent cognition, while only COMTVal158Met is involved in behavioral phenotypes of DS, similar to euploid population.

  1. Building health behavior models to guide the development of just-in-time adaptive interventions: A pragmatic framework.

    PubMed

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Hekler, Eric B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Advances in wireless devices and mobile technology offer many opportunities for delivering just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs)-suites of interventions that adapt over time to an individual's changing status and circumstances with the goal to address the individual's need for support, whenever this need arises. A major challenge confronting behavioral scientists aiming to develop a JITAI concerns the selection and integration of existing empirical, theoretical and practical evidence into a scientific model that can inform the construction of a JITAI and help identify scientific gaps. The purpose of this paper is to establish a pragmatic framework that can be used to organize existing evidence into a useful model for JITAI construction. This framework involves clarifying the conceptual purpose of a JITAI, namely, the provision of just-in-time support via adaptation, as well as describing the components of a JITAI and articulating a list of concrete questions to guide the establishment of a useful model for JITAI construction. The proposed framework includes an organizing scheme for translating the relatively static scientific models underlying many health behavior interventions into a more dynamic model that better incorporates the element of time. This framework will help to guide the next generation of empirical work to support the creation of effective JITAIs.

  2. Static and quasi-static behavior of an adaptive system to compensate path errors for smart fiber placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, M.; Monner, H. P.; Krombholz, C.; Kruse, F. F.

    2015-04-01

    Smart fiber placement is an ambitious topic in current research for automated manufacturing of large-scale composite structures, e.g. wing covers. Adaptive systems get in focus to obtain a high degree of observability and controllability of the manufacturing process. In particular, vibrational issues and material failure have to be studied to significantly increase the production rate with no loss in accuracy of the fiber layup. As one contribution, an adaptive system has been developed to be integrated into the fiber placement head. It decouples the compaction roller from disturbances caused by misalignments, varying components' behavior over a large work area and acceleration changes during operation. Therefore, the smart system axially adapts the position of the compaction roller in case of disturbances. This paper investigates the behavior of the system to compensate quasi-static deviations from the desired path. In particular, the compensation efficiency of a constant offset, a linear drift with constant gradient and a single-curved drift is studied. Thus, the test bed with measurement devices and scenarios is explained. Based on the knowledge obtained by the experimental data, the paper concludes with a discussion of the proposed approach for its use under operating conditions and further implementation.

  3. Building health behavior models to guide the development of just-in-time adaptive interventions: A pragmatic framework

    PubMed Central

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Hekler, Eric B.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Advances in wireless devices and mobile technology offer many opportunities for delivering just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs)--suites of interventions that adapt over time to an individual’s changing status and circumstances with the goal to address the individual’s need for support, whenever this need arises. A major challenge confronting behavioral scientists aiming to develop a JITAI concerns the selection and integration of existing empirical, theoretical and practical evidence into a scientific model that can inform the construction of a JITAI and help identify scientific gaps. The purpose of this paper is to establish a pragmatic framework that can be used to organize existing evidence into a useful model for JITAI construction. This framework involves clarifying the conceptual purpose of a JITAI, namely the provision of just-in-time support via adaptation, as well as describing the components of a JITAI and articulating a list of concrete questions to guide the establishment of a useful model for JITAI construction. The proposed framework includes an organizing scheme for translating the relatively static scientific models underlying many health behavior interventions into a more dynamic model that better incorporates the element of time. This framework will help to guide the next generation of empirical work to support the creation of effective JITAIs. PMID:26651462

  4. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior: From Animals to Animats 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    stimulus-response units has been controversial: been implemented on robots [34]. But instrumental learning, Skinner [30] claimed that all behavior , including...Learning, 8:323-339, 1992. [30] B.F. Skinner . Behavior of Organisms. Appleton- Century-Crofts, 1938. [31] B.F. Skinner . "Superstition" in the pigeon...Elsevier. Mowrer, 0. H., (1960/1973), Learning theory and behavior , New York: Wiley. Pavlov , I. P., (1927), Conditioned reflexes, Oxford: Oxford

  5. Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

  6. Cognitive flexibility in adolescence: neural and behavioral mechanisms of reward prediction error processing in adaptive decision making during development.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Tobias U; Iannaccone, Reto; Walitza, Susanne; Brandeis, Daniel; Brem, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with quickly changing environmental demands which require excellent adaptive skills and high cognitive flexibility. Feedback-guided adaptive learning and cognitive flexibility are driven by reward prediction error (RPE) signals, which indicate the accuracy of expectations and can be estimated using computational models. Despite the importance of cognitive flexibility during adolescence, only little is known about how RPE processing in cognitive flexibility deviates between adolescence and adulthood. In this study, we investigated the developmental aspects of cognitive flexibility by means of computational models and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We compared the neural and behavioral correlates of cognitive flexibility in healthy adolescents (12-16years) to adults performing a probabilistic reversal learning task. Using a modified risk-sensitive reinforcement learning model, we found that adolescents learned faster from negative RPEs than adults. The fMRI analysis revealed that within the RPE network, the adolescents had a significantly altered RPE-response in the anterior insula. This effect seemed to be mainly driven by increased responses to negative prediction errors. In summary, our findings indicate that decision making in adolescence goes beyond merely increased reward-seeking behavior and provides a developmental perspective to the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility in the context of reinforcement learning.

  7. School Social Behavior Scales: an adaptation study of the Portuguese version of the social competence scale from SSBS-2.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Raquel; Carapito, Elsa; Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques Pinto, Alexandra; Lima, Maria Luísa; Ribeiro, Maria Teresa

    2012-11-01

    This study analyses the psychometric proprieties of a Portuguese version of the social competence scale from the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS-2, Merrell, 2002). It is a rating instrument of children and adolescents behavior, to be used by teachers and other school personnel. This scale includes 3 subscales: self-management/compliance, peer relations and academic behavior. In our first sample, 175 teachers rated 344 students from grade 1 through 12. On the second sample 13 teachers rated 251 3rd and 4th grades students. The results from the Portuguese adaptation support the multidimensional structure of the social competence scale from the SSBS-2, although an alternative model demonstrated a better fit to the data than the model originally proposed by the author. The scale showed good internal consistency and good intercorrelations between subscales, as well as between subscales and the total scale. The final model was well replicated in the second sample. These results encourage us to pursue the SSBS-2 Portuguese adaptation, in order to provide a useful and validated instrument for the assessment of social competence and for educational interventions.

  8. Working memory, attention, inhibition, and their relation to adaptive functioning and behavioral/emotional symptoms in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnöve; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child Behavior Checklist. The studied dimensions of EF were cognitive efficiency/speed, working memory/attention and inhibitory control. Strong age effects were found for these cognitive abilities (p values <0.01). Inhibitory control was associated with better adaptive functioning (learning, working hard and behaving well), academic performance and less psychiatric symptoms (p values <0.05), specially in 8-9-year-old children. In this youngest age group low inhibitory control was also associated with teacher-reported inattention (p = 0.042). Low inhibitory control was associated with teacher- and parent-reported internalizing symptoms (p < 0.01). These results suggest that maturational factors may underlie low adaptive functioning and psychiatric symptoms during early school years. Further studies are needed to evaluate the association between inhibition and emotional symptoms.

  9. Translation, adaptation, and validation of the behavioral pain scale and the critical-care pain observational tools in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsiung, Nai-Huan; Yang, Yen; Lee, Ming Shinn; Dalal, Koustuv; Smith, Graeme D

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the cultural adaptation and testing of the behavioral pain scale (BPS) and the critical-care pain observation tools (CPOT) for pain assessment in Taiwan. The cross-cultural adaptation followed the steps of translation, including forward translation, back-translation, evaluation of the translations by a committee of experts, adjustments, and then piloting of the prefinal versions of the BPS and the CPOT. A content validity index was used to assess content validities of the BPS and the CPOT, with 0.80 preset as the level that would be regarded as acceptable. The principal investigator then made adjustments when the content validity index was <0.80. The pilot test was performed with a sample of ten purposively selected patients by 2 medical staff from a medical care center in Taiwan. The BPS and the CPOT are adequate instruments for the assessment of pain levels in patients who cannot communicate due to sedation and ventilation treatments. PMID:27695360

  10. The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Jessica Marie

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to…

  11. [The mathematical modelling of population dynamics taking into account the adaptive behavior of individuals].

    PubMed

    Abakumov, A I

    2000-01-01

    The general approach for modelling of abundance dynamic of biological populations and communities is offered. The mechanisms of individual adaptation in changing environment are considered. The approach is detailed for population models without structure and with age structure. The property of solutions are investigated. As examples the author studies the concrete definitions of general models by analogy with models of Ricker and May. Theoretical analysis and calculations shows that survival of model population in extreme situation increases if adaptive behaviour is taking into account.

  12. Behavioral Response to a Just-in-Time Adaptive Intervention (JITAI) to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Obese Adults: Implications for JITAI Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J. Graham; Bond, Dale S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) use mobile computers, sensors, and software analytics to automatically detect behavior and deliver tailored treatment. However, little is known about how JITAIs influence patterns of behavior or how best to design JITAIs for maximum effect. Methods This study examined prompts and behavioral response to the B-MOBILE JITAI for reducing sedentary behavior (SB) in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty participants (83% women; 67% White, mean ± SD body mass index = 36.2 kg/m2) tested three conditions presented in a randomized counterbalanced order involving smartphone-based prompts for walking breaks of (1) 3-min after 30 SB min; (2) 6-min after 60 SB min; and (3) 12-min after 120 SB min. Results Participants carried the smartphone an average of 6.90 days during each 7-day condition, for an average of 14.94 hours per day. The 3- and 6-min conditions resulted in the greatest number of prompts, walking breaks, the best adherence to prompts, the greatest amount of daily time spent in walking breaks, and fastest adherence to prompts (ps < .01). Small but statistically significant decreases in the number of daily walking breaks, adherence to prompts, and minutes per day spent in walking breaks were observed as a function of the number of days spent in a condition (ps < .05). Conclusions The B-MOBILE JITAI was effective in prompting breaks in sedentary behavior when it is most clinically relevant. Frequent prompts for small change may be an optimal strategy for shaping sedentary behavior, although more research is needed to determine how best to promote long-term adherence. PMID:26651467

  13. A Study of Disaster Adaptation Behavior and Risk Communication for watershed Area Resident - the Case of Kaoping River Watershed in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Te Pai, Jen; Chen, Yu-Yun; Huang, Kuan-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Along with the global climate change, the rainfall patterns become more centralized and cause natural disasters more frequently and heavily. Residents in river watersheds area are facing high risk of natural disasters and severe impacts, especially in Taiwan. From the experience of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, we learned that poor risk communication between the governments and the households and communities would lead to tremendous loss of property and life. Effective risk communication can trigger action to impending and current events. On the other hand, it can also build up knowledge on hazards and risks and encourage adaptation behaviors. Through the participation and cooperation of different stakeholders in disaster management, can reduce vulnerability, enhance adaptive capacity, improve the interaction between different stakeholders and also avoid conflicts. However, in Taiwan there are few studies about how households and communities perceive flood disaster risks, the process of risk communications between governments and households, or the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. Therefore, this study takes household and community of Kaoping River Watershed as study area. It aims to identify important factors in the process of disaster risk communication and find out the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. A framework of risk communication process was established to describe how to trigger adaptation behaviors and encourage adaptation behaviors with risk communication strategies. An ISM model was utilized to verify the framework by using household questionnaire survey. Moreover, a logit choice model was build to test the important factors for effective risk communication and adaption behavior. The result of this study would provide governments or relevant institutions suggestions about risk communication strategies and adaptation strategies to enhance the adaptive capacity of households and reduce the

  14. Stability of Adaptive Behaviors in Middle-School Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Ivers, Bonnie Jean; Hill, Dina E.; Agnew, John A.; McNeill, John

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year follow-up study examined the stability of adaptive functioning in two cognitive ability groups of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nonverbal intelligence (NVIQ) was assessed at the time of this study and no participant changed cognitive group membership from the previous study (High NVIQ greater than or equal to 97; Low…

  15. Sleep Disruption as a Correlate to Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age…

  16. The Role of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Functional Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Gerber, Andrew J.; Quirmbach, Linda M.; Sparrow, Sara S.; Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Saulnier, Celine A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology was examined in 1,089 verbal youths with ASD examining results on Vineland-II, IQ, and measures of ASD severity. Strong positive relationships were found between Vineland subscales and IQ. Vineland Composite was negatively associated with age. IQ accounted a significant amount…

  17. Reinforcement learning and counterfactual reasoning explain adaptive behavior in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Paik, Jaehyon; Pirolli, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Animals routinely adapt to changes in the environment in order to survive. Though reinforcement learning may play a role in such adaptation, it is not clear that it is the only mechanism involved, as it is not well suited to producing rapid, relatively immediate changes in strategies in response to environmental changes. This research proposes that counterfactual reasoning might be an additional mechanism that facilitates change detection. An experiment is conducted in which a task state changes over time and the participants had to detect the changes in order to perform well and gain monetary rewards. A cognitive model is constructed that incorporates reinforcement learning with counterfactual reasoning to help quickly adjust the utility of task strategies in response to changes. The results show that the model can accurately explain human data and that counterfactual reasoning is key to reproducing the various effects observed in this change detection paradigm.

  18. Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for Binge Eating: A Feasibility Study with Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Shea, Munyi; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone; Wilson, G. Terence; Thompson, Douglas R.; Striegel, Ruth H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective was to test feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral self-help program to treat binge eating and related problems in Mexican Americans. Participants were 31 women recruited from the Los Angeles area and diagnosed with binge eating disorder, recurrent binge eating or bulimia nervosa. Participants completed a culturally adapted version of a CBT-based self-help program with 8 guidance sessions over a 3-month period. Treatment efficacy was evaluated in terms of binge eating, psychological functioning, and weight loss. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed 35.5% abstinence from binge eating at post-treatment and 38.7% diagnostic remission. Results indicated significant pre-treatment to post-treatment improvement on distress level, BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, and self-esteem. Satisfaction with the program was high. Findings demonstrate that the program is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious in reducing binge eating and associated symptoms for Mexican American women. Study provides “proof of concept” for implementation of culturally adapted forms of evidence-based programs. PMID:25045955

  19. Substance abuse, coping strategies, adaptive skills and behavioral and emotional problems in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability admitted to a treatment facility: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who did not. There were no differences in adaptive skills between groups. However, compared to clients without substance abuse, those who abused substances showed a more palliative coping style, and had more severe emotional and behavior problems such as anxiety/depression and intrusive thoughts and aggressive and antisocial behaviors. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  20. Behavioral Regulation, Visual Spatial Maturity in Kindergarten, and the Relationship of School Adaptation in the First Grade for a Sample of Turkish Children.

    PubMed

    Özer, Serap

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral regulation has recently become an important variable in research looking at kindergarten and first-grade achievement of children in private and public schools. The purpose of this study was to examine a measure of behavioral regulation, the Head Toes Knees Shoulders Task, and to evaluate its relationship with visual spatial maturity at the end of kindergarten. Later, in first grade, teachers were asked to rate the children (N = 82) in terms of academic and behavioral adaptation. Behavioral regulation and visual spatial maturity were significantly different between the two school types, but ratings by the teachers in the first grade were affected by children's visual spatial maturity rather than by behavioral regulation. Socioeducational opportunities provided by the two types of schools may be more important to school adaptation than behavioral regulation.

  1. Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

  2. Comparative Analysis of Behavioral Models for Adaptive Learning in Changing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Marković, Dimitrije; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic models of decision making under various forms of uncertainty have been applied in recent years to numerous behavioral and model-based fMRI studies. These studies were highly successful in enabling a better understanding of behavior and delineating the functional properties of brain areas involved in decision making under uncertainty. However, as different studies considered different models of decision making under uncertainty, it is unclear which of these computational models provides the best account of the observed behavioral and neuroimaging data. This is an important issue, as not performing model comparison may tempt researchers to over-interpret results based on a single model. Here we describe how in practice one can compare different behavioral models and test the accuracy of model comparison and parameter estimation of Bayesian and maximum-likelihood based methods. We focus our analysis on two well-established hierarchical probabilistic models that aim at capturing the evolution of beliefs in changing environments: Hierarchical Gaussian Filters and Change Point Models. To our knowledge, these two, well-established models have never been compared on the same data. We demonstrate, using simulated behavioral experiments, that one can accurately disambiguate between these two models, and accurately infer free model parameters and hidden belief trajectories (e.g., posterior expectations, posterior uncertainties, and prediction errors) even when using noisy and highly correlated behavioral measurements. Importantly, we found several advantages of Bayesian inference and Bayesian model comparison compared to often-used Maximum-Likelihood schemes combined with the Bayesian Information Criterion. These results stress the relevance of Bayesian data analysis for model-based neuroimaging studies that investigate human decision making under uncertainty. PMID:27148030

  3. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, Grancois G.

    2004-06-01

    Our overall objective is the development of a generalized methodology and code for the automated generation of the kinematics equations of robots and for the analytical solution of their motion planning equations subject to time-varying constraints, behavioral objectives, and modular configuration.

  4. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, Francois G.

    2003-06-01

    Our overall objective is the development of a generalized methodology and code for the automated generation of the kinematics equations of robots and for the analytical solution of their motion planning equations subject to time-varying constraints, behavioral objectives and modular configuration.

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Polish Adaptation of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragan, Wojciech L.; Kmita, Grazyna; Fronczyk, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire&-Revised (IBQ-R). A group of 396 pairs of parents was studied, and a 3-factor structure of IBQ-R emerged with differences comparing to the original U.S. sample and a prior replication Russian sample. Analyses demonstrated satisfactory…

  6. Reliability and Construct Validity of Scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory: A Measure of Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarjoura, David; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Speight, Joan; Reuter, Jeanette

    1999-01-01

    Examined the reliability and construct validity in an older adult population (n=149 older adults and their informants) of scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory (BCI) (P. Hartman-Stein). Results indicate that scores on the BCI's seven scales show adequate internal consistencies and represent seven overlapping but distinct constructs in this…

  7. Treating Adaptive Living Skills of Persons with Autism Using Applied Behavior Analysis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Belva, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Work, self-help, leisure, and hygiene skill deficits are often associated with Autistic Disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in socialization, communication, and repetitive and restricted behaviors or interests. A number of interventions have been established to assist individuals with these impairments.…

  8. Sensory extinction and sensory reinforcement principles for programming multiple adaptive behavior change.

    PubMed

    Rincover, A; Cook, R; Peoples, A; Packard, D

    1979-01-01

    The role of sensory reinforcement was examined in programming multiple treatment gains in self-stimulation and spontaneous play for developmentally disabled children. Two phases were planned. First, we attempted to identify reinforcers maintaining self-stimulation. Sensory Extinction procedures were implemented in which auditory, proprioceptive, or visual sensory consequences of self-stimulatory behavior were systematically removed and reintroduced in a reversal design. When self-stimulation was decreased or eliminated as a result of removing one of these sensory consequences, the functional sensory consequence was designated as a child's preferred sensory reinforcer. In Phase 2, we assessed whether children would play selectively with toys producing the preferred kind of sensory stimulation. The results showed the following. (1) Self-stimulatory behavior was found to be maintained by sensory reinforcement. When the sensory reinforcer was removed, self-stimulation extinguished. (2) The sensory reinforcers identified for self-stimulatory behavior also served as reinforcers for new, appropriate toy play. (3) The multiple treatment gains observed appeared to be relatively durable in the absence of external reinforcers for play or restraints on self-stimulation. These results illustrate one instance in which multiple behavior change may be programmed in a predictable, lawful fashion by using "natural communities of sensory reinforcement."

  9. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated…

  10. Developing Adaptive Behavior and Work Skills in Severely Retarded Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenning, Jerome M.; McBee, Edwin D.

    The Pacific State Hospital conducted a demonstration experiment with 12 severely and profoundly mentally retarded male adolescents, which concentrated on modifying disruptive, bothersome behaviors while developing basic work skills required for daily activity in sheltered workshops. The experiment provided an integrated program for an entire day,…

  11. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitschek, Christine; Ashton, Matthew W.; Spering, Cynthia C.; Geiger, Nathaniel; Byers, Danielle; Schotts, G. Christian; Thoen, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    The original Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS; Robitschek, 1998) was unidimensional, despite theory identifying multiple components (e.g., cognition and behavior) of personal growth initiative (PGI). The present research developed a multidimensional measure of the complex process of PGI, while retaining the brief and psychometrically sound…

  12. Adaptive intermittent control: A computational model explaining motor intermittency observed in human behavior.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masato; Inoue, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    It is a fundamental question how our brain performs a given motor task in a real-time fashion with the slow sensorimotor system. Computational theory proposed an influential idea of feed-forward control, but it has mainly treated the case that the movement is ballistic (such as reaching) because the motor commands should be calculated in advance of movement execution. As a possible mechanism for operating feed-forward control in continuous motor tasks (such as target tracking), we propose a control model called "adaptive intermittent control" or "segmented control," that brain adaptively divides the continuous time axis into discrete segments and executes feed-forward control in each segment. The idea of intermittent control has been proposed in the fields of control theory, biological modeling and nonlinear dynamical system. Compared with these previous models, the key of the proposed model is that the system speculatively determines the segmentation based on the future prediction and its uncertainty. The result of computer simulation showed that the proposed model realized faithful visuo-manual tracking with realistic sensorimotor delays and with less computational costs (i.e., with fewer number of segments). Furthermore, it replicated "motor intermittency", that is, intermittent discontinuities commonly observed in human movement trajectories. We discuss that the temporally segmented control is an inevitable strategy for brain which has to achieve a given task with small computational (or cognitive) cost, using a slow control system in an uncertain variable environment, and the motor intermittency is the side-effect of this strategy.

  13. Social cognitive model of career self-management: toward a unifying view of adaptive career behavior across the life span.

    PubMed

    Lent, Robert W; Brown, Steven D

    2013-10-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) currently consists of 4 overlapping, segmental models aimed at understanding educational and occupational interest development, choice-making, performance and persistence, and satisfaction/well-being. To this point, the theory has emphasized content aspects of career behavior, for instance, prediction of the types of activities, school subjects, or career fields that form the basis for people's educational/vocational interests and choice paths. However, SCCT may also lend itself to study of many process aspects of career behavior, including such issues as how people manage normative tasks and cope with the myriad challenges involved in career preparation, entry, adjustment, and change, regardless of the specific educational and occupational fields they inhabit. Such a process focus can augment and considerably expand the range of the dependent variables for which SCCT was initially designed. Building on SCCT's existing models, we present a social cognitive model of career self-management and offer examples of the adaptive, process behaviors to which it can be applied (e.g., career decision making/exploration, job searching, career advancement, negotiation of work transitions and multiple roles).

