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Sample records for adaptive behavior skills

  1. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  2. Increasing adaptive behavior skill deficits from childhood to adolescence in autism spectrum disorder: role of executive function.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Cara E; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2015-06-01

    Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive behavior, with specific attention to the role of executive function (EF) in youth with HFASD aged 4-23. There was a negative relationship between age and adaptive behavior and the discrepancy between IQ and adaptive behavior increased with age. EF problems contributed to lower adaptive behavior scores across domains. As such, it is important to target adaptive skills, and the EF problems that may contribute to them, in youth with HFASD.

  3. Increasing Adaptive Behavior Skill Deficits from Childhood to Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Role of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive…

  4. Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed

  5. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of

  6. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…

  7. Treating Adaptive Living Skills of Persons with Autism Using Applied Behavior Analysis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Belva, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Work, self-help, leisure, and hygiene skill deficits are often associated with Autistic Disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in socialization, communication, and repetitive and restricted behaviors or interests. A number of interventions have been established to assist individuals with these impairments.…

  8. Developing Adaptive Behavior and Work Skills in Severely Retarded Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenning, Jerome M.; McBee, Edwin D.

    The Pacific State Hospital conducted a demonstration experiment with 12 severely and profoundly mentally retarded male adolescents, which concentrated on modifying disruptive, bothersome behaviors while developing basic work skills required for daily activity in sheltered workshops. The experiment provided an integrated program for an entire day,…

  9. Substance abuse, coping strategies, adaptive skills and behavioral and emotional problems in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability admitted to a treatment facility: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who did not. There were no differences in adaptive skills between groups. However, compared to clients without substance abuse, those who abused substances showed a more palliative coping style, and had more severe emotional and behavior problems such as anxiety/depression and intrusive thoughts and aggressive and antisocial behaviors. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  10. VNTR-DAT1 and COMTVal158Met Genotypes Modulate Mental Flexibility and Adaptive Behavior Skills in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    del Hoyo, Laura; Xicota, Laura; Langohr, Klaus; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; de Sola, Susana; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael; Cuenca-Royo, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an aneuploidy syndrome that is caused by trisomy for human chromosome 21 resulting in a characteristic cognitive and behavioral phenotype, which includes executive functioning and adaptive behavior difficulties possibly due to prefrontal cortex (PFC) deficits. DS also present a high risk for early onset of Alzheimer Disease-like dementia. The dopamine (DA) system plays a neuromodulatory role in the activity of the PFC. Several studies have implicated trait differences in DA signaling on executive functioning based on genetic polymorphisms in the genes encoding for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMTVal158Met) and the dopamine transporter (VNTR-DAT1). Since it is known that the phenotypic consequences of genetic variants are modulated by the genetic background in which they occur, we here explore whether these polymorphisms variants interact with the trisomic genetic background to influence gene expression, and how this in turn mediates DS phenotype variability regarding PFC cognition. We genotyped 69 young adults of both genders with DS, and found that VNTR-DAT1 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium but COMTVal158Met had a reduced frequency of Met allele homozygotes. In our population, genotypes conferring higher DA availability, such as Met allele carriers and VNTR-DAT1 10-repeat allele homozygotes, resulted in improved performance in executive function tasks that require mental flexibility. Met allele carriers showed worse adaptive social skills and self-direction, and increased scores in the social subscale of the Dementia Questionnaire for People with Intellectual Disabilities than Val allele homozygotes. The VNTR-DAT1 was not involved in adaptive behavior or early dementia symptoms. Our results suggest that genetic variants of COMTVal158Met and VNTR-DAT1 may contribute to PFC-dependent cognition, while only COMTVal158Met is involved in behavioral phenotypes of DS, similar to euploid population. PMID:27799900

  11. VNTR-DAT1 and COMTVal158Met Genotypes Modulate Mental Flexibility and Adaptive Behavior Skills in Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Del Hoyo, Laura; Xicota, Laura; Langohr, Klaus; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; de Sola, Susana; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an aneuploidy syndrome that is caused by trisomy for human chromosome 21 resulting in a characteristic cognitive and behavioral phenotype, which includes executive functioning and adaptive behavior difficulties possibly due to prefrontal cortex (PFC) deficits. DS also present a high risk for early onset of Alzheimer Disease-like dementia. The dopamine (DA) system plays a neuromodulatory role in the activity of the PFC. Several studies have implicated trait differences in DA signaling on executive functioning based on genetic polymorphisms in the genes encoding for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMTVal158Met) and the dopamine transporter (VNTR-DAT1). Since it is known that the phenotypic consequences of genetic variants are modulated by the genetic background in which they occur, we here explore whether these polymorphisms variants interact with the trisomic genetic background to influence gene expression, and how this in turn mediates DS phenotype variability regarding PFC cognition. We genotyped 69 young adults of both genders with DS, and found that VNTR-DAT1 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium but COMTVal158Met had a reduced frequency of Met allele homozygotes. In our population, genotypes conferring higher DA availability, such as Met allele carriers and VNTR-DAT1 10-repeat allele homozygotes, resulted in improved performance in executive function tasks that require mental flexibility. Met allele carriers showed worse adaptive social skills and self-direction, and increased scores in the social subscale of the Dementia Questionnaire for People with Intellectual Disabilities than Val allele homozygotes. The VNTR-DAT1 was not involved in adaptive behavior or early dementia symptoms. Our results suggest that genetic variants of COMTVal158Met and VNTR-DAT1 may contribute to PFC-dependent cognition, while only COMTVal158Met is involved in behavioral phenotypes of DS, similar to euploid population.

  12. Investigation of the Association Between Motor Stereotypy Behavior With Fundamental Movement Skills, Adaptive Functioning, and Autistic Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Children With Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Powell, Joanne L; Pringle, Lydia; Greig, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Motor stereotypy behaviors are patterned, coordinated, repetitive behaviors that are particularly evident in those with an autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities. The extent to which motor stereotypy behavior severity is associated with motor skills and maladaptive behavior, measures of adaptive functioning, along with fundamental movement skills and degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology is assessed in this preliminary report. Twelve participants, aged 7 to 16 years, with a reported motor stereotypy behavior and either mild or severe intellectual disability comprising developmental or global delay took part in the study. Spearman rho correlational analysis showed that severity of motor stereotypy behavior was significantly positively correlated with autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .008) and maladaptive behavior ( P = .008) but not fundamental movement skills ( P > .05). An increase in fundamental movement skills score was associated with a decrease in autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .01) and an increase in motor skills ( P = .002). This study provides evidence showing a significant relationship between motor stereotypy behavior severity with degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology and maladaptive behavior.

  13. Substance Abuse, Coping Strategies, Adaptive Skills and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Clients with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability Admitted to a Treatment Facility: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…

  14. A Systematic Review of Behavioral Intervention Research on Adaptive Skill Building in High-Functioning Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert; Lang, Russell

    2012-01-01

    This review involved a systematic search and analysis of behavioral intervention studies aimed at improving adaptive skills in high-functioning young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Through electronic databases and hand searching, 20 studies were identified meeting pre-determined inclusion criteria. Studies were summarized and analysed in…

  15. Does disaster education of teenagers translate into better survival knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Codeanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Jacobs, Ian

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of people are affected worldwide by the effects of disasters, and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has recognized the need for a radical paradigm shift in the preparedness and combat of the effects of disasters through the implementation of specific actions. At the governmental level, these actions translate into disaster and risk reduction education and activities at school. Fifteen years after the UNISDR declaration, there is a need to know if the current methods of disaster education of the teenage population enhance their knowledge, knowledge of skills in disasters, and whether there is a behavioral change which would improve their chances for survival post disaster. This multidisciplinary systematic literature review showed that the published evidence regarding enhancing the disaster-related knowledge of teenagers and the related problem solving skills and behavior is piecemeal in design, approach, and execution in spite of consensus on the detrimental effects on injury rates and survival. There is some evidence that isolated school-based intervention enhances the theoretical disaster knowledge which may also extend to practical skills; however, disaster behavioral change is not forthcoming. It seems that the best results are obtained by combining theoretical and practical activities in school, family, community, and self-education programs. There is a still a pressing need for a concerted educational drive to achieve disaster preparedness behavioral change. School leavers' lack of knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change are detrimental to their chances of survival.

  16. Measuring Skills and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludeman, Kate

    1991-01-01

    Customized skills assessments can perform a number of functions: help training departments demonstrate their effectiveness; provide a foundation for career development programs; reinforce company values; add feedback from the bottom up for performance evaluation; provide a concentrated focus for customer service improvement; and serve as a…

  17. Adaptation and implementation of an evidence-based behavioral medicine program in diverse global settings: The Williams LifeSkills experience.

    PubMed

    Williams, Redford B; Williams, Virginia P

    2011-06-01

    Epidemiological research has documented the health-damaging effects of psychosocial factors like hostility, depression, anxiety, job stress, social isolation and low socioeconomic status. Several studies suggest that behavioral interventions can reduce levels of these psychosocial factors. Herein we describe the translational process whereby the Williams LifeSkills® (WLS(®)) program and products for reducing psychosocial risk factors have been developed and tested in clinical trials in the U.S. and Canada and then adapted for other cultures and tested in clinical trials in other countries around the world. Evidence from published controlled and observational trials of WLS(®) products in the U.S. and elsewhere shows that persons receiving coping skills training using WLS(®) products have consistently reported reduced levels of psychosocial risk factors. In two controlled trials, one for caregivers of a relative with Alzheimer's Disease in the U.S. and one for coronary bypass surgery patients in Singapore, WLS(®) training also produced clinically significant blood pressure reductions. In conclusion, WLS(®) products have been shown in controlled and observational trials to produce reduced levels of both psychosocial and cardiovascular stress indices. Ongoing research has the potential to show that WLS(®) products can be an effective vehicle for the delivery of stress reduction and mental health services in developing countries.

  18. The Protective Effects of Adaptability, Study Skills, and Social Skills on Externalizing Student-Teacher Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Sycarah D.; Reynolds, Jennifer L.; Sheehan, Chelsea E.

    2016-01-01

    Although students with externalizing behaviors inherently exhibit behaviors that contribute to poor teacher relationships, little research has examined the positive characteristics these students may possess that serve to facilitate positive teacher relationships. This study explores the moderating effects of adaptability, social skills, and study…

  19. Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

  20. Patterns of Adaptive Behavior in Very Young Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Ousley, Opal Y.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Hogan, Kerry L.; Brown, Christia S.

    1999-01-01

    A study used the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to investigate patterns of adaptive behavior in 30 children with autism who were under 3 years. Relative to controls, participants demonstrated weaker socialization and communication skills and greater discrepancies between adaptive behavior and mental age. The utility of the scales is discussed.…

  1. Early-Emerging Social Adaptive Skills in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Item Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventola, Pamela; Saulnier, Celine A.; Steinberg, Elizabeth; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Klin, Ami

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with ASD have significant impairments in adaptive skills, particularly adaptive socialization skills. The present study examined the extent to which 20 items from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Socialization Domain differentiated between ASD and developmentally delayed (DD) groups. Participants included 108 toddlers with ASD or…

  2. Adaptive Behavior in Children with Fragile X Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Deborah D.; Wheeler, Anne C.; Skinner, Martie L.; Bailey, Donald B.; Sullivan, Kelly M.; Roberts, Jane E.; Mirrett, Penny; Clark, Renee D.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive behavior was measured over time in 70 children, ages 1 to 12 years, with fragile X syndrome. With a mean of 4.4 assessments per child, adaptive behavior skills increased steadily and gradually over time. Children with less autistic behavior and higher percentages of the fragile X mental retardation gene protein showed better performance…

  3. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tassé, Marc J; Schalock, Robert L; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry Hank; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT modeling and a nationally representative standardization sample, the item set was reduced to 75 items that provide the most precise adaptive behavior information at the cutoff area determining the presence or not of significant adaptive behavior deficits across conceptual, social, and practical skills. The standardization of the DABS is described and discussed.

  4. Improving Student Behavior through Social Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Staci; And Others

    A program for improving student social skills was implemented in three classrooms of lower-class kindergarten and second grade students at two schools in order to reduce the number of behavior problems. Student behavior is a nationwide educational concern, and the problem of inappropriate behavior at the schools was documented by teacher…

  5. Establishing Fire Safety Skills Using Behavioral Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houvouras, Andrew J., IV; Harvey, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area,…

  6. Early Language and Behavioral Regulation Skills as Predictors of Social Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Tuija; Eklund, Kenneth; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors examined the prospective associations among early language skills, behavioral regulation skills, and 2 aspects of school-age social functioning (adaptability and social skills). Method: The study sample consisted of children with and without a familial risk for dyslexia. The authors analyzed the relations…

  7. Establishing fire safety skills using behavioral skills training.

    PubMed

    Houvouras, Andrew J; Harvey, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area, and (c) report the lighter to an adult. The response sequence was maintained for both participants after training. The use of in situ assessment to evoke and observe infrequent behavior is discussed.

  8. Comparison of Adaptive Behavior Measures for Children with HFASDs

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachael A.; Volker, Martin A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Lee, Gloria K.; McDonald, Christin A.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive behavior rating scales are frequently used to gather information on the adaptive functioning of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), yet little is known about the extent to which these measures yield comparable results. This study was conducted to (a) document the parent-rated VABS-II, BASC-2, and ABAS-II adaptive behavior profiles of 6- to 11-year-olds with HFASDs (including relative strengths and weaknesses); (b) examine the extent to which these measures yielded similar scores on comparable scales; and (c) assess potential discrepancies between cognitive ability and adaptive behavior across the measures. All three adaptive measures revealed significant deficits overall for the sample, with the VABS-II and ABAS-II indicating relative weaknesses in social skills and strengths in academic-related skills. Cross-measure comparisons indicated significant differences in the absolute magnitude of scores. In general, the VABS-II yielded significantly higher scores than the BASC-2 and ABAS-II. However, the VABS-II and ABAS-II yielded scores that did not significantly differ for adaptive social skills which is a critical area to assess for children with HFASDs. Results also indicated significant discrepancies between the children's average IQ score and their scores on the adaptive domains and composites of the three adaptive measures. PMID:23819048

  9. The Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior. Measures of Program Development for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded. Section 1. Skills of Functional Independence. Part Three: Program Scoring Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Earl E.

    The scoring form for functional independence skills for the mentally retarded includes a section for recording subjects' demographic characteristics as well as tests used, date administered, and raw score. Other sections provide for a brief description of the program being used, an item scoring sheet for the Eating Scales (dependent feeding,…

  10. Teaching Basic Adaptive Skills to Young Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on methods of teaching toileting and independent eating skills to children with disabilities. Methods for teaching toileting skills include timed toileting, scheduled toileting, and the rapid technique. Methods for teaching self-feeding include systematic instruction, positioning techniques, and adaptive modifications. Notes that both…

  11. Mental Health and Head Start: Teaching Adaptive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Serna, Loretta A.; Kavale, Kenneth A.; Nielsen, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a self-determination curriculum for mental-health intervention and primary prevention for Head Start children. The curriculum addresses critical adaptive-skills domains, including social skills, self-evaluation, self-direction, networking or friendship, collaboration or support seeking, problem solving and decision making, and…

  12. Development of a Measure of Behavioral Coping Skills for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Mary A.; And Others

    Development and initial validation are described for an instrument to assess the behavioral coping skills of adolescents. The Assessment of Behavioral Coping Skills (ABCS) was designed for use in the South Carolina Coping Skills Project, a school-based coping skills prevention program for adolescents at high risk for substance abuse. The ABCS…

  13. Longitudinal Examination of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Executive Function.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Cara E; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Strang, John F; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L; Naiman, Daniel Q; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2016-02-01

    This study characterizes longitudinal change in adaptive behavior in 64 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability evaluated on multiple occasions, and examines whether prior estimate of executive function (EF) problems predicts future adaptive behavior scores. Compared to standardized estimates for their developmental stage, adaptive behavior in most participants was impaired and did not improve over time. Prior EF predicted later adaptive behavior in daily living skills and socialization domains after controlling for age and IQ. Self-monitoring behaviors robustly predicted later adaptive behavior in all domains (d = 0.60-0.94). Results support targeting treatment of adaptive skills in ASD, as well as the importance of assessing for EF problems that may contribute to adaptive behavior difficulties.

  14. Adaptive capture of expert behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

  15. The Parent Version of the Preschool Social Skills Rating System: Psychometric Analysis and Adaptation with a German Preschool Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Markus; Scheithauer, Herbert; Kleiber, Dieter; Wille, Nora; Erhart, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) developed by Gresham and Elliott (1990) is a multirater, norm-referenced instrument measuring social skills and adaptive behavior in preschool children. The aims of the present study were (a) to test the factorial structure of the Parent Form of the SSRS for the first time with a German preschool sample (391…

  16. Teaching and Maintaining Behavior Management Skills in the Nursing Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgio, Louis D.; Stevens, Alan; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Roth, David L.; Paul, Penelope; Gerstle, John

    2002-01-01

    Examines the efficacy of a comprehensive behavior management skills training program for improving certified nursing assistants' (CNAs) skill performance in the nursing home. Results reveal improvement in five out of seven communication skills. Although CNAs showed a reduction in the use of ineffective behavior management strategies, they did not…

  17. A Brief Social Skills Intervention to Reduce Challenging Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Bruhn, Allison L.; Troughton, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Social skills instruction has been recommended as a way of improving behavioral and social outcomes for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A brief social skills intervention ("Stop and Think" (Knoff in "The stop & think social skills program," Sopris West, Longmont, CO, 2001) was used to extend the…

  18. Culturally Adapted Skill Use as a Therapeutic Alliance Catalyst

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewicki, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, I explore how the therapeutic alliance, along with culturally competent and adapted skill use can be positively correlated with treatment outcome when using the ecological validity model as the frame. The ecological validity model refers to the degree to which there is consistency between the environment as experienced by…

  19. Adaptive Behavior Profiles of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditterline, Jeffrey; Banner, Diane; Oakland, Thomas; Becton, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of adaptive behavior traditionally has been associated with the identification of individuals with mental retardation. Information on adaptive behavior increasingly is being used for comprehensive assessment, treatment planning, intervention, and program evaluation for individuals with various disorders. Data from the normative samples…

  20. Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior: II. Scales of Social Adaption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Earl E.

    The Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior II (BSAB-II) provides a system for program development and evaluation and for social behavior assessment of profoundly and severely mentally retarded individuals as well as of the younger less retarded and emotionally disturbed individuals. The specimen set consists of six parts: a Manual, a Tally Sheet…

  1. Infants' pre-empathic behaviors are associated with language skills.

    PubMed

    Hutman, Ted; Rozga, Agata; DeLaurentis, Angeline; Sigman, Marian; Dapretto, Mirella

    2012-06-01

    Infants' responses to other people's distress reflect efforts to make sense of affective information about another person and apply it to oneself. This study sought to determine whether 12-month olds' responses to another person's display of negative affect reflect characteristics that support social learning and predict social functioning and language skills at 36 months. Measures of infants' responsiveness include congruent changes in affect and looking time to the person in distress. Attention to the examiner displaying positive affect, analyzed as a control condition, was not related to social functioning or language skills at 36 months. Neither attention nor affective response to the examiner's distress at 12 months was related to social functioning at 36 months. However, longer time spent looking at the examiner feigning distress predicted higher language scores. Moreover, infants who demonstrated a congruent affective response to distress had higher receptive language scores at 36 months than children who did not respond affectively. Importantly, these relations were not mediated by maternal education, household income, or 12-month verbal skills. These findings are consistent with the notion that adaptation to changes in a social partner's affective state supports an infants' ability to glean useful information from interactions with more experienced social partners. Infants' sensitivity to affective signals may thus be related to the ability to interpret other people's behavior and to achieve interpersonal understanding through language.

  2. Complex adaptive behavior and dexterous action

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Steven J.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dexterous action, as conceptualized by Bernstein in his influential ecological analysis of human behavior, is revealed in the ability to flexibly generate behaviors that are adaptively tailored to the demands of the context in which they are embedded. Conceived as complex adaptive behavior, dexterity depends upon the qualities of robustness and degeneracy, and is supported by the functional complexity of the agent-environment system. Using Bernstein’s and Gibson’s ecological analyses of behavior situated in natural environments as conceptual touchstones, we consider the hypothesis that complex adaptive behavior capitalizes upon general principles of self-organization. Here, we outline a perspective in which the complex interactivity of nervous-system, body, and environment is revealed as an essential resource for adaptive behavior. From this perspective, we consider the implications for interpreting the functionality and dysfunctionality of human behavior. This paper demonstrates that, optimal variability, the topic of this special issue, is a logical consequence of interpreting the functionality of human behavior as complex adaptive behavior. PMID:26375932

  3. Complex Adaptive Behavior and Dexterous Action.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Steven J; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Dexterous action, as conceptualized by Bernstein in his influential ecological analysis of human behavior, is revealed in the ability to flexibly generate behaviors that are adaptively tailored to the demands of the context in which they are embedded. Conceived as complex adaptive behavior, dexterity depends upon the qualities of robustness and degeneracy, and is supported by the functional complexity of the agent-environment system. Using Bernstein's and Gibson's ecological analyses of behavior situated in natural environments as conceptual touchstones, we consider the hypothesis that complex adaptive behavior capitalizes upon general principles of self-organization. Here, we outline a perspective in which the complex interactivity of nervous-system, body, and environment is revealed as an essential resource for adaptive behavior. From this perspective, we consider the implications for interpreting the functionality and dysfunctionality of human behavior. This paper demonstrates that, optimal variability, the topic of this special issue, is a logical consequence of interpreting the functionality of human behavior as complex adaptive behavior.

  4. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  5. Obstacle avoidance locomotor tasks: adaptation, memory and skill transfer.

    PubMed

    Kloter, Evelyne; Dietz, Volker

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the neural basis of adaptation, memory and skill transfer during human stepping over obstacles. Whilst walking on a treadmill, subjects had to perform uni- and bilateral obstacle steps. Acoustic feedback information about foot clearance was provided. Non-noxious electrical stimuli were applied to the right tibial nerve during the mid-stance phase of the right leg, i.e. 'prior' to the right or 'during' the left leg swing over the obstacle. The electromyogram (EMG) responses evoked by these stimuli in arm and leg muscles are known to reflect the neural coordination during normal and obstacle steps. The leading and trailing legs rapidly adapted foot clearance during obstacle steps with small further changes when the same obstacle condition was repeated. This adaptation was associated with a corresponding decrease in arm and leg muscle reflex EMG responses. Arm (but not leg) muscle EMG responses were greater when the stimulus was applied 'during' obstacle crossing by the left leg leading compared with stimulation 'prior' to right leg swing over the obstacle. A corresponding difference existed in arm muscle background EMG. The results indicate that, firstly, the somatosensory information gained by the performance and adaptation of uni- and bilateral obstacle stepping becomes transferred to the trailing leg in a context-specific manner. Secondly, EMG activity in arm and leg muscles parallels biomechanical adaptation of foot clearance. Thirdly, a consistently high EMG activity in the arm muscles during swing over the obstacle is required for equilibrium control. Thus, such a precision locomotor task is achieved by a context-specific, coordinated activation of arm and leg muscles for performance and equilibrium control that includes adaptation, memory and skill transfer.

  6. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Teacher Form, Ages 5 to 21, of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aricak, O. Tolga; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model that highlighted 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II) was designed to be consistent with these models.…

  7. Piloting a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) Infused Skills Group in a Disciplinary Alternative Education Program (DAEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricard, Richard J.; Lerma, Eunice; Heard, Courtney C. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the impact of a 4-week skills group intervention based on the principles of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) with a sample of adolescents attending a Disciplinary Alternative Education Program. This article provides a session-by-session overview of activities adapted from DBT-specified training modules of mindfulness,…

  8. A Model for the Transfer of Perceptual-Motor Skill Learning in Human Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosalie, Simon M.; Muller, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary model that outlines the mechanisms underlying the transfer of perceptual-motor skill learning in sport and everyday tasks. Perceptual-motor behavior is motivated by performance demands and evolves over time to increase the probability of success through adaptation. Performance demands at the time of an event…

  9. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  10. The Relation between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…

  11. Teachers' Perspectives on Student Problematic Behavior and Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riney, Summer Sides; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined program outcomes of student problem behavior and social skills, based on teachers' perspectives, before and after early behavioral intervention services. The study targeted students in kindergarten through grade 5 who were identified by the school system as being at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Students…

  12. Behavioral Parent Training in Child Welfare: Evaluations of Skills Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Goh, Han-Leong; Whitehouse, Cristina M.; Reyes, Jorge; Montgomery, Jan L.; Borrero, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral parent training has been proven effective through years of research with a variety of groups. However, little research has been conducted to systematically evaluate the extent to which behavioral parent training may improve parenting skills of foster and other caregivers of dependent children. The Behavior Analysis Services…

  13. Using Behavioral Skills Training and Video Rehearsal to Teach Blackjack Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speelman, Ryan C.; Whiting, Seth W.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    A behavioral skills training procedure that consisted of video instructions, video rehearsal, and video testing was used to teach 4 recreational gamblers a specific skill in playing blackjack (sometimes called "card counting"). A multiple baseline design was used to evaluate intervention effects on card-counting accuracy and chips won or…

  14. Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training for Teaching Abduction-Prevention Skills to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brigitte M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Egemo-Helm, Kristin; Jostad, Candice M.; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of individual behavioral skills training in conjunction with in situ training in teaching 13 preschool children abduction prevention skills. Children's performance was measured during baseline, training, and at 2-week, 1-month, and 3-month follow-ups using in situ assessments in which abduction prevention…

  15. The Development of Adaptive Skills in Young People with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duijn, G.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Scholte, E. M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To help children with Down syndrome reach optimum levels of adaptive behaviour, caretakers need to know how and to what extent children with Down syndrome acquire adaptive skills. Method: The adaptive levels of motor, daily living, communicative and social behavioural skills were determined in a group of 984 Dutch children with Down…

  16. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for the Vocational Rehabilitation of Significantly Disabled Mentally Ill Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…

  17. Children with Autism and Attention Difficulties: A Pilot Study of the Association between Sensory, Motor, and Adaptive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mattard-Labrecque, Carolanne; Ben Amor, Leila; Couture, Mélanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study aimed to compare sensory processing, motor skills and adaptive behaviors in children with a double diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (ASD+ADHD) with children with ADHD alone and to examine the association of sensory processing and motor skills with adaptive behaviors (self-care). Method: Thirty children aged 5–14 years diagnosed with ASD+ADHD (n = 13) or ADHD (n = 17) were evaluated on their sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Analysis of covariance compared the groups on these dimensions. Correlation analyses examined the association between sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Results: Compared to children with ADHD alone, children with ASD+ADHD had poorer skills in sensory processing (p < 0.001), motor (p = 0.001) and adaptive behaviors (p < 0.001). For all children, increased autonomy in self-care was correlated with better sensory processing (p < 0.001) and motor skills (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Children with ASD+ADHD have poorer sensory processing, motor and adaptive skills than those with ADHD alone. Sensory processing and motor deficits were negatively associated with autonomy in self-care. Interventions aiming to improve sensory processing and motor skills and autonomy in self-care should become important targets for these children. PMID:23667360

  18. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Rebecca M.; Martens, Marilee A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months – 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007 to 2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3%) of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self-care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills. PMID:27199832

  19. Changing Social Behavior and Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Jon J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is presented of systematic behavioral analysis as a method for modifying both social and cognitive behaviors through reinforcement. Various techniques are explained: response differentiation, shaping, chaining, fading, extinction, timeout, and response cost. (SJL)

  20. Communication skills training to address disruptive physician behavior.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Disruptive behavior among health care providers has been linked to negative patient outcomes. High-stress areas, including the perioperative setting, are especially prone to this behavior. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate an educational communication skills intervention aimed at increasing the perceived self-efficacy of perioperative nurses to address disruptive physician behavior. Seventeen perioperative nurses participated in a two-day communication skills program presented by a certified Crucial Conversations trainer. By using paired t test analysis, I found that there was a statistically significant increase in total mean self-efficacy scores immediately after the intervention and four weeks after the intervention. In addition, four weeks after the intervention, participants reported the ability to address disruptive physician behavior 71% of the time. The results of this study suggest that one intervention strategy to address the serious threat of disruptive physician behavior to patient safety is to educate nurses in communication skills.

  1. Neuropsychological presentation and adaptive skills in high-functioning adolescents with visual impairment: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, R; Pring, L; Schepers, A; Isaacs, D P; Dale, N J

    2017-01-01

    Studies in infants and young children with congenital visual impairment (VI) have indicated early developmental vulnerabilities, conversely research with older children and adults have highlighted areas of cognitive strength. A minimal amount is known, however, about the possible combination of strengths and weaknesses in adolescence, and this present study therefore aims to explore the neuropsychological presentation and adaptive behavior profile in high-functioning adolescents with congenital VI. Participants completed a battery of commonly used neuropsychological measures assessing memory, executive function, and attention. The measures utilized focused on auditory neuropsychological function, because only subtests that could be completed with auditory administration were suitable for this sample. Parents completed standardized measures of adaptive behavior, executive function, and social communication. Compared to aged-based norms for normal sight, adolescents with VI demonstrated strengths in aspects of working memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, performance across the neuropsychological battery was within or above the average range for the majority of the sample. In contrast, parent-report measures indicated areas of weakness in adaptive functioning, social communication, and behavioral executive functioning. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence that relative to fully sighted peers, high-functioning adolescents with VI present with an uneven profile of cognitive and adaptive skills, which has important implications for assessment and intervention.

  2. Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Ceddia, M. G.; Chowell, Gerardo; Parra, Paula A. Gonzalez; Hickling, Graham J.; Holloway, Garth; Horan, Richard; Morin, Benjamin; Perrings, Charles; Springborn, Michael; Velazquez, Leticia; Villalobos, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits. The cost–benefit trade-offs that shape contact behavior, and hence the course of epidemics, are often only implicitly incorporated in epidemiological models. This approach creates difficulty in parsing out the effects of adaptive behavior. We use an epidemiological–economic model of disease dynamics to explicitly model the trade-offs that drive person-to-person contact decisions. Results indicate that including adaptive human behavior significantly changes the predicted course of epidemics and that this inclusion has implications for parameter estimation and interpretation and for the development of social distancing policies. Acknowledging adaptive behavior requires a shift in thinking about epidemiological processes and parameters. PMID:21444809

  3. Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Ceddia, M G; Chowell, Gerardo; Parra, Paula A Gonzalez; Hickling, Graham J; Holloway, Garth; Horan, Richard; Morin, Benjamin; Perrings, Charles; Springborn, Michael; Velazquez, Leticia; Villalobos, Cristina

    2011-04-12

    The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits. The cost-benefit trade-offs that shape contact behavior, and hence the course of epidemics, are often only implicitly incorporated in epidemiological models. This approach creates difficulty in parsing out the effects of adaptive behavior. We use an epidemiological-economic model of disease dynamics to explicitly model the trade-offs that drive person-to-person contact decisions. Results indicate that including adaptive human behavior significantly changes the predicted course of epidemics and that this inclusion has implications for parameter estimation and interpretation and for the development of social distancing policies. Acknowledging adaptive behavior requires a shift in thinking about epidemiological processes and parameters.

  4. Adaptive Behavior Ratings Correlate with Symptomatology and IQ among Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Harms, Madeline B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    Caregiver report on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptive behavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…

  5. DO CHILDREN WITH FRAGILE X SYNDROME SHOW DECLINES OR PLATEAUS IN ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR?

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Laura J.; Brady, Nancy C.; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace K.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores if children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) show advances, declines, or plateaus in adaptive behavior over time and the relationship of nonverbal cognitive abilities and autistic behavior on these trajectories. Parents of 55 children with FXS completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales between 3 and 6 times from 2 to 10 years of age. Using raw scores, results indicate that about half of the sample showed advances in adaptive behavior, while the other half showed declines, indicating a regression in skills. Children who were more cognitively advanced and had less autistic behaviors had higher trajectories. Understanding the developmental course of adaptive behavior in FXS has implications for educational planning and intervention, especially for those children showing declines. PMID:26322389

  6. Evaluating the Use of Behavioral Skills Training to Improve School Staffs' Implementation of Behavior Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Ashley; Knez, Nikki; Kahng, SungWoo

    2015-01-01

    Variations of behavioral skills training (BST) have been used to teach behaviorally oriented skills such as discrete trial teaching, guided compliance, the implementation of the picture exchange system, and safe guarding students with physical disabilities. One area that has not received much attention is evaluating school staff's correct…

  7. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K. N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  8. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y; An, K N; Yang, G; Huang, J P

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  9. Adaptive and maladaptive behavior in children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Staci C; Wolters, Pamela L; Smith, Ann C M

    2006-05-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Cognitive functioning was evaluated with an age-appropriate test. Children scored below average on VABS Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization scales. Learning problems and hyperactivity scales on the Conner's Parent Rating Scale were elevated, and girls were more impulsive than boys. Stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors were present in all children. Cognitive functioning was delayed and consistent with communication and daily living skills, while socialization scores were higher than IQ.

  10. Informant discrepancies in externalizing and internalizing symptoms and adaptive skills of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Christin A; Lopata, Christopher; Donnelly, James P; Thomeer, Marcus L; Rodgers, Jonathan D; Jordan, Allyson K

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of clinical symptoms requires information from multiple informants. Discrepancies between informants' ratings can have significant implications in school settings (e.g., access to services, treatment planning, progress monitoring). This study examined parent-teacher discrepancies for ratings of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and adaptive skills of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 236 Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd Edition ratings of children with high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder from 2 informant groups (parents and teachers) were analyzed. Each informant pair (n = 118 parents/caregivers and n = 118 teachers) rated the same child. Scores on the Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems, and Adaptive Skills Composites were examined for mean differences, level of agreement, linear relationship, and moderators of discrepancies. There were no significant mean differences between raters for the Internalizing and Externalizing Composites or their constituent scales (except Hyperactivity). Parent-teacher ratings on these composites and scales were significantly correlated (generally moderate), and the discrepancies were not moderated by the included child or parent variables. In contrast, teacher ratings were significantly higher than parents for the Adaptive Skills Composite and several of its constituent scales. Correlations between informants on the Adaptive Skills Composite were significant (low-to-moderate), with notable variability in the correlations among its constituent scales. The degree of parent-teacher discrepancy differed significantly across the Adaptive Skills Composite score range, but it was not moderated by the included child or parent variables. This study suggests a reduced likelihood of informant discrepancies for externalizing and internalizing symptoms, with larger discrepancies expected when assessing adaptive skills. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Neuropsychological predictors of adaptive kitchen behavior in geriatric psychiatry inpatients.

    PubMed

    Benedict, R H; Goldstein, M Z; Dobraski, M; Tannenhaus, J

    1997-10-01

    This study examined the degree to which demographic variables, psychiatric diagnosis, depression rating, and neuropsychological test performance predict adaptive kitchen behavior in geriatric psychiatry patients and normal elderly volunteers. Amixed group of 27 participants including 8 normal volunteers and 19 geriatric psychiatry inpatients underwent psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and a kitchen skills assessment conducted in a natural setting. Both depression and dementia were prevalent among patients. The kitchen skills assessment was abnormal in 69% of patients, compared to none of the normal volunteers. Estimated premorbid IQs, psychiatric diagnosis, and neuropsychological test scores significantly predicted the pass/fail status on the kitchen skills assessment, but there was no effect for age, education, gender, or depression. The discriminant function analysis classified 92% of cases, and the canonical correlation coefficient was .84. Of the neuropsychological tests employed in the study, two tests involving visuospatial processing and attention were retained in the discriminant function analysis. The results are consistent with previous studies that suggest that visuospatial tasks are more predictive of instrumental activities of daily living than are cognitive tasks emphasizing verbal and memory abilities. In addition, we conclude that neuropsychological test data are useful and valid for the purpose of guiding clinical judgments regarding activities of daily living in geriatric psychiatry patients.

  12. Musical Aptitude and Adaptive Behavior of People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leon K.; Monroe, Melinda J.

