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Sample records for adaptive behavior scales

  1. The Adaptive Behavior Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, William J.

    A scale to identify important behaviors in preschool children was developed, and ratings were related to more traditional indices of development and academic readiness. Teacher interviews were used to identify 62 specific behaviors related to maximally adapted and maximally maladapted kindergarten children. These were incorporated into a…

  2. Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale: School Version Technical Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarney, Stephen B.

    This test manual provides information on the Adaptive Behavior Education Scale-Revised (ABES-R), a 25-minute behavior scale designed to evaluate adaptive skills in students with behavioral, learning, and intellectual disabilities, including educationally relevant behavior which may be identified as contributing to more appropriate diagnosis,…

  3. Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale: Home Version Technical Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarney, Stephen B.

    This test manual provides information on the Adaptive Behavior Education Scale-Home Version (ABES), a 25-minute behavior scale designed to evaluate adaptive skills in students with behavioral, learning, and intellectual disabilities, including educationally relevant behavior which may be identified as contributing to more appropriate diagnosis,…

  4. Assessing Minority Students: The Role of Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Hermes; Baca, Leonard M.

    1979-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales can be very helpful in the overall assessment of minority children. In some states they are mandatory. Their weaknesses, particularly with the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale, are sampling bias and appropriateness in the areas of culture, language, and socioeconomic status. (Author)

  5. The Adaptive Behavior Scale: A Study of Criterion Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreat, Scott

    1980-01-01

    The validity of the Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) for placement purposes was estimated using as Ss 95 formerly institutionalized retarded persons, 97 institutional residents referred for discharge, and 178 institutional residents. Results suggest that knowledge of an individual's ABS scores would enable a test user to make valid estimates of group…

  6. Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition…

  7. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  8. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  9. Predicting Adaptive Behavior from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotard, Stephen; McWhirter, Richard

    To examine the proportion of variance in adaptive functioning predictable from mental ability, chronological age, I.Q., evidence of brain malfunction, seizure medication, and receptive and expressive language scores, 25 severely and profoundly retarded institutionalized persons (2-19 years old) were administered the Bayley Infant Scale Mental…

  10. The Glenwood Assessment of Behavior of the Mentally Retarded: A Well-Factored Scale of Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Gary Y.

    The paper describes the reasons for developing a new instrument to measure adaptive behavior of mentally retarded residents at Glenwood State Hospital-School and recounts the processes involved in constructing the new scale. Among complaints about the American Association on Mental Deficiency Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) are its inappropriateness…

  11. The Assessment of Minority Students: Are Adaptive Behavior Scales the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baca, Leonard; Cervantes, Hermes

    1978-01-01

    The use of adaptive behavior scales in the assessment of minority children was discussed. Positive and negative characteristics of the scales developed by Mercer and Lambert were identified and discussed. Recommendations included cautions for the use of such scales in the evaluation of culturally different minority children. (Author)

  12. Use of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II in Children with Autism--An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohari, S. M.; Raman, Vijaya; Ashok, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Edition 2005 (Vineland-II) is useful in assessing abilities in autism spectrum disorder, where an accurate assessment of intelligence using standardized tools is difficult both due to the unique social and communication difficulties that these children present with and the behavioral issues that occur as…

  13. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  14. An ICF-CY-Based Content Analysis of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Kara; Coster, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and its version for children and youth (ICF-CY), has been increasingly adopted as a system to describe function and disability. A content analysis of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II) was conducted to examine congruence with the functioning…

  15. Reliability of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale-Public School Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Kathy L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigated interrater reliability of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale-Public School Version in a sample of 31 educable mentally handicapped children who were rated by their parents, special education teacher, classroom teacher, and an independent observer. Results showed ratings of the special education teacher were generally lower. (JAC)

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Adaptive Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Sofia; Morato, Pedro; Luckasson, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive behavior construct has gained prominent attention in human services over the last several years in Portugal, and its measurement has become an integral part of the assessment of populations with intellectual disability. In Portugal, diagnosis remains exclusively based on IQ measures, although some attention recently has been given to…

  17. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: II Profile of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sabrina; Paynter, Jessica M.; Gilmore, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour is a crucial area of assessment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study examined the adaptive behaviour profile of 77 young children with ASD using the Vineland-II, and analysed factors associated with adaptive functioning. Consistent with previous research with the original Vineland a distinct autism…

  18. Avoidance and activation as keys to depression: adaptation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale in a Spanish sample.

    PubMed

    Barraca, Jorge; Pérez-Alvarez, Marino; Lozano Bleda, José Héctor

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we present the adaptation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS), developed by Kanter, Mulick, Busch, Berlin, and Martell (2007), in a Spanish sample. The psychometric properties were tested in a sample of 263 participants (124 clinical and 139 non-clinical). The results show that, just as in the original English version, the Spanish BADS is a valid and internally consistent scale. Construct validity was examined by correlation with the BDI-II, AAQ, ATQ, MCQ-30, STAI and EROS. Factor analysis justified the four-dimensions of the original instrument (Activation, Avoidance/Rumination, Work/School Impairment and Social Impairment), although with some differences in the factor loadings of the items. Further considerations about the usefulness of the BADS in the clinical treatment of depressed patients are also suggested. PMID:22059343

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability testing of Polish adaptation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS)

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Łoboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Jaarsma, Tiny; Łoboz-Grudzień, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of simple instruments for determination of self-care levels in heart failure (HF) patients is a subject of ongoing research. One such instrument, gaining growing popularity worldwide, is the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS). The aim of this study was to adapt and to test reliability of the Polish version of EHFScBS. Method A standard guideline was used for translation and cultural adaptation of the English version of EHFScBS into Polish. The study included 100 Polish HF patients aged between 24 and 91 years, among them 67 men and 33 women. Cronbach’s alpha was used for analysis of the internal consistency of EHFScBS. Results Mean total self-care score in the study group was 34.2±8.1 points. Good or satisfactory level of self-care were documented in four out of 12 analyzed EHFScBS domains. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire questionnaire was 0.64. The value of Cronbach’s alpha after deletion of specific items ranged from 0.55 to 0.65. Conclusion Polish HF patients present significant deficits of self-care, which are to a large extent associated with inefficacy of the public health care system. Apart from cultural characteristics, the socioeconomic context of the target population should be considered during language adaptation of EHFScBS, as well as during interpretation of data obtained with this instrument. A number of self-care–related behaviors may be optimized as a result of appropriate educational activities, also those offered by nursing personnel. PMID:25382973

  20. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures. PMID:25348356

  1. Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and autism: relationship to Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and cognition.

    PubMed

    Lerer, E; Levi, S; Salomon, S; Darvasi, A; Yirmiya, N; Ebstein, R P

    2008-10-01

    Evidence both from animal and human studies suggests that common polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene are likely candidates to confer risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In lower mammals, oxytocin is important in a wide range of social behaviors, and recent human studies have shown that administration of oxytocin modulates behavior in both clinical and non-clinical groups. Additionally, two linkage studies and two recent association investigations also underscore a possible role for the OXTR gene in predisposing to ASD. We undertook a comprehensive study of all 18 tagged SNPs across the entire OXTR gene region identified using HapMap data and the Haploview algorithm. Altogether 152 subjects diagnosed with ASDs (that is, DSM IV autistic disorder or pervasive developmental disorder--NOS) from 133 families were genotyped (parents and affected siblings). Both individual SNPs and haplotypes were tested for association using family-based association tests as provided in the UNPHASED set of programs. Significant association with single SNPs and haplotypes (global P-values <0.05, following permutation test adjustment) were observed with ASD. Association was also observed with IQ and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). In particular, a five-locus haplotype block (rs237897-rs13316193-rs237889-rs2254298-rs2268494) was significantly associated with ASD (nominal global P=0.000019; adjusted global P=0.009) and a single haplotype (carried by 7% of the population) within that block showed highly significant association (P=0.00005). This is the third association study, in a third ethnic group, showing that SNPs and haplotypes in the OXTR gene confer risk for ASD. The current investigation also shows association with IQ and total VABS scores (as well as the communication, daily living skills and socialization subdomains), suggesting that this gene shapes both cognition and daily living skills that may cross diagnostic boundaries. PMID:17893705

  2. The Vocational Adaptation Rating Scales.

    PubMed

    Malgady, R G; Barcher, P R

    1982-01-01

    The Vocational Adaptation Rating Scales (VARS) were developed to provide a comprehensive assessment of maladaptive social behavior related to vocational success, but not directly measuring job performance of mentally retarded workers. Psychometric information derived from the VARS is useful for developing individualized educational plans (IEPs) for compliance with Public Law 94-142; for program, worker or curriculum evaluations; and for predicting placement of workers in vocational training. Research indicates that VARS scores are internally consistent, moderately correlated with other vocational measures, unbiased with respect to sex and age differences, and independent of IQ. Inter-rater reliability is acceptable, and VARS profiles are accurate predictors of level of sheltered workshop placement of mentally retarded workers, independent of IQ, sex and age. Unlike other instruments, the VARS offers a profile of social behavior in a vocational context. PMID:7168570

  3. Adaptive capture of expert behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

  4. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  5. Adaptive Behavior: A Conceptual Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Mary W.; Salvia, John

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents a model that examines the domain of adaptive behavior in terms of components (including physical needs, care of the environment, vocation, and understanding social conventions), and levels of performance (such as timing and degree of adaptation). (Author/CL)

  6. Adapting the McMaster-Ottawa scale and developing behavioral anchors for assessing performance in an interprofessional Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Désirée; May, Win; Richter-Lagha, Regina; Forest, Christopher; Banzali, Yvonne; Lohenry, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Current scales for interprofessional team performance do not provide adequate behavioral anchors for performance evaluation. The Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter (TOSCE) provides an opportunity to adapt and develop an existing scale for this purpose. We aimed to test the feasibility of using a retooled scale to rate performance in a standardized patient encounter and to assess faculty ability to accurately rate both individual students and teams. Methods The 9-point McMaster-Ottawa Scale developed for a TOSCE was converted to a 3-point scale with behavioral anchors. Students from four professions were trained a priori to perform in teams of four at three different levels as individuals and teams. Blinded faculty raters were trained to use the scale to evaluate individual and team performances. G-theory was used to analyze ability of faculty to accurately rate individual students and teams using the retooled scale. Results Sixteen faculty, in groups of four, rated four student teams, each participating in the same TOSCE station. Faculty expressed comfort rating up to four students in a team within a 35-min timeframe. Accuracy of faculty raters varied (38–81% individuals, 50–100% teams), with errors in the direction of over-rating individual, but not team performance. There was no consistent pattern of error for raters. Conclusion The TOSCE can be administered as an evaluation method for interprofessional teams. However, faculty demonstrate a ‘leniency error’ in rating students, even with prior training using behavioral anchors. To improve consistency, we recommend two trained faculty raters per station. PMID:26004993

  7. Emotional Development and Adaptive Abilities in Adults with Intellectual Disability. A Correlation Study between the Scheme of Appraisal of Emotional Development (SAED) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Lassi, Stefano; Bertelli, Marco; Albertini, Giorgio; Dosen, Anton

    2009-01-01

    The importance of emotional aspects in developing cognitive and social abilities has already been underlined by many authors even if there is no unanimous agreement on the factors constituting adaptive abilities, nor is there any on the way to measure them or on the relation between adaptive ability and cognitive level. The purposes of this study…

  8. Behavior of adaptive digital erosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuciurean-Zapan, Clara; Dougherty, Edward R.; Chen, Yidong

    1996-10-01

    Design of statistically optimal erosion-based filters is problematic due to the complexity of the search process. Specialized search techniques and constraints on optimality are used to mitigate the full search. Adaptation of structuring elements has also ben employed. The present paper looks at the behavior of an adaptive filter relative to the actual optimal filter for a single erosion in two models, signal-union-noise and dilation. It does so in the context of state transitions, where filter states are stacks that determine the structuring element upon thresholding.

  9. Using Behavioral Questionnaires to Identify Adaptive Deficits in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Lachar, David

    1994-01-01

    Obtained responses to Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and revised Personality Inventory for Children (PIC-R) for 88 elementary-age boys. Used CBCL and PIC-R scales to predict three domain scales and Adaptive Behavior Composite from Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Results suggest that behavioral questionnaires can be used to efficiently identify…

  10. Anticipated adaptation or scale recalibration?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to investigate anticipated adaptation among patients in the subacute phase of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Methods We used an observational longitudinal design. Patients with SCI (N = 44) rated their actual, previous and expected future Quality of Life (QoL) at three time points: within two weeks of admission to the rehabilitation center (RC), a few weeks before discharge from the RC, and at least three months after discharge. We compared the expected future rating at the second time point with the actual ratings at the third time point, using student’s t-tests. To gain insight into scale recalibration we also compared actual and previous ratings. Results At the group level, patients overpredicted their improvement on the VAS. Actual health at T3(M = 0.65, sd =0.20)) was significantly lower than the predicted health at T1 of T3 (M = 0.76, sd = 0.1; t(43) = 3.24, p < 0.01), and at T2 of T3(M = 0.75,sd = 0.13; t(43) = 3.44, p < 0.001). Similarly the recalled health at T3 of T2 (M = 0.59, sd = 0.18) was significantly lower than the actual health at T2 (M = 0.67, sd = 0.15; t(43) = 3.26, p <0.01). Patients rated their future and past health inaccurately compared to their actual ratings on the VAS. In contrast, on the TTO patients gave accurate estimates of their future and previous health, and they also accurately valued their previous health. Looking at individual ratings, the number of respondents with accurate estimates of their future and previous health were similar between the VAS and TTO. However, the Bland-Altman plots show that the deviation of the accuracy is larger for the TTO then the VAS. That is the accuracy of 95% of the respondents was lower in the TTO then in the VAS. Conclusions Patients at the onset of a disability were able to anticipate adaptation. Valuations given on the VAS seem to be biased by scale recalibration. PMID:24139246

  11. The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, William R.

    2015-09-01

    The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure (AMSI) is a set of libraries and tools developed to support the development, implementation, and execution of general multimodel simulations. Using a minimal set of simulation meta-data AMSI allows for minimally intrusive work to adapt existent single-scale simulations for use in multi-scale simulations. Support for dynamic runtime operations such as single- and multi-scale adaptive properties is a key focus of AMSI. Particular focus has been spent on the development on scale-sensitive load balancing operations to allow single-scale simulations incorporated into a multi-scale simulation using AMSI to use standard load-balancing operations without affecting the integrity of the overall multi-scale simulation.

  12. From Concept to Measurement in Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Henry

    The concept of adaptation is approached from several directions: (1) a discussion of the meanings of adaptation; (2) a functional socio-cultural set of considerations on which one can base measurement in adaptive behavior; and (3) a practical, applied conceptualization relative to the utilization of the obtained information and the reasons for…

  13. Adaptive Behavior Profiles of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditterline, Jeffrey; Banner, Diane; Oakland, Thomas; Becton, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of adaptive behavior traditionally has been associated with the identification of individuals with mental retardation. Information on adaptive behavior increasingly is being used for comprehensive assessment, treatment planning, intervention, and program evaluation for individuals with various disorders. Data from the normative samples…

  14. Adaptive Behavior in Toddlers under Two with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Loomis, Rebecca; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was administered to 54 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before age 2, and a matching group of 18 toddlers with developmental delay (DD). The group with ASD was more impaired on all scales of the Vineland than DD peers. When 18 ASD/DD pairs very closely matched on age, verbal and nonverbal…

  15. Development of Underwater Laser Scaling Adapter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluss, Kaspars

    2012-12-01

    In this paper the developed laser scaling adapter is presented. The scaling adapter is equipped with a twin laser unit where the two parallel laser beams are projected onto any target giving an exact indication of scale. The body of the laser scaling adapter is made of Teflon, the density of which is approximately two times the water density. The development involved multiple challenges - numerical hydrodynamic calculations for choosing an appropriate shape which would reduce the effects of turbulence, an accurate sealing of the power supply and the laser diodes, and others. The precision is estimated by the partial derivation method. Both experimental and theoretical data conclude the overall precision error to be in the 1% margin. This paper presents the development steps of such an underwater laser scaling adapter for a remotely operated vehicle (ROV).

  16. Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Staci C.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the…

  17. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Profiles in Children with Autism and Moderate to Severe Developmental Delay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Gemma; D'Ardia, Caterina; Valente, Donatella; Vecchio, Ilaria del; Fabrizi, Anna; Bernabei, Paola

    2003-01-01

    A study examined adaptive behavior profiles in children (ages 21-108 months) with moderate to severe developmental delay and autism (n=23) and without autism (n=27). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales was administered, and contrary to initial predictions, the sample presented fairly homogeneous adaptive behavior profiles. (Contains references.)…

  18. Adaptive Behavior of Primary School Students with Visual Impairments: The Impact of Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsiou, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the adaptive behavior of primary school students with visual impairments, as well as the impact of educational setting on their adaptive behavior. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Participants were 36 primary school students with visual impairments. The educational…

  19. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  20. Complex adaptive behavior and dexterous action

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Steven J.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dexterous action, as conceptualized by Bernstein in his influential ecological analysis of human behavior, is revealed in the ability to flexibly generate behaviors that are adaptively tailored to the demands of the context in which they are embedded. Conceived as complex adaptive behavior, dexterity depends upon the qualities of robustness and degeneracy, and is supported by the functional complexity of the agent-environment system. Using Bernstein’s and Gibson’s ecological analyses of behavior situated in natural environments as conceptual touchstones, we consider the hypothesis that complex adaptive behavior capitalizes upon general principles of self-organization. Here, we outline a perspective in which the complex interactivity of nervous-system, body, and environment is revealed as an essential resource for adaptive behavior. From this perspective, we consider the implications for interpreting the functionality and dysfunctionality of human behavior. This paper demonstrates that, optimal variability, the topic of this special issue, is a logical consequence of interpreting the functionality of human behavior as complex adaptive behavior. PMID:26375932

  1. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  2. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  3. Small scale adaptive optics experiment systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of the current technology relating to the laser power beaming system which in full scale is called the Beam Transmission Optical System (BTOS). Evaluation of system integration efforts are being conducted by the various government agencies and industry. Concepts are being developed for prototypes of adaptive optics for a BTOS.

  4. The Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Preusser, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of the Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale (AMPS) for children. Expert reviewers and samples of 4th- and 5th-grade students were used to develop items and evaluate the internal structure and reliability of scores for the resulting instrument. Results supported 4 dimensions of perfectionism that could be reliably…

  5. Adaptive Prediction Error Coding in the Human Midbrain and Striatum Facilitates Behavioral Adaptation and Learning Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Diederen, Kelly M J; Spencer, Tom; Vestergaard, Martin D; Fletcher, Paul C; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Effective error-driven learning benefits from scaling of prediction errors to reward variability. Such behavioral adaptation may be facilitated by neurons coding prediction errors relative to the standard deviation (SD) of reward distributions. To investigate this hypothesis, we required participants to predict the magnitude of upcoming reward drawn from distributions with different SDs. After each prediction, participants received a reward, yielding trial-by-trial prediction errors. In line with the notion of adaptive coding, BOLD response slopes in the Substantia Nigra/Ventral Tegmental Area (SN/VTA) and ventral striatum were steeper for prediction errors occurring in distributions with smaller SDs. SN/VTA adaptation was not instantaneous but developed across trials. Adaptive prediction error coding was paralleled by behavioral adaptation, as reflected by SD-dependent changes in learning rate. Crucially, increased SN/VTA and ventral striatal adaptation was related to improved task performance. These results suggest that adaptive coding facilitates behavioral adaptation and supports efficient learning. PMID:27181060

  6. The Practicality of Behavioral Observation Scales, Behavioral Expectation Scales, and Trait Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersma, Uco; Latham, Gary P.

    1986-01-01

    The practicality of three appraisal instruments was measured in terms of user preference, namely, behavioral observation scales (BOS), behavioral expectation scales (BES), and trait scales. In all instances, BOS were preferred to BES, and in all but two instances, BOS were viewed as superior to trait scales. (Author/ABB)

  7. Neurophysiology of performance monitoring and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Ullsperger, Markus; Danielmeier, Claudia; Jocham, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Successful goal-directed behavior requires not only correct action selection, planning, and execution but also the ability to flexibly adapt behavior when performance problems occur or the environment changes. A prerequisite for determining the necessity, type, and magnitude of adjustments is to continuously monitor the course and outcome of one's actions. Feedback-control loops correcting deviations from intended states constitute a basic functional principle of adaptation at all levels of the nervous system. Here, we review the neurophysiology of evaluating action course and outcome with respect to their valence, i.e., reward and punishment, and initiating short- and long-term adaptations, learning, and decisions. Based on studies in humans and other mammals, we outline the physiological principles of performance monitoring and subsequent cognitive, motivational, autonomic, and behavioral adaptation and link them to the underlying neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, psychological theories, and computational models. We provide an overview of invasive and noninvasive systemic measures, such as electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and lesion data. We describe how a wide network of brain areas encompassing frontal cortices, basal ganglia, thalamus, and monoaminergic brain stem nuclei detects and evaluates deviations of actual from predicted states indicating changed action costs or outcomes. This information is used to learn and update stimulus and action values, guide action selection, and recruit adaptive mechanisms that compensate errors and optimize goal achievement. PMID:24382883

  8. Sexual compulsivity scale: adaptation and validation in the spanish population.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gómez-Martínez, Sandra; Llario, M Dolores-Gil; Salmerón-Sánchez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Sexual compulsivity has been studied in relation to high-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections. The aim of this study was the adaptation and validation of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale to a sample of Spanish young people. This scale was applied to 1,196 (891 female, 305 male) Spanish college students. The results of principal components factor analysis using a varimax rotation indicated a two-factor solution. The reliability of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale was found to be high. Moreover, the scale showed good temporal stability. External correlates were examined through Pearson correlations between the Sexual Compulsivity Scale and other constructs related with HIV prevention. The authors' results suggest that the Sexual Compulsivity Scale is an appropriate measure for assessing sexual compulsivity, showing adequate psychometric properties in the Spanish population. PMID:23631692

  9. Linking Individual and Collective Behavior in Adaptive Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive social structures are known to promote the evolution of cooperation. However, up to now the characterization of the collective, population-wide dynamics resulting from the self-organization of individual strategies on a coevolving, adaptive network has remained unfeasible. Here we establish a (reversible) link between individual (micro)behavior and collective (macro)behavior for coevolutionary processes. We demonstrate that an adaptive network transforms a two-person social dilemma locally faced by individuals into a collective dynamics that resembles that associated with an N -person coordination game, whose characterization depends sensitively on the relative time scales between the entangled behavioral and network evolutions. In particular, we show that the faster the relative rate of adaptation of the network, the smaller the critical fraction of cooperators required for cooperation to prevail, thus establishing a direct link between network adaptation and the evolution of cooperation. The framework developed here is general and may be readily applied to other dynamical processes occurring on adaptive networks, notably, the spreading of contagious diseases or the diffusion of innovations.

  10. Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Ceddia, M G; Chowell, Gerardo; Parra, Paula A Gonzalez; Hickling, Graham J; Holloway, Garth; Horan, Richard; Morin, Benjamin; Perrings, Charles; Springborn, Michael; Velazquez, Leticia; Villalobos, Cristina

    2011-04-12

    The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits. The cost-benefit trade-offs that shape contact behavior, and hence the course of epidemics, are often only implicitly incorporated in epidemiological models. This approach creates difficulty in parsing out the effects of adaptive behavior. We use an epidemiological-economic model of disease dynamics to explicitly model the trade-offs that drive person-to-person contact decisions. Results indicate that including adaptive human behavior significantly changes the predicted course of epidemics and that this inclusion has implications for parameter estimation and interpretation and for the development of social distancing policies. Acknowledging adaptive behavior requires a shift in thinking about epidemiological processes and parameters. PMID:21444809

  11. Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Ceddia, M. G.; Chowell, Gerardo; Parra, Paula A. Gonzalez; Hickling, Graham J.; Holloway, Garth; Horan, Richard; Morin, Benjamin; Perrings, Charles; Springborn, Michael; Velazquez, Leticia; Villalobos, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits. The cost–benefit trade-offs that shape contact behavior, and hence the course of epidemics, are often only implicitly incorporated in epidemiological models. This approach creates difficulty in parsing out the effects of adaptive behavior. We use an epidemiological–economic model of disease dynamics to explicitly model the trade-offs that drive person-to-person contact decisions. Results indicate that including adaptive human behavior significantly changes the predicted course of epidemics and that this inclusion has implications for parameter estimation and interpretation and for the development of social distancing policies. Acknowledging adaptive behavior requires a shift in thinking about epidemiological processes and parameters. PMID:21444809

  12. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K. N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  13. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Construction, Reliability, and Measurement Equivalence across 13 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from 13 countries collaborated in constructing a psychometric scale to measure career adaptability. Based on four pilot tests, a research version of the proposed scale consisting of 55 items was field tested in 13 countries. The resulting Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items. The four scales…

  14. Profiles and Development of Adaptive Behavior in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth; Hodapp, Robert; Evans, David

    2006-01-01

    The profiles and developmental trajectories of adaptive behavior were cross-sectionally examined in 80 children with Down syndrome ages 1 to 11.5 years using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Profile findings indicated a significant weakness in communication relative to daily living and socialization skills. Within communication itself,…

  15. Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

  16. Entrepreneurial Orientation Scale: Adaptation to Spanish.

    PubMed

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Sánchez-García, José Carlos; Viardot, Eric; Boada-Cuerva, Maria; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is linked to the perception of opportunities, to orientation, to attitudes, to the fear of failure and to entrepreneurial motivations. Entrepreneurial orientation is a fundamental construct for understanding the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. What is more, it is multidimensional and has attracted considerable attention from researchers in recent years. The objective of this study was to adapt the original 12-item English scale to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties. The participants in the present study were 925 Spanish employees (48.2% men, 51.5% women, M age = 42.49 years, SD age = 11.25) from the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Castilla-León. After applying an ESEM (RMSEA = .06; CFI = .97 and TLI = .95) a structure was determined made up of four factors which corroborated the structure of the original scale: Autonomy (α = .71 and CI = .68 - .73), Innovativeness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73), Risk Taking (α = .72 and CI = .68 - .74) and Competitive Aggressiveness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73). The four factors displayed suitable reliability. The study also found evidences of validity in relation to a series of external correlates and various scales which refer to workaholism, irritation and burnout. The scale presented here may prove useful for satisfactorily identifying, in Spanish, the entrepreneurial orientation of the working population. PMID:27453429

  17. Scaling Behavior of Firm Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Michael H. R.; Nunes Amaral, Luis A.; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Leschhorn, Heiko; Maass, Philipp; Salinger, Michael A.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1996-03-01

    The theory of the firm is of considerable interest in economics. The standard microeconomic theory of the firm is largely a static model and has thus proved unsatisfactory for addressing inherently dynamic issues such as the growth of economies. In recent years, many have attempted to develop richer models that provide a more accurate representation of firm dynamics due to learning, innovative effort, and the development of organizational infrastructure. The validity of these new, inherently dynamic theories depends on their consistency with the statistical properties of firm growth, e.g. the relationship between growth rates and firm size. Using the Compustat database over the time period 1975-1991, we find: (i) the distribution of annual growth rates for firms with approximately the same sales displays an exponential form with the logarithm of growth rate, and (ii) the fluctuations in the growth rates --- measured by the width of this distribution --- scale as a power law with the firm sales. We place these findings of scaling behavior in the context of conventional economics by considering firm growth dynamics with temporal correlations and also, by considering a hierarchical organization of the departments of a firm.

  18. The Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior. Measures of Program Development for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded. Section 1. Skills of Functional Independence. Part Three: Program Scoring Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Earl E.

    The scoring form for functional independence skills for the mentally retarded includes a section for recording subjects' demographic characteristics as well as tests used, date administered, and raw score. Other sections provide for a brief description of the program being used, an item scoring sheet for the Eating Scales (dependent feeding,…

  19. Thermodynamic scaling behavior in genechips

    PubMed Central

    Ferrantini, Alessandro; Allemeersch, Joke; Van Hummelen, Paul; Carlon, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Background Affymetrix Genechips are characterized by probe pairs, a perfect match (PM) and a mismatch (MM) probe differing by a single nucleotide. Most of the data preprocessing algorithms neglect MM signals, as it was shown that MMs cannot be used as estimators of the non-specific hybridization as originally proposed by Affymetrix. The aim of this paper is to study in detail on a large number of experiments the behavior of the average PM/MM ratio. This is taken as an indicator of the quality of the hybridization and, when compared between different chip series, of the quality of the chip design. Results About 250 different GeneChip hybridizations performed at the VIB Microarray Facility for Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, and Arabidopsis thaliana were analyzed. The investigation of such a large set of data from the same source minimizes systematic experimental variations that may arise from differences in protocols or from different laboratories. The PM/MM ratios are derived theoretically from thermodynamic laws and a link is made with the sequence of PM and MM probe, more specifically with their central nucleotide triplets. Conclusion The PM/MM ratios subdivided according to the different central nucleotides triplets follow qualitatively those deduced from the hybridization free energies in solution. It is shown also that the PM and MM histograms are related by a simple scale transformation, in agreement with what is to be expected from hybridization thermodynamics. Different quantitative behavior is observed on the different chip organisms analyzed, suggesting that some organism chips have superior probe design compared to others. PMID:19123958

  20. Anomalous human behavior detection: an adaptive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Coen; Halma, Arvid; Schutte, Klamer

    2013-05-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous behavior in videos from DARPA's Mind's Eye program, containing a variety of human activities. In this semi-unsupervised task a set of normal instances is provided for training, after which unknown abnormal behavior has to be detected in a test set. The features extracted from the video data have high dimensionality, are sparse and inhomogeneously distributed in the feature space making it a challenging task. Given these characteristics a distance-based method is preferred, but choosing a threshold to classify instances as (ab)normal is non-trivial. Our novel aproach, the Adaptive Outlier Distance (AOD) is able to detect outliers in these conditions based on local distance ratios. The underlying assumption is that the local maximum distance between labeled examples is a good indicator of the variation in that neighborhood, and therefore a local threshold will result in more robust outlier detection. We compare our method to existing state-of-art methods such as the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) and the Local Distance-based Outlier Factor (LDOF). The results of the experiments show that our novel approach improves the quality of the anomaly detection.

  1. Adaptive Behavior in Children with Fragile X Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Deborah D.; Wheeler, Anne C.; Skinner, Martie L.; Bailey, Donald B.; Sullivan, Kelly M.; Roberts, Jane E.; Mirrett, Penny; Clark, Renee D.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive behavior was measured over time in 70 children, ages 1 to 12 years, with fragile X syndrome. With a mean of 4.4 assessments per child, adaptive behavior skills increased steadily and gradually over time. Children with less autistic behavior and higher percentages of the fragile X mental retardation gene protein showed better performance…

  2. Cross-National Assessment of Adaptive Behavior in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Iliescu, Dragos; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Juliet Honglei

    2013-01-01

    Measures of adaptive behaviors provide an important tool in the repertoire of clinical and school/educational psychologists. Measures that assess adaptive behaviors typically have been built in Western cultures and developed in light of behaviors common to them. Nevertheless, these measures are used elsewhere despite a paucity of data that examine…

  3. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    PubMed Central

    Mazefsky, C. A.; Williams, D. L.; Minshew, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age=18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about the presence of broader autism phenotype symptoms and major psychiatric disorders in first degree relatives. Adaptive behavior was assessed via the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Based on family history variables, age, and intelligence quotient (IQ), 87% of participants were correctly classified as having impaired or average VABS scores. Family history of depression and shyness accounted for the most variance in VABS scores, and they had the greatest influence on VABS Socialization scores in particular. Possible underlying mechanisms include genetics, psychosocial factors, and social resources. This study provides initial evidence of the importance of family history to adaptive behavior in autism and has implications for genetics and treatment. PMID:18188537

  4. Scaling of prosocial behavior in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbesman, Samuel; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has examined how various behaviors scale in cities in relation to their population sizes. Behavior related to innovation and productivity has been found to increase per capita as the size of the city increases, a phenomenon known as superlinear scaling. Criminal behavior has also been found to scale superlinearly. Here we examine a variety of prosocial behaviors (e.g., voting and organ donation), which also would be presumed to be categorized into a single class of scaling with population. We find that, unlike productivity and innovation, prosocial behaviors do not scale in a unified manner. We argue how this might be due to the nature of interactions that are distinct for different prosocial behaviors.

  5. Development of Adaptive Behavior in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism and Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, Katherine A.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen individuals with autism and sixteen with Down's Syndrome, aged 10-29, were matched for verbal mental age. The groups' scores did not differ on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. However, the adaptive skills of Down's Syndrome individuals kept pace with mental age, while the skills of autistic subjects did not change. (Author/JDD)

  6. Adaptation of the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) to Turkish Students: Factorial Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cikrikci-Demirtash, R. Nukhet

    2005-01-01

    The study presented in this article was conducted to determine psychometric features of scales for Turkish students by adapting the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) developed by Midgley and others (2000) to the Turkish language in order to measure personal and classroom goal orientations. The scales were developed to test…

  7. Do Children With Fragile X Syndrome Show Declines or Plateaus in Adaptive Behavior?

    PubMed

    Hahn, Laura J; Brady, Nancy C; Warren, Steven F; Fleming, Kandace K

    2015-09-01

    This study explores if children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) show advances, declines, or plateaus in adaptive behavior over time and the relationship of nonverbal cognitive abilities and autistic behavior on these trajectories. Parents of 55 children with FXS completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales ( Sparrow, Balla, & Cicchetti, 1984 ; Sparrow, Cicchetti, & Balla, 2005 ) between 3 and 6 times from 2 to 10 years of age. Using raw scores, results indicate that about half of the sample showed advances in adaptive behavior, whereas the other half showed declines, indicating a regression in skills. Children who were more cognitively advanced and had less autistic behaviors had higher trajectories. Understanding the developmental course of adaptive behavior in FXS has implications for educational planning and intervention, especially for those children showing declines. PMID:26322389

  8. Illness Adaptation: Clarifying the Concept and Validating a Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rosalie F.; Kahana, Eva

    Traditionally, coping and adaptation have been considered synonymous in individual's responses to illness and other stressful situations. The Illness Adaptation Scale (IAS) is a 12-item instrument which was designed to assess adaptational outcomes in illness situations as well as four coping modes (instrumental-self oriented, instrumental-other…

  9. Real-Data Simulation of Computerized Adaptive Bayesian Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Paul

    1993-01-01

    Investigated model for reducing time for administration of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) using real-data simulation of Bayesian scaling in computerized adaptive administration. Findings from simulation study using data from 127 undergraduates are strongly supportive of use of Bayesian scaled computerized adaptive administration of MBTI.…

  10. Neuropsychological, behavioral, and adaptive functioning of Swiss children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ruof, Helge; Hammer, Juerg; Tillmann, Bettina; Ghelfi, Daniela; Weber, Peter

    2008-11-01

    This study collected data about developmental problems in a cohort of children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. In 2003, in Switzerland, 11 children with this disease were registered. Nine of them gave their informed consent to participate in the study and were examined. Clinical assessments were conducted, including examinations of neuropsychological, behavioral, and adaptive functions using Kaufman-Assessment Battery for Children, Child Behavior Checklist, and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. The mean age (+/- standard deviation) was 7.5 +/- 2.5 years. The cognitive tests showed problems in working memory functions with a near-to-normal full-range intelligence quotient (87.4 +/- 23.3). The children showed normal values (t-values < 67) on problem scales of behavior, although 5 of the 9 children showed elevated values on the attention and on the social interaction problem scales. Adaptive function problems were identified in communication and daily living skills. PMID:18984833

  11. Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

    1998-01-01

    States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

  12. Behavioral Observation Scales for Performance Appraisal Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary P.; Wexley, Kenneth N.

    1977-01-01

    This research attempts to determine whether Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS) could be improved by developing them through quantitative methods. The underlying assumption was that developing composite scales with greater internal consistency might improve their generalizability as evidenced by the cross-validation coefficients of scales based on…

  13. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals significant…

  14. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-USA Form: Psychometric Properties and Relation to Vocational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports construction and initial validation of the United States form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS). The CAAS consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas.…

  15. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Jacobus Gideon

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  16. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Icelandic Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Guobjorg; Kjartansdottir, Guorun Birna; Smaradottir, Sigriour Briet; Einarsdottir, Sif

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics and construct validity of the Icelandic form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS-Iceland). The CAAS consists of four scales that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The…

  17. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Marco Antonio Pereira; Bardagi, Marucia Patta; Lassance, Maria Celia Pacheco; Magalhaes, Mauro de Oliveira; Duarte, Maria Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form (CAASBrazil) consists of four scales which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to excellent. The…

  18. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form: Psychometric Characteristics and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dries, Nicky; Van Esbroeck, Raoul; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; De Cooman, Rein; Pepermans, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form (CAAS-Belgium) consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. A pilot survey was administered to 700 high school,…

  19. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Taiwan Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley; Wang, Yu-Chen; Chu, Hui-Chuang; Huang, Tsu-Lun

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested the reliability and validity of the Career Adapt-Ability Scale--Taiwan Form (CAAS-Taiwan Form). The CAAS consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal…

  20. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  1. Parents' Reports on the Child Adaptive Behavior Inventory Predict 4-Year-Olds' Playground Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, James P.; Neugebauer, Alyson

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of parental reports of their preschool children's social adaptation outside the home as an indicator of children's behavior. Parent responses on the Child Adaptive Behavior Inventory, which assesses both competencies and difficulties with adaptation, were compared to evaluations by trained observers. Parents were found…

  2. The GO4KIDDS Brief Adaptive Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Adrienne; Taheri, Azin; Ting, Victoria; Weiss, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accurate measurement of adaptive behaviour is important in both clinical and research contexts. While several good clinical measures exist, as well as brief research measures for adults with intellectual disability, there is need for a brief and efficient measure for research with children and youth. We present preliminary psychometric…

  3. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese - Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Li, Fang; Nydegger, Liesl; Gong, Jie; Ren, Yuanjing; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Sun, Huiling; Stanton, Bonita

    2013-04-01

    International behavioral research requires instruments that are not culturally-biased to assess sensation seeking. In this study we described a culturally adapted version of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese (BSSS-C) and its psychometric characteristics. The adapted scale was assessed using an adult sample (n=238) with diverse educational and residential backgrounds. The BSSS-C (Cronbach alpha=0.90) was correlated with the original Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (r = 0.85, p<0.01) and fitted the four-factor model well (CFI=0.98, SRMR=0.03). The scale scores significantly predicted intention to and actual engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and sexual risk behaviors. In conclusion, the BSSS-C has adequate reliability and validity, supporting its utility in China and potential in other developing countries. PMID:23316097

  4. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  5. Scaling behavior of fragment shapes.

    PubMed

    Kun, F; Wittel, F K; Herrmann, H J; Kröplin, B H; Måløy, K J

    2006-01-20

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the shape of fragments generated by explosive and impact loading of closed shells. Based on high speed imaging, we have determined the fragmentation mechanism of shells. Experiments have shown that the fragments vary from completely isotropic to highly anisotropic elongated shapes, depending on the microscopic cracking mechanism of the shell. Anisotropic fragments proved to have a self-affine character described by a scaling exponent. The distribution of fragment shapes exhibits a power-law decay. The robustness of the scaling laws is illustrated by a stochastic hierarchical model of fragmentation. Our results provide a possible improvement of the representation of fragment shapes in models of space debris. PMID:16486594

  6. Full-Scale Flight Research Testbeds: Adaptive and Intelligent Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the adaptive and intelligent control methods used for aircraft survival. The contents include: 1) Motivation for Adaptive Control; 2) Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project; 3) Full-scale Flight Assets in Use for IRAC; 4) NASA NF-15B Tail Number 837; 5) Gen II Direct Adaptive Control Architecture; 6) Limited Authority System; and 7) 837 Flight Experiments. A simulated destabilization failure analysis along with experience and lessons learned are also presented.

  7. Scaling behavior in interference lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Agayan, R.R.; Banyai, W.C.; Fernandez, A.

    1998-02-27

    Interference lithography is an emerging, technology that provides a means for achieving high resolution over large exposure areas (approximately 1 m{sup 2}) with virtually unlimited depth of field. One- and two-dimensional arrays of deep submicron structures can be created using near i-line wavelengths and standard resist processing. In this paper, we report on recent advances in the development of this technology, focusing, in particular, on how exposure latitude and resist profile scale with interference period We present structure width vs dose curves for periods ranging from 200 nm to 1 um, demonstrating that deep submicron structures can be generated with exposure latitudes exceeding 30%. Our experimental results are compared to simulations based on PROLITIV2.

  8. Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Gh.; Adam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1-16 (2012)] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule), mesoscopic (Simpson rule), and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision). Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.