  14. Emotion in languaging: languaging as affective, adaptive, and flexible behavior in social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues for a view on languaging as inherently affective. Informed by recent ecological tendencies within cognitive science and distributed language studies a distinction between first order languaging (language as whole-body sense making) and second order language (language as system like constraints) is put forward. Contrary to common assumptions within linguistics and communication studies separating language-as-a-system from language use (resulting in separations between language vs. body-language and verbal vs. non-verbal communication etc.) the first/second order distinction sees language as emanating from behavior making it possible to view emotion and affect as integral parts languaging behavior. Likewise, emotion and affect are studied, not as inner mental states, but as processes of organism-environment interactions. Based on video recordings of interaction between (1) children with special needs, and (2) couple in therapy and the therapist patterns of reciprocal influences between interactants are examined. Through analyzes of affective stance and patterns of inter-affectivity it is exemplified how language and emotion should not be seen as separate phenomena combined in language use, but rather as completely intertwined phenomena in languaging behavior constrained by second order patterns. PMID:25076921

  15. [Adaptations in reproduction and behavior of captive chimpanzees-- zoobiological and veterinary managements].

    PubMed

    Böer, M

    2000-10-01

    Monitoring of renal LH-excretion, changes in genital tumescence and menses assesses reproductive status in zookept female chimpanzees. Temporary detumescence of female sex skin in estrus is a reliable indicator for stress. Assessment of female chimpanzee reproductive status relates to local and individual variation of cycle length and temporal correlation of investigated parameters. Monitoring of neonate chimpanzee behavioural ontogeny is an essential tool of evaluating applied rearing methods since individuals were to be integrated into the adult group during adolescence. Slow and continuous transition periods between consecutive rearing phases avoid irreversible disturbed behaviour. Care by one person up to the age of 12 months, followed by a 3 year stay in a peer group guarantee normal development in zookept infant chimpanzees. 4-5 years old chimpanzees with infantile attributes and abilities to submit and appease can be integrated to adults with low risk. In female gorillas sexual cyclicity was monitored by renal excretion of LH, length of menses, sexual behaviour and--in tame females--by basal body temperature and variation of length of the urogenital cleft. Intraspecific variation of cyclicity allowed individual fertility assessment after comparison of several cycles. Analyses of behaviour gave hints to overcharged adaptability and reduced infertility under inadequate maintenance. Data on semen and testicular biopsy improve fertility evaluation in gorilla males and point to degree and time of tissue alteration and etiology. Body hygiene analogous to the human, tool use and interspecific play with chimpanzees and humans behind window screens were observed in inadequately kept gorillas. Homosexual behaviour among females was reversible with environmental and social changes. Coalitions among nonrelated females were an effective social strategy against an aggressive male. Cyclicity was disturbed drastically by social events such as physical lesions made by a male

  16. Adaptation to Coriolis perturbations of voluntary body sway transfers to preprogrammed fall-recovery behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Joel; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In a rotating environment, goal-oriented voluntary movements are initially disrupted in trajectory and endpoint, due to movement-contingent Coriolis forces, but accuracy is regained with additional movements. We studied whether adaptation acquired in a voluntary, goal-oriented postural swaying task performed during constant-velocity counterclockwise rotation (10 RPM) carries over to recovery from falling induced using a hold and release (H&R) paradigm. In H&R, standing subjects actively resist a force applied to their chest, which when suddenly released results in a forward fall and activation of an automatic postural correction. We tested H&R postural recovery in subjects (n = 11) before and after they made voluntary fore-aft swaying movements during 20 trials of 25 s each, in a counterclockwise rotating room. Their voluntary sway about their ankles generated Coriolis forces that initially induced clockwise deviations of the intended body sway paths, but fore-aft sway was gradually restored over successive per-rotation trials, and a counterclockwise aftereffect occurred during postrotation attempts to sway fore-aft. In H&R trials, we examined the initial 10- to 150-ms periods of movement after release from the hold force, when voluntary corrections of movement path are not possible. Prerotation subjects fell directly forward, whereas postrotation their forward motion was deviated significantly counterclockwise. The postrotation deviations were in a direction consistent with an aftereffect reflecting persistence of a compensation acquired per-rotation for voluntary swaying movements. These findings show that control and adaptation mechanisms adjusting voluntary postural sway to the demands of a new force environment also influence the automatic recovery of posture. PMID:24304863

  17. Adaptation to Coriolis perturbations of voluntary body sway transfers to preprogrammed fall-recovery behavior.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Avijit; Ventura, Joel; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2014-03-01

    In a rotating environment, goal-oriented voluntary movements are initially disrupted in trajectory and endpoint, due to movement-contingent Coriolis forces, but accuracy is regained with additional movements. We studied whether adaptation acquired in a voluntary, goal-oriented postural swaying task performed during constant-velocity counterclockwise rotation (10 RPM) carries over to recovery from falling induced using a hold and release (H&R) paradigm. In H&R, standing subjects actively resist a force applied to their chest, which when suddenly released results in a forward fall and activation of an automatic postural correction. We tested H&R postural recovery in subjects (n = 11) before and after they made voluntary fore-aft swaying movements during 20 trials of 25 s each, in a counterclockwise rotating room. Their voluntary sway about their ankles generated Coriolis forces that initially induced clockwise deviations of the intended body sway paths, but fore-aft sway was gradually restored over successive per-rotation trials, and a counterclockwise aftereffect occurred during postrotation attempts to sway fore-aft. In H&R trials, we examined the initial 10- to 150-ms periods of movement after release from the hold force, when voluntary corrections of movement path are not possible. Prerotation subjects fell directly forward, whereas postrotation their forward motion was deviated significantly counterclockwise. The postrotation deviations were in a direction consistent with an aftereffect reflecting persistence of a compensation acquired per-rotation for voluntary swaying movements. These findings show that control and adaptation mechanisms adjusting voluntary postural sway to the demands of a new force environment also influence the automatic recovery of posture.

  18. Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study With Two Teens.

    PubMed

    DePrince, Anne P; Shirk, Stephen R

    2013-05-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports on the development of a modified CBT (mCBT) protocol that has been adapted for treating depressed adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic interpersonal events (physical/sexual abuse or witnessing domestic violence). First, we provide an empirical rationale for targeting executive function deficits and trauma-related cognitions in the mCBT protocol. Second, we present promising results from 2 community clinic cases.

  19. Establishment of joint attention in dyads involving hearing mothers of deaf and hearing children, and its relation to adaptive social behavior.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Matilda E; Tasker, Susan L; Schmidt, Louis A

    2009-01-01

    Mounting evidence points to joint attention as a mediating variable in children's adaptive behavior development. Joint attention in interactions between hearing mothers and congenitally deaf (n = 27) and hearing (n = 29) children, ages 18-36 months, was examined. All deaf children had severe to profound hearing loss. Mother-child interactions were coded for maternally initiated and child-initiated success rates in establishing joint attention; mothers completed ratings of their children's adaptive behavior. Hearing mother-deaf child dyads had significantly lower maternally initiated success rates. No significant between-group differences on child-initiated success rates were shown. Maternal ratings of adaptive behavior were significantly lower for deaf children, and related positively and significantly to both child-initiated and maternally initiated success rates. The findings suggest that mother-child interactions that are low in successful establishment of joint attention might mediate the development of socioemotional problems evident in deaf children with hearing families.

  20. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures.

  1. Systematic cultural adaptation of cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Papas, Rebecca K; Sidle, John E; Martino, Steve; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Songole, Rogers; Omolo, Otieno E; Gakinya, Benson N; Mwaniki, Michael M; Adina, Japheth O; Nafula, Tobista; Owino-Ong'or, Willis D; Bryant, Kendall J; Carroll, Kathleen M; Goulet, Joseph L; Justice, Amy C; Maisto, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    Two-thirds of those with HIV worldwide live in sub-Saharan Africa. Alcohol use is associated with the HIV epidemic through risky sex and suboptimal ARV adherence. In western Kenya, hazardous drinking was reported by HIV (53%) and general medicine (68%) outpatients. Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) has demonstrated strong efficacy to reduce alcohol use. This article reports on a systematic cultural adaptation and pilot feasibility study of group paraprofessional-delivered CBT to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. Following adaptation and counselor training, five pilot groups were run (n = 27). Overall attendance was 77%. Percent days abstinent from alcohol (PDA) before session 1 was 52-100% (women) and 21-36% (men), and by session 6 was 96-100% (women) and 89-100% (men). PDA effect sizes (Cohen's d) between first and last CBT session were 2.32 (women) and 2.64 (men). Participants reported treatment satisfaction. Results indicate feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy for CBT in Kenya.

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN SEROTONIN SIGNALING: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY BRAIN FUNCTION, BEHAVIOR AND ADAPTATION

    PubMed Central

    BRUMMELTE, S.; GLANAGHY, E. MC; BONNIN, A.; OBERLANDER, T. F.

    2017-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays a central role in brain development, regulation of mood, stress reactivity and risk of psychiatric disorders, and thus alterations in 5-HT signaling early in life have critical implications for behavior and mental health across the life span. Drawing on preclinical and emerging human evidence this narrative review paper will examine three key aspects when considering the consequences of early life changes in 5-HT: (1) developmental origins of variations of 5-HT signaling; (2) influence of genetic and epigenetic factors; and (3) preclinical and clinical consequences of 5-HT-related changes associated with antidepressant exposure (SSRIs). The developmental consequences of altered prenatal 5-HT signaling varies greatly and outcomes depend on an ongoing interplay between biological (genetic/epigenetic variations) and environmental factors, both pre and postnatally. Emerging evidence suggests that variations in 5-HT signaling may increase sensitivity to risky home environments, but may also amplify a positive response to a nurturing environment. In this sense, factors that change central 5-HT levels may act as ‘plasticity’ rather than ‘risk’ factors associated with developmental vulnerability. Understanding the impact of early changes in 5-HT levels offers critical insights that might explain the variations in early typical brain development that underlies behavioral risk. PMID:26905950

  3. Use of a local cone model to predict essential CSF light adaptation behavior used in the design of luminance quantization nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Scott; Golestaneh, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The human visual system's luminance nonlinearity ranges continuously from square root behavior in the very dark, gamma-like behavior in dim ambient, cube-root in office lighting, and logarithmic for daylight ranges. Early display quantization nonlinearities have been developed based on luminance bipartite JND data. More advanced approaches considered spatial frequency behavior, and used the Barten light-adaptive Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) modelled across a range of light adaptation to determine the luminance nonlinearity (e.g., DICOM, referred to as a GSDF {grayscale display function}). A recent approach for a GSDF, also referred to as an electrical-to-optical transfer function (EOTF), using that light-adaptive CSF model improves on this by tracking the CSF for the most sensitive spatial frequency, which changes with adaptation level. We explored the cone photoreceptor's contribution to the behavior of this maximum sensitivity of the CSF as a function of light adaptation, despite the CSF's frequency variations and that the cone's nonlinearity is a point-process. We found that parameters of a local cone model could fit the max sensitivity of the CSF model, across all frequencies, and are within the ranges of parameters commonly accepted for psychophysicallytuned cone models. Thus, a linking of the spatial frequency and luminance dimensions has been made for a key neural component. This provides a better theoretical foundation for the recently designed visual signal format using the aforementioned EOTF.

  4. Extensive Intestinal Resection Triggers Behavioral Adaptation, Intestinal Remodeling and Microbiota Transition in Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mayeur, Camille; Gillard, Laura; Le Beyec, Johanne; Bado, André; Joly, Francisca; Thomas, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Extensive resection of small bowel often leads to short bowel syndrome (SBS). SBS patients develop clinical mal-absorption and dehydration relative to the reduction of absorptive area, acceleration of gastrointestinal transit time and modifications of the gastrointestinal intra-luminal environment. As a consequence of severe mal-absorption, patients require parenteral nutrition (PN). In adults, the overall adaptation following intestinal resection includes spontaneous and complex compensatory processes such as hyperphagia, mucosal remodeling of the remaining part of the intestine and major modifications of the microbiota. SBS patients, with colon in continuity, harbor a specific fecal microbiota that we called “lactobiota” because it is enriched in the Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc group and depleted in anaerobic micro-organisms (especially Clostridium and Bacteroides). In some patients, the lactobiota-driven fermentative activities lead to an accumulation of fecal d/l-lactates and an increased risk of d-encephalopathy. Better knowledge of clinical parameters and lactobiota characteristics has made it possible to stratify patients and define group at risk for d-encephalopathy crises. PMID:27681910

  5. Neural Mechanisms Behind Identification of Leptokurtic Noise and Adaptive Behavioral Response

    PubMed Central

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Bossaerts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale human interaction through, for example, financial markets causes ceaseless random changes in outcome variability, producing frequent and salient outliers that render the outcome distribution more peaked than the Gaussian distribution, and with longer tails. Here, we study how humans cope with this evolutionary novel leptokurtic noise, focusing on the neurobiological mechanisms that allow the brain, 1) to recognize the outliers as noise and 2) to regulate the control necessary for adaptive response. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging, while participants tracked a target whose movements were affected by leptokurtic noise. After initial overreaction and insufficient subsequent correction, participants improved performance significantly. Yet, persistently long reaction times pointed to continued need for vigilance and control. We ran a contrasting treatment where outliers reflected permanent moves of the target, as in traditional mean-shift paradigms. Importantly, outliers were equally frequent and salient. There, control was superior and reaction time was faster. We present a novel reinforcement learning model that fits observed choices better than the Bayes-optimal model. Only anterior insula discriminated between the 2 types of outliers. In both treatments, outliers initially activated an extensive bottom-up attention and belief network, followed by sustained engagement of the fronto-parietal control network. PMID:26850528

  6. A clash of values: Fear-relevant stimuli can enhance or corrupt adaptive behavior through competition between Pavlovian and instrumental valuation systems.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn; Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates preferentially learn to fear and avoid archetypical fear-relevant stimuli. Yet how these learning biases influence adaptive behavior, the basic mechanistic underpinnings of these biases, and how they interact with learning experiences during the life span of an individual remain unknown. To study this, we investigated how 4 classes of fear-relevant stimuli (snakes, threatening in-group faces, racial out-group faces, and guns) influenced adaptive behavior. We showed that stimulus-driven biases have a dramatic influence that can either promote or corrupt adaptive behavior depending on how a bias relates to the environment. We quantified and compared the effects of different fear-relevant stimuli on instrumental behavior using a computational reinforcement learning model that formalized the idea that the bias reflects competition between an instrumental and a Pavlovian valuation system. These results were further clarified by 2 independent rating studies showing that perceived danger of the stimuli corresponded well with their influence on adaptive behavior.

  7. Value-based decision-making battery: A Bayesian adaptive approach to assess impulsive and risky behavior.

    PubMed

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Bernhardt, Nadine; Guevara, Alvaro; Huys, Quentin J M; Smolka, Michael N

    2017-03-13

    Using simple mathematical models of choice behavior, we present a Bayesian adaptive algorithm to assess measures of impulsive and risky decision making. Practically, these measures are characterized by discounting rates and are used to classify individuals or population groups, to distinguish unhealthy behavior, and to predict developmental courses. However, a constant demand for improved tools to assess these constructs remains unanswered. The algorithm is based on trial-by-trial observations. At each step, a choice is made between immediate (certain) and delayed (risky) options. Then the current parameter estimates are updated by the likelihood of observing the choice, and the next offers are provided from the indifference point, so that they will acquire the most informative data based on the current parameter estimates. The procedure continues for a certain number of trials in order to reach a stable estimation. The algorithm is discussed in detail for the delay discounting case, and results from decision making under risk for gains, losses, and mixed prospects are also provided. Simulated experiments using prescribed parameter values were performed to justify the algorithm in terms of the reproducibility of its parameters for individual assessments, and to test the reliability of the estimation procedure in a group-level analysis. The algorithm was implemented as an experimental battery to measure temporal and probability discounting rates together with loss aversion, and was tested on a healthy participant sample.

  8. Eye regression in blind Astyanax cavefish may facilitate the evolution of an adaptive behavior and its sensory receptors.

    PubMed

    Borowsky, Richard

    2013-07-11

    The forces driving the evolutionary loss or simplification of traits such as vision and pigmentation in cave animals are still debated. Three alternative hypotheses are direct selection against the trait, genetic drift, and indirect selection due to antagonistic pleiotropy. Recent work establishes that Astyanax cavefish exhibit vibration attraction behavior (VAB), a presumed behavioral adaptation to finding food in the dark not exhibited by surface fish. Genetic analysis revealed two regions in the genome with quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both VAB and eye size. These observations were interpreted as genetic evidence that selection for VAB indirectly drove eye regression through antagonistic pleiotropy and, further, that this is a general mechanism to account for regressive evolution. These conclusions are unsupported by the data; the analysis fails to establish pleiotropy and ignores the numerous other QTL that map to, and potentially interact, in the same regions. It is likely that all three forces drive evolutionary change. We will be able to distinguish among them in individual cases only when we have identified the causative alleles and characterized their effects.

  9. Emotional Development and Adaptive Abilities in Adults with Intellectual Disability. A Correlation Study between the Scheme of Appraisal of Emotional Development (SAED) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Lassi, Stefano; Bertelli, Marco; Albertini, Giorgio; Dosen, Anton

    2009-01-01

    The importance of emotional aspects in developing cognitive and social abilities has already been underlined by many authors even if there is no unanimous agreement on the factors constituting adaptive abilities, nor is there any on the way to measure them or on the relation between adaptive ability and cognitive level. The purposes of this study…

  10. Adaptive echolocation behavior in bats for the analysis of auditory scenes

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Echolocating bats emit sonar pulses and listen to returning echoes to probe their surroundings. Bats adapt their echolocation call design to cope with dynamic changes in the acoustic environment, including habitat change or the presence of nearby conspecifics/heterospecifics. Seven pairs of big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were tested in this study to examine how they adjusted their echolocation calls when flying and competing with a conspecific for food. Results showed that differences in five call parameters, start/end frequencies, duration, bandwidth and sweep rate, significantly increased in the two-bat condition compared with the baseline data. In addition, the magnitude of spectral separation of calls was negatively correlated with the baseline call design differences in individual bats. Bats with small baseline call frequency differences showed larger increases in call frequency separation when paired than those with large baseline call frequency differences, suggesting that bats actively change their sonar call structure if pre-existing differences in call design are small. Call design adjustments were also influenced by physical spacing between two bats. Calls of paired bats exhibited the largest design separations when inter-bat distance was shorter than 0.5 m, and the separation decreased as the spacing increased. All individuals modified at least one baseline call parameter in response to the presence of another conspecific. We propose that dissimilarity between the time–frequency features of sonar calls produced by different bats aids each individual in segregating echoes of its own sonar vocalizations from the acoustic signals of neighboring bats. PMID:19376960

  11. Analysis of modes and behavior of a multiconjugate adaptive optics system.

    PubMed

    Le Louarn, Miska; Tallon, Michel

    2002-05-01

    We study the so-called three-dimensional mapping of turbulence, a method solving the cone effect (or focus anisoplanatism) by using multiple laser guide stars (LGSs). This method also permits a widening of the corrected field of view much beyond the isoplanatic field. Multiple deformable mirrors, conjugated to planes at chosen altitudes among the turbulent layers, are used to correct in real time the wave fronts measured from the LGSs. We construct an interaction matrix describing the multiconjugate adaptive optics system and analyze the eigenmodes of the system. We show that the global tilt mode is singular because it cannot be localized in altitude, so that it must be corrected only once at any altitude. Furthermore, when the tilt from the LGS cannot be measured, the singularity of the global tilt yields the delocalization of particular forms of defocus and astigmatism. This imposes the use of a single natural guide star located anywhere in the corrected field to measure these modes. We show as an example that the cone effect can be corrected with a Strehl of 0.8 with four LGSs (tilt ignored) on an 8-m telescope in the visible when a single laser star provides a Strehl of 0.1. The maximum field of view of 100 arc sec in diameter can be reconstructed with an on-axis Strehl ratio of 30%. We also show that the measurement of the height of the layers can be done with current techniques and that additional layers, not accounted for, do not significantly degrade the performance in the configuration that we model.

  12. Twenty years of student sexual behavior: subcultural adaptations to a changing health environment.

    PubMed

    Netting, Nancy S; Burnett, Matthew L

    2004-01-01

    This twenty-year study analyzes changes in sexual behavior among students at Okanagan University College in British Columbia, Canada. Surveys conducted in 1980, 1990, and 2000 reveal a steady increase in safer sexual practices. Most students now question potential partners about their past, use condoms with a new sexual partner, and maintain fairly long-term monogamous relationships. Three sexual subcultures continue to coexist in fairly stable proportions: celibacy (about 30%), monogamy (about 60%), and free experimentation (about 10%). Each subculture has created its own response to the danger of HIV/AIDS: celibates exaggerate the danger they face, monogamists rely on love and fidelity for protection, and free experimenters have increased their use of condoms. While romantic feelings lead many monogamous couples to abandon condoms without objective HIV/AIDS knowledge, free experimenters still face the highest risk. Although they now use condoms more than half the time, their lifestyle, which involves multiple partners, risky sexual acts, and frequent drug and/or alcohol use, clearly remains dangerous. The persistence of distinct subcultures has implications for health education programs, which would be most effective if based on key values held by specific target groups.