    1990-01-01

    Musical aptitude and behavioral adjustment were assessed in 16 mentally retarded adults nominated as having special musical interests and/or skills. Evidence of difficulties in adjustment associated with musical skill or interest was mixed, though results suggested no pervasive maladjustment among those with exceptional skill combined with mental…

  13. Visualizing Search Behavior with Adaptive Discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert G.; Qadri, Muhammad A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined different aspects of the visual search behavior of a pigeon using an open-ended, adaptive testing procedure controlled by a genetic algorithm. The animal had to accurately search for and peck a gray target element randomly located from among a variable number of surrounding darker and lighter distractor elements. Display composition was controlled by a genetic algorithm involving the multivariate configuration of different parameters or genes (number of distractors, element size, shape, spacing, target brightness, and distractor brightness). Sessions were composed of random displays, testing randomized combinations of these genes, and selected displays, representing the varied descendants of displays correctly identified by the pigeon. Testing a larger number of random displays than done previously, it was found that the bird’s solution to the search task was highly stable and did not change with extensive experience in the task. The location and shape of this attractor was visualized using multivariate behavioral surfaces in which element size and the number of distractors were the most important factors controlling search accuracy and search time. The resulting visualizations of the bird’s search behavior are discussed with reference to the potential of using adaptive, open-ended experimental techniques for investigating animal cognition and their implications for Bond and Kamil’s innovative development of virtual ecologies using an analogous methodology. PMID:24370702

  14. Social Skills Interventions and Children with Behavior Problems: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaragoza, Nina; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This review of 27 studies examining social skills interventions (such as modeling, role playing, goal setting, and verbal self-instruction) and their effects on students with behavior problems found a number of interventions to be successful. The interventions yielded changes in self, teacher, and parent perceptions, though peer perceptions were…

  15. Adolescent Cognitive Skills, Attitudinal/Behavioral Traits and Career Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew; Farkas, George

    2011-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to estimate the effects of cognitive skills (measured by the Armed Forces Qualification Test) and attitudinal/behavioral traits (a latent factor based on self-reported self-esteem, locus of control, educational aspirations and educational expectations) on career wage…

  16. Teaching Dining Skills to Students with Emotional and Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavior disorders often have difficulties understanding social cues, responding appropriately in social situations, and initiating age-appropriate interactions with peers and adults. A real-life social activity that is often neglected in social skills training is dining. Dining involves dining etiquette, personal…

  17. Maturing Brain Mechanisms and Developing Behavioral Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Manuela; Friederici, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between the maturation of brain mechanisms responsible for the N400 elicitation in the event-related brain potential (ERP) and the development of behavioral language skills was investigated in 12-month-old infants. ERPs to words presented in a picture-word priming paradigm were analyzed according to the infants' production and…

  18. Risperidone and Adaptive Behavior in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan K.; Scahill, Lawrence; Vitiello, Benedetto; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Ritz, Louise; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Hollway, Jill; Cronin, Pegeen; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Wheeler, Courtney; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of risperidone on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder who have serious behavior problems and to examine different methods of scoring the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to measure change. Method: Forty-eight children (5 years to 16 years, 5 months) who showed behavioral improvement during acute…

  19. Nonbiased Assessment of Adaptive Behavior: Comparison of Three Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slate, Neldea M.

    1983-01-01

    A study involving 157 fourth graders revealed that the Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children discriminated between adaptive and maladaptive behaviors among retarded and nonretarded Ss, while the Vineland produced significantly different scores for Anglos and Blacks. The Behavior Rating Profile did not discriminate between behavior of retarded…

  20. The Relations of Employability Skills to Career Adaptability among Technical School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Choi, Kyoung Ok

    2013-01-01

    This two pronged study reports the initial validation of the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) in the context of Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the investigation of the relationship between employability skills and career adaptability. Results of the study revealed that CAAS can be a valid and…

  1. Adaptive locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

  2. Adaptive Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish. PMID:21909325

  3. Social Skills Training for Behavior Disordered Students: A Meta-Behavioral Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Henry; Bechard, Joseph

    The paper proposes a model which combines traditional metacognitive explanations for the acquisition of social skills in behaviorally disordered adolescents with situationally specific environment variables. Research is reported suggesting that newly learned social skills may not generalize to a wider variety of real life situations because social…

  4. Spatial perception and adaptive sonar behavior.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, Murat; Mao, Beatrice; Moss, Cynthia F

    2010-12-01

    Bat echolocation is a dynamic behavior that allows for real-time adaptations in the timing and spectro-temporal design of sonar signals in response to a particular task and environment. To enable detailed, quantitative analyses of adaptive sonar behavior, echolocation call design was investigated in big brown bats, trained to rest on a stationary platform and track a tethered mealworm that approached from a starting distance of about 170 cm in the presence of a stationary sonar distracter. The distracter was presented at different angular offsets and distances from the bat. The results of this study show that the distance and the angular offset of the distracter influence sonar vocalization parameters of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Specifically, the bat adjusted its call duration to the closer of two objects, distracter or insect target, and the magnitude of the adjustment depended on the angular offset of the distracter. In contrast, the bat consistently adjusted its call rate to the distance of the insect, even when this target was positioned behind the distracter. The results hold implications for understanding spatial information processing and perception by echolocation.

  5. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  6. Adaptive Virtual Reality Training to Optimize Military Medical Skills Acquisition and Retention.

    PubMed

    Siu, Ka-Chun; Best, Bradley J; Kim, Jong Wook; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Ritter, Frank E

    2016-05-01

    The Department of Defense has pursued the integration of virtual reality simulation into medical training and applications to fulfill the need to train 100,000 military health care personnel annually. Medical personnel transitions, both when entering an operational area and returning to the civilian theater, are characterized by the need to rapidly reacquire skills that are essential but have decayed through disuse or infrequent use. Improved efficiency in reacquiring such skills is critical to avoid the likelihood of mistakes that may result in mortality and morbidity. We focus here on a study testing a theory of how the skills required for minimally invasive surgery for military surgeons are learned and retained. Our adaptive virtual reality surgical training system will incorporate an intelligent mechanism for tracking performance that will recognize skill deficiencies and generate an optimal adaptive training schedule. Our design is modeling skill acquisition based on a skill retention theory. The complexity of appropriate training tasks is adjusted according to the level of retention and/or surgical experience. Based on preliminary work, our system will improve the capability to interactively assess the level of skills learning and decay, optimizes skill relearning across levels of surgical experience, and positively impact skill maintenance. Our system could eventually reduce mortality and morbidity by providing trainees with the reexperience they need to help make a transition between operating theaters. This article reports some data that will support adaptive tutoring of minimally invasive surgery and similar surgical skills.

  7. Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

  8. Low-Skilled Adult Readers Look Like Typically Developing Child Readers: A Comparison of Reading Skills and Eye Movement Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Adrienne E.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Adults enrolled in basic education exhibit poor academic performance, often reading at elementary and middle-school levels. The current study investigated the similarities and differences of reading skills and eye movement behavior between a sample of 25 low-skilled adult readers and 25 first grade students matched on word reading skill. t tests…

  9. Anomalous human behavior detection: an adaptive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Coen; Halma, Arvid; Schutte, Klamer

    2013-05-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous behavior in videos from DARPA's Mind's Eye program, containing a variety of human activities. In this semi-unsupervised task a set of normal instances is provided for training, after which unknown abnormal behavior has to be detected in a test set. The features extracted from the video data have high dimensionality, are sparse and inhomogeneously distributed in the feature space making it a challenging task. Given these characteristics a distance-based method is preferred, but choosing a threshold to classify instances as (ab)normal is non-trivial. Our novel aproach, the Adaptive Outlier Distance (AOD) is able to detect outliers in these conditions based on local distance ratios. The underlying assumption is that the local maximum distance between labeled examples is a good indicator of the variation in that neighborhood, and therefore a local threshold will result in more robust outlier detection. We compare our method to existing state-of-art methods such as the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) and the Local Distance-based Outlier Factor (LDOF). The results of the experiments show that our novel approach improves the quality of the anomaly detection.

  10. Herd behavior in a complex adaptive system

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yu; Huang, J. P.; Ohashi, Hirotada; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics. PMID:21876133

  11. Herd behavior in a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yu; Huang, J P; Ohashi, Hirotada; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-09-13

    In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics.

  12. Teacher Made Adaptive and Assistive Aids for Developing Self Help Skills in the Severely Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Clifford J.; Justin, Joseph E., III

    1981-01-01

    The article suggests ways to modify and construct adaptive aids for use in teaching eating and drinking, personal hygiene, and dressing/undressing skills to severely and multiply handicapped students. (CL)

  13. Brief Report: Using Behavioral Skills Training to Teach Skateboarding Skills to a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Benjamin R; Lafasakis, Michael; Spector, Vicki

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on the skateboarding skills of an 11-year-old male with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). BST was used in a multiple-probe across skills design to teach five target skateboarding skills. Imitation of an additional skill was also assessed outside of BST sessions. The overall percentage of correct skateboarding skills improved following BST. Performance gains were stable in probes across settings, and additional imitations increased across the study.

  14. Cross-National Assessment of Adaptive Behavior in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Iliescu, Dragos; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Juliet Honglei

    2013-01-01

    Measures of adaptive behaviors provide an important tool in the repertoire of clinical and school/educational psychologists. Measures that assess adaptive behaviors typically have been built in Western cultures and developed in light of behaviors common to them. Nevertheless, these measures are used elsewhere despite a paucity of data that examine…

  15. Trust-Guided Behavior Adaptation Using Case-Based Reasoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    trustworthiness and adapt its behavior ac- cordingly. As behavior adaptation is performed, us- ing case-based reasoning (CBR), information about the...complete set of rules for trustwor- thy behavior if the robot is expected to handle changes in teammates, environments, or mission contexts. The way

  16. Three Authentic Curriculum-Integration Approaches to Bird Adaptations That Incorporate Technology and Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Barrera, Manuel T., III

    2008-01-01

    Integration of subject areas with technology and thinking skills is a way to help teachers cope with today's overloaded curriculum and to help students see the connectedness of different curriculum areas. This study compares three authentic approaches to teaching a science unit on bird adaptations for habitat that integrate thinking skills and…

  17. Cultural Adaptation of the Skills Training Model: Assertion Training with American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.; Rowe, Wayne

    A skills training approach provides a conceptual framework from which human services can be provided for the personal and emotional needs of Indian people without the subtle, culturally erosive effect of traditional psychotherapy. Some 30 tribal groups and agencies participated in a cultural adaptation of an assertive coping-skills training…

  18. Interparental aggression, attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    TOWE-GOODMAN, NISSA R.; STIFTER, CYNTHIA A.; COCCIA, MICHAEL A.; COX, MARTHA J.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored longitudinal associations between interparental aggression, the development of child attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems in a diverse sample of 636 families living in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. The results of latent-variable, cross-lagged longitudinal models revealed that maternal-reported interparental aggression in infancy predicted reduced observed attention skills in toddlerhood; no association was observed, however, between attention in infancy and interparental aggression during the toddler years. Further, reduced toddler attention and high interparental aggression were both associated with increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems at 3 years of age. Processes largely operated in similar ways regardless of child gender or low-income status, although a few differences were observed. Overall, the results suggest that interparental aggression undermines attention development, putting children’s early behavioral adjustment at risk. PMID:23786696

  19. Reading Interventions With Behavioral and Social Skill Outcomes: A Synthesis of Research

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Garrett J.; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes. PMID:25548392

  20. Reading interventions with behavioral and social skill outcomes: a synthesis of research.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Garrett J; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes.

  1. Treating Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors With Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:23914278

  2. Three Adapted Science Skill Builders for Junior and Senior High School Orthopaedically Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardullias, Peter J.; And Others

    The study was designed to determine how standard science skill builder activities can be modified or adapted for use by orthopedically handicapped students. Nine secondary level science experiments were selected for initial review and from these, three were selected for adaptation--use of the microscope, use of graduated cylinders, and use of the…

  3. ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A UNIQUE CULTURAL COMPARISON IN ITALY

    PubMed Central

    Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Axia, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors. PMID:21532914

  4. Focusing Skill Transmission Support by Visualized Gaze Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Takeshi; Sunayama, Wataru; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Yachida, Masahiko

    This paper describes a system to support transmission of human focusing skill by visualized their gaze behavior in Kansei interaction. In order to share personal Kansei information with other people, we need to transform it into cleared information. If this information is expressed by visualized style and transmitted to human from human, Kansei interaction is more creative than ever before. Our research group focuses on human gaze behavior that naturally reflects human actions, intentions and knowledge. Generally, it is difficult for us to feel other people's gaze behavior. Therefore, we constructed a VR-space, called ``Mirror Agent System'', where some users can work together and their gaze are visualized coincidentally. By using this system, a user can become aware of not only a gaze history of himself, but also other user's them, while looking at the scenes in the VR-space. When he can feel other's gaze behavior, he can guess their actions, intentions and knowledge. In this way, we expected to promote human-human Kansei interaction, and to improve user's focusing skill. However, our privious system lacked to visualize only useful parts from a gaze history, because following two problems. First problem is the quantity problem. If the quantity of a gaze history increases in the VR-space gradually, the background scenes are covered with the visualized history and a user feels interfereing in his work. Second problem is the quality problem. It is very difficult for a user to interpret other user's gaze history.

  5. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents With Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Gregory L; Huber, Heartley B; Carter, Erik W; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M

    2016-07-01

    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137 adolescents with severe disabilities from the vantage point of both special educators and parents. We sought to identify areas of potential intervention need, explore factors associated with social skill and problem behavior ratings, and examine the extent to which teachers and parents converged in their assessments of these needs. Our findings indicate teachers and parents of high school students with severe disabilities rated social skills as considerably below average and problem behaviors as above average. In addition, lower social skills ratings were evident for students with greater support needs, lower levels of overall adaptive behavior, and a special education label of autism. We found moderate consistency in the degree to which teachers and parents aligned in their assessments of both social skills and problem behavior. We offer recommendations for assessment and intervention focused on strengthening the social competence of adolescents with severe disabilities within secondary school classrooms, as well as promising avenues for future research.

  6. Adaptation of Professional Skills in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rende, Deniz; Rende, Sevinc; Baysal, Nihat

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the design of three consecutive unit operations laboratory (UOL) courses that retain the academic rigor of the course while incorporating skills essential for professional careers, such as ability to propose ideas, develop practical solutions, participate in teamwork, meet deadlines, establish communication between technical support…

  7. Qualitative Examination of Children's Naming Skills through Test Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried-Oken, Melanie

    1987-01-01

    The Double Administration Naming Technique assists clinicians in obtaining qualitative information about a client's visual confrontation naming skills through administration of a standard naming test; readministration of the same test; identification of single and double errors; cuing for double naming errors; and qualitative analysis of naming…

  8. Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

    1998-01-01

    States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

  9. Cognitive and Adaptive Skill Profile Differences in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder With and Without Comorbid Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Boseck, Justin J; Davis, Andrew S; Cassady, Jerrell C; Finch, W Holmes; Gelder, Barbara C

    2015-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) often present with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can complicate diagnosis and treatment planning. This study investigated the cognitive and adaptive profiles of 81 children with ADHD/FASD and 147 children with ADHD. Multivariate analysis of variance and follow-up discriminant analysis indicated that the two groups had similar profiles on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, although the children with comorbid ADHD/FASD demonstrated significantly more impairment in verbal ability, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed, and overall adaptive skills. The results suggested that when compared with children with ADHD alone, children with ADHD/FASD exhibit significantly more impaired cognitive processing and adaptive skill deficits that are essential for school success and healthy social, behavioral, and emotional functioning. Research evaluating the profiles of these groups is likely to facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis and intervention.

  10. Evaluation of behavioral skills training to prevent gun play in children.

    PubMed Central

    Miltenberger, Raymond G; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian; Johnson, Brigitte; Satterlund, Melisa; Egemo, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated behavioral skills training (BST), in a multiple baseline across subjects design, for teaching firearm safety skills to 6 6- and 7-year-old children. Similar to previous research with 4- and 5-year-olds, half of the children acquired the safety skills following BST and half acquired the skills following BST plus in situ training. PMID:15669410

  11. Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training to Prevent Gun Play in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian; Johnson, Brigitte; Satterlund, Melisa; Egemo, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated behavioral skills training (BST), in a multiple baseline across subjects design, for teaching firearm safety skills to 6 6- and 7-year-old children. Similar to previous research with 4- and 5-year-olds, half of the children acquired the safety skills following BST and half acquired the skills following BST plus in situ…

  12. Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent/Primary Caregiver Form: Ages 0-5--Its Factor Structure and Other Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

    2011-01-01

    A child's acquisition of adaptive behavior and skills may constitute his or her most important goal during infancy and early childhood. In addition, adaptive behavior data often are required when making decisions under Part C of the 2004 Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act. This study reports the results of a factor analysis of…

  13. Factorial and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of the Adaptive Behavior Scales (Part I & II) in a Population of Older People (50 Years +) with Severe Intellectual Impairment (Mental Handicap).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, S. C.; Hogg, J.

    1990-01-01

    Principal components analysis was employed on the Adaptive Behavior Scales with scores of 122 older (mean age 63.5) individuals with severe intellectual impairment living in England. The study found the structure of adaptive skills and interpersonal maladaptive behaviors similar to that found for younger retarded adults. Two factors, personal…

  14. Training kindergarten students lockdown drill procedures using behavioral skills training.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Misty Jo; Vargo, Kristina K

    2017-01-11

    During situations in which a gunman is present on a school campus, lockdowns are initiated until the threat is removed. However, there are no data demonstrating an effective teaching strategy to increase students' correct responding during a lockdown. We evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach three groups of kindergarten students how to respond during lockdown drills. Results showed that participant groups displayed increases in correct steps and decreases in noise levels after BST was implemented; these effects maintained following training.

  15. Behavior Modification of Studying Through Study Skills Advice and Self-Control Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, C. Steven

    1975-01-01

    Investigates the efficacy of two behavioral self-control procedures as additions to the typical treatment for college students' study behavior--study skills advice. Predicted self-monitoring would be an effective treatment addition to study skills advice and study skills advice would be superior to the control groups. Results supported…

  16. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  17. Poker as a skill game: rational versus irrational behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2015-03-01

    In many countries poker is one of the most popular card games. Although each variant of poker has its own rules, all involve the use of money to make the challenge meaningful. Nowadays, in the collective consciousness, some variants of poker are referred to as games of skill, others as gambling. A poker table can be viewed as a psychology lab, where human behavior can be observed and quantified. This work provides a preliminary analysis of the role of rationality in poker games, using a stylized version of Texas Hold'em. In particular, we compare the performance of two different kinds of players, i.e. rational versus irrational players, during a poker tournament. Results show that these behaviors (i.e. rationality and irrationality) affect both the outcomes of challenges and the way poker should be classified.

  18. Evaluating Behavioral Skills Training with and without Simulated in Situ Training for Teaching Safety Skills to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond; Gross, Amy; Knudson, Peter; Bosch, Amanda; Jostad, Candice; Breitwieser, Carrie Brower

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to BST plus simulated in situ training (SIT) for teaching safety skills to children to prevent gun play. The results were evaluated in a posttest only control group design. Following the first assessment, participants in both training groups and the control group who did not…

  19. A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Behavioral Skills Training Procedures for Teaching Abduction-Prevention Skills to Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brigitte M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Knudson, Peter; Egemo-Helm, Kristin; Kelso, Pamela; Jostad, Candice; Langley, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Although child abduction is a low-rate event, it presents a serious threat to the safety of children. The victims of child abduction face the threat of physical and emotional injury, sexual abuse, and death. Previous research has shown that behavioral skills training (BST) is effective in teaching children abduction-prevention skills, although not…

  20. Teaching Genetic Counseling Skills: Incorporating a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum Model to Address Psychosocial Complexity.

    PubMed

    Shugar, Andrea

    2016-11-28

    Genetic counselors are trained health care professionals who effectively integrate both psychosocial counseling and information-giving into their practice. Preparing genetic counseling students for clinical practice is a challenging task, particularly when helping them develop effective and active counseling skills. Resistance to incorporating these skills may stem from decreased confidence, fear of causing harm or a lack of clarity of psycho-social goals. The author reflects on the personal challenges experienced in teaching genetic counselling students to work with psychological and social complexity, and proposes a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum model and methodology to guide students in the use of advanced counseling skills.

  1. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2–7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies, methods to develop adaptations, and adaptations that have been implemented. Seven studies were identified. Parental engagement varied across and within studies. Only one study examined whether adaptations improved engagement compared to non-adapted intervention. Frequent methods to develop adaptations were building partnerships or conducting interviews/focus groups with minority parents or community members. Adaptations included addressing cultural beliefs (perceptions of parenting skills), values (interdependence), or experiences (immigration) that affect parenting or receptivity to interventions; ensuring racial/ethnic diversity of interventionists; and addressing cultural relevancy and literacy level of materials. Future research should examine engagement in adapted interventions compared to non-adapted interventions and examine factors (e.g., immigration status) that may moderate impact on engagement. PMID:27429537

  2. Skills Practice in Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Women Meeting Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenboim, Noam; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2007-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based practice for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and suicidal behavior that has been replicated with a variety of populations. Patients' practice of behavioral skills taught in the group skills training component of DBT may be partly responsible for the positive treatment outcomes according…

  3. Cognitive skills affect economic preferences, strategic behavior, and job attachment.

    PubMed

    Burks, Stephen V; Carpenter, Jeffrey P; Goette, Lorenz; Rustichini, Aldo

    2009-05-12

    Economic analysis has so far said little about how an individual's cognitive skills (CS) are related to the individual's economic preferences in different choice domains, such as risk taking or saving, and how preferences in different domains are related to each other. Using a sample of 1,000 trainee truckers we report three findings. First, there is a strong and significant relationship between an individual's CS and preferences. Individuals with better CS are more patient, in both short- and long-run. Better CS are also associated with a greater willingness to take calculated risks. Second, CS predict social awareness and choices in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. Subjects with better CS more accurately forecast others' behavior and differentiate their behavior as a second mover more strongly depending on the first-mover's choice. Third, CS, and in particular, the ability to plan, strongly predict perseverance on the job in a setting with a substantial financial penalty for early exit. Consistent with CS being a common factor in all of these preferences and behaviors, we find a strong pattern of correlation among them. These results, taken together with the theoretical explanation we offer for the relationships we find, suggest that higher CS systematically affect preferences and choices in ways that favor economic success.

  4. Behavioral problems among patients in skilled nursing facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, J G; Watson, N; Treat, A

    1984-01-01

    This survey of a 33 per cent random sample (1,139) of 3,456 patients in 42 skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) in upstate New York yielded 64.2 per cent with significant behavioral problems. Of these, 257 (22.6 per cent) of the total sample had what were defined as "serious" problems (i.e., excluding those with only impaired judgment and/or physical restraint orders). Details of the problem behaviors of this group, their previous history, current management, frequency of psychiatric consultation, and adequacy of documentation were analyzed. Median age was the same as the general SNF population, a slightly lower proportion was female, and, while 66.5 per cent had diagnoses indicating organic brain syndrome, very few had specific psychiatric diagnoses, and only 4.7 per cent had been admitted from a psychiatric facility. The attending physician had noted the behavioral problem in the record in only 9.7 per cent and had requested psychiatric consultation in 14.8 per cent of these "serious" cases. The need for more staff training in mental health care, and more physician and psychiatric consultative assistance are discussed. PMID:6476166

  5. Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.

  6. Characterizing Behavioral and Brain Changes Associated with Practicing Reasoning Skills

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Miller Singley, Alison T.; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2015-01-01

    We have reported previously that intensive preparation for a standardized test that taxes reasoning leads to changes in structural and functional connectivity within the frontoparietal network. Here, we investigated whether reasoning instruction transfers to improvement on unpracticed tests of reasoning, and whether these improvements are associated with changes in neural recruitment during reasoning task performance. We found behavioral evidence for transfer to a transitive inference task, but no evidence for transfer to a rule generation task. Across both tasks, we observed reduced lateral prefrontal activation in the trained group relative to the control group, consistent with other studies of practice-related changes in brain activation. In the transitive inference task, we observed enhanced suppression of task-negative, or default-mode, regions, consistent with work suggesting that better cognitive skills are associated with more efficient switching between networks. In the rule generation task, we found a pattern consistent with a training-related shift in the balance between phonological and visuospatial processing. Broadly, we discuss general methodological considerations related to the analysis and interpretation of training-related changes in brain activation. In summary, we present preliminary evidence for changes in brain activation associated with practice of high-level cognitive skills. PMID:26368278

  7. Characterizing Behavioral and Brain Changes Associated with Practicing Reasoning Skills.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Allyson P; Miller Singley, Alison T; Wendelken, Carter; Bunge, Silvia A

    2015-01-01

    We have reported previously that intensive preparation for a standardized test that taxes reasoning leads to changes in structural and functional connectivity within the frontoparietal network. Here, we investigated whether reasoning instruction transfers to improvement on unpracticed tests of reasoning, and whether these improvements are associated with changes in neural recruitment during reasoning task performance. We found behavioral evidence for transfer to a transitive inference task, but no evidence for transfer to a rule generation task. Across both tasks, we observed reduced lateral prefrontal activation in the trained group relative to the control group, consistent with other studies of practice-related changes in brain activation. In the transitive inference task, we observed enhanced suppression of task-negative, or default-mode, regions, consistent with work suggesting that better cognitive skills are associated with more efficient switching between networks. In the rule generation task, we found a pattern consistent with a training-related shift in the balance between phonological and visuospatial processing. Broadly, we discuss general methodological considerations related to the analysis and interpretation of training-related changes in brain activation. In summary, we present preliminary evidence for changes in brain activation associated with practice of high-level cognitive skills.

  8. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates during novel…

  9. Predictors of Career Adaptability Skill among Higher Education Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenehi, Amos Shaibu; Rashid, Abdullah Mat; Bakar, Ab Rahim

    2016-01-01

    This paper examined predictors of career adaptability skill among higher education students in Nigeria. A sample of 603 higher education students randomly selected from six colleges of education in Nigeria participated in this study. A set of self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection, and multiple linear regression analysis was used…

  10. [Effect of adaptive biocontrol sessions in the presence of strong professional skill].

    PubMed

    Antonov, A A; Ershova, T A; Dudukin, A V

    2011-01-01

    Effect of adaptive biocontrol on efficiency of the operator possessing stable skills in simulating manual control of Soyuz hang-up and berthing to the International space station (ISS) was studied. Job quality was evaluated by the time, energy and precision parameters. The investigation used an ISS computer model and mock-ups of the board operating controls.

  11. Adapting the Helpful Responses Questionnaire to assess communication skills involved in delivering contingency management: Preliminary psychometrics

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues’ (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write ‘what they would say next.’ In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. PMID:25770870

  12. Engaging African American Fathers in Behavioral Parent Training: To Adapt or Not Adapt

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Seay, Kristen D.

    2015-01-01

    The Positive Parenting Program, Triple P, is an evidence-based parenting program with strong empirical support that increases parenting skills and decreases child behavior problems. Few studies on Triple P include fathers or African American fathers. This study was undertaken to determine if adaptation to Triple P level 4 is necessary to ensure fit with urban African American fathers. Qualitative focus groups and interviews were conducted with African American fathers. Some received a brief overview of the program before giving feedback (series A) and others received the entire intervention (series B). Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze transcripts and codebooks were developed through an iterative process. Series B fathers had fewer negative perceptions and a more detailed perspective. Limited exposure to an intervention may cause participants to provide inaccurate data on intervention acceptability. The fathers’ initial perceptions of interventions, regardless of accuracy, will affect recruitment and engagement and must be addressed. One strategy is to tailor program examples and language to reflect the experiences of African American fathers. PMID:26190952

  13. Factors influencing the adaptation to skilled nursing facilities among older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Yi; Sok, Sohyune R

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to identify the factors that influence the level of adaptation of older Korean adults to skilled nursing facilities. The subjects were 500 adults aged 65 or older who were living in six different skilled nursing facilities in Seoul and Gyeong-gi-do, South Korea. The measures were a demographic form, Health Self-Rating Scale, Activities of Daily Living Scale, Self-Efficacy Instrument, Korean Simple Depression Scale, Quality of the Facility Scale and Facility Adaptation Scale. The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant (F = 128.624, P < 0.001). The value of the adjusted R(2) was 0.435, which corresponds to the explanatory power of 43.5%. The factor that was found to have the greatest influence on the adaptation of older Korean adults to skilled nursing facilities was activities of daily living (β = -0.564), followed by self-efficacy (β = 0.321), quality of the facility (β = 0.164), depression (β = 0.133), decision to enter a skilled nursing facility (β = 0.122), perceived health status (β = 0.064) and age (β = -0.010). This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that the level of adaptation of older Korean adults to skilled nursing facilities is related to their activities of daily living, self-efficacy, depression, decision to enter a skilled nursing facility, perceived health status and age, and to the quality of the facility.

  14. Panel V: Adaptive Health Behaviors Among Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Shirley P.; Angel, Ronald; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Liu, William; Schinke, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Race, ethnicity, and cultural attitudes and practices are among the variables that influence health behaviors, including adaptive health behaviors. The following discussions highlight the important role of social conditions in shaping health behaviors and the central role of family in promoting health across the Asian, Hispanic, Native American, and African American ethnic groups. Factors that may lead to health-damaging behaviors are also discussed. The need for additional research that identifies correlations among physiological, social, and behavioral factors and health behaviors, as well as underlying mechanisms, is called for. PMID:8654341

  15. Employment Preparation and Life Skill Development Initiatives for High School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Huber, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Employment preparation and life skill development are crucial in assisting students identified as having emotional and behavioral disabilities with successfully transitioning to adulthood following high school. This article outlines four initiatives that a school counselor developed with other school personnel to promote work skills, life skills,…

  16. Social Skills Training for Taiwanese Students at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chiu-yen; Lo, Ya-yu; Feng, Hua; Lo, Yafen

    2010-01-01

    Two third-grade Taiwanese students at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders participated in a pull-out, small-group social skills training program developed to promote their skill acquisition and maintenance. Using a multiple baseline across skills design, the authors demonstrated that both participants made marked performance improvement in…

  17. A Structured Instructional System for Developing the School Survival Skills of Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Regina M.; Epstein, Michael H.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an instructional system (a modified version of the School Survival Skills Curriculum) in developing and improving the school survival skills of students with behavioral disorders. Using a pretest-posttest group design, subjects demonstrated improvement in overall use of school survival skills but no…

  18. Kindergarten Reading Skill Level and Change as Risk Factors for Chronic Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Sadler, Carol; Brown, Jacqueline A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors explored the effect of prereading skills at the start of kindergarten and change in skills during kindergarten on response to Tier I (universal) Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support in Grade 5. A longitudinal data set of 473 students, including "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" measures at the…

  19. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  20. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-29

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality.

  1. Offsetting Behavior and Adaptation: How Students Respond to Hard Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Laura E.; Delmontagne, Emma M.; Wood, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Do students engage in offsetting behavior, adapting their study effort to the difficulty of learning? The authors present the results of survey research intended to test for the presence of offsetting behavior at a regional university. Instead of trying to determine whether students study less when learning is easier, we check to see whether…

  2. Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    2010 Northrop Grumman 14 Manager Leadership Behaviors of Managers Visionary Leadership Motivates and Encourages Promotes Organizational Learning Behaviors...most © Copyright 2009 Northrop GrummanCopyright 2010 Northrop Grumman 19 vulnerable? The Manager: Promotes Organizational Learning • Promotes...emphasize collaboration, team empowerment, trust, and organizational learning • Train managers in the practices that works best in adaptive environments

  3. Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Castro, Felipe G.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Toobert, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the article are to (a) describe…

  4. Integrating Business Communication Skills into a Buyer-Behavior Course Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wunsch, Alan P.; Tomkovick, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an undergraduate buyer-behavior course project targeted at improving students' business communication skills through a team-teaching project. Highlights the value of integrating written, oral, and electronic communications pedagogy with buyer-behavior course instruction. (SR)

  5. Musical aptitude and second language pronunciation skills in school-aged children: neural and behavioral evidence.

    PubMed

    Milovanov, Riia; Huotilainen, Minna; Välimäki, Vesa; Esquef, Paulo A A; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2008-02-15

    The main focus of this study was to examine the relationship between musical aptitude and second language pronunciation skills. We investigated whether children with superior performance in foreign language production represent musical sound features more readily in the preattentive level of neural processing compared with children with less-advanced production skills. Sound processing accuracy was examined in elementary school children by means of event-related potential (ERP) recordings and behavioral measures. Children with good linguistic skills had better musical skills as measured by the Seashore musicality test than children with less accurate linguistic skills. The ERP data accompany the results of the behavioral tests: children with good linguistic skills showed more pronounced sound-change evoked activation with the music stimuli than children with less accurate linguistic skills. Taken together, the results imply that musical and linguistic skills could partly be based on shared neural mechanisms.

  6. Effect of Participation in Student Success Skills on Prosocial and Bullying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariani, Melissa; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Brigman, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This study involved fifth-grade students (N = 336) from one Florida school district and examined prosocial behaviors, bullying behaviors, engagement in school success skills and perceptions of classroom climate between the treatment group who received the school counselor-led Student Success Skills classroom guidance program, and their peer…

  7. The Association of Peer Behavioral Regulation with School Readiness Skills in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The current study examines classroom-level peer behavioral regulation skills and their implications for children's school readiness outcomes. Specifically, this study will answer the following research questions: (1) Is the average level of peers' behavioral regulation skills in a classroom in the fall associated with growth in children's school…

  8. A Model of Developing Communication Skills among Adolescents with Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novik, Natalia N.; Podgórecki, Józef

    2015-01-01

    The urgency of the problem under investigation is determined by the need to help the adolescents with behavioral problems to develop communication skills in the specific bilingual conditions in such regions as the Republic of Tatarstan where education should consider not only the specific skills of verbal behavior but also take into account the…

  9. Investigation of the Effect of Sport on Submissive Behavior and Communication Skills of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abakay, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to detect the differences in submissive behaviors and communication skills of high school students in terms of sports activities and relationship between communication skills and properties of submissive behavior of high school students who are actively involved in sports activities. In this respect at the study, 728…

  10. Behavioral Self-Management of Social-Effectiveness Skills: Assertion, and Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, A. Robert; And Others

    A program of behavioral procedures for the self-management of social-effectiveness skills was evaluated within the context of a university course on principles of behavior self-modification. Sixteen students received training and direction in conducting seven-week self-modification projects focusing either on improving skills of interpersonal…

  11. Reciprocal Relations between Student-Teacher Conflict, Children's Social Skills and Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalická, Vera; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that the relation between student-teacher conflict and children's externalizing behavior might be reciprocal, and possibly also between student-teacher conflict and children's social skills. Because children with externalizing behavior also tend to display low levels of social skills, we do not know if one or both of these…

  12. Behavioral Coaching in the Development of Skills in Football, Gymnastics, and Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Mary Ghesquiere; Ayllon, Teodoro

    1980-01-01

    To find complementary procedures to enhance sports skill acquisition in 23 11 to 35 year olds, a coaching method involving several behavioral techniques was developed that focused on remediaton of errors. Behavioral coaching was immediately effective in increasing the correct execution of complex skills in all three sports. (Author/CL)

  13. Mouse Behavior: Conjectures about Adaptations for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rop, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Presents an experiment on mouse behavior in which students learn to observe, pay attention to details, record field notes, and ask questions about their observations. Uses a white mouse to eliminate the risk of disease that a wild rodent might carry. Lists materials, set up, and procedure. (YDS)

  14. Bipolar Disorder Affects Behavior and Social Skills on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Thaís; Czepielewski, Letícia Sanguinetti; Fijtman, Adam; Sodré, Leonardo; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Pereira, Caroline Silveira; Vianna-Sulzbach, Mireia; Goi, Pedro D.; Rosa, Adriane Ribeiro; Kapczinski, Flavio; Kunz, Maurício; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN) and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN). Results SNN (p<0.001) and FBN (p = 0.036) of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021), Internet experience (p = 0.020), and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042). Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation), including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018) and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010). Discussion This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media. PMID:24244541

  15. Farsi Version of Social Skills Rating System-Secondary Student Form: Cultural Adaptation, Reliability and Construct Validity

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Amidi Mazaheri, Maryam; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Abbasi, Mohamad Hadi; Noroozi, Ensieh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Assessment of social skills is a necessary requirement to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive and behavioral interventions. This paper reports the cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Farsi version of the social skills rating system-secondary students form (SSRS-SS) questionnaire (Gresham and Elliot, 1990), in a normative sample of secondary school students. Methods: A two-phase design was used that phase 1 consisted of the linguistic adaptation and in phase 2, using cross-sectional sample survey data, the construct validity and reliability of the Farsi version of the SSRS-SS were examined in a sample of 724 adolescents aged from 13 to 19 years. Results: Content validity index was excellent, and the floor/ceiling effects were low. After deleting five of the original SSRS-SS items, the findings gave support for the item convergent and divergent validity. Factor analysis revealed four subscales. Results showed good internal consistency (0.89) and temporal stability (0.91) for the total scale score. Conclusion: Findings demonstrated support for the use of the 27-item Farsi version in the school setting. Directions for future research regarding the applicability of the scale in other settings and populations of adolescents are discussed. PMID:25053964

  16. Brief Report: Examination of Correlates of Adaptive Behavior in Children with HFASD using the BASC-2 Parent Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Christin A; Donnelly, James P; Rodgers, Jonathan D; Thomeer, Marcus L; Lopata, Christopher; Jordan, Allyson K

    2017-02-10

    This study extended the research on correlates of adaptive functioning of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2). Specifically, this study investigated the relationships between adaptive behavior and age, IQ, and ASD symptomology, in a well-characterized sample of 119 children with HFASD, ages 6-11 years. Results revealed age and IQ were not significantly correlated with adaptive ability. However, total autism symptoms [measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)], as well as ASD-social symptoms were negatively correlated with adaptive ability. Mean comparisons revealed that participants falling into the clinically-significant range of the BASC-2 Adaptive Skills Composite (ASC) displayed significantly greater levels of both overall and social ASD symptoms.