  9. Comparison of Measures of Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Linda I.; Servos, Andria B.

    1978-01-01

    Nonproblem and problem children were compared on Minnesota Child Development Inventory, Classroom Adjustment Rating Scale, Ottawa School Behavior Survey, AML Behavior Rating Scale, Teacher Rating Scale, and Denver Developmental Screening Test. Problem children scored significantly lower than nonproblem children on all measures. Minnesota Child…

  10. Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Barbara; Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

    2014-11-01

    Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km(2)), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km(2)), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km(2)), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality. PMID:25419085

  11. Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km2), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km2), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km2), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality. PMID:25419085

  12. Spanish adaptation of the structural empowerment scale.

    PubMed

    Jáimez Román, María J; Bretones, Francisco D

    2013-01-01

    The present study's objective is to create a Spanish adaptation of the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire II (CWEQ-II) by Laschinger, Finegan, Shamian, and Wilk (2004) in order to measure structural empowerment in an organizational context. To do so, this study was conducted in two distinct phases. In the first, a group of experts carried out a back-translation of the questionnaire and in the second phase, we analyzed the questionnaire's internal structure (through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis) and external validity. The resulting Spanish version of the questionnaire (CWEQ-S) demonstrated/exhibited good factor structure and good psychometric properties as far as reliability and validity are concerned. PMID:23866208

  13. Adapting Online Self-Regulated Learning Scale into Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Ozgen; Kaya, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine online self-regulated learning levels of students by adapting "Online Self-Regulated Learning Scale" designed by Barnard and his colleagues into Turkish. Present study, irrespective of being a scale analysis, is at the same time a qualitative research. It is executed via scan model. Study group of research…

  14. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Korea Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Jinkook

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Korea Form consists of four subscales, each with six items. The subscales measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  15. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--China Form: Construction and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Zhi-Jin; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xixi; Li, Xu; Xu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--China Form consists of four subscales, with six items each to measure Concern, Control, Curiosity, and Confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. This study investigated the construction and validation of its Chinese Form. Results…

  16. Validation of an Adapted French Form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in Four Francophone Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Claire S.; Broonen, Jean-Paul; Stauffer, Sarah D.; Hamtiaux, Armanda; Pouyaud, Jacques; Zecca, Gregory; Houssemand, Claude; Rossier, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the validation of a French version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in four Francophone countries. The aim was to re-analyze the item selection and then compare this newly developed French-language form with the international form 2.0. Exploratory factor analysis was used as a tool for item selection, and confirmatory factor…

  17. Panel V: Adaptive Health Behaviors Among Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Shirley P.; Angel, Ronald; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Liu, William; Schinke, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Race, ethnicity, and cultural attitudes and practices are among the variables that influence health behaviors, including adaptive health behaviors. The following discussions highlight the important role of social conditions in shaping health behaviors and the central role of family in promoting health across the Asian, Hispanic, Native American, and African American ethnic groups. Factors that may lead to health-damaging behaviors are also discussed. The need for additional research that identifies correlations among physiological, social, and behavioral factors and health behaviors, as well as underlying mechanisms, is called for. PMID:8654341

  18. Scaled norm-based Euclidean projection for sparse speaker adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younggwan; Kim, Myung Jong; Kim, Hoirin

    2015-12-01

    To reduce data storage for speaker adaptive (SA) models, in our previous work, we proposed a sparse speaker adaptation method which can efficiently reduce the number of adapted parameters by using Euclidean projection onto the L 1-ball (EPL1) while maintaining recognition performance comparable to maximum a posteriori (MAP) adaptation. In the EPL1-based sparse speaker adaptation framework, however, the adapted Gaussian mean vectors are mostly concentrated on dimensions having large variances because of assuming unit variance for all dimensions. To make EPL1 more flexible, in this paper, we propose scaled norm-based Euclidean projection (SNEP) which can consider dimension-specific variances. By using SNEP, we also propose a new sparse speaker adaptation method which can consider the variances of a speaker-independent model. Our experiments show that the adapted components of mean vectors are evenly distributed in all dimensions, and we can obtain sparsely adapted models with no loss of phone recognition performance from the proposed method compared with MAP adaptation.

  19. Prefrontal executive function and adaptive behavior in complex environments.

    PubMed

    Koechlin, Etienne

    2016-04-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves higher cognitive abilities such as planning, reasoning and creativity. Here we review recent findings from both empirical and theoretical studies providing new insights about these cognitive abilities and their neural underpinnings in the PFC as overcoming key adaptive limitations in reinforcement learning. We outline a unified theoretical framework describing the PFC function as implementing an algorithmic solution approximating statistically optimal, but computationally intractable, adaptive processes. The resulting PFC functional architecture combines learning, planning, reasoning and creativity processes for balancing exploitation and exploration behaviors and optimizing behavioral adaptations in uncertain, variable and open-ended environments. PMID:26687618

  20. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  1. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  2. Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Castro, Felipe G.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Toobert, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the article are to (a) describe…

  3. Fine-scale recombination and adaptive radiation could be linked.

    PubMed

    Bodilis, Josselin

    2013-09-15

    The difficult reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the major surface protein gene oprF highlighted an adaptive radiation in the Pseudomonas fluorescens group. The recent work of Hao (2013) showed that partial recombination events in oprF gene occurred specifically in a P. fluorescens lineage under ecological niche segregation. So, I suggest that identification of lineage-specific fine-scale recombination may be a way to detect putative adaptive radiation in bacteria. PMID:23774687

  4. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Portugal Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M. Eduarda; Soares, M. C.; Fraga, S.; Rafael, M.; Lima, M. R.; Paredes, I.; Agostinho, R.; Djalo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Career-Adaptabilities Scale (CAAS)--Portugal Form consists of four scales, each with seven items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  5. Expectations of Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rick; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) are no better or worse than other methods when assessed on a quantitative basis but have greater potential when assessed on use and qualitative criteria. Suggestions are offered for extending BARS research to process questions and domains other than performance appraisal. (Author)

  6. Scaling Relative Incentive Value in Anticipatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Santiago; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2007-01-01

    Papini and Pellegrini (Papini, M. R., & Pellegrini, S. "Scaling relative incentive value in consummatory behavior." "Learning and Motivation", in press) observed that, within limits, the level of consummatory responding of rats exposed to incentive downshifts in the concentration of sucrose solutions was similar when the ratio of test/training…

  7. Development of Democratic Teacher Behavior Scale (DTBS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özcan, Gülsen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop an instrument that could be used to measure democratic teacher behavior in a valid and reliable manner. The research was carried out in fall semester 2014 to 2015 with a total of 500 high school students recruited from four different schools. Expert opinions were obtained to determine the scale's content validity and…

  8. Adaptive and maladaptive behavior of idiots savants.

    PubMed

    Duckett, J

    1977-11-01

    A comparison was made of 25 institutionalized idiots savants and a control group of institutionalized retarded persons matched for age, sex, IQ, and length of institutionalization. As a group, idiots savants were found to be somewhat more disturbed and disturbing than their peers, although they did not show extreme emotional disturbance nor reflect a clear behavioral profile. PMID:930969

  9. Mouse Behavior: Conjectures about Adaptations for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rop, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Presents an experiment on mouse behavior in which students learn to observe, pay attention to details, record field notes, and ask questions about their observations. Uses a white mouse to eliminate the risk of disease that a wild rodent might carry. Lists materials, set up, and procedure. (YDS)

  10. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  11. Scaling behaviors of precipitation over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Li, Nana; Zhao, Xia

    2015-12-01

    Scaling behaviors in the precipitation time series derived from 1951 to 2009 over China are investigated by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. The results show that there exists long-term memory for the precipitation time series in some stations, where the values of the scaling exponent α are less than 0.62, implying weak persistence characteristics. The values of scaling exponent in other stations indicate random behaviors. In addition, the scaling exponent α in precipitation records varies from station to station over China. A numerical test is made to verify the significance in DFA exponents by shuffling the data records many times. We think it is significant when the values of scaling exponent before shuffled precipitation records are larger than the interval threshold for 95 % confidence level after shuffling precipitation records many times. By comparison, the daily precipitation records exhibit weak positively long-range correlation in a power law fashion mainly at the stations taking on zonal distributions in south China, upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River, northern part of northeast China. This may be related to the subtropical high. Furthermore, the values of scaling exponent which cannot pass the significance test do not show a clear distribution pattern. It seems that the stations are mainly distributed in coastal areas, southwest China, and southern part of north China. In fact, many complicated factors may affect the scaling behaviors of precipitation such as the system of the east and south Asian monsoon, the interaction between sea and land, and the big landform of the Tibetan Plateau. These results may provide a better prerequisite to long-term predictor of precipitation time series for different regions over China.

  12. Driver's adaptive glance behavior to in-vehicle information systems.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yiyun; Boyle, Linda Ng

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the adaptive behavior of drivers as they engage with in-vehicle devices over time and in varying driving situations. Behavioral adaptation has been shown to occur among drivers after prolonged use of in-vehicle devices, but few studies have examined drivers' risk levels across different driving demands. A multi-day simulator study was conducted with 28 young drivers (under 30 years old) as they engaged in different text entry and reading tasks while driving in two different traffic conditions. Cluster analysis was used to categorize drivers based on their risk levels and random coefficient models were used to assess changes in drivers' eye glance behavior. Glance duration significantly increased over time while drivers were performing text entry tasks but not for text reading tasks. High-risk drivers had longer maximum eyes-off-road when performing long text entry tasks compared to low-risk drivers, and this difference increased over time. The traffic condition also had a significant impact on drivers' glance behavior. This study suggests that drivers may exhibit negative behavioral adaptation as they become more comfortable with using in-vehicle technologies over time. Results of this paper may provide guidance for the design of in-vehicle devices that adapt based on the context of the situation. It also demonstrates that random coefficient models can be used to obtain better estimations of driver behavior when there are large individual differences. PMID:26406538

  13. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Logiaco, Laureline; Quilodran, René; Procyk, Emmanuel; Arleo, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70–200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys’ behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators. PMID:26266537

  14. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    PubMed

    Logiaco, Laureline; Quilodran, René; Procyk, Emmanuel; Arleo, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70-200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys' behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators. PMID:26266537

  15. Adaptive behavior of marine cellular clouds

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Shallow marine clouds appear in two formations - open cells that are weakly reflective and closed cells that are more reflective and hence more effective at cooling the climate system. Lagrangian satellite data analysis reveals that open cells oscillate, forming and disappearing with a periodicity of ~3 hours. In contrast, closed cells maintain rigid structures for periods of more than 10 hours, suggesting that self-organisation breaks the link between the lifetime and the scale of a convective entity. These dynamical states are linked to two theoretical solutions of population dynamics. PMID:23978979

  16. Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the paper are to (a) describe consensus on the stages involved in developing cultural adaptations, (b) identify common elements in cultural adaptations, (c) examine evidence on the effectiveness of culturally enhanced interventions for various health conditions, and (d) pose questions for future research. Method Influential literature from the past decade was examined to identify points of consensus. Results There is agreement that cultural adaptation can be organized into five stages: information gathering, preliminary design, preliminary testing, refinement, and final trial. With few exceptions, reviews of several health conditions (e.g., AIDS, asthma, diabetes) concluded that culturally enhanced interventions are more effective in improving health outcomes than usual care or other control conditions. Conclusion Progress has been made in establishing methods for conducting cultural adaptations and providing evidence of their effectiveness. Future research should include evaluations of cultural adaptations developed in stages, tests to determine the effectiveness of cultural adaptations relative to the original versions, and studies that advance our understanding of cultural constructs’ contributions to intervention engagement and efficacy. PMID:22289132

  17. The adaptive-loop-gain adaptive-scale CLEAN deconvolution of radio interferometric images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Liu, X.

    2016-05-01

    CLEAN algorithms are a class of deconvolution solvers which are widely used to remove the effect of the telescope Point Spread Function (PSF). Loop gain is one important parameter in CLEAN algorithms. Currently the parameter is fixed during deconvolution, which restricts the performance of CLEAN algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new deconvolution algorithm with an adaptive loop gain scheme, which is referred to as the adaptive-loop-gain adaptive-scale CLEAN (Algas-Clean) algorithm. The test results show that the new algorithm can give a more accurate model with faster convergence.

  18. Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

  19. Quantum critical scaling behavior of deconfined spinons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Flavio; Kragset, Steinar; Sudbo, Asle

    2008-03-01

    The quantum scaling behavior of deconfined spinons for a class of field theoretic models of quantum antiferromagnets is considered. The competition between the hedgehogs and the Berry phases is discussed from a renormalization group perspective. An important result following from our analysis is the computation of the anomalous dimension for the decay of spin correlations. Our results confirm the expectation that the transition from a N'eel to a valence-bond solid state belongs to a completely new universality class.

  20. The spatial scale of local adaptation in a stochastic environment.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Jarrod D

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of phenotypes in space will be a compromise between adaptive plasticity and local adaptation increasing the fit of phenotypes to local conditions and gene flow reducing that fit. Theoretical models on the evolution of quantitative characters on spatially explicit landscapes have only considered scenarios where optimum trait values change as deterministic functions of space. Here, these models are extended to include stochastic spatially autocorrelated aspects to the environment, and consequently the optimal phenotype. Under these conditions, the regression of phenotype on the environmental variable becomes steeper as the spatial scale on which populations are sampled becomes larger. Under certain deterministic models - such as linear clines - the regression is constant. The way in which the regression changes with spatial scale is informative about the degree of phenotypic plasticity, the relative scale of effective gene flow and the environmental dependency of selection. Connections to temporal models are discussed. PMID:27188689

  1. Endogenous Nuclear RNAi Mediates Behavioral Adaptation to Odor

    PubMed Central

    Juang, Bi-Tzen; Gu, Chen; Starnes, Linda; Palladino, Francesca; Goga, Andrei; Kennedy, Scott; L'Etoile, Noelle D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Most eukaryotic cells express small regulatory RNAs. The purpose of one class, the somatic endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) remains unclear. Here we show the endo-siRNA pathway promotes odor adaptation in C. elegans AWC olfactory neurons. In adaptation, the nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3, which acts in AWC, is loaded with siRNAs targeting odr-1, a gene who's down regulation is required for adaptation. Concomitant with increased odr-1 siRNA in AWC, we observe increased binding of the HP1 homolog HPL-2 at the odr-1 locus in AWC and reduced odr-1 mRNA in adapted animals. Phosphorylation of HPL-2, an in vitro substrate of the EGL-4 kinase that promotes adaption, is necessary and sufficient for behavioral adaptation. Thus, environmental stimulation amplifies an endo-siRNA negative feedback loop to dynamically repress cognate gene expression and shape behavior. This class of siRNA may act broadly as a rheostat allowing prolonged stimulation to dampen gene expression and promote cellular memory formation. PMID:23993094

  2. Adaptations for Rural Behavior Disordered Pupils in the Mainstream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Judy W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses instructional modifications to increase the academic success of rural behavior-disordered students in regular classes. Describes adaptations of teaching mode, media use, presentation of academic content, textbook content and organization, and test construction and administration. Contains 10 references. (SV)

  3. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Introduction to Psychosocial and Behavioral Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, R. Leigh; Decker, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioral adaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…

  4. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  5. Adaptive female-mimicking behavior in a scorpionfly.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, R

    1979-07-27

    This study provides a clear example of female-mimicking behavior by males in insects and evaluates quantitatively the adaptive significance of this behavior, which is poorly understood in many other organisms. Males of Hylobittacus apicalis provide females with a prey arthropod during copulation. Some males mimic female behavior when interacting with males that have captured nuptial prey, resulting in males stealing prey which they will use for copulation. Males that pirate prey copulate more frequently and probably incur fewer predation-related risks. PMID:17790854

  6. ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A UNIQUE CULTURAL COMPARISON IN ITALY

    PubMed Central

    Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Axia, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors. PMID:21532914

  7. Evaluating the Chinese Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie Chau Wai; Lam, Gloria Ling Lee; Tang, Debbie Hoi Ming; Graham-Kevan, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the utility of the Chinese version of the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale (C-CBS-R) as a measure of controlling behaviors in violent Chinese intimate relationships. Using a mixed-methods approach, in-depth, individual interviews were conducted with 200 Chinese women survivors to elicit qualitative data about their personal experiences of control in intimate relationships. The use of controlling behaviors was also assessed using the C-CBS-R. Interview accounts suggested that the experiences of 91 of the women were consistent with the description of coercive control according to Dutton and Goodman's conceptualization of coercion. Using the split-half validation procedure, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was conducted with the first half of the sample. The area under the curve (AUC) for using the C-CBS-R to identify high control was .99, and the cutoff score of 1.145 maximized both sensitivity and specificity. Applying the cutoff score to the second half gave a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 95%. Overall, the C-CBS-R has demonstrated utility as a measure of controlling behaviors with a cutoff score for distinguishing high from low levels of control in violent Chinese intimate relationships. PMID:24860075

  8. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    PubMed Central

    Mhaidat, Fatin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades) enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure) and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. PMID:27175098

  9. Longitudinal changes in cognitive and adaptive behavior in fragile X females: a prospective multicenter analysis.

    PubMed

    Fisch, G S; Carpenter, N; Holden, J J; Howard-Peebles, P N; Maddalena, A; Borghgraef, M; Steyaert, J; Fryns, J P

    1999-04-01

    In prospective studies of young, fragile X [fra(X)] males with the full mutation, cognitive abilities (IQ scores) and adaptive behavior levels (DQ scores) declined in most subjects tested. Little is known about longitudinal changes in IQ and DQ scores in young fra(X) females, although one earlier retrospective study showed declines in IQ scores in 8 of 11 subjects. To examine fra(X) females prospectively, we tested and retested 13 females with the full mutation, age 4 to 15 years. Nine were tested and retested in North America, and four were evaluated at the Catholic University in Leuven, Belgium. Cognitive abilities of North American females were measured using the Stanford-Binet 4th Edition. Adaptive behavior levels were ascertained from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. For Belgians, test-retest scores from the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Revised were used. Subjects were subsequently separated into two age cohorts: those tested initially before age 7 years and those tested initially after age 7 years. Compared with young males with the full mutation and of the same age, females expectedly display a wider range of IQ scores. Test-retest IQ scores showed statistically significant decreases (P < 0.03). Analysis of individual test-retest scores indicate that declines in eight females were statistically significant. Adaptive behavior scores were available only for North American females. Five of nine (55%) showed significant declines in DQ. Like young males with the full mutation, all females with the full mutation attained higher adaptive behavior levels than cognitive scores, i.e., DQ > IQ. PMID:10208167

  10. The Scales of Coccolithophores: Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderiks, J.; Hannisdal, B.; Rickaby, R. E.; Zondervan, I.; Winter, A.; Pagani, M.

    2008-12-01

    Rising ocean temperatures and lowering of ocean pH may disrupt marine productivity and calcification by coccolithophores, affecting natural biosphere-climate feedbacks. A better understanding of both the mechanisms and the rates of climatic adaptation by coccolithophores is critical for predicting future impacts of climate change. We will discuss how contrasts in the physiology and biogeography of modern coccolithophores could relate to different climatic adaptation strategies of their Cenozoic ancestors. On short time scales, experimental results highlight species-specific sensitivities to changing ocean carbonate chemistry, which is consistent with differences in cell size of the investigated taxa and likely related to intracellular pH control. On geological time-scales, coccolithophores appear to have adapted to a long- term decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) and cooling ocean temperatures by decreasing their coccolith and cell size. We employed a novel, information-theoretic approach to quantify the relative influence of different environmental variables on coccolith size. This analysis suggests that the macroevolutionary size decrease primarily reflects a physiological adaptation to CO2 limitation, rather than decreased nutrient availability caused by large-scale changes in ocean stratification. The recent dominance of Emiliania huxleyi is likely due to its fast growing, small cells and light calcification. This allowed it to outcompete larger and heavily calcified coccolithophores under low pCO2 conditions of the Pleistocene. However, as the ocean carbonate system is rapidly reversing to more acidic pre-Pleistocene conditions, the fate of E. huxleyi and other modern prolific bloomers is uncertain. The potential expansion of the larger, pH-resistant species Coccolithus braarudii away from its restricted high- pCO2 niches remains untested.

  11. Information theory of adaptation in neurons, behavior, and mood

    PubMed Central

    Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Calhoun, Adam J.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make accurate predictions of future stimuli and consequences of one’s actions are crucial for the survival and appropriate decision-making. These predictions are constantly being made at different levels of the nervous system. This is evidenced by adaptation to stimulus parameters in sensory coding, and in learning of an up-to-date model of the environment at the behavioral level. This review will discuss recent findings that actions of neurons and animals are selected based on detailed stimulus history in such a way as to maximize information for achieving the task at hand. Information maximization dictates not only how sensory coding should adapt to various statistical aspects of stimuli, but also that reward function should adapt to match the predictive information from past to future. PMID:24709600

  12. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6years.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Morris J; Meador, Kimford J; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2013-11-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine

  13. Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

  14. Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

  15. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Rebecca M; Martens, Marilee A; Andridge, Rebecca R

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months - 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007 to 2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3%) of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self-care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills. PMID:27199832

  16. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Rebecca M.; Martens, Marilee A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months – 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007 to 2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3%) of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self-care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills. PMID:27199832

  17. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Peter; Rosenior-Patten, Onayomi; Dahmen, Johannes C; Bell, Olivia; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The brain possesses a remarkable capacity to compensate for changes in inputs resulting from a range of sensory impairments. Developmental studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation to asymmetric hearing loss can be achieved either by reinterpreting altered spatial cues or by relying more on those cues that remain intact. Adaptation to monaural deprivation in adulthood is also possible, but appears to lack such flexibility. Here we show, however, that appropriate behavioral training enables monaurally-deprived adult humans to exploit both of these adaptive processes. Moreover, cortical recordings in ferrets reared with asymmetric hearing loss suggest that these forms of plasticity have distinct neural substrates. An ability to adapt to asymmetric hearing loss using multiple adaptive processes is therefore shared by different species and may persist throughout the lifespan. This highlights the fundamental flexibility of neural systems, and may also point toward novel therapeutic strategies for treating sensory disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12264.001 PMID:27008181

  18. Interrater Agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iovannone, Rose; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wang, Wei; Dunlap, Glen; Kincaid, Don

    2014-01-01

    Data assessment is critical for determining student behavior change in response to individualized behavior interventions in schools. This study examined the interrater agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), a perceptual direct behavior rating tool that was used by typical school personnel to record behavior occurrence…

  19. Laplacian scale-space behavior of planar curve corners.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Qu, Ying; Yang, Dan; Wang, Hongxing; Kymer, Jeff

    2015-11-01

    Scale-space behavior of corners is important for developing an efficient corner detection algorithm. In this paper, we analyze the scale-space behavior with the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) operator on a planar curve which constructs Laplacian Scale Space (LSS). The analytical expression of a Laplacian Scale-Space map (LSS map) is obtained, demonstrating the Laplacian Scale-Space behavior of the planar curve corners, based on a newly defined unified corner model. With this formula, some Laplacian Scale-Space behavior is summarized. Although LSS demonstrates some similarities to Curvature Scale Space (CSS), there are still some differences. First, no new extreme points are generated in the LSS. Second, the behavior of different cases of a corner model is consistent and simple. This makes it easy to trace the corner in a scale space. At last, the behavior of LSS is verified in an experiment on a digital curve. PMID:26440262

  20. Scaling up breastfeeding programmes in a complex adaptive world.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Hall Moran, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    The 2016 Breastfeeding Lancet Series continues to provide unequivocal evidence regarding the numerous benefits that optimal breastfeeding practices offer to children and women worldwide and the major savings that improving these practices can have as a result of their major public health benefits. Unfortunately, this knowledge remains underutilized as there has been little progress scaling up effective breastfeeding programmes globally. Improving the uptake and scaling up of effective national breastfeeding programmes that are potent enough to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration should be a top priority for all countries. Complex analysis systems longitudinal research is needed to understand how best to empower decision makers to achieve this goal through well-validated participatory decision-making tools to help their countries assess baseline needs, including costs, as well as progress with their scaling-up efforts. Sound systems thinking frameworks and scaling-up models are now available to guide and research prospectively future scaling-up efforts that can be replicated, with proper adaptations, across countries. PMID:27161881

  1. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Netherlands Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Ability, Personality, and Regulatory Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Koen, Jessie; Dries, Nicky

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Netherlands Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  2. The emerging roles of melanopsin in behavioral adaptation to light

    PubMed Central

    Hatori, Megumi; Panda, Satchidananda

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation of behavior and physiology to changes in the ambient light level is of critical importance to life. These adaptations include light modulation of neuroendocrine function and temporal alignment of physiology and behavior to the day:night cycle by the circadian clock. These non-image forming (NIF) responses can function independent of rod and cone photoreceptors but depend on ocular light reception, suggesting the participation of novel photoreceptors in the eye. The discovery of melanopsin in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) and genetic proof for its important role in major NIF responses have offered an exciting entry point to comprehend how mammals adapt to the light environment. Here, we review the recent advances in our understanding of the emerging roles of melanopsin and of ipRGCs. These findings now offer new avenues to understand the role of ambient light in sleep, alertness, dependent physiologies and potential pharmacological intervention as well as lifestyle modifications to improve the quality of life. PMID:20810319

  3. Large-Scale Liquid Simulation on Adaptive Hexahedral Grids.

    PubMed

    Ferstl, Florian; Westermann, Rudiger; Dick, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Regular grids are attractive for numerical fluid simulations because they give rise to efficient computational kernels. However, for simulating high resolution effects in complicated domains they are only of limited suitability due to memory constraints. In this paper we present a method for liquid simulation on an adaptive octree grid using a hexahedral finite element discretization, which reduces memory requirements by coarsening the elements in the interior of the liquid body. To impose free surface boundary conditions with second order accuracy, we incorporate a particular class of Nitsche methods enforcing the Dirichlet boundary conditions for the pressure in a variational sense. We then show how to construct a multigrid hierarchy from the adaptive octree grid, so that a time efficient geometric multigrid solver can be used. To improve solver convergence, we propose a special treatment of liquid boundaries via composite finite elements at coarser scales. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for liquid simulations that would require hundreds of millions of simulation elements in a non-adaptive regime. PMID:26357387

  4. Observations to support adaptation: Principles, scales and decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    As has been long noted, a comprehensive, coordinated observing system is the backbone of any Earth information system. Demands are increasingly placed on earth observation and prediction systems and attendant services to address the needs of economically and environmentally vulnerable sectors and investments, including energy, water, human health, transportation, agriculture, fisheries, tourism, biodiversity, and national security. Climate services include building capacity to interpret information and recognize standards and limitations of data in the promotion of social and economic development in a changing climate. This includes improving the understanding of climate in the context of a variety of temporal and spatial scales (including the influence of decadal scale forcings and land surface feedbacks on seasonal forecast reliability). Climate data and information are central for developing decision options that are sensitive to climate-related uncertainties and the design of flexible adaptation pathways. Ideally monitoring should be action oriented to support climate risk assessment and adaptation including informing robust decision making to multiple risks over the long term. Based on the experience of global observations programs and empirical research we outline- Challenges in developing effective monitoring and climate information systems to support adaptation. The types of observations of critical importance needed for sector planning to enhance food, water and energy security, and to improve early warning for disaster risk reduction Observations needed for ecosystem-based adaptation including the identification of thresholds, maintenance of biological diversity and land degradation The benefits and limits of linking regional model output to local observations including analogs and verification for adaptation planning To support these goals a robust systems of integrated observations are needed to characterize the uncertainty surrounding emergent risks

  5. Development vs. behavior: a role for neural adaptation in evolution?

    PubMed

    Ghysen, Alain; Dambly-Chaudière, Christine

    2016-01-01

    We examine the evolution of sensory organ patterning in the lateral line system of fish. Based on recent studies of how this system develops in zebrafish, and on comparative analyses between zebrafish and tuna, we argue that the evolution of lateral line patterns is mostly determined by variations in the underlying developmental processes, independent of any selective pressure. Yet the development of major developmental innovations is so directly linked to their exploitation that it is hard not to think of them as selected for, i.e., adaptive. We propose that adaptation resides mostly in how the nervous system adjusts to new morphologies to make them functional, i.e., that species are neurally adapted to whatever morphology is provided to them by their own developmental program. We show that recent data on behavioral differences between cave forms (blind) and surface forms (eyed) of the mexican fish Astyanax fasciatus support this view, and we propose that this species might provide a unique opportunity to assess the nature of adaptation and of selection in animal evolution. PMID:27389980

  6. Industry Cluster's Adaptive Co-competition Behavior Modeling Inspired by Swarm Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Wei; Ye, Feifan

    Adaptation helps the individual enterprise to adjust its behavior to uncertainties in environment and hence determines a healthy growth of both the individuals and the whole industry cluster as well. This paper is focused on the study on co-competition adaptation behavior of industry cluster, which is inspired by swarm intelligence mechanisms. By referencing to ant cooperative transportation and ant foraging behavior and their related swarm intelligence approaches, the cooperative adaptation and competitive adaptation behavior are studied and relevant models are proposed. Those adaptive co-competition behaviors model can be integrated to the multi-agent system of industry cluster to make the industry cluster model more realistic.

  7. Translation, adaptation, and validation of the Sunderland Scale and the Cubbin & Jackson Revised Scale in Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Objective To translate into Portuguese and evaluate the measuring properties of the Sunderland Scale and the Cubbin & Jackson Revised Scale, which are instruments for evaluating the risk of developing pressure ulcers during intensive care. Methods This study included the process of translation and adaptation of the scales to the Portuguese language, as well as the validation of these tools. To assess the reliability, Cronbach alpha values of 0.702 to 0.708 were identified for the Sunderland Scale and the Cubbin & Jackson Revised Scale, respectively. The validation criteria (predictive) were performed comparatively with the Braden Scale (gold standard), and the main measurements evaluated were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve, which were calculated based on cutoff points. Results The Sunderland Scale exhibited 60% sensitivity, 86.7% specificity, 47.4% positive predictive value, 91.5% negative predictive value, and 0.86 for the area under the curve. The Cubbin & Jackson Revised Scale exhibited 73.3% sensitivity, 86.7% specificity, 52.4% positive predictive value, 94.2% negative predictive value, and 0.91 for the area under the curve. The Braden scale exhibited 100% sensitivity, 5.3% specificity, 17.4% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 0.72 for the area under the curve. Conclusions Both tools demonstrated reliability and validity for this sample. The Cubbin & Jackson Revised Scale yielded better predictive values for the development of pressure ulcers during intensive care. PMID:23917975

  8. Adaptive Vocal Behavior Drives Perception by Echolocation in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Cynthia F.; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat’s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat’s active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene. PMID:21705213

  9. Chaotic Patterns in Lotka-Volterra Systems with Behavioral Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacitignola, D.; Tebaldi, C.

    2006-03-01

    We study the properties of a n2-dimensional Lotka-Volterra system describing competition among species with behaviorally adaptive abilities, in which one species is made ecologically differentiated with respect to the others by carrying capacity and intrinsic growth rate. The case in which one species has a carrying capacity higher than the others is considered here. Stability of equilibria and time-dependent regimes have been investigated in the case of four species: an interesting example of chaotic window and period-adding sequences is presented and discussed.

  10. Criticality as a Set-Point for Adaptive Behavior in Neuromorphic Hardware.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Stepp, Nigel D; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware are designed by drawing inspiration from biology to overcome limitations of current computer architectures while forging the development of a new class of autonomous systems that can exhibit adaptive behaviors. Several designs in the recent past are capable of emulating large scale networks but avoid complexity in network dynamics by minimizing the number of dynamic variables that are supported and tunable in hardware. We believe that this is due to the lack of a clear understanding of how to design self-tuning complex systems. It has been widely demonstrated that criticality appears to be the default state of the brain and manifests in the form of spontaneous scale-invariant cascades of neural activity. Experiment, theory and recent models have shown that neuronal networks at criticality demonstrate optimal information transfer, learning and information processing capabilities that affect behavior. In this perspective article, we argue that understanding how large scale neuromorphic electronics can be designed to enable emergent adaptive behavior will require an understanding of how networks emulated by such hardware can self-tune local parameters to maintain criticality as a set-point. We believe that such capability will enable the design of truly scalable intelligent systems using neuromorphic hardware that embrace complexity in network dynamics rather than avoiding it. PMID:26648839

  11. Criticality as a Set-Point for Adaptive Behavior in Neuromorphic Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Stepp, Nigel D.; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware are designed by drawing inspiration from biology to overcome limitations of current computer architectures while forging the development of a new class of autonomous systems that can exhibit adaptive behaviors. Several designs in the recent past are capable of emulating large scale networks but avoid complexity in network dynamics by minimizing the number of dynamic variables that are supported and tunable in hardware. We believe that this is due to the lack of a clear understanding of how to design self-tuning complex systems. It has been widely demonstrated that criticality appears to be the default state of the brain and manifests in the form of spontaneous scale-invariant cascades of neural activity. Experiment, theory and recent models have shown that neuronal networks at criticality demonstrate optimal information transfer, learning and information processing capabilities that affect behavior. In this perspective article, we argue that understanding how large scale neuromorphic electronics can be designed to enable emergent adaptive behavior will require an understanding of how networks emulated by such hardware can self-tune local parameters to maintain criticality as a set-point. We believe that such capability will enable the design of truly scalable intelligent systems using neuromorphic hardware that embrace complexity in network dynamics rather than avoiding it. PMID:26648839

  12. Behavior of an adaptive bio-inspired spider web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lingyue; Behrooz, Majid; Huie, Andrew; Hartman, Alex; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of an artificial adaptive spider web with comparable behavior to a real spider web. First, the natural frequency and energy absorption ability of a passive web is studied. Next, a control system that consists of stepper motors, load cells and an Arduino, is constructed to mimic a spider's ability to control the tension of radial strings in the web. The energy related characteristics in the artificial spider web is examined while the pre-tension of the radial strings are varied. Various mechanical properties of a damaged spider web are adjusted to study their effect on the behavior of the web. It is demonstrated that the pre-tension and stiffness of the web's radial strings can significantly affect the natural frequency and the total energy of the full and damaged webs.

  13. Longitudinal Examination of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Executive Function.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Cara E; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Strang, John F; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L; Naiman, Daniel Q; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2016-02-01

    This study characterizes longitudinal change in adaptive behavior in 64 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability evaluated on multiple occasions, and examines whether prior estimate of executive function (EF) problems predicts future adaptive behavior scores. Compared to standardized estimates for their developmental stage, adaptive behavior in most participants was impaired and did not improve over time. Prior EF predicted later adaptive behavior in daily living skills and socialization domains after controlling for age and IQ. Self-monitoring behaviors robustly predicted later adaptive behavior in all domains (d = 0.60-0.94). Results support targeting treatment of adaptive skills in ASD, as well as the importance of assessing for EF problems that may contribute to adaptive behavior difficulties. PMID:26349921

  14. Efficient implementation of the adaptive scale pixel decomposition algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Bhatnagar, S.; Rau, U.; Zhang, M.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Most popular algorithms in use to remove the effects of a telescope's point spread function (PSF) in radio astronomy are variants of the CLEAN algorithm. Most of these algorithms model the sky brightness using the delta-function basis, which results in undesired artefacts when used to image extended emission. The adaptive scale pixel decomposition (Asp-Clean) algorithm models the sky brightness on a scale-sensitive basis and thus gives a significantly better imaging performance when imaging fields that contain both resolved and unresolved emission. Aims: However, the runtime cost of Asp-Clean is higher than that of scale-insensitive algorithms. In this paper, we identify the most expensive step in the original Asp-Clean algorithm and present an efficient implementation of it, which significantly reduces the computational cost while keeping the imaging performance comparable to the original algorithm. The PSF sidelobe levels of modern wide-band telescopes are significantly reduced, allowing us to make approximations to reduce the computational cost, which in turn allows for the deconvolution of larger images on reasonable timescales. Methods: As in the original algorithm, scales in the image are estimated through function fitting. Here we introduce an analytical method to model extended emission, and a modified method for estimating the initial values used for the fitting procedure, which ultimately leads to a lower computational cost. Results: The new implementation was tested with simulated EVLA data and the imaging performance compared well with the original Asp-Clean algorithm. Tests show that the current algorithm can recover features at different scales with lower computational cost.

  15. The Pupillary Orienting Response Predicts Adaptive Behavioral Adjustment after Errors

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Peter R.; van Moort, Marianne L.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Reaction time (RT) is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES) has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before subsequent trial onset. We measured pupil dilation, a prototypical measure of autonomic orienting, during performance of a choice RT task with long inter-stimulus intervals, and found that the trial-by-trial magnitude of the error-evoked pupil response positively predicted both PES magnitude and the likelihood that the following response would be correct. These combined findings suggest that the magnitude of the error-related orienting response predicts an adaptive change of response strategy following errors, and thereby promote a reconciliation of the orienting and adaptive control accounts of PES. PMID:27010472

  16. Self-* and Adaptive Mechanisms for Large Scale Distributed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragopoulou, P.; Mastroianni, C.; Montero, R.; Andrjezak, A.; Kondo, D.

    Large-scale distributed computing systems and infrastructure, such as Grids, P2P systems and desktop Grid platforms, are decentralized, pervasive, and composed of a large number of autonomous entities. The complexity of these systems is such that human administration is nearly impossible and centralized or hierarchical control is highly inefficient. These systems need to run on highly dynamic environments, where content, network topologies and workloads are continuously changing. Moreover, they are characterized by the high degree of volatility of their components and the need to provide efficient service management and to handle efficiently large amounts of data. This paper describes some of the areas for which adaptation emerges as a key feature, namely, the management of computational Grids, the self-management of desktop Grid platforms and the monitoring and healing of complex applications. It also elaborates on the use of bio-inspired algorithms to achieve self-management. Related future trends and challenges are described.

  17. Scale-adaptive surface modeling of vascular structures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The effective geometric modeling of vascular structures is crucial for diagnosis, therapy planning and medical education. These applications require good balance with respect to surface smoothness, surface accuracy, triangle quality and surface size. Methods Our method first extracts the vascular boundary voxels from the segmentation result, and utilizes these voxels to build a three-dimensional (3D) point cloud whose normal vectors are estimated via covariance analysis. Then a 3D implicit indicator function is computed from the oriented 3D point cloud by solving a Poisson equation. Finally the vessel surface is generated by a proposed adaptive polygonization algorithm for explicit 3D visualization. Results Experiments carried out on several typical vascular structures demonstrate that the presented method yields both a smooth morphologically correct and a topologically preserved two-manifold surface, which is scale-adaptive to the local curvature of the surface. Furthermore, the presented method produces fewer and better-shaped triangles with satisfactory surface quality and accuracy. Conclusions Compared to other state-of-the-art approaches, our method reaches good balance in terms of smoothness, accuracy, triangle quality and surface size. The vessel surfaces produced by our method are suitable for applications such as computational fluid dynamics simulations and real-time virtual interventional surgery. PMID:21087525

  18. Emotional Intelligence and Adaptive Success of Nurses Caring for People with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerits, Linda; Derksen, Jan J. L.; Verbruggen, Antoine B.

    2004-01-01

    The emotional intelligence profiles, gender differences, and adaptive success of 380 Dutch nurses caring for people with mental retardation and accompanying severe behavior problems are reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Utrecht-Coping List, Utrecht-Burnout Scale, MMPI-2, and GAMA. Absence due to illness…

  19. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  20. MPS II: adaptive behavior of patients and impact on the family system.

    PubMed

    Needham, Mary; Packman, Wendy; Rappoport, Maxwell; Quinn, Natasha; Cordova, Matthew; Macias, Sandra; Morgan, Cynthia; Packman, Seymour

    2014-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a chronic and progressive X-linked lysosomal disease that mainly affects males. It occurs in 1 in every 65,000 to 1 in 132,000 births. There are two distinct forms of the disease based on age of onset and clinical course: mild and severe. MPS II affects many organ systems including the nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Complications can include vision problems, progressive hearing loss, thickened and elastic skin, mental impairment, and enlarged liver and spleen. We herein focus on the adaptive behavior of individuals with MPS II, and the impact of MPS II on the family system. Outcomes from the Vineland-II Adaptive Behavior Scales showed that the MPS II patient sample experienced significantly lower functioning in communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills compared to normative data. Patients with severe MPS II were found to have significantly lower adaptive functioning in all domains, as compared to those with mild MPS II. Length of time on ERT had no significant relationship to adaptive functioning. Results from the Peds QL Family Impact Module indicated that families of patients with MPS II experienced a lower overall health-related quality of life and overall lower family functioning (including lower emotional and cognitive functioning) than those with chronic illnesses residing in an inpatient setting. PMID:24190099

  1. [Spanish adaptation of a perceived Social Support Scale in sportspeople].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Ignacio; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Pérez Sánchez, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    Social support is a variable that has a great influence in the sport context. In fact, this variable not only affects the athlete's performance but it has also shown to be related to psychological disorders such as Burnout Syndrome. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the Spanish adaptation of a social support scale in the sport context. The normative group who took part in the final version of the research was composed of 397 athletes aged between 13 and 64 years old (mean= 19.23 and standard deviation= 6.67). The scale shows: adequate factorial and construct validity, acceptable fit indexes (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin= 0.785, Root Mean Square Residual= 0.078; Kelly's criterion= 0.075), a negative correlation with the dimensions of burnout and no relationship with respect to self-esteem. In addition, it also shows high reliability (a= 0.88). Furthermore, statistically significant differences have been found in relation to genders - where women require greater social support. In contrast, males tend to display a lower level of social support with team players and international athletes. Moreover, differential item functioning (DIF) was carried out to explore sex bias, however, none of the items exhibit DIF problems. PMID:22748742

  2. Designing for Change: Interoperability in a scaling and adapting environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmey, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth Science cyberinfrastructure landscape is constantly changing. Technologies advance and technical implementations are refined or replaced. Data types, volumes, packaging, and use cases evolve. Scientific requirements emerge and mature. Standards shift while systems scale and adapt. In this complex and dynamic environment, interoperability remains a critical component of successful cyberinfrastructure. Through the resource- and priority-driven iterations on systems, interfaces, and content, questions fundamental to stable and useful Earth Science cyberinfrastructure arise. For instance, how are sociotechnical changes planned, tracked, and communicated? How should operational stability balance against 'new and shiny'? How can ongoing maintenance and mitigation of technical debt be managed in an often short-term resource environment? The Arctic Data Explorer is a metadata brokering application developed to enable discovery of international, interdisciplinary Arctic data across distributed repositories. Completely dependent on interoperable third party systems, the Arctic Data Explorer publicly launched in 2013 with an original 3000+ data records from four Arctic repositories. Since then the search has scaled to 25,000+ data records from thirteen repositories at the time of writing. In the final months of original project funding, priorities shift to lean operations with a strategic eye on the future. Here we present lessons learned from four years of Arctic Data Explorer design, development, communication, and maintenance work along with remaining questions and potential directions.

  3. Personality traits, future time perspective and adaptive behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gomes Carvalho, Renato Gil; Novo, Rosa Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Several studies provide evidence of the importance of future time perspective (FTP) for individual success. However, little research addresses the relationship between FTP and personality traits, particularly if FTP can mediate their influence on behavior. In this study we analyze the mediating of FTP in the influence of personality traits on the way adolescents live their life at school. Sample consisted in 351 students, aged from 14 to 18 years-old, at different schooling levels. Instruments were the Portuguese version of the MMPI-A, particularly the PSY-5 dimensions (Aggressiveness, Psychoticism, Disconstraint, Neuroticism, Introversion), a FTP questionnaire, and a survey on school life, involving several indicators of achievement, social integration, and overall satisfaction. With the exception of Neuroticism, the results show significant mediation effects (p < .001) of FTP on most relationships between PSY-5 dimensions and school life variables. Concerning Disconstraint, FTP mediated its influence on overall satisfaction (β = -.125) and school achievement (β = -.106). In the case of Introversion, significant mediation effects occurred for interpersonal difficulties (β = .099) and participation in extracurricular activities (β = -.085). FTP was also a mediator of Psychoticism influence in overall satisfaction (β = -.094), interpersonal difficulties (β = .057), and behavior problems (β = .037). Finally, FTP mediated the influence of Aggressiveness on overall satisfaction (β = -.061), interpersonal difficulties (β = .040), achievement (β = -.052), and behavior problems (β = .023). Results are discussed considering the importance of FTP in the impact of some personality structural characteristics in students' school adaptation. PMID:25907852

  4. Development and Validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Ok, Ahmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Though environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) has been a focus of many studies in the field of environmental education, very few scales have been developed to assess children's ERB. In this regard, this article focuses on the development and validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale (CREBS) and also reports the…

  5. Scaling Relative Incentive Value in Consummatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Mauricio R.; Pellegrini, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Surprising downshifts from more preferred (training incentive) to less preferred incentives (test incentive) are usually accompanied by emotional activation and suppression of conditioned behavior in rats. Two experiments were designed to determine whether consummatory behavior is similarly affected by downshifts of equal proportions. Within…

  6. Learning about stress: neural, endocrine and behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Richard

    2016-09-01

    In this review, nonassociative learning is advanced as an organizing principle to draw together findings from both sympathetic-adrenal medullary and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to chronic intermittent exposure to a variety of stressors. Studies of habituation, facilitation and sensitization of stress effector systems are reviewed and linked to an animal's prior experience with a given stressor, the intensity of the stressor and the appraisal by the animal of its ability to mobilize physiological systems to adapt to the stressor. Brain pathways that regulate physiological and behavioral responses to stress are discussed, especially in light of their regulation of nonassociative processes in chronic intermittent stress. These findings may have special relevance to various psychiatric diseases, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PMID:27294884

  7. [Adaptive behaviors to HIV risk of transmission in different populations].