  13. Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Case Examples

    PubMed Central

    Weingarden, Hilary; Marques, Luana; Fang, Angela; LeBlanc, Nicole; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Phillips, Katharine A.; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) have distressing or impairing preoccupations with imagined or slight defects in their appearance (e.g., nose too big). BDD is a severe psychiatric disorder often associated with high rates of suicidality as well as social and occupational impairment (Phillips, Coles et al., 2005). Researchers have only recently begun to investigate psychological treatments for BDD, with available data suggesting that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) appears efficacious for BDD (Williams, Hadjistavropoulos, & Sharpe, 2006). To our knowledge, however, there are no reports of whether CBT for BDD can be effectively generalized to ethnic minority and other special populations. The current report suggests specific modifications within the CBT for BDD framework that might improve the effectiveness and retention rates of CBT among ethnic minority patients with BDD. Specifically, the present study describes the cases of Ben*, a 40-year-old, Jewish, married male, and John, a 30-year-old, African American, single male, both with a primary diagnosis of BDD. Various treatment techniques were used to make the course of CBT more culturally responsive. This case report illustrates the challenges and benefits of integrating cultural variables into a CBT framework for BDD, and it highlights the need for more work in this area. PMID:25346783

  14. Decision Support from Local Data: Creating Adaptive Order Menus from Past Clinician Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Jeffrey G.; Szolovits, Peter; Downs, Stephen; Schadow, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Objective Reducing care variability through guidelines has significantly benefited patients. Nonetheless, guideline-based clinical decision support (CDS) systems are not widely implemented or used, are frequently out-of-date, and cannot address complex care for which guidelines do not exist. Here, we develop and evaluate a complementary approach - using Bayesian network (BN) learning to generate adaptive, context-specific treatment menus based on local order-entry data. These menus can be used as a draft for expert review, in order to minimize development time for local decision support content. This is in keeping with the vision outlined in the US Health Information Technology Strategic Plan, which describes a healthcare system that learns from itself. Materials and Methods We used the Greedy Equivalence Search algorithm to learn four 50-node domain-specific BNs from 11,344 encounters: abdominal pain in the emergency department, inpatient pregnancy, hypertension in the urgent visit clinic, and altered mental state in the intensive care unit. We developed a system to produce situation-specific, rank-ordered treatment menus from these networks. We evaluated this system with a hospital-simulation methodology and computed Area Under the Receiver-Operator Curve (AUC) and average menu position at time of selection. We also compared this system with a similar association-rule-mining approach. Results A short order menu on average contained the next order (weighted average length 3.91–5.83 items). Overall predictive ability was good: average AUC above 0.9 for 25% of order types and overall average AUC .714–.844 (depending on domain). However, AUC had high variance (.50–.99). Higher AUC correlated with tighter clusters and more connections in the graphs, indicating importance of appropriate contextual data. Comparison with an association rule mining approach showed similar performance for only the most common orders with dramatic divergence as orders are less

  15. ADAPTATION OF THE BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT AND RESEARCH SYSTEM (BARS) FOR EVALUATING NEUROBEHAVIORAL PERFORMANCE IN FILIPINO CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Rohlman, Diane S.; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Ramos, Essie Ann M.; Mateo, Patrocinio C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; McCauley, Linda; Ostrea, Enrique M.

    2008-01-01

    Neurobehavioral tests have long been used to assess health effects in exposed working adult populations. The heightened concern over the potential impact of environmental exposures on neurological functioning in children has led to the development of test batteries for use with children. There is a need for reliable, easy-to-administer batteries to assess neurotoxic exposure in children. One such test battery previously validated with Spanish- and English-speaking children ages 4 and older, combines computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) with non-computerized tests. The goal of the present study was to determine the feasibility of using standardized neurobehavioral tests in preschool and school-aged Filipino children. Test instructions were translated into the vernacular, Tagalog or Tagalog-English (“Taglish”) and some instructions and materials were modified to be appropriate for the target populations. The battery was administered to 4 to 6 year old Filipino children (N=50). The performance of the Filipino children was compared to data previously collected from Spanish- and English-speaking children tested in the US. The majority of children had no difficulty completing the tests in the battery with the exception of the Symbol-Digit test and Digit Span-reverse. The three groups showed similar patterns of performance on the tests and the older children performed better than the younger children on all of the tests. The findings from this study demonstrate the utility of using this test battery to assess cognitive and motor performance in Filipino children. Tests in the battery assess a range of functions and the measures are sensitive to age differences. The current battery has been utilized in several cultures and socio-economic status classes, with only minor modifications needed. This study demonstrates the importance of pilot testing the methods before use in a new population, to ensure that the test is valid for that

  16. The translation and cultural adaptation of the Child Behavior Checklist for use in Israel (Hebrew), Korea, the US (Spanish), India (Malayalam and Kannada), and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Diane; Furtado, Tamzin; Angalakuditi, Mallik

    2012-01-01

    Background The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a caregiver rating scale for assessing the behavioral profile of children. It was developed in the US, and has been extensively translated and used in a large number of studies internationally. Objective The objective of this study was to translate the CBCL into six languages using a rigorous translation methodology, placing particular emphasis on cultural adaptation and ensuring that the measure has content validity with carers of children with epilepsy. Methods A rigorous translation and cultural adaptation methodology was used. This is a process which includes two forward translations, reconciliation, two back-translations, and cognitive debriefing interviews with five carers of children with epilepsy in each country. In addition, a series of open-ended questions were asked of the carers in order to provide evidence of content validity. Results A number of cultural adaptations were made during the translation process. This included adaptations to the examples of sports and hobbies. An addition of “milk delivery” was made to the job examples in the Malayalam translation. In addition, two sexual problem items were removed from the Hebrew translation for Israel. Conclusion An additional six translations of the CBCL are now available for use in multinational studies. These translations have evidence of content validity for use with parents of children with epilepsy and have been appropriately culturally adapted so that they are acceptable for use in the target countries. The study highlights the importance of a rigorous translation process and the process of cultural adaptation. PMID:22715318

  17. Substance Abuse, Coping Strategies, Adaptive Skills and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Clients with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability Admitted to a Treatment Facility: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…

  18. Toolkit for Adapting Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) or Supporting Students Exposed to Trauma (SSET) for Implementation with Youth in Foster Care. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Dana; Barnes-Proby, Dionne; Chandra, Anita; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Maher, Erin; Pecora, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) was developed for use by school-based mental health professionals for any student with symptoms of distress following exposure to trauma. The Supporting Students Exposed to Trauma (SSET) was adapted from CBITS for use by any school personnel with the time and interest to work with…

  19. Establishment of Joint Attention in Dyads Involving Hearing Mothers of Deaf and Hearing Children, and Its Relation to Adaptive Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Mounting evidence points to joint attention as a mediating variable in children's adaptive behavior. Joint attention in interactions between hearing mothers and congenitally deaf (n = 27) and hearing (n = 29) children, ages 18-36 months, was examined. All deaf children had severe to profound hearing loss. Mother-child interactions were coded for…

  20. A comparison of grazing behavior between desert adapted Mexican Criollo cattle and temperate british breeds using two diverse landscapes in New Mexico and Chihuahua.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to test how grazing behaviors differ between desert adapted Mexican criollo cattle and temperate British beef breeds, to learn how each breed interacts with environments common to the southwestern US and northwestern Mexico. Additionally, criollo cattle may be a better breed ...

  1. Second Year Validation Studies of the Brockton Battery: A Special Needs Assessment for Linguistic Minority Students. (The Tests of Reading Readiness and the Scales of Adaptive Behavior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennett, Kenneth H.

    Procedures are described to determine reliability and validity of the Brockton (Massachusetts) Battery's Tests of Reading Readiness and the Adaptive Behavior Scales, which were developed to assess performance levels of Hispanic, Portuguese, and Cape Verdean normal and high risk children. Among reasons given for development of the instruments are…

  2. A Systematic Review of Behavioral Intervention Research on Adaptive Skill Building in High-Functioning Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert; Lang, Russell

    2012-01-01

    This review involved a systematic search and analysis of behavioral intervention studies aimed at improving adaptive skills in high-functioning young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Through electronic databases and hand searching, 20 studies were identified meeting pre-determined inclusion criteria. Studies were summarized and analysed in…

  3. Viruses roll the dice: the stochastic behavior of viral genome molecules accelerates viral adaptation at the cell and tissue levels.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Shuhei; Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Kishino, Hirohisa; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies on evolutionarily distant viral groups have shown that the number of viral genomes that establish cell infection after cell-to-cell transmission is unexpectedly small (1-20 genomes). This aspect of viral infection appears to be important for the adaptation and survival of viruses. To clarify how the number of viral genomes that establish cell infection is determined, we developed a simulation model of cell infection for tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), a positive-strand RNA virus. The model showed that stochastic processes that govern the replication or degradation of individual genomes result in the infection by a small number of genomes, while a large number of infectious genomes are introduced in the cell. It also predicted two interesting characteristics regarding cell infection patterns: stochastic variation among cells in the number of viral genomes that establish infection and stochastic inequality in the accumulation of their progenies in each cell. Both characteristics were validated experimentally by inoculating tobacco cells with a library of nucleotide sequence-tagged ToMV and analyzing the viral genomes that accumulated in each cell using a high-throughput sequencer. An additional simulation model revealed that these two characteristics enhance selection during tissue infection. The cell infection model also predicted a mechanism that enhances selection at the cellular level: a small difference in the replication abilities of coinfected variants results in a large difference in individual accumulation via the multiple-round formation of the replication complex (i.e., the replication machinery). Importantly, this predicted effect was observed in vivo. The cell infection model was robust to changes in the parameter values, suggesting that other viruses could adopt similar adaptation mechanisms. Taken together, these data reveal a comprehensive picture of viral infection processes including replication, cell-to-cell transmission, and evolution

  4. Evolution of an adaptive behavior and its sensory receptors promotes eye regression in blind cavefish: response to Borowsky (2013).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; O'Quin, Kelly E; Jeffery, William R

    2013-07-11

    Vibration attraction behavior (VAB) is the swimming of fish toward an oscillating object, a behavior that is likely adaptive because it increases foraging efficiency in darkness. VAB is seen in a small proportion of Astyanax surface-dwelling populations (surface fish) but is pronounced in cave-dwelling populations (cavefish). In a recent study, we identified two quantitative trait loci for VAB on Astyanax linkage groups 2 and 17. We also demonstrated that a small population of superficial neuromast sensors located within the eye orbit (EO SN) facilitate VAB, and two quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for EO SN that were congruent with those for VAB. Finally, we showed that both VAB and EO SN are negatively correlated with eye size, and that two (of several) QTL for eye size overlap VAB and EO SN QTLs. From these results, we concluded that the adaptive evolution of VAB and EO SN has contributed to the indirect loss of eyes in cavefish, either as a result of pleiotropy or tight physical linkage of the mutations underlying these traits. In a subsequent commentary, Borowsky argues that there is poor experimental support for our conclusions. Specifically, Borowsky states that: (1) linkage groups (LGs) 2 and 17 harbor QTL for many traits and, therefore, no evidence exists for an exclusive interaction among the overlapping VAB, EO SN and eye size QTL; (2) some of the QTL we identified are too broad (>20 cM) to support the hypothesis of correlated evolution due to pleiotropy or hitchhiking; and (3) VAB is unnecessary to explain the indirect evolution of eye-loss since the negative polarity of numerous eye QTL is consistent with direct selection against eyes. Borowsky further argues that (4) it is difficult to envision an evolutionary scenario whereby VAB and EO SN drive eye loss, since the eyes must first be reduced in order to increase the number of EO SN and, therefore, VAB. In this response, we explain why the evidence of one trait influencing eye reduction

  5. Ontogenetic behavior and migration of Volga River Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, with a note on adaptive significance of body color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Z.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments with Volga River Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, to develop a conceptual model of early behavior. We daily observed fish from day-0 (embryos, first life interval after hatching) to day-29 feeding larvae for preference of bright habitat and cover, swimming distance above the bottom, up- and downstream movement, and diel activity. Hatchling embryos initiated a downstream migration, which suggests that predation risk of embryos at spawning sites is high. Migration peaked on days 0-5 and ceased on day 7 (8-day migration). Migrants preferred bright, open habitat and early migrants swam-up far above the bottom (maximum daily median, 140 cm) in a vertical swim tube. Post-migrant embryos did not prefer bright illumination but continued to prefer white substrate, increased use of cover habitat, and swam on the bottom. Larvae initiated feeding on day 10 after 170.6 cumulative temperature degree-days. Larvae did not migrate, weakly preferred bright illumination, preferred white substrate and open habitat, and swam near the bottom (daily median 5-78 cm). The lack of a strong preference by larvae for bright illumination suggests foraging relies more on olfaction than vision for locating prey. A short migration by embryos would disperse wild sturgeon from a spawning area, but larvae did not migrate, so a second later migration by juveniles disperses young sturgeon to the sea (2-step migration). Embryo and larva body color was light tan and tail color was black. The migration, behavior, and light body color of Russian sturgeon embryos was similar to species of Acipenser and Scaphirhynchus in North America and to Acipenser in Asia that migrate after hatching as embryos. The similarity in migration style and body color among species with diverse phylogenies likely reflects convergence for common adaptations across biogeographic regions. ?? 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  6. Competition and time-dependent behavior in spatial iterated prisoner’s dilemma incorporating adaptive zero-determinant strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Xu, Chen; Liu, Jie; Hui, Pak Ming

    2016-10-01

    We propose and study the competitiveness of a class of adaptive zero-determinant strategies (ZDSs) in a population with spatial structure against four classic strategies in iterated prisoner’s dilemma. Besides strategy updating via a probabilistic mechanism by imitating the strategy of a better performing opponent, players using the ZDSs can also adapt their strategies to take advantage of their local competing environment with another probability. The adapted ZDSs could be extortionate-like to avoid being continually cheated by defectors or to take advantage of unconditional cooperators. The adapted ZDSs could also be a compliance strategy so as to cooperate with the conditionally cooperative players. This flexibility makes adaptive ZDSs more competitive than nonadaptive ZDSs. Results show that adaptive ZDSs can either dominate over other strategies or at least coexist with them when the ZDSs are allowed to adapt more readily than to imitate other strategies. The effectiveness of the adaptive ZDSs relies on how fast they can adapt to the competing environment before they are replaced by other strategies. The adaptive ZDSs generally work well as they could adapt gradually and make use of other strategies for suppressing their enemies. When adaptation happens more readily than imitation for the ZDSs, they outperform other strategies over a wide range of cost-to-benefit ratios.

  7. Investigation of the Association Between Motor Stereotypy Behavior With Fundamental Movement Skills, Adaptive Functioning, and Autistic Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Children With Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Powell, Joanne L; Pringle, Lydia; Greig, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Motor stereotypy behaviors are patterned, coordinated, repetitive behaviors that are particularly evident in those with an autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities. The extent to which motor stereotypy behavior severity is associated with motor skills and maladaptive behavior, measures of adaptive functioning, along with fundamental movement skills and degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology is assessed in this preliminary report. Twelve participants, aged 7 to 16 years, with a reported motor stereotypy behavior and either mild or severe intellectual disability comprising developmental or global delay took part in the study. Spearman rho correlational analysis showed that severity of motor stereotypy behavior was significantly positively correlated with autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .008) and maladaptive behavior ( P = .008) but not fundamental movement skills ( P > .05). An increase in fundamental movement skills score was associated with a decrease in autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .01) and an increase in motor skills ( P = .002). This study provides evidence showing a significant relationship between motor stereotypy behavior severity with degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology and maladaptive behavior.

  8. Behavioral adaptation among youth exposed to community violence: a longitudinal multidisciplinary study of family, peer and neighborhood-level protective factors.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

    2013-12-01

    Several studies across fields have documented the detrimental effects of exposure to violence and, separately, the power of developmental assets to promote positive youth development. However, few have examined the lives of youth exposed to violence who demonstrate resilience (that is, positive adjustment despite risk), and hardly any have examined how developmental assets may shape resilient trajectories into adulthood for youth exposed to violence. What are these resources and relationships that high-risk youth can leverage to tip the balance from vulnerability in favor of resilience? We used generalized estimating equations to examine multilevel longitudinal data from 1,114 youth of ages 11-16 from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Behavioral adaptation was a dynamic process that varied over time and by level of violence exposure. In the short term, being a victim was associated with increased aggression and delinquency. In the long term though, both victims and witnesses to violence had higher odds of behavioral adaptation. Baseline family support and family boundaries, friend support, neighborhood support, and collective efficacy had positive main effects for all youth. Additionally, having family support, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities for participation modified the effect of exposure to violence and increased odds of behavioral adaptation over time. Policies, systems, and programs across sectors should focus on building caring relationships/supports with family members and friends, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities especially for witnesses and victims of violence, to promote behavioral resilience and related outcomes into adulthood for high-risk youth.

  9. Developmental exposure to a complex PAH mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of PAH-adapted killifish

    PubMed Central

    DR, Brown; JM, Bailey; AN, Oliveri; ED, Levin; RT, Di Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Acute exposures to some individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures are known to cause cardiac malformations and edema in the developing fish embryo. However, the heart is not the only organ impacted by developmental PAH exposure. The developing brain is also affected, resulting in lasting behavioral dysfunction. While acute exposures to some PAHs are teratogenically lethal in fish, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower dose subteratogenic PAH exposures. We sought to determine and characterize the long-term behavioral consequences of subteratogenic developmental PAH mixture exposure in both naive killifish and PAH-adapted killifish using sediment pore water derived from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site. Killifish offspring were embryonically treated with two low-level PAH mixture dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE) (TPAH 5.04 μg/L and 50.4 μg/L) at 24 hours post fertilization. Following exposure, killifish were raised to larval, juvenile, and adult life stages and subjected to a series of behavioral tests including: a locomotor activity test (4 days post-hatch), a sensorimotor response tap/habituation test (3 months post hatch), and a novel tank diving and exploration test (3 months post hatch). Killifish were also monitored for survival at 1, 2, and 5 months over 5-month rearing period. Developmental PAH exposure caused short-term as well as persistent behavioral impairments in naïve killifish. In contrast, the PAH-adapted killifish did not show behavioral alterations following PAH exposure. PAH mixture exposure caused increased mortality in reference killifish over time; yet, the PAH-adapted killifish, while demonstrating long-term rearing mortality, had no significant changes in mortality associated with ERSE exposure. This study demonstrated that early embryonic exposure to PAH-contaminated sediment pore water caused long-term locomotor and behavioral alterations in

  10. Developmental exposure to a complex PAH mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of PAH-adapted killifish.

    PubMed

    Brown, D R; Bailey, J M; Oliveri, A N; Levin, E D; Di Giulio, R T

    2016-01-01

    Acute exposures to some individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures are known to cause cardiac malformations and edema in the developing fish embryo. However, the heart is not the only organ impacted by developmental PAH exposure. The developing brain is also affected, resulting in lasting behavioral dysfunction. While acute exposures to some PAHs are teratogenically lethal in fish, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower dose subteratogenic PAH exposures. We sought to determine and characterize the long-term behavioral consequences of subteratogenic developmental PAH mixture exposure in both naive killifish and PAH-adapted killifish using sediment pore water derived from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site. Killifish offspring were embryonically treated with two low-level PAH mixture dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE) (TPAH 5.04 μg/L and 50.4 μg/L) at 24h post fertilization. Following exposure, killifish were raised to larval, juvenile, and adult life stages and subjected to a series of behavioral tests including: a locomotor activity test (4 days post-hatch), a sensorimotor response tap/habituation test (3 months post hatch), and a novel tank diving and exploration test (3months post hatch). Killifish were also monitored for survival at 1, 2, and 5 months over 5-month rearing period. Developmental PAH exposure caused short-term as well as persistent behavioral impairments in naive killifish. In contrast, the PAH-adapted killifish did not show behavioral alterations following PAH exposure. PAH mixture exposure caused increased mortality in reference killifish over time; yet, the PAH-adapted killifish, while demonstrating long-term rearing mortality, had no significant changes in mortality associated with ERSE exposure. This study demonstrated that early embryonic exposure to PAH-contaminated sediment pore water caused long-term locomotor and behavioral alterations in

  11. Behavioral Health and Performance Operations at the NASA Johnson Space Center: A Comprehensive Program that Addresses Flight and Spaceflight Duty Adaptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beven, G. E.

    2017-01-01

    NASA astronauts on active status require medical certification for aircraft flying duties as well as readiness for long duration spaceflight training, launch to the International Space Station (ISS), and mission continuation during spaceflight operations. Behavioral fitness and adaptability is an inherent component of medical certification at NASA and requires a unique approach that spans the professional life-span of all active astronauts. TOPIC: This presentation will address the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) operations program at the Johnson Space Center. Components of BHP operations include astronaut selection, as well as annual, elective, preflight, inflight, and postflight BHP assessments. Each aspect of the BHP operations program will be discussed, with a focus on behavioral fitness determination and resultant outcomes. Specifically, astronaut selection generates a rating of suitability for long duration spaceflight as well as psychiatric qualification; annual, preflight and postflight BHP assessments provoke a decision regarding the presence of any aeromedical concerns; and inflight assessment requires a conclusion pertaining to mission impact. The combination of these elements provide for a unique, comprehensive approach to flight and spaceflight adaptability. APPLICATIONS: Attendees will understand the differing facets of NASA's comprehensive BHP operations program that occurs over the course of an astronaut's career and be able to compare and contrast this to the Adaptability Rating for Military Aviation (ARMA) and proposed models presented by others on this panel.

  12. Curriculum Adaptations for Students with Learning and Behavior Problems: Differentiating Instruction to Meet Diverse Needs. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, John J.; Patton, James R.

    2005-01-01

    This popular book in its third edition shows inclusive and special educators in elementary and special education how to adapt curricula for students with diverse needs. The contents of this updated and expanded edition reflect the most current and practical adaptation issues necessary to successfully differentiate curriculum and instruction for…

  13. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E

    2015-04-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed.

  14. Farmer Health and Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change and Variability. Part 2: Contexts, Personal Attributes and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Anthony; Bode, Adam; Berry, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study extends the emerging body of research on farmer adaptation to climate change, by segmenting farmers on the basis of specific attributes (health, values, belief about climate change, sense of responsibility for climate change, desire to change, social, human and financial capitals and farmer demographics) and considering such attributes as critical social aspects of the contextualized capacity to adapt. The segmental analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of 3,993 farmers concerned with farmer adaptation of climate risks. The resulting data were subjected to two-step cluster analysis to identify homogenous groups of farmers based on factors related to climate change adaptation. A three-cluster solution was identified wherein farmers were distinguishable on the basis of belief in climate change, desire for financial assistance and advice, social connectedness, information seeking, and adverse farm conditions. The largest group (Cluster 1: 55%) was characterized by farmers who recognized being affected by drought and drying and who were actively engaged in adaptive practices, despite the fact that they had little income and poor farm resources. One third of these farmers reported that their health was a barrier to sustained activity in farming. Cluster 2 (26%) was characterized by farmers not readily affected by drying, who enjoyed good incomes, good health and better farming conditions. They expressed little desire to adapt. The smallest cluster (Cluster 3: 19%) was also characterized by farmers who recognized that they were affected by drying. However, despite a desire to adapt, they had very little means to do so. They reported the poorest natural resources and the poorest health, despite being younger. The findings suggest that it is the intent to adapt, starting from where people are at, which is a more important indicator of the capacity to work towards sustainable practices than assets tests alone. PMID:22073028

  15. Convergence behavior that controls adaptive wind tunnel walls near the test section in the high angle of attack range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemann, J.