  17. Linking Individual and Collective Behavior in Adaptive Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive social structures are known to promote the evolution of cooperation. However, up to now the characterization of the collective, population-wide dynamics resulting from the self-organization of individual strategies on a coevolving, adaptive network has remained unfeasible. Here we establish a (reversible) link between individual (micro)behavior and collective (macro)behavior for coevolutionary processes. We demonstrate that an adaptive network transforms a two-person social dilemma locally faced by individuals into a collective dynamics that resembles that associated with an N -person coordination game, whose characterization depends sensitively on the relative time scales between the entangled behavioral and network evolutions. In particular, we show that the faster the relative rate of adaptation of the network, the smaller the critical fraction of cooperators required for cooperation to prevail, thus establishing a direct link between network adaptation and the evolution of cooperation. The framework developed here is general and may be readily applied to other dynamical processes occurring on adaptive networks, notably, the spreading of contagious diseases or the diffusion of innovations.

  18. Behavioral and neural Darwinism: selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J

    2010-05-01

    An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptive behavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail.

  19. Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

  20. Social Skills and Problem Behaviors as Mediators of the Relationship between Behavioral Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Foster, Tricia D.

    2014-01-01

    Early behavioral self-regulation is an important predictor of the skills children need to be successful in school. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) through which self-regulation affects academic achievement. The current study investigates the possibility that two aspects of children's social func- tioning, social skills and problem…

  1. Exploring the Effects of Social Skills Training on Social Skill Development on Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Randy L.; Jones-Blank, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Most children learn social skills from interaction with others--other children, family members, friends, and adults. Some children with disabilities need to learn social skills more directly. This may include the use of a specific curriculum and the use of individualized methods. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of social…

  2. Employer Perceptions of Student Informational Interviewing Skills and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Claudia; Sherony, Bruce; Steinhaus, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Employers continue to report that soft skills are critically important in obtaining employment and achieving long-term career success. Given the challenging job market for college graduates, business school faculty need to provide practical opportunities for students to develop their soft skills in professional settings. A longitudinal study was…

  3. Sequential behavior in the rat: role of skill and attention.

    PubMed

    Domenger, Dorothée; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2007-09-01

    The serial reaction time task (SRTT) is a well-established experimental tool to study cognitive and neural mechanisms of sequential performance in humans. We have recently developed a rodent version of the human serial reaction time task, in which rats have to respond to visual stimuli by nose-poking into one of four spatial locations in order to obtain food reward. In this task, rats display superior performance under sequential as compared to random conditions of stimulus presentation. Specifically, the subjects are able to profit from sequential regularities in terms of faster reaction times and higher response accuracy. Here, we studied the effects of violating a single stimulus in rats, which had been intensively trained under sequential conditions, and we asked whether these subjects, when confronted with sequence violations, still attend to the actual stimulus order (that is, show correct responses), or whether their behavior has become fully automated (leading to specific incorrect responses to violated stimulus positions). In two independent experiments using partly differing instrumental set-ups, we found that the responses to non-cued violations of single stimulus positions were mostly correct, that is, the animals were apparently attending to the stimuli. Nevertheless, these reaction times were slowed, which probably reflects cognitive resources necessary to respond correctly to the unexpected irregularities. When quantifying the minority of responses, which were incorrect, we found that most of them were directed to the position, where the stimulus would have appeared if the sequence had not been violated. These responses were faster than the correct ones (to the violated stimulus), which indicates that sequential responding had become partly automated. Together, our data show that both, attention and skill play a role for sequential performance in our SRT task, and that they can be dissected by quantification of specific response types. In future work

  4. Approaching sign language test construction: adaptation of the German sign language receptive skills test.

    PubMed

    Haug, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    There is a current need for reliable and valid test instruments in different countries in order to monitor deaf children's sign language acquisition. However, very few tests are commercially available that offer strong evidence for their psychometric properties. A German Sign Language (DGS) test focusing on linguistic structures that are acquired in preschool- and school-aged children (4-8 years old) is urgently needed. Using the British Sign Language Receptive Skills Test, that has been standardized and has sound psychometric properties, as a template for adaptation thus provides a starting point for tests of a sign language that is less documented, such as DGS. This article makes a novel contribution to the field by examining linguistic, cultural, and methodological issues in the process of adapting a test from the source language to the target language. The adapted DGS test has sound psychometric properties and provides the basis for revision prior to standardization.

  5. Endogenous Nuclear RNAi Mediates Behavioral Adaptation to Odor

    PubMed Central

    Juang, Bi-Tzen; Gu, Chen; Starnes, Linda; Palladino, Francesca; Goga, Andrei; Kennedy, Scott; L'Etoile, Noelle D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Most eukaryotic cells express small regulatory RNAs. The purpose of one class, the somatic endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) remains unclear. Here we show the endo-siRNA pathway promotes odor adaptation in C. elegans AWC olfactory neurons. In adaptation, the nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3, which acts in AWC, is loaded with siRNAs targeting odr-1, a gene who's down regulation is required for adaptation. Concomitant with increased odr-1 siRNA in AWC, we observe increased binding of the HP1 homolog HPL-2 at the odr-1 locus in AWC and reduced odr-1 mRNA in adapted animals. Phosphorylation of HPL-2, an in vitro substrate of the EGL-4 kinase that promotes adaption, is necessary and sufficient for behavioral adaptation. Thus, environmental stimulation amplifies an endo-siRNA negative feedback loop to dynamically repress cognate gene expression and shape behavior. This class of siRNA may act broadly as a rheostat allowing prolonged stimulation to dampen gene expression and promote cellular memory formation. PMID:23993094

  6. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  7. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Introduction to Psychosocial and Behavioral Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, R. Leigh; Decker, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioral adaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…

  8. Coping with Information Overload as Adaptive Behavior in Competitive Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig A.

    When the amount of available information exceeds the ability of the user to process it, "information overload" is created. In an attempt to maintain some control over the quantity of arguments they may face, debaters have developed adaptive behavior, primarily through the generic argument--any argument within a "deliverative"…

  9. Adaptive Behavior in Toddlers under Two with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Loomis, Rebecca; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was administered to 54 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before age 2, and a matching group of 18 toddlers with developmental delay (DD). The group with ASD was more impaired on all scales of the Vineland than DD peers. When 18 ASD/DD pairs very closely matched on age, verbal and nonverbal…

  10. Development of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding.

    PubMed

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; van Hulst, Karen C M; van Gerven, Marjo H J C; van Haaften, Leenke; de Groot, Sandra A F

    2014-05-01

    Milestones in the typical development of eating skills are considered to be nippling (breast or bottle), eating from a spoon, drinking from a cup, biting and chewing. The purpose of this research was to study the development and consolidation of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding in young infants. The present study longitudinally investigated the development of this skill in 39 healthy children from the start of spoon feeding until the skill was acquired. The Observation List Spoon Feeding with 7 observation items for oral motor behavior and 6 items for abnormal behavior was used. Results showed that infants between 4 and 8 months of age needed 5.7 weeks (SD 2.1), with a range of 8 weeks (from 2 to 10 weeks) to acquire this skill. No significant correlation (p=.109) between age at start spoon feeding and weeks needed to develop the skill was found. During this period oral motor behavior consolidated and abnormal behavior diminished. With this study it is shown that the period in weeks needed to acquire the oral motor behavior for the skill assisted spoon feeding is important in case of feeding problems.

  11. A Comparison of Adaptive and Nonadaptive Training Strategies in the Acquisition of a Physically Complex Psychomotor Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riedel, James A.; And Others

    Results of research to determine if an adaptive technique could be used to teach a physically complex psychomotor skill (specifically, performing on an arc welding simulator) more efficiently than the skill could be taught with a nonadaptive technique are presented. Sixty hull maintenance technician firemen and fireman apprentice trainees were…

  12. Applying Behavior Analytic Procedures to Effectively Teach Literacy Skills in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Laurice M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila; Neef, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the application of behavior analytic procedures for advancing and evaluating methods for teaching literacy skills in the classroom. Particularly, applied behavior analysis has contributed substantially to examining the relationship between teacher behavior and student literacy performance. Teacher…

  13. Teaching Online Social Skills to Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joseph John

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders often lack appropriate social skills. This deficit can lead to negative outcomes including peer and teacher rejection, increased behavioral problems at school, and decreased academic achievement. In order to improve the social outcomes of students with emotional and behavioral disorders, teachers…

  14. Early Career Teachers Accuracy in Predicting Behavioral Functioning: A Pilot Study of Teacher Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Bruce P.; Rush, Karena S.; Webster, John; Beck, Twila

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discern the current skill level of novice teachers in identifying the function of problem behaviors and illustrate the continued need for developing data collection skills with this population. Eighty-eight teachers with experience ranging from 1-5 years completed a series of open and forced-choice questions that…

  15. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills with Executive Function and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M.; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Method: Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M[subscript age] = 4.31 years) were…

  16. Social Skills Interventions for Students with Challenging Behavior: Evaluating the Quality of the Evidence Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Nancy S.; Burke, Mack D.; Hatton, Heather; Bowman-Perrott, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This study provides results on a methodological quality review of the single-case research literature from 1998 to 2014 on the use of social skills interventions for students with challenging behavior. A systematic review of the social skills literature was conducted with the intent of updating the Mathur et al. study of social skills…

  17. Information Behaviors and Information Literacy Skills of LIS Students: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Laura; Kurbanoglu, Serap; Boustany, Joumana; Dogan, Guleda; Becker, Peter; Blumer, Eliane; Chowdhury, Sudatta; Dobreva, Milena; Gendina, Natalia; Grgic, Ivana Hebrang; Haddow, Gaby; Koltay, Tibor; Kortelainen, Terttu; Krakowska, Monika; Majid, Shaheen; Mezhova, Marina; Repanovici, Angela; Rudžioniene, Jurgita; Schneider, Rene; Terra, Ana Lucia; Todorova, Tania Y.

    2015-01-01

    Librarians are expected to be expert searchers, and developing information literacy skills to navigate the vast world of information is a focus of most library and information science (LIS) programs. It is important to understand the information literacy and behaviors of LIS students to see if they are employing the skills they will need to assist…

  18. Development and Validation of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Skills Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Karen L.; Christopher, Michael S.; Neuhaus, Edmund C.

    2011-01-01

    Although several theories exist to describe why patients improve in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in only a limited number of studies has CBT skill acquisition been examined, particularly among patients with complex clinical profiles. Thus, the overarching aim of this research was to develop a tool to measure patients' use of CBT skills,…

  19. Growth of Cognitive Skills in Preschoolers: Impact of Sleep Habits and Learning-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Eunjoo; Molfese, Victoria J.; Beswick, Jennifer; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill; Molnar, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study used a longitudinal design to identify how sleep habits and learning-related behaviors impact the development of cognitive skills in preschoolers (ages 3-5). Sixty- seven children with parental report and cognitive skill assessment data were included. Scores on the Differential Ability Scales (C. Elliott, 1990)…

  20. Dialogic Reading's Potential to Improve Children's Emergent Literacy Skills and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Meier, Catherine R.

    2008-01-01

    Young children entering school with poor oral vocabulary skills may be doubly disadvantaged. Their poor oral vocabulary skills will likely impede their attempts to become proficient readers while also possibly increasing the frequency of their problem behaviors. Dialogic reading (DR) is a scientifically validated shared storybook reading…

  1. Prevention of Problem Behavior by Teaching Functional Communication and Self-Control Skills to Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczynski, Kevin C.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of the preschool life skills program (PLS; Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007) on the acquisition and maintenance of functional communication and self-control skills, as well as its effect on problem behavior, of small groups of preschoolers at risk for school failure. Six children were taught to request teacher…

  2. Web-based parenting skills to reduce behavior problems following abusive head trauma: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mast, Jennifer E; Antonini, Tanya N; Raj, Stacey P; Oberjohn, Karen S; Cassedy, Amy; Makoroff, Kathi L; Wade, Shari L

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric abusive head trauma causes significant cognitive and behavioral morbidity, yet very few post-acute interventions exist to facilitate long-term recovery. To meet the needs of this vulnerable population, we piloted a web-based intervention with live coaching designed to improve positive parenting and child behavior. The efficacy of this parenting skills intervention was compared with access to Internet resources on brain injury. Participants included seven families (four randomized to the parenting intervention and three randomized to receive Internet resources). Parenting skills were observed and child behavior was rated at baseline and intervention completion. At completion, parents who received the parenting skills intervention showed significantly more positive parenting behaviors and fewer undesirable behaviors during play than parents who received access to Internet resources. Additionally, during play, children in the parenting skills intervention group were more compliant following parent commands than children in the Internet resources group. Lastly, parents who received the parenting intervention reported less intense oppositional and conduct behavior problems in their children post-intervention than did parents in the Internet resources group. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the use of this web-based positive parenting skills intervention to improve parenting skills and child behavior following abusive head trauma.

  3. Language and communication skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders: contribution of cognition, severity of autism symptoms, and adaptive functioning to the variability.

    PubMed

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Hedvall, Åsa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Norrelgen, Fritjof

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of cognitive function, severity of autism, and adaptive functioning to the variability in language and communication skills in 129 preschool children (aged 24-63 months) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were selected from a representative research cohort of 208 preschool children on the basis of caregiver completion of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI). The children were classified into three cognitive groups: (a) Normal intelligence; (b) Developmental delay; and (c) Intellectual disability. Autism symptom severity was measured by the Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC), and adaptive functioning by the Daily Living Skills (DLS) and Socialization (Soc) subscales from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. For each of five CDI variables (Phrases understood, Words understood, Words produced, Gestures and actions, and Language use), the contribution of cognition, severity of autism symptoms, and adaptive functioning to the variability was examined. Cognition and age explained about half or more of the variance in the four verbal language CDI variables, but only about one fourth of the variance in the non-verbal communication variable Gestures and actions. Severity of autism symptoms and the two adaptive measures (DLS and Soc) each only accounted for a few percent more of the variance in the four CDI language variables; however, for Gestures and actions, an additional 11-21% of the variance was accounted for. In conclusion, for children with ASD, receptive and expressive language is mainly related to cognitive level, whereas non-verbal communication skills seem to also be related to severity of autism symptoms and adaptive functioning.

  4. Shaping Embodied Neural Networks for Adaptive Goal-directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Zenas C.; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Potter, Steve M.

    2008-01-01

    The acts of learning and memory are thought to emerge from the modifications of synaptic connections between neurons, as guided by sensory feedback during behavior. However, much is unknown about how such synaptic processes can sculpt and are sculpted by neuronal population dynamics and an interaction with the environment. Here, we embodied a simulated network, inspired by dissociated cortical neuronal cultures, with an artificial animal (an animat) through a sensory-motor loop consisting of structured stimuli, detailed activity metrics incorporating spatial information, and an adaptive training algorithm that takes advantage of spike timing dependent plasticity. By using our design, we demonstrated that the network was capable of learning associations between multiple sensory inputs and motor outputs, and the animat was able to adapt to a new sensory mapping to restore its goal behavior: move toward and stay within a user-defined area. We further showed that successful learning required proper selections of stimuli to encode sensory inputs and a variety of training stimuli with adaptive selection contingent on the animat's behavior. We also found that an individual network had the flexibility to achieve different multi-task goals, and the same goal behavior could be exhibited with different sets of network synaptic strengths. While lacking the characteristic layered structure of in vivo cortical tissue, the biologically inspired simulated networks could tune their activity in behaviorally relevant manners, demonstrating that leaky integrate-and-fire neural networks have an innate ability to process information. This closed-loop hybrid system is a useful tool to study the network properties intermediating synaptic plasticity and behavioral adaptation. The training algorithm provides a stepping stone towards designing future control systems, whether with artificial neural networks or biological animats themselves. PMID:18369432

  5. Adaptation of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) to dental students.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Brian; Bertera, Elizabeth M; Feimster, Tawana; Hollander, Roberta; Stroman, Carolyn

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the twenty-six-item Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) developed for medical students for use among dental students and to test the psychometric properties of the modified instrument. The sample consisted of 250 students (an 80.1 percent response rate) in years D1 to D4 at a dental school in Washington, DC. The mean age of participants was 26.6 years with a range from twenty-one to forty-two years. Slightly more than half of the participants were female (52.4 percent) and were African American or of African descent (51.7 percent). Principal components analysis was used to test the psychometric properties of the instrument. The index that resulted measured both positive and negative attitudes toward learning communications skills. The final twenty-four-item scale had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.87), and the study obtained four important factors-Learning, Importance, Quality, and Success-that explained a significant portion of the variance (49.1 percent). Stratified analysis by demographic variables suggested that there may be gender and ethnic differences in the students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. The authors conclude that the CSAS modified for dental students, or DCSAS, is a useful tool to assess attitudes towards learning communication skills among dental students.

  6. A model of professional development for practicing genetic counselors: adaptation of communication skills training in oncology.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Kate L; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Butow, Phyllis; Heinrich, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Ongoing professional development for practicing genetic counselors is critical in maintaining best practice. Communication skills training (CST) workshops for doctors in oncology, utilizing trained actors in role plays, have been implemented for many years to improve patient-centred communication. This model was adapted to provide professional development in counseling skills for practicing genetic counselors, already highly trained in counseling skills. Detailed evidence based scenarios were developed. Evaluation of participants' experience and perceived outcomes on practice included surveys immediately post workshops (2002, 2004, 2005, 2008 (×2); n = 88/97), 2-5 years later (2007; n = 21/38) and a focus group (2007; n = 7). All rated workshops as effective training. Aspects highly valued included facilitator feedback, actors rather than role-playing with peers and being able to stop and try doing things differently. Perceived outcomes included the opportunity to reflect on practice; bring focus to communication; motivation and confidence. The high level of satisfaction is a strong endorsement for ongoing communication skills training in this format as part of professional development.

  7. Approaches to Increasing Assertive Behavior and Communication Skills in Blind and Visually Impaired Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Rona L.; Strauss, Felice A.

    1986-01-01

    Components of assertive behavior are described with suggestions for enabling the visually impaired person to develop these skills. The underlying concepts of assertion training are explained along with specific techniques for use in schools or rehabilitative settings. (Author/CL)

  8. Adaptation and Implementation of a Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Girls in Child Welfare.

    PubMed

    Auslander, Wendy; McGinnis, Hollee; Tlapek, Sarah; Smith, Penny; Foster, April; Edmond, Tonya; Dunn, Jerry

    2016-12-15

    This study describes the process of adapting and implementing Girls Aspiring toward Independence (GAIN), a trauma-focused, group-based therapy adapted from Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) for girls in child welfare. Descriptive data were examined on 3 outcomes: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and social problem-solving skills among adolescent girls in the child welfare system. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to inform the adaptation of the CBITS intervention, evaluate feasibility, treatment fidelity, and acceptability, and to test the effects of the intervention. Girls ages 12 to 18 (N = 27) were randomly assigned to the experimental and usual care conditions. Participants' symptoms of PTSD and depression and social problem-solving skills were evaluated at pre, post- (3 months), and follow-up (6 months) assessments. Adaptations for GAIN were primarily related to program structure. Data indicated that the program was receptive to girls in child welfare and that it was feasible to recruit, randomize, assess outcomes, and implement with adequate fidelity. Retention was more successful among younger girls. Descriptive initial data showed greater reductions in the percentage of girls with PTSD and depression, and modest increases in social problem-solving skills in the experimental versus usual care condition. Despite the growth of knowledge in dissemination and implementation research, the application of trauma-focused empirically supported treatment to child welfare populations lags behind. A large-scale RCT is needed to determine if GAIN is effective in reducing mental health problems and social problem-solving in the child welfare population. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Sex differences in autism spectrum disorders: does sex moderate the pathway from clinical symptoms to adaptive behavior?

    PubMed

    Mandic-Maravic, Vanja; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Kostic, Milutin; Aleksic-Hil, Olivera; Radosavljev-Kircanski, Jelena; Mincic, Teodora; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

    2015-05-19

    We explored sex differences in diagnostic categories, clinical symptoms and adaptive behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders, as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical and adaptive caracteristics. The study involved 108 patients (83 males, 6.73 ± 4.33 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment included ADI-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. Males were more often diagnosed with typical autism. There were no sex differences in the autistic symptoms, while females showed better functioning in Daily living skills, without reaching statistically significant difference (p = 0.062). We have found different associations of autistic symptoms with different aspects of adaptive behavior in males and females. Social reciprocity in females correlated with social domain of adaptive behavior, in a positive direction. Our findings have shown that although there are no sex differences in autistic symptoms, females tend to be somewhat more functional, and are also less frequently diagnosed with typical autism. Our results have also shown that sex might moderate the way clinical symptoms are expressed in adaptive behavior. Social reciprocity might be the core feature regarding sex differences in ASD. Our findings might have diagnostic and therapeutical implications, pointing out to the need for individualized, sex-specific treatment in this group of disorders.

  10. Cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral features in Joubert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bulgheroni, Sara; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Signorini, Sabrina; Briguglio, Marilena; Di Sabato, Maria Lucia; Casarano, Manuela; Mancini, Francesca; Romani, Marta; Alfieri, Paolo; Battini, Roberta; Zoppello, Marina; Tortorella, Gaetano; Bertini, Enrico; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Valente, Enza Maria; Riva, Daria

    2016-12-01

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is a recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive cerebellar and brainstem malformation recognizable on brain imaging, the so-called molar tooth sign. The full spectrum of cognitive and behavioral phenotypes typical of JS is still far from being elucidated. The aim of this multicentric study was to define the clinical phenotype and neurobehavioral features of a large cohort of subjects with a neuroradiologically confirmed diagnosis of JS. Fifty-four patients aged 10 months to 29 years were enrolled. Each patient underwent a neurological evaluation as well as psychiatric and neuropsychological assessments. Global cognitive functioning was remarkably variable with Full IQ/General Quotient ranging from 32 to 129. Communication skills appeared relatively preserved with respect to both Daily Living and Socialization abilities. The motor domain was the area of greatest vulnerability, with a negative impact on personal care, social, and academic skills. Most children did not show maladaptive behaviors consistent with a psychiatric diagnosis but approximately 40% of them presented emotional and behavioral problems. We conclude that intellectual disability remains a hallmark but cannot be considered a mandatory diagnostic criterion of JS. Despite the high variability in the phenotypic spectrum and the extent of multiorgan involvement, nearly one quarter of JS patients had a favorable long-term outcome with borderline cognitive deficit or even normal cognition. Most of JS population also showed relatively preserved communication skills and overall discrete behavioral functioning in everyday life, independently from the presence and/or level of intellectual disability. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Outcomes of Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldevik, Sigmund; Jahr, Erik; Eikeseth, Svein; Hastings, Richard P.; Hughes, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    Data from Norway were analyzed to evaluate early behavioral intervention for children with intellectual disabilities. The intervention group (n = 11) received approximately 10 hours per week of behavioral intervention; the eclectic comparison group (n = 14) received treatment as usual. After 1 year, changes in intelligence and adaptive behavior…

  12. Utilization of Skills in the Care of Patients with Deviations in Psychosocial Adaptation (NS 207): Competency-Based Course Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Tanya G.

    "Utilization of Skills in the Care of Patients with Deviations in Psychosocial Adaptation" (NS 207) is an associate degree nursing course offered at Chattanooga State Technical Community College. The course stresses the individual as a system in his/her psychosocial adaptation to internal and external stressors, and highlights the…

  13. Cognitive and Adaptive Skills in Toddlers Who Meet Criteria for Autism in DSM-IV but not DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Jashar, Dasal Tenzin; Brennan, Laura A; Barton, Marianne L; Fein, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    The current study compared adaptive and cognitive skills, and autism severity of toddlers with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis under DSM-IV but not DSM-5 criteria (DSM-IV only group) to those who met autism criteria under both diagnostic systems (DSM-5 group) and to those without ASD (non-ASD group). The toddlers in the DSM-IV only group were less delayed on various domains of adaptive (Communication, Socialization) and cognitive (Expressive and Receptive language, Fine Motor, Visual Reception) skills, and had less severe symptoms of ASD than the DSM-5 group. Thus, they might have the best potential for successful intervention. The DSM-IV only group did not differ from the non-ASD group in any adaptive or cognitive skills except for socialization skills, the hallmark of ASD.

  14. Development of a Brazilian Portuguese adapted version of the Gap-Kalamazoo communication skills assessment form

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Elizabeth A.; Lajolo, Paula P.; Tone, Luiz G.; Pinto, Rogerio M. C.; Lajolo, Marisa P.; Calhoun, Aaron W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to translate, adapt and validate the items of the Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form for use in the Brazilian cultural setting. Methods The Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form was translated into Portuguese by two independent bilingual Brazilian translators and was reconciled by a third bilingual healthcare professional. The translated text was then assessed for content using a modified Delphi technique and adjusted as needed to assure content validity. A total of nine phrases in the completed tool were adjusted. The final tool was then used to assess videotaped simulations as a means of validation.  Response process was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and internal structure was assessed via Cronbach’s Alpha (internal consistency) and Intraclass Correlation (test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability). Results One hundred and four (104) videotaped communication skills simulations were assessed by 38 subjects (6 staff physicians, 4 faculty physicians, 8 resident physicians, 4 professional actors with experience in simulation, and 16 other allied healthcare professionals). Measures of Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.818) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.942) were high.  Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the uni-dimensionality of the instrument. Conclusions Our results support the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form when used among Brazilian medical residents.  The Brazilian version of Gap-Kalamazoo Communication Skills Assessment Form was found to be adequate both in the linguistic and technical aspects.  The use of this instrument in Brazilian medical education can enhance the assessment of physician-patient-team relationships on an ongoing basis. PMID:27941183

  15. Dialogic Reading's Potential to Improve Children's Emergent Literacy Skills and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Meier, Catherine R

    Young children entering school with poor oral vocabulary skills may be "doubly disadvantaged." Their poor oral vocabulary skills will likely impede their attempts to become proficient readers while also possibly increasing the frequency of their problem behaviors. Dialogic Reading is a scientifically-validated shared storybook reading intervention that is known to boost at risk children's oral vocabulary skills. As such, use of Dialogic Reading is one potential way to help children avoid both later reading failure and the negative outcomes associated with poor behavior. In this article, we detail both (a) a research-based rationale for using Dialogic Reading and (b) Dialogic Reading's set of procedures and prompts.

  16. Adults with autism spectrum disorder as behavior technicians for young children with autism: Outcomes of a behavioral skills training program.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In Experiment 1, training of the adults focused on the implementation of mand training via incidental teaching. Experiment 2 focused on teaching participants to use discrete-trial training (DTT) with children who exhibited problem behavior. Both experiments showed that behavioral skills training was effective for teaching the adult participants the behavioral procedures needed to teach children with autism. In addition, the children acquired skills as a result of training. Results of Experiment 2 further demonstrated that the DTT skills generalized across untrained targets and children. Social validity ratings suggested that some participants' teaching was indistinguishable from that of individuals without ASD.

  17. Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers' literacy, vocabulary, and math skills.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Megan M; Cameron, Claire E; Connor, Carol McDonald; Farris, Carrie L; Jewkes, Abigail M; Morrison, Frederick J

    2007-07-01

    This study investigated predictive relations between preschoolers' (N=310) behavioral regulation and emergent literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Behavioral regulation was assessed using a direct measure called the Head-to-Toes Task, which taps inhibitory control, attention, and working memory, and requires children to perform the opposite of what is instructed verbally. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was utilized because children were nested in 54 classrooms at 2 geographical sites. Results revealed that behavioral regulation significantly and positively predicted fall and spring emergent literacy, vocabulary, and math skills on the Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement (all ps<.05). Moreover, growth in behavioral regulation predicted growth in emergent literacy, vocabulary, and math skills over the prekindergarten year (all ps<.05), after controlling for site, child gender, and other background variables. Discussion focuses on the role of behavioral regulation in early academic achievement and preparedness for kindergarten.

  18. The contribution of children's self-regulation and classroom quality to children's adaptive behaviors in the kindergarten classroom.

    PubMed

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Curby, Tim W; Grimm, Kevin J; Nathanson, Lori; Brock, Laura L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which children's self-regulation upon kindergarten entrance and classroom quality in kindergarten contributed to children's adaptive classroom behavior. Children's self-regulation was assessed using a direct assessment upon entrance into kindergarten. Classroom quality was measured on the basis of multiple classroom observations during the kindergarten year. Children's adaptive classroom behavior in kindergarten was assessed through teacher report and classroom observations: Teachers rated children's cognitive and behavioral self-control and work habits during the spring of the kindergarten year; observers rated children's engagement and measured off-task behavior at 2-month intervals from November to May. Hierarchical linear models revealed that children's self-regulation upon school entry in a direct assessment related to teachers' report of behavioral self-control, cognitive self-control, and work habits in the spring of the kindergarten year. Classroom quality, particularly teachers' effective classroom management, was linked to children's greater behavioral and cognitive self-control, children's higher behavioral engagement, and less time spent off-task in the classroom. Classroom quality did not moderate the relation between children's self-regulation upon school entry and children's adaptive classroom behaviors in kindergarten. The discussion considers the implications of classroom management for supporting children's early development of behavioral skills that are important in school settings.

  19. Behavioral Parent Training Skills and Child Behavior: The Utility of Behavioral Descriptions and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempel, Ashley B.; Wagner, Stephanie M.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical examination of components of behavioral parent training programs is necessary to inform treatment effectiveness and efficiency; however, comprehensive research on many components is lacking. The current study examined two parenting components utilized in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy by investigating the effects of behavioral…

  20. Information theory of adaptation in neurons, behavior, and mood

    PubMed Central

    Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Calhoun, Adam J.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make accurate predictions of future stimuli and consequences of one’s actions are crucial for the survival and appropriate decision-making. These predictions are constantly being made at different levels of the nervous system. This is evidenced by adaptation to stimulus parameters in sensory coding, and in learning of an up-to-date model of the environment at the behavioral level. This review will discuss recent findings that actions of neurons and animals are selected based on detailed stimulus history in such a way as to maximize information for achieving the task at hand. Information maximization dictates not only how sensory coding should adapt to various statistical aspects of stimuli, but also that reward function should adapt to match the predictive information from past to future. PMID:24709600

  1. Preventing Relapse to Cigarette Smoking by Behavioral Skill Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    Although smoking cessation techniques have been effective, few programs have long term results. To investigate the effectiveness of a tobacco dependence relapse prevention program, 123 adult smokers (51 male, 72 female) voluntarily participated in one of four small group treatment conditions (6 or 30 second aversive smoking plus skill training, or…

  2. Lasting effect of intimate partner violence exposure during preschool on aggressive behavior and prosocial skills.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Megan R; Voith, Laura A; Gromoske, Andrea N

    2015-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure can negatively affect children's social behavior. However, it is unknown if the negative effects of IPV exposure during the preschool years are sustained through the early school years, if maladaptive behavior in one domain (e.g., aggressive behavior) is linked to subsequent maladaptive behavior in a different developmental domain (e.g., prosocial skill deficits), and if these relations differ by gender. This study addresses these gaps by using data from a sample of 1,125 children aged 3 to 4 at Time 1 and aged 5 to 7 at Time 2 from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. A series of nested longitudinal structural equation models were tested. Aggressive behavior and prosocial skills were stable across time. Time 1 IPV was associated with increased aggressive behavior at Time 1, which in turn was related to increased Time 2 aggressive behavior. Gender differences emerged; Time 2 IPV was associated with prosocial skills deficits for girls but not boys. A cross-domain relation existed between Time 1 aggressive behavior and Time 2 prosocial skills deficits for boys but not girls. These findings support that behavioral problems demonstrated later in childhood may emerge from earlier adverse developmental experiences and that difficulties in one domain may spill over into other developmental domains. Gender-specific interventions to promote competence in children may contribute to diverting children from maladaptive developmental outcomes.

  3. Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment.

  4. Feasibility of Using Video to Teach a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skill to Clients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, Jennifer; Dimeff, Linda A.; Koerner, Kelly; Linehan, Marsha M.; Taylor, Laura; Miller, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the feasibility of using a psychoeducational video recording to teach a behavioral skill from the Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993a, 1993b) skills training program to individuals meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder. A video presenting a DBT emotion-regulation skill was developed and the extent to…

  5. Neurocognitive, Social-Behavioral, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children with Mild to Moderate Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Gerson, Arlene C.; Johnson, Rebecca J.; Mendley, Susan R.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lande, Marc B.; Matheson, Matthew B.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Morgenstern, Bruce; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The negative impact of End Stage Kidney Disease on cognitive function in children is well established, but no studies have examined the neurocognitive, social-behavioral, and adaptive behavior skills of preschool children with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Participants included 124 preschool children with mild to moderate CKD, ages 12-68 months (median=3.7 years), and an associated mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 50.0 ml/min per 1.73m2. In addition to level of function and percent of participants scoring≥1SD below the test mean, regression models examined the associations between biomarkers of CKD (GFR, anemia, hypertension, seizures, abnormal birth history), and Developmental Level/IQ, attention regulation, and parent ratings of executive functions, social-behavior, and adaptive behaviors. Results Median scores for all measures were in the average range; however, 27% were deemed at-risk for a Developmental Level/IQ<85, 20% were at-risk for attention variability, and parent ratings indicated 30% and 37% to be at-risk for executive dysfunction and adaptive behavior problems, respectively. Approximately 43% were deemed at-risk on two or more measures. None of the disease-related variables were significantly associated with these outcomes, although the presence of hypertension approached significance for attention variability (p<.09). Abnormal birth history and lower maternal education were significantly related to lower Developmental Level/IQ; seizures were related to lower parental ratings of executive function and adaptive behavior; and abnormal birth history was significantly related to lower ratings of adaptive behavior. When predicting risk status, the logistic regression did evidence both higher GFR and the lack of anemia to be associated with more intact Developmental Level/IQ. Conclusions These findings suggest relatively intact functioning for preschool children with mild to moderate CKD, but the need for ongoing

  6. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Peter; Rosenior-Patten, Onayomi; Dahmen, Johannes C; Bell, Olivia; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The brain possesses a remarkable capacity to compensate for changes in inputs resulting from a range of sensory impairments. Developmental studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation to asymmetric hearing loss can be achieved either by reinterpreting altered spatial cues or by relying more on those cues that remain intact. Adaptation to monaural deprivation in adulthood is also possible, but appears to lack such flexibility. Here we show, however, that appropriate behavioral training enables monaurally-deprived adult humans to exploit both of these adaptive processes. Moreover, cortical recordings in ferrets reared with asymmetric hearing loss suggest that these forms of plasticity have distinct neural substrates. An ability to adapt to asymmetric hearing loss using multiple adaptive processes is therefore shared by different species and may persist throughout the lifespan. This highlights the fundamental flexibility of neural systems, and may also point toward novel therapeutic strategies for treating sensory disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12264.001 PMID:27008181

  7. Cultural adaptation of an intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors among patients attending a STI clinic in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Grau, Lauretta E; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Kozlov, Andrei P; Abdala, Nadia

    2013-08-01

    Cultural adaptation is an important step in the process of implementing health promotion interventions that, having been proven to be effective in one culture, are being applied in another. This study describes the results of a formative investigation to culturally adapt a STI/HIV risk reduction intervention for use in St. Petersburg, Russia. Analyses of data from brief elicitation interviews, focus groups, community experts, and a pilot test of the adapted intervention identified environmental, cognitive-information processing, and affect-motivation factors that needed to be addressed during the adaptation process. The participant/counselor relationship was adapted to reflect a hierarchical (cf. collaborative) relationship in order to accommodate Russian expectations about patient interactions with healthcare experts. Key skills building activities (e.g., identification of personal risk behaviors, role-playing) were approached gradually or indirectly in order to maintain participants' engagement in the intervention, and close-ended questions were added to assist participants in understanding unfamiliar concepts such as "triggers" and self-efficacy. Information about the prevalence of HIV/STI infections and alcohol use included data specific to St. Petersburg to increase the personal relevance of these materials and messages. Intervention components were tailored to participants' risk reduction and informational needs. No gender differences that would have justified adaptation of the intervention approach or content were noted. Examples of specific adaptations and the key issues to attend to when adapting behavioral interventions for use in Russian clinical settings are discussed.

  8. Utilization of Superheroes Social Skills to Reduce Disruptive and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Cavell, Hannah J.