    PubMed

    Grémy, I

    2005-05-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic in France, surveys aimed at better understanding risk perceptions of HIV infection and preventive sexual behaviors have been implemented in the general population, and in populations such as IVDU and homosexual men, more concerned by risks of HIV transmission. The objective of this article is to describe these surveys, to present their main results and to assess what has been the overall impact of prevention campaigns on the adoption of preventive sexual behaviors in these populations. The results show that very early after the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, both general and homosexual populations have adopted preventive sexual behaviors, mainly increasing condom use and implementing other preventive strategies. However, with the introduction of HAART in 1996, a slackening of these preventive behaviors is noted. The use of condom is less frequent, especially in the youngest generations of both general and homosexual populations. On the opposite, among IVDU, the use of sterile syringes increased dramatically as soon as over-the-counter sales of syringes was authorized in 1987, as well as the adoption of ways other than intravenous to take drugs. Both have contributed to almost stop the HIV epidemic in this specific group. The results of these surveys show that the benefits of prevention campaigns are different between populations and are reversible. It is necessary to renew the messages, campaigns and programs of prevention with the renewal of generations. It is also necessary to adapt these messages to the new scientific data, and to the evolution of social and individual representations of the disease. PMID:15878250

  8. Coordination Pattern Adaptability: Energy Cost of Degenerate Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Ludovic; Komar, John; Crettenand, Florent; Millet, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated behavioral adaptability, which could be defined as a blend between stability and flexibility of the limbs movement and their inter-limb coordination, when individuals received informational constraints. Seven expert breaststroke swimmers performed three 200-m in breaststroke at constant submaximal intensity. Each trial was performed randomly in a different coordination pattern: ‘freely-chosen’, ‘maximal glide’ and ‘minimal glide’. Two underwater and four aerial cameras enabled 3D movement analysis in order to assess elbow and knee angles, elbow-knee pair coordination, intra-cyclic velocity variations of the center of mass, stroke rate and stroke length and inter-limb coordination. The energy cost of locomotion was calculated from gas exchanges and blood lactate concentration. The results showed significantly higher glide, intra-cyclic velocity variations and energy cost under ‘maximal glide’ compared to ‘freely-chosen’ instructional conditions, as well as higher reorganization of limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05). In the ‘minimal glide’ condition, the swimmers did not show significantly shorter glide and lower energy cost, but they exhibited significantly lower deceleration of the center of mass, as well as modified limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05). These results highlight that a variety of structural adaptations can functionally satisfy the task-goal. PMID:25255016

  9. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India)

    PubMed Central

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J. Aaron; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394

  10. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India).

    PubMed

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J Aaron; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-04-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2-3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48-0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394

  11. Scaling behavior of gas permeability measurements in volcanic tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, V.C.

    1994-12-31

    One of the critical issues facing the Yucca Mountain site characterization and performance assessment programs is the manner in which property scaling is addressed. Property scaling becomes an issue whenever heterogeneous media properties are measured at one scale but applied at another. A research program has been established to challenge current understanding of property scaling with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of suites of gas-permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. The approach is to systematically isolate those factors believed to influence property scaling and investigate their relative contributions to overall scaling behavior. Two blocks of tuff, each exhibiting differing heterogeneity structure, have recently been examined. Results of the investigation show very different scaling behavior, as exhibited by changes in the distribution functions and variograms, for the two tuff samples. Even for the relatively narrow range of measurement scales employed significant changes in the distribution functions, variograms, and summary statistics occurred. Because such data descriptors will likely play an important role in calculating effective media properties, these results demonstrate both the need to understand and accurately model scaling behavior.

  12. Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

  13. Adaptive Texture Synthesis for Large Scale City Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despine, G.; Colleu, T.

    2015-02-01

    Large scale city models textured with aerial images are well suited for bird-eye navigation but generally the image resolution does not allow pedestrian navigation. One solution to face this problem is to use high resolution terrestrial photos but it requires huge amount of manual work to remove occlusions. Another solution is to synthesize generic textures with a set of procedural rules and elementary patterns like bricks, roof tiles, doors and windows. This solution may give realistic textures but with no correlation to the ground truth. Instead of using pure procedural modelling we present a method to extract information from aerial images and adapt the texture synthesis to each building. We describe a workflow allowing the user to drive the information extraction and to select the appropriate texture patterns. We also emphasize the importance to organize the knowledge about elementary pattern in a texture catalogue allowing attaching physical information, semantic attributes and to execute selection requests. Roofs are processed according to the detected building material. Façades are first described in terms of principal colours, then opening positions are detected and some window features are computed. These features allow selecting the most appropriate patterns from the texture catalogue. We experimented this workflow on two samples with 20 cm and 5 cm resolution images. The roof texture synthesis and opening detection were successfully conducted on hundreds of buildings. The window characterization is still sensitive to the distortions inherent to the projection of aerial images onto the facades.

  14. Applying Computer Adaptive Testing to Optimize Online Assessment of Suicidal Behavior: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Anton LM; de Groot, Marieke H; de Keijser, Jos; Kerkhof, Ad JFM

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is used increasingly for both suicide research and prevention. To optimize online assessment of suicidal patients, there is a need for short, good-quality tools to assess elevated risk of future suicidal behavior. Computer adaptive testing (CAT) can be used to reduce response burden and improve accuracy, and make the available pencil-and-paper tools more appropriate for online administration. Objective The aim was to test whether an item response–based computer adaptive simulation can be used to reduce the length of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS). Methods The data used for our simulation was obtained from a large multicenter trial from The Netherlands: the Professionals in Training to STOP suicide (PITSTOP suicide) study. We applied a principal components analysis (PCA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), a graded response model (GRM), and simulated a CAT. Results The scores of 505 patients were analyzed. Psychometric analyses showed the questionnaire to be unidimensional with good internal consistency. The computer adaptive simulation showed that for the estimation of elevation of risk of future suicidal behavior 4 items (instead of the full 19) were sufficient, on average. Conclusions This study demonstrated that CAT can be applied successfully to reduce the length of the Dutch version of the BSS. We argue that the use of CAT can improve the accuracy and the response burden when assessing the risk of future suicidal behavior online. Because CAT can be daunting for clinicians and applied scientists, we offer a concrete example of our computer adaptive simulation of the Dutch version of the BSS at the end of the paper. PMID:25213259

  15. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot.

    PubMed

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles

  16. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot

    PubMed Central

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles

  17. A Risk-based Model Predictive Control Approach to Adaptive Interventions in Behavioral Health.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Cabeza, Ascensión; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Ridao, Miguel A; Camacho, Eduardo F

    2011-07-01

    This paper examines how control engineering and risk management techniques can be applied in the field of behavioral health through their use in the design and implementation of adaptive behavioral interventions. Adaptive interventions are gaining increasing acceptance as a means to improve prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders, such as abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, mental illness, and obesity. A risk-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm is developed for a hypothetical intervention inspired by Fast Track, a real-life program whose long-term goal is the prevention of conduct disorders in at-risk children. The MPC-based algorithm decides on the appropriate frequency of counselor home visits, mentoring sessions, and the availability of after-school recreation activities by relying on a model that includes identifiable risks, their costs, and the cost/benefit assessment of mitigating actions. MPC is particularly suited for the problem because of its constraint-handling capabilities, and its ability to scale to interventions involving multiple tailoring variables. By systematically accounting for risks and adapting treatment components over time, an MPC approach as described in this paper can increase intervention effectiveness and adherence while reducing waste, resulting in advantages over conventional fixed treatment. A series of simulations are conducted under varying conditions to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:21643450

  18. Scaling behavior of regularized bosonic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Makeenko, Y.

    2016-03-01

    We implement a proper-time UV regularization of the Nambu-Goto string, introducing an independent metric tensor and the corresponding Lagrange multiplier, and treating them in the mean-field approximation justified for long strings and/or when the dimension of space-time is large. We compute the regularized determinant of the 2D Laplacian for the closed string winding around a compact dimension, obtaining in this way the effective action, whose minimization determines the energy of the string ground state in the mean-field approximation. We discuss the existence of two scaling limits when the cutoff is taken to infinity. One scaling limit reproduces the results obtained by the hypercubic regularization of the Nambu-Goto string as well as by the use of the dynamical triangulation regularization of the Polyakov string. The other scaling limit reproduces the results obtained by canonical quantization of the Nambu-Goto string.

  19. Scale invariance in the dynamics of spontaneous behavior

    PubMed Central

    Proekt, Alex; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Maritan, Amos; Pfaff, Donald W.

    2012-01-01

    Typically one expects that the intervals between consecutive occurrences of a particular behavior will have a characteristic time scale around which most observations are centered. Surprisingly, the timing of many diverse behaviors from human communication to animal foraging form complex self-similar temporal patterns reproduced on multiple time scales. We present a general framework for understanding how such scale invariance may arise in nonequilibrium systems, including those that regulate mammalian behaviors. We then demonstrate that the predictions of this framework are in agreement with detailed analysis of spontaneous mouse behavior observed in a simple unchanging environment. Neural systems operate on a broad range of time scales, from milliseconds to hours. We analytically show that such a separation between time scales could lead to scale-invariant dynamics without any fine tuning of parameters or other model-specific constraints. Our analyses reveal that the specifics of the distribution of resources or competition among several tasks are not essential for the expression of scale-free dynamics. Rather, we show that scale invariance observed in the dynamics of behavior can arise from the dynamics intrinsic to the brain. PMID:22679281

  20. Linear-scaling symmetry-adapted perturbation theory with scaled dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, Simon A.; Beer, Matthias; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2013-11-14

    We present a linear-scaling symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) method that is based on an atomic orbital (AO) formulation of zeroth-order SAPT (SAPT0). The non-dispersive terms are realized with linear-scaling cost using both the continuous fast multipole method (CFMM) and the linear exchange (LinK) approach for integral contractions as well as our efficient Laplace-based coupled-perturbed self-consistent field method (DL-CPSCF) for evaluating response densities. The reformulation of the dispersion term is based on our linear-scaling AO Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (AO-MP2) method, that uses our recently introduced QQR-type screening [S. A. Maurer, D. S. Lambrecht, J. Kussmann, and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 014101 (2013)] for preselecting numerically significant energy contributions. Similar to scaled opposite-spin MP2, we neglect the exchange-dispersion term in SAPT and introduce a scaling factor for the dispersion term, which compensates for the error and at the same time accounts for basis set incompleteness effects and intramonomer correlation. We show in extensive benchmark calculations that the new scaled-dispersion (sd-)SAPT0 approach provides reliable results for small and large interacting systems where the results with a small 6-31G** basis are roughly comparable to supermolecular MP2 calculations in a triple-zeta basis. The performance of our method is demonstrated with timings on cellulose fragments, DNA systems, and cutouts of a protein-ligand complex with up to 1100 atoms on a single computer core.

  1. Behavior and Adaptive Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: Specifying Targets for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacola, Lisa M.; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R.; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with Down syndrome can demonstrate increased behavior problems as compared with typical peers. Few studies have explored whether behavior impacts adaptive functioning. Caregiver report from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) and the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL;…

  2. The Adaptation of Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scales: Case from Turkish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurioglu, Lili; Tümkaya, Songül

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on adapting the scales known as "Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scales" ("ABAS") into Turkish version. The general aim of the study is to propound the Turkish version of the ABAS and to see if the scale functions in a similar fashion in Turkey in terms of its psychometric properties. The scales were…

  3. The Adaptation of Creativity Fostering Primary Teachers Index Scale into Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikici, Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the creativity fostering teacher index scale into Turkish. For the language equivalence, firstly, the English version of the scale was translated by 30 English lecturers and then the Turkish version of the scale retranslated by the same lecturers. Later, the scale was applied to 288 teachers working in Nigde…

  4. Scaling behavior of coarsening Faraday heaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gerner, Henk Jan; van der Weele, Ko; van der Meer, Devaraj; van der Hoef, Martin A.

    2015-10-01

    When a layer of sand is vertically shaken, the surface spontaneously breaks up in a landscape of small conical "Faraday heaps," which merge into larger ones on an ever increasing time scale. We propose a model for the heap dynamics and show analytically that the mean lifetime of the transient state with N heaps scales as N-2. When there is an abundance of sand, such that the vibrating plate always remains completely covered, this means that the average diameter of the heaps grows as t1 /2. Otherwise, when the sand is less plentiful and parts of the plate get depleted during the coarsening process, the average diameter of the heaps grows more slowly, namely as t1 /3. This result compares well with experimental observations.

  5. Scaling behavior of coarsening Faraday heaps.

    PubMed

    van Gerner, Henk Jan; van der Weele, Ko; van der Meer, Devaraj; van der Hoef, Martin A

    2015-10-01

    When a layer of sand is vertically shaken, the surface spontaneously breaks up in a landscape of small conical "Faraday heaps," which merge into larger ones on an ever increasing time scale. We propose a model for the heap dynamics and show analytically that the mean lifetime of the transient state with N heaps scales as N(-2). When there is an abundance of sand, such that the vibrating plate always remains completely covered, this means that the average diameter of the heaps grows as t(1/2). Otherwise, when the sand is less plentiful and parts of the plate get depleted during the coarsening process, the average diameter of the heaps grows more slowly, namely as t(1/3). This result compares well with experimental observations. PMID:26565231

  6. Common scaling behavior in finance and macroeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, B.; Horvatic, D.; Petersen, A. M.; Njavro, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    2010-08-01

    In order to test whether scaling exists in finance at the world level, we test whether the average growth rates and volatility of market capitalization (MC) depend on the level of MC. We analyze the MC for 54 worldwide stock indices and 48 worldwide bond indices. We find that (i) the average growth rate of the MC and (ii) the standard deviation σ(r) of growth rates r decrease both with MC as power laws, with exponents αw = 0.28 ± 0.09 and βw = 0.12 ± 0.04. We define a stochastic process in order to model the scaling results we find for worldwide stock and bond indices. We establish a power-law relationship between the MC of a country's financial market and the gross domestic product (GDP) of the same country.

  7. Longitudinal Examination of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This study characterizes longitudinal change in adaptive behavior in 64 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability evaluated on multiple occasions, and examines whether prior estimate of executive function (EF) problems predicts future adaptive behavior scores. Compared to standardized estimates…

  8. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…

  9. Maladaptive Behaviors Related to Adaptive Decline in Aging Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Changes in patterns of maladaptive behavior related to age-associated adaptive declines were investigated in 529 adults with mental retardation (ages 30 to 84), 202 with Down syndrome. Certain maladaptive behaviors were related to the onset of adaptive declines, (e.g., lack of boundaries). Findings suggest similarities in the course of…

  10. Psychopathological Manifestations of Children with Intellectual Disabilities According to Their Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Karine N.; Richer, Louis; Lachance, Lise; Cote, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in cognitive abilities and adaptive behavior which increase the risk of psychopathological disorders. This exploratory study aims at delineating profiles of children based on their cognitive functioning and adaptive behaviors, and to compare them on psychopathological manifestations. A…

  11. Adaptive Behavior among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Relationship to Community Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…

  12. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  13. The Behavior Observation Scale for Autism (BOS): Frequency Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, B. J.; And Others

    Frequency data are reported from a research project aimed at developing the Behavior Observation Scale (BOS), an objective assessment tool for establishing the diagnosis of autism. The goals of the BOS are to differentiate autistic, normal, and mentally retarded children (ages 30 to 60 months) along objective symptom axes involving 67 behaviors.…

  14. Alternate Forms Reliability of the Behavioral Relaxation Scale: Preliminary Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Dunlap, Angel L.

    2006-01-01

    Alternate forms reliability of the Behavioral Relaxation Scale (BRS; Poppen,1998), a direct observation measure of relaxed behavior, was examined. A single BRS score, based on long duration observation (5-minute), has been found to be a valid measure of relaxation and is correlated with self-report and some physiological measures. Recently,…

  15. Complex scaling behavior in animal foraging patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premachandra, Prabhavi Kaushalya

    This dissertation attempts to answer questions from two different areas of biology, ecology and neuroscience, using physics-based techniques. In Section 2, suitability of three competing random walk models is tested to describe the emergent movement patterns of two species of primates. The truncated power law (power law with exponential cut off) is the most suitable random walk model that characterizes the emergent movement patterns of these primates. In Section 3, an agent-based model is used to simulate search behavior in different environments (landscapes) to investigate the impact of the resource landscape on the optimal foraging movement patterns of deterministic foragers. It should be noted that this model goes beyond previous work in that it includes parameters such as spatial memory and satiation, which have received little consideration to date in the field of movement ecology. When the food availability is scarce in a tropical forest-like environment with feeding trees distributed in a clumped fashion and the size of those trees are distributed according to a lognormal distribution, the optimal foraging pattern of a generalist who can consume various and abundant food types indeed reaches the Levy range, and hence, show evidence for Levy-flight-like (power law distribution with exponent between 1 and 3) behavior. Section 4 of the dissertation presents an investigation of phase transition behavior in a network of locally coupled self-sustained oscillators as the system passes through various bursting states. The results suggest that a phase transition does not occur for this locally coupled neuronal network. The data analysis in the dissertation adopts a model selection approach and relies on methods based on information theory and maximum likelihood.

  16. Gender differences in adapting driving behavior to accommodate visual health limitations.

    PubMed

    Sarkin, Andrew J; Tally, Steven R; Wooldridge, Jennalee S; Choi, Kyle; Shieh, Marian; Kaplan, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether men and women are equally likely to adapt their driving behaviors in response to visual limitations. Participants were 376 (222 women and 154 men) pre-surgical cataract patients from the Shiley Eye Center in La Jolla, California. All participants completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire, which assesses self-reported visual symptoms, functional limitations, and behaviors including driving during the day, at night, or in difficult conditions. Visual acuity was assessed using the log of the minimal angle of resolution (LogMAR) scale. There were no significant differences in LogMAR visual acuity between men and women who reported either that they stopped driving at night because of visual impairment or reported having no difficulty driving at night. Of participants who reported having difficulty driving at night, mean weighted LogMAR scores indicated significantly better visual acuity for women than men. There were no significant differences in LogMAR visual acuity between women and men in any of the difficult driving condition categories. Significantly more women than men reported that they stopped driving in difficult conditions because of eyesight, despite the lack of gender differences in visual acuity for this sample. We found no evidence that cataract disease had different effects on the visual acuity of older adult men and women. However, there was a significant difference between genders in self-reported driving behavior. It is possible that some women are more cautious or have less need to drive. However, failing to adapt driving behaviors to accommodate visual limitations may represent a potential behavioral public health risk for men. PMID:23852327

  17. Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory

  18. Development of Behaviorally-Anchored Rating Scales for Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grussing, Paul G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen behaviorally-anchored rating scales were developed for a comprehensive measure of performance in pharmacy practice, including pharmacist selection, performance appraisal, and promotion activities. The scales (which are included) were also used to evaluate extern performance, and to serve as a criterion measure in studies of concurrent…

  19. The Gender Communication Scale: A Scale Development of an Instrument to Measure Gender Role Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neer, Michael R.; Hudson, David D.

    To derive a descriptive profile of communication role patterns and to determine whether these patterns were gender dependent, a Gender Communication Scale was developed by selecting scale items from other instruments that best discriminated reports of role behavior. The scale was then administered to 91 male and 148 female undergraduate students.…

  20. Evaluating Sensitivity to Behavioral Change Using Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Maggin, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the researchers evaluated the sensitivity of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) for assessing behavior change in response to an intervention. Included in the analyses were data from 20 completed behavioral consultation cases involving a diverse sample of elementary participants and contexts using a common…

  1. The Behavior Observation Scale for Autism (BOS): Relationship of Frequency of Behavior to IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, B. J.; And Others

    The Behavior Observation Scale (BOS) was administered to 53 autistic children, 35 mentally retarded children matched for MA, and 33 normal children (all 2 to 5 years old) in an attempt to quantify autistic behavior. Ss were observed 3 days for 3 minutes through a one way mirror in a playroom setting where occurrence of 67 behaviors on the BOS was…

  2. Toward Oxide Scale Behavior Management At High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Deltombe, R.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.; Dubar, L.

    2011-01-17

    Oxide scales grow freely on bare metallic surface under environmental conditions such as high temperature and oxygen. These act as thermal and mechanical shields, especially during high hot forming processes (>1000 deg. C). But product quality can be impacted by these oxide scales due to scale remaining on product or sticking on tools. Thus the TEMPO laboratory has created an original methodology in order to characterize oxide scale under high temperature, pressure and strain gradients. An experimental device has been developed. The final purpose of this work is to understand the scale behavior as a function of temperature, reduction ratio and steel composition.

  3. Scaling behavior in a stochastic self-gravitating system.

    PubMed

    Antonov, N V

    2004-04-23

    A system of stochastic differential equations for the velocity and density of classical self-gravitating matter is investigated by means of the field theoretic renormalization group. The existence of two types of large-scale scaling behavior, associated with physically admissible fixed points of the renormalization-group equations, is established. Their regions of stability are identified and the corresponding scaling dimensions are calculated in the one-loop approximation (first order of the epsilon expansion). The velocity and density fields have independent scaling dimensions. Our analysis supports the importance of the rotational (nonpotential) components of the velocity field in the formation of those scaling laws. PMID:15169213

  4. Atypical Behavior Identification in Large Scale Network Traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Best, Daniel M.; Hafen, Ryan P.; Olsen, Bryan K.; Pike, William A.

    2011-10-23

    Cyber analysts are faced with the daunting challenge of identifying exploits and threats within potentially billions of daily records of network traffic. Enterprise-wide cyber traffic involves hundreds of millions of distinct IP addresses and results in data sets ranging from terabytes to petabytes of raw data. Creating behavioral models and identifying trends based on those models requires data intensive architectures and techniques that can scale as data volume increases. Analysts need scalable visualization methods that foster interactive exploration of data and enable identification of behavioral anomalies. Developers must carefully consider application design, storage, processing, and display to provide usability and interactivity with large-scale data. We present an application that highlights atypical behavior in enterprise network flow records. This is accomplished by utilizing data intensive architectures to store the data, aggregation techniques to optimize data access, statistical techniques to characterize behavior, and a visual analytic environment to render the behavioral trends, highlight atypical activity, and allow for exploration.

  5. Engaging African American Fathers in Behavioral Parent Training: To Adapt or Not Adapt

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Seay, Kristen D.

    2015-01-01

    The Positive Parenting Program, Triple P, is an evidence-based parenting program with strong empirical support that increases parenting skills and decreases child behavior problems. Few studies on Triple P include fathers or African American fathers. This study was undertaken to determine if adaptation to Triple P level 4 is necessary to ensure fit with urban African American fathers. Qualitative focus groups and interviews were conducted with African American fathers. Some received a brief overview of the program before giving feedback (series A) and others received the entire intervention (series B). Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze transcripts and codebooks were developed through an iterative process. Series B fathers had fewer negative perceptions and a more detailed perspective. Limited exposure to an intervention may cause participants to provide inaccurate data on intervention acceptability. The fathers’ initial perceptions of interventions, regardless of accuracy, will affect recruitment and engagement and must be addressed. One strategy is to tailor program examples and language to reflect the experiences of African American fathers. PMID:26190952

  6. The Adaptation of Academic Motivation Scale to Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaguven, M. Hulya Unal

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the psychometric evidence of Turkish form of the Academic Motivation Scale. The scale was based on the tenets of self-determination theory. It was designed to assess an individual's academic motivation if intrinsically or extrinsically driven with 28 questions. University form of the scale was translated into Turkish…

  7. Optimal Control Modification Adaptive Law for Time-Scale Separated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2010-01-01

    Recently a new optimal control modification has been introduced that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. This modification is based on an optimal control formulation to minimize the L2 norm of the tracking error. The optimal control modification adaptive law results in a stable adaptation in the presence of a large adaptive gain. This study examines the optimal control modification adaptive law in the context of a system with a time scale separation resulting from a fast plant with a slow actuator. A singular perturbation analysis is performed to derive a modification to the adaptive law by transforming the original system into a reduced-order system in slow time. A model matching conditions in the transformed time coordinate results in an increase in the actuator command that effectively compensate for the slow actuator dynamics. Simulations demonstrate effectiveness of the method.

  8. Longitudinal study of cognitive abilities and adaptive behavior levels in fragile X males: a prospective multicenter analysis.

    PubMed

    Fisch, G S; Simensen, R; Tarleton, J; Chalifoux, M; Holden, J J; Carpenter, N; Howard-Peebles, P N; Maddalena, A

    1996-08-01

    Retrospective longitudinal studies have noted declines in IQ scores in many but not all fra(X) (fragile X) males and females. We report on a prospective investigation of longitudinal changes in cognitive ability (IQ) and adaptive behavior (DQ) in 24 fra(X) males from four test sites. Individuals who were tested ranged in age from 3-15 years. To determine cognitive ability, all males were administered the Stanford-Binet test (4th Edition). To assess adaptive behavior, all males were evaluated using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Mean interest interval was 2.3 years. Using identical DNA protocols, all subjects were identified as bearing the fra(X) mutation. Results showed declines in IQ scores in 18/24 (75%) males. Four males showed no change in scores. Declines in DQ scores were noted in 22/24 (92%) of those tested. DQ scores were higher than IQ scores in 20/24 (83%) subjects. From a descriptive cohort analysis, decreases in IQ scores appear to follow a well-defined, negatively decelerating function. Declines in DQ were steeper and more nearly linear. Declining scores are not indicative of regression of intellectual and/or social skills, but of a relative inability to keep pace with their age-normed cohort. We conclude that the fra(X) mutation affects cognitive abilities in a uniform, nonlinear manner comparable to outcomes observed in earlier retrospective studies. Adaptive behavior also declines, but in a more linear fashion. PMID:8844080

  9. Turkish Adaptation of the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yirci, Ramazan; Karakose, Turgut; Uygun, Harun; Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness Scale to Turkish, and to conduct validity and reliability tests regarding the scale. The study group consisted of 156 university science students receiving graduate education. Construct validity and factor structure of the scale was analyzed first through exploratory…

  10. An Adaptation, Validity and Reliability of the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale to the Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öz, F. Selda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale (LSRS) developed by Riggio (2000) to Turkish. The scale with its original form in English consists of 48 items in total. The original scale was translated into Turkish by three instructors who are proficient both in the field and the language. Later, the original and…

  11. Treating Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors With Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:23914278

  12. Measuring and Validating a General Cancer Predisposition Perception Scale: An Adaptation of the Revised-IPQ-Genetic Predisposition Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Liao, Qiuyan; Wong, Jennifer Hiu Fai; Lai, Ching Lung; Yuen, Man Fung; Tsang, Janice Wing Hang; Fielding, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Illness perceptions are linked to individual help-seeking and preventive behaviors. Previous illness perception studies have identified five dimensions of illness-related experience and behaviour. The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) for genetic predisposition (IPQ-R-GP) was developed to measure illness perceptions in those genetically-predisposed to blood disease. We adapted the IPQ-R-GP to measure perceptions of generalized cancer predisposition. This paper describes the development and validation of the Cancer Predisposition Perception Scale (CPPS). Methods The draft CPPS scale was first administered to 167 well Hepatitis B carriers and 123 other healthy individuals and the factor structure was examined using Exploratory Factor Analysis. Then the factor structure was confirmed in a second sample comprising 148 healthy controls, 150 smokers and 152 passive smokers using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Results Six-factors comprising 26 items provided optimal fit by eigen and scree-plot methods, accounting for 58.9% of the total variance. CFA indicated good fit of the six-factor model after further excluding three items. The six factors, Emotional representation (5 items), Illness coherence (4 items), Treatment control (3 items), Consequences (5 items), Internal locus of control (2 items) and External locus of control (4 items) demonstrated adequate-to-good subscale internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.63–0.90). Divergent validity was suggested by low correlations with optimism, self-efficacy, and scales for measuring physical and psychological health symptoms. Conclusion The CPPS appears to be a valid measure of perceived predisposition to generic cancer risks and can be used to examine cancer-risk-related cognitions in individuals at higher and lower cancer risk. PMID:26559191

  13. Computer Adaptive Testing for Small Scale Programs and Instructional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Guo, Fanmin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates measurement decision theory (MDT) as an underlying model for computer adaptive testing when the goal is to classify examinees into one of a finite number of groups. The first analysis compares MDT with a popular item response theory model and finds little difference in terms of the percentage of correct classifications. The…

  14. Adaptation of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Scale to Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Zehra; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Emre, Irfan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt "Survey of Pre-service Teachers' Knowledge of Teaching and Technology" in order to assess pre-service primary teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) to Turkish. 407 pre-service primary teachers (227 female and 180 male) in their final semester in Education Faculties…

  15. Behaviorally mediated, warm adaptation: a physiological strategy when mice behaviorally thermoregulate.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Aydin, Cenk; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Johnstone, Andrew F M

    2014-08-01

    Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of ~22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller internal organs and longer tails compared to mice raised at 22°C. Since mice prefer Tas equal to their TNZ when housed in a thermocline, we hypothesized that mice reared for long periods (e.g., months) in a thermocline would undergo significant changes in organ development and tail length as a result of their thermoregulatory behavior. Groups of three female BALB/c mice at an age of 37 days were housed together in a thermocline consisting of a 90cm long aluminum runway with a floor temperature ranging from 23 to 39°C. Two side-by-side thermoclines allowed for a total of 6 mice to be tested simultaneously. Control mice were tested in isothermal runways maintained at a Ta of 22°C. All groups were given cotton pads for bedding/nest building. Mass of heart, lung, liver, kidney, brain, and tail length were assessed after 73 days of treatment. Mice in the thermocline and control (isothermal) runways were compared to cage control mice housed 3/cage with bedding under standard vivarium conditions. Mice in the thermocline generally remained in the warm end throughout the daytime with little evidence of nest building, suggesting a state of thermal comfort. Mice in the isothermal runway built elaborate nests and huddled together in the daytime. Mice housed in the thermocline had significantly smaller livers and kidneys and an increase in tail length compared to mice in the isothermal runway as well as when compared to the cage controls. These patterns of organ growth and tail length of mice in the thermocline are akin to warm adaptation. Thus, thermoregulatory behavior altered organ development, a process we term behaviorally mediated, warm adaptation. Moreover, the data suggest that the standard

  16. A quantitative evolutionary theory of adaptive behavior dynamics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J

    2013-10-01

    The idea that behavior is selected by its consequences in a process analogous to organic evolution has been discussed for over 100 years. A recently proposed theory instantiates this idea by means of a genetic algorithm that operates on a population of potential behaviors. Behaviors in the population are represented by numbers in decimal integer (phenotypic) and binary bit string (genotypic) forms. One behavior from the population is emitted at random each time tick, after which a new population of potential behaviors is constructed by recombining parent behavior bit strings. If the emitted behavior produced a benefit to the organism, then parents are chosen on the basis of their phenotypic similarity to the emitted behavior; otherwise, they are chosen at random. After parent behavior recombination, the population is subjected to a small amount of mutation by flipping random bits in the population's bit strings. The behavior generated by this process of selection, reproduction, and mutation reaches equilibrium states that conform to every empirically valid equation of matching theory, exactly and without systematic error. These equations are known to describe the behavior of many vertebrate species, including humans, in a variety of experimental, naturalistic, natural, and social environments. The evolutionary theory also generates instantaneous dynamics and patterns of preference change in constantly changing environments that are consistent with the dynamics of live-organism behavior. These findings support the assertion that the world of behavior we observe and measure is generated by evolutionary dynamics. PMID:24219847

  17. Linking Screening for Emotional and Behavioral Problems to Problem-Solving Efforts: An Adaptive Model of Behavioral Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses several objectives of the special issue on universal screening by addressing gaps in the current research base concerning universal screening for mental, emotional, and behavioral health and by providing a framework for addressing the limitations of extant approaches. Specifically, an adaptive model of behavioral assessment…

  18. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  19. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent Form, Ages 5-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Youhua; Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

    2008-01-01

    The AAIDD has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model stressing 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. In previous studies on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II), researchers found support for a model including both 10 adaptive skills and three conceptual…

  20. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  1. Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Babakus, E; Mangold, W G

    1992-01-01

    Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge for health care marketers. A comprehensive service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) is empirically evaluated for its potential usefulness in a hospital service environment. Active participation by hospital management helped to address practical and user-related aspects of the assessment. The completed expectations and perceptions scales met various criteria for reliability and validity. Suggestions are provided for the managerial use of the scale, and a number of future research issues are identified. PMID:1737708

  2. Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Babakus, E; Mangold, W G

    1992-02-01

    Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge for health care marketers. A comprehensive service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) is empirically evaluated for its potential usefulness in a hospital service environment. Active participation by hospital management helped to address practical and user-related aspects of the assessment. The completed expectations and perceptions scales met various criteria for reliability and validity. Suggestions are provided for the managerial use of the scale, and a number of future research issues are identified. PMID:1737708

  3. Validity and Reliability of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (2nd Edition): Youth Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael H.; Mooney, Paul; Ryser, Gail; Pierce, Corey D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article reports findings of three studies addressing convergent validity and test-retest reliability of the Youth Rating Scale of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition (BERS-2). Method: Pearson product-moment correlations were used in all three studies, the first two addressing convergent validity and the third…

  4. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: a study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari; Zadeh, Davood Shojaei; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tabatabaie, Mahmoud Ghazi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items) of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire) and interrelations among them based on Jessor’s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory). METHODS: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. RESULTS: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The α range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. CONCLUSIONS: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents. PMID:21526075

  5. Adaptive categorization of ART networks in robot behavior learning using game-theoretic formulation.

    PubMed

    Fung, Wai-keung; Liu, Yun-hui

    2003-12-01

    Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) networks are employed in robot behavior learning. Two of the difficulties in online robot behavior learning, namely, (1) exponential memory increases with time, (2) difficulty for operators to specify learning tasks accuracy and control learning attention before learning. In order to remedy the aforementioned difficulties, an adaptive categorization mechanism is introduced in ART networks for perceptual and action patterns categorization in this paper. A game-theoretic formulation of adaptive categorization for ART networks is proposed for vigilance parameter adaptation for category size control on the categories formed. The proposed vigilance parameter update rule can help improving categorization performance in the aspect of category number stability and solve the problem of selecting initial vigilance parameter prior to pattern categorization in traditional ART networks. Behavior learning using physical robot is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive categorization mechanism in ART networks. PMID:14622873

  6. Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Self-injurious Thoughts and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Darren B; Flament, Martine F

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore clinical changes observed in suicidal adolescents treated with an adapted form of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for adolescents (A-DBT-A) in a tertiary care setting. We conducted an open-label naturalistic study including 61 adolescents with self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and associated features of borderline personality disorder, who underwent a 15-week course of A-DBT-A. Pre- and post-treatment measures were administered, the primary outcome being the total score on the Suicidal Ideas Questionnaire. Self-harm, symptoms of borderline personality disorder, resiliency measures, predictors of response, and predictors of attrition were also explored. Among participants who completed post-treatment measures, we found a significant reduction in suicidal ideation (n = 31, p < 0.001). Secondary outcomes also suggested improvement. Baseline substance use predicted attrition (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.03-6.14; p < 0.05), as did baseline impulsivity score on the Life Problems Inventory (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.004-1.06; p < 0.05). Overall, we observed clinical improvements in adolescents receiving A-DBT-A. PMID:26075841

  7. The Development of Adaptive Behavior in Toddlers and Preschoolers with Fragile X versus Autism

    PubMed Central

    McCary, Lindsay M.; Machlin, Laura; Roberts, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is extensive research in the early detection of autism, no study has compared the adaptive behavior of young children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and children with autism across ages. We investigated the cross-sectional development of adaptive behavior in children with FXS and children with autism between 18 and 83 months of age. Analyses revealed a significant relationship between age and adaptive behavior standard scores for children with FXS, with decreased performance across ages. Analyses also revealed that children with FXS had a relatively flat performance across domains while children with autism are typically more variable with lower scores in the communication domain relative to other domains. Delays in adaptive behavior were evident for children with FXS and children with autism at 24 months of age as reported in previous literature. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:25191537

  8. Evaluation of convergence behavior of metamodeling techniques for bridging scales in multi-scale multimaterial simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Oishik; Davis, Sean; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, H.S.

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of several metamodeling techniques, viz. the Polynomial Stochastic Collocation method, Adaptive Stochastic Collocation method, a Radial Basis Function Neural Network, a Kriging Method and a Dynamic Kriging Method is evaluated. This is done with the express purpose of using metamodels to bridge scales between micro- and macro-scale models in a multi-scale multimaterial simulation. The rate of convergence of the error when used to reconstruct hypersurfaces of known functions is studied. For sufficiently large number of training points, Stochastic Collocation methods generally converge faster than the other metamodeling techniques, while the DKG method converges faster when the number of input points is less than 100 in a two-dimensional parameter space. Because the input points correspond to computationally expensive micro/meso-scale computations, the DKG is favored for bridging scales in a multi-scale solver.

  9. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2 to 7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies,…

  10. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  11. Profiles of School Adaptation: Social, Behavioral and Academic Functioning in Sexually Abused Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daignault, Isabelle V.; Hebert, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The short-term outcomes of child sexual abuse (CSA) on academic, behavioral and social adaptation at school were examined in order to: (1) document the proportion of sexually abused (SA) girls struggling in school and define the nature of their difficulties, (2) explore whether different profiles of school adaptation could be…

  12. Broadband Behavior Rating Scales as Screeners for Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.; Gross, Amber D.; McReynolds, Brandy M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to start providing important early intervention services to preschoolers and toddlers with autism, those children first need to be identified. Despite the availability of specialized autism assessment instruments, there is a need for effective screeners at the early childhood level. Three broadband behavior rating scales were evaluated in…

  13. Construct Validation of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nancy K.; Sass, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Beliefs related to classroom management vary among teachers and play an important role in classrooms. Despite the importance of this construct, valid measures have proven difficult to develop. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS), a short but valid measure of teachers'…

  14. Someone has to give in: theta oscillations correlate with adaptive behavior in social bargaining

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Francisco; López, Tamara; Rodriguez, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    During social bargain, one has to both figure out the others’ intentions and behave strategically in such a way that the others’ behaviors will be consistent with one’s expectations. To understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors, we used electroencephalography while subjects played as proposers in a repeated ultimatum game. We found that subjects adapted their offers to obtain more acceptances in the last round and that this adaptation correlated negatively with prefrontal theta oscillations. People with higher prefrontal theta activity related to a rejection did not adapt their offers along the game to maximize their earning. Moreover, between-subject variation in posterior theta oscillations correlated positively with how individual theta activity influenced the change of offer after a rejection, reflecting a process of behavioral adaptation to the others’ demands. Interestingly, people adapted better their offers when they knew that they where playing against a computer, although the behavioral adaptation did not correlate with prefrontal theta oscillation. Behavioral changes between human and computer games correlated with prefrontal theta activity, suggesting that low adaptation in human games could be a strategy. Taken together, these results provide evidence for specific roles of prefrontal and posterior theta oscillations in social bargaining. PMID:24493841

  15. Kindergarten Children's Perceptions of "Anthropomorphic Artifacts" with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Asi; Mioduser, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, children from a kindergarten in central Israel have been exposed to learning experiences in technology as part of the implementation of a curriculum based on technological thinking, including topics related to behaving-adaptive-artifacts (e.g., robots). This study aims to unveil children's stance towards behaving artifacts:…

  16. Identifying Recent Adaptations in Large-scale Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Sharon R.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Shlyakhter, Ilya; Tabrizi, Shervin; Winnicki, Sarah; Yen, Angela; Park, Daniel J.; Griesemer, Dustin; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Wong, Sunny H.; Cabili, Moran; Adegbola, Richard A.; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Rinn, John L.; Lander, Eric S.; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY While several hundred regions of the human genome harbor signals of positive natural selection, few of the relevant adaptive traits and variants have been elucidated. Using full-genome sequence variation from the 1000 Genomes Project (1000G) and the Composite of Multiple Signals (CMS) test, we investigated 412 candidate signals and leveraged functional annotation, protein structure modeling, epigenetics, and association studies to identify and extensively annotate candidate causal variants. The resulting catalog provides a tractable list for experimental follow-up; it includes thirty-five high-scoring non-synonymous variants, fifty-nine variants associated with expression levels of a nearby coding gene or lincRNA, and numerous variants associated with susceptibility to infectious disease and other phenotypes. We experimentally characterized one candidate non-synonymous variant in TLR5, and show that it leads to altered NF-κB signaling in response to bacterial flagellin. PMID:23415221

  17. Adaptive Haar transforms with arbitrary time and scale splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egiazarian, Karen O.; Astola, Jaakko T.

    2001-05-01

    The Haar transform is generalized to the case of an arbitrary time and scale splitting. To any binary tree we associate an orthogonal system of Haar-type functions - tree-structured Haar (TSH) functions. Unified fast algorithm for computation of the introduced tree-structured Haar transforms is presented. It requires 2(N - 1) additions and 3N - 2 multiplications, where N is transform order or, equivalently, the number of leaves of the binary tree.