    1982-01-01

    The NACA 0012 profile at Mach 0.5 was investigated in a wind tunnel with adaptive walls. It is found that adaptation of the flexible walls is possible in the high angle of attack range on both sides of maximum lift. Oil film photographs of the flow at the profile surface show three dimensional effects in the region of the corners between the profile and the sidewall. It is concluded that pure two dimensional separated flow is not possible.

  16. Farmer health and adaptive capacity in the face of climate change and variability. Part 2: Contexts, personal attributes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Anthony; Bode, Adam; Berry, Helen

    2011-10-01

    This study extends the emerging body of research on farmer adaptation to climate change, by segmenting farmers on the basis of specific attributes (health, values, belief about climate change, sense of responsibility for climate change, desire to change, social, human and financial capitals and farmer demographics) and considering such attributes as critical social aspects of the contextualized capacity to adapt. The segmental analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of 3,993 farmers concerned with farmer adaptation of climate risks. The resulting data were subjected to two-step cluster analysis to identify homogenous groups of farmers based on factors related to climate change adaptation. A three-cluster solution was identified wherein farmers were distinguishable on the basis of belief in climate change, desire for financial assistance and advice, social connectedness, information seeking, and adverse farm conditions. The largest group (Cluster 1: 55%) was characterized by farmers who recognized being affected by drought and drying and who were actively engaged in adaptive practices, despite the fact that they had little income and poor farm resources. One third of these farmers reported that their health was a barrier to sustained activity in farming. Cluster 2 (26%) was characterized by farmers not readily affected by drying, who enjoyed good incomes, good health and better farming conditions. They expressed little desire to adapt. The smallest cluster (Cluster 3: 19%) was also characterized by farmers who recognized that they were affected by drying. However, despite a desire to adapt, they had very little means to do so. They reported the poorest natural resources and the poorest health, despite being younger. The findings suggest that it is the intent to adapt, starting from where people are at, which is a more important indicator of the capacity to work towards sustainable practices than assets tests alone.

  17. An embodied biologically constrained model of foraging: from classical and operant conditioning to adaptive real-world behavior in DAC-X.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Giovanni; Santos-Pata, Diogo; Marcos, Encarni; Sánchez-Fibla, Marti; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2015-12-01

    Animals successfully forage within new environments by learning, simulating and adapting to their surroundings. The functions behind such goal-oriented behavior can be decomposed into 5 top-level objectives: 'how', 'why', 'what', 'where', 'when' (H4W). The paradigms of classical and operant conditioning describe some of the behavioral aspects found in foraging. However, it remains unclear how the organization of their underlying neural principles account for these complex behaviors. We address this problem from the perspective of the Distributed Adaptive Control theory of mind and brain (DAC) that interprets these two paradigms as expressing properties of core functional subsystems of a layered architecture. In particular, we propose DAC-X, a novel cognitive architecture that unifies the theoretical principles of DAC with biologically constrained computational models of several areas of the mammalian brain. DAC-X supports complex foraging strategies through the progressive acquisition, retention and expression of task-dependent information and associated shaping of action, from exploration to goal-oriented deliberation. We benchmark DAC-X using a robot-based hoarding task including the main perceptual and cognitive aspects of animal foraging. We show that efficient goal-oriented behavior results from the interaction of parallel learning mechanisms accounting for motor adaptation, spatial encoding and decision-making. Together, our results suggest that the H4W problem can be solved by DAC-X building on the insights from the study of classical and operant conditioning. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed biologically constrained and embodied approach towards the study of cognition and the relation of DAC-X to other cognitive architectures.

  18. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  19. Effectiveness of methylcobalamin and folinic Acid treatment on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder is related to glutathione redox status.

    PubMed

    Frye, Richard E; Melnyk, Stepan; Fuchs, George; Reid, Tyra; Jernigan, Stefanie; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Hubanks, Amanda; Gaylor, David W; Walters, Laura; James, S Jill

    2013-01-01

    Treatments targeting metabolic abnormalities in children with autism are limited. Previously we reported that a nutritional treatment significantly improved glutathione metabolism in children with autistic disorder. In this study we evaluated changes in adaptive behaviors in this cohort and determined whether such changes are related to changes in glutathione metabolism. Thirty-seven children diagnosed with autistic disorder and abnormal glutathione and methylation metabolism were treated with twice weekly 75 µg/Kg methylcobalamin and twice daily 400 µg folinic acid for 3 months in an open-label fashion. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) and glutathione redox metabolites were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Over the treatment period, all VABS subscales significantly improved with an average effect size of 0.59, and an average improvement in skills of 7.7 months. A greater improvement in glutathione redox status was associated with a greater improvement in expressive communication, personal and domestic daily living skills, and interpersonal, play-leisure, and coping social skills. Age, gender, and history of regression did not influence treatment response. The significant behavioral improvements observed and the relationship between these improvements to glutathione redox status suggest that nutritional interventions targeting redox metabolism may benefit some children with autism.

  20. Does disaster education of teenagers translate into better survival knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Codeanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Jacobs, Ian

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of people are affected worldwide by the effects of disasters, and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has recognized the need for a radical paradigm shift in the preparedness and combat of the effects of disasters through the implementation of specific actions. At the governmental level, these actions translate into disaster and risk reduction education and activities at school. Fifteen years after the UNISDR declaration, there is a need to know if the current methods of disaster education of the teenage population enhance their knowledge, knowledge of skills in disasters, and whether there is a behavioral change which would improve their chances for survival post disaster. This multidisciplinary systematic literature review showed that the published evidence regarding enhancing the disaster-related knowledge of teenagers and the related problem solving skills and behavior is piecemeal in design, approach, and execution in spite of consensus on the detrimental effects on injury rates and survival. There is some evidence that isolated school-based intervention enhances the theoretical disaster knowledge which may also extend to practical skills; however, disaster behavioral change is not forthcoming. It seems that the best results are obtained by combining theoretical and practical activities in school, family, community, and self-education programs. There is a still a pressing need for a concerted educational drive to achieve disaster preparedness behavioral change. School leavers' lack of knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change are detrimental to their chances of survival.

  1. Investigations on GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling in stress and stress adaptive behavior in electric foot shock subjected mice.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to explore the role of GSK-3β and NF-kB signaling in electric foot shock-induced stress and stress adaptation. Mice were subjected to foot shocks of 0.5mA intensity and 1s duration of 1h to produce acute stress. Animals were exposed to the same stressor for 5 days to induce stress adaptation. The behavioral alterations were assessed using the actophotometer, hole board, open field and social interaction tests. The serum corticosterone levels were assessed as a marker of the HPA axis. The levels of total GSK-3β, p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB were determined in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and amygdala. Acute electric foot shock stress produced behavioral and biochemical changes; decreased the levels of p-GSK-3β-S9, produced no change in total GSK-3β levels and increased p-NF-kB levels in the brain. However, repeated exposure of foot shock stress restored the behavioral and biochemical changes along with normalization of p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels. Administration of AR-A01, a selective GSK-3β inhibitor, or diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DDTC), a selective NF-kB inhibitor, diminished acute stress-induced behavioral and biochemical changes. Furthermore, AR-A014418 normalized acute stress-induced alterations in p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels, however, DDTC selectively restored NF-kB levels without any change in p-GSK-3β-S9 levels. It probably suggests that NF-kB is a downstream mediator of the GSK-3 signaling cascade. It may conclude that acute stress associated decrease in p-GSK-3β-S9 and increase in p-NF-kB levels in the brain contribute in the development of behavioral and biochemical alterations and normalization of GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling may contribute in stress adaptive behavior in response to repeated electric foot shock-subjected mice.

  2. Mexican American Women’s Perspectives on a Culturally Adapted Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Binge Eating

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary M.; Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Wang, Sherry; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) among Latinas is comparable to those of the general population; however, few interventions and treatment trial research have focused on this group. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for binge eating related disorders. CBT-based guided self-help (CBTgsh)—a low-cost minimal intervention—has also been shown effective in improving binge eating related symptom, but the effectiveness of the CBTgsh among ethnic minority women is not well understood. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments can be an important step for promoting treatment accessibility and engagement among underserved groups. This qualitative study was part of a larger investigation that examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally adapted CBTgsh program among Mexican American women with binge eating disorders. Post-treatment focus groups were conducted with 12 Mexican American women with BN or BED who participated in the intervention. Data were analyzed with the grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Three themes emerged from the data: 1) eating behavior and body ideals are socially and culturally constructed, 2) multifaceted support system is crucial to Mexican American women’s treatment engagement and success, and 3) the culturally adapted CBTgsh program is feasible and relevant to Mexican American women’s experience, but it can be strengthened with increased family and peer support. The findings provide suggestions for further adaptation and refinement of the CBTgsh, and implications for future research as well as early intervention for disordered eating in organized care settings. PMID:26462112

  3. Working Memory, Attention, Inhibition, and Their Relation to Adaptive Functioning and Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnove; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child…

  4. Projective-Cognitive Assessment of Thoughts and Feelings and Their Relationship to Adaptive Behavior in a Dental Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, W. Michael, III; Cholera, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Examined the interrelationships among coping statements, a self-report measure of anxiety, and maladaptive overt behavior in a dental situation. Subjects were 23 adolescents. Found that as disruptive "in-chair" overt behavior increased, so did the percentage of coping statements; as self-report levels of anxiety increased, the percentage of coping…

  5. "Starve a fever and feed a cold": feeding and anorexia may be adaptive behavioral modulators of autonomic and T helper balance.

    PubMed

    Bazar, Kimberly A; Yun, A Joon; Lee, Patrick Y

    2005-01-01

    Anorexia is a common symptom accompanying infections, but the teleology of the phenomenon remains unexplained. We hypothesize that anorexia may represent a prehistoric behavioral adaptation to fight infection by maintaining T helper (Th)2 bias, which is particularly vital in fighting bacterial pathogens. Specifically, we propose that anorexia may avert the reduction of Th2/Th1 ratio by preventing feeding-induced neurohormonal and vagal output from the gut. Emerging evidence suggests that the vagal and neurohormonal output of the gut during feeding promotes Th1 function, which is desirable in fighting viral infections. Since fever may be an adaptation to fight bacteria and "colds" are generally viral in origin, the adage "starve a fever and feed a cold" may reflect a sensible behavioral strategy to tilt autonomic and Th balance in directions that are optimal for fighting the particular type of infection. The ability to modulate T helper balance through the neurohormonal and autonomic axis by adjusting food intake may be the mechanism behind other unexplained clinical observations such as the improved outcomes of ICU patients after enteric versus parenteric feedings. Compared to the prehistoric period when bacterial infection was commonplace, the anorexic response may be less adaptive today when viruses and cancers have become common triggers of anorexia. By promoting host anorexia, cachexia, and insomnia, cancers and viruses can deter behaviors such as digestion and sleep that would raise vagal and Th1 activity against tumors and viruses. Hydration and sleep, unexplained but widely accepted recommendations for flu patients, may also work by promoting vagal and Th1 functions. Modulating feeding, hydration, and sleep may prove beneficial in treating other conditions associated with abnormal autonomic and Th balance.

  6. Mechanisms of social avoidance learning can explain the emergence of adaptive and arbitrary behavioral traditions in humans.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Many nonhuman animals preferentially copy the actions of others when the environment contains predation risk or other types of danger. In humans, the role of social learning in avoidance of danger is still unknown, despite the fundamental importance of social learning for complex social behaviors. Critically, many social behaviors, such as cooperation and adherence to religious taboos, are maintained by threat of punishment. However, the psychological mechanisms allowing threat of punishment to generate such behaviors, even when actual punishment is rare or absent, are largely unknown. To address this, we used both computer simulations and behavioral experiments. First, we constructed a model where simulated agents interacted under threat of punishment and showed that mechanisms' (a) tendency to copy the actions of others through social learning, together with (b) the rewarding properties of avoiding a threatening punishment, could explain the emergence, maintenance, and transmission of large-scale behavioral traditions, both when punishment is common and when it is rare or nonexistent. To provide empirical support for our model, including the 2 mechanisms, we conducted 4 experiments, showing that humans, if threatened with punishment, are exceptionally prone to copy and transmit the behavior observed in others. Our results show that humans, similar to many nonhuman animals, use social learning if the environment is perceived as dangerous. We provide a novel psychological and computational basis for a range of human behaviors characterized by the threat of punishment, such as the adherence to cultural norms and religious taboos.

  7. The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence--favorably evaluated in the West--for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The…

  8. Ontogenetic behavior, migration, and social behavior of pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, and shovelnose sturgeon, S. platorynchus, with notes on the adaptive significance of body color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Henyey, E.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory studies on the ontogenetic behavior of free embryos (first life interval after hatching) and larvae (first feeding interval) of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. Migration styles of both species were similar for timing of migration (initiation by embryos on day 0 after hatching and cessation by larvae on days 12-13 at 236-243 cumulative temperature degree units), migration distance (about 13 km), life interval when most distance was moved (embryo), and diel behavior of embryos (diurnal). However, the species differed for two behaviors: movement characteristics of embryos (peak movement rate of pallid sturgeon was only one-half the peak rate of shovelnose sturgeon, but pallid sturgeon continued the lower rate for twice as long) and diel behavior of larvae (pallid sturgeon were diurnal and shovelnose sturgeon were nocturnal). Thus, the species used different methods to move the same distance. Migrating as poorly developed embryos suggests a migration style to avoid predation at the spawning site, but moving from spawning habitat to rearing habitat before first feeding could also be important. Migrants of both species preferred bright habitat (high illumination intensity and white substrate), a behavioral preference that may characterize the migrants of many species of sturgeon. Both species were remarkably similar for swimming height above the bottom by age, and day 7 and older migrants may swim far above the bottom and move far downstream. A migration of 12 or 13 days will probably not distribute larvae throughout the population's range, so an older life interval likely initiates a second longer downstream migration (2-step migration). By day 2, individuals of both species were a black-tail phenotype (light grey body with a black-tail that moved conspicuously during swimming). Aggregation behavior suggests that black-tail is a visual signal used for group cohesion.

  9. Classification and adaptive behavior prediction of children with autism spectrum disorder based upon multivariate data analysis of markers of oxidative stress and DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Stepan; James, S. Jill; Hahn, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    The number of diagnosed cases of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased dramatically over the last four decades; however, there is still considerable debate regarding the underlying pathophysiology of ASD. This lack of biological knowledge restricts diagnoses to be made based on behavioral observations and psychometric tools. However, physiological measurements should support these behavioral diagnoses in the future in order to enable earlier and more accurate diagnoses. Stepping towards this goal of incorporating biochemical data into ASD diagnosis, this paper analyzes measurements of metabolite concentrations of the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism and transulfuration pathways taken from blood samples of 83 participants with ASD and 76 age-matched neurotypical peers. Fisher Discriminant Analysis enables multivariate classification of the participants as on the spectrum or neurotypical which results in 96.1% of all neurotypical participants being correctly identified as such while still correctly identifying 97.6% of the ASD cohort. Furthermore, kernel partial least squares is used to predict adaptive behavior, as measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite score, where measurement of five metabolites of the pathways was sufficient to predict the Vineland score with an R2 of 0.45 after cross-validation. This level of accuracy for classification as well as severity prediction far exceeds any other approach in this field and is a strong indicator that the metabolites under consideration are strongly correlated with an ASD diagnosis but also that the statistical analysis used here offers tremendous potential for extracting important information from complex biochemical data sets. PMID:28301476

  10. Classification and adaptive behavior prediction of children with autism spectrum disorder based upon multivariate data analysis of markers of oxidative stress and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Howsmon, Daniel P; Kruger, Uwe; Melnyk, Stepan; James, S Jill; Hahn, Juergen

    2017-03-01

    The number of diagnosed cases of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased dramatically over the last four decades; however, there is still considerable debate regarding the underlying pathophysiology of ASD. This lack of biological knowledge restricts diagnoses to be made based on behavioral observations and psychometric tools. However, physiological measurements should support these behavioral diagnoses in the future in order to enable earlier and more accurate diagnoses. Stepping towards this goal of incorporating biochemical data into ASD diagnosis, this paper analyzes measurements of metabolite concentrations of the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism and transulfuration pathways taken from blood samples of 83 participants with ASD and 76 age-matched neurotypical peers. Fisher Discriminant Analysis enables multivariate classification of the participants as on the spectrum or neurotypical which results in 96.1% of all neurotypical participants being correctly identified as such while still correctly identifying 97.6% of the ASD cohort. Furthermore, kernel partial least squares is used to predict adaptive behavior, as measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite score, where measurement of five metabolites of the pathways was sufficient to predict the Vineland score with an R2 of 0.45 after cross-validation. This level of accuracy for classification as well as severity prediction far exceeds any other approach in this field and is a strong indicator that the metabolites under consideration are strongly correlated with an ASD diagnosis but also that the statistical analysis used here offers tremendous potential for extracting important information from complex biochemical data sets.

  11. [Adaptation and quality of life in anorectal malformation: empirical findings, theoretical concept, Psychometric assessment, and cognitive-behavioral intervention].

    PubMed

    Noeker, Meinolf

    2010-01-01

    Anorectal malformations are inborn developmental defects that are associated with multiple functional Impairments (especially incontinence) and psychosocial burden with a major impact on body schema and self-esteem. Child psychology and psychiatry research begin to identify disorder-dependent and -independent risk and protective factors that predict the outcome of psychological adaptation and quality of life. The present paper analyses the interference of structural and functional disease parameters with the achievement of regular developmental tasks, presents a hypothetical conceptual framework concerning the development of psychological adaptation and quality of life in ARM, integrates findings from empirical research with the framework presented and outlines strategies of psychological support from a cognitive-behavioural perspective within a multidisciplinary treatment approach to enhance medical, functional, and psychosocial quality of life.

  12. Evaluating within-population variability in behavior and demography for the adaptive potential of a dispersal-limited species to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muñoz, David J.; Miller Hesed, Kyle; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Miller, David A.W.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple pathways exist for species to respond to changing climates. However, responses of dispersal-limited species will be more strongly tied to ability to adapt within existing populations as rates of environmental change will likely exceed movement rates. Here, we assess adaptive capacity in Plethodon cinereus, a dispersal-limited woodland salamander. We quantify plasticity in behavior and variation in demography to observed variation in environmental variables over a 5-year period. We found strong evidence that temperature and rainfall influence P. cinereus surface presence, indicating changes in climate are likely to affect seasonal activity patterns. We also found that warmer summer temperatures reduced individual growth rates into the autumn, which is likely to have negative demographic consequences. Reduced growth rates may delay reproductive maturity and lead to reductions in size-specific fecundity, potentially reducing population-level persistence. To better understand within-population variability in responses, we examined differences between two common color morphs. Previous evidence suggests that the color polymorphism may be linked to physiological differences in heat and moisture tolerance. We found only moderate support for morph-specific differences for the relationship between individual growth and temperature. Measuring environmental sensitivity to climatic variability is the first step in predicting species' responses to climate change. Our results suggest phenological shifts and changes in growth rates are likely responses under scenarios where further warming occurs, and we discuss possible adaptive strategies for resulting selective pressures.

  13. Systematic review of behavioral interventions with culturally-adapted strategies to improve diet and weight outcomes in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Angela; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral interventions incorporating features that are culturally salient to African-American women have emerged as one approach to address the high rates of obesity in this group. Yet, the systematic evaluation of this research is lacking. This review identified culturally-adapted strategies reported in behavioral interventions using a prescribed framework and examined the effectiveness of these interventions for diet and weight outcomes among African-American women. Publications from January 1, 1990 through December 31, 2012 were retrieved from four databases, yielding 28 interventions. Seventeen of 28 studies reported significant improvements in diet and/or weight change outcomes in treatment over comparison groups. The most commonly identified strategies reported were ‘socio-cultural’ (reflecting a group’s values and beliefs) and ‘constituent-involving’ (drawing from a group’s experiences). Studies with significant findings commonly reported ‘constituent-involving’ strategies during the formative phases of the intervention. Involving constituents early on may uncover key attributes of a target group and contribute to a greater understanding of the heterogeneity that exists even within racial/ethnic groups. Available evidence does not, however, explain how culturally-adapted strategies specifically influence outcomes. Greater attention to defining and measuring cultural variables and linking them to outcomes or related mediators are important next steps. PMID:25196407

  14. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B.; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  15. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS-II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS.

  16. Developmental Trajectories of Adaptive Behaviors from Early Childhood to Adolescence in a Cohort of 152 Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghdadli, Amaria; Assouline, Brigitte; Sonie, Sandrine; Pernon, Eric; Darrou, Celine; Michelon, Cecile; Picot, Marie-Christine; Aussilloux, Charles; Pry, Rene

    2012-01-01

    This study examines change in 152 children over an almost 10-year period (T1: 4.9 (plus or minus 1.3) years; T2: 8.1 (plus or minus 1.3) years; T3: 15(plus or minus 1.6) years) using a group-based, semi-parametric method in order to identify distinct developmental trajectories. Important deficits remain at adolescence in the adaptive abilities of…

  17. Automation and adaptation: Nurses' problem-solving behavior following the implementation of bar coded medication administration technology.

    PubMed

    Holden, Richard J; Rivera-Rodriguez, A Joy; Faye, Héléne; Scanlon, Matthew C; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2013-08-01

    The most common change facing nurses today is new technology, particularly bar coded medication administration technology (BCMA). However, there is a dearth of knowledge on how BCMA alters nursing work. This study investigated how BCMA technology affected nursing work, particularly nurses' operational problem-solving behavior. Cognitive systems engineering observations and interviews were conducted after the implementation of BCMA in three nursing units of a freestanding pediatric hospital. Problem-solving behavior, associated problems, and goals, were specifically defined and extracted from observed episodes of care. Three broad themes regarding BCMA's impact on problem solving were identified. First, BCMA allowed nurses to invent new problem-solving behavior to deal with pre-existing problems. Second, BCMA made it difficult or impossible to apply some problem-solving behaviors that were commonly used pre-BCMA, often requiring nurses to use potentially risky workarounds to achieve their goals. Third, BCMA created new problems that nurses were either able to solve using familiar or novel problem-solving behaviors, or unable to solve effectively. Results from this study shed light on hidden hazards and suggest three critical design needs: (1) ecologically valid design; (2) anticipatory control; and (3) basic usability. Principled studies of the actual nature of clinicians' work, including problem solving, are necessary to uncover hidden hazards and to inform health information technology design and redesign.