    2016-01-01

    The current pilot study investigated the effectiveness of the Superheroes Social Skills program in decreasing disruptive and aggressive behavior of elementary-age students with high-incidence disabilities. Six students in a self-contained classroom, identified as displaying high rates of disruptive and aggressive behavior toward peers, were…

  9. Effects of Interventions Based in Behavior Analysis on Motor Skill Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…

  10. Using Student Success Skills to Address ASCA Behavior Standards in Grades K-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Nicholas R.; Oliver, Brandie M.; Keller, Thomas J.; McAulay, Andrew; Piatek, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated relationships between a school counselor's implementation of the Student Success Skills (SSS) program with 203 students in grades K-3 and teacher ratings of student competency on five learning behaviors from the ASCA Mindsets & Behaviors for Student Success (American School Counselor Association, 2014). Using a paired…

  11. Peer Ratings of Aggression: Relation to Social Skills, Behavior Problems, and Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Ruth; Vaughn, Sharon

    This study examined the aggressive behaviors of children through peer ratings to teacher ratings of problem behaviors and social skills and peer ratings of friendship. Peer data are valid measures and may be more accurate than teacher or self measures because peers are more likely to be present when aggression occurs. This study examines a peer…

  12. Social Skills and Behavior Problems in Children with Disabilities with and without Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fussell, Jill J.; Macias, Michelle M.; Saylor, Conway F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined social skills and behavior of children with disabilities (CWD) and the impact of siblings on these behaviors. Eighty-five CWD diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder only (ADHD-o), Learning Disability or Learning Problems (LD/LP), ADHD and LD combined (ADHD/LD) or Spina Bifida (SB) and their siblings were…

  13. Links between Preschoolers' Behavioral Regulation and School Readiness Skills: The Role of Child Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Seung-Hee; Lee, Kangyi; Sung, Miyoung

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined relations among preschoolers' behavioral regulation, gender, and school readiness outcomes in preacademic and classroom skills using a sample of South Korean preschoolers aged 3-5 ("N" = 229). Behavioral regulation was assessed using a direct measure, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which requires…

  14. "GOTCHA!" Twenty-Five Behavior Traps Guaranteed to Extend Your Students' Academic and Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber, Sheila R.; Heward, William L.

    1996-01-01

    The principle of "behavior traps" to change student behavior is explained, and examples of 25 such "traps" are suggested. The "traps" lure the child into a "success circle" of increasing positive knowledge and skills. Examples include incorporating student interests in heroes, special interests, and clubs into curricular activities; utilizing…

  15. Evaluation of Skill Maintenance, Performance Factors, and External Validity in a Behavioral Parent Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherbarth, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Child maltreatment affects 900 thousand children in the U.S. every year and impacts all areas of daily functioning. Behavioral parent training (BPT) programs have effectively taught parenting & demonstrated externally valid outcomes (i.e., lower recidivism rates). Skill maintenance assessments for BPTs have mixed results. The Behavior Management…

  16. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals.

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior…

  18. Effect of life skills training on dietary behavior of school adolescents in Delhi: a nonrandomized interventional study.

    PubMed

    Anand, Tanu; Ingle, G K; Meena, Gajendra Singh; Kishore, Jugal; Yadav, Sangita

    2015-03-01

    Skill-based education has been shown to reduce high-risk behavior among adolescents, but in India, life skills have often been looked at only from the reproductive health perspective. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of life skills training on dietary behavior of adolescents studying in grades 9 and 11 of 2 schools in Delhi. This was a nonrandomized interventional study with a control group. A self-administered questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary behavior at baseline, 15 days, and 3 months after the life skills training. Two life skills training sessions were imparted to the intervention group, focusing on the use of life skills in making healthy choices. Participants in the intervention group (n = 180) showed significant improvement in knowledge (P < .001), attitude (P = .007), and practices (P < .001) following the life skills training. To conclude, a skills-based approach does help improve the dietary behavior in adolescents.

  19. Adaptive neural coding: from biological to behavioral decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Kenway; Glimcher, Paul W.; Webb, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Empirical decision-making in diverse species deviates from the predictions of normative choice theory, but why such suboptimal behavior occurs is unknown. Here, we propose that deviations from optimality arise from biological decision mechanisms that have evolved to maximize choice performance within intrinsic biophysical constraints. Sensory processing utilizes specific computations such as divisive normalization to maximize information coding in constrained neural circuits, and recent evidence suggests that analogous computations operate in decision-related brain areas. These adaptive computations implement a relative value code that may explain the characteristic context-dependent nature of behavioral violations of classical normative theory. Examining decision-making at the computational level thus provides a crucial link between the architecture of biological decision circuits and the form of empirical choice behavior. PMID:26722666

  20. Adaptive Behavior of Primary School Students with Visual Impairments: The Impact of Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsiou, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the adaptive behavior of primary school students with visual impairments, as well as the impact of educational setting on their adaptive behavior. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Participants were 36 primary school students with visual impairments. The educational…

  1. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Profiles in Children with Autism and Moderate to Severe Developmental Delay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Gemma; D'Ardia, Caterina; Valente, Donatella; Vecchio, Ilaria del; Fabrizi, Anna; Bernabei, Paola

    2003-01-01

    A study examined adaptive behavior profiles in children (ages 21-108 months) with moderate to severe developmental delay and autism (n=23) and without autism (n=27). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales was administered, and contrary to initial predictions, the sample presented fairly homogeneous adaptive behavior profiles. (Contains references.)…

  2. Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Staci C.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the…

  3. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior. PMID:27336016

  4. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior.

  5. Physiological, behavioral and biochemical adaptations of intertidal fishes to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jeffrey G

    2011-01-15

    Hypoxia survival in fish requires a well-coordinated response to either secure more O(2) from the hypoxic environment or to limit the metabolic consequences of an O(2) restriction at the mitochondria. Although there is a considerable amount of information available on the physiological, behavioral, biochemical and molecular responses of fish to hypoxia, very little research has attempted to determine the adaptive value of these responses. This article will review current attempts to use the phylogenetically corrected comparative method to define physiological and behavioral adaptations to hypoxia in intertidal fish and further identify putatively adaptive biochemical traits that should be investigated in the future. In a group of marine fishes known as sculpins, from the family Cottidae, variation in hypoxia tolerance, measured as a critical O(2) tension (P(crit)), is primarily explained by variation in mass-specific gill surface area, red blood cell hemoglobin-O(2) binding affinity, and to a lesser extent variation in routine O(2) consumption rate (M(O(2))). The most hypoxia-tolerant sculpins consistently show aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and aerial emergence behavior during hypoxia exposure, but no phylogenetically independent relationship has been found between the thresholds for initiating these behaviors and P(crit). At O(2) levels below P(crit), hypoxia survival requires a rapid reorganization of cellular metabolism to suppress ATP consumption to match the limited capacity for O(2)-independent ATP production. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that the degree of metabolic rate suppression and the quantity of stored fermentable fuel is strongly selected for in hypoxia-tolerant fishes; however, these assertions have not been tested in a phylogenetic comparative model.

  6. The acquisition and maintenance of behavioral skills: A response to Michael

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Craig W.

    1982-01-01

    A response to Michael's (1980) presidential address to the Association for Behavior Analysis is presented. The position is taken that in many instances we have failed to adopt a behavioral approach to dealing with problems within our field concomitant with the shift from an emphasis on behaviorism and a science of behavior to technology. It is argued that we need to be sensitive to the data and consider the contingencies that are operating within the culture. A general strategy and some tactics are presented to acquire and maintain behavioral skills. PMID:22478559

  7. Parents’ Emotion-Related Beliefs, Behaviors, and Skills Predict Children's Recognition of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Vanessa L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Lozada, Fantasy T.; Craig, Ashley B.

    2015-01-01

    Children who are able to recognize others’ emotions are successful in a variety of socioemotional domains, yet we know little about how school-aged children's abilities develop, particularly in the family context. We hypothesized that children develop emotion recognition skill as a function of parents’ own emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and skills. We examined parents’ beliefs about the value of emotion and guidance of children's emotion, parents’ emotion labeling and teaching behaviors, and parents’ skill in recognizing children's emotions in relation to their school-aged children's emotion recognition skills. Sixty-nine parent-child dyads completed questionnaires, participated in dyadic laboratory tasks, and identified their own emotions and emotions felt by the other participant from videotaped segments. Regression analyses indicate that parents’ beliefs, behaviors, and skills together account for 37% of the variance in child emotion recognition ability, even after controlling for parent and child expressive clarity. The findings suggest the importance of the family milieu in the development of children's emotion recognition skill in middle childhood, and add to accumulating evidence suggesting important age-related shifts in the relation between parental emotion socialization and child emotional development. PMID:26005393

  8. Human Adaptive Behavior in Common Pool Resource Systems

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Gunnar; Merico, Agostino; Vollan, Björn; Schlüter, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users’ expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users’ current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users’ perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns. PMID:23285180

  9. Adaptive behavior among adults with intellectual disabilities and its relationship to community independence.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System--Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003 ) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and residential independence. The participants' adaptive behavior accounted for 40%-43% of the variance in their work and residence independence. The results from this field-based study indicated that participants who displayed higher levels of adaptive behavior generally worked and lived more independently. Participants with the lowest general adaptive behavior required the highest degree of community supports. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Classroom Quality at Pre-kindergarten and Kindergarten and Children's Social Skills and Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Broekhuizen, Martine L; Mokrova, Irina L; Burchinal, Margaret R; Garrett-Peters, Patricia T

    Focusing on the continuity in the quality of classroom environments as children transition from preschool into elementary school, this study examined the associations between classroom quality in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children's social skills and behavior problems in kindergarten and first grade. Participants included 1175 ethnically-diverse children (43% African American) living in low-wealth rural communities of the US. Results indicated that children who experienced higher levels of emotional and organizational classroom quality in both pre-kindergarten and kindergarten demonstrated better social skills and fewer behavior problems in both kindergarten and first grade comparing to children who did not experience higher classroom quality. The examination of the first grade results indicated that the emotional and organizational quality of pre-kindergarten classrooms was the strongest predictor of children's first grade social skills and behavior problems. The study results are discussed from theoretical, practical, and policy perspectives.

  11. Assessing family caregiver skill in managing behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Farran, Carol J.; Fogg, Louis G.; McCann, Judith J.; Etkin, Caryn; Dong, Xinqi; Barnes, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This measurement study operationalized family caregiver skill in managing behavioral symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by testing a Caregiver Assessment of Behavioral Skill-Self Report measure (CAB-SR). Method A cross-sectional design was used. Caregivers had a family member with possible/probable AD, resided at home with the care recipient and provided the majority of care (N=82). The mail-administered assessment included the CAB-SR and other care recipient and caregiver measures. Results Preliminary CAB-SR reliability and validity were determined, using reliability, factor analytic and correlational procedures. Conclusion This measure provides a preliminary assessment of caregiver skill in managing behavioral symptoms of AD and shows promise for use in research and clinical intervention settings. PMID:21500018

  12. Using Behavioral Questionnaires to Identify Adaptive Deficits in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Lachar, David

    1994-01-01

    Obtained responses to Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and revised Personality Inventory for Children (PIC-R) for 88 elementary-age boys. Used CBCL and PIC-R scales to predict three domain scales and Adaptive Behavior Composite from Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Results suggest that behavioral questionnaires can be used to efficiently identify…

  13. Pathways to prevention: improving nonresident African American fathers' parenting skills and behaviors to reduce sons' aggression.

    PubMed

    Howard Caldwell, Cleopatra; Antonakos, Cathy L; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E Hill; Njai, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8- to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group families. Structural equation model results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving fathers' parenting skills satisfaction, which was positively associated with sons' satisfaction with paternal engagement. Sons' paternal engagement satisfaction was positively associated with their intentions to avoid violence. Although aggressive behaviors were lower for comparison group sons, the intervention effectively reduced sons' aggressive behaviors indirectly by enhancing fathers' parenting behaviors. Support for family-centered youth violence prevention efforts is discussed.

  14. Argentinean adaptation of the Social Skills Inventory IHS-Del-Prette.

    PubMed

    Olaz, Fabián Orlando; Medrano, Leonardo; Greco, María Eugenia; Del Prette, Zilda Aparecida Pereira

    2009-11-01

    We present the results of the adaptation of the IHS-Del-Prette (Inventario de Habilidades Sociales, in English, Social Skills Inventory) to a sample of Argentinean college students. Firstly, we addressed the backward translation and carried out an equivalence study of the Portuguese and Spanish versions of the scale. The results showed the two versions were equivalent, as we obtained correlations lower than .50 in only 5 items. Secondly, we performed item analysis by calculating discrimination indexes and item-total correlations. Results indicated that the items are sensitive to differentiate between high and low social-skill groups. Exploratory factor analysis carried out with a sample of 602 college students yielded five factors that explained 26.5% of the total variance, although our data did not completely match the original factor structure. We also obtained moderate alpha values for the subscales, but high reliability for the total scale. Lastly, group differences between males and females are presented to provide evidence of validity. We discuss the implications of the results and present future lines of inquiry.

  15. Mosaicism for the FMR1 gene influences adaptive skills development in fragile X-affected males

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L.

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Behavior of an adaptive bio-inspired spider web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lingyue; Behrooz, Majid; Huie, Andrew; Hartman, Alex; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of an artificial adaptive spider web with comparable behavior to a real spider web. First, the natural frequency and energy absorption ability of a passive web is studied. Next, a control system that consists of stepper motors, load cells and an Arduino, is constructed to mimic a spider's ability to control the tension of radial strings in the web. The energy related characteristics in the artificial spider web is examined while the pre-tension of the radial strings are varied. Various mechanical properties of a damaged spider web are adjusted to study their effect on the behavior of the web. It is demonstrated that the pre-tension and stiffness of the web's radial strings can significantly affect the natural frequency and the total energy of the full and damaged webs.

  17. The Role of Emotional Intelligence Skills in Teaching Excellence: The Validation of a Behavioral Skills Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harville, Pamela Cherie

    2012-01-01

    The role of emotional intelligence in effective teaching can be developed and enhanced through the use of an assessment instrument as a new evaluation and learning process for teachers. This involves a formative learning process for the qualities associated with excellent teaching characteristics and behaviors for use with teacher evaluation…

  18. Emulating Real-Life Situations with a Play Task to Observe Parenting Skills and Child Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rusby, Julie C.; Metzler, Carol W.; Sanders, Matthew R.; Crowley, Ryann

    2015-01-01

    Play tasks that use standardized procedures and materials are a practical way to assess parenting skills, child behaviors, and the ways in which parents and children interact. We describe a systematic process for developing the Parent–Child Play Task (PCPT) to assess mother–child interactions for a randomized controlled trial on a video-based parenting program. Participants are 307 mothers and their 3-through 6-year-old children who present oppositional and disruptive behavior challenges. The validity of the PCPT was investigated by testing (a) the extent to which the tasks elicit the specific parent and child behaviors of interest, (b) the consistency of individuals’ behavior across the play tasks, and (c) the concurrent associations of the PCPT observed child behaviors and mother reports of child behavior. The different tasks elicited the mother and child behaviors that they were designed to elicit. Behavior consistency across tasks for individual mothers and children was fair to good, with the exception of two task-specific behaviors. Mothers’ guidance (provision of instructions to foster a skill) during the teaching task and children’s interruptions while mother was busy during the questionnaire task were highly task specific. Modest associations were found between observed children’s noncompliance and inappropriate behaviors, and mother-reported conduct problems and oppositional behaviors. Implications for clinical and research assessments are discussed. PMID:25689090

  19. Improving Mathematics Problem Solving Skills for Students with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Peter J.; Wyrick, Amanda; Brown, E. Todd; Lingo, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that there is a reciprocal relationship between challenging behavior and poor academic performance and that this relationship will have a lifelong negative impact on individuals caught in this detrimental cycle. New interventions continue to be reported in the literature describing more effective ways to implement academic…

  20. Base Rates of Social Skills Acquisition/Performance Deficits, Strengths, and Problem Behaviors: An Analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally…

  1. Executive function skills and academic achievement gains in prekindergarten: Contributions of learning-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner

    2015-07-01

    Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-K) predict their learning-related behaviors in the classroom and whether these behaviors then mediate associations between children's executive function skills and their pre-K literacy, language, and mathematic gains. Learning-related behaviors were quantified in terms of (a) higher levels of involvement in learning opportunities; (b) greater frequency of participation in activities that require sequential steps; (c) more participation in social-learning interactions; and (d) less instances of being unoccupied, disruptive, or in time out. Results indicated that children's learning-related behaviors mediated associations between executive function skills and literacy and mathematics gains through children's level of involvement, sequential learning behaviors, and disengagement from the classroom. The implications of the findings for early childhood education are discussed.

  2. Adaptation of Problem-Solving Skills Training (PSST) for Parent Caregivers of Youth with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Tonya M.; Law, Emily F.; Essner, Bonnie; Jessen-Fiddick, Tricia; Eccleston, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Research on the experience of parents caring for a child with chronic pain indicates that high levels of parental role stress, feelings of frustration over an inability to help, and psychological distress are common. Moreover, parental distress adversely influences child adjustment to chronic pain. Therefore, intervening with parents of youth with chronic pain may, in turn, result in positive outcomes for children in their ability to engage in positive coping strategies, reduce their own distress, and to function competently in their normal daily lives. Our aim was to adapt an intervention, Problem-Solving Skills Training, previously proven effective in reducing parental distress in other pediatric illness conditions to the population of caregivers of youth with chronic pain. In the first phase, the intervention was adapted based on expert review of the literature and review of parent responses on a measure of pain-related family impact. In the second phase, the intervention was tested in a small group of parents to evaluate feasibility, determined by response to treatment content, ratings of acceptability, and ability to enroll and deliver the treatment visits. This phase included piloting the PSST intervention and all outcome measures at pre-treatment and immediately post-treatment. In an exploratory manner we examined change in parent distress and child physical function and depression from pre- to post-treatment. Findings from this feasibility study suggest that PSST can be implemented with parents of youth with chronic pain, and they find the treatment acceptable. PMID:25422795

  3. Adaptation of Problem-Solving Skills Training (PSST) for Parent Caregivers of Youth with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Tonya M; Law, Emily F; Essner, Bonnie; Jessen-Fiddick, Tricia; Eccleston, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Research on the experience of parents caring for a child with chronic pain indicates that high levels of parental role stress, feelings of frustration over an inability to help, and psychological distress are common. Moreover, parental distress adversely influences child adjustment to chronic pain. Therefore, intervening with parents of youth with chronic pain may, in turn, result in positive outcomes for children in their ability to engage in positive coping strategies, reduce their own distress, and to function competently in their normal daily lives. Our aim was to adapt an intervention, Problem-Solving Skills Training, previously proven effective in reducing parental distress in other pediatric illness conditions to the population of caregivers of youth with chronic pain. In the first phase, the intervention was adapted based on expert review of the literature and review of parent responses on a measure of pain-related family impact. In the second phase, the intervention was tested in a small group of parents to evaluate feasibility, determined by response to treatment content, ratings of acceptability, and ability to enroll and deliver the treatment visits. This phase included piloting the PSST intervention and all outcome measures at pre-treatment and immediately post-treatment. In an exploratory manner we examined change in parent distress and child physical function and depression from pre- to post-treatment. Findings from this feasibility study suggest that PSST can be implemented with parents of youth with chronic pain, and they find the treatment acceptable.

  4. A-Book: A Feedback-Based Adaptive System to Enhance Meta-Cognitive Skills during Reading

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Ernesto; Mellado, Guido

    2017-01-01

    In the digital era, tech devices (hardware and software) are increasingly within hand’s reach. Yet, implementing information and communication technologies for educational contexts that have robust and long-lasting effects on student learning outcomes is still a challenge. We propose that any such system must a) be theoretically motivated and designed to tackle specific cognitive skills (e.g., inference making) supporting a given cognitive task (e.g., reading comprehension) and b) must be able to identify and adapt to the user’s profile. In the present study, we implemented a feedback-based adaptive system called A-book (assisted-reading book) and tested it in a sample of 4th, 5th, and 6th graders. To assess our hypotheses, we contrasted three experimental assisted-reading conditions; one that supported meta-cognitive skills and adapted to the user profile (adaptive condition), one that supported meta-cognitive skills but did not adapt to the user profile (training condition) and a control condition. The results provide initial support for our proposal; participants in the adaptive condition improved their accuracy scores on inference making questions over time, outperforming both the training and control groups. There was no evidence, however, of significant improvements on other tested meta-cognitive skills (i.e., text structure knowledge, comprehension monitoring). We discussed the practical implications of using the A-book for the enhancement of meta-cognitive skills in school contexts, as well as its current limitations and future developments that could improve the system. PMID:28348523

  5. The relationships between social goals, skills, and strategies and their effect on aggressive behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Winstok, Zeev

    2009-12-01

    It is widely accepted that conflict-related goals, skills, and strategies are linked. Yet it is rarely explored how these factors relate to each other and how they jointly promote or inhibit aggressive behaviors. The aim of this study is to provide answers to these questions. Data were derived from a structured questionnaire administered to 660 male and female adolescents of an average age of 14.99 years from two urban schools in northern Israel. Findings show that goals, skills, and strategies that promote or inhibit violence are positively interrelated. Furthermore, negative association was found between violence promoting and inhibiting goals, skills, and strategies. Gender differences were also analyzed. It has been found that boys display aggressive behavior more frequently then girls. Findings also show that the rate of violence promoting goals, skills, and strategies is higher among boys than among girls, whereas that of violence inhibiting ones are higher among girls than among boys. Yet when controlling the effects of goals, skills, and strategies, girls demonstrate aggressive behavior more frequently than boys. These research findings are discussed and conceptualized within the theoretical framework of social adjustment.

  6. Does Practice Make Perfect? A Randomized Control Trial of Behavioral Rehearsal on Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Skills

    PubMed Central

    Seaburn, David; Gibbs, Danette; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; White, Ann Marie; Caine, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among 10–24-year-olds and the target of school-based prevention efforts. Gatekeeper training, a broadly disseminated prevention strategy, has been found to enhance participant knowledge and attitudes about intervening with distressed youth. Although the goal of training is the development of gatekeeper skills to intervene with at-risk youth, the impact on skills and use of training is less known. Brief gatekeeper training programs are largely educational and do not employ active learning strategies such as behavioral rehearsal through role play practice to assist skill development. In this study, we compare gatekeeper training as usual with training plus brief behavioral rehearsal (i.e., role play practice) on a variety of learning outcomes after training and at follow-up for 91 school staff and 56 parents in a school community. We found few differences between school staff and parent participants. Both training conditions resulted in enhanced knowledge and attitudes, and almost all participants spread gatekeeper training information to others in their network. Rigorous standardized patient and observational methods showed behavioral rehearsal with role play practice resulted in higher total gatekeeper skill scores immediately after training and at follow-up. Both conditions, however, showed decrements at follow-up. Strategies to strengthen and maintain gatekeeper skills over time are discussed. PMID:21814869

  7. Does practice make perfect? A randomized control trial of behavioral rehearsal on suicide prevention gatekeeper skills.

    PubMed

    Cross, Wendi F; Seaburn, David; Gibbs, Danette; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; White, Ann Marie; Caine, Eric D

    2011-08-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among 10-24-year-olds and the target of school-based prevention efforts. Gatekeeper training, a broadly disseminated prevention strategy, has been found to enhance participant knowledge and attitudes about intervening with distressed youth. Although the goal of training is the development of gatekeeper skills to intervene with at-risk youth, the impact on skills and use of training is less known. Brief gatekeeper training programs are largely educational and do not employ active learning strategies such as behavioral rehearsal through role play practice to assist skill development. In this study, we compare gatekeeper training as usual with training plus brief behavioral rehearsal (i.e., role play practice) on a variety of learning outcomes after training and at follow-up for 91 school staff and 56 parents in a school community. We found few differences between school staff and parent participants. Both training conditions resulted in enhanced knowledge and attitudes, and almost all participants spread gatekeeper training information to others in their network. Rigorous standardized patient and observational methods showed behavioral rehearsal with role play practice resulted in higher total gatekeeper skill scores immediately after training and at follow-up. Both conditions, however, showed decrements at follow-up. Strategies to strengthen and maintain gatekeeper skills over time are discussed.

  8. Preventing Adolescent Substance Use Through an Evidence-Based Program: Effects of the Italian Adaptation of Life Skills Training.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Veronica; Griffin, Kenneth W; Botvin, Gilbert J

    2017-03-28

    Evidence-based preventive interventions for adolescent substance use, violence, and mental health issues are increasingly being adapted and disseminated internationally. In the present paper, we report the results of an effectiveness study that was part of a comprehensive initiative by a coalition of health promotion organizations in the Lombardy region of Italy to select, culturally adapt, implement, evaluate, and sustain an evidence-based drug abuse prevention program developed in the USA. Findings are presented from a large-scale effectiveness study of the Life Skills Training prevention program among over 3000 students attending 55 middle schools in Italy. The prevention program taught drug refusal skills, antidrug norms, personal self-management skills, and general social skills. Relative to comparison group students, students who received the prevention program were less likely to initiate smoking at the post-test and 2-year follow-up, and less likely to initiate weekly drunkenness at the 1-year follow-up. The program had direct positive effects on several cognitive, attitudinal, and skill variables believed to play a protective role in adolescent substance use. The findings from this study show that a drug abuse prevention program originally designed for adolescents in the USA is effective in a sample of Italian youth when a rigorous and systematic approach to cultural adaptation is followed that incorporates the input of multiple stakeholders.

  9. Neurological function, information-motivation-behavioral skills factors, and risk behaviors among HIV-positive alcohol users.

    PubMed

    Malow, Robert M; Dévieux, Jessy G; Stein, Judith A; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Lerner, Brenda G; Attonito, Jennifer; Villalba, Karina

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine neurological impairment in combination with information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) variables. The study tests the role of IMB variables as mediators of antecedent variables of demographics, life stress, social support, and neurological impairment with outcome measures of HIV preventive and risk behaviors in a sample of HIV-positive, alcohol-using adults (n = 250) with a history of alcohol abuse/dependence. Neurological impairment was measured with the Color Trails Test (CTT). Average performance on the CTT by the sample was substantially worse than established norms. In a directional latent variable model, neurological impairment directly predicted lower transmission knowledge scores and poorer performance on an observational condom skills assessment. Greater neurological impairment was significantly associated with greater age. Future interventions geared toward HIV+ adults who use alcohol should take into consideration HIV-related and age-related neurological functioning which may impede the facilitation of safe sex behaviors.

  10. Improving computer skill training: behavior modeling, symbolic mental rehearsal, and the role of knowledge structures.

    PubMed

    Davis, Fred D; Yi, Mun Y

    2004-06-01

    Effective computer skill training is vital to organizational productivity. Two experiments (N = 288) demonstrated that the behavior modeling approach to computer skill training could be substantially improved by incorporating symbolic mental rehearsal (SMR). SMR is a specific form of mental rehearsal that establishes a cognitive link between visual images and symbolic memory codes. As theorized, the significant effects of SMR on declarative knowledge and task performance were shown to be fully mediated by changes in trainees' knowledge structures. The mediational role of knowledge structures is expected to generalize to other training interventions and cognitive skill domains. Our findings have the immediate implications that practitioners should use SMR for improving the effectiveness of computer skill training.

  11. Interest Level in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predicts Rate of Verbal, Nonverbal, and Adaptive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…

  12. Interest level in 2-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder predicts rate of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Scoring for Autism, quantifying toddlers' interest in toys, social routines, and activities that could serve as reinforcers in an intervention. Adaptive level and mental age were measured concurrently (Time 1) and again after a mean of 16.3 months of treatment (Time 2). Interest Level Scoring for Autism score, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule score, adaptive age equivalent, verbal and nonverbal mental age, and intensity of intervention were entered into regression models to predict rates of skill acquisition. Interest level at Time 1 predicted subsequent acquisition rate of adaptive skills (R(2) = 0.36) and verbal mental age (R(2) = 0.30), above and beyond the effects of Time 1 verbal and nonverbal mental ages and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. Interest level at Time 1 also contributed (R(2) = 0.30), with treatment intensity, to variance in development of nonverbal mental age.

  13. Cognition and Adaptive Skills in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1: A Study of 55 Individuals with Congenital and Childhood Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Anne-Berit; Hakenas-Plate, Louise; Tulinius, Mar; Wentz, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate cognitive abilities and adaptive skills in children and adolescents with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and correlate the findings to the cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) repeat expansion size. Method: Cognitive level was assessed in 55 children and adolescents with DM1 (31 males, 24 females; mean age 12y 1mo, SD 5y 1mo; range…

  14. Adaptation of the Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills to Turkish Children Aged 61 to 72 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Ozgun; Kandir, Adalet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is s to adapt and apply t the Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS) to Turkish children in the city of Ankara. In the study, a descriptive screening model was used. The population of the study consisted of children who showed normal developmental characteristics and who were enrolled at public…

  15. Examining the Effects of Adapted Peer Tutoring on Social and Language Skills of Young English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yaoying

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adapted peer tutoring (APT) on social interactions and early language and literacy skills of pre-school-age children who were English language learners (ELLs). APT was the treatment for this study. Quasi-experimental group comparison design was applied. Two inclusive pre-school classrooms…

  16. Investigating the Impact of Formal Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    In work-related, instrumental learning contexts the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's (1985) experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory (2000) predict skill-adaptation as a possible outcome. This prediction was experimentally explored by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants'…

  17. An Evaluation of Social and Adaptive Skills in Adults with Bipolar Disorder and Severe/Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Terlonge, Cindy; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Rivet, Tessa

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship of social and adaptive skills in adults with bipolar disorder and severe or profound intellectual disability. A bipolar group (N=14), a severe psychopathology group without bipolar disorder (N=14), and a control group with no DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis (N=14) were compared on the…

  18. Interest level in 2-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder predicts rate of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Scoring for Autism, quantifying toddlers’ interest in toys, social routines, and activities that could serve as reinforcers in an intervention. Adaptive level and mental age were measured concurrently (Time 1) and again after a mean of 16.3 months of treatment (Time 2). Interest Level Scoring for Autism score, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule score, adaptive age equivalent, verbal and nonverbal mental age, and intensity of intervention were entered into regression models to predict rates of skill acquisition. Interest level at Time 1 predicted subsequent acquisition rate of adaptive skills (R2 = 0.36) and verbal mental age (R2 = 0.30), above and beyond the effects of Time 1 verbal and nonverbal mental ages and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. Interest level at Time 1 also contributed (R2 = 0.30), with treatment intensity, to variance in development of nonverbal mental age. PMID:25398893

  19. Teaching "Yes, And" … Improv in Sales Classes: Enhancing Student Adaptive Selling Skills, Sales Performance, and Teaching Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocco, Richard A.; Whalen, D. Joel

    2014-01-01

    In an application of experiential learning, assessment, and career development, this article reports a field experiment of teaching sales students adaptive selling skills via an "Improvisational (Improv) Comedy" technique: "Yes, And." Students learn this well-established theatrical improv method via classroom lecture,…

  20. Effects of behavioral skills training on parental treatment of children's food selectivity.

    PubMed

    Seiverling, Laura; Williams, Keith; Sturmey, Peter; Hart, Sadie

    2012-01-01

    We used behavioral skills training to teach parents of 3 children with autism spectrum disorder and food selectivity to conduct a home-based treatment package that consisted of taste exposure, escape extinction, and fading. Parent performance following training improved during both taste sessions and probe meals and was reflected in increases in children's acceptance of bites and decreases in their disruptive behavior. Parents also reported that increases in diet variety were maintained at follow-up.

  1. Asthma and child behavioral skills: does family socioeconomic status matter?

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Hao

    2014-08-01

    Asthma is associated with poorer behavioral and psychological outcomes in children, yet little is known about whether and how the social stratification process affects the impacts of asthma on children's outcomes. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study considered the role of socioeconomic status in shaping the developmental consequences of children's asthma. Results showed that asthma was negatively associated with attention and social competence and positively associated with externalizing problem behaviors for children with low-educated mothers and children who lived in poor households. However, the adverse consequences of asthma disappeared for children with high-educated mothers and children who did not experience poverty. Additionally, the socioeconomic disparities were not fully explained by healthcare resources, family process, and exposure to environment risks and the disparities were found for both mild and severe cases. These findings suggest that, to fully understand the developmental consequences of illness in children, it is important to place socioeconomic status at the center of investigation.

  2. Behavioral Self-Regulation and Executive Function Both Predict Visuomotor Skills and Early Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Derek R.; Miao, Alicia; Duncan, Robert; McClelland, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored direct and interactive effects between behavioral self-regulation (SR) and two measures of executive function (EF, inhibitory control and working memory), with a fine motor measure tapping visuomotor skills (VMS) in a sample of 127 prekindergarten and kindergarten children. It also examined the relative contribution of…

  3. An Evaluation of a Behaviorally Based Social Skills Group for Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Jeremy A.; Milne, Christine; Taubman, Mitchell; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty; Torres, Norma; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Yoder, Paul

    2017-01-01

    In this study we evaluated a social skills group which employed a progressive applied behavior analysis model for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. A randomized control trial was utilized; eight participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group and seven participants were randomly assigned to a waitlist control group. The…

  4. Curriculum Strategies for Teaching Social Skills to the Disabled: Dealing with Inappropriate Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, George R.

    This social skills curriculum has been developed as a guide to assist in instructing students with disabilities in determining what behaviors are and are not acceptable in our society. Chapters include: (1) "The Disabled, Classified and Defined" (George R. Taylor and J. Richard Rembold); (2) "Social Learning Theories: An…

  5. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  6. Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and…

  7. Ecological Factors in Social Skill Acquisition: High School Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sarah K.; Chiasson, Kari

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a grounded theory of the underlying social processes and/or other ecological factors that impact the effectiveness of skill acquisition for students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders in a Midwestern city in the United States. Theory development was based on in-depth investigation of five students…

  8. Behavioral Skills Training to Improve Installation and Use of Child Passenger Safety Restraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himle, Michael B.; Wright, Kalon A.

    2014-01-01

    The risk for serious injury and death to children during motor vehicle accidents can be greatly reduced through the correct use of child passenger safety restraints (CPSRs). Unfortunately, most CPSRs are installed or used incorrectly. This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach 10 participants to install…

  9. Evaluation of an Occupational Therapy Mentorship Program: Effects on Therapists' Skills and Family-Centered Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Tam, Cynthia; Fay, Linda; Pilkington, Martha; Servais, Michelle; Petrosian, Hasmik

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in understanding the usefulness of mentorship programs for children's rehabilitation service providers. This evaluation study examined the effects of an occupational therapy mentorship program on the skills and behaviors of 8 new and 17 experienced occupational therapists practicing at a regional children's rehabilitation…

  10. Competence, Persistence, and Success: The Positive Psychology of Behavioral Skill Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Brian K.; Witt, Joseph C.