  18. The technological influence on health professionals' care: translation and adaptation of scales1

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Carlos Manuel Torres; Almeida, Filipe Nuno Alves dos Santos; Escola, Joaquim José Jacinto; Rodrigues, Vitor Manuel Costa Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: in this study, two research tools were validated to study the impact of technological influence on health professionals' care practice. Methods: the following methodological steps were taken: bibliographic review, selection of the scales, translation and cultural adaptation and analysis of psychometric properties. Results: the psychometric properties of the scale were assessed based on its application to a sample of 341 individuals (nurses, physicians, final-year nursing and medical students). The validity, reliability and internal consistency were tested. Two scales were found: Caring Attributes Questionnaire (adapted) with a Cronbach's Alpha coefficient of 0.647 and the Technological Influence Questionnaire (adapted) with an Alpha coefficient of 0.777. Conclusions: the scales are easy to apply and reveal reliable psychometric properties, an additional quality as they permit generalized studies on a theme as important as the impact of technological influence in health care. PMID:27143537

  19. Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Chinese Americans: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wei-Chin; Myers, Hector; Chiu, Eddie; Mak, Elsie; Butner, Jonathan; Fujimoto, Ken; Wood, Jeff; Miranda, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for adults have tested the effectiveness of a well-specified psychotherapy compared with a culturally adapted version of the same treatment. This study evaluates the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT) in treating depressed Chinese American adults. Methods This was a RCT that treated 50 Chinese Americans who met criteria for major depression and sought treatment at community mental health clinics. Participants were screened beginning September 2008, with the last assessment conducted in March 2011. Participants were randomly assigned to 12 sessions of CBT or CA-CBT. Stratified randomization was used for patients who were on and not on antidepressants when they first came to the clinic, and the study did not influence regular prescription practices. The primary outcomes were dropout rates and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale measured at baseline, session 4, session 8, and session 12. Results Participants in CA-CBT evidenced a greater overall decrease in depressive symptoms than those in CBT, but depression rates remained similarly high at week 12. Differences in dropout rates approached, but did not meet statistical significance (7% CA-CBT and 26% CBT). Conclusions Chinese Americans entered this study with very severe depression. Participants in both CBT and CA-CBT evidenced significant decreases in depressive symptoms, but the majority did not reach remission. Results suggest that these short-term treatments were not sufficient to address such severe depression and that more intensive and longer treatments may be needed. Results also indicate that cultural adaptations may confer additional treatment benefits. PMID:26129996

  20. Illness behavior, social adaptation, and the management of illness. A comparison of educational and medical models.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, D

    1977-08-01

    Motivational needs and coping are important aspects of illness response. Clinicians must help guide illness response by suggesting constructive adaptive opportunities and by avoiding reinforcement of maladaptive patterns. This paper examines how the patient's search for meaning, social attributions, and social comparisons shapes adaptation to illness and subsequent disability. It proposes a coping-adaptation model involving the following five resources relevant to rehabilitation: economic assets, abilities and skills, defensive techniques, social supports, and motivational impetus. It is maintained that confusion between illness and illness behavior obfuscates the alternatives available to guide patients through smoother adaptations and resumption of social roles. PMID:328824

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Female Genital Self-Image Scale (FGSIS) in Iranian female college students.

    PubMed

    Pakpour, Amir H; Zeidi, Isa Mohammadi; Ziaeiha, Masoumeh; Burri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a translated and culturally adapted Iranian version of the Female Genital Self-Image Scale (FGSIS-I) in a sample of college women. Further, the relationship between women's self-image, body appreciation, sexual functioning, and gynecological exam behavior was explored. A sample of 1,877 female students from five different universities across Qazvin and Tehran completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the FGSIS-I, and a gynecological exam behavior questionnaire. Good to excellent internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and convergent and construct validity were found. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) both provided a two-factor structure for the FGSIS-I. The validity of the FGSIS-I in predicting gynecological exam behavior of college women was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The final model accounted for 33% of the variance in gynecological exam behavior (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the FGSIS-I was found to be a highly valid and reliable instrument to assess female genital self-image in Iranian women. PMID:24168018

  2. Adaptation of the ABS-S:2 for Use in Spain with Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Alonso, Isabel; De La Fuente Anuncibay, Raquel; Fernandez Hawrylak, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As there is a dearth of Spanish-language standardized scales that assess adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), the authors adapted one of the most widely used and studied scales of adaptive behavior in the U.S., the ABS-S:2 (Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, 2nd Edition), and validated it for use in…

  3. Visual Behaviors and Adaptations Associated with Cortical and Ocular Impairment in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, J. E.; Groenveld, M.

    1993-01-01

    This article shows the usefulness of understanding visual behaviors in the diagnosis of various types of visual impairments that are due to ocular and cortical disorders. Behaviors discussed include nystagmus, ocular motor dyspraxia, head position, close viewing, field loss adaptations, mannerisms, photophobia, and abnormal color perception. (JDD)

  4. Making Sense by Building Sense: Kindergarten Children's Construction and Understanding of Adaptive Robot Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mioduser, David; Levy, Sharona T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores young children's ability to construct and explain adaptive behaviors of a behaving artifact, an autonomous mobile robot with sensors. A central component of the behavior construction environment is the RoboGan software that supports children's construction of spatiotemporal events with an a-temporal rule structure. Six…

  5. Adaptive Skills and Maladaptive Behavior of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Attending Special Schools in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kenneth K.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the profile of and relationships between adaptive skills and the maladaptive behaviors exhibited by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) attending special schools in Singapore. Parents of 20 adolescents with ASD attending special schools completed the Development Behavior Checklist (DBC; Einfeld & Tonge, 1995;…

  6. Adaptive Behavior of 4- through 8-Year-Old Children with Williams Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.; Mastin, Michelle E.

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the behavior of 41 4-through 8-year-olds with Williams syndrome. As expected, socialization and communication were relative strengths, whereas daily living skills and motor skills were relative weaknesses. Within socialization, interpersonal skills were stronger than play/leisure or coping skills. Adaptive behavior was not…

  7. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  8. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for the Vocational Rehabilitation of Significantly Disabled Mentally Ill Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…

  9. Adaptation of an Acculturation Scale for African Refugee Women

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Priscilla; Asiedu, Gladys B.; Hedberg, Eric; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2014-01-01

    Newly-arrived African refugees are a vulnerable group of immigrants for whom no validated acculturation measures exist. A valid measurement tool is essential to understand how acculturative processes impact health and health disparities. We adapted the Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire (BIQ) to characterize its reliability among ethnic Somali women residing in Minnesota, and Somali, Somali Bantu, and Burundian women in Arizona. Surveys were administered to 164 adult women. Analyses were conducted along socio-demographic variables of ethnicity, geographic residence, age, and length of time in the United States through t tests and one-way analysis of variance. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the modified BIQ. Exploratory factor analyses yielded five subscales: “Speak Native Language”, “Speak English Language”, “Enjoy Native Activities”, “Enjoy American Activities”, and “Desired Ideal Culture”. The subscales of the modified BIQ possessed Cronbach’s α ranging from 0.68 to 0.92, suggestive that all subscales had acceptable to excellent internal consistency. The modified BIQ maintained its psychometric properties across geographic regions of resettled Central and East African refugees. PMID:24573644

  10. Effects of adaptive protective behavior on the dynamics of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Michael A L; Eisenberg, Marisa C

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to present a complex and costly challenge to public health programs. The preferences and social dynamics of a population can have a large impact on the course of an outbreak as well as the effectiveness of interventions intended to influence individual behavior. In addition, individuals may alter their sexual behavior in response to the presence of STIs, creating a feedback loop between transmission and behavior. We investigate the consequences of modeling the interaction between STI transmission and prophylactic use with a model that links a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) system to evolutionary game dynamics that determine the effective contact rate. The combined model framework allows us to address protective behavior by both infected and susceptible individuals. Feedback between behavioral adaptation and prevalence creates a wide range of dynamic behaviors in the combined model, including damped and sustained oscillations as well as bistability, depending on the behavioral parameters and disease growth rate. We found that disease extinction is possible for multiple regions where R0>1, due to behavior adaptation driving the epidemic downward, although conversely endemic prevalence for arbitrarily low R0 is also possible if contact rates are sufficiently high. We also tested how model misspecification might affect disease forecasting and estimation of the model parameters and R0. We found that alternative models that neglect the behavioral feedback or only consider behavior adaptation by susceptible individuals can potentially yield misleading parameter estimates or omit significant features of the disease trajectory. PMID:26362102

  11. Neural Adaptation and Behavioral Measures of Temporal Processing and Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fawen; Benson, Chelsea; Murphy, Dora; Boian, Melissa; Scott, Michael; Keith, Robert; Xiang, Jing; Abbas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine if one of the neural temporal features, neural adaptation, can account for the across-subject variability in behavioral measures of temporal processing and speech perception performance in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Neural adaptation is the phenomenon in which neural responses are the strongest at the beginning of the stimulus and decline following stimulus repetition (e.g., stimulus trains). It is unclear how this temporal property of neural responses relates to psychophysical measures of temporal processing (e.g., gap detection) or speech perception. The adaptation of the electrical compound action potential (ECAP) was obtained using 1000 pulses per second (pps) biphasic pulse trains presented directly to the electrode. The adaptation of the late auditory evoked potential (LAEP) was obtained using a sequence of 1-kHz tone bursts presented acoustically, through the cochlear implant. Behavioral temporal processing was measured using the Random Gap Detection Test at the most comfortable listening level. Consonant nucleus consonant (CNC) word and AzBio sentences were also tested. The results showed that both ECAP and LAEP display adaptive patterns, with a substantial across-subject variability in the amount of adaptation. No correlations between the amount of neural adaptation and gap detection thresholds (GDTs) or speech perception scores were found. The correlations between the degree of neural adaptation and demographic factors showed that CI users having more LAEP adaptation were likely to be those implanted at a younger age than CI users with less LAEP adaptation. The results suggested that neural adaptation, at least this feature alone, cannot account for the across-subject variability in temporal processing ability in the CI users. However, the finding that the LAEP adaptive pattern was less prominent in the CI group compared to the normal hearing group may suggest the important role of normal adaptation pattern at the

  12. Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

  13. Scale invariant behavior in a large N matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Eigenvalue distributions of properly regularized Wilson-loop operators are used to study the transition from UV behavior to IR behavior in gauge theories coupled to matter that potentially have an IR fixed point. We numerically demonstrate the emergence of scale invariance in a matrix model that describes S U (N ) gauge theory coupled to two flavors of massless adjoint fermions in the large N limit. The eigenvalue distribution of Wilson loops of varying sizes cannot be described by a universal lattice beta function connecting the UV to the IR.

  14. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Italian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Breadth of Interests, Quality of Life, and Perceived Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soresi, Salvatore; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)-Italian Form consists of four 6-item scales, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The 24-item CAAS-Italian Form is identical to the International Form 2.0. The factor structure was…

  15. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-France Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Anxiety and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouyaud, Jacques; Vignoli, Emmanuelle; Dosnon, Odile; Lallemand, Noelle

    2012-01-01

    The CAAS-France Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from moderate to good. The factor structure was…

  16. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Teacher Form, Ages 5 to 21, of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aricak, O. Tolga; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model that highlighted 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II) was designed to be consistent with these models.…

  17. Options for Managing Student Behavior: Adaptations for Individual Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Rita C.; Evans, Elizabeth T.

    This paper applies principles of situational leadership theory to the management of student behavior problems. First, it summarizes situational leadership, noting the theory's premise that leaders must consider two important factors to gain acceptance and compliance in managing people--the maturity level of the individuals and the nature of the…

  18. The combustion behavior of large scale lithium titanate battery

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peifeng; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ke; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Safety problem is always a big obstacle for lithium battery marching to large scale application. However, the knowledge on the battery combustion behavior is limited. To investigate the combustion behavior of large scale lithium battery, three 50 Ah Li(NixCoyMnz)O2/Li4Ti5O12 batteries under different state of charge (SOC) were heated to fire. The flame size variation is depicted to analyze the combustion behavior directly. The mass loss rate, temperature and heat release rate are used to analyze the combustion behavior in reaction way deeply. Based on the phenomenon, the combustion process is divided into three basic stages, even more complicated at higher SOC with sudden smoke flow ejected. The reason is that a phase change occurs in Li(NixCoyMnz)O2 material from layer structure to spinel structure. The critical temperatures of ignition are at 112–121°C on anode tab and 139 to 147°C on upper surface for all cells. But the heating time and combustion time become shorter with the ascending of SOC. The results indicate that the battery fire hazard increases with the SOC. It is analyzed that the internal short and the Li+ distribution are the main causes that lead to the difference. PMID:25586064

  19. Experimental control of scaling behavior: what is not fractal?

    PubMed

    Likens, Aaron D; Fine, Justin M; Amazeen, Eric L; Amazeen, Polemnia G

    2015-10-01

    The list of psychological processes thought to exhibit fractal behavior is growing. Although some might argue that the seeming ubiquity of fractal patterns illustrates their significance, unchecked growth of that list jeopardizes their relevance. It is important to identify when a single behavior is and is not fractal in order to make meaningful conclusions about the processes underlying those patterns. The hypothesis tested in the present experiment is that fractal patterns reflect the enactment of control. Participants performed two steering tasks: steering on a straight track and steering on a circular track. Although each task could be accomplished by holding the steering wheel at a constant angle, steering around a curve may require more constant control, at least from a psychological standpoint. Results showed that evidence for fractal behavior was strongest for the circular track; straight tracks showed evidence of two scaling regions. We argue from those results that, going forward, the goal of the fractal literature should be to bring scaling behavior under experimental control. PMID:26070902

  20. The combustion behavior of large scale lithium titanate battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Peifeng; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ke; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Safety problem is always a big obstacle for lithium battery marching to large scale application. However, the knowledge on the battery combustion behavior is limited. To investigate the combustion behavior of large scale lithium battery, three 50 Ah Li(NixCoyMnz)O2/Li4Ti5O12 batteries under different state of charge (SOC) were heated to fire. The flame size variation is depicted to analyze the combustion behavior directly. The mass loss rate, temperature and heat release rate are used to analyze the combustion behavior in reaction way deeply. Based on the phenomenon, the combustion process is divided into three basic stages, even more complicated at higher SOC with sudden smoke flow ejected. The reason is that a phase change occurs in Li(NixCoyMnz)O2 material from layer structure to spinel structure. The critical temperatures of ignition are at 112-121°C on anode tab and 139 to 147°C on upper surface for all cells. But the heating time and combustion time become shorter with the ascending of SOC. The results indicate that the battery fire hazard increases with the SOC. It is analyzed that the internal short and the Li+ distribution are the main causes that lead to the difference.

  1. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  2. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2–7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies, methods to develop adaptations, and adaptations that have been implemented. Seven studies were identified. Parental engagement varied across and within studies. Only one study examined whether adaptations improved engagement compared to non-adapted intervention. Frequent methods to develop adaptations were building partnerships or conducting interviews/focus groups with minority parents or community members. Adaptations included addressing cultural beliefs (perceptions of parenting skills), values (interdependence), or experiences (immigration) that affect parenting or receptivity to interventions; ensuring racial/ethnic diversity of interventionists; and addressing cultural relevancy and literacy level of materials. Future research should examine engagement in adapted interventions compared to non-adapted interventions and examine factors (e.g., immigration status) that may moderate impact on engagement. PMID:27429537

  3. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  4. Examining the scaling behavior of Delbrueck scattering in experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Kunwar, B.; Bhadra, A; Sen Gupta, S. K.

    2011-09-15

    The conventional perception is that the amplitudes of Delbrueck scattering calculated to all orders in the charge number Z of the target nucleus should exhibit a scaling behavior at high energies. To examine this hypothesis the available experimental data of differential cross sections of elastic scattering in the energy range between 140 MeV and 7.11 GeV are analyzed. It is found that the experimental data do not show scaling characteristics. Such a finding, though apparently against the standard notion, is not unexpected because at high energies Delbrueck scattering is in very forward direction and the theoretical arguments demand that to observe scaling, not only the energy itself but the product of scattering angles and energy also should be very large.

  5. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect. PMID:23470300

  6. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Melanson, Edward L.; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the sub-population that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, i.e. increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors, and to develop strategies to minimize their impact. PMID:23470300

  7. Parental genetic effects in a cavefish adaptive behavior explain disparity between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Ashida, Go; Jeffery, William R

    2012-09-01

    Epigenetic parental genetic effects are important in many biological processes but their roles in the evolution of adaptive traits and their consequences in naturally evolving populations remain to be addressed. By comparing two divergent blind cave-dwelling cavefish populations with a sighted surface-dwelling population (surface fish) of the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, we report here that convergences in vibration attraction behavior (VAB), the lateral line sensory receptors underlying this behavior, and the feeding benefits of this behavior are controlled by parental genetic effects, either maternal or paternal inheritance. From behavioral studies and mathematical evolutionary simulations, we further demonstrate that disparity in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in one of these cavefish populations that has hybridized with surface fish can be explained by paternal inheritance of VAB. The results suggest that parental genetic effects in adaptive behaviors may be important factors in biasing mitochondrial DNA inheritance in natural populations that are subject to introgression. PMID:22946818

  8. Scaling behavior of an airplane-boarding model.

    PubMed

    Brics, Martins; Kaupužs, Jevgenijs; Mahnke, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    An airplane-boarding model, introduced earlier by Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. E 85, 011130 (2012)], is studied with the aim of determining precisely its asymptotic power-law scaling behavior for a large number of passengers N. Based on Monte Carlo simulation data for very large system sizes up to N=2(16)=65536, we have analyzed numerically the scaling behavior of the mean boarding time and other related quantities. In analogy with critical phenomena, we have used appropriate scaling Ansätze, which include the leading term as some power of N (e.g., [proportionality]N(α) for ), as well as power-law corrections to scaling. Our results clearly show that α=1/2 holds with a very high numerical accuracy (α=0.5001±0.0001). This value deviates essentially from α=/~0.69, obtained earlier by Frette and Hemmer from data within the range 2≤N≤16. Our results confirm the convergence of the effective exponent α(eff)(N) to 1/2 at large N as observed by Bernstein. Our analysis explains this effect. Namely, the effective exponent α(eff)(N) varies from values about 0.7 for small system sizes to the true asymptotic value 1/2 at N→∞ almost linearly in N(-1/3) for large N. This means that the variation is caused by corrections to scaling, the leading correction-to-scaling exponent being θ≈1/3. We have estimated also other exponents: ν=1/2 for the mean number of passengers taking seats simultaneously in one time step, β=1 for the second moment of t(b), and γ≈1/3 for its variance. PMID:23679383

  9. Complex Features in Lotka-Volterra Systems with Behavioral Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebaldi, Claudio; Lacitignola, Deborah

    Lotka-Volterra systems have played a fundamental role for mathematical modelling in many branches of theoretical biology and proved to describe, at least qualitatively, the essential features of many phenomena, see for example Murray [Murray 2002]. Furthermore models of that kind have been considered successfully also in quite different and less mathematically formalized context: Goodwin' s model of economic growth cycles [Goodwin 1967] and urban dynamics [Dendrinos 1992] are only two of a number of examples. Such systems can certainly be defined as complex ones and in fact the aim of modelling was essentially to clarify mechanims rather than to provide actual precise simulations and predictions. With regards to complex systems, we recall that one of their main feature, no matter of the specific definition one has in mind, is adaptation, i. e. the ability to adjust.

  10. Cultural Adaptation, Psychometric Properties, and Outcomes of the Native American Spirituality Scale

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Brenna L.; Hallgren, Kevin A.; Venner, Kamilla L.; Hagler, Kylee J.; Simmons, Jeremiah D.; Sheche, Judith N.; Homer, Everett; Lupee, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Spirituality is central to many Native Americans (NAs) and has been associated with recovery from substance use disorders (SUDs). However, no published questionnaire uniquely taps tribal-specific spiritual beliefs and practices. This hinders efforts to integrate traditional NA spirituality into SUD treatment and track spiritual outcomes. As part of a randomized controlled trial examining SUD treatment for NAs, we adapted the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) in collaboration with members of a Southwest tribe to create the Native American Spirituality Scale (NASS) and measured changes in the NASS over the course of treatment. The 83 participants (70% male) were from a single Southwest tribe and seeking SUD treatment. They completed the NASS at baseline, four-, eight-, and 12-months. Exploratory factor analysis of the NASS was conducted and its temporal invariance, construct validity, and longitudinal changes in the factor and item scores were examined. The NASS yielded a two-factor structure that was largely invariant across time. Factor 1 reflected behavioral practices, while Factor 2 reflected more global beliefs. Both factors significantly increased across 12 months, albeit at different assessment points. At baseline, Factor 1 was negatively related to substance use and positively associated with measures of tribal identification while Factor 2 was unrelated to these measures. Given the importance of tribal spirituality to many NAs, the development of this psychometrically sound measure is a key precursor and complement to the incorporation of tribal spirituality into treatment, as well as research on mechanisms of change for SUD treatment among NAs and assessment of NA spirituality in relation to other aspects of health. PMID:25961648

  11. Cultural adaptation, psychometric properties, and outcomes of the Native American Spirituality Scale.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Brenna L; Hallgren, Kevin A; Venner, Kamilla L; Hagler, Kylee J; Simmons, Jeremiah D; Sheche, Judith N; Homer, Everett; Lupee, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Spirituality is central to many Native Americans (NAs) and has been associated with recovery from substance use disorders (SUDs). However, no published questionnaire uniquely taps tribal-specific spiritual beliefs and practices. This hinders efforts to integrate traditional NA spirituality into SUD treatment and track spiritual outcomes. As part of a randomized controlled trial examining SUD treatment for NAs, we adapted the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) in collaboration with members of a Southwest tribe to create the Native American Spirituality Scale (NASS) and measured changes in the NASS over the course of treatment. The 83 participants (70% male) were from a single Southwest tribe and seeking SUD treatment. They completed the NASS at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 months. Exploratory factor analysis of the NASS was conducted and its temporal invariance, construct validity, and longitudinal changes in the factor and item scores were examined. The NASS yielded a 2-factor structure that was largely invariant across time. Factor 1 reflected behavioral practices, while Factor 2 reflected more global beliefs. Both factors significantly increased across 12 months, albeit at different assessment points. At baseline, Factor 1 was negatively related to substance use and positively associated with measures of tribal identification while Factor 2 was unrelated to these measures. Given the importance of tribal spirituality to many NAs, the development of this psychometrically sound measure is a key precursor and complement to the incorporation of tribal spirituality into treatment, as well as research on mechanisms of change for SUD treatment among NAs and assessment of NA spirituality in relation to other aspects of health. PMID:25961648

  12. Modeling bee swarming behavior through diffusion adaptation with asymmetric information sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinchao; Sayed, Ali H.

    2012-12-01

    Honeybees swarm when they move to a new site for their hive. During the process of swarming, their behavior can be analyzed by classifying them as informed bees or uninformed bees, where the informed bees have some information about the destination while the uninformed bees follow the informed bees. The swarm's movement can be viewed as a network of mobile nodes with asymmetric information exchange about their destination. In these networks, adaptive and mobile agents share information on the fly and adapt their estimates in response to local measurements and data shared with neighbors. Diffusion adaptation is used to model the adaptation process in the presence of asymmetric nodes and noisy data. The simulations indicate that the models are able to emulate the swarming behavior of bees under varied conditions such as a small number of informed bees, sharing of target location, sharing of target direction, and noisy measurements.

  13. Response normalization and blur adaptation: Data and multi-scale model

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sarah L.; Georgeson, Mark A.; Webster, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Adapting to blurred or sharpened images alters perceived blur of a focused image (M. A. Webster, M. A. Georgeson, & S. M. Webster, 2002). We asked whether blur adaptation results in (a) renormalization of perceived focus or (b) a repulsion aftereffect. Images were checkerboards or 2-D Gaussian noise, whose amplitude spectra had (log–log) slopes from −2 (strongly blurred) to 0 (strongly sharpened). Observers adjusted the spectral slope of a comparison image to match different test slopes after adaptation to blurred or sharpened images. Results did not show repulsion effects but were consistent with some renormalization. Test blur levels at and near a blurred or sharpened adaptation level were matched by more focused slopes (closer to 1/f) but with little or no change in appearance after adaptation to focused (1/f) images. A model of contrast adaptation and blur coding by multiple-scale spatial filters predicts these blur aftereffects and those of Webster et al. (2002). A key proposal is that observers are pre-adapted to natural spectra, and blurred or sharpened spectra induce changes in the state of adaptation. The model illustrates how norms might be encoded and recalibrated in the visual system even when they are represented only implicitly by the distribution of responses across multiple channels. PMID:21307174

  14. Scaling of flow and transport behavior in heterogeneous groundwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibe, Timothy; Yabusaki, Steven

    1998-11-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations using a detailed synthetic hydraulic conductivity field developed from geological considerations provide insight into the scaling of subsurface flow and transport processes. Flow and advective transport in the highly resolved heterogeneous field were modeled using massively parallel computers, providing a realistic baseline for evaluation of the impacts of parameter scaling. Upscaling of hydraulic conductivity was performed at a variety of scales using a flexible power law averaging technique. A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of varying the scaling exponent on a number of metrics of flow and transport behavior. Flow and transport simulation on high-performance computers and three-dimensional scientific visualization combine to form a powerful tool for gaining insight into the behavior of complex heterogeneous systems. Many quantitative groundwater models utilize upscaled hydraulic conductivity parameters, either implicitly or explicitly. These parameters are designed to reproduce the bulk flow characteristics at the grid or field scale while not requiring detailed quantification of local-scale conductivity variations. An example from applied groundwater modeling is the common practice of calibrating grid-scale model hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity parameters so as to approximate observed hydraulic head and boundary flux values. Such parameterizations, perhaps with a bulk dispersivity imposed, are then sometimes used to predict transport of reactive or non-reactive solutes. However, this work demonstrates that those parameters that lead to the best upscaling for hydraulic conductivity and head do not necessarily correspond to the best upscaling for prediction of a variety of transport behaviors. This result reflects the fact that transport is strongly impacted by the existence and connectedness of extreme-valued hydraulic conductivities, in contrast to bulk flow which depends more strongly on

  15. The adaptive trade-off between detection and discrimination in cortical representations and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ollerenshaw, Douglas R.; Zheng, He J. V.; Millard, Daniel C.; Wang, Qi; Stanley, Garrett B.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY It has long been posited that detectability of sensory inputs can be sacrificed in favor of improved discriminability, and that sensory adaptation may mediate this trade-off. The extent to which this trade-off exists behaviorally, and the complete picture of the underlying neural representations that likely subserve the phenomenon, remain unclear. In the rodent vibrissa system, an ideal observer analysis of cortical activity measured using voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging in anesthetized animals was combined with behavioral detection and discrimination tasks, thalamic recordings from awake animals, and computational modeling to show that spatial discrimination performance was improved following adaptation, but at the expense of the ability to detect weak stimuli. Together, these results provide direct behavioral evidence for the trade-off between detectability and discriminability, that this trade-off can be modulated through bottom-up sensory adaptation, and that these effects correspond to important changes in thalamocortical coding properties. PMID:24607233

  16. Compulsive Use of Internet-based Sexually Explicit Media: Adaptation and Validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)

    PubMed Central

    Antebi, Nadav; Schrimshaw, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM) may contribute to greater numbers of sexual partners, sexual risk taking, greater interest in group sex, and lower self-esteem among men who have sex with men (MSM), research has not addressed compulsive use of Internet-based SEM due to the lack of a validated measure for this population. This report investigates the psychometric properties of the 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS; Meerkerk, van den Eijnden, Vermulst, & Garretsen, 2009) adapted to assess the severity of compulsive Internet SEM use. A total of 265 Internet SEM-viewing MSM participated in an online survey about their SEM preferences, viewing habits, and recent sexual behaviors. A principal components analysis revealed a single-component, 13-item scale to adequately assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of this phenomenon, with a high internal consistency (α = .92). Greater compulsive use of Internet SEM was positively correlated with several relevant variables including boredom, sexual frustration, time spent viewing Internet SEM, and number of recent male sexual partners. The results offer preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of using an adapted version of the CIUS to understand compulsive Internet SEM use, and allow for more research into the potential negative consequences of compulsive SEM use. PMID:24679612

  17. The Exploratory Behavior Scale: Assessing Young Visitors' Hands-On Behavior in Science Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Franse, Rooske K.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Exploratory Behavior Scale (EBS), a quantitative measure of young children's interactivity. More specifically, the EBS is developed from the psychological literature on exploration and play and measures the extent to which preschoolers explore their physical environment. A practical application of the EBS in a…

  18. Assessing heat-adaptive behaviors among older, urban-dwelling adults

    PubMed Central

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Parker, Edith A.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Zhang, Zhenzhen; O’Neill, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Health studies have shown that the elderly are at a greater risk to extreme heat. The frequency and intensity of summer heat waves will continue to increase as a result of climate change. It is important that we understand the environmental and structural factors that increase heat vulnerability, as well as examine the behaviors used by the elderly to adapt to hot indoor temperatures. Study design From June 1 to August 31, 2009, residents in 29 homes in Detroit, MI, kept an hourly log of eight heat-adaptive behaviors: opening windows/doors, turning fans or the air conditioner on, changing clothes, taking a shower, going to the basement, the porch/yard, or leaving the house. Percentages of hourly behavior were calculated, overall and stratified by housing type and percent surface imperviousness. The frequency of behavior use, as a result of indoor and outdoor predetermined temperature intervals was compared to a reference temperature range of 21.1–23.8 °C. Results The use of all adaptive behaviors, except going to the porch or yard, was significantly associated with indoor temperature. Non-mechanical adaptations such as changing clothes, taking showers, and going outside or to the basement were rarely used. Residents living in high-rises and highly impervious areas reported a higher use of adaptive behaviors. The odds of leaving the house significantly increased as outdoor temperature increased. Conclusions These findings suggest that the full range of heat adaptation measures may be underused by the elderly and public health interventions need to focus on outreach to these populations. PMID:21782363

  19. Exponential Scaling Limit of the Single-Particle Anderson Model Via Adaptive Feedback Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulaevsky, Victor

    2016-02-01

    We propose a twofold extension of the Germinet-Klein bootstrap multi-scale analysis (BMSA) for the Anderson models on graphs. First, we show, with the help of a single scaling algorithm, that power-law decay bounds at some initial scale imply an asymptotically exponential decay of eigenfunctions (EFs) and of EF correlators (EFCs), even on graphs (of polynomial growth) which do not fulfill the uniform scalability condition required for the existing BMSA techniques. We also show that the exponential scaling limit of the EFs and EFCs holds true for a class of marginal distributions of the random potential with regularity lower than Hölder continuity of any positive order.

  20. Adaptation of the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Styles Scale to the Basque language: evidence of validity.

    PubMed

    López-Jáuregui, Alicia; Oliden, Paula Elosua

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to adapt the ESPA29 scale of parental socialization styles in adolescence to the Basque language. The study of its psychometric properties is based on the search for evidence of internal and external validity. The first focuses on the assessment of the dimensionality of the scale by means of exploratory factor analysis. The relationship between the dimensions of parental socialization styles and gender and age guarantee the external validity of the scale. The study of the equivalence of the adapted and original versions is based on the comparisons of the reliability coefficients and on factor congruence. The results allow us to conclude the equivalence of the two scales. PMID:19899674

  1. Cybernetic control model from ethology for adaptive coordination of robot behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlueter, Bernd

    1992-08-01

    In this paper we propose a cybernetic approach to behavior based robotics. We present a distributed adaptive control architecture for coordination of different motivations and behaviors of an autonomous vehicle. The system is based on the Zurich Model of Social Motivation, a cybernetic approach to mammalian behavior by the Swiss ethologist BISCHOF. Our system controls a simulated autonomous robot by teaching a reflective associative memory to propose an action based on the input of eight range sensors. The emerging behavior at every stage reflects the system's experience, and the robust in unexpected situations.

  2. Organizational Adaptative Behavior: The Complex Perspective of Individuals-Tasks Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiang; Sun, Duoyong; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Yu

    Organizations with different organizational structures have different organizational behaviors when responding environmental changes. In this paper, we use a computational model to examine organizational adaptation on four dimensions: Agility, Robustness, Resilience, and Survivability. We analyze the dynamics of organizational adaptation by a simulation study from a complex perspective of the interaction between tasks and individuals in a sales enterprise. The simulation studies in different scenarios show that more flexible communication between employees and less hierarchy level with the suitable centralization can improve organizational adaptation.

  3. A scale- and orientation-adaptive extension of Local Binary Patterns for texture classification

    PubMed Central

    Hegenbart, Sebastian; Uhl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Local Binary Patterns (LBPs) have been used in a wide range of texture classification scenarios and have proven to provide a highly discriminative feature representation. A major limitation of LBP is its sensitivity to affine transformations. In this work, we present a scale- and rotation-invariant computation of LBP. Rotation-invariance is achieved by explicit alignment of features at the extraction level, using a robust estimate of global orientation. Scale-adapted features are computed in reference to the estimated scale of an image, based on the distribution of scale normalized Laplacian responses in a scale-space representation. Intrinsic-scale-adaption is performed to compute features, independent of the intrinsic texture scale, leading to a significantly increased discriminative power for a large amount of texture classes. In a final step, the rotation- and scale-invariant features are combined in a multi-resolution representation, which improves the classification accuracy in texture classification scenarios with scaling and rotation significantly. PMID:26240440

  4. Reynolds number scaling of coherent vortex simulation and stochastic coherent adaptive large eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejadmalayeri, Alireza; Vezolainen, Alexei; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2013-11-01

    In view of the ongoing longtime pursuit of numerical approaches that can capture important flow physics of high Reynolds number flows with fewest degrees of freedom, two important wavelet-based multi-resolution schemes are thoroughly examined, namely, the Coherent Vortex Simulation (CVS) and the Stochastic Coherent Adaptive Large Eddy Simulation (SCALES) with constant and spatially/temporarily variable thresholding. Reynolds number scaling of active spatial modes for CVS and SCALES of linearly forced homogeneous turbulence at high Reynolds numbers is investigated in dynamic study for the first time. This dynamic computational complexity study demonstrates that wavelet-based methods can capture flow-physics while using substantially fewer degrees of freedom than both direct numerical simulation and marginally resolved LES with the same level of fidelity or turbulence resolution, defined as ratio of subgrid scale and the total dissipations. The study provides four important observations: (1) the linear Reynolds number scaling of energy containing structures at a fixed level of kinetic energy, (2) small, close to unity, fractal dimension for constant-threshold CVS and SCALES simulations, (3) constant, close to two, fractal dimension for constant-dissipation SCALES that is insensitive to the level of fidelity, and (4) faster than quadratic decay of the compression ratio as a function of turbulence resolution. The very promising slope for Reynolds number scaling of CVS and SCALES demonstrates the potential of the wavelet-based methodologies for hierarchical multiscale space/time adaptive variable fidelity simulations of high Reynolds number turbulent flows.

  5. Intrinsic Multi-Scale Dynamic Behaviors of Complex Financial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fang-Yan; Zheng, Bo; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The empirical mode decomposition is applied to analyze the intrinsic multi-scale dynamic behaviors of complex financial systems. In this approach, the time series of the price returns of each stock is decomposed into a small number of intrinsic mode functions, which represent the price motion from high frequency to low frequency. These intrinsic mode functions are then grouped into three modes, i.e., the fast mode, medium mode and slow mode. The probability distribution of returns and auto-correlation of volatilities for the fast and medium modes exhibit similar behaviors as those of the full time series, i.e., these characteristics are rather robust in multi time scale. However, the cross-correlation between individual stocks and the return-volatility correlation are time scale dependent. The structure of business sectors is mainly governed by the fast mode when returns are sampled at a couple of days, while by the medium mode when returns are sampled at dozens of days. More importantly, the leverage and anti-leverage effects are dominated by the medium mode. PMID:26427063

  6. Probabilistic Simulation of Multi-Scale Composite Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    A methodology is developed to computationally assess the non-deterministic composite response at all composite scales (from micro to structural) due to the uncertainties in the constituent (fiber and matrix) properties, in the fabrication process and in structural variables (primitive variables). The methodology is computationally efficient for simulating the probability distributions of composite behavior, such as material properties, laminate and structural responses. Bi-products of the methodology are probabilistic sensitivities of the composite primitive variables. The methodology has been implemented into the computer codes PICAN (Probabilistic Integrated Composite ANalyzer) and IPACS (Integrated Probabilistic Assessment of Composite Structures). The accuracy and efficiency of this methodology are demonstrated by simulating the uncertainties in composite typical laminates and comparing the results with the Monte Carlo simulation method. Available experimental data of composite laminate behavior at all scales fall within the scatters predicted by PICAN. Multi-scaling is extended to simulate probabilistic thermo-mechanical fatigue and to simulate the probabilistic design of a composite redome in order to illustrate its versatility. Results show that probabilistic fatigue can be simulated for different temperature amplitudes and for different cyclic stress magnitudes. Results also show that laminate configurations can be selected to increase the redome reliability by several orders of magnitude without increasing the laminate thickness--a unique feature of structural composites. The old reference denotes that nothing fundamental has been done since that time.

  7. Scaling behaviors of weighted food webs as energy transportation networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang; Guo, Liangpeng

    2010-06-01

    Food webs can be regarded as energy transporting networks in which the weight of each edge denotes the energy flux between two species. By investigating 21 empirical weighted food webs as energy flow networks, we found several ubiquitous scaling behaviors. Two random variables A(i) and C(i) defined for each vertex i, representing the total flux (also called vertex intensity) and total indirect effect or energy store of i, were found to follow power law distributions with the exponents alpha approximately 1.32 and beta approximately 1.33, respectively. Another scaling behavior is the power law relationship, C(i) approximately A(i)(eta), where eta approximately 1.02. This is known as the allometric scaling power law relationship because A(i) can be treated as metabolism and C(i) as the body mass of the sub-network rooted from the vertex i, according to the algorithm presented in this paper. Finally, a simple relationship among these power law exponents, eta=(alpha-1)/(beta-1), was mathematically derived and tested by the empirical food webs. PMID:20303987

  8. Intrinsic Multi-Scale Dynamic Behaviors of Complex Financial Systems.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Fang-Yan; Zheng, Bo; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The empirical mode decomposition is applied to analyze the intrinsic multi-scale dynamic behaviors of complex financial systems. In this approach, the time series of the price returns of each stock is decomposed into a small number of intrinsic mode functions, which represent the price motion from high frequency to low frequency. These intrinsic mode functions are then grouped into three modes, i.e., the fast mode, medium mode and slow mode. The probability distribution of returns and auto-correlation of volatilities for the fast and medium modes exhibit similar behaviors as those of the full time series, i.e., these characteristics are rather robust in multi time scale. However, the cross-correlation between individual stocks and the return-volatility correlation are time scale dependent. The structure of business sectors is mainly governed by the fast mode when returns are sampled at a couple of days, while by the medium mode when returns are sampled at dozens of days. More importantly, the leverage and anti-leverage effects are dominated by the medium mode. PMID:26427063

  9. Adaptive Control of a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Operating in Region 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.; Wright, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive control techniques are well suited to nonlinear applications, such as wind turbines, which are difficult to accurately model and which have effects from poorly known operating environments. The turbulent and unpredictable conditions in which wind turbines operate create many challenges for their operation. In this paper, we design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a utility scale, variable-speed horizontal axis wind turbine. The objective of the adaptive pitch controller in Region 3 is to regulate generator speed and reject step disturbances. The control objective is accomplished by collectively pitching the turbine blades. We use an extension of the Direct Model Reference Adaptive Control (DMRAC) approach to track a reference point and to reject persistent disturbances. The turbine simulation models the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. The CART is a utility-scale wind turbine which has a well-developed and extensively verified simulator. The adaptive collective pitch controller for Region 3 was compared in simulations with a bas celliansesical Proportional Integrator (PI) collective pitch controller. In the simulations, the adaptive pitch controller showed improved speed regulation in Region 3 when compared with the baseline PI pitch controller and it demonstrated robustness to modeling errors.

  10. Group Selection as Behavioral Adaptation to Systematic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J.; Lo, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form “groups”, even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution—selection with correlated reproductive risk–that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon. PMID:25353167

  11. Adapting to a changing environment: non-obvious thresholds in multi-scale systems.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Clare; Wieczorek, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    Many natural and technological systems fail to adapt to changing external conditions and move to a different state if the conditions vary too fast. Such 'non-adiabatic' processes are ubiquitous, but little understood. We identify these processes with a new nonlinear phenomenon-an intricate threshold where a forced system fails to adiabatically follow a changing stable state. In systems with multiple time scales, we derive existence conditions that show such thresholds to be generic, but non-obvious, meaning they cannot be captured by traditional stability theory. Rather, the phenomenon can be analysed using concepts from modern singular perturbation theory: folded singularities and canard trajectories, including composite canards. Thus, non-obvious thresholds should explain the failure to adapt to a changing environment in a wide range of multi-scale systems including: tipping points in the climate system, regime shifts in ecosystems, excitability in nerve cells, adaptation failure in regulatory genes and adiabatic switching in technology. PMID:25294963

  12. Adapting to a changing environment: non-obvious thresholds in multi-scale systems

    PubMed Central

    Perryman, Clare; Wieczorek, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Many natural and technological systems fail to adapt to changing external conditions and move to a different state if the conditions vary too fast. Such ‘non-adiabatic’ processes are ubiquitous, but little understood. We identify these processes with a new nonlinear phenomenon—an intricate threshold where a forced system fails to adiabatically follow a changing stable state. In systems with multiple time scales, we derive existence conditions that show such thresholds to be generic, but non-obvious, meaning they cannot be captured by traditional stability theory. Rather, the phenomenon can be analysed using concepts from modern singular perturbation theory: folded singularities and canard trajectories, including composite canards. Thus, non-obvious thresholds should explain the failure to adapt to a changing environment in a wide range of multi-scale systems including: tipping points in the climate system, regime shifts in ecosystems, excitability in nerve cells, adaptation failure in regulatory genes and adiabatic switching in technology. PMID:25294963

  13. Self-adaptive phosphor coating technology for wafer-level scale chip packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsong, Zhou; Haibo, Rao; Wei, Wang; Xianlong, Wan; Junyuan, Liao; Xuemei, Wang; Da, Zhou; Qiaolin, Lei

    2013-05-01

    A new self-adaptive phosphor coating technology has been successfully developed, which adopted a slurry method combined with a self-exposure process. A phosphor suspension in the water-soluble photoresist was applied and exposed to LED blue light itself and developed to form a conformal phosphor coating with self-adaptability to the angular distribution of intensity of blue light and better-performing spatial color uniformity. The self-adaptive phosphor coating technology had been successfully adopted in the wafer surface to realize a wafer-level scale phosphor conformal coating. The first-stage experiments show satisfying results and give an adequate demonstration of the flexibility of self-adaptive coating technology on application of WLSCP.