  18. Automation and adaptation: Nurses’ problem-solving behavior following the implementation of bar coded medication administration technology

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Richard J.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Faye, Héléne; Scanlon, Matthew C.; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2012-01-01

    The most common change facing nurses today is new technology, particularly bar coded medication administration technology (BCMA). However, there is a dearth of knowledge on how BCMA alters nursing work. This study investigated how BCMA technology affected nursing work, particularly nurses’ operational problem-solving behavior. Cognitive systems engineering observations and interviews were conducted after the implementation of BCMA in three nursing units of a freestanding pediatric hospital. Problem-solving behavior, associated problems, and goals, were specifically defined and extracted from observed episodes of care. Three broad themes regarding BCMA’s impact on problem solving were identified. First, BCMA allowed nurses to invent new problem-solving behavior to deal with pre-existing problems. Second, BCMA made it difficult or impossible to apply some problem-solving behaviors that were commonly used pre-BCMA, often requiring nurses to use potentially risky workarounds to achieve their goals. Third, BCMA created new problems that nurses were either able to solve using familiar or novel problem-solving behaviors, or unable to solve effectively. Results from this study shed light on hidden hazards and suggest three critical design needs: (1) ecologically valid design; (2) anticipatory control; and (3) basic usability. Principled studies of the actual nature of clinicians’ work, including problem solving, are necessary to uncover hidden hazards and to inform health information technology design and redesign. PMID:24443642

  19. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  20. Adapting a Tier 2 Behavioral Intervention, Check-in/Check-out, to Meet Students' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoszowski, Nicole Cain

    2014-01-01

    Check-in/check-out (CICO) is a resource-efficient, mentor-based, Tier 2 intervention. Various problem behaviors of students with and without disabilities across traditional and alternative school settings have been impacted positively by CICO. Not all students respond to the traditional, five-step approach, however. This article provides an…

  1. Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study with Two Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports…

  2. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  3. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Buspirone during Adolescence Reduce the Adverse Influences of Neonatal Inflammatory Pain and Stress on Adaptive Behavior in Adult Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Butkevich, Irina P; Mikhailenko, Viktor A; Vershinina, Elena A; Aloisi, Anna M; Barr, Gordon A

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal pain and stress induce long-term changes in pain sensitivity and behavior. Previously we found alterations in pain sensitivity in adolescent rats exposed to early-life adverse events. We tested whether these alterations have long-lasting effects and if those effects can be improved by the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist buspirone injected chronically during the adolescent period. This study investigates: (1) effects of inflammatory pain (the injection of formalin into the pad of a hind paw) or stress (short maternal deprivation-isolation, MI), or their combination in 1-2-day-old rats on the adult basal pain, formalin-induced pain, anxiety and depression; (2) effects of adolescent buspirone in adult rats that experienced similar early-life insults. Changes in nociceptive thresholds were evaluated using the hot plate (HP) and formalin tests; levels of anxiety and depression were assessed with the elevated plus maze and forced swim tests respectively. Both neonatal painful and stressful treatments induced long-term alterations in the forced swim test. Other changes in adult behavioral responses were dependent on the type of neonatal treatment. There was a notable lack of long-term effects of the combination of early inflammatory pain and stress of MI on the pain responses, anxiety levels or on the effects of adolescent buspirone. This study provides the first evidence that chronic injection of buspirone in adolescent rats alters antinociceptive and anxiolytic effects limited to adult rats that showed behavioral alterations induced by early-life adverse treatments. These data highlight the role of 5-HT1A receptors in long-term effects of neonatal inflammatory pain and stress of short MI on adaptive behavior and possibility of correction of the pain and psychoemotional behavior that were altered by adverse pain/stress intervention using buspirone during critical adolescent period.

  4. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Buspirone during Adolescence Reduce the Adverse Influences of Neonatal Inflammatory Pain and Stress on Adaptive Behavior in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Butkevich, Irina P.; Mikhailenko, Viktor A.; Vershinina, Elena A.; Aloisi, Anna M.; Barr, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal pain and stress induce long-term changes in pain sensitivity and behavior. Previously we found alterations in pain sensitivity in adolescent rats exposed to early-life adverse events. We tested whether these alterations have long-lasting effects and if those effects can be improved by the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist buspirone injected chronically during the adolescent period. This study investigates: (1) effects of inflammatory pain (the injection of formalin into the pad of a hind paw) or stress (short maternal deprivation-isolation, MI), or their combination in 1–2-day-old rats on the adult basal pain, formalin-induced pain, anxiety and depression; (2) effects of adolescent buspirone in adult rats that experienced similar early-life insults. Changes in nociceptive thresholds were evaluated using the hot plate (HP) and formalin tests; levels of anxiety and depression were assessed with the elevated plus maze and forced swim tests respectively. Both neonatal painful and stressful treatments induced long-term alterations in the forced swim test. Other changes in adult behavioral responses were dependent on the type of neonatal treatment. There was a notable lack of long-term effects of the combination of early inflammatory pain and stress of MI on the pain responses, anxiety levels or on the effects of adolescent buspirone. This study provides the first evidence that chronic injection of buspirone in adolescent rats alters antinociceptive and anxiolytic effects limited to adult rats that showed behavioral alterations induced by early-life adverse treatments. These data highlight the role of 5-HT1A receptors in long-term effects of neonatal inflammatory pain and stress of short MI on adaptive behavior and possibility of correction of the pain and psychoemotional behavior that were altered by adverse pain/stress intervention using buspirone during critical adolescent period. PMID:28184190

  5. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Eneli, Ihuoma U; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Lumeng, Julie C

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., age, education, ethnicity, and body mass index) examined mothers' intuitive eating and eating competence as predictors of four feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, and dividing feeding responsibilities with their child). Mothers who gave themselves unconditional permission to eat were less likely to restrict their child's food intake. Mothers who ate for physical (rather than emotional) reasons and had eating-related contextual skills (e.g., mindfulness when eating, planning regular and nutritious eating opportunities for themselves) were more likely to monitor their child's food intake. Mothers who had eating-related contextual skills were more likely to divide feeding responsibilities with their child. No maternal eating behavior predicted pressure to eat. Interventions to help mothers develop their eating-related contextual skills and eat intuitively, in particular, may translate into a more positive feeding environment for their young children.

  6. Short- and long-lasting behavioral and neurochemical adaptations: relationship with patterns of cocaine administration and expectation of drug effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Puig, S; Noble, F; Benturquia, N

    2012-10-23

    Cocaine dependence is a significant public health problem, characterized by periods of abstinence. Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse induces important modifications on neuronal systems, including the dopaminergic system. The pattern of administration is an important factor that should be taken into consideration to study the neuroadaptations. We compared the effects of intermittent (once daily) and binge (three times a day) cocaine treatments for 1 (WD1) and 14 (WD14) days after the last cocaine injection on spontaneous locomotor activity and dopamine (DA) levels in the nucleus accumbens (Nac). The intermittent treatment led to a spontaneous increase in DA (WD1/WD14), and in locomotor activity (WD1) at the exact hour which rats were habituated to receive a cocaine injection. These results underline that taking into consideration the hours of the day at which the experiments are performed is crucial. We also investigated these behavioral and neurochemical adaptations in response to an acute cocaine challenge on WD1 and WD14. We observed that only the binge treatment led to sensitization of locomotor effects of cocaine, associated to a DA release sensitization in the Nac, whereas the intermittent treatment did not. We demonstrate that two different patterns of administration induced distinct behavioral and neurochemical consequences. We unambiguously demonstrated that the intermittent treatment induced drug expectation associated with higher basal DA level in the Nac when measured at the time of chronic cocaine injection and that the binge treatment led to behavioral and sensitization effects of cocaine.

  7. The Influence of Temperature on Frictional Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed NiAl-Cr2O3 Based Self-Adaptive Nanocomposite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazani, M.; Ashrafizadeh, F.; Mozaffarinia, R.

    2013-10-01

    Frictional behavior of nano and hybrid-structured NiAl-Cr2O3-Ag-CNT-WS2 adaptive self-lubricant coatings was evaluated at a range of temperatures, from room temperature to 700 °C. For this purpose, hybrid structured (HS) and nanostructured (NS) composite powders with the same nominal compositions were prepared by spray drying and heat treatment techniques. A series of HS and NS coating samples were deposited on steel substrate by an atmospheric plasma spraying process. The tribological behavior of both coatings was studied from room temperature to 700 °C at 100° intervals using a custom designed high temperature wear test machine. Scanning electron microscopy was employed for the evaluation of the composite coatings and worn surfaces. Experimental results indicated that the hybrid coating had inferior tribological properties when compared to the nanostructured coating, showing the attractive frictional behavior on the basis of low friction and high wear resistance; the NS coating possessed a more stable friction coefficient in the temperature range of 25-700 °C against alumina counterface. Microstructural examinations revealed more uniformity in NS plasma-sprayed coatings.

  8. On Cooperative Behavior in Distributed Teams: The Influence of Organizational Design, Media Richness, Social Interaction, and Interaction Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Håkonsson, Dorthe D.; Obel, Børge; Eskildsen, Jacob K.; Burton, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Self-interest vs. cooperation is a fundamental dilemma in animal behavior as well as in human and organizational behavior. In organizations, how to get people to cooperate despite or in conjunction with their self-interest is fundamental to the achievement of a common goal. While both organizational designs and social interactions have been found to further cooperation in organizations, some of the literature has received contradictory support, just as very little research, if any, has examined their joint effects in distributed organizations, where communication is usually achieved via different communication media. This paper reviews the extant literature and offers a set of hypotheses to integrate current theories and explanations. Further, it discusses how future research should examine the joint effects of media, incentives, and social interactions. PMID:27242605

  9. On Cooperative Behavior in Distributed Teams: The Influence of Organizational Design, Media Richness, Social Interaction, and Interaction Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Håkonsson, Dorthe D; Obel, Børge; Eskildsen, Jacob K; Burton, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Self-interest vs. cooperation is a fundamental dilemma in animal behavior as well as in human and organizational behavior. In organizations, how to get people to cooperate despite or in conjunction with their self-interest is fundamental to the achievement of a common goal. While both organizational designs and social interactions have been found to further cooperation in organizations, some of the literature has received contradictory support, just as very little research, if any, has examined their joint effects in distributed organizations, where communication is usually achieved via different communication media. This paper reviews the extant literature and offers a set of hypotheses to integrate current theories and explanations. Further, it discusses how future research should examine the joint effects of media, incentives, and social interactions.

  10. Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Early Start Denver Model

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children’s maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children’s overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD. PMID:24847474

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation of an adolescent HIV prevention program: social validation of social contexts and behavior among Botswana adolescents.

    PubMed

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Seloilwe, Esther; Magowe, Mabel; Dithole, Kefalotse; Kgosikwena, Billy; Kokoro, Elija; Lesaane, Dipuo

    2013-08-01

    An evidence-based HIV prevention intervention was adapted for Botswana youth with qualitative interviews, input from an adolescent panel, and social validation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 boys and girls ages 13-19. An adolescent panel then drafted scenarios reflecting social situations described in the interviews that posed risk for HIV. A social validation sample (N = 65) then indicated the prevalence and difficulty of each situation. Youth described informational needs, pressures to use alcohol and drugs, peer pressure for unprotected sex, and intergenerational sex initiations as risk-priming situations. From 17% to 57% of the social validation sample had personally experienced the situations drafted by the adolescent panel. There were no differences in the ratings of boys versus girls, but youth over age 16 more often reported that they had experienced these risky situations. The results were embedded into the intervention. Major changes to the intervention resulted from this three-phase process.

  12. From Monotonous Hop-and-Sink Swimming to Constant Gliding via Chaotic Motions in 3D: Is There Adaptive Behavior in Planktonic Micro-Crustaceans?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickler, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    Planktonic micro-crustaceans, such as Daphnia, Copepod, and Cyclops, swim in the 3D environment of water and feed on suspended material, mostly algae and bacteria. Their mechanisms for swimming differ; some use their swimming legs to produce one hop per second resulting in a speed of one body-length per second, while others scan water volumes with their mouthparts and glide through the water column at 1 to 10 body-lengths per second. However, our observations show that these speeds are modulated. The question to be discussed will be whether or not these modulations show adaptive behavior taking food quality and food abundance as criteria for the swimming performances. Additionally, we investigated the degree these temporal motion patterns are dependant on the sizes, and therefore, on the Reynolds number of the animals.

  13. An observation support system with an adaptive ontology-driven user interface for the modeling of complex behaviors during surgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Neumuth, T; Kaschek, B; Neumuth, D; Ceschia, M; Meixensberger, J; Strauss, G; Burgert, O

    2010-11-01

    The field of surgical interventions emphasizes knowledge and experience; explicit and detailed models of surgical processes are hard to obtain by observation or measurement. However, in medical engineering and related developments, such models are highly valuable. Surgical process modeling deals with the generation of complex process descriptions by observation. This places high demands on the observers, who have to use a sizable terminology to denominate surgical actions, instruments, and patient anatomies, and to describe processes unambiguously. Here, we present a novel method, employing an ontology-based user interface that adapts to the actual situation and describe the principles of the system. A validation study showed that this method enables observers with little recording experience to reach a recording accuracy of >90%. Furthermore, this method can be used for live and video observation. We conclude that the method of ontology-supported recording for complex behaviors can be advantageously employed when surgical processes are modeled.

  14. Analyses between Reproductive Behavior, Genetic Diversity and Pythium Responsiveness in Zingiber spp. Reveal an Adaptive Significance for Hemiclonality

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Geethu E.; Geetha, Kiran A.; Augustine, Lesly; Mamiyil, Sabu; Thomas, George

    2016-01-01

    Mode of reproduction is generally considered to have long-range evolutionary implications on population survival. Because sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse genotypes, this mode of reproduction is predicted to positively influence the success potential of offspring in evolutionary arms race with parasites (Red queen) whereas, without segregation and recombination, the obligate asexual multiplication may push a species into extinction due to the steady accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller’s ratchet). However, the extent of linearity between reproductive strategies, genetic diversity and population fitness, and the contributions of different breeding strategies to population fitness are yet to be understood clearly. Genus Zingiber belonging to the pan-tropic family Zingiberaceae represents a good system to study contributions of different breeding behavior on genetic diversity and population fitness, as this genus comprises species with contrasting breeding systems. In this study, we analyzed breeding behavior, amplified fragment length polymorphism diversity and response to the soft-rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in 18 natural populations of three wild Zingiber spp.: Z. neesanum, Z. nimmonii, and Z. zerumbet, together with the obligately asexual cultivated congener, ginger (Z. officinale). Ginger showed an exceptionally narrow genetic base, and adding to this, all the tested cultivars were uniformly susceptible to soft-rot. Concordant with the postulates of Muller’s ratchet, the background selection may be continuously pushing ginger into the ancestral state, rendering it inefficient in host-pathogen coevolution. Z. neesanum and Z. nimmonii populations were sexual and genetically diverse; however, contrary to Red Queen expectations, the populations were highly susceptible to soft-rot. Z. zerumbet showed a hemiclonal breeding behavior. The populations inhabiting forest understory were large and continuous, sexual and genetically

  15. A Non-Inferiority Trial of an Evidence-Based Secondary HIV Prevention Behavioral Intervention Compared to an Adapted, Abbreviated Version: Rationale and Intervention Description

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Roman; Krishnan, Archana; Altice, Frederick L.; Copenhaver, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Real-world clinical settings like addiction treatment programs are ill-equipped to deploy and sustain the existing-resource-demanding evidence-based interventions (EBIs) that target HIV-infected people who use drugs (PWUDs), and this has left a critical void in current HIV prevention efforts. In response to this unmet need, we have conducted formative research in addiction treatment settings that has resulted in Holistic Health for HIV (3H+) – an empirically adapted, substantially abbreviated version of Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), a CDC-recommended EBI targeting HIV-infected PWUDs. Methods Using a non-inferiority randomized controlled trial design, we will determine whether the abbreviated 3H+ intervention is comparable (i.e., within a 10% margin) and cost-effective relative to the original HHRP+ intervention in terms of reducing HIV risk behaviors and improving antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV-infected PWUDs in addiction treatment who report drug- or sex-related HIV risk behaviors. Conclusions This article provides a description of the development and adaptation of the 3H+ intervention, the innovative non-inferiority comparative experimental design for testing the 3H+ to the HHRP+. Furthermore, it provides empirical evidence from a formal cost-effectiveness analysis justifying the cost-effectiveness of the 3H+ intervention when compared to the HHRP+ intervention. If confirmed to be comparable and more cost-effective, as hypothesized, the 3H+ intervention has the potential to be readily and immediately integrated within common clinical settings where large numbers of HIV-infected PWUDs receive clinical services. PMID:26253181

  16. Adaptive and maladaptive personality traits as predictors of violent and nonviolent offending behavior in men and women.

    PubMed

    Varley Thornton, Abigail J; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess both violent and nonviolent offending behavior in a single, mixed-sex population. The rationale for this is that the two types of offending are usually researched separately, despite evidence that they overlap. A comprehensive measure of general violence, intimate partner violence (IPV), and nonviolent offending behavior was administered to 116 men and 181 women, together with measures of personality and personality disorder (PD) traits, to investigate whether predictors of violent and nonviolent offending were similar or different for men and women. Men were found to perpetrate higher levels of general violence and nonviolent offenses than women, but women perpetrated significantly more IPV than men. Cluster B PD traits predicted all three offense types for women and also men's general violence and nonviolent offending. Women's general violence and men's non-violence also had one unique risk factor each, low agreeableness, and low conscientiousness, respectively. The main difference was for IPV, where men's IPV was predicted by cluster A PD traits, indicating that men's and women's risk factors for IPV may be different, although their risk factors for the other offense types were fairly consistent.

  17. Emotion-based preventive intervention: Effectively promoting emotion knowledge and adaptive behavior among at-risk preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    FINLON, KRISTY J.; IZARD, CARROLL E.; SEIDENFELD, ADINA; JOHNSON, STACY R.; CAVADEL, ELIZABETH WOODBURN; KRAUTHAMER EWING, E. STEPHANIE; MORGAN, JUDITH K.

    2015-01-01

    Effectiveness studies of preschool social–emotional programs are needed in low-income, diverse populations to help promote the well-being of at-risk children. Following an initial program efficacy study 2 years prior, 248 culturally diverse Head Start preschool children participated in the current effectiveness trial and received either the Emotion-Based Prevention Program (EBP) or the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) intervention. Pre- and postdata collection included direct child assessment, teacher report, parent interview, and independent observations. Teachers implementing the EBP intervention demonstrated good and consistent fidelity to the program. Overall, children in EBP classrooms gained more emotion knowledge and displayed greater decreases in negative emotion expressions and internalizing behaviors across the implementation period as compared to children in ICPS classrooms. In addition, cumulative risk, parental depressive symptoms, and classroom climate significantly moderated treatment effects. For children experiencing more stress or less support, EBP produced more successful outcomes than did ICPS. These results provide evidence of EBP sustainability and program effectiveness, as did previous findings that demonstrated EBP improvements in emotion knowledge, regulation skills, and behavior problems replicated under unsupervised program conditions. PMID:26439080

  18. Technology-delivered adaptations of motivational interviewing for health-related behaviors: A systematic review of the current research

    PubMed Central

    Shingleton, Rebecca M.; Palfai, Tibor P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this paper were to describe and evaluate the methods and efficacy of technology-delivered motivational interviewing interventions (TAMIs), discuss the challenges and opportunities of TAMIs, and provide a framework for future research. Methods We reviewed studies that reported using motivational interviewing (MI) based components delivered via technology and conducted ratings on technology description, comprehensiveness of MI, and study methods. Results The majority of studies were fully-automated and included at least one form of media rich technology to deliver the TAMI. Few studies provided complete descriptions of how MI components were delivered via technology. Of the studies that isolated the TAMI effects, positive changes were reported. Conclusion Researchers have used a range of technologies to deliver TAMIs suggesting feasibility of these methods. However, there are limited data regarding their efficacy, and strategies to deliver relational components remain a challenge. Future research should better characterize the components of TAMIs, empirically test the efficacy of TAMIs with randomized controlled trials, and incorporate fidelity measures. Practice Implications TAMIs are feasible to implement and well accepted. These approaches offer considerable potential to reduce costs, minimize therapist and training burden, and expand the range of clients that may benefit from adaptations of MI. PMID:26298219

  19. Neuromodulatory adaptive combination of correlation-based learning in cerebellum and reward-based learning in basal ganglia for goal-directed behavior control.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (reward-based learning). A number of computational and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point toward their complementary role in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We envision that such an interaction is influenced by reward modulated heterosynaptic plasticity (RMHP) rule at the thalamus, guiding the overall goal directed behavior. Using a recurrent neural network actor-critic model of the basal ganglia and a feed-forward correlation-based learning model of the cerebellum, we demonstrate that the RMHP rule can effectively balance the outcomes of the two learning systems. This is tested using simulated environments of increasing complexity with a four-wheeled robot in a foraging task in both static and dynamic configurations. Although modeled with a simplified level of biological abstraction, we clearly demonstrate that such a RMHP induced combinatorial learning mechanism, leads to stabler and faster learning of goal-directed behaviors, in comparison to the individual systems. Thus, in this paper we provide a computational model for adaptive combination of the basal ganglia and cerebellum learning systems by way of neuromodulated plasticity for goal-directed decision making in biological and bio-mimetic organisms.

  20. Neuromodulatory adaptive combination of correlation-based learning in cerebellum and reward-based learning in basal ganglia for goal-directed behavior control

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (reward-based learning). A number of computational and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point toward their complementary role in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We envision that such an interaction is influenced by reward modulated heterosynaptic plasticity (RMHP) rule at the thalamus, guiding the overall goal directed behavior. Using a recurrent neural network actor-critic model of the basal ganglia and a feed-forward correlation-based learning model of the cerebellum, we demonstrate that the RMHP rule can effectively balance the outcomes of the two learning systems. This is tested using simulated environments of increasing complexity with a four-wheeled robot in a foraging task in both static and dynamic configurations. Although modeled with a simplified level of biological abstraction, we clearly demonstrate that such a RMHP induced combinatorial learning mechanism, leads to stabler and faster learning of goal-directed behaviors, in comparison to the individual systems. Thus, in this paper we provide a computational model for adaptive combination of the basal ganglia and cerebellum learning systems by way of neuromodulated plasticity for goal-directed decision making in biological and bio-mimetic organisms. PMID:25389391

  1. Emergence of complex behavior in pili-based motility in early stages of P. aeruginosa surface adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Brill-Karniely, Yifat; Jin, Fan; Wong, Gerard C. L.; Frenkel, Daan; Dobnikar, Jure

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa move across surfaces by using multiple Type IV Pili (TFP), motorized appendages capable of force generation via linear extension/retraction cycles, to generate surface motions collectively known as twitching motility. Pseudomonas cells arrive at a surface with low levels of piliation and TFP activity, which both progressively increase as the cells sense the presence of a surface. At present, it is not clear how twitching motility emerges from these initial minimal conditions. Here, we build a simple model for TFP-driven surface motility without complications from viscous and solid friction on surfaces. We discover the unanticipated structural requirement that TFP motors need to have a minimal amount of effective angular rigidity in order for cells to perform the various classes of experimentally-observed motions. Moreover, a surprisingly small number of TFP are needed to recapitulate movement signatures associated with twitching: Two TFP can already produce movements reminiscent of recently observed slingshot type motion. Interestingly, jerky slingshot motions characteristic of twitching motility comprise the transition region between different types of observed crawling behavior in the dynamical phase diagram, such as self-trapped localized motion, 2-D diffusive exploration, and super-diffusive persistent motion. PMID:28393835

  2. Risk of Performance and Behavioral Health Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landon, Lauren Blackwell; Vessey, William B.; Barrett, Jamie D.