    2004-01-01

    Early school failure is a critical factor in the development of peer rejection and antisocial behavior in children. This paper describes three sets of instructional strategies that have been shown to promote high levels of academic competence by arranging frequent opportunities for correct skill practice: (a) teaching children at their…

  11. Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Parental Treatment of Children's Food Selectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiverling, Laura; Williams, Keith; Sturmey, Peter; Hart, Sadie

    2012-01-01

    We used behavioral skills training to teach parents of 3 children with autism spectrum disorder and food selectivity to conduct a home-based treatment package that consisted of taste exposure, escape extinction, and fading. Parent performance following training improved during both taste sessions and probe meals and was reflected in increases in…

  12. Behavioral Coaching to Improve Offensive Line Pass-Blocking Skills of High School Football Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, John V.; Luiselli, James K.; Reed, Derek D.; Fleming, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated several behavioral coaching procedures for improving offensive line pass-blocking skills with 5 high school varsity football players. Pass blocking was measured during practice drills and games, and our intervention included descriptive feedback with and without video feedback and teaching with acoustical guidance (TAG). Intervention…

  13. An Exploratory Investigation of the Counseling Competencies Scale: A Measure of Counseling Skills, Dispositions, and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Witta, E. Lea

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of the Counseling Competencies Scale (CCS; University of Central Florida Counselor Education Faculty, 2009), an instrument designed to assess trainee competencies as measured in their counseling skills, dispositions, and behaviors. There was strong internal consistency for the 4-factor model for…

  14. A Further Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training for Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homlitas, Christa; Rosales, Rocío; Candel, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package to teach implementation of Phases 1, 2, and 3A of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) to teachers employed at a therapeutic center for children with autism. Probes in the natural environment and follow-up were conducted with children who were assigned to work with…

  15. Social-Behavioral Skills of Elementary Students with Physical Disabilities Included in General Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coster, W.J.; Haltiwanger, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined strengths and limitations in the social-behavioral skills of elementary students with physical disabilities included in general education classrooms. The sample consisted of 62 special education students with physical impairments (25 girls & 37 boys) attending kindergarten through Grade 6 in public schools.…

  16. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  17. Clinical Instructor Characteristics, Behaviors and Skills in Allied Health Care Settings: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Linda S.; Sexton, Patrick; Willeford, K. Sean; Barnum, Mary G.; Guyer, M. Susan; Gardner, Greg; Fincher, A. Louise

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to compare both clinical instructor and student perceptions of helpful and hindering clinical instructor characteristics, behaviors and skills in athletic training and allied health care settings. Clinical education in athletic training is similar to that of other allied health care professions. Clinical…

  18. Personality traits, future time perspective and adaptive behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gomes Carvalho, Renato Gil; Novo, Rosa Ferreira

    2015-04-24

    Several studies provide evidence of the importance of future time perspective (FTP) for individual success. However, little research addresses the relationship between FTP and personality traits, particularly if FTP can mediate their influence on behavior. In this study we analyze the mediating of FTP in the influence of personality traits on the way adolescents live their life at school. Sample consisted in 351 students, aged from 14 to 18 years-old, at different schooling levels. Instruments were the Portuguese version of the MMPI-A, particularly the PSY-5 dimensions (Aggressiveness, Psychoticism, Disconstraint, Neuroticism, Introversion), a FTP questionnaire, and a survey on school life, involving several indicators of achievement, social integration, and overall satisfaction. With the exception of Neuroticism, the results show significant mediation effects (p < .001) of FTP on most relationships between PSY-5 dimensions and school life variables. Concerning Disconstraint, FTP mediated its influence on overall satisfaction (β = -.125) and school achievement (β = -.106). In the case of Introversion, significant mediation effects occurred for interpersonal difficulties (β = .099) and participation in extracurricular activities (β = -.085). FTP was also a mediator of Psychoticism influence in overall satisfaction (β = -.094), interpersonal difficulties (β = .057), and behavior problems (β = .037). Finally, FTP mediated the influence of Aggressiveness on overall satisfaction (β = -.061), interpersonal difficulties (β = .040), achievement (β = -.052), and behavior problems (β = .023). Results are discussed considering the importance of FTP in the impact of some personality structural characteristics in students' school adaptation.

  19. Memory and adaptive behavior in population dynamics: anti-predator behavior as a case study.

    PubMed

    Pimenov, Alexander; Kelly, Thomas C; Korobeinikov, Andrei; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Rachinskii, Dmitrii

    2016-10-04

    Memory allows organisms to forecast the future on the basis of experience, and thus, in some form, is important for the development of flexible adaptive behavior by animal communities. To model memory, we use the concept of hysteresis, which mathematically is described by the Preisach operator. As a case study, we consider anti-predator adaptation in the classic Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. Despite its simplicity, the model allows us to naturally incorporate essential features of an adaptive system and memory. Our analysis and simulations show that a system with memory can have a continuum of equilibrium states with non-trivial stability properties. The main factor that determines the actual equilibrium state to which a trajectory converges is the maximal number achieved by the population of predator along this trajectory.

  20. School Entry Age and Children's Social-Behavioral Skills: Evidence From a National Longitudinal Study of U.S. Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datar, Ashlesha; Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research evaluating school entry age effects has largely overlooked the effects on social-behavioral skills despite the growing recognition of returns to such skills. This study is the first to examine the effects of kindergarten entry age on children's social-behavioral outcomes using 9 years of panel data on a national sample of U.S.…

  1. Testing the Effects of Classroom Supports on Children's Social and Behavioral Skills at Key Transition Points Using Latent Growth Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bub, Kristen L.

    2009-01-01

    Social and behavioral problems can interfere with a child's acquisition of age-appropriate skills, which may lead to antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Thus, determining how best to support positive skills during early childhood is critical. Using data from the first three phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

  2. The Relation between Fathers' and Children's Communication Skills and Children's Behavior Problems: A Study of Head Start Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias Aquiles

    2000-01-01

    Examined relation between fathers' and children's communicative skills and child behavior problems early and late in the Head Start school year. Found that the structural models for externalizing and internalizing behavior confirmed the hypothesis that father communication was linked to child communication skills and child communication was linked…

  3. Effectiveness of Leisure Time Activities Program on Social Skills and Behavioral Problems in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eratay, Emine

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of leisure time activities program in individuals with intellectual disabilities in terms of developing social skills and reducing behavioral problems. Social skills assessment scale, behavioral assessment form for children and young adults, and teacher's report forms were used in the…

  4. Learning about stress: neural, endocrine and behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Richard

    2016-09-01

    In this review, nonassociative learning is advanced as an organizing principle to draw together findings from both sympathetic-adrenal medullary and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to chronic intermittent exposure to a variety of stressors. Studies of habituation, facilitation and sensitization of stress effector systems are reviewed and linked to an animal's prior experience with a given stressor, the intensity of the stressor and the appraisal by the animal of its ability to mobilize physiological systems to adapt to the stressor. Brain pathways that regulate physiological and behavioral responses to stress are discussed, especially in light of their regulation of nonassociative processes in chronic intermittent stress. These findings may have special relevance to various psychiatric diseases, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  5. Intimate partner violence and condom use among women: does the information-motivation-behavioral skills model explain sexual risk behavior?

    PubMed

    Mittal, Mona; Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P

    2012-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) undermines women's ability to enact safer sex and increases their vulnerability to HIV and other STDs. To better understand the relationship between IPV and sexual risk behavior, we investigated whether the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model differentially predicted risk behavior among women who had and had not recently experienced IPV. Data from 717 women who were recruited from a public health clinic showed that 18% reported IPV by a sexual partner in the past 3 months, 28% in the past year, and 57% lifetime. Women who experienced IPV in the last 3 months reported more episodes of unprotected sex and more episodes of unprotected sex with a steady partner in the past 3 months. Multi-group path analyses provided mixed evidence regarding the associations hypothesized by the IMB model; the strength of these associations varied as a function of IPV history. Thus, although information did not predict risk behavior for either group, motivation was associated with condom use only for women with no history of IPV. Behavioral skills were associated with more condom use for both groups. Overall, the IMB model is useful for predicting sexual risk behavior; however, for women with partner violence histories a broader model that includes other contextual factors may be needed. These findings can help to inform the development of more effective sexual risk reduction interventions.

  6. Acquisition and production of skilled behavior in dynamic decision-making tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirlik, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Ongoing research investigating perceptual and contextual influences on skilled human performance in dynamic decision making environments is discussed. The research is motivated by two general classes of findings in recent decision making research. First, many studies suggest that the concrete context in which a task is presented has strong influences on the psychological processes used to perform the task and on subsequent performance. Second, studies of skilled behavior in a wide variety of task environments typically implicate the perceptual system as an important contributor to decision-making performance, either in its role as a mediator between the current decision context and stored knowledge, or as a mechanism capable of directly initiating activity through the development of a 'trained eye.' Both contextual and perceptual influences place limits on the ability of traditional utility-theoretic accounts of decision-making to guide display design, as variance in behavior due to contextual factors or the development of a perceptual skill is left unexplained. The author outlines a framework in which to view questions of perceptual and contextual influences on behavior and describe an experimental task and analysis technique which will be used to diagnose the possible role of perception in skilled decision making performance.

  7. Effects of the Skills4Genius sports-based training program in creative behavior

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Sara; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Team Sports has been suggested as a suitable environment to investigate creative behavior. This study’s purpose was two-fold: first, it intended to identify the effects of the Skills4Genius sports-bases training program in thinking, motor, and in-game creative behavior in team sports. Second, it aimed to investigate the relationship between creative thinking and in-game creativity. Forty children from primary school were allocated into control (n = 18, age: 9.2±0.4) and experimental (n = 22, age: 9.5±0.7) groups. The experimental group participated in a five-month training program involving either creative thinking, diversification, physical literacy, and nonlinear pedagogy approaches (Skills4Genius). Variables in the study included: a) creative thinking; b) motor performance (vertical jump, speed, and agility); c) in-game individual creative behavior (attempts, fluency, and versatility); and d) in-game collective behavior (positional regularity). The results suggested that the Skills4Genius program fostered creative thinking, agility, and speed performance. Moreover, it stretched the in-game individual creative behavior mainly through the improvement of the attempts and versatility of the player’s actions. Lastly, it nurtured a better learning of the tactical principles, whereas the children were more coordinated with their teammates’ and opponents’ positioning. Additionally, this study presents a positive correlation linking creative thinking and in-game creative performance. These findings highlighted that creativity is facilitated while players become more thinking and game-skilled. Coaches and educators may apply this functional environment to inspire children’s disposition to move outside the box and trigger a creative spark in team sports players. Notwithstanding, the sports environment is ideally suited for fostering creative behavior, a higher-order disposition that will go on to differentiate the everyday life of a child. PMID:28231260

  8. Effects of the Skills4Genius sports-based training program in creative behavior.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Team Sports has been suggested as a suitable environment to investigate creative behavior. This study's purpose was two-fold: first, it intended to identify the effects of the Skills4Genius sports-bases training program in thinking, motor, and in-game creative behavior in team sports. Second, it aimed to investigate the relationship between creative thinking and in-game creativity. Forty children from primary school were allocated into control (n = 18, age: 9.2±0.4) and experimental (n = 22, age: 9.5±0.7) groups. The experimental group participated in a five-month training program involving either creative thinking, diversification, physical literacy, and nonlinear pedagogy approaches (Skills4Genius). Variables in the study included: a) creative thinking; b) motor performance (vertical jump, speed, and agility); c) in-game individual creative behavior (attempts, fluency, and versatility); and d) in-game collective behavior (positional regularity). The results suggested that the Skills4Genius program fostered creative thinking, agility, and speed performance. Moreover, it stretched the in-game individual creative behavior mainly through the improvement of the attempts and versatility of the player's actions. Lastly, it nurtured a better learning of the tactical principles, whereas the children were more coordinated with their teammates' and opponents' positioning. Additionally, this study presents a positive correlation linking creative thinking and in-game creative performance. These findings highlighted that creativity is facilitated while players become more thinking and game-skilled. Coaches and educators may apply this functional environment to inspire children's disposition to move outside the box and trigger a creative spark in team sports players. Notwithstanding, the sports environment is ideally suited for fostering creative behavior, a higher-order disposition that will go on to differentiate the everyday life of a child.

  9. Deficits in Emotion-Regulation Skills Predict Alcohol Use during and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berking, Matthias; Margraf, Matthias; Ebert, David; Wupperman, Peggilee; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Junghanns, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As emotion regulation is widely considered to be a primary motive in the misuse of alcohol, our aim in the study was to investigate whether deficits in adaptive emotion-regulation skills maintain alcohol dependence (AD). Method: A prospective study investigated whether emotion-regulation skills were associated with AD and whether these…

  10. Effects of risperidone and parent training on adaptive functioning in children with pervasive developmental disorders and serious behavioral problems

    PubMed Central

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Ritz, Louise; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patrcia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have deficits in social interaction, delayed communication and repetitive behavior as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show decline in adaptive skills compared to age mates over time. Method This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial randomized 124 children (4 through 13 years of age) with PDDs and serious behavior problems to medication alone (MED; N=49; risperidone 0.5 to 3.5 mg/day (if ineffective, switch to aripiprazole was permitted) or medication plus parent training (PT) (COMB; N=75). Parents of children in COMB received an average of 11.4 PT sessions. Standard scores and Age Equivalent scores on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were the outcome measures of primary interest. Results Seventeen subjects did not have a post-randomization Vineland. Thus, we used a mixed model with outcome conditioned on the baseline Vineland scores. Both groups showed improvement over the 24-week trial on all Vineland domains. Compared to MED, Vineland Socialization and Adaptive Composite Standard scores showed greater improvement in the COMB group (p = 0.01 and 0.05; effect sizes = 0.35.and 0.22, respectively). On Age Equivalent scores, Socialization and Communication domains showed greater improvement in COMB versus MED (p=0.03, 0.05; effect sizes = 0.33 and 0.14 respectively). Using logistic regression, children in the COMB group were twice as likely to make at least 6 months gain (equal to the passage of time) in the Vineland Communication Age Equivalent score compared to MED (p = 0.02). After controlling for IQ, this difference was no longer significant. Conclusion Reduction of serious maladaptive behavior promotes improvement in adaptive behavior. Medication plus PT shows modest additional benefit over medication alone. PMID:22265360

  11. A Study on the Application of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model on Rational Drug Use Behavior among Second-Level Hospital Outpatients in Anhui, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heng; Li, Niannian; Wu, Jingya; Zhao, Yunwu; Li, Peng; Lu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of risky irrational drug use behaviors mean that outpatients face high risks of drug resistance and even death. This study represents the first application of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model on rational drug use behavior among second-level hospital outpatients from three prefecture-level cities in Anhui, China. Using the IMB model, our study examined predictors of rational drug use behavior and determined the associations between the model constructs. Methods This study was conducted with a sample of 1,214 outpatients aged 18 years and older in Anhui second-level hospitals and applied the structural equation model (SEM) to test predictive relations among the IMB model variables related to rational drug use behavior. Results Age, information and motivation had significant direct effects on rational drug use behavior. Behavioral skills as an intermediate variable also significantly predicted more rational drug use behavior. Female gender, higher educational level, more information and more motivation predicted more behavioral skills. In addition, there were significant indirect impacts on rational drug use behavior mediated through behavioral skills. Conclusions The IMB-based model explained the relationships between the constructs and rational drug use behavior of outpatients in detail, and it suggests that future interventions among second-level hospital outpatients should consider demographic characteristics and should focus on improving motivation and behavioral skills in addition to the publicity of knowledge. PMID:26275301

  12. The Impact of Foster Parent Training on Parenting Skills and Child Disruptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David T; Niec, Larissa N; Schoonover, Ciera E

    2017-02-01

    Children in foster care are at risk for behavioral and emotional problems that require higher levels of care than other children. To meet these needs and reduce placement disruptions, foster parents require effective parenting skills. Although a number of training models have been evaluated, the findings on the efficacy of foster parent training (FPT) are mixed. We conducted a meta-analysis of the FPT outcome research from 1984 to 2014 to develop a clearer understanding of the impact of such trainings. Fifteen samples (16 studies) were identified that investigated the impact of FPT on self-reported parenting skills and knowledge and child problem behaviors. The mean effect size for child disruptive behavior using a random effects model was small but significant at -.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] = [-.39, -.01], Z = 2.05, p < .05), suggesting that, on average, foster parents who were involved in the trainings reported fewer child behavior problems than parents who did not receive the training. The mean effect size for parenting was moderate and significant at .52 (95% CI = [.22, .82], Z = 3.38, p < .05), indicating that, on average, parents in the treatment groups reported higher levels of skills and knowledge following training than did those in the control group. While these results are promising, more research is necessary to investigate the inconsistency in effect sizes across studies.

  13. Musical aptitude and adaptive behavior of people with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Miller, L K; Monroe, M J

    1990-09-01

    Musical aptitude was assessed in 16 adults nominated as having special musical interests and/or skills and 16 matched comparison adults. Information pertaining to strengths and weaknesses in adjustment was also obtained. Musical target subjects scored higher on the test of musical aptitude, particularly if they played a musical instrument. Evidence for difficulties in adjustment associated with musical skill or interest was mixed, although, in general, the results suggested no pervasive maladjustment among those with exceptional skill combined with mental retardation.

  14. Socio-emotional skills, behavior problems, and Spanish competence predict the acquisition of English among English language learners in poverty.

    PubMed

    Winsler, Adam; Kim, Yoon Kyong; Richard, Erin R

    2014-09-01

    This article analyzes the role that individual differences in children's cognitive, Spanish competence, and socio-emotional and behavioral skills play in predicting the concurrent and longitudinal acquisition of English among a large sample of ethnically diverse, low-income, Hispanic preschool children. Participants assessed at age 4 for language, cognitive, socio-emotional, and behavioral skills were followed through kindergarten. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that Spanish-speaking preschoolers with greater initiative, self-control, and attachment and fewer behavior problems at age 4 were more successful in obtaining English proficiency by the end of kindergarten compared to those initially weaker in these skills, even after controlling for cognitive/language skills and demographic variables. Also, greater facility in Spanish at age 4 predicted the attainment of English proficiency. Social and behavioral skills and proficiency in Spanish are valuable resources for low-income English language learners during their transition to school.

  15. Development of social skills in children: neural and behavioral evidence for the elaboration of cognitive models

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Icaza, Patricia; Aboitiz, Francisco; Billeke, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Social skills refer to a wide group of abilities that allow us to interact and communicate with others. Children learn how to solve social situations by predicting and understanding other's behaviors. The way in which humans learn to interact successfully with others encompasses a complex interaction between neural, behavioral, and environmental elements. These have a role in the accomplishment of positive developmental outcomes, including peer acceptance, academic achievement, and mental health. All these social abilities depend on widespread brain networks that are recently being studied by neuroscience. In this paper, we will first review the studies on this topic, aiming to clarify the behavioral and neural mechanisms related to the acquisition of social skills during infancy and their appearance in time. Second, we will briefly describe how developmental diseases like Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) can inform about the neurobiological mechanisms of social skills. We finally sketch a general framework for the elaboration of cognitive models in order to facilitate the comprehension of human social development. PMID:26483621

  16. Development of social skills in children: neural and behavioral evidence for the elaboration of cognitive models.

    PubMed

    Soto-Icaza, Patricia; Aboitiz, Francisco; Billeke, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Social skills refer to a wide group of abilities that allow us to interact and communicate with others. Children learn how to solve social situations by predicting and understanding other's behaviors. The way in which humans learn to interact successfully with others encompasses a complex interaction between neural, behavioral, and environmental elements. These have a role in the accomplishment of positive developmental outcomes, including peer acceptance, academic achievement, and mental health. All these social abilities depend on widespread brain networks that are recently being studied by neuroscience. In this paper, we will first review the studies on this topic, aiming to clarify the behavioral and neural mechanisms related to the acquisition of social skills during infancy and their appearance in time. Second, we will briefly describe how developmental diseases like Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) can inform about the neurobiological mechanisms of social skills. We finally sketch a general framework for the elaboration of cognitive models in order to facilitate the comprehension of human social development.

  17. Local Navon letter processing affects skilled behavior: a golf-putting experiment.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael B; Dawkins, Gemma

    2015-04-01

    Expert or skilled behaviors (for example, face recognition or sporting performance) are typically performed automatically and with little conscious awareness. Previous studies, in various domains of performance, have shown that activities immediately prior to a task demanding a learned skill can affect performance. In sport, describing the to-be-performed action is detrimental, whereas in face recognition, describing a face or reading local Navon letters is detrimental. Two golf-putting experiments are presented that compare the effects that these three tasks have on experienced and novice golfers. Experiment 1 found a Navon effect on golf performance for experienced players. Experiment 2 found, for experienced players only, that performance was impaired following the three tasks described above, when compared with reading or global Navon tasks. It is suggested that the three tasks affect skilled performance by provoking a shift from automatic behavior to a more analytic style. By demonstrating similarities between effects in face recognition and sporting behavior, it is hoped to better understand concepts in both fields.

  18. A randomized controlled trial to increase information, motivation, and behavioral skills in Ugandan adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Prescott, Tonya L.; Birungi, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background One in twenty-five Ugandan adolescents is HIV positive. Purpose Examine the impact of an Internet-based HIV prevention program on Information-Motivation-Behavior Skills Model-related constructs. Methods Three hundred and sixty-six sexually experienced and inexperienced students 12-18+ years-old in Mbarara, Uganda were randomly assigned to: the five-lesson CyberSenga program or treatment-as-usual. Half of the intervention participants were further randomized to a booster session. Assessments were collected at three and six months post-baseline. Results Participants’ HIV-related information improved over time at a greater rate for the intervention groups compared to the control group. Motivation for condom use changed to a greater degree over time for the intervention group – especially those in the intervention+booster group - compared to the control group. Behavioral skills for condom use, and motivation and behavioral skills for abstinence were statistically similar over time for both groups. Conclusions CyberSenga improves HIV preventive information and motivation to use condoms. PMID:25633626

  19. Adaptive Behavior among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Relationship to Community Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…

  20. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  1. Exploring the Structure of Adaptive Behavior: Project Report Number 87-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruininks, Robert H.; McGrew, Kevin

    This report presents results from three research studies that were designed to explore both the definition and the structure of the adaptive behavior construct. The first study investigated the structure of adaptive behavior as a function of age, developmental level, and type of handicap through an exploratory factor analysis of both the…

  2. Longitudinal Examination of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This study characterizes longitudinal change in adaptive behavior in 64 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability evaluated on multiple occasions, and examines whether prior estimate of executive function (EF) problems predicts future adaptive behavior scores. Compared to standardized estimates…

  3. The relationship between the behavior problems and motor skills of students with intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yangchool; Jeoung, Bogja

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the motor skills and the behavior problems of students with intellectual disabilities. The study participants were 117 students with intellectual disabilities who were between 7 and 25 years old (male, n=79; female, n=38) and attending special education schools in South Korea. Motor skill abilities were assessed by using the second version of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, which includes subtests in fine motor control, manual coordination, body coordination, strength, and agility. Data were analyzed with SPSS IBM 21 by using correlation and regression analyses, and the significance level was set at P<0.05. The results showed that fine motor precision and integration had a statistically significant influence on aggressive behavior. Manual dexterity showed a statistically significant influence on somatic complaint and anxiety/depression, and bilateral coordination had a statistically significant influence on social problems, attention problem, and aggressive behavior. Our results showed that balance had a statistically significant influence on social problems and aggressive behavior, and speed and agility had a statistically significant influence on social problems and aggressive behavior. Upper limb coordination and strength had a statistically significant influence on social problems. PMID:28119883

  4. Innovative Methods to Acquire and Adapt Soldier Skills (INMASS) in the Operational Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    developing skills needed to perform complex, cognitively-loaded tasks . The method addresses problem solving skills when critical thinking might be... developed as a result of experience, trial and error, or creative thinking . We will take a Knowledge Audit approach in order to elicit a collection of...need for innovative training approaches to develop the required Soldier knowledge , skills , abilities, and attitudes (KSAAs). The primary goal of this

  5. Examining whether the information-motivation-behavioral skills model predicts medication adherence for patients with a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dayna S; Hogan, Susan L; Jordan, Joanne M; DeVellis, Robert F; Carpenter, Delesha M

    2017-01-01

    The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model has been used to explain and promote medication adherence among patients with diabetes and HIV. The objective of this study was to examine whether the IMB model predicted medication adherence among vasculitis patients. Adult vasculitis patients (n=228) completed online questionnaires at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Linear regressions were calculated to determine the direct effects of information and motivation on medication adherence (P<0.05). A mediation analysis using a bootstrapping approach was used to test whether behavioral skills significantly mediated the effect of information and motivation on medication adherence. Participants reported high levels of information (M=4.0; standard deviation [SD]=0.68), moderate levels of motivation (M=2.7; SD=1.00), and high levels of behavioral skills (M=4.1; SD=0.74). In the regression model, only behavioral skills (B=0.38; P<0.001) were significantly associated with medication adherence; however, mediation analysis revealed that behavioral skills significantly mediated the effects of information and motivation on medication adherence. The results support the IMB-hypothesized relationships between information, motivation, behavioral skills, and medication adherence in our sample. Findings suggest that providers should work with vasculitis patients to increase their medication-related skills to improve medication adherence.

  6. Examining whether the information–motivation–behavioral skills model predicts medication adherence for patients with a rare disease

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dayna S; Hogan, Susan L; Jordan, Joanne M; DeVellis, Robert F; Carpenter, Delesha M

    2017-01-01

    The information–motivation–behavioral skills (IMB) model has been used to explain and promote medication adherence among patients with diabetes and HIV. The objective of this study was to examine whether the IMB model predicted medication adherence among vasculitis patients. Adult vasculitis patients (n=228) completed online questionnaires at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Linear regressions were calculated to determine the direct effects of information and motivation on medication adherence (P<0.05). A mediation analysis using a bootstrapping approach was used to test whether behavioral skills significantly mediated the effect of information and motivation on medication adherence. Participants reported high levels of information (M=4.0; standard deviation [SD]=0.68), moderate levels of motivation (M=2.7; SD=1.00), and high levels of behavioral skills (M=4.1; SD=0.74). In the regression model, only behavioral skills (B=0.38; P<0.001) were significantly associated with medication adherence; however, mediation analysis revealed that behavioral skills significantly mediated the effects of information and motivation on medication adherence. The results support the IMB-hypothesized relationships between information, motivation, behavioral skills, and medication adherence in our sample. Findings suggest that providers should work with vasculitis patients to increase their medication-related skills to improve medication adherence. PMID:28138225

  7. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral-Theory-Based Skill Training on Academic Procrastination Behaviors of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…

  8. Application of the Information-Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in risky sexual behaviors amongst male students.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Zahra; Zarani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    As AIDS is not merely a hygienic problem but a disease that creates a great deal of economic, cultural, and social problems, it is necessary for most of the state and nongovernmental organizations and individuals to participate in both controlling AIDS and preventing it. As no effective vaccine or therapy for this disease exists currently, the only method for avoiding being afflicted by this disease is prevention. The present study aims to examine the Information-Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in risky sexual behaviors. For this purpose, a group of 151 male students was sampled using a multistage random sampling method to complete the quality of HIV information questionnaire, national AIDS questionnaire, international AIDS questionnaire and global positive attitude to AIDS questionnaire. The results show that there is a significant relationship between the perception of HIV infection risk and sexual behavior. Thus, the perception of risk is considered the first step toward modifying sexual behaviors from risk-taking behaviors to safer behaviors.

  9. The Impact of Life Skills Training on Behavior Problems in Left-Behind Children in Rural China: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Shan; Yan, Jin; Lee, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda

    2016-01-01

    A randomized controlled experimental pilot study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of life skills training on behavior problems in left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Sixty-eight LBC were recruited from a middle school in rural China. The intervention group took a ten-week-long life skills training course. The Child Behavior…

  10. Social Skills Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Literature Review from the American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kaili

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a part of a research report from a study conducted to investigate the social skills competence of students with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) by the author (Chen, 2004). The purpose of this paper is to review literature published from 1970 through 2004 that are associated with social skills training for students with…

  11. Social Skills Instruction for Urban Learners with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Culturally Responsive and Computer-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Ervin, Porsha; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.; Keyes, Starr E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of culturally relevant/responsive, computer-based social skills instruction on the social skill acquisition and generalization of 6 urban African American sixth graders with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A multiple-probe across participants design was used to evaluate the effects of the social skills…

  12. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  13. Employment patterns of less-skilled workers: links to children's behavior and academic progress.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rucker C; Kalil, Ariel; Dunifon, Rachel E

    2012-05-01

    Using data from five waves of the Women's Employment Survey (WES; 1997-2003), we examine the links between low-income mothers' employment patterns and the emotional behavior and academic progress of their children. We find robust and substantively important linkages between several different dimensions of mothers' employment experiences and child outcomes. The pattern of results is similar across empirical approaches-including ordinary least squares and child fixed-effect models, with and without an extensive set of controls. Children exhibit fewer behavior problems when mothers work and experience job stability (relative to children whose mothers do not work). In contrast, maternal work accompanied by job instability is associated with significantly higher child behavior problems (relative to employment in a stable job). Children whose mothers work full-time and/or have fluctuating work schedules also exhibit significantly higher levels of behavior problems. However, full-time work has negative consequences for children only when it is in jobs that do not require cognitive skills. Such negative consequences are completely offset when this work experience is in jobs that require the cognitive skills that lead to higher wage growth prospects. Finally, fluctuating work schedules and full-time work in non-cognitively demanding jobs are each strongly associated with the probability that the child will repeat a grade or be placed in special education.

  14. Prediction of children's reading skills using behavioral, functional, and structural neuroimaging measures.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Ueno, Takefumi; Reiss, Allan L; Meyler, Ann; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H; Keller, Timothy A; Kobayashi, Nobuhisa; Mazaika, Paul; Jo, Booil; Just, Marcel Adam; Gabrieli, John D E

    2007-06-01

    The ability to decode letters into language sounds is essential for reading success, and accurate identification of children at high risk for decoding impairment is critical for reducing the frequency and severity of reading impairment. We examined the utility of behavioral (standardized tests), and functional and structural neuroimaging measures taken with children at the beginning of a school year for predicting their decoding ability at the end of that school year. Specific patterns of brain activation during phonological processing and morphology, as revealed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of gray and white matter densities, predicted later decoding ability. Further, a model combining behavioral and neuroimaging measures predicted decoding outcome significantly better than either behavioral or neuroimaging models alone. Results were validated using cross-validation methods. These findings suggest that neuroimaging methods may be useful in enhancing the early identification of children at risk for poor decoding and reading skills.

  15. Group Training in Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills for Workplace Adaptation of Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study…

  16. Behavioral skills training to improve installation and use of child passenger safety restraints.

    PubMed

    Himle, Michael B; Wright, Kalon A

    2014-01-01

    The risk for serious injury and death to children during motor vehicle accidents can be greatly reduced through the correct use of child passenger safety restraints (CPSRs). Unfortunately, most CPSRs are installed or used incorrectly. This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach 10 participants to install rear-facing CPSRs correctly using a multiple baseline design. Results show that installation errors were common for all participants during baseline. After BST, all 10 participants were able to install the rear-facing CPSR without error. An extension probe to assess whether the skills taught during BST extended to forward-facing installation showed that each participant made at least 1 critical error.

  17. Cross-Informant Agreement for Ratings for Social Skill and Problem Behavior Ratings: An Investigation of the Social Skills Improvement System--Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Cook, Clayton R.; Vance, Michael J.; Kettler, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in rating scale research with children and adolescents is the modest agreement among different informants' ratings. The present study systematically explored patterns of agreement among teachers, parents/caregivers, and students in domains of social skills and problem behaviors using the Social Skills…

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Teaching Package Utilizing Behavioral Skills Training and In Situ Training to Teach Gun Safety Skills in a Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Laura A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Florentino, Samantha R.

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of different safety threats that children face in their lives. One infrequent, but highly dangerous situation a child can face is finding a firearm. Hundreds of children are injured or killed by firearms each year. Fortunately, behavioral skills training (BST) and in situ training (IST) are effective approaches for teaching a…

  19. Does Teaching Problem-Solving Skills Matter? An Evaluation of Problem-Solving Skills Training for the Treatment of Social and Behavioral Problems in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushman, Bryan B.; Peacock, Gretchen Gimpel

    2010-01-01

    Problem-solving skills training (PSST) has been proposed as a potentially effective addition to behavioral parent training (PT). However, it is not clear whether PSST specifically increases the benefits provided by PT. In this study, PT + PSST was compared to PT + nondirective therapy in a sample of 26 families. All parents received PT. Following…

  20. Evaluating the Relationship-Oriented Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Model of HIV Preventive Behaviors in Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Greene, George J; Andrews, Rebecca; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Most HIV infections among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) occur within primary partnerships. Research on YMSM's knowledge, motivation, and behavioral skills regarding relationship-related HIV prevention, and how these correspond to HIV risk and partnership characteristics, is limited. We examined links among the Relationship-Oriented Information- Motivation-Behavioral Skills (RELO-IMB) model, relationship characteristics, and HIV risk in 96 YMSM. Condomless sex with a primary partner was associated with low relationship-related HIV preventive information, motivation, and behavioral skills. Lack of HIV testing and alcohol use before sex were associated with low behavioral skills. In multivariate analyses, behavioral skills were the only consistent predictor of these outcomes. Regarding relationship characteristics, feeling trapped in the relationship or being physically abused by a partner was associated with low motivation and behavioral skills. The RELO-IMB model can be used to understand HIV risk in relationships and points to targets for relationship-specific HIV prevention education for YMSM.

  1. Linking Screening for Emotional and Behavioral Problems to Problem-Solving Efforts: An Adaptive Model of Behavioral Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses several objectives of the special issue on universal screening by addressing gaps in the current research base concerning universal screening for mental, emotional, and behavioral health and by providing a framework for addressing the limitations of extant approaches. Specifically, an adaptive model of behavioral assessment…

  2. Local traditions in gorilla manual skill: evidence for observational learning of behavioral organization.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Richard W; Hobaiter, Catherine; Klailova, Michelle

    2011-09-01

    Elaborate manual skills of food processing are known in several species of great ape; but their manner of acquisition is controversial. Local, "cultural" traditions show the influence of social learning, but it is uncertain whether this includes the ability to imitate the organization of behavior. Dispute has centered on whether program-level imitation contributes to the acquisition of feeding techniques in gorillas. Here, we show that captive western gorillas at Port Lympne, Kent, have developed a group-wide habit of feeding on nettles, using two techniques. We compare their nettle processing behavior with that of wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda. Both populations are similar in their repertoires of action elements, and in developing multi-step techniques for food processing, with coordinated asymmetric actions of the hands and iteration of parts of a process as "subroutines". Crucially, however, the two populations deal in different ways with the special challenges presented by nettle stings, with consistently different organizations of action elements. We conclude that, while an elaborate repertoire of manual actions and the ability to develop complex manual skills are natural characteristics of gorillas, the inter-site differences in nettle-eating technique are best explained as a consequence of social transmission. According to this explanation, gorillas can copy aspects of program organization from the behavior of others and they use this ability when learning how to eat nettles, resulting in consistent styles of processing by most individuals at each different site; like other great apes, gorillas have the precursor abilities for developing culture.

  3. The use of adaptable automation: Effects of extended skill lay-off and changes in system reliability.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Chavaillaz, Alain

    2017-01-01

    This experiment aimed to examine how skill lay-off and system reliability would affect operator behaviour in a simulated work environment under wide-range and large-choice adaptable automation comprising six different levels. Twenty-four participants were tested twice during a 2-hr testing session, with the second session taking place 8 months after the first. In the middle of the second testing session, system reliability changed. The results showed that after the retention interval trust increased and self-confidence decreased. Complacency was unaffected by the lay-off period. Diagnostic speed slowed down after the retention interval but diagnostic accuracy was maintained. No difference between experimental conditions was found for automation management behaviour (i.e. level of automation chosen and frequency of switching between levels). There were few effects of system reliability. Overall, the findings showed that subjective measures were more sensitive to the impact of skill lay-off than objective behavioural measures.

  4. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  5. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  6. Group Dialectical-Behavior Therapy Skills Training for Conversion Disorder With Seizures.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Kim D; Mirza, Nida; Forte, Craig; Trockel, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests deficits in affective regulation in conversion disorder (CD). Dialectical-behavior therapy skills training (DBT-ST) was developed to target emotion dysregulation. This study was aimed to test the feasibility of stand-alone DBT-ST for CD using Linehan's manual for borderline personality disorder. In a prospective naturalistic design, 19 adult outpatients diagnosed with video EEG-confirmed seizure type CD were recruited and received weekly group DBT. Seventeen out of 19 subjects finished an average of 20.5 weeks of treatment. The mean seizure rate decreased by 66%. Cessation of seizures occurred in 35% of the sample. Completion rates reached 90%.

  7. Adaptive Behavioral Outcomes: Assurance of Learning and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David S.; Stewart, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Business schools are currently being criticized for lacking relevance to the applied working environment in which students are supposed to be prepared to make immediate contributions and reasoned independent decisions in a fluidly changing market (Haskell and Beliveau, 2010, and Michlitsch and Sidle, 2002). While technical skills (accounting,…

  8. "Superheroes in the Resource Room": A Study Examining Implementation of the Superhero Social Skills Program by a Resource Teacher with Students with Externalizing Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Benjamin James

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the Superhero Social Skills program in increasing the social engagement skills and decreasing the aggressive behavior of students with externalizing behavior problems as implemented by a resource teacher. There have been no empirical evaluations of the Superhero Social Skills program as implemented…

  9. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  10. Assistance dogs provide a useful behavioral model to enrich communicative skills of assistance robots.

    PubMed

    Gácsi, Márta; Szakadát, Sára; Miklósi, Adám

    2013-01-01

    These studies are part of a project aiming to reveal relevant aspects of human-dog interactions, which could serve as a model to design successful human-robot interactions. Presently there are no successfully commercialized assistance robots, however, assistance dogs work efficiently as partners for persons with disabilities. In Study 1, we analyzed the cooperation of 32 assistance dog-owner dyads performing a carrying task. We revealed typical behavior sequences and also differences depending on the dyads' experiences and on whether the owner was a wheelchair user. In Study 2, we investigated dogs' responses to unforeseen difficulties during a retrieving task in two contexts. Dogs displayed specific communicative and displacement behaviors, and a strong commitment to execute the insoluble task. Questionnaire data from Study 3 confirmed that these behaviors could successfully attenuate owners' disappointment. Although owners anticipated the technical competence of future assistance robots to be moderate/high, they could not imagine robots as emotional companions, which negatively affected their acceptance ratings of future robotic assistants. We propose that assistance dogs' cooperative behaviors and problem solving strategies should inspire the development of the relevant functions and social behaviors of assistance robots with limited manual and verbal skills.