  14. Adaptation of Distributed Leadership Scale into Turkish: The Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersozlu, Alpay; Ulusoy, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt "Distributed Leadership Scale" originally developed by Davis into Turkish Language. A total of 386 participants including teachers employed in high schools in Tokat participated in the study. Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were performed to test the…

  15. Adaptation of Internet Addiction Scale in Azerbaijani Language: A Validity-Reliability and Prevalence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerimova, Melek; Gunuc, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to adapt Gunuc and Kayri's (2010) "Internet Addiction Scale," with show validity and reliability for many various sampling groups, into the Azerbaijani language. Another objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among Azerbaijani adolescents and youth, which…

  16. Adapting the Sheehan Disability Scale to Assess Child and Parent Impairment Related to Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a child adaptation of the Sheehan Disability Scale, a measure of impairment among anxious adults. Parallel child and parent report forms were created to assess the degree to which anxiety interferes with child and parent social, educational/occupational, and family functioning. Data from 267 anxious children (140 boys ages…

  17. The Turkish Adaptation of the Friendship Qualities Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkan Atik, Zeynep; Cok, Figen; Esen Coban, Aysel; Dogan, Turkan; Guney Karaman, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors have aimed to adapt the Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS) in order to determine friendship relation levels among adolescents. A total of 603 high school students from Ankara Turkey, were selected using convenient sampling to participate in this study. During the course of this study, the FQS was first translated into…

  18. Validity of the Vocational Adaptation Rating Scale: Prediction of Mentally Retarded Workers' Placement in Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malgady, Robert G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The validity of the Vocational Adaptation Rating Scale (VARS) for predicting placement of 125 mentally retarded workers in sheltered workshop settings was investigated. Results indicated low to moderate significant partial correlations with concurrent placement and one year follow-up placement (controlling IQ, age, and sex). (Author)

  19. A Practical Computer Adaptive Testing Model for Small-Scale Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Yu-Hui; Wu, Yu-Lung; Chang, Hsin-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Computer adaptive testing (CAT) is theoretically sound and efficient, and is commonly seen in larger testing programs. It is, however, rarely seen in a smaller-scale scenario, such as in classrooms or business daily routines, because of the complexity of most adopted Item Response Theory (IRT) models. While the Sequential Probability Ratio Test…

  20. Trauma Resilience Scale: Validation of Protective Factors Associated with Adaptation following Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Machelle D.; Abell, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The Trauma Resilience Scale (TRS), assessing protective factors associated with positive adaptation following violence, was tested in three waves of data collection. Empirical and theoretical literature shaped subscale and item formation emphasizing resilience following physical abuse, sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, and/or a…

  1. Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Version of the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdugo, Miguel-Angel; Arias, Benito; Ibanez, Alba; Schalock, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) is used to determine the profile and intensity of the supports needed by a person to participate successfully in major life activities. With its publication into 13 languages, a need has arisen to document its reliability and validity across language and cultural groups. Here we explain the adaptation and the…

  2. Psychometric Characteristics of the Korean Version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, factorial structure validity, and convergent validity of a Korean version of the Satisfaction With Life Scale adapted for children (K-SWLS-C). Participants consisted of 653 elementary school students (48% were male). The internal consistency of the…

  3. Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Large-Scale Systems With Unknown Dead Zone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mou; Tao, Gang

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, an adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme is proposed and analyzed for a class of uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems with unknown dead zone and external disturbances. To tackle the unknown nonlinear interaction functions in the large-scale system, the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is employed to approximate them. To further handle the unknown approximation errors and the effects of the unknown dead zone and external disturbances, integrated as the compounded disturbances, the corresponding disturbance observers are developed for their estimations. Based on the outputs of the RBFNN and the disturbance observer, the adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme is designed for uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems by using a decentralized backstepping technique. The closed-loop stability of the adaptive control system is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the satisfactory tracking performance is achieved under the integrated effects of unknown dead zone, actuator fault, and unknown external disturbances. Simulation results of a mass-spring-damper system are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme for uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems. PMID:26340792

  4. Behavioral Landscapes and Change in Behavioral Landscapes: A Multiple Time-Scale Density Distribution Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Nilam; Coccia, Michael; Conroy, David; Lorek, Amy; Orland, Brian; Pincus, Aaron; Sliwinski, Martin; Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-01-01

    In developmental arenas, it is well accepted that multiple observations are needed to obtain a robust characterization of individuals’ behavioral tendencies across time and context. In this paper, we fuse core ideas from the study of lifespan development with intraindividual variability based approaches to personality and methods used to characterize the topography of geographic landscapes. We generalize the notion of density distributions into bivariate and multivariate space and draw parallels between the resulting behavioral landscapes and geographic landscapes. We illustrate through an empirical example how multiple time-scale study designs, measures of intraindividual variability, and methods borrowed from geography can be used to describe both an individual’s behavioral landscape and changes in the behavioral landscape. PMID:23914142

  5. Consequences of Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Early Adversity on Behavioral Profile – Pathology or Adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Heiming, Rebecca S.; Sachser, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on how behavioral profile is shaped by early adversity in individuals with varying serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. In a recent study on 5-HTT knockout mice Heiming et al. (2009) simulated a ‘dangerous environment‘ by confronting pregnant and lactating females with odor cues of unfamiliar males, indicating the risk of infant killing. Growing up in a dangerous environment induced increased anxiety-related behavior and decreased exploratory locomotion in the offspring, the effects being most pronounced in mice lacking 5-HTT expression. We argue that these alterations in behavioral profile represent adaptive maternal effects that help the individuals to cope with adversity. In principle, such effects of adversity on behavioral profile should not automatically be regarded as pathological. Rather and in accordance with modern evolutionary theory they may represent adaptations, although individuals with 5-HTT genotype induced susceptibility to adversity may be at risk of developing pathologies. PMID:21151780

  6. Adaptation of community health worker-delivered behavioral activation for torture survivors in Kurdistan, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, J. F.; Lejuez, C. W.; Kamal, T.; Blevins, E. J.; Murray, L. K.; Bass, J. K.; Bolton, P.; Pagoto, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Growing evidence supports the use of Western therapies for the treatment of depression, trauma, and stress delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in conflict-affected, resource-limited countries. A recent randomized controlled trial (Bolton et al. 2014a) supported the efficacy of two CHW-delivered interventions, cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD), for reducing depressive symptoms and functional impairment among torture survivors in the Kurdish region of Iraq. Methods This study describes the adaptation of the CHW-delivered BATD approach delivered in this trial (Bolton et al.2014a), informed by the Assessment–Decision–Administration-Production–Topical experts–Integration–Training–Testing (ADAPT–ITT) framework for intervention adaptation (Wingood & DiClemente, 2008). Cultural modifications, adaptations for low-literacy, and tailored training and supervision for non-specialist CHWs are presented, along with two clinical case examples to illustrate delivery of the adapted intervention in this setting. Results Eleven CHWs, a study psychiatrist, and the CHW clinical supervisor were trained in BATD. The adaptation process followed the ADAPT–ITT framework and was iterative with significant input from the on-site supervisor and CHWs. Modifications were made to fit Kurdish culture, including culturally relevant analogies, use of stickers for behavior monitoring, cultural modifications to behavioral contracts, and including telephone-delivered sessions to enhance feasibility. Conclusions BATD was delivered by CHWs in a resource-poor, conflict-affected area in Kurdistan, Iraq, with some important modifications, including low-literacy adaptations, increased cultural relevancy of clinical materials, and tailored training and supervision for CHWs. Barriers to implementation, lessons learned, and recommendations for future efforts to adapt behavioral therapies for resource

  7. Studying the Neural Basis of Adaptive Locomotor Behavior in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Gruhn, Matthias; Rosenbaum, Philipp; Bollhagen, Hans-Peter; Bueschges, Ansgar

    2011-01-01

    Studying the neural basis of walking behavior, one often faces the problem that it is hard to separate the neuronally produced stepping output from those leg movements that result from passive forces and interactions with other legs through the common contact with the substrate. If we want to understand, which part of a given movement is produced by nervous system motor output, kinematic analysis of stepping movements, therefore, needs to be complemented with electrophysiological recordings of motor activity. The recording of neuronal or muscular activity in a behaving animal is often limited by the electrophysiological equipment which can constrain the animal in its ability to move with as many degrees of freedom as possible. This can either be avoided by using implantable electrodes and then having the animal move on a long tether (i.e. Clarac et al., 1987; Duch & Pflüger, 1995; Böhm et al., 1997; Gruhn & Rathmayer, 2002) or by transmitting the data using telemetric devices (Kutsch et al, 1993; Fischer et al., 1996; Tsuchida et al. 2004; Hama et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2008). Both of these elegant methods, which are successfully used in larger arthropods, often prove difficult to apply in smaller walking insects which either easily get entangled in the long tether or are hindered by the weight of the telemetric device and its batteries. In addition, in all these cases, it is still impossible to distinguish between the purely neuronal basis of locomotion and the effects exerted by mechanical coupling between the walking legs through the substrate. One solution for this problem is to conduct the experiments in a tethered animal that is free to walk in place and that is locally suspended, for example over a slippery surface, which effectively removes most ground contact mechanics. This has been used to study escape responses (Camhi and Nolen, 1981; Camhi and Levy, 1988), turning (Tryba and Ritzman, 2000a,b; Gruhn et al., 2009a), backward walking (Graham and

  8. Scaling behavior of linear polymers in disordered media.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Hans-Karl; Stenull, Olaf

    2007-02-01

    It has long been known that the universal scaling properties of linear polymers in disordered media are well described by the statistics of self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on percolation clusters and their critical exponent nu(SAW), with the SAW implicitly referring to the average SAW. Hitherto, static averaging has been commonly used, e.g., in numerical simulations, to determine what the average SAW is. We assert that only kinetic, rather than static, averaging can lead to asymptotic scaling behavior and corroborate our assertion by heuristic arguments and a renormalizable field theory. Moreover, we calculate to two-loop order nu(SAW), the exponent nu(max) for the longest SAW, and a family of multifractal exponents nu(alpha). PMID:17358306

  9. Preschool Children's Learning Behaviors, Concept Attainment, Social Skills, and Problem Behaviors: Validity Evidence for Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara A.; Shur, Kimberely Fitch; Macri-Summers, Maria; MacDonald, Scott L.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides concurrent and predictive validity and test-retest reliability evidence for scores from the preschool teacher-completed Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 2002) using two regional samples of preschool children aged 3 to 5.5 years (Ns of 61 and 70). Teacher ratings of social skills and…

  10. Interpreting problematic behavior: systematic compensatory adaptations as emergent phenomena in autism.

    PubMed

    Damico, Jack S; Nelson, Ryan L

    2005-01-01

    Based upon an emergent account of pragmatic ability and disability, this article provides theoretical and empirical support for a conceptually deeper understanding of some systematic behaviors that have served as diagnostic indices in communicatively impaired populations. Specifically, by employing conversation analysis, several examples of problematic behaviors in autism are analysed as a specific type of compensatory adaptation. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:16019784

  11. Static and quasi-static behavior of an adaptive system to compensate path errors for smart fiber placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, M.; Monner, H. P.; Krombholz, C.; Kruse, F. F.

    2015-04-01

    Smart fiber placement is an ambitious topic in current research for automated manufacturing of large-scale composite structures, e.g. wing covers. Adaptive systems get in focus to obtain a high degree of observability and controllability of the manufacturing process. In particular, vibrational issues and material failure have to be studied to significantly increase the production rate with no loss in accuracy of the fiber layup. As one contribution, an adaptive system has been developed to be integrated into the fiber placement head. It decouples the compaction roller from disturbances caused by misalignments, varying components' behavior over a large work area and acceleration changes during operation. Therefore, the smart system axially adapts the position of the compaction roller in case of disturbances. This paper investigates the behavior of the system to compensate quasi-static deviations from the desired path. In particular, the compensation efficiency of a constant offset, a linear drift with constant gradient and a single-curved drift is studied. Thus, the test bed with measurement devices and scenarios is explained. Based on the knowledge obtained by the experimental data, the paper concludes with a discussion of the proposed approach for its use under operating conditions and further implementation.

  12. Fine-Scale Variability in Harbor Seal Foraging Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kenady; Lance, Monique; Jeffries, Steven; Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the variability of foraging behavior within a population of predators is important for determining their role in the ecosystem and how they may respond to future ecosystem changes. However, such variability has seldom been studied in harbor seals on a fine spatial scale (<30 km). We used a combination of standard and Bayesian generalized linear mixed models to explore how environmental variables influenced the dive behavior of harbor seals. Time-depth recorders were deployed on harbor seals from two haul-out sites in the Salish Sea in 2007 (n = 18) and 2008 (n = 11). Three behavioral bout types were classified from six dive types within each bout; however, one of these bout types was related to haul-out activity and was excluded from analyses. Deep foraging bouts (Type I) were the predominant type used throughout the study; however, variation in the use of bout types was observed relative to haul-out site, season, sex, and light (day/night). The proportional use of Type I and Type II (shallow foraging/traveling) bouts differed dramatically between haul-out sites, seasons, sexes, and whether it was day or night; individual variability between seals also contributed to the observed differences. We hypothesize that this variation in dive behavior was related to habitat or prey specialization by seals from different haul-out sites, or individual variability between seals in the study area. The results highlight the potential influence of habitat and specialization on the foraging behavior of harbor seals, and may help explain the variability in diet that is observed between different haul-out site groups in this population. PMID:24717815

  13. DTCWT based high capacity steganography using coefficient replacement and adaptive scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathisha, N.; Priya, R.; Babu, K. Suresh; Raja, K. B.; Venugopal, K. R.; Patnaik, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    The steganography is used for secure communication. In this paper we propose Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) based high capacity steganography using coefficient replacement and adaptive scaling. The DTCWT is applied on cover image and Lifting Wavelet Transform2 (LWT2) is applied on payload to convert spatial domain into transform domain. The new concept of replacing HH sub band coefficients of DTCWT of cover image by LL sub band coefficients of payload is introduced to generate intermediate stego object. The adaptive scaling factor is used based on entropy of cover image to scale down intermediate stego object coefficient values to generate final stego object. It is observed that the capacity and security are increased in the proposed algorithm compared to existing algorithms.

  14. [Spanish adaptation of the "Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale" for adolescent population].

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Ma Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Problematic use of the mobile telephone is an emerging phenomenon in our society, and one which particularly affects the teenage population. Knowledge from research on the problematic use of this technology is necessary, since such use can give rise to a behavioural pattern with addictive characteristics. There are hardly any scales for measuring possible problematic use of mobile phones, and none at all adapted exclusively for the Spanish adolescent population. The scale most widely used internationally is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS). The aim of the present study is to adapt the MPPUS for use with Spanish adolescents. The Spanish version of the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1132 adolescents aged 12 to 18. Reliability and factorial validity were comparable to those obtained in adult population, so that the measure of problematic mobile phone use in Spanish teenagers is one-dimensional. A prevalence of 14.8% of problematic users was detected. PMID:22648315

  15. Future Time Perspective as a Predictor of Adolescents' Adaptive Behavior in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Renato Gil Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents' development across different contexts. However, the extent to which FTP influences adaptation needs additional understanding. In this study, we analysed the relationship between FTP and adolescents' behavior in school, as expressed in several indicators of…

  16. Adaptive Responses to Prochloraz Exposure That Alter Dose-Response and Time-Course Behaviors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose response and time-course (DRTC) are, along with exposure, the major determinants of health risk. Adaptive changes within exposed organisms in response to environmental stress are common, and alter DRTC behaviors to minimize the effects caused by stressors. In this project, ...

  17. Effects of Age on the Adaptive Behavior of Institutionalized and Noninstitutionalized Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, A. B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evidence of an association between Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome led to three studies on the effects of age on the adaptive behavior of over 400 Down syndrome individuals. One study found a decline in motor development competence among older (over 60 years) Down syndrome individuals when compared with other mentally retarded persons.…

  18. Adaptive Behavior and Cognitive Function of Adults with Down Syndrome: Modeling Change with Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Barbara A.; Eklund, Susan J.; James, David R.; Foose, Alice K.

    2003-01-01

    Fifty-eight adults with Down syndrome were assessed longitudinally over 10 years for the purpose of modeling aging-related change in cognitive function and adaptive behavior. Findings provide further evidence of changes in performance with age and include selected effects for participants who completed the study and those lost to follow-up.…

  19. Incidence and Temporal Patterns of Adaptive Behavior Change in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole; Urv, Tiina; Zigman, April; Silverman, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    A study found cumulative decline in adaptive behavior and functional skills in 248 adults with Down syndrome increased from less than .04 at age 50, to .67 by 72, whereas decline for 398 adults with mental retardation increased from less than .02 at age 50 to .52 at 88. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  20. Assessment of Social Competence, Adaptive Behaviors, and Approaches to Learning with Young Children. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Nicholson, Julie

    Prepared in support of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS), which will examine children's early school experiences beginning with kindergarten, this working paper focuses on research regarding the measurement of young children's social competence, adaptive behavior, and approaches to learning. The paper reviews the key variables and…

  1. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome: Interim Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)

  2. Intelligence, Parental Depression, and Behavior Adaptability in Deaf Children Being Considered for Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Krull, Kevin; Hannay, Julia; Mehta, Paras; Caudle, Susan; Oghalai, John

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive ability and behavioral adaptability are distinct, yet related, constructs that can impact childhood development. Both are often reduced in deaf children of hearing parents who do not provide sufficient language and communication access. Additionally, parental depression is commonly observed due to parent-child communication difficulties…

  3. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Internationally Adopted Chinese Children: Communication and Symbolic Behavior Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Matsuoh, Hisako

    2008-01-01

    Adaptation of internationally adopted children to another culture and language has not been studied extensively. This study followed four infant girls from China during the 1st year postadoption, measuring vocabulary, gestural, social, communication, and symbolic behavior development each month. The children were also tested at 2 and 3 years…

  4. Studying the Genetics of Behavior and Evolution by Adaptation and Natural Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Jules

    1998-01-01

    Provides an exercise designed to give students an appreciation for the genetic basis of behavior. Employs the phenomenon of glucose aversion as an example of evolution by mutation and accelerated natural selection, thereby revealing one of the ways in which organisms adapt to human interference. (DDR)

  5. Nonsocial Play Patterns of Young Children with Communication Disorders: Implications for Behavioral Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Hammond, Mary A.; Connor, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    It has been well established that young children with communication disorders (CD) have considerable difficulties interacting socially with peers in free-play settings. The central purpose of this study was to determine whether behavioral adaptations of children with CD could contribute to their peer interaction problems. To accomplish this, the…

  6. The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success with Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed…

  7. A Post-Genomic View of Behavioral Development and Adaptation to the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFreniere, Peter; MacDonald, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics are reviewed that have major implications for the bio-behavioral sciences and for understanding how organisms adapt to their environments at both phylogenetic and ontogenic levels. From a post-genomics perspective, the environment is as crucial as the DNA sequence for constructing the…

  8. The Effects of Sociodrama on the Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors of Elementary School Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Steven Harvey

    The effects of sociodrama on the adaptive and maladaptive behaviors of elementary school boys were examined in three groups of six boys each. One group was used as a control for the Hawthorne effect; the second, as a control for teacher expectation effects and for changes as a function of involvement with a male counselor. In the experimental…

  9. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  10. Same Constructs, Different Results: Examining the Consistency of Two Behavior-Rating Scales with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.; Bour, Jennifer L.; Sidebottom, Kristina J.; Murphy, Sara B.; Hakman, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Broad-band or multidimensional behavior-rating scales are common tools for evaluating children. Two popular behavior-rating scales, the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000), have undergone downward extensions so that the…

  11. Primary Influences on the Development of Competence: The Development of a Maternal Behavior Scale. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, E. Robert, Jr.

    This is a progress report on the development of a maternal behavior scale, one which would reflect both the actual behavior of a mother when confronted by her child's activities and also show the behaviors instigated by the mother in the child's presence. The ultimate goal of the research is to produce a human behavior scale which will record the…

  12. Changes in taste neurons support the emergence of an adaptive behavior in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Silverman, Jules; Schal, Coby

    2013-05-24

    In response to the anthropogenic assault of toxic baits, populations of the German cockroach have rapidly evolved an adaptive behavioral aversion to glucose (a phagostimulant component of baits). We hypothesized that changes in the peripheral gustatory system are responsible for glucose aversion. In both wild-type and glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches, D-fructose and D-glucose stimulated sugar-gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), whereas the deterrent caffeine stimulated bitter-GRNs. In contrast, in GA cockroaches, D-glucose also stimulated bitter-GRNs and suppressed the responses of sugar-GRNs. Thus, D-glucose is processed as both a phagostimulant and deterrent in GA cockroaches, and this newly acquired peripheral taste sensitivity underlies glucose aversion in multiple GA populations. The rapid emergence of this highly adaptive behavior underscores the plasticity of the sensory system to adapt to rapid environmental change. PMID:23704571

  13. Deciphering landslide behavior using large-scale flume experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Iverson, Richard M.; Iverson, Neal R.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Brien, Dianne L.; Logan, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Landslides can be triggered by a variety of hydrologic events and they can exhibit a wide range of movement dynamics. Effective prediction requires understanding these diverse behaviors. Precise evaluation in the field is difficult; as an alternative we performed a series of landslide initiation experiments in the large-scale, USGS debris-flow flume. We systematically investigated the effects of three different hydrologic triggering mechanisms, including groundwater exfiltration from bedrock, prolonged rainfall infiltration, and intense bursts of rain. We also examined the effects of initial soil porosity (loose or dense) relative to the soil’s critical-state porosity. Results show that all three hydrologic mechanisms can instigate landsliding, but water pathways, sensor response patterns, and times to failure differ. Initial soil porosity has a profound influence on landslide movement behavior. Experiments using loose soil show rapid soil contraction during failure, with elevated pore pressures liquefying the sediment and creating fast-moving debris flows. In contrast, dense soil dilated upon shearing, resulting in slow, gradual, and episodic motion. These results have fundamental implications for forecasting landslide behavior and developing effective warning systems.

  14. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in a French-Speaking Swiss Sample: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Personality and Work Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossier, Jerome; Zecca, Gregory; Stauffer, Sarah D.; Maggiori, Christian; Dauwalder, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) in a French-speaking Swiss sample and its relationship with personality dimensions and work engagement. The heterogeneous sample of 391 participants (M[subscript age] = 39.59, SD = 12.30) completed the CAAS-International and a short version…

  15. Assessment of adolescents' victimization, aggression, and problem behaviors: Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Le, Anh-Thuy H

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, and other problem behaviors. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 5,532 adolescents from 37 schools at 4 sites. About half (49%) of participants were male; 48% self-identified as Black non-Hispanic; 21% as Hispanic, 18% as White non-Hispanic. Adolescents completed the PBFS and measures of beliefs and values related to aggression, and delinquent peer associations at the start of the 6th grade and over 2 years later. Ratings of participants' behavior were also obtained from teachers on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 7-factor model that differentiated among 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 2 forms of victimization (overt and relational), drug use, and other delinquent behavior. Support was found for strong measurement invariance across gender, sites, and time. The PBFS factors generally showed the expected pattern of correlations with teacher ratings of adolescents' behavior and self-report measures of relevant constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26372261

  16. Behavioral reactivity and addiction: the adaptation of behavioral response to reward opportunities.

    PubMed

    Trafton, Jodie A; Gifford, Elizabeth V

    2008-01-01

    Persons recovering from addiction must refrain from drug use even when the opportunity to use exists. Understanding how behavioral response to drug reward opportunities is modified is key to treating addiction. Most effective behavioral therapies encourage patients to increase reinforcement opportunities by engaging unidentified sources of nondrug reward. The authors integrate transdisciplinary research on the brain and behavioral effects of increasing reward availability to demonstrate one neurobiological mechanism by which behavioral therapies help patients abstain. Explicating neurobiological processes underlying psychotherapy provides predictions about the interaction between dopaminergic medications and therapy and the impact of individual differences in dopamine receptor expression on addiction vulnerability. PMID:18305282

  17. Cyclic Behavior of the Sun's Small-scale Magnetic Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingxiu; Jin, C.

    2011-05-01

    With the unique database from the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in an interval embodying solar cycle 23, the cyclic behavior of solar small-scale magnetic elements is studied. More than 13 million small-scale magnetic elements are selected, and their cyclic behavior is analyzed in comparison with the changes of sunspot numbers and active region magnetic flux. From the small to large end of the flux spectrum, the variations of numbers and total flux of the network elements show no correlation, anti-correlation, and correlation with sunspots, respectively. The anti-correlated elements, covering the flux of (2.9-32.0)×1018 Mx, occupy 77.2% of the total element number and 37.4% of the quiet-Sun flux. Unlike the correlated elements, which follow the sunspot butterfly diagram, the anti-correlated elements cover very broad range of latitude and do not show clear latitude migration during the cycle. These results provide insight for understanding the anti-correlations of small-scale magnetic activity during the solar cycle. The quiet regions dominate the Sun's magnetic flux for about 8 years in the 12.25 year duration of cycle 23, their monthly average magnetic flux is 1.12 times that of the active regions in the cycle. For the 28 continuous months from July 2007 to October 2009, the six-month running average ratio of quiet region flux to that of the total Sun is larger than 90.0%, which characterizes the gram minima in cycles 23 and 24 very well.

  18. Adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support for Arab immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Aroian, Karen; Templin, Thomas N; Ramaswamy, Vidya

    2010-02-01

    We adapted the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) for use with Arab immigrant women (MSPSS-AW) and estimated the psychometric properties of the adapted version with a sample of 539 Arab immigrant women living in the United States. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the proposed three-factor solution. Internal consistency reliability coefficients for the three subscales ranged from good to very good. Additional evidence for construct validity of the MSPSS-AW subscales was demonstrated through relationships with theoretically related measures. We conclude that the MSPSS-AW is reliable and valid for use with Arab immigrant women. PMID:20390643

  19. Image retargeting using non-uniform scaling with adaptive local search window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Abdel-Dayem, Amr

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a new content-aware image-retargeting scheme, based on non-uniform scaling, to adaptively adjust the image's dimensions for various screen sizes. Based on an importance map, the energy contribution for each line in the reduced dimension to the overall energy within the image is computed. Then, the image is adaptively mapped and resampled based on the energy contribution function. Experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed scheme is comparable to seam carving in visual quality. However, it is computationally less expensive.

  20. Direct Adaptive Control of Utility-Scale Wind Turbine for Speed Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, S. A.; Balas, M. J.; Wright, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    The accurate modeling of wind turbines is an extremely challenging problem due to the tremendous complexity of the machines and the turbulent and unpredictable conditions in which they operate. Adaptive control techniques are well suited to nonlinear applications, such as wind turbines, which are difficult to accurately model and which have effects from poorly known operating environments. In this paper, we extended the direct model reference adaptive control (DMRAC) approach to track a reference point and to reject persistent disturbances. This approach was then used to design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a variable-speed horizontal axis wind turbine. The objective of the adaptive pitch controller was to regulate generator speed in Region 3 and to reject step disturbances. The control objective was accomplished by collectively pitching the turbine blades. The turbine simulation models the controls advanced research turbine (CART) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. The CART is a utility-scale wind turbine that has a well-developed and extensively verified simulator. This novel application of adaptive control was compared in simulations with a classical proportional integrator (PI) collective pitch controller. In the simulations, the adaptive pitch controller showed improved speed regulation in Region 3 when compared with the PI pitch controller.

  1. Towards an improved wind speed scale and damage description adapted for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, Bernold; Groenemeijer, Pieter; Dirksen, Erik; Hubrig, Martin; Holzer, Alois M.; Dotzek, Nikolai

    2011-06-01

    We propose an updated wind speed scale description adapted for Central Europe considering wind impact to buildings as well as to vegetation. The scale is motivated by the need of a broadly applicable, accurate and consistent tornado or downburst intensity rating system based on a standardised wind speed scale for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. The description comprises building and vegetation damage characteristics, which can be found in Central Europe - but similar in other parts of the world, occurring with the various classes of the Fujita- and T-scales. The scale description is supplemented by photographs of typical damage. For practical application, an ensemble-based use of a decision matrix for specific building structures and vegetation types is suggested.

  2. Translation, cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire for Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chiari, Aline; de Souza Sardim, Carla Caires; Natour, Jamil

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To translate, to perform a cultural adaptation of and to test the reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire for Brazil. METHODS: First, the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire was translated into Portuguese and was then back-translated into French. These translations were reviewed by a committee to establish a Brazilian version of the questionnaire to be tested. The validity and reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire was evaluated. Patients of both sexes, who were aged 18 to 60 years and presented with rheumatoid arthritis affecting their hands, were interviewed. The patients were initially interviewed by two observers and were later interviewed by a single rater. First, the Visual Analogue Scale for hand pain, the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Disability questionnaire and the Health Assessment Questionnaire were administered. The third administration of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale was performed fifteen days after the first administration. Ninety patients were assessed in the present study. RESULTS: Two questions were modified as a result of the assessment of cultural equivalence. The Cronbach's alpha value for this assessment was 0.93. The intraclass intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients were 0.76 and 0.96, respectively. The Spearman's coefficient indicated that there was a low level of correlation between the Cochin Hand Functional Scale and the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (0.46) and that there was a moderate level of correlation of the Cochin Scale with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (0.66) and with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (0.63). The average administration time for the Cochin Scale was three minutes. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian version of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale was successfully translated and adapted, and this version exhibited good internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. PMID:21789372

  3. A control systems engineering approach for adaptive behavioral interventions: illustration with a fibromyalgia intervention.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred W; Nandola, Naresh N

    2014-09-01

    The term adaptive intervention has been used in behavioral medicine to describe operationalized and individually tailored strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders. Control systems engineering offers an attractive means for designing and implementing adaptive behavioral interventions that feature intensive measurement and frequent decision-making over time. This is illustrated in this paper for the case of a low-dose naltrexone treatment intervention for fibromyalgia. System identification methods from engineering are used to estimate dynamical models from daily diary reports completed by participants. These dynamical models then form part of a model predictive control algorithm which systematically decides on treatment dosages based on measurements obtained under real-life conditions involving noise, disturbances, and uncertainty. The effectiveness and implications of this approach for behavioral interventions (in general) and pain treatment (in particular) are demonstrated using informative simulations. PMID:25264467

  4. Treating Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors with Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in…

  5. From Dinosaurs to Modern Bird Diversity: Extending the Time Scale of Adaptive Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Daniel; Morlon, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    What explains why some groups of organisms, like birds, are so species rich? And what explains their extraordinary ecological diversity, ranging from large, flightless birds to small migratory species that fly thousand of kilometers every year? These and similar questions have spurred great interest in adaptive radiation, the diversification of ecological traits in a rapidly speciating group of organisms. Although the initial formulation of modern concepts of adaptive radiation arose from consideration of the fossil record, rigorous attempts to identify adaptive radiation in the fossil record are still uncommon. Moreover, most studies of adaptive radiation concern groups that are less than 50 million years old. Thus, it is unclear how important adaptive radiation is over temporal scales that span much larger portions of the history of life. In this issue, Benson et al. test the idea of a “deep-time” adaptive radiation in dinosaurs, compiling and using one of the most comprehensive phylogenetic and body-size datasets for fossils. Using recent phylogenetic statistical methods, they find that in most clades of dinosaurs there is a strong signal of an “early burst” in body-size evolution, a predicted pattern of adaptive radiation in which rapid trait evolution happens early in a group's history and then slows down. They also find that body-size evolution did not slow down in the lineage leading to birds, hinting at why birds survived to the present day and diversified. This paper represents one of the most convincing attempts at understanding deep-time adaptive radiations. PMID:24802950

  6. Characterizing the Scaling Behavior of Rainfall Using Imperfect Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, O. P.; Barros, A. P.; Sun, X.

    2009-12-01

    among time-series corresponding to individual raingauge measurements alone (NCDC, National Climatic Data Center), model-based reanalysis (North America Regional Reanalysis, NARR grid points), and satellite-based precipitation products (Global Precipitation Climatology Project, GPCP pixels) for the western United States (west of 105W). This study shows that, as expected, multifractal parameters estimated the NCDC raingauge data set map the geography of known hydrometeorological phenomena in the major climatic regions, including the strong orographic gradients from west to east. The spatial distributions of GPCP parameters match closely the NCDC parameters over arid and semi-arid regions (i.e., the Southwest), but there are large discrepancies in all parameters in the mid-latitudes above 40N due to reduced sampling. In both studies, scaling analysis provided a robust basis to diagnose both strengths and limitations in the data sets. In the fractal downscaling case-study, spatial scaling behavior was explored. In the case-study of rainfall extremes, temporal scaling was explored. We conclude by focusing on the space-time scaling behavior of rainfall extremes and how this is reflected in the space-time variability of hydrologic regimes.

  7. Nature of Adaptive Behavior Deficits among Individuals Who Are Moderately-Severely Mentally Retarded in the West Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ahmad M.

    1989-01-01

    Results of assessing the adaptive behavior of 200 individuals classified as mentally retarded and living in the West Bank region of the Middle East suggest that the nature and development of adaptive behavior of the mentally retarded in Third World areas may not conform to expected trends. (Author/DB)

  8. Adaptive Behavior in Childhood as an Antecedent of Psychological Functioning in Early Middle Age: Linkage via Career Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulkkinen, Lea; Feldt, Taru; Kokko, Katja

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the link between child and adolescent adaptive behavior and adult psychological functioning, and the role of career orientation in this linkage. This was based on a Finnish longitudinal study, where data at ages 8, 14, and 42 were available for 118 females and 115 males. Adaptive behavior, indicated by…

  9. Longitudinal Changes in Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Scores in Children and Adolescents with the Fragile X Mutation or Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisch, Gene S.; Simensen, Richard J.; Schroer, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    Comparison of children and adolescents with Fragile X Syndrome (n=18) or autism (n=18) for changes in cognitive ability and adaptive behavior over 9 years found steeper decreases in IQ scores among Fragile X subjects with older autistic subjects autism exhibiting stable test-retest scores. Comparative declines in adaptive behavior scores were…

  10. Adaptive Behavior Ratings Correlate with Symptomatology and IQ among Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Harms, Madeline B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    Caregiver report on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptive behavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…

  11. Causes of Age-Related Decline in Adaptive Behavior of Adults with Down Syndrome: Differential Diagnoses of Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted of 201 adults with Down's syndrome to investigate the differential causes of decline in adaptive behavior. Results indicated that aging, dementia, and severity of mental retardation were significant factors, while absence of a medical illness predicted a higher level of adaptive behavior. (CR)

  12. Increasing Adaptive Behavior Skill Deficits from Childhood to Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Role of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive…

  13. Adapting CEF-Descriptors for Rating Purposes: Validation by a Combined Rater Training and Scale Revision Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsch, Claudia; Martin, Guido

    2012-01-01

    We explore how a local rating scale can be based on the Common European Framework CEF-proficiency scales. As part of the scale validation (Alderson, 1991; Lumley, 2002), we examine which adaptations are needed to turn CEF-proficiency descriptors into a rating scale for a local context, and to establish a practicable method to revise the initial…

  14. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Li, Deshi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness. PMID:26389910

  15. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Li, Deshi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness. PMID:26389910

  16. Adapting and Validating a Scale to Measure Sexual Stigma among Lesbian, Bisexual and Queer Women

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen H.; Earnshaw, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience pervasive sexual stigma that harms wellbeing. Stigma is a multi-dimensional construct and includes perceived stigma, awareness of negative attitudes towards one’s group, and enacted stigma, overt experiences of discrimination. Despite its complexity, sexual stigma research has generally explored singular forms of sexual stigma among LBQ women. The study objective was to develop a scale to assess perceived and enacted sexual stigma among LBQ women. We adapted a sexual stigma scale for use with LBQ women. The validation process involved 3 phases. First, we held a focus group where we engaged a purposively selected group of key informants in cognitive interviewing techniques to modify the survey items to enhance relevance to LBQ women. Second, we implemented an internet-based, cross-sectional survey with LBQ women (n=466) in Toronto, Canada. Third, we administered an internet-based survey at baseline and 6-week follow-up with LBQ women in Toronto (n=24) and Calgary (n=20). We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis and descriptive statistics to explore health and demographic correlates of the sexual stigma scale. Analyses yielded one scale with two factors: perceived and enacted sexual stigma. The total scale and subscales demonstrated adequate internal reliability (total scale alpha coefficient: 0.78; perceived sub-scale: 0.70; enacted sub-scale: 0.72), test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Perceived and enacted sexual stigma were associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem, social support, and self-rated health scores. Results suggest this sexual stigma scale adapted for LBQ women has good psychometric properties and addresses enacted and perceived stigma dimensions. The overwhelming majority of participants reported experiences of perceived sexual stigma. This underscores the importance of moving beyond a singular focus on

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Turkish version of the pain catastrophizing scale among patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    İlçin, Nursen; Gürpınar, Barış; Bayraktar, Deniz; Savcı, Sema; Çetin, Pınar; Sarı, İsmail; Akkoç, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study describes the cultural adaptation, validation, and reliability of the Turkish version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. [Methods] The validity of the Turkish version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale was assessed by evaluating data quality (missing data and floor and ceiling effects), principal components analysis, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), and construct validity (Spearman’s rho). Reproducibility analyses included standard measurement error, minimum detectable change, limits of agreement, and intraclass correlation coefficients. [Results] Sixty-four adult patients with ankylosing spondylitis with a mean age of 42.2 years completed the study. Factor analysis revealed that all questionnaire items could be grouped into two factors. Excellent internal consistency was found, with a Chronbach’s alpha value of 0.95. Reliability analyses showed an intraclass correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval) of 0.96 for the total score. There was a low correlation coefficient between the Turkish version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and body mass index, pain levels at rest and during activity, health-related quality of life, and fear and avoidance behaviors. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that the Turkish version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale is a valid and reliable clinical and research tool for patients with ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:26957778

  18. Fine-scale temporal adaptation within a salmonid population: mechanism and consequences.

    PubMed

    Gharrett, Anthony J; Joyce, John; Smoker, William W

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a clear example of local adaptation of seasonal timing of spawning and embryo development. The consequence is a population of pink salmon that is segmented into spawning groups that use the same limited habitat. We synthesize published observations with results of new analyses to demonstrate that genetic variation of these traits results in survival differentials related to that variation, and that density-dependent embryo mortality and seasonally variable juvenile mortality are a mechanism of selection. Most examples of local adaptation in natural systems depend on observed correlations between environments and fitness traits, but do not fully demonstrate local adaptation: that the trait is genetically determined, exhibits different fitness in common environments or across different environments, and its variation is mechanistically connected to fitness differences. The geographic or temporal scales of local adaptation often remain obscure. Here, we show that heritable, fine-scale differences of timing of reproductive migration in a pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) resulted in temporal structure that persisted several generations; the differences enable a density-dependent population to pack more spawners into limited spawning habitat, that is, enhance its fitness. A balanced trade-off of survivals results because embryos from early-migrating fish have a lower freshwater survival (harsh early physical conditions and disturbance by late spawners), but emigrant fry from late-migrating fish have lower marine survivals (timing of their vernal emergence into the estuarine environment). Such fine-scale local adaptations increase the genetic portfolio of the populations and may provide a buffer against the impacts of climate change. PMID:23980763

  19. Adapting the Bayley Scales of infant and toddler development in Ethiopia: evaluation of reliability and validity

    PubMed Central

    Medhin, G.; Worku, B.; Tomlinson, M.; Alem, A.; Dewey, M.; Prince, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a need for valid and reliable observational measures of early child development in low‐income and middle‐income country settings. Methods The aims of the study were to adapt the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Bayley III) for a rural Ethiopian setting and evaluate reliability and validity. The study was carried out between January 2008 and January 2009 in the Butajira demographic surveillance site, south central Ethiopia. The Bayley III was adapted to be socioculturally appropriate for a rural Ethiopian context. Nurses and high school graduates were trained in administration of the measure for 10 days. Inter‐rater reliability was evaluated (n = 60). Content, construct and convergent validity was then examined on a population‐based cohort of children at the ages of 30 (n = 440) and 42 months (n = 456). Mokken scale analysis was used to determine the scalability of items in unidimensional, hierarchical sub‐scales. The mean score was compared by age of child and by stunting status (less than −2 z scores below the standard height‐for‐age). Results The intra‐class correlations between raters were above 0.90 for all sub‐scales of the child development measure. Some scale items were not contextually relevant and showed poor scalability. However, the majority of items scaled onto the existing sub‐scales of the international measure to form adequate‐to‐strong hierarchical scales with good internal consistency (Cronbach's α above 0.70 except for gross motor and expressive language sub‐scales). Item‐scale coefficients were good. The mean score of all sub‐scales was significantly higher in the older group of children (33.02 higher total score; P < 0.001) and in the children who were stunted (total Bayley score 2.58 (95% confidence interval 0.07 to 5.10) points lower at 30 months and 3.87 (1.94 to 5.81) points lower at 42 months. Conclusions An adapted version of an international

  20. On distributed wavefront reconstruction for large-scale adaptive optics systems.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Cornelis C; Brunner, Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The distributed-spline-based aberration reconstruction (D-SABRE) method is proposed for distributed wavefront reconstruction with applications to large-scale adaptive optics systems. D-SABRE decomposes the wavefront sensor domain into any number of partitions and solves a local wavefront reconstruction problem on each partition using multivariate splines. D-SABRE accuracy is within 1% of a global approach with a speedup that scales quadratically with the number of partitions. The D-SABRE is compared to the distributed cumulative reconstruction (CuRe-D) method in open-loop and closed-loop simulations using the YAO adaptive optics simulation tool. D-SABRE accuracy exceeds CuRe-D for low levels of decomposition, and D-SABRE proved to be more robust to variations in the loop gain. PMID:27140879

  1. Psychometric Properties of the "Sport Motivation Scale (SMS)" Adapted to Physical Education.

    PubMed

    Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Abraldes, J Arturo

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted to physical education. A second aim was to test which one of three hypothesized models (three, five and seven-factor) provided best model fit. 758 Spanish high school students completed the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for Physical Education and also completed the Learning and Performance Orientation in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire. We examined the factor structure of each model using confirmatory factor analysis and also assessed internal consistency and convergent validity. The results showed that all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model (χ(2)/gl = 2.73; ECVI = 1.38) as it produces better values when adapted to physical education, that five-factor model (χ(2)/gl = 2.82; ECVI = 1.44) and three-factor model (χ(2)/gl = 3.02; ECVI = 1.53). Key PointsPhysical education research conducted in Spain has used the version of SMS designed to assess motivation in sport, but validity reliability and validity results in physical education have not been reported.Results of the present study lend support to the factorial validity and internal reliability of three alternative factor structures (3, 5, and 7 factors) of SMS adapted to Physical Education in Spanish.Although all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model. PMID:25435772

  2. Psychometric Properties of the “Sport Motivation Scale (SMS)” Adapted to Physical Education

    PubMed Central

    Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Abraldes, J. Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted to physical education. A second aim was to test which one of three hypothesized models (three, five and seven-factor) provided best model fit. 758 Spanish high school students completed the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for Physical Education and also completed the Learning and Performance Orientation in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire. We examined the factor structure of each model using confirmatory factor analysis and also assessed internal consistency and convergent validity. The results showed that all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model (χ2/gl = 2.73; ECVI = 1.38) as it produces better values when adapted to physical education, that five-factor model (χ2/gl = 2.82; ECVI = 1.44) and three-factor model (χ2/gl = 3.02; ECVI = 1.53). Key Points Physical education research conducted in Spain has used the version of SMS designed to assess motivation in sport, but validity reliability and validity results in physical education have not been reported. Results of the present study lend support to the factorial validity and internal reliability of three alternative factor structures (3, 5, and 7 factors) of SMS adapted to Physical Education in Spanish. Although all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model. PMID:25435772

  3. Mitigating and adapting to climate change: multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Demuzere, M; Orru, K; Heidrich, O; Olazabal, E; Geneletti, D; Orru, H; Bhave, A G; Mittal, N; Feliu, E; Faehnle, M

    2014-12-15

    In order to develop climate resilient urban areas and reduce emissions, several opportunities exist starting from conscious planning and design of green (and blue) spaces in these landscapes. Green urban infrastructure has been regarded as beneficial, e.g. by balancing water flows, providing thermal comfort. This article explores the existing evidence on the contribution of green spaces to climate change mitigation and adaptation services. We suggest a framework of ecosystem services for systematizing the evidence on the provision of bio-physical benefits (e.g. CO2 sequestration) as well as social and psychological benefits (e.g. improved health) that enable coping with (adaptation) or reducing the adverse effects (mitigation) of climate change. The multi-functional and multi-scale nature of green urban infrastructure complicates the categorization of services and benefits, since in reality the interactions between various benefits are manifold and appear on different scales. We will show the relevance of the benefits from green urban infrastructures on three spatial scales (i.e. city, neighborhood and site specific scales). We will further report on co-benefits and trade-offs between the various services indicating that a benefit could in turn be detrimental in relation to other functions. The manuscript identifies avenues for further research on the role of green urban infrastructure, in different types of cities, climates and social contexts. Our systematic understanding of the bio-physical and social processes defining various services allows targeting stressors that may hamper the provision of green urban infrastructure services in individual behavior as well as in wider planning and environmental management in urban areas. PMID:25163601

  4. Positional behavior and limb bone adaptations in red howling monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).