    2015-01-01

    A team is defined as: "two or more individuals who interact socially and adaptively, have shared or common goals, and hold meaningful task interdependences; it is hierarchically structured and has a limited life span; in it expertise and roles are distributed; and it is embedded within an organization/environmental context that influences and is influenced by ongoing processes and performance outcomes" (Salas, Stagl, Burke, & Goodwin, 2007, p. 189). From the NASA perspective, a team is commonly understood to be a collection of individuals that is assigned to support and achieve a particular mission. Thus, depending on context, this definition can encompass both the spaceflight crew and the individuals and teams in the larger multi-team system who are assigned to support that crew during a mission. The Team Risk outcomes of interest are predominantly performance related, with a secondary emphasis on long-term health; this is somewhat unique in the NASA HRP in that most Risk areas are medically related and primarily focused on long-term health consequences. In many operational environments (e.g., aviation), performance is assessed as the avoidance of errors. However, the research on performance errors is ambiguous. It implies that actions may be dichotomized into "correct" or "incorrect" responses, where incorrect responses or errors are always undesirable. Researchers have argued that this dichotomy is a harmful oversimplification, and it would be more productive to focus on the variability of human performance and how organizations can manage that variability (Hollnagel, Woods, & Leveson, 2006) (Category III1). Two problems occur when focusing on performance errors: 1) the errors are infrequent and, therefore, difficult to observe and record; and 2) the errors do not directly correspond to failure. Research reveals that humans are fairly adept at correcting or compensating for performance errors before such errors result in recognizable or recordable failures

  3. Retinal Imaging: Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. S.; Iroshnikov, N. G.; Larichev, Andrey V.

    This chapter describes several factors influencing the performance of ophthalmic diagnostic systems with adaptive optics compensation of human eye aberration. Particular attention is paid to speckle modulation, temporal behavior of aberrations, and anisoplanatic effects. The implementation of a fundus camera with adaptive optics is considered.

  4. Adaptation and implementation of an evidence-based behavioral medicine program in diverse global settings: The Williams LifeSkills experience.

    PubMed

    Williams, Redford B; Williams, Virginia P

    2011-06-01

    Epidemiological research has documented the health-damaging effects of psychosocial factors like hostility, depression, anxiety, job stress, social isolation and low socioeconomic status. Several studies suggest that behavioral interventions can reduce levels of these psychosocial factors. Herein we describe the translational process whereby the Williams LifeSkills® (WLS(®)) program and products for reducing psychosocial risk factors have been developed and tested in clinical trials in the U.S. and Canada and then adapted for other cultures and tested in clinical trials in other countries around the world. Evidence from published controlled and observational trials of WLS(®) products in the U.S. and elsewhere shows that persons receiving coping skills training using WLS(®) products have consistently reported reduced levels of psychosocial risk factors. In two controlled trials, one for caregivers of a relative with Alzheimer's Disease in the U.S. and one for coronary bypass surgery patients in Singapore, WLS(®) training also produced clinically significant blood pressure reductions. In conclusion, WLS(®) products have been shown in controlled and observational trials to produce reduced levels of both psychosocial and cardiovascular stress indices. Ongoing research has the potential to show that WLS(®) products can be an effective vehicle for the delivery of stress reduction and mental health services in developing countries.

  5. Ecological advantages from light adaptation and heterotrophic-like behavior in Synechococcus harvested from the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Alessandro; Celussi, Mauro; Del Negro, Paola; Fonda Umani, Serena; Talarico, Laura

    2008-05-01

    A preliminary study was carried out on a picocyanobacterial mixed culture harvested from the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic) and identified as Synechococcus spp. both by transmission electron microscopy observations, biliprotein composition and molecular analyses. Absorption and fluorescence spectra revealed phycourobilin and phycoerythrobilin chromophores, suggesting the presence of both CU- and C-phycoerythrin, besides phycocyanobilin chromophores typical for phycocyanins and allophycocyanins. Both biliprotein analyses and molecular identification indicated the presence of at least two Synechococcus subgroups presumably differing either in phycoerythrin type or in physiological traits. Among the exoenzymatic activities acting on different substrates, only aminopeptidase showed high hydrolysis rates and the uptake of organic molecules was positive for leucine but not for thymidine. The protein carbon mobilized was high compared with the leucine incorporation rates, resulting in low percentages of newly mobilized carbon utilized by cultures. The organic carbon incorporated as leucine was compared with the photosynthetically produced one, and the balance between the phototrophic- and heterotrophic-like processes was c. 3 : 1. Our findings suggest that the Synechococcus heterotrophy plays an important role in cell's metabolism, and that the photoheterotrophic behavior, together with their chromatic adaptation capability, might represent the key for the absolute dominance of this genus in the Adriatic Sea.

  6. Assessing Psychological Functioning in Metabolic Disorders: Validation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for Identification of Individuals at Risk.

    PubMed

    Waisbren, Susan E; He, Jianping; McCarter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of neuropsychological functioning in metabolic disorders remains difficult due to limited opportunities for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. This study examined the validity of using the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) for assessing developmental status in metabolic disorders and for identifying individuals at risk for cognitive deficits. Results from individuals with urea cycle disorders, phenylketonuria, galactosemia, and fatty acid oxidation disorders were obtained on the ABAS-II and BRIEF and were compared to results obtained from neuropsychological testing performed on the same day. Correlations between scores on the ABAS-II and developmental or IQ tests for individuals with urea cycle disorders ranged from 0.48 to 0.72 and concordance rates for scores greater than a standard deviation below the normative mean ranged from 69 to 89%. Correlations ranged from 0.20 to 0.68 with concordance ranging from 73 to 90% in the other metabolic disorders. For the BRIEF, correlations with other tests of executive functioning were significant for urea cycle disorders, with concordance ranging from 52 to 80%. For the other metabolic disorders, correlations ranged from -0.09 to -0.55. Concordance rates for at-risk status on the BRIEF and executive functioning tests ranged from 55% in adults to 80% in children with other metabolic disorders. These results indicate that the ABAS-II and BRIEF together can confidently be used as an adjunct or supplementary method for clinical follow-up and for research on functional status involving infants, children, and adults with metabolic disorders.

  7. Gravitational adaptation of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Burton, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gravitational adaptation is studied in a group of five Leghorn cocks which had become physiologically adapted to 2 G after 162 days of centrifugation. After this period of adaptation, they are periodically exposed to a 2 G field, accompanied by five previously unexposed hatch-mates, and the degree of retained acceleration adaptation is estimated from the decrease in lymphocyte frequency after 24 hr at 2 G. Results show that the previously adapted birds exhibit an 84% greater lymphopenia than the unexposed birds, and that the lymphocyte frequency does not decrease to a level below that found at the end of 162 days at 2 G. In addition, the capacity for adaptation to chronic acceleration is found to be highly heritable. An acceleration tolerant strain of birds shows lesser mortality during chronic acceleration, particularly in intermediate fields, although the result of acceleration selection is largely quantitative (a greater number of survivors) rather than qualitative (behavioral or physiological changes).

  8. A Model for Pre-Service Teachers' Climate Change Awareness and Willingness to Act for Pro-Climate Change Friendly Behavior: Adaptation of Awareness to Climate Change Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dal, Burçkin; Alper, Umut; Özdem-Yilmaz, Yasemin; Öztürk, Nilay; Sönmez, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Public awareness of the negative effects of climate change is vital since it leads to collective action for prevention and adaptation. However, investigations on to what extent people are aware of the climate change issue are rare in the literature. The present study reported the adaptation process of awareness to climate change questionnaire into…

  9. Visual Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems continuously mold themselves to the widely varying contexts in which they must operate. Studies of these adaptations have played a long and central role in vision science. In part this is because the specific adaptations remain a powerful tool for dissecting vision, by exposing the mechanisms that are adapting. That is, “if it adapts, it's there.” Many insights about vision have come from using adaptation in this way, as a method. A second important trend has been the realization that the processes of adaptation are themselves essential to how vision works, and thus are likely to operate at all levels. That is, “if it's there, it adapts.” This has focused interest on the mechanisms of adaptation as the target rather than the probe. Together both approaches have led to an emerging insight of adaptation as a fundamental and ubiquitous coding strategy impacting all aspects of how we see. PMID:26858985

  10. Persons with multiple disabilities increase adaptive responding and control inadequate posture or behavior through programs based on microswitch-cluster technology.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Boccasini, Adele; La Martire, Maria L; D'Amico, Fiora; Sasanelli, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Study I used typical microswitch-cluster programs to promote adaptive responding (i.e., object manipulation) and reduce inappropriate head or head-trunk forward leaning with a boy and a woman with multiple disabilities. Optic, tilt, and vibration microswitches were used to record their adaptive responses while optic and tilt microswitches monitored their posture. The study included an ABB(1)AB(1) sequence, in which A represented baseline phases, B represented an intervention phase in which adaptive responses were always followed by preferred stimulation, and B(1) represented intervention phases in which the adaptive responses led to preferred stimulation only if the inappropriate posture was absent. Study II assessed a non-typical, new microswitch-cluster program to promote two adaptive responses (i.e., mouth cleaning to reduce drooling effects and object assembling) with a man with multiple disabilities. Initially, the man received preferred stimulation for each cleaning response. Then, he received stimulation only if mouth cleaning was preceded by object assembling. The results of Study I showed that both participants had large increases in adaptive responding and a drastic reduction in inappropriate posture during the B(1) phases and a 2-week post-intervention check. The results of Study II showed that the man learned to control drooling effects through mouth cleaning and used object assembling to extend constructive engagement and interspace cleaning responses functionally. The practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  12. Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient.

    PubMed

    Kates, Robert W; Travis, William R; Wilbanks, Thomas J

    2012-05-08

    All human-environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations.

  13. Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient

    PubMed Central

    Kates, Robert W.; Travis, William R.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    All human–environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations. PMID:22509036

  14. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  15. Adaptive Learning and Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denrell, Jerker

    2007-01-01

    Humans and animals learn from experience by reducing the probability of sampling alternatives with poor past outcomes. Using simulations, J. G. March (1996) illustrated how such adaptive sampling could lead to risk-averse as well as risk-seeking behavior. In this article, the author develops a formal theory of how adaptive sampling influences risk…

  16. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  17. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  18. Comparison of Cognitive Behavioral and Mindfulness Meditation Interventions on Adaptation to Rheumatoid Arthritis for Patients with and without History of Recurrent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zautra, Alex J.; Davis, Mary C.; Reich, John W.; Nicassio, Perry; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick; Kratz, Anna; Parrish, Brendt; Irwin, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined whether cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness interventions that target responses to chronic stress, pain, and depression reduce pain and improve the quality of everyday life for adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The 144 RA participants were clustered into groups of 6-10 participants and randomly assigned to 1 of…

  19. Course Selection Theory and College Transition Seminars: An Adaptation of College Choice Models to Explain First-Year Students' Course Enrollment Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Curt Gerard

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the course-enrollment behavior of first-year students at a public Midwestern university. Using the student choice construct, modern college choice theory, and the constructs of habitus, human capital, financial capital, social capital, cultural capital, along with background variables such as gender and locus of control,…

  20. Chronic Drinking During Adolescence Predisposes the Adult Rat for Continued Heavy Drinking: Neurotrophin and Behavioral Adaptation after Long-Term, Continuous Ethanol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Gina M.; Stewart, William N.; Savage, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found that adolescent ethanol (EtOH) exposure alters drug seeking behaviors, cognition and neuroplasticity. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, differences in spatial working memory, non-spatial discrimination learning and behavioral flexibility were explored as a function of age at the onset (mid-adolescent vs. adult) of chronic EtOH exposure (CET). Concentrations of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were also assessed at different time-points: during CET, following acute abstinence (48-hrs), and after protracted abstinence (6–8 wks). Our results revealed that an adolescent onset of CET leads to increased EtOH consumption that persisted into adulthood. In both adult and adolescent onset CET groups, there were significant long-term reductions in prefrontal cortical mBDNF and β-NGF levels. However, only adult onset CET rats displayed decreased hippocampal BDNF levels. Spatial memory, assessed by spontaneous alternation and delayed alternation, was not significantly affected by CET as a function of age of drinking onset, but higher blood–EtOH levels were correlated with lower spontaneous alternation scores. Regardless of the age of onset, EtOH exposed rats were impaired on non-spatial discrimination learning and displayed inflexible behavioral patterns upon reversal learning. Our results indicate that adolescent EtOH exposure changes long-term consumption patterns producing behavioral and neural dysfunctions that persist across the lifespan. PMID:26930631

  1. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Substance Abusers Adapted for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS with Substance Use Diagnoses and Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elizabeth E.; Miller, Alec L.; Greene, Lori I.; Winiarski, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to describe modifications made to Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for a predominantly ethnic minority population of persons living with HIV/AIDS with substance-use diagnoses and borderline personality disorder (BPD) or three features of BPD plus suicidality (i.e., the triply diagnosed). Despite the myriad…

  2. Feasibility of Adapting Multisystemic Therapy to Improve Illness Management Behaviors and Reduce Asthma Morbidity in High Risk African American Youth: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah; Kolmodin, Karen; Cunningham, Phillippe; Secord, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    African-American adolescents have the highest rates of asthma morbidity and mortality, yet there are few successful behavioral interventions to improve illness management for this group. Mental health providers have an opportunity to expand their services and impact by targeting adolescents with poor asthma management. We describe the adaptation…

  3. Relationship of Level of Functioning of Institutionalized Women on a Task Analysis of Personal Care for Menstruation and the Adaptive Behavior Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Beverly W.; And Others

    A 40-item behavior analysis task, the Menstrual Care Scale, was developed and tested with 75 randomly selected institutionalized severely retarded women (13-59 years old). The need for developing personal care skills in menstruation habits had been identified as a priority area for sexuality instruction by staff and confirmed by analysis of…

  4. Stress-induced alterations in anxiety-like behavior and adaptations in plasticity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Kelly L; Louderback, Katherine M; Gessner, Caitlin P; Winder, Danny G

    2011-08-03

    In vulnerable individuals, exposure to stressors can result in chronic disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The extended amygdala is critically implicated in mediating acute and chronic stress responsivity and anxiety-like behaviors. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a subregion of the extended amygdala, serves as a relay of corticolimbic information to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) to directly influence the stress response. To investigate the influence of the corticosteroid milieu and housing conditions on BNST function, adult C57Bl/6J were either acutely or chronically administered corticosterone (CORT, 25mg/kg in sesame oil) or vehicle (sesame oil) or were group housed or socially isolated for 1 day (acute) or 6-8 weeks (chronic). To ascertain whether these stressors could influence anxiety-like behavior, studies were performed using the novel open-field (NOF) and the elevated zero maze (EZM) tests. To investigate potential associated changes in plasticity, alterations in BNST function were assessed using ex vivo extracellular field potential recordings in the (dorsal-lateral) dlBNST and a high frequency stimulus protocol to induce long-term potentiation (LTP). Our results suggest that chronic CORT injections and chronic social isolation housing conditions lead to an increase in anxiety-like behavior on the EZM and NOF. Chronically stressed mice also displayed a parallel blunting of LTP in the dlBNST. Conversely, acute social isolation housing had no effect on anxiety-like behavior but still resulted in a blunting of LTP in the dlBNST. Collectively, our results suggest acute and chronic stressors can have a distinct profile on plasticity in the BNST that is not uniformly associated with an increase in anxiety-like behavior.

  5. Adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS: a community-level, evidence-based HIV behavioral intervention for heterosexual Latino men in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Omar; Roth, Alexis M; Kelle, Guadalupe; Downs, Mario; Rhodes, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    Over the past decade, the midwestern United States has witnessed a dramatic increase in its Latino population. The lack of culturally and linguistically congruent resources coupled with high incidence and prevalence rates of HIV among Latinos living in the Midwest merits attention. HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) is a community-level social network intervention designed for Latino men. We describe the adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS for Latino men living in Indianapolis, Indiana, the second largest city in the Midwest. Five Navegantes (lay health educators) were trained; they provided a total of 34 educational charlas (small group didactic sessions). A total of 270 Latino men attended the charlas and were offered no-cost screening for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). Three participants tested HIV positive and 15 screened positive for STI. The charlas coupled with the testing initiative, served as a successful method to increase sexual health knowledge among Latino men and to link newly-diagnosed HIV/STI-positive individuals to treatment and care. The adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS respond to the CDC and NIH call to increase HIV testing and service provision among vulnerable populations.

  6. ADAPTATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HoMBReS: A COMMUNITY-LEVEL, EVIDENCE-BASED HIV BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION FOR HETEROSEXUAL LATINO MEN IN THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Roth, Alexis M.; Kelle, Guadalupe; Downs, Mario; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the midwestern United States has witnessed a dramatic increase in its Latino population. The lack of culturally and linguistically congruent resources coupled with high incidence and prevalence rates of HIV among Latinos living in the Midwest merits attention. HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) is a community-level social network intervention designed for Latino men. We describe the adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS for Latino men living in Indianapolis, Indiana, the second largest city in the Midwest. Five Navegantes (lay health educators) were trained; they provided a total of 34 educational charlas (small group didactic sessions). A total of 270 Latino men attended the charlas and were offered no-cost screening for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). Three participants tested HIV positive and 15 screened positive for STI. The charlas coupled with the testing initiative, served as a successful method to increase sexual health knowledge among Latino men and to link newly-diagnosed HIV/STI-positive individuals to treatment and care. The adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS respond to the CDC and NIH call to increase HIV testing and service provision among vulnerable populations. PMID:24450279

  7. The role of parenting in affecting the behavior and adaptive functioning of young children of HIV-infected mothers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alexandra Boeving; Finestone, Michelle; Eloff, Irma; Sipsma, Heather; Makin, Jennifer; Triplett, Kelli; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Sikkema, Kathleen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Visser, Maretha; Ferreira, Ronél; Forsyth, Brian W C

    2014-03-01

    Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers' psychological functioning, parenting, and children's behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent-child dysfunction, maternal coping is related to parenting style, and maternal coping, parenting style and stress, and parent-child dysfunction are associated with children's behavior and functioning, with parenting emerging as an important mediator. These findings suggest that interventions for women living with HIV and their children should not only address maternal psychological functioning (depression and coping), but should also focus on parenting, promoting a positive approach.

  8. Multiple-Family Group Intervention for Incarcerated Male Adolescents Who Sexually Offend and Their Families: Change in Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Predicts Adaptive Change in Adolescent Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Keiley, Margaret K; Zaremba-Morgan, Ali; Datubo-Brown, Christiana; Pyle, Raven; Cox, Milira

    2015-07-01

    The multiple-family group intervention is an effective, yet affordable, 8-week treatment that is conducted in a juvenile correctional institution in Alabama with adolescents who sexually offend and their families. Data from 115 incarcerated male adolescents and their male and female caregivers collected at pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up were used to determine that problem behaviors (internalizing, externalizing) decreased over pre- and posttest and the significant decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation predicted those changes. Adolescent-reported anxiety over abandonment and attachment dependence on parents increased significantly; these changes were predicted by decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation. Linear growth models were also fit over the 3 time points and indicate decreases in adolescent problem behavior and maladaptive emotion regulation.

  9. Behavioral adaptations to heat stress and water scarcity in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fernando A; Fedigan, Linda M

    2009-01-01

    We examined thermoregulatory behaviors in a wild population of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) inhabiting a highly seasonal dry forest in Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. The dry season in SRNP lasts approximately 5 months and is characterized by high ambient temperatures regularly exceeding 37 degrees C, low relative humidity, and the near absence of precipitation. This study demonstrates that capuchins rest more and travel shorter distances during the hottest and driest hours of the day, and suggests that they extend their tongues to lower body temperature via evaporative cooling. Seasonal weather patterns and group movement data reported here are based on 940 h of observations on three social groups of capuchins (wet season: 370 h, dry season: 570 h). In the dry season, the proportion of time spent resting increased at higher temperatures whereas the proportion of time spent traveling decreased. Distance traveled between location points taken at half-hour intervals decreased significantly as temperature increased, although the correlation was not strong. Capuchins exposed their tongues during hot, dry, windy conditions, and this behavior was much more frequent in the dry season. Temperature was significantly higher and humidity significantly lower for "tongue-out" events than expected for a random event in the dry season. Finally, as surface water became scarce, home-range areas of heavy use became increasingly centered on the remaining permanent water sources. These results suggest that heat stress and water scarcity are significant influences on the behavior of capuchins in hot, dry conditions.

  10. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  11. Adaptation of the ABS-S:2 for Use in Spain with Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Alonso, Isabel; De La Fuente Anuncibay, Raquel; Fernandez Hawrylak, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As there is a dearth of Spanish-language standardized scales that assess adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), the authors adapted one of the most widely used and studied scales of adaptive behavior in the U.S., the ABS-S:2 (Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, 2nd Edition), and validated it for use in…

  12. Regulation of extrasynaptic 5-HT by serotonin reuptake transporter function in 5-HT-absorbing neurons underscores adaptation behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Gholamali; Xie, Yusu; Kullyev, Andrey; Liang, Bin; Sze, Ji Ying

    2011-06-15

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]-absorbing neurons use serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) to uptake 5-HT from extracellular space but do not synthesize it. While 5-HT-absorbing neurons have been identified in diverse organisms from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans, their function has not been elucidated. Here, we show that SERT in 5-HT-absorbing neurons controls behavioral response to food deprivation in C. elegans. The AIM and RIH interneurons uptake 5-HT released from chemosensory neurons and secretory neurons. Genetic analyses suggest that 5-HT secreted by both synaptic vesicles and dense core vesicles diffuse readily to the extrasynaptic space adjacent to the AIM and RIH neurons. Loss of mod-5/SERT function blocks the 5-HT absorption. mod-5/SERT mutants have been shown to exhibit exaggerated locomotor response to food deprivation. We found that transgenic expression of MOD-5/SERT in the 5-HT-absorbing neurons fully corrected the exaggerated behavior. Experiments of cell-specific inhibition of synaptic transmission suggest that the synaptic release of 5-HT from the 5-HT-absorbing neurons is not required for this behavioral modulation. Our data point to the role of 5-HT-absorbing neurons as temporal-spatial regulators of extrasynaptic 5-HT. Regulation of extrasynaptic 5-HT levels by 5-HT-absorbing neurons may represent a fundamental mechanism of 5-HT homeostasis, integrating the activity of 5-HT-producing neurons with distant targets in the neural circuits, and could be relevant to some actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in humans.

  13. Adaptation with transcriptional regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenjia; Ma, Wenzhe; Xiong, Liyang; Zhang, Mingyue; Tang, Chao

    2017-02-01

    Biochemical adaptation is one of the basic functions that are widely implemented in biological systems for a variety of purposes such as signal sensing, stress response and homeostasis. The adaptation time scales span from milliseconds to days, involving different regulatory machineries in different processes. The adaptive networks with enzymatic regulation (ERNs) have been investigated in detail. But it remains unclear if and how other forms of regulation will impact the network topology and other features of the function. Here, we systematically studied three-node transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs), with three different types of gene regulation logics. We found that the topologies of adaptive gene regulatory networks can still be grouped into two general classes: negative feedback loop (NFBL) and incoherent feed-forward loop (IFFL), but with some distinct topological features comparing to the enzymatic networks. Specifically, an auto-activation loop on the buffer node is necessary for the NFBL class. For IFFL class, the control node can be either a proportional node or an inversely-proportional node. Furthermore, the tunability of adaptive behavior differs between TRNs and ERNs. Our findings highlight the role of regulation forms in network topology, implementation and dynamics.

  14. Adaptation with transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenjia; Ma, Wenzhe; Xiong, Liyang; Zhang, Mingyue; Tang, Chao

    2017-02-24

    Biochemical adaptation is one of the basic functions that are widely implemented in biological systems for a variety of purposes such as signal sensing, stress response and homeostasis. The adaptation time scales span from milliseconds to days, involving different regulatory machineries in different processes. The adaptive networks with enzymatic regulation (ERNs) have been investigated in detail. But it remains unclear if and how other forms of regulation will impact the network topology and other features of the function. Here, we systematically studied three-node transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs), with three different types of gene regulation logics. We found that the topologies of adaptive gene regulatory networks can still be grouped into two general classes: negative feedback loop (NFBL) and incoherent feed-forward loop (IFFL), but with some distinct topological features comparing to the enzymatic networks. Specifically, an auto-activation loop on the buffer node is necessary for the NFBL class. For IFFL class, the control node can be either a proportional node or an inversely-proportional node. Furthermore, the tunability of adaptive behavior differs between TRNs and ERNs. Our findings highlight the role of regulation forms in network topology, implementation and dynamics.

  15. Adaptation with transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wenjia; Ma, Wenzhe; Xiong, Liyang; Zhang, Mingyue; Tang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Biochemical adaptation is one of the basic functions that are widely implemented in biological systems for a variety of purposes such as signal sensing, stress response and homeostasis. The adaptation time scales span from milliseconds to days, involving different regulatory machineries in different processes. The adaptive networks with enzymatic regulation (ERNs) have been investigated in detail. But it remains unclear if and how other forms of regulation will impact the network topology and other features of the function. Here, we systematically studied three-node transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs), with three different types of gene regulation logics. We found that the topologies of adaptive gene regulatory networks can still be grouped into two general classes: negative feedback loop (NFBL) and incoherent feed-forward loop (IFFL), but with some distinct topological features comparing to the enzymatic networks. Specifically, an auto-activation loop on the buffer node is necessary for the NFBL class. For IFFL class, the control node can be either a proportional node or an inversely-proportional node. Furthermore, the tunability of adaptive behavior differs between TRNs and ERNs. Our findings highlight the role of regulation forms in network topology, implementation and dynamics. PMID:28233824

  16. Comparison of cognitive behavioral and mindfulness meditation interventions on adaptation to rheumatoid arthritis for patients with and without history of recurrent depression.

    PubMed

    Zautra, Alex J; Davis, Mary C; Reich, John W; Nicassario, Perry; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick; Kratz, Anna; Parrish, Brendt; Irwin, Michael R

    2008-06-01

    This research examined whether cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness interventions that target responses to chronic stress, pain, and depression reduce pain and improve the quality of everyday life for adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The 144 RA participants were clustered into groups of 6-10 participants and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: cognitive behavioral therapy for pain (P); mindfulness meditation and emotion regulation therapy (M); or education-only group (E), which served as an attention placebo control. The authors took a multimethod approach, employing daily diaries and laboratory assessment of pain and mitogen-stimulated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine. Participants receiving P showed the greatest Pre to Post improvement in self-reported pain control and reductions in the IL-6; both P and M groups showed more improvement in coping efficacy than did the E group. The relative value of the treatments varied as a function of depression history. RA patients with recurrent depression benefited most from M across several measures, including negative and positive affect and physicians' ratings of joint tenderness, indicating that the emotion regulation aspects of that treatment were most beneficial to those with chronic depressive features.

  17. Active Listening in a Bat Cocktail Party: Adaptive Echolocation and Flight Behaviors of Big Brown Bats, Eptesicus fuscus, Foraging in a Cluttered Acoustic Environment.

    PubMed

    Warnecke, Michaela; Chiu, Chen; Engelberg, Jonathan; Moss, Cynthia F

    2015-09-01

    In their natural environment, big brown bats forage for small insects in open spaces, as well as in vegetation and in the presence of acoustic clutter. While searching and hunting for prey, bats experience sonar interference, not only from densely cluttered environments, but also from calls of conspecifics foraging in close proximity. Previous work has shown that when two bats compete for a single prey item in a relatively open environment, one of the bats may go silent for extended periods of time, which can serve to minimize sonar interference between conspecifics. Additionally, pairs of big brown bats have been shown to adjust frequency characteristics of their vocalizations to avoid acoustic interference in echo processing. In this study, we extended previous work by examining how the presence of conspecifics and environmental clutter influence the bat's echolocation behavior. By recording multichannel audio and video data of bats engaged in insect capture in open and cluttered spaces, we quantified the bats' vocal and flight behaviors. Big brown bats flew individually and in pairs in an open and cluttered room, and the results of this study shed light on the different strategies that this species employs to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment.

  18. STUDIES OF THERMALLY UNSTABLE ACCRETION DISKS AROUND BLACK HOLES WITH ADAPTIVE PSEUDOSPECTRAL DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD. II. LIMIT-CYCLE BEHAVIOR IN ACCRETION DISKS AROUND KERR BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Li; Lu Jufu; Sadowski, Aleksander; Abramowicz, Marek A. E-mail: lujf@xmu.edu.cn

    2011-07-01

    For the first time ever, we derive equations governing the time evolution of fully relativistic slim accretion disks in the Kerr metric and numerically construct their detailed non-stationary models. We discuss applications of these general results to a possible limit-cycle behavior of thermally unstable disks. Our equations and numerical method are applicable in a wide class of possible viscosity prescriptions, but in this paper we use a diffusive form of the 'standard alpha prescription' that assumes that the viscous torque is proportional to the total pressure. In this particular case, we find that the parameters that dominate the limit-cycle properties are the mass-supply rate and the value of the alpha-viscosity parameter. Although the duration of the cycle (or the outburst) does not exhibit any clear dependence on the black hole spin, the maximal outburst luminosity (in the Eddington units) is positively correlated with the spin value. We suggest a simple method for a rough estimate of the black hole spin based on the maximal luminosity and the ratio of outburst to cycle durations. We also discuss a temperature-luminosity relation for the Kerr black hole accretion disk limit cycle. Based on these results, we discuss the limit-cycle behavior observed in microquasar GRS 1915+105. We also extend this study to several non-standard viscosity prescriptions, including a 'delayed heating' prescription recently addressed by the MHD simulations of accretion disks.

  19. Individual Behavioral Adaptability to Diminished G-Forces and Calcium Uptake of Inner ear Otoliths in Fish. A Sounding Rocket Experiment (TX 48)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knie, Miriam; Shcherbakov, Denis; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2013-02-01

    In the course of the TEXUS 45 experiment we were able to show that the time-course of a habituation to diminished gravity depends on the respective G-level HQM (high quality microgravity, 10-4g) vs. LQM (low quality microgravity, 10-2g) and on the symmetric morphology of the gravity sensing components of the inner ear. An individually different regulation of inner ear otolith calcification plays a role in this process. With this study, the results of the TEXUS 45 flight were validated for another g-level (9x10-4g). In the course of the behavioural investigations we were able to show that most fish could adapt to these μg condition. Fish experiencing permanently 9x10-4g during the whole flight exhibit less kinetotic movements and from this we conclude, that they might use this minimal g-force for orientation. Furthermore these behavioural data were correlated with the morphology of otoliths (Lapilli and Sagittae).

  20. Adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  1. Reward modulates adaptations to conflict.

    PubMed

    Braem, Senne; Verguts, Tom; Roggeman, Chantal; Notebaert, Wim

    2012-11-01

    Both cognitive conflict (e.g. Verguts & Notebaert, 2009) and reward signals (e.g. Waszak & Pholulamdeth, 2009) have been proposed to enhance task-relevant associations. Bringing these two notions together, we predicted that reward modulates conflict-based sequential adaptations in cognitive control. This was tested combining either a single flanker task (Experiment 1) or a task-switch paradigm (Experiment 2) with performance-related rewards. Both experiments confirmed that adaptations after conflict were modulated by reward. In the flanker task, this resulted in increased conflict adaptation after rewarded trials. In the task-switching experiment, reward increased the conflict-modulated switch cost. Interestingly, both adaptations to conflict disappeared after no-reward trials. Moreover, individual differences in participants' sensitivity to reward predicted these reward modulations of trial-to-trial adaptations. These findings shed new light on the exact role of cognitive conflict in shaping subsequent behavior.

  2. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  3. Assessment of the behavioral inhibition system and the behavioral approach system: adaptation and validation of the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) in a Chilean sample.

    PubMed

    Dufey, Michele; Fernández, Ana María; Mourgues, Catalina

    2011-05-01

    The goal of the present study is to estimate the psychometric properties of the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ; Torrubia, Avila, Moltó, & Caseras, 2001) in a sample of Chilean college students. The main hypothesis is that the instrument would show appropriate levels of reliability and validity, in light of previous validation studies. A pilot study was conducted in order to generate the adapted version of the questionnaire, which was then applied to a student sample from different undergraduate careers (n = 434). The results show the expected levels of reliability (test-retest and internal consistency). The factorial validity does not comply with the expected model, suggesting a further consideration of the structure of the questionnaire. External validity is appropriate, as the questionnaire shows the expected correlations with other personality measures. It is concluded that the SPSRQ is adequate for the context of validation, and this study contributes to the generalization of the questionnaire, since the results are consistent with the expected psychometric properties that have been reported in the literature.

  4. Adaptation of adaptive optics systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yu; Zhao, Dazun; Li, Chen

    1997-10-01

    In the paper, a concept of an adaptation of adaptive optical system (AAOS) is proposed. The AAOS has certain real time optimization ability against the variation of the brightness of detected objects m, atmospheric coherence length rO and atmospheric time constant τ by means of changing subaperture number and diameter, dynamic range, and system's temporal response. The necessity of AAOS using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and some technical approaches are discussed. Scheme and simulation of an AAOS with variable subaperture ability by use of both hardware and software are presented as an example of the system.

  5. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 μg L-1 NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 μg L-1 17β-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long term, “organizational” effects on life-history events in salmonids.

  6. Bacterial surface adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  7. Adaptive capability as indicated by behavioral and physiological responses, plasma HSP70 level, and PBMC HSP70 mRNA expression in Osmanabadi goats subjected to combined (heat and nutritional) stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilja, Shaji; Sejian, V.; Bagath, M.; Mech, A.; David, C. G.; Kurien, E. K.; Varma, Girish; Bhatta, Raghavendra

    2016-09-01

    A study was conducted to assess the impact of heat and nutritional stress simultaneously on the adaptive capability as indicated by behavioral and physiological responses, plasma heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) level, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) HSP70 gene expression in goats. Twenty-four adult Osmanabadi bucks (average body weight (BW) 16.0 kg) were used in the present study. The bucks were divided into four groups viz., C ( n = 6; control), HS ( n = 6; heat stress), NS ( n = 6; nutritional stress), and CS ( n = 6; combined stress). The study was conducted for a period of 45 days. C and HS bucks had ad libitum access to their feed while NS and CS bucks were under restricted feed (30 % intake of C bucks) to induce nutritional stress. The HS and CS bucks were exposed to solar radiation for 6 h a day between 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. to induce heat stress. The data was analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The standing time differed significantly ( P < 0.01) between ad libitum fed groups (C and HS) and restricted feeding groups (NS and CS). The highest ( P < 0.01) lying time was recorded in the CS group while the lowest in the C and HS groups. The highest ( P < 0.01) drinking frequency was also recorded in the CS group. Water intake recorded was significantly ( P < 0.01) higher in both the HS and CS groups. The highest respiration rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and rectal temperature (RT) during the afternoon were also recorded in the CS group. Further, skin temperature of the head, flank, and scrotum during the afternoon was also higher ( P < 0.01) in the CS group. In addition, both plasma HSP70 concentration and PBMC HSP70 messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript expression were also significantly ( P < 0.01) higher in the CS group. It can be concluded from this study that when two stressors occur simultaneously, they may have severe impact on adaptive capabilities of Osmanabadi bucks as compared to that would occur individually. Further, the

  8. Adaptive equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, S. U. H.

    1985-09-01

    Theoretical work which has been effective in improving data transmission by telephone and radio links using adaptive equalization (AE) techniques is reviewed. AE has been applied to reducing the temporal dispersion effects, such as intersymbol interference, caused by the channel accessed. Attention is given to the Nyquist telegraph transmission theory, least mean square error adaptive filtering and the theory and structure of linear receive and transmit filters for reducing error. Optimum nonlinear receiver structures are discussed in terms of optimality criteria as a function of error probability. A suboptimum receiver structure is explored in the form of a decision-feedback equalizer. Consideration is also given to quadrature amplitude modulation and transversal equalization for receivers.

  9. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  10. Individual predictors of sensorimotor adaptability

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Peters, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    There are large individual variations in strategies and rates of sensorimotor adaptation to spaceflight. This is seen in both the magnitude of performance disruptions when crewmembers are first exposed to microgravity, and in the rate of re-adaptation when they return to Earth’s gravitational environment. Understanding the sources of this variation can lead to a better understanding of the processes underlying adaptation, as well as provide insight into potential routes for facilitating performance of “slow adapters”. Here we review the literature on brain, behavioral, and genetic predictors of motor learning, recovery of motor function following neural insult, and sensorimotor adaptation. For example, recent studies have identified specific genetic polymorphisms that are associated with faster adaptation on manual joystick tasks and faster recovery of function following a stroke. Moreover, the extent of recruitment of specific brain regions during learning and adaptation has been shown to be predictive of the magnitude of subsequent learning. We close with suggestions for forward work aimed at identifying predictors of spaceflight adaptation success. Identification of “slow adapters” prior to spaceflight exposure would allow for more targeted preflight training and/or provision of booster training and adaptation adjuncts during spaceflight. PMID:26217197

  11. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  12. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  13. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2001-12-20

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenancewithin the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior isinherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptivemanagement, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science isneeded.

  14. Is Echo a complex adaptive system?

    PubMed

    Smith, R M; Bedau, M A

    2000-01-01

    We evaluate whether John Holland's Echo model exemplifies his theory of complex adaptive systems. After reviewing Holland's theory of complex adaptive systems and describing his Escho model, we describe and explain the characteristic evolutionary behavior observed in a series of Echo model runs. We conclude that Echo lacks the diversity of hierarchically organized aggregates that typify complex adaptive systems, and we explore possible explanations for this failure.

  15. Adaptive multifunctional composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-05-01

    The adaptive multifunctional composite structure studied here is to address two issues remaining in lightweight structural composites required by many engineering applications. The first is to add additional functionality to multifunctional composites and the second is to provide adaptive damping in structures that cover a wide range of frequencies and temperatures. Because of its potential for practical payoffs, passive structural damping can find wide application through the use of high-damping viscoelastic polymers or elastomers. However, all passive damping using these damping materials suffer from failing at certain temperatures and in certain frequency ranges. The extreme environments often seen by engineering systems provide high temperature, which is exactly where damping levels in structures reduce causing unacceptable vibrations. In addition, as loading frequencies reduce damping levels also fall off, and many loads experienced by large structures are low frequency. The proposed research addresses increasing the range of effectiveness of damping by addressing the temperature and frequency dependence of material damping by using a multifunctional composite system containing an active element. Previous research has yielded a finite element model of linear viscoelastic material and structural behavior that captures characteristic frequency-dependent behavior, continuing research has addressed the accommodation of temperature dependence, and the examination of the new concept of `electronic damping' or `e-damping'. The resulting modeling approach is validated through experimental validation.

  16. Stimulus relevance modulates contrast adaptation in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Andreas J; Houlton, Rachael; Kampa, Björn M; Lesica, Nicholas A; Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas D; Keller, Georg B; Helmchen, Fritjof

    2017-01-01

    A general principle of sensory processing is that neurons adapt to sustained stimuli by reducing their response over time. Most of our knowledge on adaptation in single cells is based on experiments in anesthetized animals. How responses adapt in awake animals, when stimuli may be behaviorally relevant or not, remains unclear. Here we show that contrast adaptation in mouse primary visual cortex depends on the behavioral relevance of the stimulus. Cells that adapted to contrast under anesthesia maintained or even increased their activity in awake naïve mice. When engaged in a visually guided task, contrast adaptation re-occurred for stimuli that were irrelevant for solving the task. However, contrast adaptation was reversed when stimuli acquired behavioral relevance. Regulation of cortical adaptation by task demand may allow dynamic control of sensory-evoked signal flow in the neocortex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21589.001 PMID:28130922

  17. Cognitive conflict adaptation in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Larson, Michael J; Clawson, Ann; Clayson, Peter E; Baldwin, Scott A

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) display poor emotional conflict adaptation, a cognitive control process requiring the adjustment of performance based on previous-trial conflict. It is unclear whether GAD-related conflict adaptation difficulties are present during tasks without emotionally-salient stimuli. We examined conflict adaptation using the N2 component of the event-related potential (ERP) and behavioral responses on a Flanker task from 35 individuals with GAD and 35 controls. Groups did not differ on conflict adaptation accuracy; individuals with GAD also displayed intact RT conflict adaptation. In contrast, individuals with GAD showed decreased amplitude N2 principal component for conflict adaptation. Correlations showed increased anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with longer RT conflict adaptation effects and lower ERP amplitudes, but not when separated by group. We conclude that individuals with GAD show reduced conflict-related component processes that may be influenced by compensatory activity, even in the absence of emotionally-salient stimuli.

  18. Topologies for perfect adaptation in gene transcription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenjia; Tang, Chao

    2014-03-01

    Adaptation is commonly used in sensory systems and signaling networks to allow the detection of further stimuli. Despite enzymatic network topologies for adaptation have been investigated systematically, the topology of transcriptional network that could perform adaptation still remains unclear, due to the complexity of transcriptional regulation. Here, we systematically investigated all three-node transcriptional networks, and found the topologies of transcriptional networks for adaptation are different from that of enzymatic ones. While both negative feedback loop (NFBL) and incoherent feed forward loop (IFFL) are capable of performing adaptation analytically, a positive self-regulation on buffer node is necessary for NFBL topology and more flexible structures emerge for IFFL than that of enzymatic networks. Most of the simulation results agree with analytical predictions. This study may explain the mechanism of adapted gene regulation behavior and supply a design table for gene regulatory adaptation.

  19. Truth and Consequences: Believing as Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Llewlee L.

    A theoretical cornerstone of cognitive therapy is the idea that the relationship between experience and cognition, the interpretation of experience, is recursive. Human beings can respond to a given experience with more than one description and/or explanation of the experience and these alternative interpretations can have different experiential…

  20. An Adaptive Behavior Philosophy: Who Needs It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marc W.

    The author cites obstacles to the normalization of mentally retarded individuals, including society rigidity, low expectations, desire to maintain status quo, and persistent belief in the fallacy that most basic tasks require intelligence. Studies are reviewed in which moderately and severely retarded persons were successfully trained to perform…

  1. Adaptation through chromosomal inversions in Anopheles

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Diego; Ullastres, Anna; González, Josefa

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal inversions have been repeatedly involved in local adaptation in a large number of animals and plants. The ecological and behavioral plasticity of Anopheles species—human malaria vectors—is mirrored by high amounts of polymorphic inversions. The adaptive significance of chromosomal inversions has been consistently attested by strong and significant correlations between their frequencies and a number of phenotypic traits. Here, we provide an extensive literature review of the different adaptive traits associated with chromosomal inversions in the genus Anopheles. Traits having important consequences for the success of present and future vector control measures, such as insecticide resistance and behavioral changes, are discussed. PMID:24904633

  2. Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paulette J.

    1990-01-01

    Designed for use with individuals ages 3 months to 44 years, the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) measure adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in such areas as motor skills, social interaction, language, personal self-care, punctuality, destructiveness, and inattention. This paper describes the SIB's administration, scoring,…

  3. Three timescales in prism adaptation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masato; Uchimura, Motoaki; Karibe, Ayaka; O'Shea, Jacinta; Rossetti, Yves; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that motor adaptation depends on at least two learning systems, one that learns fast but with poor retention and another that learns slowly but with better retention (Smith MA, Ghazizadeh A, Shadmehr R. PLoS Biol 4: e179, 2006). This two-state model has been shown to account for a range of behavior in the force field adaptation task. In the present study, we examined whether such a two-state model could also account for behavior arising from adaptation to a prismatic displacement of the visual field. We first confirmed that an "adaptation rebound," a critical prediction of the two-state model, occurred when visual feedback was deprived after an adaptation-extinction episode. We then examined the speed of decay of the prism aftereffect (without any visual feedback) after repetitions of 30, 150, and 500 trials of prism exposure. The speed of decay decreased with the number of exposure trials, a phenomenon that was best explained by assuming an "ultraslow" system, in addition to the fast and slow systems. Finally, we compared retention of aftereffects 24 h after 150 or 500 trials of exposure: retention was significantly greater after 500 than 150 trials. This difference in retention could not be explained by the two-state model but was well explained by the three-state model as arising from the difference in the amount of adaptation of the "ultraslow process." These results suggest that there are not only fast and slow systems but also an ultraslow learning system in prism adaptation that is activated by prolonged prism exposure of 150-500 trials.

  4. Consensus formation on adaptive networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozma, Balazs; Barrat, Alain

    2008-01-01

    The structure of a network can significantly influence the properties of the dynamical processes that take place on them. While many studies have been paid to this influence, much less attention has been devoted to the interplay and feedback mechanisms between dynamical processes and network topology on adaptive networks. Adaptive rewiring of links can happen in real life systems such as acquaintance networks, where people are more likely to maintain a social connection if their views and values are similar. In our study, we consider different variants of a model for consensus formation. Our investigations reveal that the adaptation of the network topology fosters cluster formation by enhancing communication between agents of similar opinion, although it also promotes the division of these clusters. The temporal behavior is also strongly affected by adaptivity: while, on static networks, it is influenced by percolation properties, on adaptive networks, both the early and late time evolutions of the system are determined by the rewiring process. The investigation of a variant of the model reveals that the scenarios of transitions between consensus and polarized states are more robust on adaptive networks.

  5. Curiosity adapted the cat: the role of trait curiosity in newcomer adaptation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Spencer H; Sluss, David M; Ashforth, Blake E

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from 123 newcomers across 12 telemarketing organizations, we examined the role of 2 forms of trait curiosity (specific and diversive) as antecedents of proximal adaptation behaviors (information seeking and positive framing) and more distal, in-role and extra-role behaviors (job performance and taking charge). Results suggest that specific curiosity predicts information seeking behaviors, whereas diversive curiosity promotes positive framing. Results also support the relationship between positive framing and performance and the extra-role behavior of taking charge. Overall, the study validates the role of curiosity as a multifaceted individual difference that serves as an antecedent to newcomer adaptation.

  6. Adaptive security systems -- Combining expert systems with adaptive technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.; Loveland, R.; Anderson, K.

    1997-09-01

    The Adaptive Multisensor Integrated Security System (AMISS) uses a variety of computational intelligence techniques to reason from raw sensor data through an array of processing layers to arrive at an assessment for alarm/alert conditions based on human behavior within a secure facility. In this paper, the authors give an overview of the system and briefly describe some of the major components of the system. This system is currently under development and testing in a realistic facility setting.

  7. Architecture for Adaptive Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes-Roth, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    We identify a class of niches to be occupied by 'adaptive intelligent systems (AISs)'. In contrast with niches occupied by typical AI agents, AIS niches present situations that vary dynamically along several key dimensions: different combinations of required tasks, different configurations of available resources, contextual conditions ranging from benign to stressful, and different performance criteria. We present a small class hierarchy of AIS niches that exhibit these dimensions of variability and describe a particular AIS niche, ICU (intensive care unit) patient monitoring, which we use for illustration throughout the paper. We have designed and implemented an agent architecture that supports all of different kinds of adaptation by exploiting a single underlying theoretical concept: An agent dynamically constructs explicit control plans to guide its choices among situation-triggered behaviors. We illustrate the architecture and its support for adaptation with examples from Guardian, an experimental agent for ICU monitoring.

  8. Adaptive filters: stable but divergent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, Markus

    2015-12-01

    The pros and cons of a quadratic error measure in the context of various applications have often been discussed. In this tutorial, we argue that it is not only a suboptimal but definitely the wrong choice when describing the stability behavior of adaptive filters. We take a walk through the past and recent history of adaptive filters and present 14 canonical forms of adaptive algorithms and even more variants thereof contrasting their mean-square with their l 2-stability conditions. In particular, in safety critical applications, the convergence in the mean-square sense turns out to provide wrong results, often not leading to stability at all. Only the robustness concept with its l 2-stability conditions ensures the absence of divergence.

  9. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    PubMed Central

    de Roode, Jacobus C.; Lefèvre, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied. PMID:26466629

  10. Axioms of adaptivity

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, C.; Feischl, M.; Page, M.; Praetorius, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims first at a simultaneous axiomatic presentation of the proof of optimal convergence rates for adaptive finite element methods and second at some refinements of particular questions like the avoidance of (discrete) lower bounds, inexact solvers, inhomogeneous boundary data, or the use of equivalent error estimators. Solely four axioms guarantee the optimality in terms of the error estimators. Compared to the state of the art in the temporary literature, the improvements of this article can be summarized as follows: First, a general framework is presented which covers the existing literature on optimality of adaptive schemes. The abstract analysis covers linear as well as nonlinear problems and is independent of the underlying finite element or boundary element method. Second, efficiency of the error estimator is neither needed to prove convergence nor quasi-optimal convergence behavior of the error estimator. In this paper, efficiency exclusively characterizes the approximation classes involved in terms of the best-approximation error and data resolution and so the upper bound on the optimal marking parameters does not depend on the efficiency constant. Third, some general quasi-Galerkin orthogonality is not only sufficient, but also necessary for the R-linear convergence of the error estimator, which is a fundamental ingredient in the current quasi-optimality analysis due to Stevenson 2007. Finally, the general analysis allows for equivalent error estimators and inexact solvers as well as different non-homogeneous and mixed boundary conditions. PMID:25983390

  11. Human whole body cold adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  12. Fuzzy Behavior-Based Navigation for Planetary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunstel, Edward; Danny, Harrison; Lippincott, Tanya; Jamshidi, Mo

    1997-01-01

    Adaptive behavioral capabilities are necessary for robust rover navigation in unstructured and partially-mapped environments. A control approach is described which exploits the approximate reasoning capability of fuzzy logic to produce adaptive motion behavior. In particular, a behavior-based architecture for hierarchical fuzzy control of microrovers is presented. Its structure is described, as well as mechanisms of control decision-making which give rise to adaptive behavior. Control decisions for local navigation result from a consensus of recommendations offered only by behaviors that are applicable to current situations. Simulation predicts the navigation performance on a microrover in simplified Mars-analog terrain.

  13. The Effects of Tier II Check-in/Check-out Including Adaptation for Non-Responders on the Off-Task Behavior of Elementary Students in a Residential Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoszowski, Nicole Cain; McDaniel, Sara C.; Jolivette, Kristine; Melius, Patience

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a Tier II positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) intervention, Check-in/Check-out (CICO), on the off-task behavior of 4 students with behavioral challenges and special needs in a residential facility. In addition, the study examined the effects of additional mentor contact (i.e., mid-day check-up;…

  14. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H.; Nguyen, Truong Q.

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the Expectation-Maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad-hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper: First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. Experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms.

  15. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the expectation-maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper. First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms.

  16. Predicting moral behavior in physical education classes: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Emmanouilidou, Maria

    2005-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the potential of the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict moral behavior in primary school physical education classes. Primary school children (N=611) completed a questionnaire including the Theory of Planned Behavior variables. Also, 21 teachers filled in an adapted version of Horrocks' Prosocial Play Behavior Inventory which assesses five moral behavior facets. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that attitudes toward moral behavior and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of intention towards moral behavior (54%). Intention and perceived behavioral control predicted teacher-reported moral behavior (41%). The present results indicated that the theory provides a valuable framework for study of primary school children's moral behavior.

  17. An Optimal Control Modification to Model-Reference Adaptive Control for Fast Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Boskovic, Jovan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method that can achieve fast adaptation for a class of model-reference adaptive control. It is well-known that standard model-reference adaptive control exhibits high-gain control behaviors when a large adaptive gain is used to achieve fast adaptation in order to reduce tracking error rapidly. High gain control creates high-frequency oscillations that can excite unmodeled dynamics and can lead to instability. The fast adaptation approach is based on the minimization of the squares of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The necessary condition of optimality is used to derive an adaptive law using the gradient method. This adaptive law is shown to result in uniform boundedness of the tracking error by means of the Lyapunov s direct method. Furthermore, this adaptive law allows a large adaptive gain to be used without causing undesired high-gain control effects. The method is shown to be more robust than standard model-reference adaptive control. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Stability of an adaptive hybrid community

    PubMed Central

    Mougi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to stable natural ecosystems, the classical ecological theory predicts that complex ecological communities are fragile. The adaptive switching of interaction partners was proposed as a key factor to resolve the complexity–stability problem. However, this theory is based on the food webs that comprise predator–prey interactions alone; thus, the manner in which adaptive behavior affects the dynamics of hybrid communities with multiple interaction types remains unclear. Here, using a bipartite community network model with antagonistic and mutualistic interactions, I show that adaptive partner shifts by both antagonists and mutualists are crucial to the persistence of communities. The results show that adaptive behavior destabilizes the dynamics of communities with a single interaction type; however, the hybridity of multiple interaction types within a community greatly improves the stability. Moreover, adaptive behavior does not create a positive complexity–stability relationship in communities with a single interaction type but it does in the hybrid community. The diversity of interaction types is predicted to play a crucial role in community maintenance in an adaptive world. PMID:27323666

  19. The Limits to Adaptation: A Systems Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felgenhauer, T. N.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to adapt to climate change is delineated by capacity thresholds, after which climate damages begin to overwhelm the adaptation response. Such thresholds depend upon physical properties (natural processes and engineering parameters), resource constraints (expressed through market prices), and societal preferences (from prices as well as cultural norms). Exceedance of adaptation capacity will require substitution either with other pre-existing policy responses or with new adaptation responses that have yet to be developed and tested. Previous modeling research shows that capacity limited adaptation will play a policy-significant role in future climate change decision-making. The aim of this study is to describe different types of adaptation response and climate damage systems and postulate how these systems might behave when the limits to adaptation are reached. The hypothesis is that this behavior will be governed by the characteristics and level of the adaptation limit, the shape of the damage curve in that specific damage area, and the availability of alternative adaptation responses once the threshold is passed, whether it is more of the old technology, a new response type, or a transformation of the climate damage and response system itself.

  20. Habituation of visual adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xue; Gao, Yi; Lv, Lili; Bao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter-term (e.g. adaptation) and longer-term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short-term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non-attentional habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions. PMID:26739917

  1. Predatory Strategies and Behavioral Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekoff, Marc

    1983-01-01

    Briefly discusses the view that behavior may be thought of as a phenotypic adaptation that can be quantitatively studied, and then considered in more detail ways in which predatory animals, especially mammals, satisfy their need for food. Topics covered include predatory behavior, hunting modes, prey selection, hunting success, and others. (JN)

  2. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  3. CONTROLLING BEHAVIOR CHANGERS' BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARKLE, DAVID G.

    AN EMERGING METHODOLOGY OF PROGRAMING AVOIDS SOME OF THE UNFORTUNATE EFFECTS ON PROGRAMER BEHAVIOR PRODUCED BY INTERPRETATIONS OF TWO EARLIER METHODOLOGIES. WHILE SKINNERIAN PROGRAMING OFTEN HAS LED TO TRIVIAL PROGRAMS THROUGH PROBLEMS OF APPLICATION OF THE CRITERIA OF SPECIFIED BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES AND LOW ERROR RATES, CROWDERIAN PROGRAMING HAS…

  4. Household-Level Coastal Adaptation and Its Drivers: A Systematic Case Study Review.

    PubMed

    Koerth, Jana; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Hinkel, Jochen

    2016-07-21

    Evidence-based information on household-level adaptation is an important element of integrated management of vulnerable coastal regions. A growing number of empirical studies deal with household-level adaptation at the coast in different regions. This article provides a systematic review of these studies. We analyze studies according to how households in different parts of the world are currently adapting, or how they are intending to adapt, and identify explanatory factors for adaptation behavior and intention. We find that households implement a broad range of adaptation measures and that adaptation behavior is explained by individual factors such as socioeconomic and cognitive variables, experience, and perceived responsibilities. Nonpersonal characteristics have also been used to explain adaptation behavior and intention but have not been extensively investigated. Few studies employ qualitative research methods and use inductive approaches as well as models stemming from behavioral economics. Our findings suggest that coastal risk management policies should communicate the efficacy of household-level adaptation, in addition to information about flood risk, in order to encourage coastal households in their adaptation activities. In this context, we discuss the role of resources and responsibility of households for their adaptation behavior. We describe the lessons learnt and formulate a research agenda on household-level adaptation to coastal flood risk. In practice, coastal risk management policies should further promote individually driven adaptation by integrating it in adaptation strategies and processes.

  5. Behavioral Gerontology: Application of Behavioral Methods to the Problems of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, Louis D.; Burgio, Kathryn L.

    1986-01-01

    The article discusses areas of behavioral gerontology that would profit from additional research, such as self-management, community caregiver training, and geriatric behavioral pharmacology. Considerations for adapting behavioral procedures for the elderly are discussed, and suggestions for expanding the role of behavior analysis in geriatric…

  6. Evaluation of a Residential Behavioral Program for Behaviorally Disturbed, Mentally Retarded Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandford, Donald A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The Adaptive Behavior Scale was used to evaluate a three-level token economy designed to modify the behavior of 42 behaviorally disturbed young adults of borderline intelligence. Following treatment large improvements occurred in those areas that were logically related to target behaviors within the token economy. Gains were maintained at…

  7. A complex-valued nonlinear neural adaptive filter with a gradient adaptive amplitude of the activation function.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Andrew I; Mandic, Danilo P

    2003-03-01

    A complex-valued nonlinear gradient descent (CNGD) learning algorithm for a simple finite impulse response (FIR) nonlinear neural adaptive filter with an adaptive amplitude of the complex activation function is proposed. This way the amplitude of the complex-valued analytic nonlinear activation function of a neuron in the learning algorithm is made gradient adaptive to give the complex-valued adaptive amplitude nonlinear gradient descent (CAANGD). Such an algorithm is beneficial when dealing with signals that have rich dynamical behavior. Simulations on the prediction of complex-valued coloured and nonlinear input signals show the gradient adaptive amplitude, CAANGD, outperforming the standard CNGD algorithm.

  8. Particle Swarm Based Collective Searching Model for Adaptive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E; Treadwell, Jim N

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a pilot study of an integration of particle swarm algorithm, social knowledge adaptation and multi-agent approaches for modeling the collective search behavior of self-organized groups in an adaptive environment. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of social group adaptation for the dynamic environment and to provide insight and understanding of social group knowledge discovering and strategic searching. A new adaptive environment model, which dynamically reacts to the group collective searching behaviors, is proposed in this research. The simulations in the research indicate that effective communication between groups is not the necessary requirement for whole self-organized groups to achieve the efficient collective searching behavior in the adaptive environment.

  9. Particle Swarm Based Collective Searching Model for Adaptive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E; Treadwell, Jim N

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a pilot study of an integration of particle swarm algorithm, social knowledge adaptation and multi-agent approaches for modeling the collective search behavior of self-organized groups in an adaptive environment. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of social group adaptation for the dynamic environment and to provide insight and understanding of social group knowledge discovering and strategic searching. A new adaptive environment model, which dynamically reacts to the group collective searching behaviors, is proposed in this research. The simulations in the research indicate that effective communication between groups is not the necessary requirement for whole self-organized groups to achieve the efficient collective searching behavior in the adaptive environment.

  10. Learning to Adapt to Asymmetric Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    14. Gresham, Frank M., and Stephen N. Elliot , “The Relationship Between Adaptive Behavior and Social Skills: Issues in Definition and Assessment...Foundation of US Hegemony,” International Security, Vol. 28, No. 1 Summer 2003, pp 5–46. Quinn , Robert E., “Building the Bridge as you Walk on it

  11. Adapted Aquatics for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Coleen A.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides information for physical education teachers to use while teaching their students with autism in an adapted aquatics unit plan. Crollick, Mancil, & Stopka (2006) have found that activities such as running, cycling, or swimming can reduce inappropriate behaviors in children who are autistic. They recommend further that…

  12. Health: The Science of Human Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Charles R.; And Others

    This book examines human health behavior as a lifetime process of adaptation and response to internally and externally demanding environments. Beginning with conception, this book follows the family life cycle from "seed to sod" and beyond. From considerations of conception it moves to birth, growth and development, disease, life style,…

  13. Behavior and Performance Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Shlyk, Galina; Vassilieva, Oxana; Richardson, W. Kirk

    1998-01-01

    Behavior is an overt manifestation of underlying biology. As such, alterations in biological systems that result from spaceflight would be expected to evidence themselves in subtle or even pronounced changes in the behavior of that organism. These alterations in visible behavior may then indicate or even be diagnostic of alterations in the physical well-being of humans and other animals as they adapt to space environments or readapt to Earth--alterations that might not otherwise be detected without relatively invasive and frequently expensive procedures. Moreover, behavior and performance constitute the central standard for evaluating the mission success of spaceflight ventures. The success or failure of any excursion into space is primarily indexed by the ability of astronauts and cosmonauts to perform the tasks and experiments of any particular mission, to land a re-entry vehicle after extended exposure to microgravity (as with the space shuttle), or to make time-critical and life-saving repairs or other decisions while in orbit (as with the recent Mir events). Thus, understanding the effects spaceflight on behavior and performance is inherently important, in addition to those insights that behavior can provide about the physiological consequences of space adaptation.

  14. The brain adapts to dishonesty.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Neil; Lazzaro, Stephanie C; Ariely, Dan; Sharot, Tali

    2016-12-01

    Dishonesty is an integral part of our social world, influencing domains ranging from finance and politics to personal relationships. Anecdotally, digressions from a moral code are often described as a series of small breaches that grow over time. Here we provide empirical evidence for a gradual escalation of self-serving dishonesty and reveal a neural mechanism supporting it. Behaviorally, we show that the extent to which participants engage in self-serving dishonesty increases with repetition. Using functional MRI, we show that signal reduction in the amygdala is sensitive to the history of dishonest behavior, consistent with adaptation. Critically, the extent of reduced amygdala sensitivity to dishonesty on a present decision relative to the previous one predicts the magnitude of escalation of self-serving dishonesty on the next decision. The findings uncover a biological mechanism that supports a 'slippery slope': what begins as small acts of dishonesty can escalate into larger transgressions.

  15. Resilience through adaptation

    PubMed Central

    van Voorn, George A. K.; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover’s distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system. PMID:28196372

  16. [Genome, environment and plasticity of the brain underlying individual adaptation].

    PubMed

    Paunio, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms mediate the interaction between environment and genome. On molecular level, these mechanisms are active in plastic processes of the brain and influence brain function and the person's ability to adapt to the environment. Genomic variations provide individual options for this adaptation, and a spectrum of behavioral patterns necessary for species preservation. Adaptation processes may also be harmful in respect of individual health, leading even to psychiatric illnesses, but are still meaningful as seen through the person's inner experience, genome or environment.

  17. Designing Adaptive Instructional Environments: Insights from Empirical Evidence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Similarly, Shute and Zapata -Rivera (2008) define adaptivity as the capability of a system to alter its behavior according to learner needs and...60(2), 265-306. Landsberg, C R., Van Buskirk, W. L., Astwood Jr., R. A., Mercado , A. D., & Aakre, A. J. (2010). Adaptive training considerations...22, 77-92. Shute, V. J., & Zapata -Rivera, D. (2008). Adaptive technologies. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merril, J. J. G. van Merriënboer, & M. Driscoll

  18. Savings in locomotor adaptation explained by changes in learning parameters following initial adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mawase, Firas; Shmuelof, Lior; Bar-Haim, Simona; Karniel, Amir

    2014-04-01

    Faster relearning of an external perturbation, savings, offers a behavioral linkage between motor learning and memory. To explain savings effects in reaching adaptation experiments, recent models suggested the existence of multiple learning components, each shows different learning and forgetting properties that may change following initial learning. Nevertheless, the existence of these components in rhythmic movements with other effectors, such as during locomotor adaptation, has not yet been studied. Here, we study savings in locomotor adaptation in two experiments; in the first, subjects adapted to speed perturbations during walking on a split-belt treadmill, briefly adapted to a counter-perturbation and then readapted. In a second experiment, subjects readapted after a prolonged period of washout of initial adaptation. In both experiments we find clear evidence for increased learning rates (savings) during readaptation. We show that the basic error-based multiple timescales linear state space model is not sufficient to explain savings during locomotor adaptation. Instead, we show that locomotor adaptation leads to changes in learning parameters, so that learning rates are faster during readaptation. Interestingly, we find an intersubject correlation between the slow learning component in initial adaptation and the fast learning component in the readaptation phase, suggesting an underlying mechanism for savings. Together, these findings suggest that savings in locomotion and in reaching may share common computational and neuronal mechanisms; both are driven by the slow learning component and are likely to depend on cortical plasticity.

  19. Suppression of Biodynamic Interference by Adaptive Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velger, M.; Merhav, S. J.; Grunwald, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary experimental results obtained in moving base simulator tests are presented. Both for pursuit and compensatory tracking tasks, a strong deterioration in tracking performance due to biodynamic interference is found. The use of adaptive filtering is shown to substantially alleviate these effects, resulting in a markedly improved tracking performance and reduction in task difficulty. The effect of simulator motion and of adaptive filtering on human operator describing functions is investigated. Adaptive filtering is found to substantially increase pilot gain and cross-over frequency, implying a more tight tracking behavior. The adaptive filter is found to be effective in particular for high-gain proportional dynamics, low display forcing function power and for pursuit tracking task configurations.

  20. Adaptation to suspensory locomotion in Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Rein, Thomas R; Harrison, Terry; Carlson, Kristian J; Harvati, Katerina

    2017-03-01

    Australopithecus sediba is represented by well-preserved fossilized remains from the locality of Malapa, South Africa. Recent work has shown that the combination of features in the limb skeleton of A. sediba was distinct from that of earlier species of Australopithecus, perhaps indicating that this species moved differently. The bones of the arm and forearm indicate that A. sediba was adapted to suspensory and climbing behaviors. We used a geometric morphometric approach to examine ulnar shape, potentially identifying adaptations to forelimb suspensory locomotion in A. sediba. Results indicated suspensory capabilities in this species and a stronger forelimb suspensory signal than has been documented in Australopithecus afarensis. Our study confirms the adaptive significance of functional morphological traits for arboreal movements in the locomotor repertoire of A. sediba and provides important insight into the diversity and mosaic nature of locomotor adaptations among early hominins.