  11. Assistance dogs provide a useful behavioral model to enrich communicative skills of assistance robots

    PubMed Central

    Gácsi, Márta; Szakadát, Sára; Miklósi, Ádám

    2013-01-01

    These studies are part of a project aiming to reveal relevant aspects of human–dog interactions, which could serve as a model to design successful human-robot interactions. Presently there are no successfully commercialized assistance robots, however, assistance dogs work efficiently as partners for persons with disabilities. In Study 1, we analyzed the cooperation of 32 assistance dog–owner dyads performing a carrying task. We revealed typical behavior sequences and also differences depending on the dyads' experiences and on whether the owner was a wheelchair user. In Study 2, we investigated dogs' responses to unforeseen difficulties during a retrieving task in two contexts. Dogs displayed specific communicative and displacement behaviors, and a strong commitment to execute the insoluble task. Questionnaire data from Study 3 confirmed that these behaviors could successfully attenuate owners' disappointment. Although owners anticipated the technical competence of future assistance robots to be moderate/high, they could not imagine robots as emotional companions, which negatively affected their acceptance ratings of future robotic assistants. We propose that assistance dogs' cooperative behaviors and problem solving strategies should inspire the development of the relevant functions and social behaviors of assistance robots with limited manual and verbal skills. PMID:24399986

  12. Cognitive flexibility in adolescence: neural and behavioral mechanisms of reward prediction error processing in adaptive decision making during development.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Tobias U; Iannaccone, Reto; Walitza, Susanne; Brandeis, Daniel; Brem, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with quickly changing environmental demands which require excellent adaptive skills and high cognitive flexibility. Feedback-guided adaptive learning and cognitive flexibility are driven by reward prediction error (RPE) signals, which indicate the accuracy of expectations and can be estimated using computational models. Despite the importance of cognitive flexibility during adolescence, only little is known about how RPE processing in cognitive flexibility deviates between adolescence and adulthood. In this study, we investigated the developmental aspects of cognitive flexibility by means of computational models and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We compared the neural and behavioral correlates of cognitive flexibility in healthy adolescents (12-16years) to adults performing a probabilistic reversal learning task. Using a modified risk-sensitive reinforcement learning model, we found that adolescents learned faster from negative RPEs than adults. The fMRI analysis revealed that within the RPE network, the adolescents had a significantly altered RPE-response in the anterior insula. This effect seemed to be mainly driven by increased responses to negative prediction errors. In summary, our findings indicate that decision making in adolescence goes beyond merely increased reward-seeking behavior and provides a developmental perspective to the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility in the context of reinforcement learning.

  13. Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Self-injurious Thoughts and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Darren B; Flament, Martine F

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore clinical changes observed in suicidal adolescents treated with an adapted form of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for adolescents (A-DBT-A) in a tertiary care setting. We conducted an open-label naturalistic study including 61 adolescents with self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and associated features of borderline personality disorder, who underwent a 15-week course of A-DBT-A. Pre- and post-treatment measures were administered, the primary outcome being the total score on the Suicidal Ideas Questionnaire. Self-harm, symptoms of borderline personality disorder, resiliency measures, predictors of response, and predictors of attrition were also explored. Among participants who completed post-treatment measures, we found a significant reduction in suicidal ideation (n = 31, p < 0.001). Secondary outcomes also suggested improvement. Baseline substance use predicted attrition (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.03-6.14; p < 0.05), as did baseline impulsivity score on the Life Problems Inventory (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.004-1.06; p < 0.05). Overall, we observed clinical improvements in adolescents receiving A-DBT-A.

  14. Thinking outside of the box: the role of environmental adaptation in the acquisition of skilled and expert performance.

    PubMed

    Eccles, David W

    2006-10-01

    According to current theories of expert performance, experts gain an advantage by acquiring through practice cognitive skills and strategies that increase the efficiency with which information specific to their domain is processed. Consequently, experts are able to circumvent natural processing limitations. In this study, a description is provided of how experts make use of strategies that involve adapting physical elements of their domain environment to reduce cognitive workload during performance. Telephone interviews were conducted with 15 expert orienteers and six coaches of national orienteering squads about how expert orienteers carry and arrange their navigational equipment while orienteering. A content analysis of the interview data revealed that expert orienteers adapt their navigational equipment to reduce the cognitive and, more specifically, attentional workload during performance. A theory of how experts circumvent natural processing limitations requires consideration of the role of such strategies.

  15. A Critical Analysis of the Behavioral Adaptation Explanation of the Probing Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; McCornack, Steven A.

    1996-01-01

    Documents three problems with the behavioral adaption explanation (BAE) that, taken together, suggest that it cannot account for the probing effect, i.e., the finding that sources interrogatively probed appear more honest to message recipients than nonprobed sources. (TB)

  16. Can Behavioral Adaptation Explain the Probing Effect? Rejoinder to Buller et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; McCornack, Steven A.

    1996-01-01

    Responds to David Buller's defense of Behavioral Adaption Explanation (BAE), which was, in turn, written in response to the authors' critical analysis of BAE as an explanation for the probing effect. (TB)

  17. Pathways to Prevention: Improving Nonresident African American Fathers' Parenting Skills and Behaviors to Reduce Sons' Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Antonakos, Cathy L.; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E. Hill; Njai, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8-to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group…

  18. Using Adventure-Based Cooperation Training To Develop Job Related Social Skills for Adolescents with Severe Behavioral and Emotional Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reganick, Karol

    This practicum addressed the attitudes and behaviors of 10 adolescents with severe behavioral and emotional problems participating in a cooperative job training program. The intervention used an adventure approach to help the students replace aggression and misconduct with job-related social skills. A needs assessment was conducted to identify…

  19. Social Skills Instruction for Students At Risk for Antisocial Behavior: The Effects of Small-Group Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen L.; Wehby, Joseph; Menzies, Holly M.; Doukas, Georgia L.; Munton, Sarah M.; Gregg, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the effectiveness of a 10-week social skills instruction program for seven students (ages 8-9) at risk for antisocial behavior who were unresponsive to a schoolwide primary intervention program. Results indicated lasting decreases in both disruptive behaviors in the classroom and negative social interactions on the playground.…

  20. Use of a Behavioral Art Program to Improve Social Skills of Two Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Wan-Chi; Lee, Gabrielle T.; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a behavioral art program in improving social skills for two children with autism in group settings. A multiple probe design across behaviors was used. The results indicated that for both children, the program increased the percentages of spontaneous verbal communications,…

  1. Adapting Autonomous Behavior Based on an Estimate of an Operator’s Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    teammate’s trust and adapt to it, and also pro- vide directions for this work. 2 Inverse Trust and Behavior Adaptation Traditional trust metrics measure how...looking at an inverse trust metric where an agent (the robot) estimates how much trust another agent has in it. One option would be to get direct feedback...trustworthy behaviors from previous adap- tations (Floyd, Drinkwater, and Aha 2014b). 3 Discussion Our work has focused on an approach for inverse trust

  2. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2 to 7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies,…

  3. A Pilot Study of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Hispanics with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interian, Alejandro; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Escobar, Javier I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All…

  4. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  5. Someone has to give in: theta oscillations correlate with adaptive behavior in social bargaining

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Francisco; López, Tamara; Rodriguez, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    During social bargain, one has to both figure out the others’ intentions and behave strategically in such a way that the others’ behaviors will be consistent with one’s expectations. To understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors, we used electroencephalography while subjects played as proposers in a repeated ultimatum game. We found that subjects adapted their offers to obtain more acceptances in the last round and that this adaptation correlated negatively with prefrontal theta oscillations. People with higher prefrontal theta activity related to a rejection did not adapt their offers along the game to maximize their earning. Moreover, between-subject variation in posterior theta oscillations correlated positively with how individual theta activity influenced the change of offer after a rejection, reflecting a process of behavioral adaptation to the others’ demands. Interestingly, people adapted better their offers when they knew that they where playing against a computer, although the behavioral adaptation did not correlate with prefrontal theta oscillation. Behavioral changes between human and computer games correlated with prefrontal theta activity, suggesting that low adaptation in human games could be a strategy. Taken together, these results provide evidence for specific roles of prefrontal and posterior theta oscillations in social bargaining. PMID:24493841

  6. Someone has to give in: theta oscillations correlate with adaptive behavior in social bargaining.

    PubMed

    Billeke, Pablo; Zamorano, Francisco; López, Tamara; Rodriguez, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    During social bargain, one has to both figure out the others' intentions and behave strategically in such a way that the others' behaviors will be consistent with one's expectations. To understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors, we used electroencephalography while subjects played as proposers in a repeated ultimatum game. We found that subjects adapted their offers to obtain more acceptances in the last round and that this adaptation correlated negatively with prefrontal theta oscillations. People with higher prefrontal theta activity related to a rejection did not adapt their offers along the game to maximize their earning. Moreover, between-subject variation in posterior theta oscillations correlated positively with how individual theta activity influenced the change of offer after a rejection, reflecting a process of behavioral adaptation to the others' demands. Interestingly, people adapted better their offers when they knew that they where playing against a computer, although the behavioral adaptation did not correlate with prefrontal theta oscillation. Behavioral changes between human and computer games correlated with prefrontal theta activity, suggesting that low adaptation in human games could be a strategy. Taken together, these results provide evidence for specific roles of prefrontal and posterior theta oscillations in social bargaining.

  7. Testing the Limits of Skill Transfer for Scrabble Experts in Behavior and Brain

    PubMed Central

    van Hees, Sophia; Pexman, Penny M.; Hargreaves, Ian S.; Zdrazilova, Lenka; Hart, Jessie M.; Myers-Stewart, Kaia; Cortese, Filomeno; Protzner, Andrea B.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated transfer of the skills developed by competitive Scrabble players. Previous studies reported superior performance for Scrabble experts on the lexical decision task (LDT), suggesting near transfer of Scrabble skills. Here we investigated the potential for far transfer to a symbol decision task (SDT); in particular, transfer of enhanced long-term working memory for vertically presented stimuli. Our behavioral results showed no evidence for far transfer. Despite years of intensive practice, Scrabble experts were no faster and no more accurate than controls in the SDT. However, our fMRI and EEG data from the SDT suggest that the neural repertoire that Scrabble experts develop supports task performance even outside of the practiced domain, in a non-linguistic context. The regions engaged during the SDT were different across groups: controls engaged temporal-frontal regions, whereas Scrabble experts engaged posterior visual and temporal-parietal regions. In Scrabble experts, activity related to Scrabble skill (anagramming scores) included regions associated with visual-spatial processing and long-term working memory, and overlapped with regions previously shown to be associated with Scrabble expertise in the near transfer task (LDT). Analysis of source waveforms within these regions showed that participants with higher anagramming scores had larger P300 amplitudes, potentially reflecting greater working memory capacity, or less variability in the participants who performed the task more efficiently. Thus, the neuroimaging results provide evidence of brain transfer in the absence of behavioral transfer, providing new clues about the consequences of long-term training associated with competitive Scrabble expertise. PMID:27881960

  8. Computerized Adaptive Tutorials to Improve and Assess Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nirmalakhandan, N.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research studies have reported on how novices and experts differ in storing, organizing, and retrieving subject matter knowledge and on how they apply their knowledge to solve new problems. These findings have been integrated and implemented in a computer environment to help novices improve their problem-solving skills. An outline of this…

  9. Transferable Skills Representations in a Portuguese College Sample: Gender, Age, Adaptability and Vocational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Magda

    2012-01-01

    The departing point of this study is the theoretical framework of "Making the Match project" (Evers and Rush in Management Learning 27:275-299, 1996) about how to develop a common language among stakeholders regarding transferable skills. Thus, the paper examines the impact of demographic variables (age and gender) and developmental…

  10. Conducting Psychological Assessments in Schools: Adapting for Converging Skills and Expanding Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Terry; Scull, Janet; Hattie, John; Clinton, Janet; Larkins, Geraldine; Cicconi, Vincent; Kumar, Doreen; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we argue for a revision of the knowledge, skills and competencies of school psychologists and specialist teachers. Evidence-based practice of psychologists and teachers, the accountability movement, and calls for improved service delivery have led to changes in the practice of both professions. The changes in technology and the…

  11. Comparison of Measures of Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Linda I.; Servos, Andria B.

    1978-01-01

    Nonproblem and problem children were compared on Minnesota Child Development Inventory, Classroom Adjustment Rating Scale, Ottawa School Behavior Survey, AML Behavior Rating Scale, Teacher Rating Scale, and Denver Developmental Screening Test. Problem children scored significantly lower than nonproblem children on all measures. Minnesota Child…

  12. Effects of the emotion system on adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Giske, Jarl; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Fiksen, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Per J; Aksnes, Dag L; Jørgensen, Christian; Mangel, Marc

    2013-12-01

    A central simplifying assumption in evolutionary behavioral ecology has been that optimal behavior is unaffected by genetic or proximate constraints. Observations and experiments show otherwise, so that attention to decision architecture and mechanisms is needed. In psychology, the proximate constraints on decision making and the processes from perception to behavior are collectively described as the emotion system. We specify a model of the emotion system in fish that includes sensory input, neuronal computation, developmental modulation, and a global organismic state and restricts attention during decision making for behavioral outcomes. The model further includes food competition, safety in numbers, and a fluctuating environment. We find that emergent strategies in evolved populations include common emotional appraisal of sensory input related to fear and hunger and also include frequency-dependent rules for behavioral responses. Focused attention is at times more important than spatial behavior for growth and survival. Spatial segregation of the population is driven by personality differences. By coupling proximate and immediate influences on behavior with ultimate fitness consequences through the emotion system, this approach contributes to a unified perspective on the phenotype, by integrating effects of the environment, genetics, development, physiology, behavior, life history, and evolution.

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Adaptation of the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sports in the School Context.

    PubMed

    Viciana, Jesús; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Blanco, Humberto

    2016-04-22

    Tactical skills in sport are the basis for current models of invasion team sports instruction, and relate to other psychological variables that exert a mediating influence on people's normal physical activity. This study aimed to validate the Spanish adaptation of the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sports by Elferink-Gemser, Visscher, Richart, and Lemmink (2004) and verify its factorial invariance. The sample included 540 participants 12.89 ± 1.73 years of age (10 to 17 years old; 333 males and 207 females). The adaptation and translation of the original questionnaire followed the methodological steps established by the International Test Commission. Then two measurement models with the original questionnaire's four-factor structure were compared. Confirmatory analyses were conducted using the software AMOS 21 and maximum likelihood estimation. Results indicated a four-factor structure (positioning and deciding, knowing about ball actions, knowing about others, acting in changing situations) was viable and showed goodness of fit to the data, with adequate indices of reliability (α between .72 and .86) and validity (GFI = .955; RMSEA = .044; CFI = .974), and strong evidence of stability in the factor structure. Moreover, factorial invariance was observed between participants who do and do not practice team sports, with practitioners scoring higher than non-practitioners on all factors (p < .001; effect sizes between .97 and 1.08).

  14. Are young adolescents' social and emotional skills protective against involvement in violence and bullying behaviors?

    PubMed

    Polan, Julie C; Sieving, Renee E; McMorris, Barbara J

    2013-07-01

    This study examined relationships between social-emotional skills and involvement in bullying and violence among young adolescents from ethnically diverse, economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Data were from 171 sixth- and seventh-grade students involved in a larger intervention study. Analyses examined relationships between social-emotional skills measures (intrapersonal skills, stress management skills, interpersonal skills) and involvement in violence, physical bullying, and relational aggression. Of social-emotional skills indicators, interpersonal skills and stress management skills demonstrated significant bivariate relationships with each of the bullying and violence outcomes. In multivariate models, greater interpersonal skills and greater stress management skills were significantly associated with lower odds of violence involvement. Greater stress management skills were also significantly associated with lower levels of physical bullying and relational aggression. Findings suggest that efforts to foster development of young adolescents' social-emotional skills may, in turn, reduce their risk for involvement in bullying and violence.

  15. Effectiveness of methylcobalamin and folinic Acid treatment on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder is related to glutathione redox status.

    PubMed

    Frye, Richard E; Melnyk, Stepan; Fuchs, George; Reid, Tyra; Jernigan, Stefanie; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Hubanks, Amanda; Gaylor, David W; Walters, Laura; James, S Jill

    2013-01-01

    Treatments targeting metabolic abnormalities in children with autism are limited. Previously we reported that a nutritional treatment significantly improved glutathione metabolism in children with autistic disorder. In this study we evaluated changes in adaptive behaviors in this cohort and determined whether such changes are related to changes in glutathione metabolism. Thirty-seven children diagnosed with autistic disorder and abnormal glutathione and methylation metabolism were treated with twice weekly 75 µg/Kg methylcobalamin and twice daily 400 µg folinic acid for 3 months in an open-label fashion. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) and glutathione redox metabolites were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Over the treatment period, all VABS subscales significantly improved with an average effect size of 0.59, and an average improvement in skills of 7.7 months. A greater improvement in glutathione redox status was associated with a greater improvement in expressive communication, personal and domestic daily living skills, and interpersonal, play-leisure, and coping social skills. Age, gender, and history of regression did not influence treatment response. The significant behavioral improvements observed and the relationship between these improvements to glutathione redox status suggest that nutritional interventions targeting redox metabolism may benefit some children with autism.

  16. Drilling Deeper into tooth brushing skills: Is proactive interference an under-recognized factor in oral hygiene behavior change?

    PubMed Central

    Thavarajah, Rooban; Kumar, Madan; Mohandoss, Anusa Arunachalam

    2015-01-01

    Proper tooth brushing is a seemingly simple motor activity that can promote oral health. Applying health theories, such as the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model, Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Integrated Health Coaching (IHC), may help optimize tooth brushing technique in those with suboptimal skills. Some motor activities, including tooth brushing, may over time become rote and unconscious actions, such that an existing habit can inhibit new learning, i.e., exert proactive interference on learning the new skill. Proactive interference may impede the acquisition of new tooth brushing skills; thus, in this report, we: (1) Review how the habit of tooth brushing is formed; (2) Postulate how proactive interference could impede the establishment of proper tooth brushing retraining; (3) Discuss the merits of this hypothesis; and (4) Provide guidance for future work in this topic within the context of an approach to behavior change that integrates IMB, MI and IHC methodology. PMID:26457238

  17. Drilling Deeper into tooth brushing skills: Is proactive interference an under-recognized factor in oral hygiene behavior change?

    PubMed

    Thavarajah, Rooban; Kumar, Madan; Mohandoss, Anusa Arunachalam; Vernon, Lance T

    2015-09-01

    Proper tooth brushing is a seemingly simple motor activity that can promote oral health. Applying health theories, such as the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model, Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Integrated Health Coaching (IHC), may help optimize tooth brushing technique in those with suboptimal skills. Some motor activities, including tooth brushing, may over time become rote and unconscious actions, such that an existing habit can inhibit new learning, i.e., exert proactive interference on learning the new skill. Proactive interference may impede the acquisition of new tooth brushing skills; thus, in this report, we: (1) Review how the habit of tooth brushing is formed; (2) Postulate how proactive interference could impede the establishment of proper tooth brushing retraining; (3) Discuss the merits of this hypothesis; and (4) Provide guidance for future work in this topic within the context of an approach to behavior change that integrates IMB, MI and IHC methodology.

  18. Kindergarten Children's Perceptions of "Anthropomorphic Artifacts" with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Asi; Mioduser, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, children from a kindergarten in central Israel have been exposed to learning experiences in technology as part of the implementation of a curriculum based on technological thinking, including topics related to behaving-adaptive-artifacts (e.g., robots). This study aims to unveil children's stance towards behaving artifacts:…

  19. Predicting Adaptive Behavior from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotard, Stephen; McWhirter, Richard

    To examine the proportion of variance in adaptive functioning predictable from mental ability, chronological age, I.Q., evidence of brain malfunction, seizure medication, and receptive and expressive language scores, 25 severely and profoundly retarded institutionalized persons (2-19 years old) were administered the Bayley Infant Scale Mental…

  20. The influence of time management skill on the curvilinear relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Adam A; Bachrach, Daniel G; Rapp, Tammy L

    2013-07-01

    In this research we integrate resource allocation and social exchange perspectives to build and test theory focusing on the moderating role of time management skill in the nonmonotonic relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and task performance. Results from matching survey data collected from 212 employees and 41 supervisors and from task performance metrics collected several months later indicate that the curvilinear association between OCB and task performance is significantly moderated by employees' time management skill. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  1. Information, motivation, and behavioral skills for early pre-ART engagement in HIV care among patients entering clinical care in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laramie R; Amico, K Rivet; Shuper, Paul A; Christie, Sarah; Fisher, William A; Cornman, Deborah H; Doshi, Monika; MacDonald, Susan; Pillay, Sandy; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Little is known regarding factors implicated in early engagement and retention in HIV care among individuals not yet eligible for antiretroviral therapy (pre-ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying such factors is critical for supporting retention in pre-ART clinical care to ensure timely ART initiation and optimize long-term health outcomes. We assessed patients' pre-ART HIV care-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills among newly diagnosed ART-ineligible patients, initiating care in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The survey was interviewer-administered to eligible patients, who were aged 18 years or older, newly entering care (diagnosed within the last six-months), and ineligible for ART (CD4 count > 200 cells/mm(3)) in one of four primary care clinical sites. Self-reported information, motivation, and behavioral skills specific to retention in pre-ART HIV-care were characterized by categorizing responses into those reflecting potential strengths and those reflective of potential deficits. Information, motivation, and behavioral skills deficits sufficiently prevalent in the overall sample (i.e.,≥30% prevalent) were identified as areas in need of specific attention through intervention efforts adapted to the clinic level. Gender-based differences were also evaluated. A total of 288 patients (75% female) completed structured interviews. Across the sample, eight information, eight motivation, and eight behavioral skills deficit areas were identified as sufficiently prevalent to warrant specific targeted attention. Gender differences did not emerge. The deficits in pre-ART HIV care-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills that were identified suggest that efforts to improve accurate information on immune function and HIV disease are needed, as is accurate information regarding HIV treatment and transmission risk prior to ART initiation. Additional efforts to facilitate the development of social support, including positive interactions

  2. Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills for Early Pre-ART Engagement in HIV Care among Patients Entering Clinical Care in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, Laramie R.; AMICO, K. Rivet; SHUPER, Paul A.; CHRISTIE, Sarah; FISHER, William A.; CORNMAN, Deborah H.; DOSHI, Monika; MacDONALD, Susan; PILLAY, Sandy; FISHER, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known regarding factors implicated in early engagement and retention in HIV-care among individuals not yet eligible for antiretroviral therapy (pre-ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying such factors is critical for supporting retention in pre-ART clinical care to ensure timely ART initiation and optimize long-term health outcomes. We assessed patients’ pre-ART HIV-care related information, motivation, and behavioral skills among newly diagnosed ART-ineligible patients initiating care in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The survey was interviewer-administered to eligible patients who were 18 years of age or older, newly entering care (diagnosed within the last 6-months), and ineligible for ART (CD4 count >200 cells/mm3) in one of four primary care clinical sites. Self-reported information, motivation and behavioral skills specific to retention in pre-ART HIV-care were characterized by categorizing responses into those reflecting potential strengths and those reflective of potential deficits. Information, motivation, and behavioral skills deficits sufficiently prevalent in the overall sample (i.e., ≥30% prevalent) were identified as areas in need of specific attention through intervention efforts adapted to the clinic level. Gender-based differences were also evaluated. A total of 288 patients (75% female) completed structured interviews. Across the sample, 8 information, 8 motivation, and 8 behavioral skills deficit areas were identified as sufficiently prevalent to warrant specific targeted attention. Gender differences did not emerge. The deficits in pre-ART HIV-care related information, motivation and behavioral skills that were identified suggest that efforts to improve accurate information on immune function and HIV disease are needed, as is accurate information regarding HIV treatment and transmission risk prior to ART initiation. Additional efforts to facilitate the development of social support, including positive interactions with clinic staff

  3. Interpreting problematic behavior: systematic compensatory adaptations as emergent phenomena in autism.

    PubMed

    Damico, Jack S; Nelson, Ryan L

    2005-01-01

    Based upon an emergent account of pragmatic ability and disability, this article provides theoretical and empirical support for a conceptually deeper understanding of some systematic behaviors that have served as diagnostic indices in communicatively impaired populations. Specifically, by employing conversation analysis, several examples of problematic behaviors in autism are analysed as a specific type of compensatory adaptation. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  4. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  5. Making Sense by Building Sense: Kindergarten Children's Construction and Understanding of Adaptive Robot Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mioduser, David; Levy, Sharona T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores young children's ability to construct and explain adaptive behaviors of a behaving artifact, an autonomous mobile robot with sensors. A central component of the behavior construction environment is the RoboGan software that supports children's construction of spatiotemporal events with an a-temporal rule structure. Six…

  6. Boldness behavior and stress physiology in a novel urban environment suggest rapid correlated evolutionary adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gonçalo C.; Whittaker, Danielle J.; Campbell-Nelson, Samuel; Robertson, Kyle W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2012-01-01

    Novel or changing environments expose animals to diverse stressors that likely require coordinated hormonal and behavioral adaptations. Predicted adaptations to urban environments include attenuated physiological responses to stressors and bolder exploratory behaviors, but few studies to date have evaluated the impact of urban life on codivergence of these hormonal and behavioral traits in natural systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid adaptive shifts in both stress physiology and correlated boldness behaviors in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco, following its colonization of a novel urban environment. We compared elevation in corticosterone (CORT) in response to handling and flight initiation distances in birds from a recently established urban population in San Diego, California to birds from a nearby wildland population in the species' ancestral montane breeding range. We also measured CORT and exploratory behavior in birds raised from early life in a captive common garden study. We found persistent population differences for both reduced CORT responses and bolder exploratory behavior in birds from the colonist population, as well as significant negative covariation between maximum CORT and exploratory behavior. Although early developmental effects cannot be ruled out, these results suggest contemporary adaptive evolution of correlated hormonal and behavioral traits associated with colonization of an urban habitat. PMID:22936840

  7. Use of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II in Children with Autism--An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohari, S. M.; Raman, Vijaya; Ashok, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Edition 2005 (Vineland-II) is useful in assessing abilities in autism spectrum disorder, where an accurate assessment of intelligence using standardized tools is difficult both due to the unique social and communication difficulties that these children present with and the behavioral issues that occur as…

  8. Visual Behaviors and Adaptations Associated with Cortical and Ocular Impairment in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, J. E.; Groenveld, M.

    1993-01-01

    This article shows the usefulness of understanding visual behaviors in the diagnosis of various types of visual impairments that are due to ocular and cortical disorders. Behaviors discussed include nystagmus, ocular motor dyspraxia, head position, close viewing, field loss adaptations, mannerisms, photophobia, and abnormal color perception. (JDD)

  9. Studying adaptation and homeostatic behaviors of kinetic networks by using MATLAB.

    PubMed

    Drengstig, Tormod; Kjosmoen, Thomas; Ruoff, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Organisms have the ability to counteract environmental perturbations and keep certain components within a cell homeostatically regulated. Closely related to homeostasis is the behavior of perfect adaptation where an organism responds to a step-wise perturbation by regulating some of its components, after a transient period, to their original pre-perturbation values. A particular interesting type of model relates to the so-called robust behavior where the homeostatic or perfect adaptation property is independent of the magnitude of the applied step-wise perturbation. It has been shown that this type of behavior is related to the control-theoretic concept of integral feedback (or integral control). Using downloadable MATLAB examples, we demonstrate how robust perfect adaptation sites can be identified in reaction kinetic networks by linearizing the system, applying the Laplace transform and inspecting the transfer function. We also show how the homeostatic set point in perfect adaptation is related to the presence of zero-order fluxes.

  10. Predicting improvement after first-grade reading difficulties: the effects of oral language, emergent literacy, and behavior skills.

    PubMed

    Spira, Elana Greenfield; Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet E

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the role of early literacy and behavioral skills in predicting the improvement of children who have experienced reading difficulties in 1st grade. The progress of 146 low-income children whose reading scores in 1st grade were below the 30th percentile was examined to determine (a) how the poorest readers in 1st grade progressed in reading achievement through 4th grade and (b) which emergent literacy and behavioral skills measured in kindergarten predicted differential 4th grade outcomes. Results indicated that the divergence between children who improved and those who did not was established by the end of 2nd grade. Further, individual linguistic skills and behavioral attributes measured in kindergarten contributed substantively to this difference. Implications for intervention timing and educational policy are discussed.

  11. Classroom Quality at Pre-kindergarten and Kindergarten and Children’s Social Skills and Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Mokrova, Irina L.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Garrett-Peters, Patricia T.

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the continuity in the quality of classroom environments as children transition from preschool into elementary school, this study examined the associations between classroom quality in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children’s social skills and behavior problems in kindergarten and first grade. Participants included 1175 ethnically-diverse children (43% African American) living in low-wealth rural communities of the US. Results indicated that children who experienced higher levels of emotional and organizational classroom quality in both pre-kindergarten and kindergarten demonstrated better social skills and fewer behavior problems in both kindergarten and first grade comparing to children who did not experience higher classroom quality. The examination of the first grade results indicated that the emotional and organizational quality of pre-kindergarten classrooms was the strongest predictor of children’s first grade social skills and behavior problems. The study results are discussed from theoretical, practical, and policy perspectives. PMID:26949286

  12. Relations among student attention behaviors, teacher practices, and beginning word reading skill.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Leilani; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The role of student attention for predicting kindergarten word reading was investigated among 432 students. Using Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior Rating Scale behavior rating scores, the authors conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded three distinct factors that reflected selective attention. In this study, the authors focused on the role of one of these factors, which they labeled attention-memory, for predicting reading performance. Teacher ratings of attention-memory predicted word reading above and beyond the contribution of phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. In addition, the relations between four teacher practices and attention ratings for predicting reading performance were examined. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the authors found significant interactions between student attention and teacher practices observed during literacy instruction. In general, as ratings of attention improved, better kindergarten word reading performance was associated with high levels of classroom behavior management. However, better word reading performance was not associated with high levels of teacher task orienting. A significant three-way interaction was also found among attention, individualized instruction, and teacher task redirections. The role of regulating kindergarten student attention to support beginning word reading skill development is discussed.

  13. Relations Among Student Attention Behaviors, Teacher Practices, and Beginning Word Reading Skill

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, Leilani; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The role of student attention for predicting kindergarten word reading was investigated among 432 students. Using SWAN behavior rating scores, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded three distinct factors that reflected selective attention. In this study, we focused on the role of one of these factors, which we labeled attention-memory behaviors, for predicting reading performance. Teacher ratings of attention predicted word reading above and beyond the contribution of phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. In addition, the relations between four teacher practices and attention ratings for predicting reading performance were examined. Using HLM, significant interactions between student attention and teacher practices observed during literacy instruction were found. In general, as ratings of attention improved, better kindergarten word reading performance was associated with high levels of classroom behavior management. However, by mid-year, better word reading performance was not associated with high levels of teacher task- orienting. A significant three-way interaction was also found among attention, individualized instruction, and teacher task re-directions. The role of regulating kindergarten student attention to support beginning word reading skill development is discussed. PMID:22207616

  14. Using distance education to promote the transfer of motivational interviewing skills among behavioral health professionals.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Michael S; Rhode, Robert; Chong, Jenny

    2004-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of distance education for training behavioral health professionals. Five live video workshops that covered key elements of Motivational Interviewing (MI) were delivered. The programs occurred a month apart, each 3 hours long. The programs used compressed video, transmitting the video signal through telephone lines. The audience was staff at substance abuse treatment organizations throughout the state of Arizona. Participants completed assessments regarding their training experiences, knowledge and self-efficacy in MI, and their satisfaction with the training, prior to, during, and subsequent to the workshops. Participation in the five workshops varied; the first workshop had the largest attendance of 351, the fourth the lowest of 92; 145 participants attended all five workshops. Participants expressed moderate levels of satisfaction with most aspects of the training, although some expressed frustration with interrupted audio or video signals during the programs. The handouts and videotaped examples of MI were identified as the more helpful aspects of the training. Participants reported statistically significant improvements in their self-perceived knowledge and skills. They demonstrated a statistically significant but clinically insignificant increase in knowledge. A small group of participants provided audiotapes of actual counseling sessions. These participants demonstrated minimal improvement in skills across the study that were not statistically significant. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research in the use of distance education as a technology transfer tool in the addiction treatment profession.

  15. Biographic and behavioral factors are associated with music-related motor skills in children pianists.

    PubMed

    Spector, June T; Yong, Raymond; Altenmüller, Eckart; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to identify biographical and behavioral factors associated with children pianists' motor skills using an objective assessment of a music-relevant motor task. Motor skills at the piano were assessed in 30 children pianists by measuring temporal unevenness in standardized scale playing using musical instrument digital interface (MIDI)-based scale analysis. Questionnaires were used to collect detailed information about the amount of time playing the piano, practice characteristics, attitudes toward music and practice, and the environment of music and practice. Associations between performance values and variables from the questionnaire were investigated using multivariable linear regression. A higher number of years playing the piano, more frequent parental involvement in the child's practice, more frequent practice of technical exercises, and greater enjoyment of practice and of the visual arts were associated with better motor performance. In addition to cumulative experience and aspects of practice, extrinsic motivational factors (e.g., parental interest) and intrinsic motivational factors (e.g., an artistic disposition) were associated with better performance on a musically-relevant motor task in children pianists.

  16. Literacy and cultural adaptations for cognitive behavioral therapy in a rural pain population.

    PubMed

    Kuhajda, Melissa C; Thorn, Beverly E; Gaskins, Susan W; Day, Melissa A; Cabbil, Chalanda M

    2011-06-01

    Low literacy and chronic pain have been identified as significant problems in the rural USA. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a widely used efficacious psychosocial treatment for chronic pain; adaptations for low-literacy rural populations are lacking. This paper reports on preparatory steps implemented to address this deficit. Adapting an existing group, CBT patient workbook for rural adults with low literacy is described, and adaptations to reduce cognitive demand inherent in CBT are explained via cognitive load theory. Adhering to health literacy guidelines, the patient workbook readability was lowered to the fifth grade. Two key informant interviews and four focus groups provided the impetus for structural and procedural adaptations. Using health literacy guidelines and participant feedback, the patient workbook and treatment approach were adapted for implementation in low-literacy rural adult chronic pain populations, setting the stage for proceeding with a larger trial using the adapted materials.

  17. Establishing and maintaining job skills and professional behaviors in chronically unemployed drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Conrad J; Silverman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The therapeutic workplace intervention is an employment-based drug user intervention that integrates abstinence reinforcement contingencies into an employment setting, intended for individuals manifesting chronic unemployment and drug addiction. Research on the therapeutic workplace intervention has provided a unique and rare opportunity to collect data and conduct fine-grained analyses of the training and work performance of participants. Results from a series of studies document that chronically unemployed drug users display behaviors that likely limit their success in conventional businesses. This article reviews a systematic line of research showing that targeted and intensive contingency management interventions and training programs have been effective in promoting consistent attendance and high rates of productivity and establishing job skills for employment.

  18. Forensic document examiners' skill in distinguishing between natural and disguised handwriting behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bird, Carolyne; Found, Bryan; Rogers, Doug

    2010-09-01

    Disguised handwriting is problematic for forensic document examiners (FDEs) and attracts higher misleading and inconclusive rates on authorship opinions than does genuine writing (Found B, Rogers D, International Graphonomics Society, 2005). There are currently no published empirical data on FDEs' expertise in distinguishing between natural and disguised writing behavior. This paper reports on the skill of FDEs for determining the writing process of 140 pairs of natural and disguised writings and compares their results with those of a control group of laypeople. A significant difference was found between the examiner and lay group. FDEs' expertise is characterized by their conservatism, where FDEs express a higher proportion of inconclusive opinions (23.1% for FDEs compared to 8.4% for the control group). This leads to the FDEs expressing a smaller percentage of misleading responses when calling writings as either naturally written or disguised (4.3% for FDEs compared with 12.2% for the control group).

  19. Adaptations of Homemaking Skills for the Aged: Nutritional Needs. Teacher's Manual and Participant's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestle, Ruth E.; Wilcox, Catherine F.