    PubMed

    Schön Ybarra, M A; Schön, M A

    1987-01-01

    Morphological adaptations to climbing (a scansorial mode of quadrupedal, arboreal locomotion practised on twigs and small branches) are identified by relating anatomical details of limb bones to a sample of 6,136 instantaneous observational recordings on the positional behavior and support uses of 20 different free-ranging, adult red howlers. Our findings are used to infer the original habitat in which proto-red howlers may have acquired such adaptations and to hypothesize that climbing and its related anatomy are a primitive condition for anthropoids. PMID:3454342

  5. Adaptation of the schupmann medial telescope to a large scale astronomical optical system.

    PubMed

    Villa, J J

    1972-08-01

    The classical Schupmann medial telescope is free of the secondary-spectrum residual associated with large refractors. The difficulties in obtaining large glass disks of the necessary optical quality and the problem associated with their mounting preclude the use of this unconventional lens in large scale astronomical systems. However, to circumvent these limitations, the Schupmann lens was modified by replacing the refractive objective with a spherical mirror producing a new catadioptric lens configuration adaptable to large-scale astronomy. The design parameters and performance data are given for an f/5.4, 5.5-m focal length design covering a 2 degrees full field. PMID:20119238

  6. Measuring HIV felt stigma: a culturally adapted scale targeting PLWHA in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Julio Cesar; Puig, Marieva; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Morales, Marangelie; Asencio, Gloria; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Castro, Eida; Santori, Carmen Vélez; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to culturally adapt and validate a scale to measure HIV-related felt stigma in a group of People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Puerto Rico. The researchers conducted a two-phase cross-sectional study with 216 participants (60, first phase; 156, second phase). The first phase consisted of the cultural adaptation of the scale; the second evaluated its psychometric properties. After conducting a factor analysis, a 17-item scale, the HIV Felt-Stigma Scale (HFSS), resulted. Participants completed the Puerto Rico Comprehensive Center for the Study of Health Disparities Socio-demographic Questionnaire, the HFSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Sexual Abuse dimension of the History of Abuse Questionnaire; the case managers completed the Case Manager Stigma Guide with subjects. The HFSS measures four dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. The alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients (0.91 and 0.68, respectively) indicated satisfactory validity and reliability; the scale suggested adequate convergent validity. The HFSS is a culturally sensitive instrument that fills the existing gap in the measurement of felt stigma in Spanish-speaking PLWHA. PMID:20665283

  7. Measuring HIV felt stigma: a culturally adapted scale targeting PLWHA in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Julio Cesar; Puig, Marieva; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Morales, Marangelie; Asencio, Gloria; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Castro, Eida; Velez Santori, Carmen; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to culturally adapt and validate a scale to measure HIV-related felt stigma in a group of People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Puerto Rico. The researchers conducted a two-phase cross-sectional study with 216 participants (60, first phase; 156, second phase). The first phase consisted of the cultural adaptation of the scale; the second evaluated its psychometric properties. After conducting a factor analysis, a 17-item scale, the HIV Felt-Stigma Scale (HFSS), resulted. Participants completed the Puerto Rico Comprehensive Center for the Study of Health Disparities Socio-demographic Questionnaire, the HFSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Sexual Abuse dimension of the History of Abuse Questionnaire; the case managers completed the Case Manager Stigma Guide with subjects. The HFSS measures four dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. The alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients (0.91 and 0.68, respectively) indicated satisfactory validity and reliability; the scale suggested adequate convergent validity. The HFSS is a culturally sensitive instrument that fills the existing gap in the measurement of felt stigma in Spanish-speaking PLWHA. PMID:20665283

  8. Digital redesign of the decentralised adaptive tracker for linear large-scale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Hong; Sheng-Hong Tsai, Jason; Chen, Chia-Wei; Guo, Shu-Mei; Chu, Che-An

    2010-02-01

    A novel digital redesign of the analogue model-reference-based decentralized adaptive tracker is proposed for the sampled-data large scale system consisting of N interconnected linear subsystems, so that the system output will follow any trajectory specified at sampling instant which may not be presented by the analytic reference initially, and shows that the proposed decentralized controller induces a good robustness on the decoupling of the closed-loop controlled system. The adaptation of the analogue controller gain is derived by using the model-reference adaptive control theory based on Lyapunov's method. In this article, it is shown that using the sampled-data decentralized adaptive control system it is theoretically possible to asymptotically track the desired output with a desired performance. It is assumed that all the controllers share their prior information and the principal result is derived when they cooperate implicitly. Based on the prediction-based digital redesign methodology, the optimal digital redesigned tracker for the sampled-data decentralised adaptive control systems is newly proposed. An illustrative example of interconnected linear system is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design methodology.

  9. Scale-adaptive tensor algebra for local many-body methods of electronic structure theory

    SciTech Connect

    Liakh, Dmitry I

    2014-01-01

    While the formalism of multiresolution analysis (MRA), based on wavelets and adaptive integral representations of operators, is actively progressing in electronic structure theory (mostly on the independent-particle level and, recently, second-order perturbation theory), the concepts of multiresolution and adaptivity can also be utilized within the traditional formulation of correlated (many-particle) theory which is based on second quantization and the corresponding (generally nonorthogonal) tensor algebra. In this paper, we present a formalism called scale-adaptive tensor algebra (SATA) which exploits an adaptive representation of tensors of many-body operators via the local adjustment of the basis set quality. Given a series of locally supported fragment bases of a progressively lower quality, we formulate the explicit rules for tensor algebra operations dealing with adaptively resolved tensor operands. The formalism suggested is expected to enhance the applicability and reliability of local correlated many-body methods of electronic structure theory, especially those directly based on atomic orbitals (or any other localized basis functions).

  10. A Decentralized Multivariable Robust Adaptive Voltage and Speed Regulator for Large-Scale Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okou, Francis A.; Akhrif, Ouassima; Dessaint, Louis A.; Bouchard, Derrick

    2013-05-01

    This papter introduces a decentralized multivariable robust adaptive voltage and frequency regulator to ensure the stability of large-scale interconnnected generators. Interconnection parameters (i.e. load, line and transormer parameters) are assumed to be unknown. The proposed design approach requires the reformulation of conventiaonal power system models into a multivariable model with generator terminal voltages as state variables, and excitation and turbine valve inputs as control signals. This model, while suitable for the application of modern control methods, introduces problems with regards to current design techniques for large-scale systems. Interconnection terms, which are treated as perturbations, do not meet the common matching condition assumption. A new adaptive method for a certain class of large-scale systems is therefore introduces that does not require the matching condition. The proposed controller consists of nonlinear inputs that cancel some nonlinearities of the model. Auxiliary controls with linear and nonlinear components are used to stabilize the system. They compensate unknown parametes of the model by updating both the nonlinear component gains and excitation parameters. The adaptation algorithms involve the sigma-modification approach for auxiliary control gains, and the projection approach for excitation parameters to prevent estimation drift. The computation of the matrix-gain of the controller linear component requires the resolution of an algebraic Riccati equation and helps to solve the perturbation-mismatching problem. A realistic power system is used to assess the proposed controller performance. The results show that both stability and transient performance are considerably improved following a severe contingency.

  11. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale in Iranian Men

    PubMed Central

    Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H.; Burri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Certain sexual health problems in men can be attributed to genital self-image. Therefore, a culturally adapted version of a Male Genital Self-Image Scale (MGSIS) could help health professionals understand this concept and its associated correlates. Aim To translate the original English version of the MGSIS into Persian and to assess the psychometric properties of this culturally adapted version (MGSIS-I) for use in Iranian men. Methods In total, 1,784 men were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Backward and forward translations of the MGSIS were used to produce the culturally adapted version. Reliability of the MGSIS-I was assessed using Cronbach α and intra-class correlation coefficients. Divergent and convergent validities were examined using Pearson correlation and known-group validity was assessed in subgroups of participants with different sociodemographic statuses. Factor validity of the scale was investigated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Main Outcome Measures Demographic information, the International Index of Erectile Function, the Body Appreciation Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the MGSIS. Results Mean age of participants was 38.13 years (SD = 11.45) and all men were married. Cronbach α of the MGSIS-I was 0.89 and interclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.70 to 0.94. Significant correlations were found between the MGSIS-I and the International Index of Erectile Function (P < .01), whereas correlation of the scale with non-similar scales was lower than with similar scale (confirming convergent and divergent validity). The scale could differentiate between subgroups in age, smoking status, and income (known-group validity). A single-factor solution that explained 70% variance of the scale was explored using exploratory factor analysis (confirming uni-dimensionality); confirmatory factor analysis indicated better fitness for the five-item version than the seven-item version of the MGSIS

  12. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  13. Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

  14. Evolutionary Influences of Plastic Behavioral Responses Upon Environmental Challenges in an Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Foster, Susan A; Wund, Matthew A; Baker, John A

    2015-09-01

    At the end of the 19th century, the suggestion was made by several scientists, including J. M. Baldwin, that behavioral responses to environmental change could both rescue populations from extinction (Baldwin Effect) and influence the course of subsequent evolution. Here we provide the historical and theoretical background for this argument and offer evidence of the importance of these ideas for understanding how animals (and other organisms that exhibit behavior) will respond to the rapid environmental changes caused by human activity. We offer examples from long-term research on the evolution of behavioral and other phenotypes in the adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a radiation in which it is possible to infer ancestral patterns of behavioral plasticity relative to the post-glacial freshwater radiation in northwestern North America, and to use patterns of parallelism and contemporary evolution to understand adaptive causes of responses to environmental modification. Our work offers insights into the complexity of cognitive responses to environmental change, and into the importance of examining multiple aspects of the phenotype simultaneously, if we are to understand how behavioral shifts contribute to the persistence of populations and to subsequent evolution. We conclude by discussing the origins of apparent novelties induced by environmental shifts, and the importance of accounting for geographic variation within species if we are to accurately anticipate the effects of anthropogenic environmental modification on the persistence and evolution of animals. PMID:26163679

  15. Neurocognitive, adaptive, and behavioral functioning of individuals with Costello syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Marni E; Schwartz, David D; Katzenstein, Jennifer M; Hopkins, Elizabeth; Gripp, Karen W

    2011-05-15

    Costello syndrome is a rare rasopathy resulting from germline mutations of the proto-oncogene HRAS. Its phenotype includes severe failure-to-thrive, cardiac abnormalities, a predisposition to benign and malignant tumors, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Costello syndrome is associated with cognitive impairment, including intellectual functioning generally in the mild to moderate range of disability, commensurate adaptive functioning, and increased anxiety. Relative strengths have been found for nonverbal fluid reasoning (FR). Gender effects have been reported, with females showing better adaptive functioning across domains. Developmentally, nonverbal skills plateau in late childhood/early adolescence, whereas the rate of vocabulary acquisition may increase in adolescence into early adulthood. Here we review the literature assessing cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral functioning in Costello syndrome, and we provide data from an ongoing longitudinal study. Severity of cognitive impairment may depend upon the specific HRAS mutation, as three individuals with the p.G13C change showed average nonverbal FR skills and borderline-to-low average overall nonverbal IQ. Further, separation anxiety is more common in Costello syndrome than in the general population, affecting 39% of this cohort, and males are more often overly anxious than females. Interrelations between anxiety and cognitive and adaptive functioning were found, pointing to functional difficulties as a likely source of stress and anxiety. Taking into account data from animal models, cognitive and behavioral changes likely originate from abnormal differentiation of neuronal precursor cells, which result in structural and functional brain differences. PMID:21495179

  16. Examining Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in Rural Africa: Six Case Studies from Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, sd = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes. PMID:22391811

  17. The Association of Intelligence, Visual-Motor Functioning, and Personality Characteristics With Adaptive Behavior in Individuals With Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Trista J; Lincoln, Alan J; Bellugi, Ursula; Searcy, Yvonne M

    2015-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with deficits in adaptive behavior and an uneven adaptive profile. This study investigated the association of intelligence, visual-motor functioning, and personality characteristics with the adaptive behavior in individuals with WS. One hundred individuals with WS and 25 individuals with developmental disabilities of other etiologies were included in this study. This study found that IQ and visual-motor functioning significantly predicted adaptive behavior in individuals of WS. Visual-motor functioning especially predicted the most amount of unique variance in overall adaptive behavior and contributed to the variance above and beyond that of IQ. Present study highlights the need for interventions that address visual-motor and motor functioning in individuals with WS. PMID:26161466

  18. Therapeutic adherence and competence scales for Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy for adolescents with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Gutermann, Jana; Schreiber, Franziska; Matulis, Simone; Stangier, Ulrich; Rosner, Rita; Steil, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Background The assessment of therapeutic adherence and competence is often neglected in psychotherapy research, particularly in children and adolescents; however, both variables are crucial for the interpretation of treatment effects. Objective Our aim was to develop, adapt, and pilot two scales to assess therapeutic adherence and competence in a recent innovative program, Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (D-CPT), for adolescents suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childhood abuse. Method Two independent raters assessed 30 randomly selected sessions involving 12 D-CPT patients (age 13–20 years, M age=16.75, 91.67% female) treated by 11 therapists within the pilot phase of a multicenter study. Results Three experts confirmed the relevance and appropriateness of each item. All items and total scores for adherence (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]=0.76–1.00) and competence (ICC=0.78–0.98) yielded good to excellent inter-rater reliability. Cronbach's alpha was 0.59 for the adherence scale and 0.96 for the competence scale. Conclusions The scales reliably assess adherence and competence in D-CPT for adolescent PTSD patients. The ratings can be helpful in the interpretation of treatment effects, the assessment of mediator variables, and the identification and training of therapeutic skills that are central to achieving good treatment outcomes. Both adherence and competence will be assessed as possible predictor variables for treatment success in future D-CPT trials. PMID:25791915

  19. The translation and cultural adaptation of the Child Behavior Checklist for use in Israel (Hebrew), Korea, the US (Spanish), India (Malayalam and Kannada), and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Diane; Furtado, Tamzin; Angalakuditi, Mallik

    2012-01-01

    Background The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a caregiver rating scale for assessing the behavioral profile of children. It was developed in the US, and has been extensively translated and used in a large number of studies internationally. Objective The objective of this study was to translate the CBCL into six languages using a rigorous translation methodology, placing particular emphasis on cultural adaptation and ensuring that the measure has content validity with carers of children with epilepsy. Methods A rigorous translation and cultural adaptation methodology was used. This is a process which includes two forward translations, reconciliation, two back-translations, and cognitive debriefing interviews with five carers of children with epilepsy in each country. In addition, a series of open-ended questions were asked of the carers in order to provide evidence of content validity. Results A number of cultural adaptations were made during the translation process. This included adaptations to the examples of sports and hobbies. An addition of “milk delivery” was made to the job examples in the Malayalam translation. In addition, two sexual problem items were removed from the Hebrew translation for Israel. Conclusion An additional six translations of the CBCL are now available for use in multinational studies. These translations have evidence of content validity for use with parents of children with epilepsy and have been appropriately culturally adapted so that they are acceptable for use in the target countries. The study highlights the importance of a rigorous translation process and the process of cultural adaptation. PMID:22715318

  20. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  1. Using Rasch Rating Scale Methodology to Examine a Behavioral Screener for Preschoolers at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Greer, Fred W.; Kamphaus, R. W.; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A screening instrument used to identify young children at risk for behavioral and emotional difficulties, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool was examined. The Rasch Rating Scale Method was used to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items, respondents, and the response scale.…

  2. Hybrid Model Predictive Control for Sequential Decision Policies in Adaptive Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuwen; Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E.; Downs, Danielle S.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Control engineering offers a systematic and efficient method to optimize the effectiveness of individually tailored treatment and prevention policies known as adaptive or “just-in-time” behavioral interventions. The nature of these interventions requires assigning dosages at categorical levels, which has been addressed in prior work using Mixed Logical Dynamical (MLD)-based hybrid model predictive control (HMPC) schemes. However, certain requirements of adaptive behavioral interventions that involve sequential decision making have not been comprehensively explored in the literature. This paper presents an extension of the traditional MLD framework for HMPC by representing the requirements of sequential decision policies as mixed-integer linear constraints. This is accomplished with user-specified dosage sequence tables, manipulation of one input at a time, and a switching time strategy for assigning dosages at time intervals less frequent than the measurement sampling interval. A model developed for a gestational weight gain (GWG) intervention is used to illustrate the generation of these sequential decision policies and their effectiveness for implementing adaptive behavioral interventions involving multiple components. PMID:25635157

  3. Control of cognition and adaptive behavior by the GLP/G9a epigenetic suppressor complex

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Anne; Sampath, Srihari C.; Intrator, Adam; Min, Alice; Gertler, Tracy S.; Surmeier, D. James; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Greengard, Paul

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The genetic basis of cognition and behavioral adaptation to the environment remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the histone methyltransferase complex GLP/G9a controls cognition and adaptive responses in a region-specific fashion in the adult brain. Using conditional mutagenesis in mice, we show that postnatal, neuron-specific deficiency of GLP/G9a leads to de-repression of numerous non-neuronal and neuron progenitor genes in adult neurons. This transcriptional alteration is associated with complex behavioral abnormalities, including defects in learning, motivation and environmental adaptation. The behavioral changes triggered by GLP/G9a deficiency are similar to key symptoms of the human 9q34 mental retardation syndrome that is associated with structural alterations of the GLP gene. The likely causal role of GLP/G9a in mental retardation in mice and humans suggests a key role for the GLP/G9a controlled histone H3K9 di-methylation in regulation of brain function through maintenance of the transcriptional homeostasis in adult neurons. PMID:20005824

  4. The role of metabotropic glutamate receptors and cortical adaptation in habituation of odor-guided behavior

    PubMed Central

    Yadon, Carly A.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2005-01-01

    Decreases in behavioral investigation of novel stimuli over time may be mediated by a variety of factors including changes in attention, internal state, and motivation. Sensory cortical adaptation, a decrease in sensory cortical responsiveness over prolonged stimulation, may also play a role. In olfaction, metabotropic glutamate receptors on cortical afferent pre-synaptic terminals have been shown to underlie both cortical sensory adaptation and habituation of odor-evoked reflexes. The present experiment examined whether blockade of sensory cortical adaptation through bilateral infusion of the group III metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (CPPG) into the anterior piriform cortex could reduce habituation of a more complex odor-driven behavior such as investigation of a scented object or a conspecific. The results demonstrate that time spent investigating a scented jar, or a conspecific, decreases over the course of a continuous 10 minute trial. Acute infusion of CPPG bilaterally into the anterior piriform cortex significantly enhanced the time spent investigating the scented jar compared to investigation time in control rats, without affecting overall behavioral activity levels. Infusions into the brain outside of the piriform cortex were without effect. CPPG infusion into the piriform cortex also produced an enhancement of time spent investigating a conspecific, although this effect was not significant. PMID:16322361

  5. Longitudinal Effects of Adaptability on Behavior Problems and Maternal Depression in Families of Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Research on families of individuals with autism has tended to focus on child-driven effects utilizing models of stress and coping. The current study used a family-systems perspective to examine whether family-level adaptability promoted beneficial outcomes for mothers and their adolescents with autism over time. Participants were 149 families of children diagnosed with autism who were between the ages of 10 and 22 years during the three-year period examined. Mothers reported on family adaptability, the mother-child relationship, their own depressive symptoms, and the behavior problems of their children at Wave 1, and these factors were used to predict maternal depression and child behavior problems three years later. Family-level adaptability predicted change in both maternal depression and child behavior problems over the study period, above and beyond the contribution of the dyadic mother-child relationship. These associations did not appear to depend upon the intellectual disability status of the individual with autism. Implications for autism, parent mental health, family systems theory, and for intervention with this population are discussed. PMID:21668120

  6. Nonlinearity and Scaling Behavior in Lead Zirconate Titanate Piezoceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, V.

    1998-03-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of the nonlinear dielectric and electromechanical response of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoceramics are presented. The piezoelectric strain of a series of donor doped (soft PZT) and acceptor doped (hard PZT) polycrystalline systems was measured under quasistatic (nonresonant) conditions. The measuring field was applied both parallel and perpendicular to the poling direction of the ceramic in order to investigate the influence of different symmetry conditions. Dielectric properties were studied in addition to the electromechanical measurements which enables us to compare piezoelectric and dielectric nonlinearities. Due to the different level and type of dopants, the piezoceramics examined differ significantly with regard to its Curie temperature (190^o Cscaling behavior \\chi (E_ac) = \\chi_lin+ A[(E-E_c)/E_c]^φ above the respective threshold. The values of the effective exponent φ are apparently independent of the particular ceramic system which indicates a universal behavior of soft PZT. Hard PZT exhibits a less pronounced nonlinearity and a threshold E_c2≈ 1000V/cm at higher field level than soft PZT. The low field behavior of hard PZT seems to be related to a gradual depinning of ferroelectric domain walls with individual depinning threshold whereas in large fields E>E_c2 the

  7. Cross-cultural adaption of the German Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale: an exposure-specific measurement for back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Riecke, Jenny; Holzapfel, Sebastian; Rief, Winfried; Lachnit, Harald; Glombiewski, Julia A

    2016-01-01

    Study design Cross-cultural translation and psychometric testing. Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine reliability and validity of a cross-cultural adaption of the German Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QBPDS) in a context of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of graded in vivo exposure in chronic low back pain patients. Background The QBPDS is one of the most widely used disease-specific disability questionnaires. In particular, for cognitive behavioral treatments with a clear focus on behavioral aspects such as graded in vivo exposure, the QBPDS provides an ascertained strategy with a sound conceptual basis and excellent quality criteria. Nevertheless, there is conflicting evidence concerning factor structure and a German adaption is missing. Methods The cross-cultural adaption followed international guidelines. Psychometric testing was performed using data from 180 participants with chronic low back pain. The psychometric analyses included internal consistency, convergent, and divergent validity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure. Results The QBPDS showed strong psychometric properties, with high internal consistency for the full scale (α=0.94) and good convergent and divergent validity. The factor analysis revealed a four-factor solution (bending, ambulation, brief effortful movements, and long-lasting postures). Conclusion The translation and cross-cultural adaption of the QBPDS into German was successful. The German version proved to be a valid and reliable instrument and is well suited for use in the context of an exposure-based psychological treatment. PMID:26811693

  8. Costs and benefits of adapting to river floods at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Philip; Aerts, Jeroen; Botzen, Wouter; Hallegatte, Stephane; Jongman, Brenden; Kind, Jarl; Scussolini, Paolo; Winsemius, Hessel

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that the economic losses associated with flooding are huge; for example in 2012 alone the economic losses from flooding exceeded 19 billion. As a result, different models have been developed to assess global scale flood risk. Recently, these have been used in several studies to assess current flood risk at the global scale, and to project how risk may increase as a result of climate change and/or socioeconomic development. In most regions, these studies show rapid increases in risk into the future, and therefore call for urgent adaptation. However, to date no studies have attempted to assess the costs of carrying out such adaptation, nor the benefits. In this paper, we therefore present the first global scale estimate of the costs and benefits of adapting to increased river flood risk caused by factors such as climate change and socioeconomic development. For this study, we concentrate on structural adaptation measures, such as dikes, designed to prevent flood hazard up to a certain design standard. We address two questions: 1. What would be the costs and benefits of maintaining current flood protection standards, accounting for future climate and socioeconomic change until 2100? 2. What flood protection standards would be required by 2100 to keep future flood risk constant at today's levels? And what would be the costs and benefits associated with this? In this paper, we will present our first global estimates of the costs and benefits of adaptation to increased flood risk, as well as maps of these findings per country and river basin. We present the results under 4 emission scenarios (RCPs), 5 socioeconomic scenarios (SSPs), and under several assumptions relating to total potential flood damages, discount rates, construction costs, maintenance costs, and so forth. The research was carried out using the GLOFRIS modelling cascade. This global flood risk model calculates flood risk in terms of annual expected damage, and has been developed and

  9. Spanish adaptation of the scale of psychological empowerment in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Albar, Maria-Jesús; García-Ramírez, Manuel; López Jiménez, Ana María; Garrido, Rocío

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to adapt and translate into Spanish Spreitzer's Psychological Empowerment Scale (1995a). A process of translation and reverse-translation was applied to the scale's items, whose psychometric properties were then examined using a sample of 272 professional nurses at public hospitals in the province of Seville. The data were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. The significance of the factor loadings demonstrated the need to create a new model eliminating one item. The 11-item model was shown to possess adequate construct validity and internal consistency. The results confirm the original, four-factor structure obtained by Spreitzer, with the exception of item 10, and support the utilization of the Spanish version of this scale in the workplace. Future research should more extensively investigate its construct validity, and test the nomological network of the operationalized construct within the field of psychological well-being and in the context of the workplace. PMID:22774453

  10. Persian adaptation of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale: a psychometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Baghaei, Purya; Hohensinn, Christine; Kubinger, Klaus D

    2014-04-01

    The validity and psychometric properties of a new Persian adaptation of the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale were investigated. The scale was translated into Persian and administered to 160 undergraduate students (131 women, 29 men; M age = 23.4 yr., SD = 4.3). Rasch model analysis on the scale's original 20 items revealed that the data do not fit the partial credit model. Principal components analysis identified three factors: one related to feelings of anxiety about reading, the second reflected the reverse-worded items, and the third related to general ideas about reading in a foreign language. In a re-analysis, the 12 items that loaded on the first factor showed a good fit with the partial credit model. PMID:24897892

  11. Accuracy of the "DSM"-Oriented Attention Problem Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist in Diagnosing Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aebi, Marcel; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at testing the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) including an adapted five-item "DSM"-Oriented Attention Problem Scale for predicting attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). Methods: CBCL ratings were made both in a community sample (N = 390) and an outpatient child psychiatric sample (N = 392). Four…

  12. Thermal Behavior of Unusual Local-Scale Features on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosi, Federico; Capria, Maria Teresa; DeSanctis, Maria Cristina; Palomba, Ernesto; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Titus, Timothy; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Li, Jian-Yang; Russell, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    On Vesta, the thermal behavior of areas of unusual albedo seen at the local scale can be related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. Dawn's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) hyperspectral cubes are used to retrieve surface temperatures and emissivities, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 180 K. Data acquired in the Survey phase (23 July through 29 August 2011) show several unusual surface features: 1) high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material deposits, 2) spectrally distinct ejecta and pitted materials, 3) regions suggesting finer-grained materials. Some of the unusual dark and bright features were re-observed by VIR in the subsequent High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) phases at increased pixel resolution. In particular, bright and dark surface materials on Vesta, and pitted materials, are currently being investigated by the Dawn team. In this work we present temperature maps and emissivities of several local-scale features that were observed by Dawn under different illumination conditions and different local solar times. To calculate surface temperatures, we applied a Bayesian approach to nonlinear inversion based on the Kirchhoff law and the Planck function, and whose results were compared with those provided by the application of alternative methods. Data from the IR channel of VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower thermal emission, i.e. lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher thermal emission, i.e. higher temperature. This behavior confirms that many of the dark appearances in the VIS mainly reflect albedo variations, and not, for example, shadowing. During maximum daily insolation, dark features in the equatorial region may rise to temperatures greater than 270 K, while brightest features stop at roughly 258 K for similar local solar times. However, pitted

  13. Self-Adaptive Event-Driven Simulation of Multi-Scale Plasma Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelchenko, Yuri; Karimabadi, Homayoun

    2005-10-01

    Multi-scale plasmas pose a formidable computational challenge. The explicit time-stepping models suffer from the global CFL restriction. Efficient application of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to systems with irregular dynamics (e.g. turbulence, diffusion-convection-reaction, particle acceleration etc.) may be problematic. To address these issues, we developed an alternative approach to time stepping: self-adaptive discrete-event simulation (DES). DES has origin in operations research, war games and telecommunications. We combine finite-difference and particle-in-cell techniques with this methodology by assuming two caveats: (1) a local time increment, dt for a discrete quantity f can be expressed in terms of a physically meaningful quantum value, df; (2) f is considered to be modified only when its change exceeds df. Event-driven time integration is self-adaptive as it makes use of causality rules rather than parametric time dependencies. This technique enables asynchronous flux-conservative update of solution in accordance with local temporal scales, removes the curse of the global CFL condition, eliminates unnecessary computation in inactive spatial regions and results in robust and fast parallelizable codes. It can be naturally combined with various mesh refinement techniques. We discuss applications of this novel technology to diffusion-convection-reaction systems and hybrid simulations of magnetosonic shocks.

  14. Fibrin Networks Support Recurring Mechanical Loads by Adapting their Structure across Multiple Scales.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Vos, Bart E; Biebricher, Andreas; Wuite, Gijs J L; Peterman, Erwin J G; Koenderink, Gijsje H

    2016-09-01

    Tissues and cells sustain recurring mechanical loads that span a wide range of loading amplitudes and timescales as a consequence of exposure to blood flow, muscle activity, and external impact. Both tissues and cells derive their mechanical strength from fibrous protein scaffolds, which typically have a complex hierarchical structure. In this study, we focus on a prototypical hierarchical biomaterial, fibrin, which is one of the most resilient naturally occurring biopolymers and forms the structural scaffold of blood clots. We show how fibrous networks composed of fibrin utilize irreversible changes in their hierarchical structure at different scales to maintain reversible stress stiffening up to large strains. To trace the origin of this paradoxical resilience, we systematically tuned the microstructural parameters of fibrin and used a combination of optical tweezers and fluorescence microscopy to measure the interactions of single fibrin fibers for the first time, to our knowledge. We demonstrate that fibrin networks adapt to moderate strains by remodeling at the network scale through the spontaneous formation of new bonds between fibers, whereas they adapt to high strains by plastic remodeling of the fibers themselves. This multiscale adaptation mechanism endows fibrin gels with the remarkable ability to sustain recurring loads due to shear flows and wound stretching. Our findings therefore reveal a microscopic mechanism by which tissues and cells can balance elastic nonlinearity and plasticity, and thus can provide microstructural insights into cell-driven remodeling of tissues. PMID:27602730

  15. Gene expression clines reveal local adaptation and associated trade-offs at a continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Damiano; Westram, Anja M.; Pascual, Marta; Gaston, Kevin J.; Butlin, Roger K.; Snook, Rhonda R.

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation, where fitness in one environment comes at a cost in another, should lead to spatial variation in trade-offs between life history traits and may be critical for population persistence. Recent studies have sought genomic signals of local adaptation, but often have been limited to laboratory populations representing two environmentally different locations of a species’ distribution. We measured gene expression, as a proxy for fitness, in males of Drosophila subobscura, occupying a 20° latitudinal and 11 °C thermal range. Uniquely, we sampled six populations and studied both common garden and semi-natural responses to identify signals of local adaptation. We found contrasting patterns of investment: transcripts with expression positively correlated to latitude were enriched for metabolic processes, expressed across all tissues whereas negatively correlated transcripts were enriched for reproductive processes, expressed primarily in testes. When using only the end populations, to compare our results to previous studies, we found that locally adaptive patterns were obscured. While phenotypic trade-offs between metabolic and reproductive functions across widespread species are well-known, our results identify underlying genetic and tissue responses at a continental scale that may be responsible for this. This may contribute to understanding population persistence under environmental change. PMID:27599812

  16. Towards a large-scale scalable adaptive heart model using shallow tree meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Dorian; Dickopf, Thomas; Potse, Mark; Krause, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    Electrophysiological heart models are sophisticated computational tools that place high demands on the computing hardware due to the high spatial resolution required to capture the steep depolarization front. To address this challenge, we present a novel adaptive scheme for resolving the deporalization front accurately using adaptivity in space. Our adaptive scheme is based on locally structured meshes. These tensor meshes in space are organized in a parallel forest of trees, which allows us to resolve complicated geometries and to realize high variations in the local mesh sizes with a minimal memory footprint in the adaptive scheme. We discuss both a non-conforming mortar element approximation and a conforming finite element space and present an efficient technique for the assembly of the respective stiffness matrices using matrix representations of the inclusion operators into the product space on the so-called shallow tree meshes. We analyzed the parallel performance and scalability for a two-dimensional ventricle slice as well as for a full large-scale heart model. Our results demonstrate that the method has good performance and high accuracy.

  17. Gene expression clines reveal local adaptation and associated trade-offs at a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Damiano; Westram, Anja M; Pascual, Marta; Gaston, Kevin J; Butlin, Roger K; Snook, Rhonda R

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation, where fitness in one environment comes at a cost in another, should lead to spatial variation in trade-offs between life history traits and may be critical for population persistence. Recent studies have sought genomic signals of local adaptation, but often have been limited to laboratory populations representing two environmentally different locations of a species' distribution. We measured gene expression, as a proxy for fitness, in males of Drosophila subobscura, occupying a 20° latitudinal and 11 °C thermal range. Uniquely, we sampled six populations and studied both common garden and semi-natural responses to identify signals of local adaptation. We found contrasting patterns of investment: transcripts with expression positively correlated to latitude were enriched for metabolic processes, expressed across all tissues whereas negatively correlated transcripts were enriched for reproductive processes, expressed primarily in testes. When using only the end populations, to compare our results to previous studies, we found that locally adaptive patterns were obscured. While phenotypic trade-offs between metabolic and reproductive functions across widespread species are well-known, our results identify underlying genetic and tissue responses at a continental scale that may be responsible for this. This may contribute to understanding population persistence under environmental change. PMID:27599812

  18. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  19. Direct Behavior Rating Scales as Screeners: A Preliminary Investigation of Diagnostic Accuracy in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Welsh, Megan E.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy and concurrent validity of Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scales for use in school-based behavior screening of second-grade students. Results indicated that each behavior target was a moderately to highly accurate predictor of behavioral risk. Optimal universal screening cut scores…

  20. Factor Analysis of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale for Children in Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Strength-based assessment of behaviors in preschool children provides evidence of emotional and behavioral skills in children, rather than focusing primarily on weaknesses identified by deficit-based assessments. The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales (PreBERS) is a normative assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in…

  1. Contextual Influences on the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and Implications for Its Cross-cultural Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deVries, Marten; Super, Charles M.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale outside the standard hospital setting introduces variations in the physical and social context that influence scores on some of the behavioral items. (Author/BH)

  2. Synthetic melanin films: Assembling mechanisms, scaling behavior, and structural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorite, Gabriela S.; Coluci, Vitor R.; da Silva, Maria Ivonete N.; Dezidério, Shirlei N.; Graeff, Carlos Frederico O.; Galva~O, Douglas S.; Cotta, Mônica A.

    2006-06-01

    In this work we report on the surface characterization of melanin thin films prepared using both water-based and organic solvent-based melanin syntheses. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of these films suggests that the organic solvent synthesis provides relatively planar basic melanin structures; these basic structures generate surface steps with height in the range of 2-3 nm and small tendency to form larger aggregates. The scaling properties obtained from the AFM data were used to infer the assembling mechanisms of these thin films which depend on the solvent used for melanin synthesis. The behavior observed in organic solvent-based melanin suggests a diffusion-limited aggregation process. Thus films with good adhesion to the substrate and smoother morphologies than water-prepared melanin films are obtained. Electronic structure calculations using a conductorlike screening model were also performed in order to elucidate the microscopic processes of thin film formation. Our results suggest that the agglomerates observed in hydrated samples originate from reaction with water at specific locations on the surface most likely defects on the planar structure.

  3. Scaling in the Emergent Behavior of Heavy Electron Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curro, N.; Young, B.-L.; Pines, D.; Schmalian, Joerg

    2004-03-01

    We show that the two fluid description of the Kondo lattice developed by Nakatsuji, Pines, and Fisk provides a quantitative explanation of the Knight shift anomaly that has been measured in a number of heavy electron materials. It enables us to identify the onset of the anomaly at a temperature, T, at which the heavy electron liquid emerges from a lattice of non-interacting Kondo centers, and to determine quantitatively the temperature evolution of the heavy electron spin susceptibility by combining measurements of the temperature dependence of the Knight shift with those of the bulk electronic spin susceptibility. We find that an excellent fit to existing experimental data in Ce, Yb and U based materials is obtained with a susceptibility whose temperature dependence follows the simple form: (1-T/T*)log T^*/T; a result that suggests that quite generally in Kondo lattices the emergent behavior of the heavy electron liquid can be characterized entirely by the single energy scale, T^*, that Nakatsuji et al. have proposed is a direct measure of the strength of nearest neighbor intersite magnetic coupling.

  4. Integrating Systems Health Management with Adaptive Controls for a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Goebel, Kai; Trinh, Khanh V.; Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. Systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage. Advanced adaptive controls can provide the mechanism to enable optimized operations that also provide the enabling technology for Systems Health Management goals. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency management and adaptive controls. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  5. Adapting the academic motivation scale for use in pre-tertiary mathematics classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine

    2015-09-01

    The Academic Motivation Scale ( ams) is a comprehensive and widely used instrument for assessing motivation based on the self-determination theory. Currently, no such comprehensive instrument exists to assess the different domains of motivation (stipulated by the self-determination theory) in mathematics education at the pre-tertiary level (grades 11 and 12) in Asia. This study adapted the ams for this use and assessed the properties of the adapted instrument with 1610 students from Singapore. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a five-factor structure for the modified instrument (the three original ams intrinsic subscales collapsed into a single factor). Additionally, the modified instrument exhibited good internal consistency (mean α = .88), and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 1-month interval (mean r xx = .73). The validity of the modified ams was further demonstrated through correlational analyses among scores on its subscales, and with scores on other instruments measuring mathematics attitudes, anxiety and achievement.

  6. Changes in cortical activity associated with adaptive behavior during repeated balance perturbation of unpredictable timing

    PubMed Central

    Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2015-01-01

    The compensation for a sudden balance perturbation, unpracticed and unpredictable in timing and magnitude is accompanied by pronounced postural instability that is suggested to be causal to falls. However, subsequent presentations of an identical perturbation are characterized by a marked decrease of the amplitude of postural reactions; a phenomenon called adaptation or habituation. This study aimed to identify cortical characteristics associated with adaptive behavior during repetitive balance perturbations based on single-trial analyses of the P1 and N1 perturbation-evoked potentials. Thirty-seven young men were exposed to ten transient balance perturbations while balancing on the dominant leg. Thirty two-channel electroencephalography (EEG), surface electromyography (EMG) of the ankle plantar flexor muscles and postural sway (i.e., Euclidean distance of the supporting platform) were recorded simultaneously. The P1 and N1 potentials were localized and the amplitude/latency was analyzed trial by trial. The best match sources for P1 and N1 potentials were located in the parietal (Brodmann area (BA) 5) and midline fronto-central cortex (BA 6), respectively. The amplitude and latency of the P1 potential remained unchanged over trials. In contrast, a significant adaptation of the N1 amplitude was observed. Similar adaptation effects were found with regard to postural sway and ankle plantarflexors EMG activity of the non-dominant (free) leg; i.e., an indicator for reduced muscular co-contraction and/or less temporary bipedal stance to regain stability. Significant but weak correlations were found between N1 amplitude and postural sway as well as EMG activity. These results highlight the important role of the midline fronto-central cortex for adaptive behavior associated with balance control. PMID:26528154

  7. Adaptation and validation of stroke-aphasia quality of life (SAQOL-39) scale to Malayalam

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Ria; Krishnan, Gopee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aphasia, an acquired inability to understand and/or speak language, is a common repercussion of stroke that denigrates the quality of life (QOL) in the affected persons. Several languages in India experience the dearth of instruments to measure the QOL of persons with aphasia. Malayalam, the language spoken by more than 33 million people in Kerala, the southern state of India, is not an exception to this. Objective: This study aimed to adapt and validate the widely-used stroke-aphasia quality of life (SAQOL-39) scale to Malayalam. Materials and Methods: We required seven Malayalam-speaking Speech Language Pathologists (SLPs), hailing from different regions of Kerala, to examine the socio-cultural suitability of the original items in SAQOL-39 and indicate modifications, wherever necessary. Subsequently, the linguistic adaptation was performed through a forward-backward translation scheme. The socio-culturally and linguistically adapted Malayalam version was then administered on a group of 48 Malayalam-speaking persons with aphasia to examine the test-retest reliability, acceptability, as well as the internal consistency of the instrument. Results: The Malayalam SAQOL-39 scale showed high test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.91) as well as acceptability with minimal missing data (0.52%). Further, it yielded high internal consistency (Chronbach's ∝ = 0.98) as well as item-to-total and inter-domain correlations. Conclusions: The Malayalam version of SAQOL-39 is the first socio-culturally and linguistically adapted tool to measure the QOL of persons with stroke-aphasia speaking this language. It may serve as a potential tool to measure the QOL of this population in both clinical practice and future research endeavors. PMID:26713018

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the teamwork climate scale

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mariana Charantola; Peduzzi, Marina; Sangaleti, Carine Teles; da Silva, Dirceu; Agreli, Heloise Fernandes; West, Michael A; Anderson, Neil R

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To adapt and validate the Team Climate Inventory scale, of teamwork climate measurement, for the Portuguese language, in the context of primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Methodological study with quantitative approach of cross-cultural adaptation (translation, back-translation, synthesis, expert committee, and pretest) and validation with 497 employees from 72 teams of the Family Health Strategy in the city of Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil. We verified reliability by the Cronbach’s alpha, construct validity by the confirmatory factor analysis with SmartPLS software, and correlation by the job satisfaction scale. RESULTS We problematized the overlap of items 9, 11, and 12 of the “participation in the team” factor and the “team goals” factor regarding its definition. The validation showed no overlapping of items and the reliability ranged from 0.92 to 0.93. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated suitability of the proposed model with distribution of the 38 items in the four factors. The correlation between teamwork climate and job satisfaction was significant. CONCLUSIONS The version of the scale in Brazilian Portuguese was validated and can be used in the context of primary health care in the Country, constituting an adequate tool for the assessment and diagnosis of teamwork. PMID:27556966

  9. Combined block-matching and adaptive differential motion estimation in a hierarchical multi-scale framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüggemann, Matthias; Kays, Rüdiger; Springer, Paul; Erdler, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present a combination of block-matching and differential motion field estimation. We initialize the motion field using a predictive hierarchical block-matching approach. This vector field is refined by a pixel-recursive differential motion estimation method. We integrate image warping and adaptive filter kernels into the Horn and Schunck differential optical flow estimation approach to break the block structure of the initial correspondence vector fields and compute motion field updates to fulfill the smoothness constraint inside motion boundaries. The influence of occlusion areas is reduced by integrating an in-the-loop occlusion detection and adjusting the adaptive filter weights in the iteration process. We integrate the combined estimation into a hierarchical multi-scale framework. The refined motion on the current scale is upscaled and used as prediction for block-matching motion estimation on the next scale. With the proposed system we are able to combine the advantages of block-matching and differential motion estimation and achieve a dense vector field with floating point precision even for large motion.

  10. Validation of an adaptation of Levenson's locus of control scale with adult male incarcerated sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Fay L; Palmer, Emma J; Wakeling, Helen C

    2012-02-01

    This article examines the psychometric properties of an adaptation of Levenson's Locus of Control (LoC) measure that is used by the English and Welsh Prison Service as part of the psychometric assessment battery for sexual offenders participating in the Sex Offender Treatment Programme (SOTP). Reliability and validity analyses were conducted on a sample of 2,497 sexual offenders who had completed SOTP. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and relationship to socially desirable responding were investigated. Construct validity was assessed via exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Test-retest reliability data were collected from an additional sample of 26 sexual offenders. The scale was found to have excellent internal consistency, good test-retest reliability, and weak to moderate convergent validity with measures of self-esteem, attachment styles, emotional loneliness, and social problem solving. There was a moderate correlation between the scale and socially desirable responding. EFA and CFA suggested that a four-factor solution provided an acceptable fit to the data, with the factors relating to constructs of chance, problem solving, powerful others, and internal control. The findings of the present study suggest that the adapted LoC Scale is a useful tool for assessing sexual offenders' locus of control. PMID:21788438

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale for Brazilian nurses 1

    PubMed Central

    Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; da Silveira, Rosemary Silva; Dalmolin, Graziele de Lima; Ramos, Aline Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to adapt culturally and validate the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale for Brazilian nurses. Method: methodological study carried out with 153 nurses from two hospitals in the South region of Brazil, one public and the other philanthropic. The cross-cultural adaptation of the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale was performed according to international standards, and its validation was carried out for use in the Brazilian context, by means of factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha as measure of internal consistency. Results: by means of evaluation by a committee of experts and application of pre-test, face validity and content validity of the instrument were considered satisfactory. From the factor analysis, five constructs were identified: negative implications of the advocacy practice, advocacy actions, facilitators of the advocacy practice, perceptions that favor practice advocacy and barriers to advocacy practice. The instrument showed satisfactory internal consistency, with Cronbach's alpha values ranging from 0.70 to 0.87. Conclusion: it was concluded that the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale - Brazilian version, is a valid and reliable instrument for use in the evaluation of beliefs and actions of health advocacy, performed by Brazilian nurses in their professional practice environment. PMID:26444169

  12. Iron supplementation in infancy contributes to more adaptive behavior at 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M; Smith, Julia B; Sturza, Julie

    2014-06-01

    Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14-0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

  13. Peer reports of adaptive behavior in twins and singletons: is twinship a risk or an advantage?

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, Lea; Vaalamo, Inka; Hietala, Risto; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J

    2003-04-01

    We compared twins to their gender-matched singleton classmates in peer-assessed behavioral adjustment. Our samples include 1874 11- to 12-year-old Finnish twins (687 monozygotic, MZ; 610 same-sex dizygotic, SSDZ; 577 opposite-sex dizygotic, OSDZ) and their 23,200 non-twin classmates. Data were collected using a 30-item Multidimensional Peer Nomination Inventory containing three factors and their subscales. We found twin-singleton differences: classmates rated twin girls and boys higher than gender-matched singletons in Adaptive Behaviors (constructive, compliant, and socially active behavior), and those effects were particularly evident among OSDZ twins for assessments of social interaction, popularity, and leadership. We found no evidence that individual twins differ from singletons in Externalizing (hyperactivity-impulsivity, inattention, aggression) or Internalizing Problem Behaviors (depressive symptoms, social anxiety). Nor did we find systematic differences between MZ and SSDZ twins. Among both twins and singletons, boys exceeded girls in Externalizing, and girls exceeded boys in Internalizing Problem Behaviors. Results suggest that a twinship forms a positive developmental environment for socioemotional behavior, particularly among OSDZ twins. PMID:12723997

  14. Fractal behavior of traffic volume on urban expressway through adaptive fractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-di; Wang, Jun-li; Wei, Hai-rui; Ye, Cheng; Ding, Yi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fractal behavior of traffic volume in urban expressway based on a newly developed adaptive fractal analysis (AFA), which has a number of advantages over traditional method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Before fractal analysis, autocorrelation function was first adopted on traffic volume data and the long-range correlation behavior was found to be existed in both on-ramp and off-ramp situations. Then AFA as well as DFA was applied to further examine the fractal behavior. The results showed that the multifractality and the long-range anti-persistent behavior existed on both on-ramp and off-ramp. Additionally, multifractal analysis on weekdays and weekends are performed respectively and the results show that the degree of multifractality on weekdays is higher than that on weekends, implying that long-range correlation behaviors were more obvious on weekdays. Finally, the source of multifractality is examined with randomly shuffled and the surrogated series. Long-range correlation behaviors are identified in both on-ramp and off-ramp situations and fat-tail distributions were found to make little in the contributions of multifractality.

  15. Reliability and Construct Validity of Scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory: A Measure of Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarjoura, David; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Speight, Joan; Reuter, Jeanette

    1999-01-01

    Examined the reliability and construct validity in an older adult population (n=149 older adults and their informants) of scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory (BCI) (P. Hartman-Stein). Results indicate that scores on the BCI's seven scales show adequate internal consistencies and represent seven overlapping but distinct constructs in this…

  16. Academic Motivation Scale: adaptation and psychometric analyses for high school and college students.

    PubMed

    Stover, Juliana Beatriz; de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Boubeta, Antonio Rial; Liporace, Mercedes Fernández

    2012-01-01

    The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), supported in Self-Determination Theory, has been applied in recent decades as well in high school as in college education. Although several versions in Spanish are available, the underlying linguistic and cultural differences raise important issues when they are applied to Latin-American population. Consequently an adapted version of the AMS was developed, and its construct validity was analyzed in Argentine students. Results obtained on a sample that included 723 students from Buenos Aires (393 high school and 330 college students) verified adequate psychometric properties in this new version, solving some controversies regarded to its dimensionality. PMID:22888280

  17. Academic Motivation Scale: adaptation and psychometric analyses for high school and college students

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Juliana Beatriz; de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Boubeta, Antonio Rial; Liporace, Mercedes Fernández

    2012-01-01

    The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), supported in Self-Determination Theory, has been applied in recent decades as well in high school as in college education. Although several versions in Spanish are available, the underlying linguistic and cultural differences raise important issues when they are applied to Latin-American population. Consequently an adapted version of the AMS was developed, and its construct validity was analyzed in Argentine students. Results obtained on a sample that included 723 students from Buenos Aires (393 high school and 330 college students) verified adequate psychometric properties in this new version, solving some controversies regarded to its dimensionality. PMID:22888280

  18. An epidemic spreading model on adaptive scale-free networks with feedback mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Liu, Xiongding; Wu, Jie; Wan, Chen; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Yuanmei

    2016-05-01

    A SIRS epidemic model with feedback mechanism on adaptive scale-free networks is presented. Using the mean field theory the spreading dynamics of the epidemic is studied in detail. The basic reproductive number and equilibriums are derived. Theoretical results indicate that the basic reproductive number is significantly dependent on the topology of the underlying networks. The existence of equilibriums is determined by the basic reproductive number. The global stability of disease-free equilibrium and the epidemic permanence are proved in detail. The feedback mechanism cannot change the basic reproductive number, but it can reduce the endemic level and weaken the epidemic spreading. Numerical simulations confirmed the analytical results.

  19. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  20. A scale-based forward-and-backward diffusion process for adaptive image enhancement and denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Zhang, Liangpei; Wu, Ke; Sahli, Hichem

    2011-12-01

    This work presents a scale-based forward-and-backward diffusion (SFABD) scheme. The main idea of this scheme is to perform local adaptive diffusion using local scale information. To this end, we propose a diffusivity function based on the Minimum Reliable Scale (MRS) of Elder and Zucker (IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20(7), 699-716, 1998) to detect the details of local structures. The magnitude of the diffusion coefficient at each pixel is determined by taking into account the local property of the image through the scales. A scale-based variable weight is incorporated into the diffusivity function for balancing the forward and backward diffusion. Furthermore, as numerical scheme, we propose a modification of the Perona-Malik scheme (IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629-639, 1990) by incorporating edge orientations. The article describes the main principles of our method and illustrates image enhancement results on a set of standard images as well as simulated medical images, together with qualitative and quantitative comparisons with a variety of anisotropic diffusion schemes.

  1. Initial moments of adaptation to microgravity of human orientation behavior, in parabolic flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafforin, Carole

    1996-06-01

    The first ethological studies of astronauts' adaptation to microgravity dealt with the behavioral strategies observed during short-term space missions. No attempts had however been made to consider the initial moments of adaptation dynamics, when the subject is first submitted to conditions allowing body orientations in the full three dimensions of space. The present experimental approach was both longitudinal and transversal. It consisted of analysing, during a goal-directed orientation task in parabolic flight, the orientation behavior of 12 subjects with a past experience of 0, 30 or more than 300 parabolas. During each microgravity phase, the subjects were asked to orientate their bodies and touch, with the dominant hand, four coloured targets arranged inside the aircraft. Results showed that for inexperienced subjects, the time between two target contacts was longer than experienced subjects. They often failed to reach all targets in the series during the first parabolas. They showed right-left confusion and a preference for the "up-down" vertical body orientation. Their performance, described by the efficiency of orientation in all three dimensions, improved over time and according to the level of experience. The results are discussed for the spontaneous, preliminary and integrative stages of adaptation, emphasizing new relationships between the body references and those of the surroundings. Such experiences lead the subject to develop a new mental representation of space.

  2. Micro-scale piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting: From fixed-frequency to adaptable-frequency devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lindsay Margaret

    hundred milliwatts and are falling steadily as improvements are made, it is feasible to use energy harvesting to power WSNs. This research begins by presenting the results of a thorough survey of ambient vibrations in the machine room of a large campus building, which found that ambient vibrations are low frequency, low amplitude, time varying, and multi-frequency. The modeling and design of fixed-frequency micro scale energy harvesters are then presented. The model is able to take into account rotational inertia of the harvester's proof mass and it accepts arbitrary measured acceleration input, calculating the energy harvester's voltage as an output. The fabrication of the micro electromechanical system (MEMS) energy harvesters is discussed and results of the devices harvesting energy from ambient vibrations are presented. The harvesters had resonance frequencies ranging from 31 - 232 Hz, which was the lowest reported in literature for a MEMS device, and produced 24 pW/g2 - 10 nW/g2 of harvested power from ambient vibrations. A novel method for frequency modification of the released harvester devices using a dispenser printed mass is then presented, demonstrating a frequency shift of 20 Hz. Optimization of the MEMS energy harvester connected to a resistive load is then presented, finding that the harvested power output can be increased to several microwatts with the optimized design as long as the driving frequency matches the harvester's resonance frequency. A framework is then presented to allow a similar optimization to be conducted with the harvester connected to a synchronously switched pre-bias circuit. With the realization that the optimized energy harvester only produces usable amounts of power if the resonance frequency and driving frequency match, which is an unrealistic situation in the case of ambient vibrations which change over time and are not always known a priori, an adaptable-frequency energy harvester was designed. The adaptable

  3. Development and Construct Validation of the Mentor Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodeur, Pascale; Larose, Simon; Tarabulsy, George; Feng, Bei; Forget-Dubois, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Researchers suggest that certain supportive behaviors of mentors could increase the benefits of school-based mentoring for youth. However, the literature contains few validated instruments to measure these behaviors. In our present study, we aimed to construct and validate a tool to measure the supportive behaviors of mentors participating in…

  4. Expectancy Theory Predictions and Behaviorally Anchored Scales of Motivation: An Empirical Test of Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivancevich, John M.

    1976-01-01

    A behaviorally specific motivational effort rating scale was developed and tested. The organizational specific scale results were examined and compared to those generated from the Landy and Guion scale. It was found that the organizationally specific and engineer relevant scale is a better predictor of two types of expectancies. (Author)

  5. Adapting the VOICES HIV behavioral intervention for Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Joseph, Heather A; Flores, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, but few behavioral interventions address their prevention needs. Adaptation of evidence-based interventions is a pragmatic strategy that builds upon lessons learned and has the potential to fill gaps in prevention programming. Yet there are few reports of how transfers are executed and whether effectiveness is achieved. This research reports on the adaptation of VOICES/VOICES, a single-session intervention designed for heterosexual adults, into No Excuses/Sin buscar excuses for Latino MSM. To test the adapted intervention, 370 at-risk Latino MSM were enrolled in a randomized trial. At a three-month follow-up, there was a sharper decrease in unprotected intercourse in the intervention group compared to controls (59 % vs. 39 %, ANOVA p < 0.05, F = 4.10). Intervention participants also reported more condom use at last intercourse (AOR = 1.69; 95 % CI 1.02-2.81, p < 02). Findings support use of adapted models for meeting prevention needs of high-priority populations. PMID:24419993

  6. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  7. [Decision making satisfaction in health scale: instrument adapted and validated to Portuguese].

    PubMed

    Martinho, Maria Júlia Costa Marques; Martins, Maria Manuela Ferreira Pereira da Silva; Angelo, Margareth

    2014-01-01

    Decision making is an area of health research that has gained importance both for the partnership models of care that give prominence to the patient and family, either by growing concern about quality and customer satisfaction with the care provided. So we decided to make the cultural adaptation and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version "The Satisfaction with Decision Scale" de Holmes-Rovner (1996), which aims to assess satisfaction with the decisions taken in health. The sample consisted of 521 nursing students the School of Nursing of Porto. The results of reliability tests show good internal consistency for the total items (Alpha Cronbach = 0.88). The psychometric study allows us to state that the Portuguese version of "The Satisfaction with Decision Scale", we call "Escala da Satisfação com a Decisão em Saúde", is an instrument comparable with the original in terms of validity and reliability. PMID:25590878

  8. Fuzzy adaptive strong tracking scaled unscented Kalman filter for initial alignment of large misalignment angles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Song, Ningfang; Yang, Gongliu; Jiang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    In the initial alignment process of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), large misalignment angles always bring nonlinear problem, which can usually be processed using the scaled unscented Kalman filter (SUKF). In this paper, the problem of large misalignment angles in SINS alignment is further investigated, and the strong tracking scaled unscented Kalman filter (STSUKF) is proposed with fixed parameters to improve convergence speed, while these parameters are artificially constructed and uncertain in real application. To further improve the alignment stability and reduce the parameters selection, this paper proposes a fuzzy adaptive strategy combined with STSUKF (FUZZY-STSUKF). As a result, initial alignment scheme of large misalignment angles based on FUZZY-STSUKF is designed and verified by simulations and turntable experiment. The results show that the scheme improves the accuracy and convergence speed of SINS initial alignment compared with those based on SUKF and STSUKF. PMID:27475606

  9. Fuzzy adaptive strong tracking scaled unscented Kalman filter for initial alignment of large misalignment angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Song, Ningfang; Yang, Gongliu; Jiang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    In the initial alignment process of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), large misalignment angles always bring nonlinear problem, which can usually be processed using the scaled unscented Kalman filter (SUKF). In this paper, the problem of large misalignment angles in SINS alignment is further investigated, and the strong tracking scaled unscented Kalman filter (STSUKF) is proposed with fixed parameters to improve convergence speed, while these parameters are artificially constructed and uncertain in real application. To further improve the alignment stability and reduce the parameters selection, this paper proposes a fuzzy adaptive strategy combined with STSUKF (FUZZY-STSUKF). As a result, initial alignment scheme of large misalignment angles based on FUZZY-STSUKF is designed and verified by simulations and turntable experiment. The results show that the scheme improves the accuracy and convergence speed of SINS initial alignment compared with those based on SUKF and STSUKF.

  10. Motion Estimation Based on Mutual Information and Adaptive Multi-Scale Thresholding.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Taubman, David; Naman, Aous Thabit

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a new method of calculating a matching metric for motion estimation. The proposed method splits the information in the source images into multiple scale and orientation subbands, reduces the subband values to a binary representation via an adaptive thresholding algorithm, and uses mutual information to model the similarity of corresponding square windows in each image. A moving window strategy is applied to recover a dense estimated motion field whose properties are explored. The proposed matching metric is a sum of mutual information scores across space, scale, and orientation. This facilitates the exploitation of information diversity in the source images. Experimental comparisons are performed amongst several related approaches, revealing that the proposed matching metric is better able to exploit information diversity, generating more accurate motion fields. PMID:26742132

  11. Treatment Sequencing for Childhood ADHD: A Multiple-Randomization Study of Adaptive Medication and Behavioral Interventions.

    PubMed

    Pelham, William E; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waxmonsky, James G; Greiner, Andrew R; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Coxe, Stefany; Verley, Jessica; Bhatia, Ira; Hart, Katie; Karch, Kathryn; Konijnendijk, Evelien; Tresco, Katy; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Murphy, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and pharmacological treatments for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were evaluated to address whether endpoint outcomes are better depending on which treatment is initiated first and, in case of insufficient response to initial treatment, whether increasing dose of initial treatment or adding the other treatment modality is superior. Children with ADHD (ages 5-12, N = 146, 76% male) were treated for 1 school year. Children were randomized to initiate treatment with low doses of either (a) behavioral parent training (8 group sessions) and brief teacher consultation to establish a Daily Report Card or (b) extended-release methylphenidate (equivalent to .15 mg/kg/dose bid). After 8 weeks or at later monthly intervals as necessary, insufficient responders were rerandomized to secondary interventions that either increased the dose/intensity of the initial treatment or added the other treatment modality, with adaptive adjustments monthly as needed to these secondary treatments. The group beginning with behavioral treatment displayed significantly lower rates of observed classroom rule violations (the primary outcome) at study endpoint and tended to have fewer out-of-class disciplinary events. Further, adding medication secondary to initial behavior modification resulted in better outcomes on the primary outcomes and parent/teacher ratings of oppositional behavior than adding behavior modification to initial medication. Normalization rates on teacher and parent ratings were generally high. Parents who began treatment with behavioral parent training had substantially better attendance than those assigned to receive training following medication. Beginning treatment with behavioral intervention produced better outcomes overall than beginning treatment with medication. PMID:26882332

  12. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  13. Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

  14. First-Year Students' Psychological and Behavior Adaptation to College: The Role of Coping Strategies and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Aiping; Chen, Lang; Zhao, Bo; Xu, Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates 311 first-year students' psychological and behavior adaptation to college and the mediate role of coping strategies and social support. The investigates reveal that: (1) first-year students who are from countryside, live in poor families, speak in dialects or major in science and engineering have poorer adaptation to…

  15. Adaptive control of a millimeter-scale flapping-wing robot.

    PubMed

    Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Ma, Kevin Y; Wood, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Challenges for the controlled flight of a robotic insect are due to the inherent instability of the system, complex fluid-structure interactions, and the general lack of a complete system model. In this paper, we propose theoretical models of the system based on the limited information available from previous work and a comprehensive flight controller. The modular flight controller is derived from Lyapunov function candidates with proven stability over a large region of attraction. Moreover, it comprises adaptive components that are capable of coping with uncertainties in the system that arise from manufacturing imperfections. We have demonstrated that the proposed methods enable the robot to achieve sustained hovering flights with relatively small errors compared to a non-adaptive approach. Simple lateral maneuvers and vertical takeoff and landing flights are also shown to illustrate the fidelity of the flight controller. The analysis suggests that the adaptive scheme is crucial in order to achieve millimeter-scale precision in flight control as observed in natural insect flight. PMID:24855052

  16. Linguistic Adaptation of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale for a Spanish-Speaking Population

    PubMed Central

    Oquendo-Jiménez, Ilia; Mena, Rafaela; Antoun, Mikhail D.; Wojna, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. In Hispanic populations there are few validated tests for the accurate identification and diagnosis of AD. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale is an internationally recognized questionnaire used to stage dementia. This study's objective was to develop a linguistic adaptation of the CDR for the Puerto Rican population. Methods The linguistic adaptation consisted of the evaluation of each CDR question (item) and the questionnaire's instructions, for similarities in meaning (semantic equivalence), relevance of content (content equivalence), and appropriateness of the questionnaire's format and measuring technique (technical equivalence). A focus group methodology was used to assess cultural relevance, clarity, and suitability of the measuring technique in the Argentinean version of the CDR for use in a Puerto Rican population. Results A total of 27 semantic equivalence changes were recommended in four categories: higher than 6th grade level of reading, meaning, common use, and word preference. Four content equivalence changes were identified, all focused on improving the applicability of the test questions to the general population's concept of street addresses and common dietary choices. There were no recommendations for changes in the assessment of technical equivalence. Conclusions We developed a linguistically adapted CDR instrument for the Puerto Rican population, preserving the semantic, content, and technical equivalences of the original version. Further studies are needed to validate the CDR instrument with the staging of Alzheimer's disease in the Puerto Rican population. PMID:20496524

  17. Fine-scale thermal adaptation in a green turtle nesting population

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Sam B.; Broderick, Annette C.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Ellick, Jacqui; Godley, Brendan J.; Blount, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the reproductive success of ectothermic animals is currently a subject of major conservation concern. However, for many threatened species, we still know surprisingly little about the extent of naturally occurring adaptive variation in heat-tolerance. Here, we show that the thermal tolerances of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) embryos in a single, island-breeding population have diverged in response to the contrasting incubation temperatures of nesting beaches just a few kilometres apart. In natural nests and in a common-garden rearing experiment, the offspring of females nesting on a naturally hot (black sand) beach survived better and grew larger at hot incubation temperatures compared with the offspring of females nesting on a cooler (pale sand) beach nearby. These differences were owing to shallower thermal reaction norms in the hot beach population, rather than shifts in thermal optima, and could not be explained by egg-mediated maternal effects. Our results suggest that marine turtle nesting behaviour can drive adaptive differentiation at remarkably fine spatial scales, and have important implications for how we define conservation units for protection. In particular, previous studies may have underestimated the extent of adaptive structuring in marine turtle populations that may significantly affect their capacity to respond to environmental change. PMID:21937495

  18. Brief Report: Adaptive Behavior and Cognitive Skills for Toddlers on the Autism Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Huai, Nan; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2012-01-01

    This study examined adaptive behavior and cognitive skills for 125 toddlers on the autism spectrum using the recently updated Vineland-II and Bayley-III. Delays in adaptive skills were apparent at two years of age. As a group, toddlers on the autism spectrum had a profile of Vineland-II standard scores in which Motor Skills > Daily Living Skills > Socialization > Communication. Vineland-II scores were significantly correlated with Bayley-III Cognitive scores. Performance on the ADOS was significantly negatively correlated with Bayley-III Cognitive standard scores and standard scores in the Daily Living Skills and Communication domains of the Vineland-II. However, calibrated ADOS scores did not contribute significant variance to Vineland-II scores beyond that predicted by age and Bayley-III scores. PMID:20697794

  19. The Incremental Validity of a Short Form of the Ideational Behavior Scale and Usefulness of Distractor, Contraindicative, and Lie Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runco, Mark A.; Walczyk, Jeffrey John; Acar, Selcuk; Cowger, Ernest L.; Simundson, Melissa; Tripp, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an empirical refinement of the "Runco Ideational Behavior Scale" (RIBS). The RIBS seems to be associated with divergent thinking, and the potential for creative thinking, but it was possible that its validity could be improved. With this in mind, three new scales were developed and the unique benefit (or…

  20. The Children’s Behavior Questionnaire very short scale: Psychometric properties and development of a one-item temperament scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little research has been conducted on the psychometrics of the very short scale (36 items) of the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire, and no one-item temperament scale has been tested for use in applied work. In this study, 237 United States caregivers completed a survey to define their child’s behav...

  1. Facets and mechanisms of adaptive pain behavior: predictive regulation and action

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, India; Perini, Irene; Dunham, James

    2013-01-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying nociception and pain perception are considered to serve the ultimate goal of limiting tissue damage. However, since pain usually occurs in complex environments and situations that call for elaborate control over behavior, simple avoidance is insufficient to explain a range of mammalian pain responses, especially in the presence of competing goals. In this integrative review we propose a Predictive Regulation and Action (PRA) model of acute pain processing. It emphasizes evidence that the nervous system is organized to anticipate potential pain and to adjust behavior before the risk of tissue damage becomes critical. Regulatory processes occur on many levels, and can be dynamically influenced by local interactions or by modulation from other brain areas in the network. The PRA model centers on neural substrates supporting the predictive nature of pain processing, as well as on finely-calibrated yet versatile regulatory processes that ultimately affect behavior. We outline several operational categories of pain behavior, from spinally-mediated reflexes to adaptive voluntary action, situated at various neural levels. An implication is that neural processes that track potential tissue damage in terms of behavioral consequences are an integral part of pain perception. PMID:24348358

  2. Adaptation and Validation of the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) in a Sample of Male Drug Users.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Medina, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to adapt and validate the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) in a sample of male drug users. A sample of 326 male drug users and 322 non-clinical males was selected by cluster sampling and convenience sampling, respectively. Results showed that the scale had good psychometric properties and adequate internal consistency reliability (Initiation = .66, Refusal = .74 and STD-P = .79). An evaluation of the invariance showed strong factor equivalence between both samples. A high and moderate effect of Differential Item Functioning was only found in items 1 and 14 (∆R 2 Nagelkerke = .076 and .037, respectively). We strongly recommend not using item 1 if the goal is to compare the scores of both groups, otherwise the comparison will be biased. Correlations obtained between the CSFQ-14 and the safe sex ratio and the SAS subscales were significant (CI = 95%) and indicated good concurrent validity. Scores of male drug users were similar to those of non-clinical males. Therefore, the adaptation of the SAS to drug users provides enough guarantees for reliable and valid use in both clinical practice and research, although care should be taken with item 1. PMID:25896498

  3. Requirements and approaches to adapting laser writers for fabrication of gray-scale masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkov, Victor P.; Shimansky, Ruslan; Poleshchuk, Alexander G.; Cherkashin, Vadim V.; Kharissov, Andrey A.; Denk, Dmitry

    2001-11-01

    The photolithography using gray-scale masks (GSM) with multilevel transmittance is now one of promising ways for manufacturing of high efficiency diffractive optical elements and microoptics. Such masks can be most effectively fabricated by laser or electron-beam writers on materials with a transmittance changing under influence of high-energy beams. The basic requirements for adaptation of existing and developed scanning laser writers are formulated. These systems create an image by continuous movement of a writing beam along one coordinate and overlapping of adjacent written tracks along another coordinate. Several problems must be solved at the GSM manufacturing: the calibration of the influence of the laser beam on a recording material without transferring the gray-scale structure into photoresist; the transmittance at the current exposed pixel depends on surrounding structures generated before recording of the current track and a character of the laser beam power modulation; essential increasing of the computed data in comparison with binary elements. The offered solutions are based on the results of investigations of the materials with variable transmittance (LDW-glass, a-Si film) and takes into account the specificity of diffractive blazed microstructures. The reduction of data amount for fabrication of multi-level DOEs is effectively performed using offered vector-gradient data format, which is based on piecewise-linear approximation of phase profile. The presented approaches to adaptation of laser writers are realized in software and hardware, and they allow to solve the basic problems of manufacturing GSMs.

  4. Integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.

  5. [Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Health and Taste Attitude Scale (HTAS) in Portuguese].

    PubMed

    Koritar, Priscila; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Alvarenga, Marle dos Santos; Santos, Bernardo dos

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this study was to show the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Health and Taste Attitude Scale in Portuguese. The methodology included translation of the scale; evaluation of conceptual, operational and item-based equivalence by 14 experts and 51 female undergraduates; semantic equivalence and measurement assessment by 12 bilingual women by the paired t-test, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the coefficient intraclass correlation; internal consistency and test-retest reliability by Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient, respectively, after application on 216 female undergraduates; assessment of discriminant and concurrent validity via the t-test and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively, in addition to Confirmatory Factor and Exploratory Factor Analysis. The scale was considered adequate and easily understood by the experts and university students and presented good internal consistency and reliability (µ 0.86, ICC 0.84). The results show that the scale is valid and can be used in studies with women to better understand attitudes related to taste. PMID:25119096

  6. Calcium isotope fractionation in groundwater: Molecular scale processes influencing field scale behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druhan, Jennifer L.; Steefel, Carl I.; Williams, Kenneth H.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2013-10-01

    It is the purpose of this study to demonstrate that the molecular scale reaction mechanisms describing calcite precipitation and calcium isotope fractionations under highly controlled laboratory conditions also reproduce field scale measurements of δ44Ca in groundwater systems. We present data collected from an aquifer during active carbonate mineral precipitation and develop a reactive transport model capturing the observed chemical and isotopic variations. Carbonate mineral precipitation and associated fluid δ44Ca data were measured in multiple clogged well bores during organic carbon amended biogenic reduction of a uranium contaminated aquifer in western Colorado, USA. Secondary mineral formation induced by carbonate alkalinity generated during the biostimulation process lead to substantial permeability reduction in multiple electron-donor injection wells at the field site. These conditions resulted in removal of aqueous calcium from a background concentration of 6 mM to <1 mM while δ44Ca enrichment ranged from 1‰ to greater than 2.5‰. The relationship between aqueous calcium removal and isotopic enrichment did not conform to Rayleigh model behavior. Explicit treatment of the individual isotopes of calcium within the CrunchFlow reactive transport code demonstrates that the system did not achieve isotopic reequilibration over the time scale of sample collection. Measured fluid δ44Ca values are accurately reproduced by a linear rate law when the Ca2+:CO32- activity ratio remains substantially greater than unity. Variation in the measured δ44Ca between wells is shown to originate from a difference in carbonate alkalinity generated in each well bore. The influence of fluid Ca2+:CO32- ratio on the precipitation rate and δ44Ca is modeled by coupling the CrunchFlow reactive transport code to an ion by ion growth model. This study presents the first coupled ion-by-ion and reactive transport model for isotopic enrichment and demonstrates that reproducing field-scale

  7. Behavior Change Interventions to Improve the Health of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: A Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Emma M; Liu, Jing Jing; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark RD; Netto, Gina; Wabnitz, Cecile; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Context Adapting behavior change interventions to meet the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations has the potential to enhance their effectiveness in the target populations. But because there is little guidance on how best to undertake these adaptations, work in this field has proceeded without any firm foundations. In this article, we present our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches as a framework for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers interested in delivering behavior change interventions to ethnically diverse, underserved populations in the United Kingdom. Methods We undertook a mixed-method program of research on interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and promoting healthy eating that had been adapted to improve salience and acceptability for African-, Chinese-, and South Asian–origin minority populations. This program included a systematic review (reported using PRISMA criteria), qualitative interviews, and a realist synthesis of data. Findings We compiled a richly informative data set of 161 publications and twenty-six interviews detailing the adaptation of behavior change interventions and the contexts in which they were undertaken. On the basis of these data, we developed our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches, which contains (1) a forty-six-item Typology of Adaptation Approaches; (2) a Pathway to Adaptation, which shows how to use the Typology to create a generic behavior change intervention; and (3) RESET, a decision tool that provides practical guidance on which adaptations to use in different contexts. Conclusions Our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches provides the first evidence-derived suite of materials to support the development, design, implementation, and reporting of health behavior change interventions for minority groups. The Tool Kit now needs prospective, empirical evaluation in a range of intervention and population settings. PMID:24320170

  8. Vibrational behavior of adaptive aircraft wing structures modelled as composite thin-walled beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, O.; Librescu, L.; Rogers, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vibrational behavior of cantilevered aircraft wings modeled as thin-walled beams and incorporating piezoelectric effects is studied. Based on the converse piezoelectric effect, the system of piezoelectric actuators conveniently located on the wing yield the control of its associated vertical and lateral bending eigenfrequencies. The possibility revealed by this study enabling one to increase adaptively the eigenfrequencies of thin-walled cantilevered beams could play a significant role in the control of the dynamic response and flutter of wing and rotor blade structures.

  9. The Emotional Reactions to Challenging Behavior Scale-Korean (ERCBS-K): Modification and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kozub, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the original version of Mitchell and Hastings's (1998) Emotional Reaction to Challenging Behavior Scale (ERCBS) and estimate validity and reliability of a revised version containing 29 items. The Emotional Reaction to Challenging Behavior Scale-Korean (ERCBS-K) was studied using 445 in-service physical…

  10. Rising to the Challenge: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Adapted German Version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy for Students (JSPE-S)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preusche, Ingrid; Wagner-Menghin, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of students' attitudes towards physicians' empathy is essential in medical education and in practice because empathy is vital in physician-patient communication. To cross-culturally adapt the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (S-version, JSPE-S) into a German version, examine its psychometric properties in comparison to the…

  11. Social Desirability and Behavior Rating Scales: An Exploratory Study with the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merydith, Scott P.; Prout, H. Thompson; Blaha, John

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 (CBCL/4-18) and two modified measures of social desirability, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale with a sample of 65 parents of normal children from grades K-7. Results from correlational and multiple regression…

  12. Development of the Behavioral Evaluation of Disorders of Sleep Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    We describe the development, preliminary psychometric properties, and cross-validation of the Behavioral Evaluation of Disorders of Sleep (BEDS: Schreck 1997/1998). Parental reports of problem sleep behavior in elementary school aged children 5 years to 12 years were collected for two samples. With the first sample, an exploratory factor analysis…

  13. The Use of the Graded Response Model in Computerized Adaptive Testing of the Attitudes to Science Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foong, Yoke-Yeen; Lam, Tit-Loong

    The graded response model for two-stage testing was applied to an attitudes toward science scale using real-data simulation. The 48-item scale was administered to 920 students at a grade-8 equivalent in Singapore. A two-stage 16-item computerized adaptive test was developed. In two-stage testing an initial, or routing, test is followed by a…

  14. Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised: Scale Development and Psychometric Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowder, Barbara A.; Shamah, Renee

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the scale development and psychometric characteristics of the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R). To develop this measure, 502 subject matter experts (SMEs) evaluated 91 parenting behaviors in terms of parenting behavior specificity (e.g., bonding, discipline), importance level, and appropriateness for…

  15. LABRADOR: a learning autonomous behavior-based robot for adaptive detection and object retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Brian; Moseley, Mark; Brookshire, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the TARDEC-funded CANINE (Cooperative Autonomous Navigation in a Networked Environment) Program, iRobot developed LABRADOR (Learning Autonomous Behavior-based Robot for Adaptive Detection and Object Retrieval). LABRADOR was based on the rugged, man-portable, iRobot PackBot unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with an explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) manipulator arm and a custom gripper. For LABRADOR, we developed a vision-based object learning and recognition system that combined a TLD (track-learn-detect) filter based on object shape features with a color-histogram-based object detector. Our vision system was able to learn in real-time to recognize objects presented to the robot. We also implemented a waypoint navigation system based on fused GPS, IMU (inertial measurement unit), and odometry data. We used this navigation capability to implement autonomous behaviors capable of searching a specified area using a variety of robust coverage strategies - including outward spiral, random bounce, random waypoint, and perimeter following behaviors. While the full system was not integrated in time to compete in the CANINE competition event, we developed useful perception, navigation, and behavior capabilities that may be applied to future autonomous robot systems.

  16. Agouti-related peptide neural circuits mediate adaptive behaviors in the starved state.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Stephanie L; Qiu, Jian; Soden, Marta E; Sanz, Elisenda; Nestor, Casey C; Barker, Forrest D; Quintana, Albert; Zweifel, Larry S; Rønnekleiv, Oline K; Kelly, Martin J; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    In the face of starvation, animals will engage in high-risk behaviors that would normally be considered maladaptive. Starving rodents, for example, will forage in areas that are more susceptible to predators and will also modulate aggressive behavior within a territory of limited or depleted nutrients. The neural basis of these adaptive behaviors likely involves circuits that link innate feeding, aggression and fear. Hypothalamic agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons are critically important for driving feeding and project axons to brain regions implicated in aggression and fear. Using circuit-mapping techniques in mice, we define a disynaptic network originating from a subset of AgRP neurons that project to the medial nucleus of the amygdala and then to the principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which suppresses territorial aggression and reduces contextual fear. We propose that AgRP neurons serve as a master switch capable of coordinating behavioral decisions relative to internal state and environmental cues. PMID:27019015

  17. Genomic Response to Selection for Predatory Behavior in a Mammalian Model of Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Konczal, Mateusz; Koteja, Paweł; Orlowska-Feuer, Patrycja; Radwan, Jacek; Sadowska, Edyta T; Babik, Wiesław

    2016-09-01

    If genetic architectures of various quantitative traits are similar, as studies on model organisms suggest, comparable selection pressures should produce similar molecular patterns for various traits. To test this prediction, we used a laboratory model of vertebrate adaptive radiation to investigate the genetic basis of the response to selection for predatory behavior and compare it with evolution of aerobic capacity reported in an earlier work. After 13 generations of selection, the proportion of bank voles (Myodes [=Clethrionomys] glareolus) showing predatory behavior was five times higher in selected lines than in controls. We analyzed the hippocampus and liver transcriptomes and found repeatable changes in allele frequencies and gene expression. Genes with the largest differences between predatory and control lines are associated with hunger, aggression, biological rhythms, and functioning of the nervous system. Evolution of predatory behavior could be meaningfully compared with evolution of high aerobic capacity, because the experiments and analyses were performed in the same methodological framework. The number of genes that changed expression was much smaller in predatory lines, and allele frequencies changed repeatably in predatory but not in aerobic lines. This suggests that more variants of smaller effects underlie variation in aerobic performance, whereas fewer variants of larger effects underlie variation in predatory behavior. Our results thus contradict the view that comparable selection pressures for different quantitative traits produce similar molecular patterns. Therefore, to gain knowledge about molecular-level response to selection for complex traits, we need to investigate not only multiple replicate populations but also multiple quantitative traits. PMID:27401229

  18. On a practitioner's need of further development of Wechsler scales. Adaptive Intelligence Diagnosticum (AID 2).

    PubMed

    Kubinger, Klaus D

    2004-11-01

    Wechsler's intelligence test-batteries are still popular yet suffer from psychometric shortcomings and lack a certain content improvement and enlargement. In this paper a new approach will be presented that suits traditional Wechsler-testing. The approach in question is the Adaptive Intelligence Diagnosticum (AID 2; Kubinger & Wurst, 2000). Due to it's "branched testing" design, AID 2 works out to be more economical and in this regard also offers other advantages, such as parallel tests and short forms. AID 2 offers a method of survey for identifying specific developmental disorders or learning disabilities. It includes an optional non-verbal instruction and a schedule for retrograde observation support of behavioral misfits. It also offers discriminative indicators for intellectual neglect vs. intellectual advancement. PMID:15581231

  19. Stochastic and scale-adaptive shallow cumulus parameterization (EDMF-DualM-S in ICON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakradzija, M.; Seifert, A.; Heus, T.; Dipankar, A.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical cloud-resolving studies of cumulus clouds reveal the small-scale variability of convection that is not fully controlled by the large scale environment. From the parameterization point of view, this means that there is a whole distribution of the sub-grid convective states that can correspond to the same large scale forcing. Moreover, the stochastic variability becomes higher with the increasing model resolution. As the cloud sample within a model grid box becomes smaller, the most probable realization of the sub-grid convection deviates further away from the convective ensemble mean. Therefore, as the atmospheric models approach higher and higher resolution, it becomes more important to develop stochastic schemes that sub-sample the convective cloud ensemble and adapt to the model resolution. We propose an approach to represent the stochastic variability of the unresolved shallow-convective states, and the dependence of the distribution of sub-grid states on the model horizontal resolution. We combine the theory of fluctuations in a convective ensemble based on a statistical mechanics approach and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of shallow cumulus clouds of an idealized case over the ocean. Based on the empirical and theoretical findings, a stochastic cloud generator is developed and coupled to the EDMF-DualM cloud scheme in the ICON model as a stochastic process that runs simultaneously with the EDMF scheme. The stochastic scheme adds more complexity to the cloud parameterization in EDMF, but on the other side, the cloud mass flux profiles are locally sampled instead of using the buoyancy sorting closure for the bulk vertical profile. The scheme also relaxes the statistical equilibrium assumption by applying it only at the scale at which it is appropriate and by including the memory component. Preliminary results show that the variability is well reproduced and that the scheme is scale-adaptive. Impact on the mean profiles is small, except for a significant

  20. The Driving Behavior Survey: Scale construction and validation

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Olsen, Shira A.; Beck, J. Gayle; Palyo, Sarah A.; Grant, DeMond M.; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Marques, Luana

    2010-01-01

    Although long recognized in the clinical literature, problematic behavior characteristic of anxious drivers has received little empirical attention. The current research details development of a measure of anxious driving behavior conducted across three studies. Factor analytic techniques identified three dimensions of maladaptive behaviors across three college samples: anxiety-based performance deficits, exaggerated safety/caution behavior, and anxiety-related hostile/aggressive behavior. Performance deficits evidenced convergent associations with perceived driving skill and were broadly related to driving fear. Safety/caution behaviors demonstrated convergence with overt travel avoidance, although this relationship was inconsistent across studies. Safety/caution scores were associated specifically with accident- and social-related driving fears. Hostile/aggressive behaviors evidenced convergent relationships with driving anger and were associated specifically with accident-related fear. Internal consistencies were adequate, although some test-retest reliabilities were marginal in the unselected college sample. These data provide preliminary evidence for utility of the measure for both research and clinical practice. PMID:20832988

  1. Quantification of organ motion based on an adaptive image-based scale invariant feature method

    SciTech Connect

    Paganelli, Chiara; Peroni, Marta

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The availability of corresponding landmarks in IGRT image series allows quantifying the inter and intrafractional motion of internal organs. In this study, an approach for the automatic localization of anatomical landmarks is presented, with the aim of describing the nonrigid motion of anatomo-pathological structures in radiotherapy treatments according to local image contrast.Methods: An adaptive scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was developed from the integration of a standard 3D SIFT approach with a local image-based contrast definition. The robustness and invariance of the proposed method to shape-preserving and deformable transforms were analyzed in a CT phantom study. The application of contrast transforms to the phantom images was also tested, in order to verify the variation of the local adaptive measure in relation to the modification of image contrast. The method was also applied to a lung 4D CT dataset, relying on manual feature identification by an expert user as ground truth. The 3D residual distance between matches obtained in adaptive-SIFT was then computed to verify the internal motion quantification with respect to the expert user. Extracted corresponding features in the lungs were used as regularization landmarks in a multistage deformable image registration (DIR) mapping the inhale vs exhale phase. The residual distances between the warped manual landmarks and their reference position in the inhale phase were evaluated, in order to provide a quantitative indication of the registration performed with the three different point sets.Results: The phantom study confirmed the method invariance and robustness properties to shape-preserving and deformable transforms, showing residual matching errors below the voxel dimension. The adapted SIFT algorithm on the 4D CT dataset provided automated and accurate motion detection of peak to peak breathing motion. The proposed method resulted in reduced residual errors with respect to standard SIFT

  2. The transient behavior of scaling in the atmosphere: stratiform/convective transition and applications to sub-grid scale statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, M.; Barros, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Multifractal behavior holds to a remarkable approximation over wide ranges of spatial scales in orographic rainfall and cloud fields. The scaling exponents characterizing this behavior are shown to be fundamentally transient with nonlinear dependencies on the particular atmospheric state and terrain forcing. In particular, a robust transition is found in the scaling parameters between non-convective (stable) and convective (unstable) regimes, with clear physical correspondence to the transition from stratiform to organized convective orographic precipitation. These results can explain two often reported scaling regimes for atmospheric wind, temperature and water observations. On the one hand, spectral slopes around 2-2.3 arise under non-convective or very weak convective conditions when the spatial patterns are dominated by large-scale gradients and landform. On the other hand, under convective conditions the scaling exponents generally fluctuate around 5/3, in agreement with the Kolmogorov turbulent regime accounting for the intermittency correction. High-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are able to reproduce the ubiquitous scaling behavior of observed atmospheric fields down to their effective resolution length-scale, below which the variability is misrepresented by the model. The effective resolution is shown to be a transient property dependent on the particular simulated conditions and NWP formulation, implying that a blunt decrease in grid spacing without adjusting numerical techniques may not lead to the improvements desired.Finally, the application of transient spatial scaling behavior for stochastic downscaling and sub-grid scale parameterization of cloud and rainfall fields is investigated. The proposed fractal methods are able to rapidly generate large ensembles of high-resolution statistically robust fields from the coarse resolution information alone, which can provide significant improvements for stochastic hydrological prediction

  3. [The Verbal Peer Adult Emotional (VPAE) Scale and Manual. A Behavioral Rating Scale for Measuring the Progress of Severely Maladaptive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streedbeck, Darlene; Hughes, Robert B.

    The Verbal Peer Adult Emotional Scale (VPAE), a behavioral rating scale for measuring the progress of severely maladaptive children, covers four areas: verbal behavior, peer interaction, interaction with adults, and emotional behavior. The 16-item scale is designed for use with children between the chronological ages of two and nine years, who are…

  4. Neocortical Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine promotes rapid behavioral adaptation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Widagdo, Jocelyn; Baker-Andresen, Danay; Flavell, Charlotte R; D'Alessio, Ana; Zhang, Yi; Bredy, Timothy W

    2014-05-13

    5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a novel DNA modification that is highly enriched in the adult brain and dynamically regulated by neural activity. 5-hmC accumulates across the lifespan; however, the functional relevance of this change in 5-hmC and whether it is necessary for behavioral adaptation have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, although the ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of enzymes is known to be essential for converting methylated DNA to 5-hmC, the role of individual Tet proteins in the adult cortex remains unclear. Using 5-hmC capture together with high-throughput DNA sequencing on individual mice, we show that fear extinction, an important form of reversal learning, leads to a dramatic genome-wide redistribution of 5-hmC within the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Moreover, extinction learning-induced Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hmC is associated with the establishment of epigenetic states that promote gene expression and rapid behavioral adaptation. PMID:24757058

  5. Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Behavioral Health

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Tracy L.; Epperson, C. Neill; Kornstein, Susan G.; Leon, Gloria R.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stuster, Jack W.; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, “The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space.” It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, “Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era,” which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup—consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector—investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

  6. Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: behavioral health.

    PubMed

    Goel, Namni; Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill; Kornstein, Susan G; Leon, Gloria R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stuster, Jack W; Dinges, David F

    2014-11-01

    This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space." It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup-consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector-investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

  7. Adaptation study of the Turkish version of the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-T).

    PubMed

    Arcan, K; Karanci, A N

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to adapt and to test the validity and the reliability of the Turkish version of the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-T) that was developed by Raylu and Oei (Addiction 99(6):757-769, 2004a). The significance of erroneous cognitions in the development and the maintenance of gambling problems, the importance of promoting gambling research in different cultures, and the limited information about the gambling individuals in Turkey due to limited gambling research interest inspired the present study. The sample consisted of 354 voluntary male participants who were above age 17 and betting on sports and horse races selected through convenience sampling in betting terminals. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis following the original scale's five factor structure indicated a good fit for the data. The analyses were carried out with 21 items due to relatively inadequate psychometric properties of two GRCS-T items. Correlational analyses and group comparison tests supported the concurrent and the criterion validity of the GRCS-T. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the whole scale was 0.84 whereas the coefficients ranged between 0.52 and 0.78 for the subscales of GRCS-T. The findings suggesting that GRCS-T is a valid and reliable instrument to identify gambling cognitions in Turkish samples are discussed considering the possible influence of the sample make-up and cultural texture within the limitations of the present study and in the light of the relevant literature. PMID:24146305

  8. Neuronal long-range temporal correlations and avalanche dynamics are correlated with behavioral scaling laws.

    PubMed

    Palva, J Matias; Zhigalov, Alexander; Hirvonen, Jonni; Korhonen, Onerva; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus; Palva, Satu

    2013-02-26

    Scale-free fluctuations are ubiquitous in behavioral performance and neuronal activity. In time scales from seconds to hundreds of seconds, psychophysical dynamics and the amplitude fluctuations of neuronal oscillations are governed by power-law-form long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs). In millisecond time scales, neuronal activity comprises cascade-like neuronal avalanches that exhibit power-law size and lifetime distributions. However, it remains unknown whether these neuronal scaling laws are correlated with those characterizing behavioral performance or whether neuronal LRTCs and avalanches are related. Here, we show that the neuronal scaling laws are strongly correlated both with each other and with behavioral scaling laws. We used source reconstructed magneto- and electroencephalographic recordings to characterize the dynamics of ongoing cortical activity. We found robust power-law scaling in neuronal LRTCs and avalanches in resting-state data and during the performance of audiovisual threshold stimulus detection tasks. The LRTC scaling exponents of the behavioral performance fluctuations were correlated with those of concurrent neuronal avalanches and LRTCs in anatomically identified brain systems. The behavioral exponents also were correlated with neuronal scaling laws derived from a resting-state condition and with a similar anatomical topography. Finally, despite the difference in time scales, the scaling exponents of neuronal LRTCs and avalanches were strongly correlated during both rest and task performance. Thus, long and short time-scale neuronal dynamics are related and functionally significant at the behavioral level. These data suggest that the temporal structures of human cognitive fluctuations and behavioral variability stem from the scaling laws of individual and intrinsic brain dynamics. PMID:23401536

  9. Development of a Behavioral Affective Relationship Scale for Encounter Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R., Jr.; Zarle, Thomas

    The paper outlines several studies over a two-year period to develop a self-report and observer-rating measure of sensitivity/encounter group outcome. The initial form of the scale was taken from McMillan (1971) who developed a measure of 16 categories of group outcome; McMillan's work indicated the scale had high reliability. Subsequent study…

  10. Adaptations in medial prefrontal cortex function associated with amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Gulley, Joshua M.; Stanis, Jessica J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroadaptations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are hypothesized to play an important role in the behavioral changes associated with repeated psychostimulant exposure, but there are few published studies that measure neuronal activity during the development and expression of sensitization. To address this, we recorded single neuron activity in the medial PFC (mPFC) of male rats that were exposed for five days to saline or amphetamine (AMPH; 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and then given saline or AMPH challenges following a three-day withdrawal. We found that rats exposed to AMPH developed locomotor sensitization to the drug that emerged on the fifth treatment session and became statistically significant at AMPH challenge. This was associated with no change in baseline (i.e., pre-injection) activity of mPFC neurons across the treatment or challenge sessions. Following the first AMPH injection, mPFC neurons responded primarily with reductions in firing, with the overall pattern and magnitude of responses remaining largely similar following repeated treatment. The exception was in the minority of cells that respond to AMPH with increases in firing rate. In this population, the magnitude of excitations peaked during the fifth AMPH exposure and was still relatively elevated at the AMPH challenge. Furthermore, these units increased firing during a saline challenge that was given to assess associative conditioning. These results suggest that AMPH-induced adaptations in mPFC function are not as apparent as AMPH-induced adaptations in behavior. When mPFC adaptations do occur, they appear limited to the population of neurons that increase their firing in response to AMPH. PMID:20035836

  11. Adaptive scaling model of the main pycnocline and the associated overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuckar, Neven-Stjepan

    This thesis examines a number of crucial factors and processes that control the structure of the main pycnocline and the associated overturning circulation that maintains the ocean stratification. We construct an adaptive scaling model: a semi-empirical low-order theory based on the total transformation balance that linearly superimposes parameterized transformation rate terms of various mechanisms that participate in the water-mass conversion between the warm water sphere and the cold water sphere. The depth of the main pycnocline separates the light-water domain from the dense-water domain beneath the surface, hence we introduce a new definition in an integral form that is dynamically based on the large-scale potential vorticity (i.e., vertical density gradient is selected for the kernel function of the normalized vertical integral). We exclude the abyssal pycnocline from our consideration and limit our domain of interest to the top 2 km of water column. The goal is to understand the controlling mechanisms, and analytically predict and describe a wide spectrum of ocean steady states in terms of key large-scale indices relevant for understanding the ocean's role in climate. A devised polynomial equation uses the average depth of the main pycnocline as a single unknown (the key vertical scale of the upper ocean stratification) and gives us an estimate for the northern hemisphere deep water production and export across the equator from the parts of this equation. The adaptive scaling model aims to elucidate the roles of a limited number of dominant processes that determine some key upper ocean circulation and stratification properties. Additionally, we use a general circulation model in a series of simplified single-basin ocean configurations and surface forcing fields to confirm the usefulness of our analytical model and further clarify several aspects of the upper ocean structure. An idealized numerical setup, containing all the relevant physical and dynamical

  12. Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Circumstances, Motivation, and Readiness Scale

    PubMed Central

    Norozi, Ensiyeh; Miri, Mohammad Reza; Soltani, Raheleh; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Harivandi, Ali Reza; Dastjerdi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment motivation has always been an important issue in substance abuse treatment. In recent decades, several instruments have been developed to measure this concept. Objectives In this study, cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the circumstances, motivation and readiness scale (CMR) are illustrated in a sample of Iranian addicts. Materials and Methods The translation process followed Beaton et al.’s (2000) guideline for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-administered questionnaires, including the steps of translation, synthesis, back translation, expert committee review, and pre-testing. The final version of the Persian CMR was assessed for internal consistency and construct validity (n = 203). Results There was one eliminated item in the cross-cultural adaptation process. Also, four items that had low correlation with the total score were excluded from the questionnaire during the initial analysis. Using the remaining items, Principle axis factoring with Promax rotation was performed and three factors, circumstance, motivation, and readiness, were identified. The secondary order three factor model provided a good statistical and conceptual fit for the data. Internal consistency met the criterion for a reliable measure (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.840). The α range for these identified factors was 0.597 to 0.837. Conclusions Although the CMR was originally designed for use in TC treatment, this study suggests that it is also applicable, with some modifications, in short-term residential camps. Also, it is concluded that the Persian translation of the CMR can be applied for studies among Persian addicts. PMID:27622165

  13. Aeroelastic Deformation: Adaptation of Wind Tunnel Measurement Concepts to Full-Scale Vehicle Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Lokos, William A.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2005-01-01

    The adaptation of a proven wind tunnel test technique, known as Videogrammetry, to flight testing of full-scale vehicles is presented. A description is presented of the technique used at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center for the measurement of the change in wing twist and deflection of an F/A-18 research aircraft as a function of both time and aerodynamic load. Requirements for in-flight measurements are compared and contrasted with those for wind tunnel testing. The methodology for the flight-testing technique and differences compared to wind tunnel testing are given. Measurement and operational comparisons to an older in-flight system known as the Flight Deflection Measurement System (FDMS) are presented.

  14. Adaptive consensus of scale-free multi-agent system by randomly selecting links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Jinping; Ge, Huafeng

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates an adaptive consensus problem for distributed scale-free multi-agent systems (SFMASs) by randomly selecting links, where the degree of each node follows a power-law distribution. The randomly selecting links are based on the assumption that every agent decides to select links among its neighbours according to the received data with a certain probability. Accordingly, a novel consensus protocol with the range of the received data is developed, and each node updates its state according to the protocol. By the iterative method and Cauchy inequality, the theoretical analysis shows that all errors among agents converge to zero, and in the meanwhile, several criteria of consensus are obtained. One numerical example shows the reliability of the proposed methods.

  15. Dynamic Large-Scale Chromosomal Rearrangements Fuel Rapid Adaptation in Yeast Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shang-Lin; Lai, Huei-Yi; Tung, Shu-Yun; Leu, Jun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale genome rearrangements have been observed in cells adapting to various selective conditions during laboratory evolution experiments. However, it remains unclear whether these types of mutations can be stably maintained in populations and how they impact the evolutionary trajectories. Here we show that chromosomal rearrangements contribute to extremely high copper tolerance in a set of natural yeast strains isolated from Evolution Canyon (EC), Israel. The chromosomal rearrangements in EC strains result in segmental duplications in chromosomes 7 and 8, which increase the copy number of genes involved in copper regulation, including the crucial transcriptional activator CUP2 and the metallothionein CUP1. The copy number of CUP2 is correlated with the level of copper tolerance, indicating that increasing dosages of a single transcriptional activator by chromosomal rearrangements has a profound effect on a regulatory pathway. By gene expression analysis and functional assays, we identified three previously unknown downstream targets of CUP2: PHO84, SCM4, and CIN2, all of which contributed to copper tolerance in EC strains. Finally, we conducted an evolution experiment to examine how cells maintained these changes in a fluctuating environment. Interestingly, the rearranged chromosomes were reverted back to the wild-type configuration at a high frequency and the recovered chromosome became fixed in less selective conditions. Our results suggest that transposon-mediated chromosomal rearrangements can be highly dynamic and can serve as a reversible mechanism during early stages of adaptive evolution. PMID:23358723

  16. Query-Adaptive Hash Code Ranking for Large-Scale Multi-View Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglong; Huang, Lei; Deng, Cheng; Lang, Bo; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-10-01

    Hash-based nearest neighbor search has become attractive in many applications. However, the quantization in hashing usually degenerates the discriminative power when using Hamming distance ranking. Besides, for large-scale visual search, existing hashing methods cannot directly support the efficient search over the data with multiple sources, and while the literature has shown that adaptively incorporating complementary information from diverse sources or views can significantly boost the search performance. To address the problems, this paper proposes a novel and generic approach to building multiple hash tables with multiple views and generating fine-grained ranking results at bitwise and tablewise levels. For each hash table, a query-adaptive bitwise weighting is introduced to alleviate the quantization loss by simultaneously exploiting the quality of hash functions and their complement for nearest neighbor search. From the tablewise aspect, multiple hash tables are built for different data views as a joint index, over which a query-specific rank fusion is proposed to rerank all results from the bitwise ranking by diffusing in a graph. Comprehensive experiments on image search over three well-known benchmarks show that the proposed method achieves up to 17.11% and 20.28% performance gains on single and multiple table search over the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27448359

  17. Cross cultural adaptation and validation of the Early Childhood Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) in Peruvian preschoolers.

    PubMed

    López Ramos, Roxana P; García Rupaya, Carmen R; Villena-Sarmiento, Rita; Bordoni, Noemí E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to perform semantic adjustment and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) in Spanish on a sample of the Peruvian population. The study was conducted on a sample of 128 children aged 3-5 years, who attended a public school (Hualmay District, Huaura Province, Lima, Peru) in 2011. The ECOHIS questionnaire, developed to measure the impact of oral conditions and/or experiences of dental treatment on oral health-related quality of life in children under 5 years old and their parents or other family members was adapted cross-culturally and subjected to psychometric tests: validity (in terms of construct and discriminant) and reliability (in terms of internal consistency and stability). The cultural adaptation addressed ECOHIS semantic equivalence (Bordoni et al., 2012) and showed that 80-100% of respondents understood the questions. Construct validity was r = .557 (p < .05) between the scores of the Spanish version of ECOHIS and dental caries experience (dmft). Statistically significant differences (p < .001) were found for ECOHIS values between groups with and without tooth decay. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha (.948) and stability by intra-class correlation (.992). The Peruvian version of ECOHIS demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability, enabling assessment of the impact of oral health problems in children under 5 years old. PMID:24303728

  18. Body-scaled perception is subjected to adaptation when repetitively judging opportunities for grasping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seokhun; Frank, Till D

    2016-09-01

    Experimental evidence is given that the perceptual system adapts to repetitive task execution in a perceptual two-choice judgment task. Participants were tested with respect to their perception of opportunities for plank grasping. Participants had to report whether planks were perceived as objects being graspable with either one hand or two hands. When the plank size was gradually increased and subsequently decreased, transitions from one hand judgments to two hands judgments and vice versa were observed. Analysis of the transition scores revealed that the perceptual judgments were body-scaled, as it is known in the literature. However, judgments were also found to be context dependent. Judgment transition scores were affected in a systematic way by the kind of and the number of previously made judgments. The latter quantitative impact was observed in three related experiments and suggests that perceptual judgments about opportunities for action adapt to task repetition. Overall, the experimental findings are consistent with the predictions of a dynamical systems model, which assumes that perceptual judgments are emergent properties of a self-organizing process that involves inhibitory top-down feedback. PMID:27220768

  19. Broad-scale adaptive genetic variation in alpine plants is driven by temperature and precipitation

    PubMed Central

    MANEL, STÉPHANIE; GUGERLI, FELIX; THUILLER, WILFRIED; ALVAREZ, NADIR; LEGENDRE, PIERRE; HOLDEREGGER, ROLF; GIELLY, LUDOVIC; TABERLET, PIERRE

    2014-01-01

    Identifying adaptive genetic variation is a challenging task, in particular in non-model species for which genomic information is still limited or absent. Here, we studied distribution patterns of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) in response to environmental variation, in 13 alpine plant species consistently sampled across the entire European Alps. Multiple linear regressions were performed between AFLP allele frequencies per site as dependent variables and two categories of independent variables, namely Moran’s eigenvector map MEM variables (to account for spatial and unaccounted environmental variation, and historical demographic processes) and environmental variables. These associations allowed the identification of 153 loci of ecological relevance. Univariate regressions between allele frequency and each environmental factor further showed that loci of ecological relevance were mainly correlated with MEM variables. We found that precipitation and temperature were the best environmental predictors, whereas topographic factors were rarely involved in environmental associations. Climatic factors, subject to rapid variation as a result of the current global warming, are known to strongly influence the fate of alpine plants. Our study shows, for the first time for a large number of species, that the same environmental variables are drivers of plant adaptation at the scale of a whole biome, here the European Alps. PMID:22680783

  20. Adaptive sequentially space-filling metamodeling applied in optimal water quantity allocation at basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. Jamshid; Shourian, M.

    2010-03-01

    Global optimization models in many problems suffer from high computational costs due to the need for performing high-fidelity simulation models for objective function evaluations. Metamodeling is a useful approach to dealing with this problem in which a fast surrogate model replaces the detailed simulation model. However, training of the surrogate model needs enough input-output data which in case of absence of observed data, each of them must be obtained by running the simulation model and may still cause computational difficulties. In this paper a new metamodeling approach called adaptive sequentially space filling (ASSF) is presented by which the regions in the search space that need more training data are sequentially identified and the process of design of experiments is performed adaptively. Performance of the ASSF approach is tested against a benchmark function optimization problem and optimum basin-scale water allocation problems, in which the MODSIM river basin decision support system is approximated. Results show the ASSF model with fewer actual function evaluations is able to find comparable solutions to other metamodeling techniques using random sampling and evolution control strategies.

  1. Scaling behavior of quantum critical relaxation dynamics of a system in a heat bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shuai; Lo, Chung-Yu; Chen, Pochung

    2016-05-01

    We study the scaling behavior of the relaxation dynamics to thermal equilibrium when a quantum system is near the quantum critical point. In particular, we investigate systems whose relaxation dynamics is described by a Lindblad master equation. We find that the universal scaling behavior not only appears in the equilibrium stage at the long-time limit but also manifests in the nonequilibrium relaxation process. While the critical behavior is dictated by the low-lying energy levels of the Hamiltonian, the dissipative part in the Lindblad equation also plays important roles in two aspects: First, the dissipative part makes the high-energy levels decay fast, after which the universal behavior controlled by the low-lying modes emerges. Second, the dissipation rate gives rise to a time scale that affects the scaling behavior. We confirm our theory by solving the Lindblad equation for the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model.

  2. Translation, adaptation and validation of the Moroccan version of the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale.

    PubMed

    Bendeddouche, Imad; Rostom, Samira; Bahiri, Rachid; Boudali, Aziza; Srifi, Najlaa; Mawani, Nada; Mengat, Mariam; El Badri, Dalal; Lazrak, Noufissa; Abouqal, Redouane; Allali, Fadoua; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Moroccan version of the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QDS) and to investigate its reliability and validity in Moroccan patients with low back pain (LBP). The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the QDS were developed in agreement with published guidelines. The QDS was translated by use of the forward and backward translation procedure. After pretest, it was validated in 64 Moroccan patients with LBP. The QDS was recorded twice, at baseline visit and 72 h later. Reproducibility was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland and Altman method. Internal consistency was measured by Cronbach α coefficient. Ceiling and floor effects were assessed. Validity was measured by correlating the scores of the Moroccan QDS with visual analogue scale (VAS) for Pain, Disability VAS, Schober test, fingertip-floor measurement and the Moroccan version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) by means of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Association with gender and education level was also studied. Reliability was excellent with an ICC (type 2.1) of 0.959 (CI 95%: 0.934-0.975). The internal consistency was high with a Cronbach α of 0.979. The Bland and Altman method showed homogenous distribution of the differences, with no systematic trend. There were no floor or ceiling effects. The correlation between QDS and RMDQ was very good (r = 0.664; p ≤ 0.001). There was no correlation between QDS and the other variables. Accordingly, the Moroccan version of QDS has good reproducibility, internal consistency and validity for the assessment of disability in Moroccan-speaking patients with LBP. PMID:22349881

  3. Functional Behavior Assessment in Classroom Settings: Scaling Down to Scale Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terrance M.; Alter, Peter J.; McQuillan, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment (FBA), although mandated by federal law in situations involving students with emotional and behavioral disorders, is not well defined in the literature in terms of how it should best be undertaken in widespread practice in schools. Functional behavior assessment can be defined as a process for determining the reason…

  4. International validation of a behavioral scale in Parkinson's disease without dementia.

    PubMed

    Rieu, Isabelle; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Pereira, Bruno; De Chazeron, Ingrid; Verhagen Metman, Leo; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Ardouin, Claire; Chéreau, Isabelle; Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Ory-Magne, Fabienne; Klinger, Helene; Peyrol, Fleur; Schupbach, Michael; Dujardin, Kathy; Tison, François; Houeto, Jean Luc; Krack, Paul; Durif, Franck

    2015-04-15

    The "Ardouin Scale of Behavior in Parkinson's Disease" is a new instrument specifically designed for assessing mood and behavior with a view to quantifying changes related to Parkinson's disease, to dopaminergic medication, and to non-motor fluctuations. This study was aimed at analyzing the psychometric attributes of this scale in patients with Parkinson's disease without dementia. In addition to this scale, the following measures were applied: the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Lille Apathy Rating Scale, the Bech and Rafaelsen Mania Scale, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the MacElroy Criteria, the Patrick Carnes criteria, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Patients (n=260) were recruited at 13 centers across four countries (France, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for domains ranged from 0.69 to 0.78. Regarding test-retest reliability, the kappa coefficient for items was higher than 0.4. For inter-rater reliability, the kappa values were 0.29 to 0.81. Furthermore, most of the items from the Ardouin Scale of Behavior in Parkinson's Disease correlated with the corresponding items of the other scales, depressed mood with the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (ρ=0.82); anxiety with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-anxiety (ρ=0.56); apathy with the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (ρ=0.60). The Ardouin Scale of Behavior in Parkinson's disease is an acceptable, reproducible, valid, and precise assessment for evaluating changes in behavior in patients with Parkinson's disease without dementia. PMID:25809278

  5. Probabilistic simulation of multi-scale composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, D. G.; Shiao, M. C.; Singhal, S. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1993-01-01

    A methodology is developed to computationally assess the probabilistic composite material properties at all composite scale levels due to the uncertainties in the constituent (fiber and matrix) properties and in the fabrication process variables. The methodology is computationally efficient for simulating the probability distributions of material properties. The sensitivity of the probabilistic composite material property to each random variable is determined. This information can be used to reduce undesirable uncertainties in material properties at the macro scale of the composite by reducing the uncertainties in the most influential random variables at the micro scale. This methodology was implemented into the computer code PICAN (Probabilistic Integrated Composite ANalyzer). The accuracy and efficiency of this methodology are demonstrated by simulating the uncertainties in the material properties of a typical laminate and comparing the results with the Monte Carlo simulation method. The experimental data of composite material properties at all scales fall within the scatters predicted by PICAN.

  6. Distributed recurrent neural forward models with synaptic adaptation and CPG-based control for complex behaviors of walking robots

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like stick insects, cockroaches or ants, demonstrate a fascinating range of locomotive abilities and complex behaviors. The locomotive behaviors can consist of a variety of walking patterns along with adaptation that allow the animals to deal with changes in environmental conditions, like uneven terrains, gaps, obstacles etc. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors are a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanism thus representing the true nature of embodied interactions. While the biomechanics helps maintain flexibility and sustain a variety of movements, the neural mechanisms generate movements while making appropriate predictions crucial for achieving adaptation. Such predictions or planning ahead can be achieved by way of internal models that are grounded in the overall behavior of the animal. Inspired by these findings, we present here, an artificial bio-inspired walking system which effectively combines biomechanics (in terms of the body and leg structures) with the underlying neural mechanisms. The neural mechanisms consist of (1) central pattern generator based control for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated movements, (2) distributed (at each leg) recurrent neural network based adaptive forward models with efference copies as internal models for sensory predictions and instantaneous state estimations, and (3) searching and elevation control for adapting the movement of an individual leg to deal with different environmental conditions. Using simulations we show that this bio-inspired approach with adaptive internal models allows the walking robot to perform complex locomotive behaviors as observed in insects, including walking on undulated terrains, crossing large gaps, leg damage adaptations, as well as climbing over high obstacles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the newly developed recurrent network based approach to online forward models outperforms the adaptive neuron forward models

  7. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Initial Validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Odetunde, Marufat O.; Odole, Adesola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted…

  8. Self-confidence for emergency intervention: adaptation and cultural validation of the Self-confidence Scale in nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Martins, José Carlos Amado; Baptista, Rui Carlos Negrão; Coutinho, Verónica Rita Dias; Mazzo, Alessandra; Rodrigues, Manuel Alves; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: develop the cultural adaptation and validation of a Portuguese version of the Self-confidence Scale. Method: descriptive and exploratory methodological research for the adaptation and validation of a measuring instrument. The translation, synthesis, back-translation, revision, pretest and semantic evaluation phases were accomplished. The evaluation involving 178 students from a Teaching Diploma Program in Nursing. The ethical principles were complied with. Results: the internal consistency analysis of the scale reveals good Alpha coefficients (0.92 for the global scale and superior to 0.83 for the different dimensions). The factor analysis presents a three-factor solution with rational meaning. Conclusion: The scale is easy to answer and understand. Based on the obtained results, it can be affirmed that the scale reveals good psychometric properties, with great potential to be used in future research. PMID:25054868

  9. Crossover from antipersistent to persistent behavior in time series possessing the generalyzed dynamic scaling law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Morales Matamoros, Oswaldo; Gálvez M., Ernesto; Pérez A., Alfonso

    2004-03-01

    The behavior of crude oil price volatility is analyzed within a conceptual framework of kinetic roughening of growing interfaces. We find that the persistent long-horizon volatilities satisfy the Family-Viscek dynamic scaling ansatz, whereas the mean-reverting in time short horizon volatilities obey the generalized scaling law with continuously varying scaling exponents. Furthermore we find that the crossover from antipersistent to persistent behavior is accompanied by a change in the type of volatility distribution. These phenomena are attributed to the complex avalanche dynamics of crude oil markets and so a similar behavior may be observed in a wide variety of physical systems governed by avalanche dynamics.

  10. Adaptive behavior for texture discrimination by the free-flying big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus.

    PubMed

    Falk, Ben; Williams, Tameeka; Aytekin, Murat; Moss, Cynthia F

    2011-05-01

    This study examined behavioral strategies for texture discrimination by echolocation in free-flying bats. Big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were trained to discriminate a smooth 16 mm diameter object (S+) from a size-matched textured object (S-), both of which were tethered in random locations in a flight room. The bat's three-dimensional flight path was reconstructed using stereo images from high-speed video recordings, and the bat's sonar vocalizations were recorded for each trial and analyzed off-line. A microphone array permitted reconstruction of the sonar beam pattern, allowing us to study the bat's directional gaze and inspection of the objects. Bats learned the discrimination, but performance varied with S-. In acoustic studies of the objects, the S+ and S- stimuli were ensonified with frequency-modulated sonar pulses. Mean intensity differences between S+ and S- were within 4 dB. Performance data, combined with analyses of echo recordings, suggest that the big brown bat listens to changes in sound spectra from echo to echo to discriminate between objects. Bats adapted their sonar calls as they inspected the stimuli, and their sonar behavior resembled that of animals foraging for insects. Analysis of sonar beam-directing behavior in certain trials clearly showed that the bat sequentially inspected S+ and S-. PMID:21246202

  11. Adaptive behavior for texture discrimination by the free-flying big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Ben; Williams, Tameeka; Aytekin, Murat

    2011-01-01

    This study examined behavioral strategies for texture discrimination by echolocation in free-flying bats. Big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were trained to discriminate a smooth 16 mm diameter object (S+) from a size-matched textured object (S−), both of which were tethered in random locations in a flight room. The bat’s three-dimensional flight path was reconstructed using stereo images from high-speed video recordings, and the bat’s sonar vocalizations were recorded for each trial and analyzed off-line. A microphone array permitted reconstruction of the sonar beam pattern, allowing us to study the bat’s directional gaze and inspection of the objects. Bats learned the discrimination, but performance varied with S−. In acoustic studies of the objects, the S+ and S− stimuli were ensonified with frequency-modulated sonar pulses. Mean intensity differences between S+ and S− were within 4 dB. Performance data, combined with analyses of echo recordings, suggest that the big brown bat listens to changes in sound spectra from echo to echo to discriminate between objects. Bats adapted their sonar calls as they inspected the stimuli, and their sonar behavior resembled that of animals foraging for insects. Analysis of sonar beam-directing behavior in certain trials clearly showed that the bat sequentially inspected S+ and S−. PMID:21246202

  12. Concurrent Validity of the Child Behavior Checklist DSM-Oriented Scales: Correspondence with DSM Diagnoses and Comparison to Syndrome Scales

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Adam; Nakamura, Brad J.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Weisz, John R.

    2009-01-01

    This study used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology and discriminative analyses to examine the correspondence of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) rationally-derived DSM-oriented scales and empirically-derived syndrome scales with clinical diagnoses in a clinic-referred sample of children and adolescents (N = 476). Although results demonstrated that the CBCL Anxiety, Affective, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity, Oppositional and Conduct Problems DSM-oriented scales corresponded significantly with related clinical diagnoses derived from parent-based structured interviews, these DSM-oriented scales did not evidence significantly greater correspondence with clinical diagnoses than the syndrome scales in all cases but one. The DSM-oriented Anxiety Problems scale was the only scale that evidenced significantly greater correspondence with diagnoses above its syndrome scale counterpart —the Anxious/Depressed scale. The recently developed and rationally-derived DSM-oriented scales thus generally do not add incremental clinical utility above that already afforded by the syndrome scales with respect to corresponding with diagnoses. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20700377

  13. The scale of local adaptation in Mimulus guttatus: comparing life history races, ecotypes, and populations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Megan L; Kay, Kathleen M; Angert, Amy L

    2016-07-01

    Fitness trade-offs between environments are central to the evolution of biodiversity. Although transplant studies often document fitness trade-offs consistent with local adaptation (LA), many have also found an advantage of foreign genotypes (foreign advantage (FA)). Understanding the mechanisms driving the magnitude and distribution of fitness variation requires comparative approaches that test the ecological scales at which these different patterns emerge. We used a common garden transplant experiment to compare the relative fitnesses of native vs foreign genotypes at three nested ecological scales within Mimulus guttatus: annual vs perennial life history races, perennial ecotypes across an elevational range, and populations within perennial elevational ecotypes. We integrated fitness across the life-cycle and decomposed LA vs FA into contributions from different fitness components. We found LA, measured as home-site advantage, between annual and perennial races and a trend towards LA among populations within montane habitats. Conversely, we found strong FA of low-elevation perennials in a montane environment. LA between life history races reflects the fitness advantages of adult survival and vegetative growth in a mesic environment. Within the perennial race, recent climate conditions or nonselective processes, such as dispersal limitation or mutational load, could explain FA of low-elevation perennials in a montane environment. PMID:27102088

  14. Parallel Implementation and Scaling of an Adaptive Mesh Discrete Ordinates Algorithm for Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, L H

    2004-11-29

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) uses a mesh structure built up out of locally-uniform rectangular grids. In the BoxLib parallel framework used by the Raptor code, each processor operates on one or more of these grids at each refinement level. The decomposition of the mesh into grids and the distribution of these grids among processors may change every few timesteps as a calculation proceeds. Finer grids use smaller timesteps than coarser grids, requiring additional work to keep the system synchronized and ensure conservation between different refinement levels. In a paper for NECDC 2002 I presented preliminary results on implementation of parallel transport sweeps on the AMR mesh, conjugate gradient acceleration, accuracy of the AMR solution, and scalar speedup of the AMR algorithm compared to a uniform fully-refined mesh. This paper continues with a more in-depth examination of the parallel scaling properties of the scheme, both in single-level and multi-level calculations. Both sweeping and setup costs are considered. The algorithm scales with acceptable performance to several hundred processors. Trends suggest, however, that this is the limit for efficient calculations with traditional transport sweeps, and that modifications to the sweep algorithm will be increasingly needed as job sizes in the thousands of processors become common.

  15. Expanding and Adapting the Protean Career Management Scale for University Students (PCMS-U).

    PubMed

    Liberato Borges, Ludmila F; De Andrade, Alexsandro L; Ziebell de Oliveira, Manoela; Guerra, Valeschka Martins

    2015-01-01

    Many changes in the socioeconomic scenario led to the emergence of different models of career guidance, among which the protean career stands out. This model works with the prospect of a career that is self-directed and aligned with personal values, with important propositions for both professionals and students entering the work market. In the Brazilian scenario, however, there is a lack of appropriate measures to evaluate protean aspects among college students without work experience. Thus, the present study aimed at adapting and validating the attitudes towards the Protean Career Scale to this population. The sample consisted of 902 students aging from 18 to 30 years old (M = 22.52; SD = 6.53) attending 34 different undergraduate courses. Exploratory and confirmatory analysis attested the two-dimensional nature of the scale structure. The reliability indexes were satisfactory: over .65. The correlation between the protean models and factors such as personality, values, and locus of control provided adequate evidence of the measure's predictive validity (p < .05). PMID:26707942

  16. Automated Detection of Microaneurysms Using Scale-Adapted Blob Analysis and Semi-Supervised Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Adal, Kedir M.; Sidebe, Desire; Ali, Sharib; Chaum, Edward; Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2014-01-07

    Despite several attempts, automated detection of microaneurysm (MA) from digital fundus images still remains to be an open issue. This is due to the subtle nature of MAs against the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the microaneurysm detection problem is modeled as finding interest regions or blobs from an image and an automatic local-scale selection technique is presented. Several scale-adapted region descriptors are then introduced to characterize these blob regions. A semi-supervised based learning approach, which requires few manually annotated learning examples, is also proposed to train a classifier to detect true MAs. The developed system is built using only few manually labeled and a large number of unlabeled retinal color fundus images. The performance of the overall system is evaluated on Retinopathy Online Challenge (ROC) competition database. A competition performance measure (CPM) of 0.364 shows the competitiveness of the proposed system against state-of-the art techniques as well as the applicability of the proposed features to analyze fundus images.

  17. Dispersive behavior and acoustic scaling in granular rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, Santos; Vanessa, Urdaneta; Ernesto, Medina; Xavier, García

    2013-06-01

    Handling and making decisions based on data taken at different scales is a critical issue in the design of exploration and production tasks in the oil industry. Acoustic data is the classical example of the integration of dissimilar scales (i.e. seismic, well logs, lab data) where there is a scale dependent velocity. An understanding of the acoustic dispersion phenomenon in granular samples is needed. A detailed numerical work was conducted in order to establish the relationship between frequency and propagation speed for an acoustical pulse induced in simulated granular materials. The granular samples were generated with different grain size distributions while porosity and pressure were targeted and kept invariant using the grain radii expansion method. A sinusoidal burst with frequencies from 10Hz to 1MHz was applied and the corresponding acoustical speeds were estimated for each frequency. A coherent sigmoid dispersion relationship was obtained for each granular sample. The asymptotic boundaries for the dispersion function reflect the limiting cases for the wavelength/heterogeneity ratio in the granular pack. The lower speed asymptote was explained as the mean field value while upper speed asymptote can be understood based on a ray theory approximation scaled by a parameter we defined as the "acoustic tortuosity factor". This factor reflects the intricate acoustical path due to the texture of the stress network developed in the granular samples and can be used together with the sigmoid dispersive relationship to describe and clarify the scale discrepancy between different source acoustic data in granular materials.

  18. Development and validation of the Family Health Behavior Scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the current study was to develop a psychometrically sound, parent-report measure of family and child behaviors related to obesity in children between 5- and 12-years-old. Item generation, item selection, and initial exploratory factor analysis yielded a 27-item measure called the Fami...

  19. Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale: Two Studies of Convergent Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Ryan, Joseph B.; La Vigne, Steven P.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    As the field of mental health services shifts its focus to early intervention, the need to develop valid and reliable measures of young children's behavioral functioning is clear. Traditional assessment instruments have focused on deficits, problems, and pathologies to the exclusion of strengths and competencies. However, assessing child strengths…

  20. A large-scale neurocomputational model of task-oriented behavior selection and working memory in prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Chadderdon, George L; Sporns, Olaf

    2006-02-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is crucially involved in the executive component of working memory, representation of task state, and behavior selection. This article presents a large-scale computational model of the PFC and associated brain regions designed to investigate the mechanisms by which working memory and task state interact to select adaptive behaviors from a behavioral repertoire. The model consists of multiple brain regions containing neuronal populations with realistic physiological and anatomical properties, including extrastriate visual cortical regions, the inferotemporal cortex, the PFC, the striatum, and midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. The onset of a delayed match-to-sample or delayed nonmatch-to-sample task triggers tonic DA release in the PFC causing a switch into a persistent, stimulus-insensitive dynamic state that promotes the maintenance of stimulus representations within prefrontal networks. Other modeled prefrontal and striatal units select cognitive acceptance or rejection behaviors according to which task is active and whether prefrontal working memory representations match the current stimulus. Working memory task performance and memory fields of prefrontal delay units are degraded by extreme elevation or depletion of tonic DA levels. Analyses of cellular and synaptic activity suggest that hyponormal DA levels result in increased prefrontal activation, whereas hypernormal DA levels lead to decreased activation. Our simulation results suggest a range of predictions for behavioral, single-cell, and neuroimaging response data under the proposed task set and under manipulations of DA concentration. PMID:16494684