    This manual is designed for use with adults or secondary school home economics students to help them become more aware of: (1) the nutritional needs of the aged; (2) the physical and social limitations affecting aged homemakers; and (3) the adaptations in individual dietary habits that will meet nutritional needs. The special nutritional needs of…

  20. Aggression and Adaptive Functioning: The Bright Side to Bad Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Patricia H.; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that effective children and adolescents can engage in socially undesirable behavior to attain personal goals at relatively little personal or interpersonal cost, implying that relations between adjustment and aggression may not be optimally described by standard linear models. Suggests that if researchers recognize that some aggression…

  1. Adaptive Control Responses to Behavioral Perturbation Based Upon the Insect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    autonomous robot Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 31: :176.110 Harley CM, Predina JD, Ritzmann RE (2006) Responses to incomplete sensory information in cockroach...climbing behavior. Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 32:449.412 Hess D, Buschges A (1999) Role of proprioceptive signals from an insect femur-tibia joint in...Altered joint reflexes in the cockroach may lead to 17 directional changes in leg extension. Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 32:449.411 Pollack AJ

  2. Adapting Autonomous Behavior Using an Inverse Trust Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    to achieve team goals. Trustworthy behavior is not something that can be programmed into an agent in advance since how humans measure trust may be task...Inverse Trust Estimation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...wheeled unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) and uses eBotwork’s built-in natural language processing (for interpreting user commands), locomotion, and path

  3. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect.

  4. Adaptive behaviors in multi-agent source localization using passive sensing

    PubMed Central

    Shaukat, Mansoor; Chitre, Mandar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the role of adaptive group cohesion in a cooperative multi-agent source localization problem is investigated. A distributed source localization algorithm is presented for a homogeneous team of simple agents. An agent uses a single sensor to sense the gradient and two sensors to sense its neighbors. The algorithm is a set of individualistic and social behaviors where the individualistic behavior is as simple as an agent keeping its previous heading and is not self-sufficient in localizing the source. Source localization is achieved as an emergent property through agent’s adaptive interactions with the neighbors and the environment. Given a single agent is incapable of localizing the source, maintaining team connectivity at all times is crucial. Two simple temporal sampling behaviors, intensity-based-adaptation and connectivity-based-adaptation, ensure an efficient localization strategy with minimal agent breakaways. The agent behaviors are simultaneously optimized using a two phase evolutionary optimization process. The optimized behaviors are estimated with analytical models and the resulting collective behavior is validated against the agent’s sensor and actuator noise, strong multi-path interference due to environment variability, initialization distance sensitivity and loss of source signal. PMID:28018121

  5. Adaptive behaviors in multi-agent source localization using passive sensing.

    PubMed

    Shaukat, Mansoor; Chitre, Mandar

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the role of adaptive group cohesion in a cooperative multi-agent source localization problem is investigated. A distributed source localization algorithm is presented for a homogeneous team of simple agents. An agent uses a single sensor to sense the gradient and two sensors to sense its neighbors. The algorithm is a set of individualistic and social behaviors where the individualistic behavior is as simple as an agent keeping its previous heading and is not self-sufficient in localizing the source. Source localization is achieved as an emergent property through agent's adaptive interactions with the neighbors and the environment. Given a single agent is incapable of localizing the source, maintaining team connectivity at all times is crucial. Two simple temporal sampling behaviors, intensity-based-adaptation and connectivity-based-adaptation, ensure an efficient localization strategy with minimal agent breakaways. The agent behaviors are simultaneously optimized using a two phase evolutionary optimization process. The optimized behaviors are estimated with analytical models and the resulting collective behavior is validated against the agent's sensor and actuator noise, strong multi-path interference due to environment variability, initialization distance sensitivity and loss of source signal.

  6. Effects of a Peer-Mediated Literacy Based Behavioral Intervention on the Acquisition and Maintenance of Daily Living Skills in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Michael P.; Honsberger, Christine; Cadette, Jessica; Honsberger, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents with disabilities do not independently perform the daily living skills needed to be successful in typical community environments. Literacy Based Behavioral Interventions have been effective in promoting skill acquisition and maintenance in some learners, but have yet to be implemented to teach basic self-care skills. Also, LBBIs…

  7. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Persuasive Writing to Increase the Writing and Self-Efficacy Skills of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Health Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robin Parks; Jolivette, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative includes an emphasis on teaching writing and related skills in all subject areas. This study sought to improve the persuasive writing skills and self-efficacy skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders by implementing self-regulated strategy development with pairs of students in a high…

  8. Effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention on improving thehand-washing skills and behaviors of migrant workers in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chong; Hu, Junfeng; Tao, Maoxuan; Li, Yubo; Chai, Yan; Ning, Yan; Li, Li; Xiao, Qin

    2016-05-09

    This study explores the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention featuring a combination of tailored print and video (TPV) and peer education on improving the hand-washing skills and behaviors of migrant workers in the capital city of China. In the control group, supportive measures in both policy and environment were adopted. In addition, the intervention group received TPV and peer education. A total of 1496 participants were involved in the baseline and evaluation survey. The results showed that the participants experienced significant changes in developing health behaviors and skills as a whole after the intervention. The intervention effectiveness of hand-washing skills on vendors was relatively small compared with those on restaurant waiters and waitresses (44.3% and 87.2%, respectively). About 81.2 percent of the participants always forgot to carefully wash their thumbs and 81.8 percent failed to properly clean the back of their hands. The multifaceted intervention of this study has helped in improving the hand-washing skills and behaviors of migrant workers. Key steps should be strengthened to enhance the intervention effect. Moreover, the elderly should be given more attention with regards to hand-washing skills.

  9. Adapting Experiential Learning to Develop Problem-Solving Skills in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Engineering Students.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Matthew M; Carrano, Andres L; Dannels, Wendy A

    2016-10-01

    Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and best practices of STEM instruction to give first-year DHH students enrolled in a postsecondary STEM program the opportunity to develop problem-solving skills in real-world scenarios. Using an industrial engineering laboratory that provides manufacturing and warehousing environments, students were immersed in real-world scenarios in which they worked on teams to address prescribed problems encountered during the activities. The highly structured, Plan-Do-Check-Act approach commonly used in industry was adapted for the DHH student participants to document and communicate the problem-solving steps. Students who experienced the intervention realized a 14.6% improvement in problem-solving proficiency compared with a control group, and this gain was retained at 6 and 12 months, post-intervention.

  10. Complex Features in Lotka-Volterra Systems with Behavioral Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebaldi, Claudio; Lacitignola, Deborah

    Lotka-Volterra systems have played a fundamental role for mathematical modelling in many branches of theoretical biology and proved to describe, at least qualitatively, the essential features of many phenomena, see for example Murray [Murray 2002]. Furthermore models of that kind have been considered successfully also in quite different and less mathematically formalized context: Goodwin' s model of economic growth cycles [Goodwin 1967] and urban dynamics [Dendrinos 1992] are only two of a number of examples. Such systems can certainly be defined as complex ones and in fact the aim of modelling was essentially to clarify mechanims rather than to provide actual precise simulations and predictions. With regards to complex systems, we recall that one of their main feature, no matter of the specific definition one has in mind, is adaptation, i. e. the ability to adjust.

  11. Lateral cascade of indirect effects in food webs with different types of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Kamran-Disfani, Ahmad R; Golubski, Antonio J

    2013-12-21

    It is widely recognized that indirect effects due to adaptive behaviors can have important effects on food webs. One consequence may be to change how readily perturbations propagate through the web, because species' behaviors as well as densities may respond to perturbations. It is not well understood which types of behavior are more likely to facilitate versus inhibit propagation of disturbances through a food web, or how this might be affected by the shape of a food web or the patterns of interaction strengths within it. We model two simple, laterally expanded food webs (one with three trophic levels and one with four), and compare how various adaptive behaviors affect the potential for a newly introduced predator to change the equilibrium densities of distant species. Patterns of changes in response to the introduction were qualitatively similar across most models, as were the ways in which patterns of direct interaction strengths affected those responses. Depending on both the web structure and the specific adaptive behavior, the potential for density changes to propagate through the web could be either increased or diminished relative to the no-behavior model. Two behaviors allowed density changes to propagate through a four-level web that precluded such propagation in the no-behavior model, and each of these two behaviors led to qualitatively different patterns of density changes. In the one model (diet choice) in which density changes were able to propagate in both web structures, patterns of density changes differed qualitatively between webs. Some of our results flowed from the fact that behaviors did not interact directly in the systems we considered, so that indirect effects on distant species had to be at least partly density-mediated. Our models highlight this as an inherent limitation of considering in isolation behaviors that are strictly foraging-related or strictly defense-related, making a case for the value of simultaneously considering multiple

  12. The adaptive trade-off between detection and discrimination in cortical representations and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ollerenshaw, Douglas R; Zheng, He J V; Millard, Daniel C; Wang, Qi; Stanley, Garrett B

    2014-03-05

    It has long been posited that detectability of sensory inputs can be sacrificed in favor of improved discriminability and that sensory adaptation may mediate this trade-off. The extent to which this trade-off exists behaviorally and the complete picture of the underlying neural representations that likely subserve the phenomenon remain unclear. In the rodent vibrissa system, an ideal observer analysis of cortical activity measured using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in anesthetized animals was combined with behavioral detection and discrimination tasks, thalamic recordings from awake animals, and computational modeling to show that spatial discrimination performance was improved following adaptation, but at the expense of the ability to detect weak stimuli. Together, these results provide direct behavioral evidence for the trade-off between detectability and discriminability, that this trade-off can be modulated through bottom-up sensory adaptation, and that these effects correspond to important changes in thalamocortical coding properties.

  13. The effect of preceptor behavior on the critical thinking skills of new graduate nurses in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud A

    2013-11-01

    Little research has been conducted to examine the effect of preceptor behaviors on the critical thinking of new graduate nurses in the intensive care unit (ICU). This study explored the perceptions of new graduates on the effect of preceptor behaviors and strategies on the development of their critical thinking skills, using a qualitative exploratory descriptive design. Data were collected with demographic surveys and semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed with a qualitative content analysis approach. The study showed that relationships between new graduates and their preceptors played a key role in the development of critical thinking skills in new graduate nurses, and specific practical implications were suggested. The study data are useful for critical care nurses, preceptors, nurse educators, and clinical nurse specialists. The findings contribute to efforts to enhance the preceptor-preceptee relationship and develop critical thinking skills in new graduates.

  14. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: II Profile of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sabrina; Paynter, Jessica M; Gilmore, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour is a crucial area of assessment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study examined the adaptive behaviour profile of 77 young children with ASD using the Vineland-II, and analysed factors associated with adaptive functioning. Consistent with previous research with the original Vineland a distinct autism profile of Vineland-II age equivalent scores, but not standard scores, was found. Highest scores were in motor skills and lowest scores were in socialisation. The addition of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule calibrated severity score did not contribute significant variance to Vineland-II scores beyond that accounted for by age and nonverbal ability. Limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed.

  15. Measuring adaptations of motivational interviewing: the development and validation of the behavior change counseling index (BECCI).

    PubMed

    Lane, Claire; Huws-Thomas, Michelle; Hood, Kerenza; Rollnick, Stephen; Edwards, Karen; Robling, Michael

    2005-02-01

    One of the most common challenges faced by health professionals is encouraging patients to change their behavior to improve their health. This paper reports the development of a checklist, the behavior change counseling index (BECCI). This aims to measure practitioner competence in behavior change counseling (BCC), an adaptation of motivational interviewing suitable for brief consultations in healthcare settings. The checklist has demonstrated acceptable levels of validity, reliability and responsiveness, and aims to assist trainers and researchers in assessing change in practitioner behavior before, during and after training in BCC. BECCI will also provide valuable information about the standard of BCC that practitioners were trained to deliver in studies of BCC as an intervention.

  16. Effects of Water Exercise Swimming Program on Aquatic Skills and Social Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 10 week water exercise swimming program (WESP) on the aquatic skills and social behaviors of 16 boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first 10 week phase (phase I), eight children (group A) received the WESP while eight children (group B) did not. A second 10 week phase…

  17. Assessment of the Prerequisite Skills for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickel, Athena; MacLean, William E., Jr.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Hepburn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) thought to be necessary for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Forty children with ASD and forty age-matched typically developing children between the ages of 7-12 years participated. Groups were comparable with regard to nonverbal IQ,…

  18. Behaviorally Based Interventions for Teaching Social Interaction Skills to Children with ASD in Inclusive Settings: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, Síglia Pimentel Höher; Rispoli, Mandy; Ganz, Jennifer; Hong, Ee Rea; Davis, Heather; Mason, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Behaviorally based interventions have been demonstrated to be effective to teach social interaction skills for children with autism spectrum disorders in general education. However, the overall and moderating effects of these interventions have not been previously investigated in inclusive settings. The goal of this study was to investigate the…

  19. Participation in Activities outside of School Hours in Relation to Problem Behavior and Social Skills in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, LaJeana D.; Lukacs, Susan L.; Pastor, Patricia N.; Reuben, Cynthia A.; Mendola, Pauline

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that participating in activities outside of school hours is associated with lower dropout rates, enhanced school performance, improved social skills, and reduced problem behaviors. However, most prior studies have been limited to small populations of older children (greater than 12 years). This analysis focuses on…

  20. Youth Activity Involvement, Neighborhood Adult Support, Individual Decision Making Skills, and Early Adolescent Delinquent Behaviors: Testing a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crean, Hugh F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines a cross-sectional structural equation model of participation in youth activities, neighborhood adult support, individual decision making skills, and delinquent behavior in urban middle school youths (n = 2611). Results indicate extracurricular activity participation had both direct and indirect associations with delinquent…

  1. Summary of Mode Deactivation Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Social Skills Training with Two Year Post Treatment Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2006-01-01

    This study summarized two treatment research studies and included recidivism data for two years post discharge for group therapy. The study compared Mode deactivation Therapy (MDT), Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), and Social Skills training (SST), results of the MDT series of studies and the two year post-study recidivism data. The data from the…

  2. The Growing Need for Social, Emotional and Behavioral Skills Programs in Our Nation's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Melanie L.

    2014-01-01

    The needs of our students have drastically changed over the years and school districts are increasingly finding themselves in need of new programs and curricula to address the social, emotional, and behavioral needs of their students. Student achievement and readiness is impacted due to a lack of basic skills needed in the classroom. This paper…

  3. Predicting Improvement After First-Grade Reading Difficulties: The Effects of Oral Language, Emergent Literacy, and Behavior Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spira, Elana Greenfield; Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the role of early literacy and behavioral skills in predicting the improvement of children who have experienced reading difficulties in 1st grade. The progress of 146 low-income children whose reading scores in 1st grade were below the 30th percentile was examined to determine (a) how the poorest readers in 1st grade…

  4. Pilot Evaluation of the Coping Course: A Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance Coping Skills in Incarcerated Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Jorgensen, Jenel S.; Seeley, John R.; Mace, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and initial evaluation of the Coping Course, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention designed to enhance general coping and problem-solving skills among incarcerated youth. Method: Between 2001 and 2002, 76 male adolescents incarcerated at a youth correctional facility were assessed by questionnaire and…

  5. The Efficacy of a Social Skills Group Intervention for Improving Social Behaviors in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosier, Melissa E.; Swick, Danielle C.; Davis, Naomi Ornstein; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; Matthews, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a new social skills intervention, "S ocial S kills GR oup IN tervention-High Functioning Autism" ("S.S.GRIN-HFA"), designed to improve social behaviors in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Fifty-five children were randomly assigned to "S.S.GRIN-HFA" treatment (n = 27) or control (i.e.,…

  6. Academic Achievements, Behavioral Problems, and Loneliness as Predictors of Social Skills among Students with and without Learning Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zach, Sima; Yazdi-Ugav, Orly; Zeev, Aviva

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine to what extent academic achievements, learning disorders, behavior problems and loneliness explain the variance of students' social skills. The differences between students diagnosed with learning disorders and students without learning disorders in all four variables were examined. Participants were 733 elementary…

  7. Socio-Emotional Skills, Behavior Problems, and Spanish Competence Predict the Acquisition of English among English Language Learners in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsler, Adam; Kim, Yoon Kyong; Richard, Erin R.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the role that individual differences in children's cognitive, Spanish competence, and socio-emotional and behavioral skills play in predicting the concurrent and longitudinal acquisition of English among a large sample of ethnically diverse, low-income, Hispanic preschool children. Participants assessed at age 4 for language,…

  8. An Open Pilot Feasibility Study of a Brief Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills-Based Intervention for Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.

    2013-01-01

    This open trial sought to develop and evaluate the preliminary feasibility and effectiveness of a brief, one-time, dialectical behavior therapy skills-based intervention with specific focus on ensuring acceptability to nontreatment-seekers. Treatment-seeking and nontreatment-seeking suicidal individuals were recruited successfully from the…

  9. The Use of Behavioral Skills Training and in situ Feedback to Protect Children with Autism from Abduction Lures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunby, Kristin V.; Rapp, John T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of behavioral skills training with in situ feedback on safe responding by children with autism to abduction lures that were presented after a high-probability (high-p) request sequence. This sequence was intended to simulate a grooming or recruitment process. Results show that all 3 participants ultimately acquired the…

  10. Cognitive Problem-Solving Skills Training and Parent Management Training in the Treatment of Antisocial Behavior in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazdin, Alan E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluated effects of problem-solving skills training (PSST) and parent management training (PMT) on 97 children referred for severe antisocial behavior. Found that, compared to PSST condition or PMT condition, combination PSST and PMT condition led to more marked changes in child and parent functioning and placed greater proportion of youth within…

  11. The Impact of Social-Behavioral Learning Strategy Training on the Social Interaction Skills of Four Students with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Marjorie A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a social-behavioral learning strategy intervention (SODA) on the social interaction skills of 4 elementary school children with Asperger syndrome (AS). More specifically, the study investigated the effect of SODA training on the abilities of 4 children with AS to participate in cooperative learning activities,…

  12. Mobile and Wireless Technologies in Health Behavior and the Potential for Intensively Adaptive Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Riley, William T.; Serrano, Katrina J.; Nilsen, Wendy; Atienza, Audie A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in mobile and wireless technologies have made real-time assessments of health behaviors and their influences possible with minimal respondent burden. These tech-enabled real-time assessments provide the basis for intensively adaptive interventions (IAIs). Evidence of such studies that adjust interventions based on real-time inputs is beginning to emerge. Although IAIs are promising, the development of intensively adaptive algorithms generate new research questions, and the intensive longitudinal data produced by IAIs require new methodologies and analytic approaches. Research considerations and future directions for IAIs in health behavior research are provided. PMID:26086033

  13. Mobile and Wireless Technologies in Health Behavior and the Potential for Intensively Adaptive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Serrano, Katrina J; Nilsen, Wendy; Atienza, Audie A

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances in mobile and wireless technologies have made real-time assessments of health behaviors and their influences possible with minimal respondent burden. These tech-enabled real-time assessments provide the basis for intensively adaptive interventions (IAIs). Evidence of such studies that adjust interventions based on real-time inputs is beginning to emerge. Although IAIs are promising, the development of intensively adaptive algorithms generate new research questions, and the intensive longitudinal data produced by IAIs require new methodologies and analytic approaches. Research considerations and future directions for IAIs in health behavior research are provided.

  14. Using practical and social information to influence flood adaptation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaire, Maura C.

    2016-08-01

    As the prospect for more frequent and severe extreme weather events gains scientific support, many nations are evaluating mitigation and adaptation options. Insurance and home retrofits could reduce household welfare losses due to flood events. Yet even after disasters, households often fail to take risk mitigation actions. This paper presents the first randomized field experiment that tests the effect of information provision on household uptake of flood insurance and home retrofits. A sample of 364 flood-prone households in Bangkok was randomly split into treatment and control groups. The treatment group received practical details on home retrofits and flood insurance as well as social information regarding the insurance purchase decisions of peers. Results indicate that the information intervention increased insurance purchases by about five percentage points, while no effect was detected for home retrofits. This effect is nearly equal to the increase in uptake that the national insurance program in Thailand has achieved through all other means since its establishment in 2012. If scaled up to include all uninsured, flood-prone households in Bangkok, nearly 70,000 additional households could be insured. The results suggest that well-designed information interventions could increase uptake of flood insurance, without additional premium subsidies or mandates.

  15. Parent Training to Reduce Problem Behaviors over the Transition to High School: Tests of Indirect Effects through Improved Emotion Regulation Skills

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; January, Stacy-Ann A.; Fleming, Charles B.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Snyder, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent problem behaviors are costly for individuals and society. Promoting the self-regulatory functioning of youth may help prevent the development of such behaviors. Parent-training and family intervention programs have been shown to improve child and adolescent self-regulation. This study helps fill gaps in knowledge by testing for indirect effects of the Common Sense Parenting® (CSP) program on reduced substance use, conduct problems, and school suspensions through previously identified short-term improvements in parents’ reports of their children’s emotion regulation skills. Over two cohorts, 321 low income families of 8th graders were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the standard CSP program, an adapted CSP Plus program, or a minimal-contact control condition. Pretest, posttest, 1-year follow-up, and 2-year follow-up survey assessments were completed by parents and students with 94% retention. Intent-to-treat multivariate path analyses were conducted. Neither intervention had statistically significant total effects on the three targeted adolescent outcomes. CSP, but not CSP Plus, had statistically significant indirect effects on reduced substance use and school suspensions at the 1-year follow-up as well as conduct problems and school suspensions at the 2-year follow-up through increased child emotion regulation skills at posttest. Findings provide some support for emotion regulation as one pathway through which the intervention was associated, indirectly, with reduced substance use, conduct problems, and school suspensions among at-risk students over the high school transition. PMID:26778871

  16. Parent Training to Reduce Problem Behaviors over the Transition to High School: Tests of Indirect Effects through Improved Emotion Regulation Skills.

    PubMed

    Mason, W Alex; January, Stacy-Ann A; Fleming, Charles B; Thompson, Ronald W; Parra, Gilbert R; Haggerty, Kevin P; Snyder, James J

    2016-02-01

    Adolescent problem behaviors are costly for individuals and society. Promoting the self-regulatory functioning of youth may help prevent the development of such behaviors. Parent-training and family intervention programs have been shown to improve child and adolescent self-regulation. This study helps fill gaps in knowledge by testing for indirect effects of the Common Sense Parenting(®) (CSP) program on reduced substance use, conduct problems, and school suspensions through previously identified short-term improvements in parents' reports of their children's emotion regulation skills. Over two cohorts, 321 low income families of 8(th) graders were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the standard CSP program, an adapted CSP Plus program, or a minimal-contact control condition. Pretest, posttest, 1-year follow-up, and 2-year follow-up survey assessments were completed by parents and students with 94% retention. Intent-to-treat multivariate path analyses were conducted. Neither intervention had statistically significant total effects on the three targeted adolescent outcomes. CSP, but not CSP Plus, had statistically significant indirect effects on reduced substance use and school suspensions at the 1-year follow-up as well as conduct problems and school suspensions at the 2-year follow-up through increased child emotion regulation skills at posttest. Findings provide some support for emotion regulation as one pathway through which the intervention was associated, indirectly, with reduced substance use, conduct problems, and school suspensions among at-risk students over the high school transition.

  17. Group Selection as Behavioral Adaptation to Systematic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J.; Lo, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form “groups”, even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution—selection with correlated reproductive risk–that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon. PMID:25353167

  18. Employer Satisfaction with Job Skills of Business College Graduates and Its Impact on Hiring Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelkar, Mayuresh; Paranto, Sharon R.

    1999-01-01

    Developed a scale to measure job-applicant skills employers perceive to be important when hiring and how employers perceive the effectiveness of business schools. Found employers, irrespective of size and type of business, want the same basic "core skills" (such as self-confidence and critical thinking); satisfaction with core skills is the most…

  19. Strategies for Improving Self-Managing Behavior Skills among Second Grade Students: The Self-Management and Responsibility Training (SMART) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Gina M.

    This practicum report describes a program in which strategies for improving self-managing behavior skills of second graders were designed and implemented. The goals of the Self-Management and Responsibility Training (SMART) Program were to improve students' behavior and encourage development of students' critical thinking skills. The four basic…

  20. Assessment of the Prosocial Behaviors of Young Children with Regard to Social Development, Social Skills, Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulay, Hulya

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was prosocial behaviors of 5-6 years old children were investigated with regard to parental acceptance-rejection, peer relationships, general social development and social skills. The participants of the study included 277 5-6-year-old Turkish children and their parents. The Child Behavior Scale, Social Skills Form, Marmara…

  1. Group training in interpersonal problem-solving skills for workplace adaptation of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study describes preliminary data from a group format manual-based intervention, the Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme, aimed at improving the cognitive and metacognitive process of social problem-solving skills focusing on typical social situations in the workplace based on mediation as the main strategy. A total of 50 adults with Asperger syndrome received the programme and were compared with a control group of typical development. The feasibility and effectiveness of the treatment were explored. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment on a task of social problem-solving skills and two secondary measures of socialisation and work profile using self- and caregiver-report. Using a variety of methods, the results showed that scores were significantly higher at post-treatment in the social problem-solving task and socialisation skills based on reports by parents. Differences in comparison to the control group had decreased after treatment. The treatment was acceptable to families and subject adherence was high. The Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme appears to be a feasible training programme.

  2. Adaptation of community health worker-delivered behavioral activation for torture survivors in Kurdistan, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, J. F.; Lejuez, C. W.; Kamal, T.; Blevins, E. J.; Murray, L. K.; Bass, J. K.; Bolton, P.; Pagoto, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Growing evidence supports the use of Western therapies for the treatment of depression, trauma, and stress delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in conflict-affected, resource-limited countries. A recent randomized controlled trial (Bolton et al. 2014a) supported the efficacy of two CHW-delivered interventions, cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD), for reducing depressive symptoms and functional impairment among torture survivors in the Kurdish region of Iraq. Methods This study describes the adaptation of the CHW-delivered BATD approach delivered in this trial (Bolton et al.2014a), informed by the Assessment–Decision–Administration-Production–Topical experts–Integration–Training–Testing (ADAPT–ITT) framework for intervention adaptation (Wingood & DiClemente, 2008). Cultural modifications, adaptations for low-literacy, and tailored training and supervision for non-specialist CHWs are presented, along with two clinical case examples to illustrate delivery of the adapted intervention in this setting. Results Eleven CHWs, a study psychiatrist, and the CHW clinical supervisor were trained in BATD. The adaptation process followed the ADAPT–ITT framework and was iterative with significant input from the on-site supervisor and CHWs. Modifications were made to fit Kurdish culture, including culturally relevant analogies, use of stickers for behavior monitoring, cultural modifications to behavioral contracts, and including telephone-delivered sessions to enhance feasibility. Conclusions BATD was delivered by CHWs in a resource-poor, conflict-affected area in Kurdistan, Iraq, with some important modifications, including low-literacy adaptations, increased cultural relevancy of clinical materials, and tailored training and supervision for CHWs. Barriers to implementation, lessons learned, and recommendations for future efforts to adapt behavioral therapies for resource

  3. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed <4, 4–7, and >7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing <4 adaptation behaviors during heat waves had the highest risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health

  4. Language and Communication Skills in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Contribution of Cognition, Severity of Autism Symptoms, and Adaptive Functioning to the Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Hedvall, Asa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Norrelgen, Fritjof

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of cognitive function, severity of autism, and adaptive functioning to the variability in language and communication skills in 129 preschool children (aged 24-63 months) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were selected from a representative research cohort of 208 preschool children on the basis…

  5. Using a Computer-Adapted, Conceptually Based History Text to Increase Comprehension and Problem-Solving Skills of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyman, Todd; Tindal, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the comprehension and problem-solving skills of students with disabilities in social studies using a conceptually framed, computer-adapted history text. Participants were 11th and 12th grade students identified with learning disabilities in reading and writing from two intact, self-contained social studies…

  6. Longitudinal development of manual motor ability in autism spectrum disorder from childhood to mid-adulthood relates to adaptive daily living skills.

    PubMed

    Travers, Brittany G; Bigler, Erin D; Duffield, Tyler C; Prigge, Molly D B; Froehlich, Alyson L; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L; Lainhart, Janet E

    2016-04-07

    Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit motor difficulties, but it is unknown whether manual motor skills improve, plateau, or decline in ASD in the transition from childhood into adulthood. Atypical development of manual motor skills could impact the ability to learn and perform daily activities across the life span. This study examined longitudinal grip strength and finger tapping development in individuals with ASD (n = 90) compared to individuals with typical development (n = 56), ages 5 to 40 years old. We further examined manual motor performance as a possible correlate of current and future daily living skills. The group with ASD demonstrated atypical motor development, characterized by similar performance during childhood but increasingly poorer performance from adolescence into adulthood. Grip strength was correlated with current adaptive daily living skills, and Time 1 grip strength predicted daily living skills eight years into the future. These results suggest that individuals with ASD may experience increasingly more pronounced motor difficulties from adolescence into adulthood and that manual motor performance in ASD is related to adaptive daily living skills.

  7. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Eneli, Ihuoma U; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Lumeng, Julie C

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., age, education, ethnicity, and body mass index) examined mothers' intuitive eating and eating competence as predictors of four feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, and dividing feeding responsibilities with their child). Mothers who gave themselves unconditional permission to eat were less likely to restrict their child's food intake. Mothers who ate for physical (rather than emotional) reasons and had eating-related contextual skills (e.g., mindfulness when eating, planning regular and nutritious eating opportunities for themselves) were more likely to monitor their child's food intake. Mothers who had eating-related contextual skills were more likely to divide feeding responsibilities with their child. No maternal eating behavior predicted pressure to eat. Interventions to help mothers develop their eating-related contextual skills and eat intuitively, in particular, may translate into a more positive feeding environment for their young children.

  8. A pilot randomized trial of an online parenting skills program for pediatric traumatic brain injury: improvements in parenting and child behavior.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Tanya N; Raj, Stacey P; Oberjohn, Karen S; Cassedy, Amy; Makoroff, Kathi L; Fouladi, Maryam; Wade, Shari L

    2014-07-01

    This pilot study examined changes in parenting skills and child behavior following participation in an online positive parenting skills program designed for young children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thirty-seven families with a child between 3 and 9 years of age who sustained a moderate to severe TBI were randomly assigned to one of two interventions: online parenting skills training (n=20) or access to Internet resources on managing brain injury (n=17). Parent-child interaction observations and parent ratings of child behavior were collected pre- and post-treatment. Generalized estimating equations and mixed models were used to examine changes in parenting skills and child behavior problems as well as the moderating role of family income on treatment response. Participants in the parenting skills group displayed significant improvements in observed positive parenting skills relative to participants in the Internet resource group. Income moderated improvements in parent ratings of child behavior, with participants in the low-income parenting skills group and high-income Internet resource group reporting the greatest improvements in behavior. This is the first randomized controlled trial examining online parenting skills training for families of young children with TBI. Improvements in positive parenting skills and child behavior support the utility of this intervention, particularly for families from lower socioeconomic backgrounds.

  9. Study on the factors related with intention of cancer screening among Korean residents: application of information-motivation-behavioral skills model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong Ki; Jo, Heui Sug; Lee, Hey Jean

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between intention of undergoing cancer screening and information, motivation, and behavioral skills using an information-motivation-behavioral skills model. The authors performed a telephone survey of a random sample of 2030 residents aged 30 to 69 years from 6 counties of Gangwon province, South Korea from July 15 to July 25, 2009. Questions about information, motivation, and behavioral skills were examined using a confirmatory factor analysis and relationships among factors were analyzed using a structure equation model. The intention of undergoing cancer screening showed a positive relationship between intention to undergo cancer screening and information(r = .134, P < .001), social norms(r = .059, P = .009), and behavioral skills(r = .129, P < .001). Therefore, comprehensive intervention considering motivation and behavioral skills as well as information is necessary to improve cancer screening rates.

  10. Compensatory Expressive Behavior for Facial Paralysis: Adaptation to Congenital or Acquired Disability

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Kathleen R.; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Ambady, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective Although there has been little research on the adaptive behavior of people with congenital compared to acquired disability, there is reason to predict that people with congenital conditions may be better adapted because they have lived with their conditions for their entire lives (Smart, 2008). We examined whether people with congenital facial paralysis (FP), compared to people with acquired FP, compensate more for impoverished facial expression by using alternative channels of expression (i.e. voice and body). Research Method/Design Participants with congenital (n = 13) and acquired (n = 14) FP were videotaped while recalling emotional events. Main Outcome Measures Expressive verbal behavior was measured using the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (Pennebaker, Booth & Francis, 2007). Nonverbal behavior and FP severity were rated by trained coders. Results People with congenital FP, compared to acquired FP, used more compensatory expressive verbal and nonverbal behavior in their language, voices, and bodies. The extent of FP severity had little effect on compensatory expressivity. Conclusions/Implications This study provides the first behavioral evidence that people with congenital FP use more adaptations to express themselves than people with acquired FP. These behaviors could inform social functioning interventions for people with FP. PMID:22369116

  11. Does Practice Make Perfect? The Relationship Between Self-Reported Treatment Homework Completion and Parental Skill Acquisition and Child Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jocelyn O; Jent, Jason F; Weinstein, Allison; Davis, Eileen M; Brown, Tasha M; Cruz, Laura; Wavering, Hannah

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the rate and type of parent-reported homework completion is associated with parent-report of child behavior outcomes, number of sessions to master parental skills as measured by therapist observation, and length of treatment in Parent-child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Sixty-two parent-child dyads (primary caregiver: Mage=36.35years, female 95.20%, 81.60% White, 59.57% Hispanic; child Mage=4.22years; child gender male 64.50%) who completed PCIT were included in the study. A within-subjects hierarchical regression statistical design was used to examine the impact of parent report of homework completion on treatment processes and outcomes. A higher rate of self-reported homework completion was predictive of parental mastery of skill acquisition in fewer sessions and treatment completion in fewer sessions. Parent report of homework completion rate was not related to changes in child disruptive behavior after controlling for child behavior at baseline. Current study findings reinforce the importance of having parents regularly practice PCIT skills outside of session in order to decrease treatment length and facilitate the acquisition of parenting skills, which may reduce family burdens associated with attending a weekly treatment.

  12. Dissociation of the behavioral and subjective components of nitrogen narcosis and diver adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, K; Laliberté, M F; Fowler, B

    1995-03-01

    We investigated adaptation to nitrogen narcosis by compressing 11 highly experienced divers in a hyperbaric chamber to the equivalent of 54.6 meters of seawater once a day for 5 consecutive days. The behavioral component of narcosis was assessed with a serial choice-reaction time (RT) task, and the subjective component with a global magnitude estimate. Supplementary magnitude estimates were obtained with adjectives describing work effectiveness and body sensations. The results showed that there was no adaptation on the RT task, although learning was evident. In contrast, the global estimate dissociated from RT and showed clear adaptation by Day 3. The work effectiveness adjectives followed RT and did not show adaptation. Some body sensation adjectives showed clear adaptation, but others did not. These results lead to the conclusion that the anecdotal reports of adaptation by divers can probably be attributed to the subjective rather than the behavioral component of narcosis. Dissociation of these components suggests mediation by different brain mechanisms, and it is speculated that the gamma-aminobutyric acidA/benzodiazepine receptor complex, which has been implicated in both the anesthetic and anxiolytic properties of agents such as nitrous oxide, may be involved.

  13. State Norms for IQ, Adaptive Behavior, and Sociocultural Status: Implications for Nonbiased Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J.; And Others

    Findings from the Iowa Assessment Project are examined regarding the assessment and use of information on adaptive behavior and sociocultural background in decisions about students with mild mental retardation. Background aspects reviewed include terminology regarding mild retardation; research, litigation, and legislation on the topic during the…

  14. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  15. Intelligence, Parental Depression, and Behavior Adaptability in Deaf Children Being Considered for Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Krull, Kevin; Hannay, Julia; Mehta, Paras; Caudle, Susan; Oghalai, John

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive ability and behavioral adaptability are distinct, yet related, constructs that can impact childhood development. Both are often reduced in deaf children of hearing parents who do not provide sufficient language and communication access. Additionally, parental depression is commonly observed due to parent-child communication difficulties…

  16. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  17. Adaptive Interventions and SMART Designs: Application to Child Behavior Research in a Community Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Kelley M.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity between and within people necessitates the need for sequential personalized interventions to optimize individual outcomes. Personalized or adaptive interventions (AIs) are relevant for diseases and maladaptive behavioral trajectories when one intervention is not curative and success of a subsequent intervention may depend on…

  18. Adaptive Responses to Prochloraz Exposure That Alter Dose-Response and Time-Course Behaviors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose response and time-course (DRTC) are, along with exposure, the major determinants of health risk. Adaptive changes within exposed organisms in response to environmental stress are common, and alter DRTC behaviors to minimize the effects caused by stressors. In this project, ...

  19. Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…

  20. Behavioral Adaptation in Deceptive Transactions: Fact or Fiction: Reply to Levine and McCornack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Takes issue with the findings of T. Levine, and S. McCornack, which suggest that behavioral adaption explanation (BAE) cannot account for the probing effect, the effect that sources interrogatively probed appear more honest to message recipients than nonprobed sources. (TB)

  1. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome: Interim Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)

  2. Future Time Perspective as a Predictor of Adolescents' Adaptive Behavior in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Renato Gil Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents' development across different contexts. However, the extent to which FTP influences adaptation needs additional understanding. In this study, we analysed the relationship between FTP and adolescents' behavior in school, as expressed in several indicators of…

  3. Rapid Assessment of the Effects of Restraint on Self-Injury and Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michele D.; Iwata, Brian A.; Zhou, Liming; Goff, Gerald A.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of restraint on occurrences of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and adaptive responses exhibited by two individuals with profound mental retardation across eight response-effort conditions with varying degrees of physical restraint. Analysis identified a restraint level for each individual that reduced SIB but did not…

  4. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals…

  5. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behaviors of Movers and Stayers: Findings from a Controlled Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Paul; Apgar, Dawn Hall; Jordan,Tameeka

    2005-01-01

    Reviews of research on deinstitutionalization show that investigators have focused primarily on adaptive behavior changes of "movers," while paying minimal attention to "stayers." Analysis of their research also revealed some methodological problems. We assessed 150 movers and 150 stayers in 1994, before deinstitutionalization began in 1997. We…

  6. Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Charles R.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2005-01-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Adaptive Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Sofia; Morato, Pedro; Luckasson, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive behavior construct has gained prominent attention in human services over the last several years in Portugal, and its measurement has become an integral part of the assessment of populations with intellectual disability. In Portugal, diagnosis remains exclusively based on IQ measures, although some attention recently has been given to…

  8. A Post-Genomic View of Behavioral Development and Adaptation to the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFreniere, Peter; MacDonald, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics are reviewed that have major implications for the bio-behavioral sciences and for understanding how organisms adapt to their environments at both phylogenetic and ontogenic levels. From a post-genomics perspective, the environment is as crucial as the DNA sequence for constructing the…

  9. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and Cortical Adaptation in Habituation of Odor-Guided Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadon, Carly A.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2005-01-01

    Decreases in behavioral investigation of novel stimuli over time may be mediated by a variety of factors including changes in attention, internal state, and motivation. Sensory cortical adaptation, a decrease in sensory cortical responsiveness over prolonged stimulation, may also play a role. In olfaction, metabotropic glutamate receptors on…

  10. Studying the Genetics of Behavior and Evolution by Adaptation and Natural Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Jules

    1998-01-01

    Provides an exercise designed to give students an appreciation for the genetic basis of behavior. Employs the phenomenon of glucose aversion as an example of evolution by mutation and accelerated natural selection, thereby revealing one of the ways in which organisms adapt to human interference. (DDR)

  11. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    PubMed Central

    Mhaidat, Fatin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades) enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure) and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. PMID:27175098

  12. Skill Acquisition and Utilization During Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Childhood Disruptive Behavior Problems: A Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Janelle; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Herschell, Amy D.; Kolko, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We review 85 empirical articles published since 2000 that measured the acquisition and/or utilization of parent management skills and/or child cognitive-behavioral skills in the context of an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for childhood behavior problems. Results showed that: (1) there are no standardized measures of skill acquisition or skill utilization that are used across treatments, (2) little is known about predictors, correlates, or outcomes associated with skill acquisition and utilization, and (3) few studies systematically examined techniques to enhance the acquisition and utilization of specific skills. Meta-analytic results from a subset of 68 articles (59 studies) showed an overall treatment–control ES =.31, p < .01 for skill acquisition and ES =.20, p = ns for skill utilization. We recommend that future research focus on the following three areas: (1) development of standardized measures of skill acquisition and utilization from a “common elements” perspective that can used across EBTs; (2) assessment of the predictors, correlates, and outcomes associated with skill acquisition and utilization; and (3) development of innovative interventions to enhance the acquisition and utilization of cognitive-behavioral and parent management skills. PMID:23649324

  13. Social stratification, classroom climate, and the behavioral adaptation of kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W Thomas; Obradovic, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Kim, Young Shin; Adler, Nancy

    2012-10-16

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is the single most potent determinant of health within human populations, from infancy through old age. Although the social stratification of health is nearly universal, there is persistent uncertainty regarding the dimensions of SES that effect such inequalities and thus little clarity about the principles of intervention by which inequalities might be abated. Guided by animal models of hierarchical organization and the health correlates of subordination, this prospective study examined the partitioning of children's adaptive behavioral development by their positions within kindergarten classroom hierarchies. A sample of 338 5-y-old children was recruited from 29 Berkeley, California public school classrooms. A naturalistic observational measure of social position, parent-reported family SES, and child-reported classroom climate were used in estimating multilevel, random-effects models of children's adaptive behavior at the end of the kindergarten year. Children occupying subordinate positions had significantly more maladaptive behavioral outcomes than their dominant peers. Further, interaction terms revealed that low family SES and female sex magnified, and teachers' child-centered pedagogical practices diminished, the adverse influences of social subordination. Taken together, results suggest that, even within early childhood groups, social stratification is associated with a partitioning of adaptive behavioral outcomes and that the character of larger societal and school structures in which such groups are nested can moderate rank-behavior associations.

  14. Treating Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors with Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in…

  15. Relations Between Nonverbal and Verbal Social Cognitive Skills and Complex Social Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Autism.

    PubMed

    Demopoulos, Carly; Hopkins, Joyce; Lewine, Jeffrey D

    2016-07-01

    Although there is an extensive literature on domains of social skill deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), little research has examined the relation between specific social cognitive skills and complex social behaviors in daily functioning. This was the aim of the present study. Participants were 37 (26 male and 11 female) children and adolescents aged 6-18 years diagnosed with ASD. To determine the amount of variance in parent-rated complex social behavior accounted for by the linear combination of five directly-assessed social cognitive variables (i.e., adult and child facial and vocal affect recognition and social judgment) after controlling for general intellectual ability, a hierarchical regression analysis was performed. The linear combination of variables accounted for 35.4 % of the variance in parent-rated complex social behavior. Vocal affect recognition in adult voices showed the strongest association with complex social behavior in ASD. Results suggest that assessment and training in vocal affective comprehension should be an important component of social skills interventions for individuals with ASD.

  16. Effects of water exercise swimming program on aquatic skills and social behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 10 week water exercise swimming program (WESP) on the aquatic skills and social behaviors of 16 boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first 10 week phase (phase I), eight children (group A) received the WESP while eight children (group B) did not. A second 10 week phase (phase II) immediately followed, with the treatments reversed. Both groups continued their regular treatment/ activity throughout the study. Improvements were seen in aquatic skills for both groups subsequent to the WESP. Following phase I, significant social improvements were seen in group A. Following phase II, social improvements were seen for group B, whereas group A merely maintained the improvements they attained through the implementation of the WESP during phase I. Results indicate that the WESP improved aquatic skills in the participants, and holds potential for social improvements.

  17. Health-related quality of life and adaptive behaviors of adolescents with sickle cell disease: stress processing moderators.

    PubMed

    Ziadni, Maisa S; Patterson, Chavis A; Pulgarón, Elizabeth R; Robinson, M Renée; Barakat, Lamia P

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine resilience among adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD), focusing on the interaction of health-related quality of life with stress processing to explain adaptive behavior. Forty-four adolescents with SCD completed paper-and-pencil measures of health-related quality of life, appraisals (hope), pain coping strategies (e.g. adherence), and adaptive behavior. Self-reported health-related quality of life was significantly associated with adaptive behavior, as was adherence. Findings for moderation were mixed. Pain coping strategies moderated the association of health-related quality of life with adaptive behavior such that at lower levels of Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) Adherence, better quality of life was associated with higher adaptive behavior. Similarly, at higher levels of hope, better quality of life was associated with higher adaptive behavior, and poorer quality of life was associated with lower adaptive behavior. Adolescents with SCD showed resilience, particularly in terms of personal adjustment, that may be explained by their appraisals and stress processing strategies. Interventions to support an optimistic or hopeful outlook and improve adherence to recommendations for medical management of sickle cell pain may result in improved resilience/adaptive behavior.

  18. Behaviorally Mediated, Warm Adaptation: A Physiological Strategy When Mice Are Allowed to Behaviorally Thermoregulate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of -22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller int...

  19. Frontal theta links prediction errors to behavioral adaptation in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Frank, Michael J; Klein, Theresa J; Allen, John J B

    2010-02-15

    Investigations into action monitoring have consistently detailed a frontocentral voltage deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) following the presentation of negatively valenced feedback, sometimes termed the feedback-related negativity (FRN). The FRN has been proposed to reflect a neural response to prediction errors during reinforcement learning, yet the single-trial relationship between neural activity and the quanta of expectation violation remains untested. Although ERP methods are not well suited to single-trial analyses, the FRN has been associated with theta band oscillatory perturbations in the medial prefrontal cortex. Mediofrontal theta oscillations have been previously associated with expectation violation and behavioral adaptation and are well suited to single-trial analysis. Here, we recorded EEG activity during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task and fit the performance data to an abstract computational model (Q-learning) for calculation of single-trial reward prediction errors. Single-trial theta oscillatory activities following feedback were investigated within the context of expectation (prediction error) and adaptation (subsequent reaction time change). Results indicate that interactive medial and lateral frontal theta activities reflect the degree of negative and positive reward prediction error in the service of behavioral adaptation. These different brain areas use prediction error calculations for different behavioral adaptations, with medial frontal theta reflecting the utilization of prediction errors for reaction time slowing (specifically following errors), but lateral frontal theta reflecting prediction errors leading to working memory-related reaction time speeding for the correct choice.

  20. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Li, Deshi

    2015-09-16

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness.

  1. Adaptive behavior of bacterial mechanosensitive channels is coupled to membrane mechanics.

    PubMed

    Belyy, Vladislav; Kamaraju, Kishore; Akitake, Bradley; Anishkin, Andriy; Sukharev, Sergei

    2010-06-01

    Mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS), a tension-driven osmolyte release valve residing in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli, exhibits a complex adaptive behavior, whereas its functional counterpart, mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL), was generally considered nonadaptive. In this study, we show that both channels exhibit similar adaptation in excised patches, a process that is completely separable from inactivation prominent only in MscS. When a membrane patch is held under constant pressure, adaptation of both channels is manifested as a reversible current decline. Their dose-response curves recorded with 1-10-s ramps of pressure are shifted toward higher tension relative to the curves measured with series of pulses, indicating decreased tension sensitivity. Prolonged exposure of excised patches to subthreshold tensions further shifts activation curves for both MscS and MscL toward higher tension with similar magnitude and time course. Whole spheroplast MscS recordings performed with simultaneous imaging reveal activation curves with a midpoint tension of 7.8 mN/m and the slope corresponding to approximately 15-nm(2) in-plane expansion. Inactivation was retained in whole spheroplast mode, but no adaptation was observed. Similarly, whole spheroplast recordings of MscL (V23T mutant) indicated no adaptation, which was present in excised patches. MscS activities tried in spheroplast-attached mode showed no adaptation when the spheroplasts were intact, but permeabilized spheroplasts showed delayed adaptation, suggesting that the presence of membrane breaks or edges causes adaptation. We interpret this in the framework of the mechanics of the bilayer couple linking adaptation of channels in excised patches to the relaxation of the inner leaflet that is not in contact with the glass pipette. Relaxation of one leaflet results in asymmetric redistribution of tension in the bilayer that is less favorable for channel opening.

  2. Predicting physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: a test of the information, motivation, behavioral skills model.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Stephanie; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Belyea, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Most adolescents do not meet national recommendations regarding physical activity and/or the intake of fruits and vegetables. The purpose of this study was to explore whether variables in the information, motivation, behavioral skills (IMB) model of health promotion predicted physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake in 404 adolescents from 2 high schools in the Southwest United States using structural equation modeling (SEM). The SEM models included theoretical constructs, contextual variables, and moderators. The theoretical relationships in the IMB model were confirmed and were moderated by gender and race. Interventions that incorporate cognitive-behavioral skills building may be a key factor for promoting physical activity as well as fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents.

  3. Domestic violence in Puerto Rican gay male couples: perceived prevalence, intergenerational violence, addictive behaviors, and conflict resolution skills.

    PubMed

    Toro-Alfonso, José; Rodríguez-Madera, Sheilla

    2004-06-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is a pattern of behaviors in the context of an intimate relationship, which can be manifested in emotional, physical, or sexual abuse. DV currently represents a social and a public health issue. This study is an effort to foster a better understanding of DV among same-sex couples. In it, the authors included the participation of 199 Puerto Rican gay males to identify prevalence of DV, violence in their family of origin, participants' addictive behaviors and exposure to violence at childhood, and their conflict resolution skills. Participants were relatively young, highly educated Puerto Rican gay men who reported a high level of domestic violence in their relationships. This violence was identified as emotional violence by 48% of the participants. This sample reported high levels of violence among their families of origin and low conflict resolution skills.

  4. [Adaptation of vigilance behavior in ex situ conservation of Tibetan antelope].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Yu, Hong-Hao; Zhao, Xin-Quan; Wang, De-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni) are an endemic and endangered species of the Tibetan Plateau. Ex situ conservation may represent an important way to protect Tibetan antelope; however, this process may influence aspects of their behavior. To investigate the ability of these antelopes to adapt to new environments, a study on the vigilance behavior of captive antelope in different seasons was conducted. Using instantaneous scan sampling, focal animal sampling, and all-occurrence recording methods, the vigilance rate and vigilance time of captive male and female Tibetan antelope during cold and warm seasons were recorded and analyzed. Very significant sex differences in vigilance behavior were observed during the warm season, but were not observed in the cold season. Interestingly, vigilance behavior showed seasonal variation as there were significant differences in vigilance time and vigilance rate between cold and warm seasons in both males and females. Specifically, males and females showed more vigilance during the cold than warm season. No interaction between season and sex was found in the vigilance behavior of antelope. Comparing vigilance behavioral characteristic with the Kekexili Tibetan antelope indicated that captive antelope could adapt to a new environment.

  5. The Role of Executive Functions Skills and Self-Regulation Behaviors in School Readiness and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasser, Tyler R.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine co-variation in the development of self-regulatory skills evident in pre-kindergarten and evaluate the implications of that variation for school adjustment in kindergarten and first grade. Measures of self-regulatory skill development included: direct assessments of EF (executive function) (e.g., Peg Tapping,…

  6. K-6 Social Studies Skills for the Human Behavior and Urban Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Samuel L., Ed.

    This guide was developed to aid elementary students deal with life experiences through skill development. Major skills stressed are: locating, organizing, and evaluating information; acquiring information through listening, observing, and reading; communicating orally and in writing; interpreting pictures, charts, graphs, and tables; and working…

  7. Executive Function Skills and Academic Achievement Gains in Prekindergarten: Contributions of Learning-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten…

  8. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B.; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  9. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS-II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS.

  10. The use of behavioral skills training and in situ feedback to protect children with autism from abduction lures.

    PubMed

    Gunby, Kristin V; Rapp, John T

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of behavioral skills training with in situ feedback on safe responding by children with autism to abduction lures that were presented after a high-probability (high-p) request sequence. This sequence was intended to simulate a grooming or recruitment process. Results show that all 3 participants ultimately acquired the safety response to abduction lures presented after a high-p sequence and maintained the safety response at a 1-month follow-up.

  11. Rational Behavior Training: A Seven Lesson Sequence for Teaching Rational Behavior Skills to Students with Social and Emotional Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Patricia Lucey

    This seven lesson curriculum sequence is designed to help teachers teach principles of Rational Behavior Training (RBT) which targets thinking behaviors, feeling behaviors, and behavioral responses to the environment. The program is appropriate for students with social and emotional disabilities and also develops reading, writing, spelling,…

  12. Effect of teaching stress management skills on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in people with somatomotor disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Kamalinasab, Z; Mahdavi, A; Ebrahimi, M; Vahidi Nekoo, M; Aghaei, M; Ebrahimi, F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Psychological interventions for enhancing mental health in those with somatomotor-physical disabilities are vital. The existing research aimed to examine the effect of teaching stress management skills on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in individuals with somatomotor-physical disabilities. Methodology: The method of the survey was semi-experimental with a pre-test post-test design and a control group. Hence, in Tehran, 40 girls with somatomotor-physical disabilities were selected by using convenience sampling, and they were divided into two groups: control and experiment. Both groups were tested by using a demography questionnaire, Rozenberg’s self-esteem scale, and a behavioral adjustment questionnaire. Afterwards, the test group received lessons on stress management within ten sessions, but the control group received no interventions. Then both groups were post-tested, and the collected data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics methods through SPSS software. Findings: Findings showed that teaching stress management skills significantly increased self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in girls with somatomotor-physical disabilities (p < 0.001). Conclusion: According to the study, it could be concluded that teaching stress management skills is an effective way to help endangered individuals such as girls who have somatomotor-physical disabilities because it is highly efficient especially when it is performed in groups, it is cheap, and acceptable by different people. PMID:28316725

  13. THE HUMAN BEHAVIOR RATING SCALE-BRIEF: A TOOL TO MEASURE 21ST CENTURY SKILLS OF K-12 LEARNERS.

    PubMed

    Woods-Groves, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Currently there is a call for brief concise measurements to appraise relevant 21st century college readiness skills in K-12 learners. This study employed K-12 teachers' ratings for over 3,000 students for an existing 91-item rating scale, the Human Behavior Rating Scale, that measured the 21st century skills of persistence, curiosity, externalizing affect, internalizing affect, and cognition. Teachers' ratings for K-12 learners were used to develop a brief, concise, and manageable 30-item tool, the Human Behavior Rating Scale-Brief. Results yielded high internal consistency coefficients and inter-item correlations. The items were not biased with regard to student sex or race, and were supported through confirmatory factor analyses. In addition, when teachers' ratings were compared with students' academic and behavioral performance data, moderate to strong relationships were revealed. This study provided an essential first step in the development of a psychometrically sound, manageable, and brief tool to appraise 21st century skills in K-12 learners.

  14. Use of the Child Behavior Checklist and DSM-III-R diagnosis in predicting outcome of children's social skills training.

    PubMed

    Frankel, F; Myatt, R; Cantwell, D P; Feinberg, D T

    1997-06-01

    A standardized 12-week cognitive-behavioral social skills package in which parents assisted children with socialization homework assignments, was presented to 52 nonpsychotic outpatient boys, many of whom were diagnosed with DSM-III-R Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Results demonstrated that the Thought Problems factor of the mother-completed Child Behavior Checklist aided in predicting changes in teacher-rated aggression. DSM-III-R diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder predicted changes in teacher-rated withdrawal subsequent to treatment. The need for research to determine which children benefit from which treatment was discussed.

  15. Assessment of the Prerequisite Skills for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children with and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, William E.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Hepburn, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) thought to be necessary for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Forty children with ASD and forty age-matched typically developing children between the ages of 7–12 years participated. Groups were comparable with regard to nonverbal IQ, but children with ASD had significantly lower verbal IQ. Children completed three CBT-related tasks requiring emotion recognition, discrimination among thoughts, feelings and behaviors, and cognitive mediation. With the exception of the emotion recognition task, children with ASD performed comparably to typically developing children and with a high rate of accuracy. PMID:21818677

  16. Modifying behavior to improve miner`s hazard recognition skills through training

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, K.M.; Fotta, B.; Barrett, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the application of psychological principles to the critical problem of hazard recognition by miners. The U.S. Bureau of Mines identified fundamental psychological principles that could be employed to enhance the ability of miners to recognize and respond to threats in their dangerous work environment. The goal of this work was to identify concepts that could potentially lead to interventions to improve miners hazard recognition abilities and to modify their behaviors. An innovative training program, adapted from techniques used to train military observers in the identification of camouflaged targets, was developed by Bureau researchers and used in a hazard recognition study. This study, of the effectiveness of such an intervention, is presented to illustrate the feasibility of applying psychological principles to the task of hazard recognition. As researchers hypothesized, underground miners trained using visually degraded (realistically camouflaged representations of mine hazards) instructional materials, performed better on a follow-up hazard recognition performance measure than did miners trained using traditional materials in which hazards are made visually conspicuous for easy recognition. The authors suggest that this type of instructional material and this method of instruction are generally applicable for hazard recognition training in a variety of work environments.

  17. A Cross-sectional Study Assessing Predictors of Essential Medicines Prescribing Behavior Based on Information-motivation-behavioral Skills Model among County Hospitals in Anhui, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yun-Wu; Wu, Jing-Ya; Wang, Heng; Li, Nian-Nian; Bian, Cheng; Xu, Shu-Man; Li, Peng; Lu, Hua; Xu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The self-consciousness and practicality of preferentially prescribed essential medicines (EMs) are not high enough in county hospitals. The purposes of this study were to use the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to identify the predictors of essential medicines prescribing behavior (EMPB) among doctors and to examine the association between demographic variables, IMB, and EMPB. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess predictive relationships among demographic variables and IMB model variables using an anonymous questionnaire administered in nine county hospitals of Anhui province. A structural equation model was constructed for the IMB model to test the instruments using analysis of moment structures 17.0. Results: A total of 732 participants completed the survey. The average age of the participants was 37.7 ± 8.9 years old (range: 22–67 years old). The correct rate of information was 90.64%. The average scores of the motivation and behavioral skills were 45.46 ± 7.34 (hundred mark system: 75.77) and 19.92 ± 3.44 (hundred mark system: 79.68), respectively. Approximately half (50.8%) of respondents reported that the proportion of EM prescription was below 60%. The final revised model indicated a good fit to the data (χ2/df = 4.146, goodness of fit index = 0.948, comparative fit index = 0.938, root mean square error of approximation = 0.066). More work experience (β = 0.153, P < 0.001) and behavioral skills (β = 0.449, P < 0.001) predicted more EMPB. Higher income predicted less information (β = −0.197, P < 0.001) and motivation (β = −0.204, P < 0.001). Behavioral skills were positively predicted by information (β = 0.135, P < 0.001) and motivation (β = 0.742, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study predicted some factors of EMPB, and specified the relationships among the model variables. The utilization rate of EM was not high enough. Motivation and behavior skills were crucial factors affecting

  18. AgRP Neural Circuits Mediate Adaptive Behaviors in the Starved State

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Stephanie L.; Qiu, Jian; Soden, Marta E.; Sanz, Elisenda; Nestor, Casey C; Barker, Forrest D.; Quintana, Albert; Zweifel, Larry S.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    In the face of starvation animals will engage in high-risk behaviors that would normally be considered maladaptive. Starving rodents for example will forage in areas that are more susceptible to predators and will also modulate aggressive behavior within a territory of limited or depleted nutrients. The neural basis of these adaptive behaviors likely involves circuits that link innate feeding, aggression, and fear. Hypothalamic AgRP neurons are critically important for driving feeding and project axons to brain regions implicated in aggression and fear. Using circuit-mapping techniques, we define a disynaptic network originating from a subset of AgRP neurons that project to the medial nucleus of the amygdala and then to the principle bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which plays a role in suppressing territorial aggression and reducing contextual fear. We propose that AgRP neurons serve as a master switch capable of coordinating behavioral decisions relative to internal state and environmental cues. PMID:27019015

  19. Improving the reliability of autism diagnoses: examining the utility of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Tomanik, Stacey S; Pearson, Deborah A; Loveland, Katherine A; Lane, David M; Bryant Shaw, J

    2007-05-01

    The classification agreement of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) was examined in 129 children and adolescents (aged 7-18 years) who were evaluated for autism. Participants received a diagnosis of autism or non-autism based on the ADI-R. Linear discriminant analysis revealed adequate concordance between the ADI-R and ADOS, with 75% of the participants being correctly classified using the ADOS. Classification accuracy significantly improved to 84% when a measure of adaptive functioning (i.e., the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales) was included in the analysis. The findings suggest that when clinicians obtain discrepant information on the ADI-R and ADOS, assessment of an individual's adaptive functioning may reduce diagnostic errors.

  20. Evaluation of the effect of vibration nonlinearity on convergence behavior of adaptive higher harmonic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molusis, J. A.; Mookerjee, P.; Bar-Shalom, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Effect of nonlinearity on convergence of the local linear and global linear adaptive controllers is evaluated. A nonlinear helicopter vibration model is selected for the evaluation which has sufficient nonlinearity, including multiple minimum, to assess the vibration reduction capability of the adaptive controllers. The adaptive control algorithms are based upon a linear transfer matrix assumption and the presence of nonlinearity has a significant effect on algorithm behavior. Simulation results are presented which demonstrate the importance of the caution property in the global linear controller. Caution is represented by a time varying rate weighting term in the local linear controller and this improves the algorithm convergence. Nonlinearity in some cases causes Kalman filter divergence. Two forms of the Kalman filter covariance equation are investigated.

  1. Evolutionary Influences of Plastic Behavioral Responses Upon Environmental Challenges in an Adaptive Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Susan A.; Wund, Matthew A.; Baker, John A.

    2015-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century, the suggestion was made by several scientists, including J. M. Baldwin, that behavioral responses to environmental change could both rescue populations from extinction (Baldwin Effect) and influence the course of subsequent evolution. Here we provide the historical and theoretical background for this argument and offer evidence of the importance of these ideas for understanding how animals (and other organisms that exhibit behavior) will respond to the rapid environmental changes caused by human activity. We offer examples from long-term research on the evolution of behavioral and other phenotypes in the adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a radiation in which it is possible to infer ancestral patterns of behavioral plasticity relative to the post-glacial freshwater radiation in northwestern North America, and to use patterns of parallelism and contemporary evolution to understand adaptive causes of responses to environmental modification. Our work offers insights into the complexity of cognitive responses to environmental change, and into the importance of examining multiple aspects of the phenotype simultaneously, if we are to understand how behavioral shifts contribute to the persistence of populations and to subsequent evolution. We conclude by discussing the origins of apparent novelties induced by environmental shifts, and the importance of accounting for geographic variation within species if we are to accurately anticipate the effects of anthropogenic environmental modification on the persistence and evolution of animals. PMID:26163679

  2. Evolutionary Influences of Plastic Behavioral Responses Upon Environmental Challenges in an Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Foster, Susan A; Wund, Matthew A; Baker, John A

    2015-09-01

    At the end of the 19th century, the suggestion was made by several scientists, including J. M. Baldwin, that behavioral responses to environmental change could both rescue populations from extinction (Baldwin Effect) and influence the course of subsequent evolution. Here we provide the historical and theoretical background for this argument and offer evidence of the importance of these ideas for understanding how animals (and other organisms that exhibit behavior) will respond to the rapid environmental changes caused by human activity. We offer examples from long-term research on the evolution of behavioral and other phenotypes in the adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a radiation in which it is possible to infer ancestral patterns of behavioral plasticity relative to the post-glacial freshwater radiation in northwestern North America, and to use patterns of parallelism and contemporary evolution to understand adaptive causes of responses to environmental modification. Our work offers insights into the complexity of cognitive responses to environmental change, and into the importance of examining multiple aspects of the phenotype simultaneously, if we are to understand how behavioral shifts contribute to the persistence of populations and to subsequent evolution. We conclude by discussing the origins of apparent novelties induced by environmental shifts, and the importance of accounting for geographic variation within species if we are to accurately anticipate the effects of anthropogenic environmental modification on the persistence and evolution of animals.

  3. The Influence of Cultural Adaptation and Sexual Risk Behaviors on Cervical Cytology in a Hispanic Population

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kristy K.; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if the level of cultural adaptation (acculturation) of Hispanic women is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors and cervical cytological abnormalities. METHODS Hispanic women 18 to 55 years of age (mean = 30.5 ± 8.32) underwent routine Papanicoulaou (Pap) testing and completed a comprehensive survey (N=3149). Acculturation (cultural adaptation) was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test a mediation model. RESULTS Highly acculturated women engaged in a greater number of sexual risk behaviors and were more likely to have an abnormal Pap test when compared to less acculturated Hispanic women (p < .001). CONCLUSION Acculturation is related to sexual risk taking and abnormal cervical cytology. Determination of acculturation level as part of culturally competent healthcare will aid in tailoring patient communication and counseling on the prevention of cervical cancer among Hispanic women. PMID:20864073

  4. Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

  5. The Association of Intelligence, Visual-Motor Functioning, and Personality Characteristics With Adaptive Behavior in Individuals With Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Trista J; Lincoln, Alan J; Bellugi, Ursula; Searcy, Yvonne M

    2015-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with deficits in adaptive behavior and an uneven adaptive profile. This study investigated the association of intelligence, visual-motor functioning, and personality characteristics with the adaptive behavior in individuals with WS. One hundred individuals with WS and 25 individuals with developmental disabilities of other etiologies were included in this study. This study found that IQ and visual-motor functioning significantly predicted adaptive behavior in individuals of WS. Visual-motor functioning especially predicted the most amount of unique variance in overall adaptive behavior and contributed to the variance above and beyond that of IQ. Present study highlights the need for interventions that address visual-motor and motor functioning in individuals with WS.

  6. The Effects of a Structured Home Plan on the Home and School Behaviors of Gifted Learning-Disabled Students with Deficits in Organizational Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sah, Analee; Borland, James H.

    1989-01-01

    Nine gifted learning-disabled children with organizational skill deficits were put on a structured timetable of after-school activities. Parents were taught behaviorally based discipline techniques designed to reduce disruptive family behavior. Improvements were subsequently observed in the middle school students' home and school behavior, school…

  7. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  8. Executive function of Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers: Structure and relations with early literacy skills and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Lerner, Matthew D; Goodrich, J Marc; Farrington, Amber L; Allan, Darcey M

    2016-04-01

    Young children's executive function (EF) is increasingly recognized as an important construct associated with development in cognitive and socioemotional domains. To date, however, few studies have examined EF in populations of language-minority children. In this study, 241 Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers who ranged in age from 38 to 69 months (M=54.23 months, SD=6.17) completed three tasks designed to measure inhibitory control (IC) and four tasks designed to measure working memory (WM). Children completed assessments of their vocabulary skills, early literacy skills, and behavioral self-regulation in both English and Spanish, and their classroom teachers completed three behavior rating measures. Children were classified as more proficient in English or Spanish based on their scores on the vocabulary measures, and all IC and WM measures were administered in the children's more proficient language. Results of confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor model of EF for both groups of children as well as strong measurement and structural invariance across groups. Children's EF was substantially related to the language, early literacy, and behavioral self-regulation measures as well as teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. For children with more proficient English, EF was associated with skills in both English and Spanish; however, for children with more proficient Spanish, EF was associated primarily with skills in Spanish. These results provide evidence of strong correspondence for EF measured in Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers and monolingual preschoolers, and they identify a potential key factor that can enhance understanding of development in this population of children.

  9. Executive Function of Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Preschoolers: Structure and Relations with Early Literacy Skills and Behavioral Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Lerner, Matthew D.; Goodrich, J. Marc; Farrington, Amber L.; Allan, Darcey M.

    2015-01-01

    Young children’s executive function (EF) is increasingly recognized as an important construct associated with development in cognitive and socio-emotional domains. To date, however, few studies have examined EF in populations of language-minority children. In this study, 241 Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers who ranged in age from 38 - 69 months (M = 54.23, SD = 6.17) completed three tasks designed to measure inhibitory control (IC) and four tasks designed to measure working memory (WM). Children completed assessments of their vocabulary skills, early literacy skills, and behavioral self-regulation in both English and Spanish, and their classroom teachers completed three behavior-rating measures. Children were classified as more proficient in English or Spanish based on their scores on the vocabulary measures, and all IC and WM measures were administered in the children’s more proficient language. Results of confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor model of EF for both groups of children as well as strong measurement and structural invariance across groups. Children’s EF was substantially related to the language, early literacy, and behavioral self-regulation measures, as well as teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. For children with more proficient English, EF was associated with skills in both English and Spanish; however, for children with more proficient Spanish, EF was associated primarily with skills in Spanish. These results provide evidence of strong correspondence for EF measured in Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers and monolingual preschoolers, and they identify a potential key factor that can enhance understanding of development in this population of children. PMID:26704302

  10. A Review of the Quality of Behaviorally-Based Intervention Research to Improve Social Interaction Skills of Children with ASD in Inclusive Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, Síglia Pimentel Höher; Rispoli, Mandy; Ganz, Jennifer; Hong, Ee Rea; Davis, Heather; Mason, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often have difficulties in social interaction skills, which may prevent their successful inclusion in general education placements. Behaviorally-based social skills interventions have been shown to be effective in attenuating such difficulties in these environments. In light of the increasing number…

  11. Investigating the Relationship between Challenging Behavior, Co-Morbid Psychopathology and Social Skills in Adults with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Deirdre S.; Healy, Olive

    2011-01-01

    Researchers suggest that social skill deficits and psychiatric issues may be affected by the presence of maladaptive behaviors in people with intellectual disabilities. A sample of 39 participants with intellectual disability was surveyed for the presence of psychiatric symptoms and social skills deficits. Outcomes indicated that individuals with…

  12. Preschool Personal-Social Behaviors: Relationships with Socioeconomic Status, Cognitive Skills, and Tempo. Disadvantaged Children and Their First School Experiences. ETS-Head Start Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmerich, Walter

    Influences of socioeconomic status, cognitive skills, and response tempo upon personal-social behaviors in disadvantaged preschool children were investigated as part of the Educational Testing Service-Head Start Longitudinal Study. Measures of cognitive skill, cooperation, response latency, and socioeconomic status were taken. Results indicated…

  13. Comparison of the Self-Concepts, Social Skills, Problem Behaviors, and Loneliness Levels of Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucukera, Sevgi; Cifci Tekinarslan, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether the self-concepts, social skills, problem behaviors, and loneliness levels of students with special educational needs (SEN) in inclusive elementary classrooms differ from those of students without special educational needs (non-SEN). This study also aimed to identify the roles of self-concept, social skills, and problem…

  14. Toward a mechanics of adaptive behavior: evolutionary dynamics and matching theory statics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J; Popa, Andrei

    2010-09-01

    One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm. The behavior of virtual organisms animated by this theory may be studied in any experimental environment. The evolutionary theory was tested by comparing the steady-state behavior it generated on concurrent schedules to the description of steady state behavior provided by modern matching theory. Ensemble fits of modern matching theory that enforced its constant-k requirement and the parametric identities required by its equations, accounted for large proportions of data variance, left random residuals, and yielded parameter estimates with values and properties similar to those obtained in experiments with live organisms. These results indicate that the dynamics of the evolutionary theory and the statics of modern matching theory together constitute a good candidate for a mechanics of adaptive behavior.

  15. Toward a Mechanics of Adaptive Behavior: Evolutionary Dynamics and Matching Theory Statics

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, J.J; Popa, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm. The behavior of virtual organisms animated by this theory may be studied in any experimental environment. The evolutionary theory was tested by comparing the steady-state behavior it generated on concurrent schedules to the description of steady state behavior provided by modern matching theory. Ensemble fits of modern matching theory that enforced its constant-k requirement and the parametric identities required by its equations, accounted for large proportions of data variance, left random residuals, and yielded parameter estimates with values and properties similar to those obtained in experiments with live organisms. These results indicate that the dynamics of the evolutionary theory and the statics of modern matching theory together constitute a good candidate for a mechanics of adaptive behavior. PMID:21451751

  16. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement.

  17. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  18. Dental Hygiene, Dental, and Medical Students' OMFS/Hospital Dentistry-Related Knowledge/Skills, Attitudes, and Behavior: An Exploration.

    PubMed

    Munz, Stephanie M; Kim, Roderick Y; Holley, Tyler J; Donkersloot, John N; Inglehart, Marita R

    2017-02-01

    Engaging other health care providers in oral health-related activities and interprofessional care (IPC) could increase access to oral health care for underserved populations in the U.S. The aims of this study were to assess dental hygiene, dental, and medical students' intra- and interprofessional and oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS)/hospital dentistry-related knowledge/skills, attitudes, and behavior; determine whether first and second year vs. third and fourth year cohorts' responses differed; and explore how intra- and interprofessional knowledge was related to interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional attitudes and behavior. Data were collected between April 2014 and May 2015 from 69 dental hygiene, 316 dental, and 187 medical students. Response rates across classes for the dental hygiene students ranged from 85% to 100%; 24% to 100% for the dental students; and 13% to 35% for the medical students. The results showed that the medical students had lower oral health-related and interprofessional knowledge and less positive attitudes about oral health-related behavior, IPE, and interprofessional teamwork than the dental hygiene and dental students. While third- and fourth-year medical students' interprofessional knowledge/skills and behavior were higher than those of first- and second-year students, the two groups' IPE-related and interprofessional attitudes did not differ. The students' knowledge correlated with their IPE and interprofessional communication-related skills and behavior, but not with their interprofessional attitudes. These dental hygiene, dental, and medical students' OMFS/hospital dentistry-related knowledge/skills and behavior increased over the course of their academic programs, while their IPE-related and intra- and interprofessional attitudes, especially for medical students, did not improve over time. OMFS and hospital dentistry units in medical centers offer distinctive opportunities for IPE and IPC. Utilizing these units

  19. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot.

    PubMed

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles

  20. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot

    PubMed Central

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles