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Sample records for adaptive behavioral responses

  1. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tassé, Marc J; Schalock, Robert L; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry Hank; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT modeling and a nationally representative standardization sample, the item set was reduced to 75 items that provide the most precise adaptive behavior information at the cutoff area determining the presence or not of significant adaptive behavior deficits across conceptual, social, and practical skills. The standardization of the DABS is described and discussed.

  2. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  3. Adaptive Responses to Prochloraz Exposure That Alter Dose-Response and Time-Course Behaviors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose response and time-course (DRTC) are, along with exposure, the major determinants of health risk. Adaptive changes within exposed organisms in response to environmental stress are common, and alter DRTC behaviors to minimize the effects caused by stressors. In this project, ...

  4. Adaptive Control Responses to Behavioral Perturbation Based Upon the Insect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    autonomous robot Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 31: :176.110 Harley CM, Predina JD, Ritzmann RE (2006) Responses to incomplete sensory information in cockroach...climbing behavior. Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 32:449.412 Hess D, Buschges A (1999) Role of proprioceptive signals from an insect femur-tibia joint in...Altered joint reflexes in the cockroach may lead to 17 directional changes in leg extension. Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 32:449.411 Pollack AJ

  5. A Review: Development of a Microdose Model for Analysis of Adaptive Response and Bystander Dose Response Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Bobby E.

    2008-01-01

    Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type 125I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite

  6. Evolutionary Influences of Plastic Behavioral Responses Upon Environmental Challenges in an Adaptive Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Susan A.; Wund, Matthew A.; Baker, John A.

    2015-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century, the suggestion was made by several scientists, including J. M. Baldwin, that behavioral responses to environmental change could both rescue populations from extinction (Baldwin Effect) and influence the course of subsequent evolution. Here we provide the historical and theoretical background for this argument and offer evidence of the importance of these ideas for understanding how animals (and other organisms that exhibit behavior) will respond to the rapid environmental changes caused by human activity. We offer examples from long-term research on the evolution of behavioral and other phenotypes in the adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a radiation in which it is possible to infer ancestral patterns of behavioral plasticity relative to the post-glacial freshwater radiation in northwestern North America, and to use patterns of parallelism and contemporary evolution to understand adaptive causes of responses to environmental modification. Our work offers insights into the complexity of cognitive responses to environmental change, and into the importance of examining multiple aspects of the phenotype simultaneously, if we are to understand how behavioral shifts contribute to the persistence of populations and to subsequent evolution. We conclude by discussing the origins of apparent novelties induced by environmental shifts, and the importance of accounting for geographic variation within species if we are to accurately anticipate the effects of anthropogenic environmental modification on the persistence and evolution of animals. PMID:26163679

  7. Evolutionary Influences of Plastic Behavioral Responses Upon Environmental Challenges in an Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Foster, Susan A; Wund, Matthew A; Baker, John A

    2015-09-01

    At the end of the 19th century, the suggestion was made by several scientists, including J. M. Baldwin, that behavioral responses to environmental change could both rescue populations from extinction (Baldwin Effect) and influence the course of subsequent evolution. Here we provide the historical and theoretical background for this argument and offer evidence of the importance of these ideas for understanding how animals (and other organisms that exhibit behavior) will respond to the rapid environmental changes caused by human activity. We offer examples from long-term research on the evolution of behavioral and other phenotypes in the adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a radiation in which it is possible to infer ancestral patterns of behavioral plasticity relative to the post-glacial freshwater radiation in northwestern North America, and to use patterns of parallelism and contemporary evolution to understand adaptive causes of responses to environmental modification. Our work offers insights into the complexity of cognitive responses to environmental change, and into the importance of examining multiple aspects of the phenotype simultaneously, if we are to understand how behavioral shifts contribute to the persistence of populations and to subsequent evolution. We conclude by discussing the origins of apparent novelties induced by environmental shifts, and the importance of accounting for geographic variation within species if we are to accurately anticipate the effects of anthropogenic environmental modification on the persistence and evolution of animals.

  8. Genomic Response to Selection for Predatory Behavior in a Mammalian Model of Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Konczal, Mateusz; Koteja, Paweł; Orlowska-Feuer, Patrycja; Radwan, Jacek; Sadowska, Edyta T; Babik, Wiesław

    2016-09-01

    If genetic architectures of various quantitative traits are similar, as studies on model organisms suggest, comparable selection pressures should produce similar molecular patterns for various traits. To test this prediction, we used a laboratory model of vertebrate adaptive radiation to investigate the genetic basis of the response to selection for predatory behavior and compare it with evolution of aerobic capacity reported in an earlier work. After 13 generations of selection, the proportion of bank voles (Myodes [=Clethrionomys] glareolus) showing predatory behavior was five times higher in selected lines than in controls. We analyzed the hippocampus and liver transcriptomes and found repeatable changes in allele frequencies and gene expression. Genes with the largest differences between predatory and control lines are associated with hunger, aggression, biological rhythms, and functioning of the nervous system. Evolution of predatory behavior could be meaningfully compared with evolution of high aerobic capacity, because the experiments and analyses were performed in the same methodological framework. The number of genes that changed expression was much smaller in predatory lines, and allele frequencies changed repeatably in predatory but not in aerobic lines. This suggests that more variants of smaller effects underlie variation in aerobic performance, whereas fewer variants of larger effects underlie variation in predatory behavior. Our results thus contradict the view that comparable selection pressures for different quantitative traits produce similar molecular patterns. Therefore, to gain knowledge about molecular-level response to selection for complex traits, we need to investigate not only multiple replicate populations but also multiple quantitative traits.

  9. Neural Mechanisms Behind Identification of Leptokurtic Noise and Adaptive Behavioral Response

    PubMed Central

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Bossaerts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale human interaction through, for example, financial markets causes ceaseless random changes in outcome variability, producing frequent and salient outliers that render the outcome distribution more peaked than the Gaussian distribution, and with longer tails. Here, we study how humans cope with this evolutionary novel leptokurtic noise, focusing on the neurobiological mechanisms that allow the brain, 1) to recognize the outliers as noise and 2) to regulate the control necessary for adaptive response. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging, while participants tracked a target whose movements were affected by leptokurtic noise. After initial overreaction and insufficient subsequent correction, participants improved performance significantly. Yet, persistently long reaction times pointed to continued need for vigilance and control. We ran a contrasting treatment where outliers reflected permanent moves of the target, as in traditional mean-shift paradigms. Importantly, outliers were equally frequent and salient. There, control was superior and reaction time was faster. We present a novel reinforcement learning model that fits observed choices better than the Bayes-optimal model. Only anterior insula discriminated between the 2 types of outliers. In both treatments, outliers initially activated an extensive bottom-up attention and belief network, followed by sustained engagement of the fronto-parietal control network. PMID:26850528

  10. Adaptive response modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campa, Alessandro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Belli, Mauro

    Cellular response to radiation is often modified by a previous delivery of a small "priming" dose: a smaller amount of damage, defined by the end point being investigated, is observed, and for this reason the effect is called adaptive response. An improved understanding of this effect is essential (as much as for the case of the bystander effect) for a reliable radiation risk assessment when low dose irradiations are involved. Experiments on adaptive response have shown that there are a number of factors that strongly influence the occurrence (and the level) of the adaptation. In particular, priming doses and dose rates have to fall in defined ranges; the same is true for the time interval between the delivery of the small priming dose and the irradiation with the main, larger, dose (called in this case challenging dose). Different hypotheses can be formulated on the main mechanism(s) determining the adaptive response: an increased efficiency of DNA repair, an increased level of antioxidant enzymes, an alteration of cell cycle progression, a chromatin conformation change. An experimental clearcut evidence going definitely in the direction of one of these explanations is not yet available. Modelling can be done at different levels. Simple models, relating the amount of damage, through elementary differential equations, to the dose and dose rate experienced by the cell, are relatively easy to handle, and they can be modified to account for the priming irradiation. However, this can hardly be of decisive help in the explanation of the mechanisms, since each parameter of these models often incorporates in an effective way several cellular processes related to the response to radiation. In this presentation we show our attempts to describe adaptive response with models that explicitly contain, as a dynamical variable, the inducible adaptive agent. At a price of a more difficult treatment, this approach is probably more prone to give support to the experimental studies

  11. Behavioral Response to a Just-in-Time Adaptive Intervention (JITAI) to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Obese Adults: Implications for JITAI Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J. Graham; Bond, Dale S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) use mobile computers, sensors, and software analytics to automatically detect behavior and deliver tailored treatment. However, little is known about how JITAIs influence patterns of behavior or how best to design JITAIs for maximum effect. Methods This study examined prompts and behavioral response to the B-MOBILE JITAI for reducing sedentary behavior (SB) in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty participants (83% women; 67% White, mean ± SD body mass index = 36.2 kg/m2) tested three conditions presented in a randomized counterbalanced order involving smartphone-based prompts for walking breaks of (1) 3-min after 30 SB min; (2) 6-min after 60 SB min; and (3) 12-min after 120 SB min. Results Participants carried the smartphone an average of 6.90 days during each 7-day condition, for an average of 14.94 hours per day. The 3- and 6-min conditions resulted in the greatest number of prompts, walking breaks, the best adherence to prompts, the greatest amount of daily time spent in walking breaks, and fastest adherence to prompts (ps < .01). Small but statistically significant decreases in the number of daily walking breaks, adherence to prompts, and minutes per day spent in walking breaks were observed as a function of the number of days spent in a condition (ps < .05). Conclusions The B-MOBILE JITAI was effective in prompting breaks in sedentary behavior when it is most clinically relevant. Frequent prompts for small change may be an optimal strategy for shaping sedentary behavior, although more research is needed to determine how best to promote long-term adherence. PMID:26651467

  12. Evolution of an adaptive behavior and its sensory receptors promotes eye regression in blind cavefish: response to Borowsky (2013).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; O'Quin, Kelly E; Jeffery, William R

    2013-07-11

    Vibration attraction behavior (VAB) is the swimming of fish toward an oscillating object, a behavior that is likely adaptive because it increases foraging efficiency in darkness. VAB is seen in a small proportion of Astyanax surface-dwelling populations (surface fish) but is pronounced in cave-dwelling populations (cavefish). In a recent study, we identified two quantitative trait loci for VAB on Astyanax linkage groups 2 and 17. We also demonstrated that a small population of superficial neuromast sensors located within the eye orbit (EO SN) facilitate VAB, and two quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for EO SN that were congruent with those for VAB. Finally, we showed that both VAB and EO SN are negatively correlated with eye size, and that two (of several) QTL for eye size overlap VAB and EO SN QTLs. From these results, we concluded that the adaptive evolution of VAB and EO SN has contributed to the indirect loss of eyes in cavefish, either as a result of pleiotropy or tight physical linkage of the mutations underlying these traits. In a subsequent commentary, Borowsky argues that there is poor experimental support for our conclusions. Specifically, Borowsky states that: (1) linkage groups (LGs) 2 and 17 harbor QTL for many traits and, therefore, no evidence exists for an exclusive interaction among the overlapping VAB, EO SN and eye size QTL; (2) some of the QTL we identified are too broad (>20 cM) to support the hypothesis of correlated evolution due to pleiotropy or hitchhiking; and (3) VAB is unnecessary to explain the indirect evolution of eye-loss since the negative polarity of numerous eye QTL is consistent with direct selection against eyes. Borowsky further argues that (4) it is difficult to envision an evolutionary scenario whereby VAB and EO SN drive eye loss, since the eyes must first be reduced in order to increase the number of EO SN and, therefore, VAB. In this response, we explain why the evidence of one trait influencing eye reduction

  13. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  14. Analyses between Reproductive Behavior, Genetic Diversity and Pythium Responsiveness in Zingiber spp. Reveal an Adaptive Significance for Hemiclonality

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Geethu E.; Geetha, Kiran A.; Augustine, Lesly; Mamiyil, Sabu; Thomas, George

    2016-01-01

    Mode of reproduction is generally considered to have long-range evolutionary implications on population survival. Because sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse genotypes, this mode of reproduction is predicted to positively influence the success potential of offspring in evolutionary arms race with parasites (Red queen) whereas, without segregation and recombination, the obligate asexual multiplication may push a species into extinction due to the steady accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller’s ratchet). However, the extent of linearity between reproductive strategies, genetic diversity and population fitness, and the contributions of different breeding strategies to population fitness are yet to be understood clearly. Genus Zingiber belonging to the pan-tropic family Zingiberaceae represents a good system to study contributions of different breeding behavior on genetic diversity and population fitness, as this genus comprises species with contrasting breeding systems. In this study, we analyzed breeding behavior, amplified fragment length polymorphism diversity and response to the soft-rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in 18 natural populations of three wild Zingiber spp.: Z. neesanum, Z. nimmonii, and Z. zerumbet, together with the obligately asexual cultivated congener, ginger (Z. officinale). Ginger showed an exceptionally narrow genetic base, and adding to this, all the tested cultivars were uniformly susceptible to soft-rot. Concordant with the postulates of Muller’s ratchet, the background selection may be continuously pushing ginger into the ancestral state, rendering it inefficient in host-pathogen coevolution. Z. neesanum and Z. nimmonii populations were sexual and genetically diverse; however, contrary to Red Queen expectations, the populations were highly susceptible to soft-rot. Z. zerumbet showed a hemiclonal breeding behavior. The populations inhabiting forest understory were large and continuous, sexual and genetically

  15. Adaptive capture of expert behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

  16. Adaptive Behavior Profiles of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditterline, Jeffrey; Banner, Diane; Oakland, Thomas; Becton, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of adaptive behavior traditionally has been associated with the identification of individuals with mental retardation. Information on adaptive behavior increasingly is being used for comprehensive assessment, treatment planning, intervention, and program evaluation for individuals with various disorders. Data from the normative samples…

  17. The Adaptive Calibration Model of stress responsivity

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Adaptive Calibration Model (ACM), an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in the functioning of the stress response system. The stress response system has three main biological functions: (1) to coordinate the organism’s allostatic response to physical and psychosocial challenges; (2) to encode and filter information about the organism’s social and physical environment, mediating the organism’s openness to environmental inputs; and (3) to regulate the organism’s physiology and behavior in a broad range of fitness-relevant areas including defensive behaviors, competitive risk-taking, learning, attachment, affiliation and reproductive functioning. The information encoded by the system during development feeds back on the long-term calibration of the system itself, resulting in adaptive patterns of responsivity and individual differences in behavior. Drawing on evolutionary life history theory, we build a model of the development of stress responsivity across life stages, describe four prototypical responsivity patterns, and discuss the emergence and meaning of sex differences. The ACM extends the theory of biological sensitivity to context (BSC) and provides an integrative framework for future research in the field. PMID:21145350

  18. Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior: II. Scales of Social Adaption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Earl E.

    The Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior II (BSAB-II) provides a system for program development and evaluation and for social behavior assessment of profoundly and severely mentally retarded individuals as well as of the younger less retarded and emotionally disturbed individuals. The specimen set consists of six parts: a Manual, a Tally Sheet…

  19. Spatial perception and adaptive sonar behavior.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, Murat; Mao, Beatrice; Moss, Cynthia F

    2010-12-01

    Bat echolocation is a dynamic behavior that allows for real-time adaptations in the timing and spectro-temporal design of sonar signals in response to a particular task and environment. To enable detailed, quantitative analyses of adaptive sonar behavior, echolocation call design was investigated in big brown bats, trained to rest on a stationary platform and track a tethered mealworm that approached from a starting distance of about 170 cm in the presence of a stationary sonar distracter. The distracter was presented at different angular offsets and distances from the bat. The results of this study show that the distance and the angular offset of the distracter influence sonar vocalization parameters of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Specifically, the bat adjusted its call duration to the closer of two objects, distracter or insect target, and the magnitude of the adjustment depended on the angular offset of the distracter. In contrast, the bat consistently adjusted its call rate to the distance of the insect, even when this target was positioned behind the distracter. The results hold implications for understanding spatial information processing and perception by echolocation.

  20. Complex adaptive behavior and dexterous action

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Steven J.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dexterous action, as conceptualized by Bernstein in his influential ecological analysis of human behavior, is revealed in the ability to flexibly generate behaviors that are adaptively tailored to the demands of the context in which they are embedded. Conceived as complex adaptive behavior, dexterity depends upon the qualities of robustness and degeneracy, and is supported by the functional complexity of the agent-environment system. Using Bernstein’s and Gibson’s ecological analyses of behavior situated in natural environments as conceptual touchstones, we consider the hypothesis that complex adaptive behavior capitalizes upon general principles of self-organization. Here, we outline a perspective in which the complex interactivity of nervous-system, body, and environment is revealed as an essential resource for adaptive behavior. From this perspective, we consider the implications for interpreting the functionality and dysfunctionality of human behavior. This paper demonstrates that, optimal variability, the topic of this special issue, is a logical consequence of interpreting the functionality of human behavior as complex adaptive behavior. PMID:26375932

  1. Complex Adaptive Behavior and Dexterous Action.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Steven J; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Dexterous action, as conceptualized by Bernstein in his influential ecological analysis of human behavior, is revealed in the ability to flexibly generate behaviors that are adaptively tailored to the demands of the context in which they are embedded. Conceived as complex adaptive behavior, dexterity depends upon the qualities of robustness and degeneracy, and is supported by the functional complexity of the agent-environment system. Using Bernstein's and Gibson's ecological analyses of behavior situated in natural environments as conceptual touchstones, we consider the hypothesis that complex adaptive behavior capitalizes upon general principles of self-organization. Here, we outline a perspective in which the complex interactivity of nervous-system, body, and environment is revealed as an essential resource for adaptive behavior. From this perspective, we consider the implications for interpreting the functionality and dysfunctionality of human behavior. This paper demonstrates that, optimal variability, the topic of this special issue, is a logical consequence of interpreting the functionality of human behavior as complex adaptive behavior.

  2. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  3. Using Behavioral Questionnaires to Identify Adaptive Deficits in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Lachar, David

    1994-01-01

    Obtained responses to Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and revised Personality Inventory for Children (PIC-R) for 88 elementary-age boys. Used CBCL and PIC-R scales to predict three domain scales and Adaptive Behavior Composite from Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Results suggest that behavioral questionnaires can be used to efficiently identify…

  4. Adaptive Responses Limited by Intrinsic Noise.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Prabhat; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems have mechanisms to respond to the external environment and adapt to them. Such adaptive responses are effective for a wide dynamic range of sensing and perception of temporal change in stimulus. However, noise generated by the adaptation system itself as well as extrinsic noise in sensory inputs may impose a limit on the ability of adaptation systems. The relation between response and noise is well understood for equilibrium systems in the form of fluctuation response relation. However, the relation for nonequilibrium systems, including adaptive systems, are poorly understood. Here, we systematically explore such a relation between response and fluctuation in adaptation systems. We study the two network motifs, incoherent feedforward loops (iFFL) and negative feedback loops (nFBL), that can achieve perfect adaptation. We find that the response magnitude in adaption systems is limited by its intrinsic noise, implying that higher response would have higher noise component as well. Comparing the relation of response and noise in iFFL and nFBL, we show that whereas iFFL exhibits adaptation over a wider parameter range, nFBL offers higher response to noise ratio than iFFL. We also identify the condition that yields the upper limit of response for both network motifs. These results may explain the reason of why nFBL seems to be more abundant in nature for the implementation of adaption systems.

  5. Adaptive Responses Limited by Intrinsic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Prabhat; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems have mechanisms to respond to the external environment and adapt to them. Such adaptive responses are effective for a wide dynamic range of sensing and perception of temporal change in stimulus. However, noise generated by the adaptation system itself as well as extrinsic noise in sensory inputs may impose a limit on the ability of adaptation systems. The relation between response and noise is well understood for equilibrium systems in the form of fluctuation response relation. However, the relation for nonequilibrium systems, including adaptive systems, are poorly understood. Here, we systematically explore such a relation between response and fluctuation in adaptation systems. We study the two network motifs, incoherent feedforward loops (iFFL) and negative feedback loops (nFBL), that can achieve perfect adaptation. We find that the response magnitude in adaption systems is limited by its intrinsic noise, implying that higher response would have higher noise component as well. Comparing the relation of response and noise in iFFL and nFBL, we show that whereas iFFL exhibits adaptation over a wider parameter range, nFBL offers higher response to noise ratio than iFFL. We also identify the condition that yields the upper limit of response for both network motifs. These results may explain the reason of why nFBL seems to be more abundant in nature for the implementation of adaption systems. PMID:26305221

  6. Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Ceddia, M. G.; Chowell, Gerardo; Parra, Paula A. Gonzalez; Hickling, Graham J.; Holloway, Garth; Horan, Richard; Morin, Benjamin; Perrings, Charles; Springborn, Michael; Velazquez, Leticia; Villalobos, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits. The cost–benefit trade-offs that shape contact behavior, and hence the course of epidemics, are often only implicitly incorporated in epidemiological models. This approach creates difficulty in parsing out the effects of adaptive behavior. We use an epidemiological–economic model of disease dynamics to explicitly model the trade-offs that drive person-to-person contact decisions. Results indicate that including adaptive human behavior significantly changes the predicted course of epidemics and that this inclusion has implications for parameter estimation and interpretation and for the development of social distancing policies. Acknowledging adaptive behavior requires a shift in thinking about epidemiological processes and parameters. PMID:21444809

  7. Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Ceddia, M G; Chowell, Gerardo; Parra, Paula A Gonzalez; Hickling, Graham J; Holloway, Garth; Horan, Richard; Morin, Benjamin; Perrings, Charles; Springborn, Michael; Velazquez, Leticia; Villalobos, Cristina

    2011-04-12

    The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits. The cost-benefit trade-offs that shape contact behavior, and hence the course of epidemics, are often only implicitly incorporated in epidemiological models. This approach creates difficulty in parsing out the effects of adaptive behavior. We use an epidemiological-economic model of disease dynamics to explicitly model the trade-offs that drive person-to-person contact decisions. Results indicate that including adaptive human behavior significantly changes the predicted course of epidemics and that this inclusion has implications for parameter estimation and interpretation and for the development of social distancing policies. Acknowledging adaptive behavior requires a shift in thinking about epidemiological processes and parameters.

  8. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K. N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  9. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y; An, K N; Yang, G; Huang, J P

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  10. Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

  11. Patterns of Adaptive Behavior in Very Young Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Ousley, Opal Y.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Hogan, Kerry L.; Brown, Christia S.

    1999-01-01

    A study used the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to investigate patterns of adaptive behavior in 30 children with autism who were under 3 years. Relative to controls, participants demonstrated weaker socialization and communication skills and greater discrepancies between adaptive behavior and mental age. The utility of the scales is discussed.…

  12. Visualizing Search Behavior with Adaptive Discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert G.; Qadri, Muhammad A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined different aspects of the visual search behavior of a pigeon using an open-ended, adaptive testing procedure controlled by a genetic algorithm. The animal had to accurately search for and peck a gray target element randomly located from among a variable number of surrounding darker and lighter distractor elements. Display composition was controlled by a genetic algorithm involving the multivariate configuration of different parameters or genes (number of distractors, element size, shape, spacing, target brightness, and distractor brightness). Sessions were composed of random displays, testing randomized combinations of these genes, and selected displays, representing the varied descendants of displays correctly identified by the pigeon. Testing a larger number of random displays than done previously, it was found that the bird’s solution to the search task was highly stable and did not change with extensive experience in the task. The location and shape of this attractor was visualized using multivariate behavioral surfaces in which element size and the number of distractors were the most important factors controlling search accuracy and search time. The resulting visualizations of the bird’s search behavior are discussed with reference to the potential of using adaptive, open-ended experimental techniques for investigating animal cognition and their implications for Bond and Kamil’s innovative development of virtual ecologies using an analogous methodology. PMID:24370702

  13. Risperidone and Adaptive Behavior in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan K.; Scahill, Lawrence; Vitiello, Benedetto; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Ritz, Louise; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Hollway, Jill; Cronin, Pegeen; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Wheeler, Courtney; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of risperidone on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder who have serious behavior problems and to examine different methods of scoring the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to measure change. Method: Forty-eight children (5 years to 16 years, 5 months) who showed behavioral improvement during acute…

  14. Nonbiased Assessment of Adaptive Behavior: Comparison of Three Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slate, Neldea M.

    1983-01-01

    A study involving 157 fourth graders revealed that the Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children discriminated between adaptive and maladaptive behaviors among retarded and nonretarded Ss, while the Vineland produced significantly different scores for Anglos and Blacks. The Behavior Rating Profile did not discriminate between behavior of retarded…

  15. Adaptive locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

  16. Adaptive Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish. PMID:21909325

  17. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  18. Anomalous human behavior detection: an adaptive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Coen; Halma, Arvid; Schutte, Klamer

    2013-05-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous behavior in videos from DARPA's Mind's Eye program, containing a variety of human activities. In this semi-unsupervised task a set of normal instances is provided for training, after which unknown abnormal behavior has to be detected in a test set. The features extracted from the video data have high dimensionality, are sparse and inhomogeneously distributed in the feature space making it a challenging task. Given these characteristics a distance-based method is preferred, but choosing a threshold to classify instances as (ab)normal is non-trivial. Our novel aproach, the Adaptive Outlier Distance (AOD) is able to detect outliers in these conditions based on local distance ratios. The underlying assumption is that the local maximum distance between labeled examples is a good indicator of the variation in that neighborhood, and therefore a local threshold will result in more robust outlier detection. We compare our method to existing state-of-art methods such as the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) and the Local Distance-based Outlier Factor (LDOF). The results of the experiments show that our novel approach improves the quality of the anomaly detection.

  19. Herd behavior in a complex adaptive system

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yu; Huang, J. P.; Ohashi, Hirotada; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics. PMID:21876133

  20. Herd behavior in a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yu; Huang, J P; Ohashi, Hirotada; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-09-13

    In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics.

  1. Physiological, behavioral and biochemical adaptations of intertidal fishes to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jeffrey G

    2011-01-15

    Hypoxia survival in fish requires a well-coordinated response to either secure more O(2) from the hypoxic environment or to limit the metabolic consequences of an O(2) restriction at the mitochondria. Although there is a considerable amount of information available on the physiological, behavioral, biochemical and molecular responses of fish to hypoxia, very little research has attempted to determine the adaptive value of these responses. This article will review current attempts to use the phylogenetically corrected comparative method to define physiological and behavioral adaptations to hypoxia in intertidal fish and further identify putatively adaptive biochemical traits that should be investigated in the future. In a group of marine fishes known as sculpins, from the family Cottidae, variation in hypoxia tolerance, measured as a critical O(2) tension (P(crit)), is primarily explained by variation in mass-specific gill surface area, red blood cell hemoglobin-O(2) binding affinity, and to a lesser extent variation in routine O(2) consumption rate (M(O(2))). The most hypoxia-tolerant sculpins consistently show aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and aerial emergence behavior during hypoxia exposure, but no phylogenetically independent relationship has been found between the thresholds for initiating these behaviors and P(crit). At O(2) levels below P(crit), hypoxia survival requires a rapid reorganization of cellular metabolism to suppress ATP consumption to match the limited capacity for O(2)-independent ATP production. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that the degree of metabolic rate suppression and the quantity of stored fermentable fuel is strongly selected for in hypoxia-tolerant fishes; however, these assertions have not been tested in a phylogenetic comparative model.

  2. Adaptive tracking of narrowband HF channel response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, F.; Arikan, O.

    2003-12-01

    Estimation of channel impulse response constitutes a first step in computation of scattering function, channel equalization, elimination of multipath, and optimum detection and identification of transmitted signals through the HF channel. Due to spatial and temporal variations, HF channel impulse response has to be estimated adaptively. Based on developed state-space and measurement models, an adaptive Kalman filter is proposed to track the HF channel variation in time. Robust methods of initialization and adaptively adjusting the noise covariance in the system dynamics are proposed. In simulated examples under good, moderate and poor ionospheric conditions, it is observed that the adaptive Kalman filter based channel estimator provides reliable channel estimates and can track the variation of the channel in time with high accuracy.

  3. Cross-National Assessment of Adaptive Behavior in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Iliescu, Dragos; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Juliet Honglei

    2013-01-01

    Measures of adaptive behaviors provide an important tool in the repertoire of clinical and school/educational psychologists. Measures that assess adaptive behaviors typically have been built in Western cultures and developed in light of behaviors common to them. Nevertheless, these measures are used elsewhere despite a paucity of data that examine…

  4. Adaptive Behavior in Children with Fragile X Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Deborah D.; Wheeler, Anne C.; Skinner, Martie L.; Bailey, Donald B.; Sullivan, Kelly M.; Roberts, Jane E.; Mirrett, Penny; Clark, Renee D.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive behavior was measured over time in 70 children, ages 1 to 12 years, with fragile X syndrome. With a mean of 4.4 assessments per child, adaptive behavior skills increased steadily and gradually over time. Children with less autistic behavior and higher percentages of the fragile X mental retardation gene protein showed better performance…

  5. Trust-Guided Behavior Adaptation Using Case-Based Reasoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    trustworthiness and adapt its behavior ac- cordingly. As behavior adaptation is performed, us- ing case-based reasoning (CBR), information about the...complete set of rules for trustwor- thy behavior if the robot is expected to handle changes in teammates, environments, or mission contexts. The way

  6. Can Behavioral Adaptation Explain the Probing Effect? Rejoinder to Buller et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; McCornack, Steven A.

    1996-01-01

    Responds to David Buller's defense of Behavioral Adaption Explanation (BAE), which was, in turn, written in response to the authors' critical analysis of BAE as an explanation for the probing effect. (TB)

  7. Adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans infection

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jonathan P; Moyes, David L

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are becoming increasingly prevalent in the human population and contribute to morbidity and mortality in healthy and immunocompromised individuals respectively. Candida albicans is the most commonly encountered fungal pathogen of humans, and is frequently found on the mucosal surfaces of the body. Host defense against C. albicans is dependent upon a finely tuned implementation of innate and adaptive immune responses, enabling the host to neutralise the invading fungus. Central to this protection are the adaptive Th1 and Th17 cellular responses, which are considered paramount to successful immune defense against C. albicans infections, and enable tissue homeostasis to be maintained in the presence of colonising fungi. This review will highlight the recent advances in our understanding of adaptive immunity to Candida albicans infections. PMID:25607781

  8. Adaptive neural control of aeroelastic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; Little, Gerald R.; Scott, Robert C.

    1996-05-01

    The Adaptive Neural Control of Aeroelastic Response (ANCAR) program is a joint research and development effort conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) under a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA). The purpose of the MOA is to cooperatively develop the smart structure technologies necessary for alleviating undesirable vibration and aeroelastic response associated with highly flexible structures. Adaptive control can reduce aeroelastic response associated with buffet and atmospheric turbulence, it can increase flutter margins, and it may be able to reduce response associated with nonlinear phenomenon like limit cycle oscillations. By reducing vibration levels and loads, aircraft structures can have lower acquisition cost, reduced maintenance, and extended lifetimes. Phase I of the ANCAR program involved development and demonstration of a neural network-based semi-adaptive flutter suppression system which used a neural network for scheduling control laws as a function of Mach number and dynamic pressure. This controller was tested along with a robust fixed-gain control law in NASA's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) utilizing the Benchmark Active Controls Testing (BACT) wing. During Phase II, a fully adaptive on-line learning neural network control system has been developed for flutter suppression which will be tested in 1996. This paper presents the results of Phase I testing as well as the development progress of Phase II.

  9. Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

    1998-01-01

    States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

  10. Stress Response and Perinatal Reprogramming: Unraveling (Mal)adaptive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Musazzi, Laura; Marrocco, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressors induce coping strategies in the majority of individuals. The stress response, involving the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the consequent release of corticosteroid hormones, is indeed aimed at promoting metabolic, functional, and behavioral adaptations. However, behavioral stress is also associated with fast and long-lasting neurochemical, structural, and behavioral changes, leading to long-term remodeling of glutamate transmission, and increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Of note, early-life events, both in utero and during the early postnatal life, trigger reprogramming of the stress response, which is often associated with loss of stress resilience and ensuing neurobehavioral (mal)adaptations. Indeed, adverse experiences in early life are known to induce long-term stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Here, we discuss recent findings about stress remodeling of excitatory neurotransmission and brain morphology in animal models of behavioral stress. These changes are likely driven by epigenetic factors that lie at the core of the stress-response reprogramming in individuals with a history of perinatal stress. We propose that reprogramming mechanisms may underlie the reorganization of excitatory neurotransmission in the short- and long-term response to stressful stimuli. PMID:27057367

  11. Individual differences in response conflict adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Keye, Doris; Wilhelm, Oliver; Oberauer, Klaus; Stürmer, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Conflict-monitoring theory argues for a general cognitive mechanism that monitors for conflicts in information-processing. If that mechanism detects conflict, it engages cognitive control to resolve it. A slow-down in response to incongruent trials (conflict effect), and a modulation of the conflict effect by the congruence of the preceding trial (Gratton or context effect) have been taken as indicators of such a monitoring system. The present study (N = 157) investigated individual differences in the conflict and the context effect in a horizontal and a vertical Simon task, and their correlation with working memory capacity (WMC). Strength of conflict was varied by proportion of congruent trials. Coherent factors could be formed representing individual differences in speeded performance, conflict adaptation, and context adaptation. Conflict and context factors were not associated with each other. Contrary to theories assuming a close relation between working memory and cognitive control, WMC showed no relation with any factors representing adaptation to conflict. PMID:24385971

  12. Green light signaling and adaptive response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Folta, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    To a plant, the sun's light is not exclusively energy for photosynthesis, it also provides information about time and prevailing conditions. The plant's surroundings may dampen or filter solar energies, presenting plants with different spectral profiles of their light environment. Plants use this information to adjust form and physiology, tailoring gene expression to best match ambient conditions. Extensive literature exists on how blue, red and far-red light contribute to plant adaptive responses. A growing body of work identifies effects of green light (500-565 nm) that also shape plant biology. Green light responses are known to be either mediated through, or independent of, the cryptochrome blue light receptors. Responses to green light share a general tendency to oppose blue- or red-light-induced responses, including stem growth rate inhibition, anthocyanin accumulation and chloroplast gene expression. Recent evidence demonstrates a role for green light in sensing a shaded environment, independent from far-red shade responses.

  13. Learning about stress: neural, endocrine and behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Richard

    2016-09-01

    In this review, nonassociative learning is advanced as an organizing principle to draw together findings from both sympathetic-adrenal medullary and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to chronic intermittent exposure to a variety of stressors. Studies of habituation, facilitation and sensitization of stress effector systems are reviewed and linked to an animal's prior experience with a given stressor, the intensity of the stressor and the appraisal by the animal of its ability to mobilize physiological systems to adapt to the stressor. Brain pathways that regulate physiological and behavioral responses to stress are discussed, especially in light of their regulation of nonassociative processes in chronic intermittent stress. These findings may have special relevance to various psychiatric diseases, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  14. Adaptive immune responses to Acanthamoeba cysts.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Kathy; Howard, Kevin; Mayhew, Elizabeth; Niederkorn, Jerry; Alizadeh, Hassan

    2002-09-01

    Acanthamoeba cysts are not eliminated from the corneas of human subjects or experimentally infected animals. The persistence of Acanthamoeba cysts in the cornea indicates that either the cysts escape immunological elimination or are not recognized by the host's immunological elements. The aim of this study was to determine the immunogenicity and antigenicity of the Acanthamoeba cyst. Mice were immunized intraperitoneally and serum anti-Acanthamoeba IgG was measured by ELISA. Lymphoproliferative assay and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to Acanthamoeba castellanii cyst and trophozoite antigens were used to determine the cell mediated immune responses against Acanthamoeba cysts. A. castellanii cysts were both immunogenic and antigenic, producing anti-Acanthamoeba serum IgG, T lymphocyte proliferation, and delayed type hypersensitivity responses. These results indicate that Acanthamoeba cysts are recognized by the immune system. The persistence of the organism in the human cornea means that these adaptive immune responses fail to kill Acanthamoeba cysts.

  15. Adaptive immune cells temper initial innate responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Dong; Zhao, Jie; Auh, Sogyong; Yang, Xuanming; Du, Peishuang; Tang, Hong; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved microbial structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Signaling from TLRs leads to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules for better priming of T cells and secretion of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells1–4. Lymphocytedeficient hosts often die of acute infection, presumably owing to their lack of an adaptive immune response to effectively clear pathogens. However, we show here that an unleashed innate immune response due to the absence of residential T cells can also be a direct cause of death. Viral infection or administration of poly(I:C), a ligand for TLR3, led to cytokine storm in T-cell- or lymphocyte-deficient mice in a fashion dependent on NK cells and tumor necrosis factor. We have further shown, through the depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in wild-type mice and the transfer of T lymphocytes into Rag-1–deficient mice, respectively, that T cells are both necessary and sufficient to temper the early innate response. In addition to the effects of natural regulatory T cells, close contact of resting CD4+CD25−Foxp3− or CD8+ T cells with innate cells could also suppress the cytokine surge by various innate cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Therefore, adaptive immune cells have an unexpected role in tempering initial innate responses. PMID:17891146

  16. Adaptive immune cells temper initial innate responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Dong; Zhao, Jie; Auh, Sogyong; Yang, Xuanming; Du, Peishuang; Tang, Hong; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2007-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved microbial structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Signaling from TLRs leads to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules for better priming of T cells and secretion of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells. Lymphocyte-deficient hosts often die of acute infection, presumably owing to their lack of an adaptive immune response to effectively clear pathogens. However, we show here that an unleashed innate immune response due to the absence of residential T cells can also be a direct cause of death. Viral infection or administration of poly(I:C), a ligand for TLR3, led to cytokine storm in T-cell- or lymphocyte-deficient mice in a fashion dependent on NK cells and tumor necrosis factor. We have further shown, through the depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in wild-type mice and the transfer of T lymphocytes into Rag-1-deficient mice, respectively, that T cells are both necessary and sufficient to temper the early innate response. In addition to the effects of natural regulatory T cells, close contact of resting CD4+CD25-Foxp3- or CD8+ T cells with innate cells could also suppress the cytokine surge by various innate cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Therefore, adaptive immune cells have an unexpected role in tempering initial innate responses.

  17. Resistance Training: Physiological Responses and Adaptations (Part 3 of 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, Steven J.; Kraemer, William J.

    1988-01-01

    The physiological responses and adaptations which occur as a result of resistance training, such as cardiovascular responses, serum lipid count, body composition, and neural adaptations are discussed. Changes in the endocrine system are also described. (JL)

  18. The adaptive immune response in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Iversen, Rasmus; Ráki, Melinda; Sollid, Ludvig M

    2012-07-01

    Compared to other human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-associated diseases such as type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, fundamental aspects of the pathogenesis in celiac disease are relatively well understood. This is mostly because the causative antigen in celiac disease-cereal gluten proteins-is known and the culprit HLA molecules are well defined. This has facilitated the dissection of the disease-relevant CD4+ T cells interacting with the disease-associated HLA molecules. In addition, celiac disease has distinct antibody responses to gluten and the autoantigen transglutaminase 2, which give strong handles to understand all sides of the adaptive immune response leading to disease. Here we review recent developments in the understanding of the role of T cells, B cells, and antigen-presenting cells in the pathogenic immune response of this instructive disorder.

  19. Boldness behavior and stress physiology in a novel urban environment suggest rapid correlated evolutionary adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gonçalo C.; Whittaker, Danielle J.; Campbell-Nelson, Samuel; Robertson, Kyle W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2012-01-01

    Novel or changing environments expose animals to diverse stressors that likely require coordinated hormonal and behavioral adaptations. Predicted adaptations to urban environments include attenuated physiological responses to stressors and bolder exploratory behaviors, but few studies to date have evaluated the impact of urban life on codivergence of these hormonal and behavioral traits in natural systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid adaptive shifts in both stress physiology and correlated boldness behaviors in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco, following its colonization of a novel urban environment. We compared elevation in corticosterone (CORT) in response to handling and flight initiation distances in birds from a recently established urban population in San Diego, California to birds from a nearby wildland population in the species' ancestral montane breeding range. We also measured CORT and exploratory behavior in birds raised from early life in a captive common garden study. We found persistent population differences for both reduced CORT responses and bolder exploratory behavior in birds from the colonist population, as well as significant negative covariation between maximum CORT and exploratory behavior. Although early developmental effects cannot be ruled out, these results suggest contemporary adaptive evolution of correlated hormonal and behavioral traits associated with colonization of an urban habitat. PMID:22936840

  20. Rapid Assessment of the Effects of Restraint on Self-Injury and Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michele D.; Iwata, Brian A.; Zhou, Liming; Goff, Gerald A.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of restraint on occurrences of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and adaptive responses exhibited by two individuals with profound mental retardation across eight response-effort conditions with varying degrees of physical restraint. Analysis identified a restraint level for each individual that reduced SIB but did not…

  1. Improving Adaptive Learning Technology through the Use of Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mettler, Everett; Massey, Christine M.; Kellman, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive learning techniques have typically scheduled practice using learners' accuracy and item presentation history. We describe an adaptive learning system (Adaptive Response Time Based Sequencing--ARTS) that uses both accuracy and response time (RT) as direct inputs into sequencing. Response times are used to assess learning strength and…

  2. Panel V: Adaptive Health Behaviors Among Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Shirley P.; Angel, Ronald; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Liu, William; Schinke, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Race, ethnicity, and cultural attitudes and practices are among the variables that influence health behaviors, including adaptive health behaviors. The following discussions highlight the important role of social conditions in shaping health behaviors and the central role of family in promoting health across the Asian, Hispanic, Native American, and African American ethnic groups. Factors that may lead to health-damaging behaviors are also discussed. The need for additional research that identifies correlations among physiological, social, and behavioral factors and health behaviors, as well as underlying mechanisms, is called for. PMID:8654341

  3. Local adaptation in transgenerational responses to predators

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Matthew R.; Castoe, Todd; Holmes, Julian; Packer, Michelle; Biles, Kelsey; Walsh, Melissa; Munch, Stephan B.; Post, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental signals can induce phenotypic changes that span multiple generations. Along with phenotypic responses that occur during development (i.e. ‘within-generation’ plasticity), such ‘transgenerational plasticity’ (TGP) has been documented in a diverse array of taxa spanning many environmental perturbations. New theory predicts that temporal stability is a key driver of the evolution of TGP. We tested this prediction using natural populations of zooplankton from lakes in Connecticut that span a large gradient in the temporal dynamics of predator-induced mortality. We reared more than 120 clones of Daphnia ambigua from nine lakes for multiple generations in the presence/absence of predator cues. We found that temporal variation in mortality selects for within-generation plasticity while consistently strong (or weak) mortality selects for increased TGP. Such results provide us the first evidence for local adaptation in TGP and argue that divergent ecological conditions select for phenotypic responses within and across generations. PMID:26817775

  4. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  5. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-29

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality.

  6. Offsetting Behavior and Adaptation: How Students Respond to Hard Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Laura E.; Delmontagne, Emma M.; Wood, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Do students engage in offsetting behavior, adapting their study effort to the difficulty of learning? The authors present the results of survey research intended to test for the presence of offsetting behavior at a regional university. Instead of trying to determine whether students study less when learning is easier, we check to see whether…

  7. Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    2010 Northrop Grumman 14 Manager Leadership Behaviors of Managers Visionary Leadership Motivates and Encourages Promotes Organizational Learning Behaviors...most © Copyright 2009 Northrop GrummanCopyright 2010 Northrop Grumman 19 vulnerable? The Manager: Promotes Organizational Learning • Promotes...emphasize collaboration, team empowerment, trust, and organizational learning • Train managers in the practices that works best in adaptive environments

  8. Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Castro, Felipe G.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Toobert, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the article are to (a) describe…

  9. Comparison of Adaptive Behavior Measures for Children with HFASDs

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachael A.; Volker, Martin A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Lee, Gloria K.; McDonald, Christin A.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive behavior rating scales are frequently used to gather information on the adaptive functioning of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), yet little is known about the extent to which these measures yield comparable results. This study was conducted to (a) document the parent-rated VABS-II, BASC-2, and ABAS-II adaptive behavior profiles of 6- to 11-year-olds with HFASDs (including relative strengths and weaknesses); (b) examine the extent to which these measures yielded similar scores on comparable scales; and (c) assess potential discrepancies between cognitive ability and adaptive behavior across the measures. All three adaptive measures revealed significant deficits overall for the sample, with the VABS-II and ABAS-II indicating relative weaknesses in social skills and strengths in academic-related skills. Cross-measure comparisons indicated significant differences in the absolute magnitude of scores. In general, the VABS-II yielded significantly higher scores than the BASC-2 and ABAS-II. However, the VABS-II and ABAS-II yielded scores that did not significantly differ for adaptive social skills which is a critical area to assess for children with HFASDs. Results also indicated significant discrepancies between the children's average IQ score and their scores on the adaptive domains and composites of the three adaptive measures. PMID:23819048

  10. Adaptability: Conceptual and Empirical Perspectives on Responses to Change, Novelty and Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Nejad, Harry; Colmar, Susan; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptability is proposed as individuals' capacity to constructively regulate psycho-behavioral functions in response to new, changing, and/or uncertain circumstances, conditions and situations. The present investigation explored the internal and external validity of an hypothesised adaptability scale. The sample comprised 2,731 high school…

  11. Formation and Regulation of Adaptive Response in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y.-L.; Wang, D.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    All organisms respond to environmental stresses (e.g., heavy metal, heat, UV irradiation, hyperoxia, food limitation, etc.) with coordinated adjustments in order to deal with the consequences and/or injuries caused by the severe stress. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans often exerts adaptive responses if preconditioned with low concentrations of agents or stressor. In C. elegans, three types of adaptive responses can be formed: hormesis, cross-adaptation, and dietary restriction. Several factors influence the formation of adaptive responses in nematodes, and some mechanisms can explain their response formation. In particular, antioxidation system, heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, glutathione, signaling transduction, and metabolic signals may play important roles in regulating the formation of adaptive responses. In this paper, we summarize the published evidence demonstrating that several types of adaptive responses have converged in C. elegans and discussed some possible alternative theories explaining the adaptive response control. PMID:22997543

  12. Adaptive acidification tolerance response of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Foster, J W; Hall, H K

    1990-02-01

    Salmonella typhimurium can encounter a wide variety of environments during its life cycle. One component of the environment which will fluctuate widely is pH. In nature, S. typhimurium can experience and survive dramatic acid stresses that occur in diverse ecological niches ranging from pond water to phagolysosomes. However, in vitro the organism is very sensitive to acid. To provide an explanation for how this organism survives acid in natural environments, the adaptive ability of S. typhimurium to become acid tolerant was tested. Logarithmically grown cells (pH 7.6) shifted to mild acid (pH 5.8) for one doubling as an adaptive procedure were 100 to 1,000 times more resistant to subsequent strong acid challenge (pH 3.3) than were unadapted cells shifted directly from pH 7.6 to 3.3. This acidification tolerance response required protein synthesis and appears to be a specific defense mechanism for acid. No cross protection was noted for hydrogen peroxide, SOS, or heat shock. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of acid-regulated polypeptides revealed 18 proteins with altered expression, 6 of which were repressed while 12 were induced by mild acid shifts. An avirulent phoP mutant was 1,000-fold more sensitive to acid than its virulent phoP+ parent, suggesting a correlation between acid tolerance and virulence. The Mg2(+)-dependent proton-translocating ATPase was also found to play an important role in acid tolerance. Mutants (unc) lacking this activity were unable to mount an acid tolerance response and were extremely acid sensitive. In contrast to these acid-sensitive mutants, a constitutively acid-tolerant mutant (atr) was isolated from wild-type LT2 after prolonged acid exposure. This mutant overexpressed several acidification tolerance response polypeptides. The data presented reveal an important acidification defense modulon with broad significance toward survival in biologically hostile environments.

  13. Plant Cell Adaptive Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth; Kozeko, Liudmyla; Talalaev, Alexandr

    simulated microgravity and temperature elevation have different effects on the small HSP genes belonging to subfamilies with different subcellular localization: cytosol/nucleus - PsHSP17.1-СІІ and PsHSP18.1-СІ, cloroplasts - PsHSP26.2-Cl, endoplasmatic reticulum - PsHSP22.7-ER and mitochondria - PsHSP22.9-M: unlike high temperature, clinorotation does not cause denaturation of cell proteins, that confirms the sHSP chaperone function. Dynamics of investigated gene expression in pea seedlings growing 5 days after seed germination under clinorotation was similar to that in the stationary control. Similar patterns in dynamics of sHSP gene expression in the stationary control and under clinorotation may be one of mechanisms providing plant adaptation to simulated microgravity. It is pointed that plant cell responses in microgravity and under clinorotation vary according to growth phase, physiological state, and taxonomic position of the object. At the same time, the responses have, to some degree, a similar character reflecting the changes in cell organelle functional load. Thus, next certain changes in the structure and function of plant cells may be considered as adaptive: 1) an increase in the unsaturated fatty acid content in the plasmalemma, 2) rearrangements of organelle ultrastructure and an increase in their functional load, 3) an increase in cortical F-actin under destabilization of tubulin microtubules, 4) the level of gene expression and synthesis of heat shock proteins, 5) alterations of the enzyme and antioxidant system activity. The dynamics of these patterns demonstrated that the adaptation occurs on the principle of self-regulating systems in the limits of physiological norm reaction. The very importance of changed expression of genes involved in different cellular processes, especially HSP genes, in cell adaptation to altered gravity is discussed.

  14. Radio-Adaptive Responses of Mouse Myocardiocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seawright, John W.; Westby, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most significant occupational hazards to an astronaut is the frequent exposure to radiation. Commonly associated with increased risk for cancer related morbidity and mortality, radiation is also known to increase the risk for cardiovascular related disorders including: pericarditis, hypertension, and heart failure. It is believed that these radiation-induced disorders are a result of abnormal tissue remodeling. It is unknown whether radiation exposure promotes remodeling through fibrotic changes alone or in combination with programmed cell death. Furthermore, it is not known whether it is possible to mitigate the hazardous effects of radiation exposure. As such, we assessed the expression and mechanisms of radiation-induced tissue remodeling and potential radio-adaptive responses of p53-mediated apoptosis and fibrosis pathways along with markers for oxidative stress and inflammation in mice myocardium. 7 week old, male, C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to 6Gy (H) or 5cGy followed 24hr later with 6Gy (LH) Cs-137 gamma radiation. Mice were sacrificed and their hearts extirpated 4, 24, or 72hr after final irradiation. Real Time - Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to evaluate target genes. Pro-apoptotic genes Bad and Bax, pro-cell survival genes Bcl2 and Bcl2l2, fibrosis gene Vegfa, and oxidative stress genes Sod2 and GPx4 showed a reduced fold regulation change (Bad,-6.18; Bax,-6.94; Bcl2,-5.09; Bcl2l2,-4.03; Vegfa, -11.84; Sod2,-5.97; GPx4*,-28.72; * = Bonferroni adjusted p-value . 0.003) 4hr after H, but not after 4hr LH when compared to control. Other p53-mediated apoptosis genes Casp3, Casp9, Trp53, and Myc exhibited down-regulation but did not achieve a notable level of significance 4hr after H. 24hr after H, genetic down-regulation was no longer present compared to 24hr control. These data suggest a general reduction in genetic expression 4hrs after a high dose of gamma radiation. However, pre-exposure to 5cGy gamma radiation appears to facilitate a radio-adaptive

  15. Mouse Behavior: Conjectures about Adaptations for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rop, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Presents an experiment on mouse behavior in which students learn to observe, pay attention to details, record field notes, and ask questions about their observations. Uses a white mouse to eliminate the risk of disease that a wild rodent might carry. Lists materials, set up, and procedure. (YDS)

  16. Adaptive capability as indicated by behavioral and physiological responses, plasma HSP70 level, and PBMC HSP70 mRNA expression in Osmanabadi goats subjected to combined (heat and nutritional) stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilja, Shaji; Sejian, V.; Bagath, M.; Mech, A.; David, C. G.; Kurien, E. K.; Varma, Girish; Bhatta, Raghavendra

    2016-09-01

    A study was conducted to assess the impact of heat and nutritional stress simultaneously on the adaptive capability as indicated by behavioral and physiological responses, plasma heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) level, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) HSP70 gene expression in goats. Twenty-four adult Osmanabadi bucks (average body weight (BW) 16.0 kg) were used in the present study. The bucks were divided into four groups viz., C ( n = 6; control), HS ( n = 6; heat stress), NS ( n = 6; nutritional stress), and CS ( n = 6; combined stress). The study was conducted for a period of 45 days. C and HS bucks had ad libitum access to their feed while NS and CS bucks were under restricted feed (30 % intake of C bucks) to induce nutritional stress. The HS and CS bucks were exposed to solar radiation for 6 h a day between 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. to induce heat stress. The data was analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The standing time differed significantly ( P < 0.01) between ad libitum fed groups (C and HS) and restricted feeding groups (NS and CS). The highest ( P < 0.01) lying time was recorded in the CS group while the lowest in the C and HS groups. The highest ( P < 0.01) drinking frequency was also recorded in the CS group. Water intake recorded was significantly ( P < 0.01) higher in both the HS and CS groups. The highest respiration rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and rectal temperature (RT) during the afternoon were also recorded in the CS group. Further, skin temperature of the head, flank, and scrotum during the afternoon was also higher ( P < 0.01) in the CS group. In addition, both plasma HSP70 concentration and PBMC HSP70 messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript expression were also significantly ( P < 0.01) higher in the CS group. It can be concluded from this study that when two stressors occur simultaneously, they may have severe impact on adaptive capabilities of Osmanabadi bucks as compared to that would occur individually. Further, the

  17. Adaptive responses to antibody based therapy.

    PubMed

    Rodems, Tamara S; Iida, Mari; Brand, Toni M; Pearson, Hannah E; Orbuch, Rachel A; Flanigan, Bailey G; Wheeler, Deric L

    2016-02-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) represent a large class of protein kinases that span the cellular membrane. There are 58 human RTKs identified which are grouped into 20 distinct families based upon their ligand binding, sequence homology and structure. They are controlled by ligand binding which activates intrinsic tyrosine-kinase activity. This activity leads to the phosphorylation of distinct tyrosines on the cytoplasmic tail, leading to the activation of cell signaling cascades. These signaling cascades ultimately regulate cellular proliferation, apoptosis, migration, survival and homeostasis of the cell. The vast majority of RTKs have been directly tied to the etiology and progression of cancer. Thus, using antibodies to target RTKs as a cancer therapeutic strategy has been intensely pursued. Although antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have shown promise in the clinical arena, the development of both intrinsic and acquired resistance to antibody-based therapies is now well appreciated. In this review we provide an overview of the RTK family, the biology of EGFR and HER2, as well as an in-depth review of the adaptive responses undertaken by cells in response to antibody based therapies directed against these receptors. A greater understanding of these mechanisms and their relevance in human models will lead to molecular insights in overcoming and circumventing resistance to antibody based therapy.

  18. Linking Individual and Collective Behavior in Adaptive Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive social structures are known to promote the evolution of cooperation. However, up to now the characterization of the collective, population-wide dynamics resulting from the self-organization of individual strategies on a coevolving, adaptive network has remained unfeasible. Here we establish a (reversible) link between individual (micro)behavior and collective (macro)behavior for coevolutionary processes. We demonstrate that an adaptive network transforms a two-person social dilemma locally faced by individuals into a collective dynamics that resembles that associated with an N -person coordination game, whose characterization depends sensitively on the relative time scales between the entangled behavioral and network evolutions. In particular, we show that the faster the relative rate of adaptation of the network, the smaller the critical fraction of cooperators required for cooperation to prevail, thus establishing a direct link between network adaptation and the evolution of cooperation. The framework developed here is general and may be readily applied to other dynamical processes occurring on adaptive networks, notably, the spreading of contagious diseases or the diffusion of innovations.

  19. Behavioral and neural Darwinism: selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J

    2010-05-01

    An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptive behavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail.

  20. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and Cortical Adaptation in Habituation of Odor-Guided Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadon, Carly A.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2005-01-01

    Decreases in behavioral investigation of novel stimuli over time may be mediated by a variety of factors including changes in attention, internal state, and motivation. Sensory cortical adaptation, a decrease in sensory cortical responsiveness over prolonged stimulation, may also play a role. In olfaction, metabotropic glutamate receptors on…

  1. Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

  2. Measuring adaptations of motivational interviewing: the development and validation of the behavior change counseling index (BECCI).

    PubMed

    Lane, Claire; Huws-Thomas, Michelle; Hood, Kerenza; Rollnick, Stephen; Edwards, Karen; Robling, Michael

    2005-02-01

    One of the most common challenges faced by health professionals is encouraging patients to change their behavior to improve their health. This paper reports the development of a checklist, the behavior change counseling index (BECCI). This aims to measure practitioner competence in behavior change counseling (BCC), an adaptation of motivational interviewing suitable for brief consultations in healthcare settings. The checklist has demonstrated acceptable levels of validity, reliability and responsiveness, and aims to assist trainers and researchers in assessing change in practitioner behavior before, during and after training in BCC. BECCI will also provide valuable information about the standard of BCC that practitioners were trained to deliver in studies of BCC as an intervention.

  3. Behavioral Response Research Evaluation Workshop (BRREW)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Behavioral Response Research Evaluation Workshop (BRREW...N000141512664 http://www.creem.st-and.ac.uk LONG-TERM GOALS The behavioral response of marine mammals to Navy sonar exposure has been a research...The overall objective is to review the status and future of research into behavioral responses of marine mammals to naval sonar exposure in order to

  4. Cetacean Social Behavioral Response to Sonar Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cetacean social behavioral response to sonar exposure Dr...TERM GOALS The goal of this effort is to investigate cetacean social behavioral response to sonar signals. OBJECTIVES The scientific objectives...of this effort are to determine: 1) social behavioral responses of cetaceans to sonar and to tagging, to investigate the biological relevance and

  5. Linear ubiquitination signals in adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2015-07-01

    Ubiquitin can form eight different linkage types of chains using the intrinsic Met 1 residue or one of the seven intrinsic Lys residues. Each linkage type of ubiquitin chain has a distinct three-dimensional topology, functioning as a tag to attract specific signaling molecules, which are so-called ubiquitin readers, and regulates various biological functions. Ubiquitin chains linked via Met 1 in a head-to-tail manner are called linear ubiquitin chains. Linear ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of cellular signaling, including the best-characterized tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Linear ubiquitin chains are specifically generated by an E3 ligase complex called the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and hydrolyzed by a deubiquitinase (DUB) called ovarian tumor (OTU) DUB with linear linkage specificity (OTULIN). LUBAC linearly ubiquitinates critical molecules in the TNF pathway, such as NEMO and RIPK1. The linear ubiquitin chains are then recognized by the ubiquitin readers, including NEMO, which control the TNF pathway. Accumulating evidence indicates an importance of the LUBAC complex in the regulation of apoptosis, development, and inflammation in mice. In this article, I focus on the role of linear ubiquitin chains in adaptive immune responses with an emphasis on the TNF-induced signaling pathways.

  6. Endogenous Nuclear RNAi Mediates Behavioral Adaptation to Odor

    PubMed Central

    Juang, Bi-Tzen; Gu, Chen; Starnes, Linda; Palladino, Francesca; Goga, Andrei; Kennedy, Scott; L'Etoile, Noelle D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Most eukaryotic cells express small regulatory RNAs. The purpose of one class, the somatic endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) remains unclear. Here we show the endo-siRNA pathway promotes odor adaptation in C. elegans AWC olfactory neurons. In adaptation, the nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3, which acts in AWC, is loaded with siRNAs targeting odr-1, a gene who's down regulation is required for adaptation. Concomitant with increased odr-1 siRNA in AWC, we observe increased binding of the HP1 homolog HPL-2 at the odr-1 locus in AWC and reduced odr-1 mRNA in adapted animals. Phosphorylation of HPL-2, an in vitro substrate of the EGL-4 kinase that promotes adaption, is necessary and sufficient for behavioral adaptation. Thus, environmental stimulation amplifies an endo-siRNA negative feedback loop to dynamically repress cognate gene expression and shape behavior. This class of siRNA may act broadly as a rheostat allowing prolonged stimulation to dampen gene expression and promote cellular memory formation. PMID:23993094

  7. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  8. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Introduction to Psychosocial and Behavioral Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, R. Leigh; Decker, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioral adaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…

  9. Coping with Information Overload as Adaptive Behavior in Competitive Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig A.

    When the amount of available information exceeds the ability of the user to process it, "information overload" is created. In an attempt to maintain some control over the quantity of arguments they may face, debaters have developed adaptive behavior, primarily through the generic argument--any argument within a "deliverative"…

  10. Adaptive Behavior in Toddlers under Two with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Loomis, Rebecca; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was administered to 54 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before age 2, and a matching group of 18 toddlers with developmental delay (DD). The group with ASD was more impaired on all scales of the Vineland than DD peers. When 18 ASD/DD pairs very closely matched on age, verbal and nonverbal…

  11. Lateral cascade of indirect effects in food webs with different types of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Kamran-Disfani, Ahmad R; Golubski, Antonio J

    2013-12-21

    It is widely recognized that indirect effects due to adaptive behaviors can have important effects on food webs. One consequence may be to change how readily perturbations propagate through the web, because species' behaviors as well as densities may respond to perturbations. It is not well understood which types of behavior are more likely to facilitate versus inhibit propagation of disturbances through a food web, or how this might be affected by the shape of a food web or the patterns of interaction strengths within it. We model two simple, laterally expanded food webs (one with three trophic levels and one with four), and compare how various adaptive behaviors affect the potential for a newly introduced predator to change the equilibrium densities of distant species. Patterns of changes in response to the introduction were qualitatively similar across most models, as were the ways in which patterns of direct interaction strengths affected those responses. Depending on both the web structure and the specific adaptive behavior, the potential for density changes to propagate through the web could be either increased or diminished relative to the no-behavior model. Two behaviors allowed density changes to propagate through a four-level web that precluded such propagation in the no-behavior model, and each of these two behaviors led to qualitatively different patterns of density changes. In the one model (diet choice) in which density changes were able to propagate in both web structures, patterns of density changes differed qualitatively between webs. Some of our results flowed from the fact that behaviors did not interact directly in the systems we considered, so that indirect effects on distant species had to be at least partly density-mediated. Our models highlight this as an inherent limitation of considering in isolation behaviors that are strictly foraging-related or strictly defense-related, making a case for the value of simultaneously considering multiple

  12. Shaping Embodied Neural Networks for Adaptive Goal-directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Zenas C.; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Potter, Steve M.

    2008-01-01

    The acts of learning and memory are thought to emerge from the modifications of synaptic connections between neurons, as guided by sensory feedback during behavior. However, much is unknown about how such synaptic processes can sculpt and are sculpted by neuronal population dynamics and an interaction with the environment. Here, we embodied a simulated network, inspired by dissociated cortical neuronal cultures, with an artificial animal (an animat) through a sensory-motor loop consisting of structured stimuli, detailed activity metrics incorporating spatial information, and an adaptive training algorithm that takes advantage of spike timing dependent plasticity. By using our design, we demonstrated that the network was capable of learning associations between multiple sensory inputs and motor outputs, and the animat was able to adapt to a new sensory mapping to restore its goal behavior: move toward and stay within a user-defined area. We further showed that successful learning required proper selections of stimuli to encode sensory inputs and a variety of training stimuli with adaptive selection contingent on the animat's behavior. We also found that an individual network had the flexibility to achieve different multi-task goals, and the same goal behavior could be exhibited with different sets of network synaptic strengths. While lacking the characteristic layered structure of in vivo cortical tissue, the biologically inspired simulated networks could tune their activity in behaviorally relevant manners, demonstrating that leaky integrate-and-fire neural networks have an innate ability to process information. This closed-loop hybrid system is a useful tool to study the network properties intermediating synaptic plasticity and behavioral adaptation. The training algorithm provides a stepping stone towards designing future control systems, whether with artificial neural networks or biological animats themselves. PMID:18369432

  13. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  14. A Behavioral Response to Illness. N106.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Judith

    A description is provided of "Behavioral Response to Illness," a required course offered in the second quarter of a two-year college nursing program, which examines physiological and psychosocial changes in patients from the framework of illness as a stressor, and the possible behavioral responses to such stress. The course focuses on behavioral…

  15. [Mechanism of cytogenetic adaptive response induced by low dose radiation].

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Liu, S

    1990-11-01

    Cytogenetic observation on human lymphocytes indicated that pre-exposure of 10, 50 and 75 mGy X-rays could induced the adaptive response. Experimental results with different temperature treatment showed that the adaptive response induced by low dose radiation could be enhanced by 41 degrees C and 43 degrees C, but inhibited by 4 degrees C in addition the treatment by 41 degrees C for one hour could also cause the adaptive response as did low dose radiation. Results showed that adaptive response induced by low dose radiation (10 or 50 mGy X-rays) could be eliminated by the protein synthesis inhibitor, implying that the adaptive response is related with the metabolism of cells, especially with the production of certain protective proteins.

  16. Responsible leader behavior in health sectors.

    PubMed

    Longest, Beaufort

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.

  17. REM Sleep Rebound as an Adaptive Response to Stressful Situations

    PubMed Central

    Suchecki, Deborah; Tiba, Paula Ayako; Machado, Ricardo Borges

    2011-01-01

    Stress and sleep are related to each other in a bidirectional way. If on one hand poor or inadequate sleep exacerbates emotional, behavioral, and stress-related responses, on the other hand acute stress induces sleep rebound, most likely as a way to cope with the adverse stimuli. Chronic, as opposed to acute, stress impairs sleep and has been claimed to be one of the triggering factors of emotional-related sleep disorders, such as insomnia, depressive- and anxiety-disorders. These outcomes are dependent on individual psychobiological characteristics, conferring even more complexity to the stress-sleep relationship. Its neurobiology has only recently begun to be explored, through animal models, which are also valuable for the development of potential therapeutic agents and preventive actions. This review seeks to present data on the effects of stress on sleep and the different approaches used to study this relationship as well as possible neurobiological underpinnings and mechanisms involved. The results of numerous studies in humans and animals indicate that increased sleep, especially the rapid eye movement phase, following a stressful situation is an important adaptive behavior for recovery. However, this endogenous advantage appears to be impaired in human beings and rodent strains that exhibit high levels of anxiety and anxiety-like behavior. PMID:22485105

  18. Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Outcomes of Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldevik, Sigmund; Jahr, Erik; Eikeseth, Svein; Hastings, Richard P.; Hughes, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    Data from Norway were analyzed to evaluate early behavioral intervention for children with intellectual disabilities. The intervention group (n = 11) received approximately 10 hours per week of behavioral intervention; the eclectic comparison group (n = 14) received treatment as usual. After 1 year, changes in intelligence and adaptive behavior…

  19. Light-adaptation in the photophobic response by Stentor coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Hong, C B; Prusti, R K; Song, P S

    1987-03-01

    Effects of preillumination on photophobic response (light-adaptation) and recovery of the photophobic sensitivity in the dark (dark-adaptation) in Stentor coeruleus were examined. When the cells were preilluminated with white light of 7.80 W/m2 for 2 min, the fluence-rate response curve of photophobic response was shifted toward higher light intensities by half an order of magnitude compared to the one without preillumination. Preillumination with a higher light intensity resulted in a further shift of the fluence-rate response curve. An action spectrum for light-adaptation showed a primary peak at 610 nm and secondary peaks at 540 and 480 nm which are almost identical to the peaks observed in the photophobic action spectrum. The light-adapted cells showed a recovery of their photophobic sensing ability following dark treatment. Dark-adaptation resulted in total recovery of photophobic sensing ability in 8 minutes for the most cases examined.

  20. Information theory of adaptation in neurons, behavior, and mood

    PubMed Central

    Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Calhoun, Adam J.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make accurate predictions of future stimuli and consequences of one’s actions are crucial for the survival and appropriate decision-making. These predictions are constantly being made at different levels of the nervous system. This is evidenced by adaptation to stimulus parameters in sensory coding, and in learning of an up-to-date model of the environment at the behavioral level. This review will discuss recent findings that actions of neurons and animals are selected based on detailed stimulus history in such a way as to maximize information for achieving the task at hand. Information maximization dictates not only how sensory coding should adapt to various statistical aspects of stimuli, but also that reward function should adapt to match the predictive information from past to future. PMID:24709600

  1. Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment.

  2. Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Self-injurious Thoughts and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Darren B; Flament, Martine F

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore clinical changes observed in suicidal adolescents treated with an adapted form of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for adolescents (A-DBT-A) in a tertiary care setting. We conducted an open-label naturalistic study including 61 adolescents with self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and associated features of borderline personality disorder, who underwent a 15-week course of A-DBT-A. Pre- and post-treatment measures were administered, the primary outcome being the total score on the Suicidal Ideas Questionnaire. Self-harm, symptoms of borderline personality disorder, resiliency measures, predictors of response, and predictors of attrition were also explored. Among participants who completed post-treatment measures, we found a significant reduction in suicidal ideation (n = 31, p < 0.001). Secondary outcomes also suggested improvement. Baseline substance use predicted attrition (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.03-6.14; p < 0.05), as did baseline impulsivity score on the Life Problems Inventory (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.004-1.06; p < 0.05). Overall, we observed clinical improvements in adolescents receiving A-DBT-A.

  3. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Peter; Rosenior-Patten, Onayomi; Dahmen, Johannes C; Bell, Olivia; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The brain possesses a remarkable capacity to compensate for changes in inputs resulting from a range of sensory impairments. Developmental studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation to asymmetric hearing loss can be achieved either by reinterpreting altered spatial cues or by relying more on those cues that remain intact. Adaptation to monaural deprivation in adulthood is also possible, but appears to lack such flexibility. Here we show, however, that appropriate behavioral training enables monaurally-deprived adult humans to exploit both of these adaptive processes. Moreover, cortical recordings in ferrets reared with asymmetric hearing loss suggest that these forms of plasticity have distinct neural substrates. An ability to adapt to asymmetric hearing loss using multiple adaptive processes is therefore shared by different species and may persist throughout the lifespan. This highlights the fundamental flexibility of neural systems, and may also point toward novel therapeutic strategies for treating sensory disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12264.001 PMID:27008181

  4. Stimuli-Responsive Mechanically Adaptive Polymer Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Capadona, Jeffrey R.; Rowan, Stuart J.; Weder, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    A new series of biomimetic stimuli-responsive nanocomposites, which change their mechanical properties upon exposure to physiological conditions, was prepared and investigated. The materials were produced by introducing percolating networks of cellulose nanofibers or “whiskers” derived from tunicates into poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA), and blends of these polymers, with the objective of determining how the hydrophobicity and glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer matrix affect the water-induced mechanically dynamic behavior. Below the Tg (~60–70 °C), the incorporation of whiskers (15.1 – 16.5% v/v) modestly increased the tensile storage moduli (E′) of the neat polymers from 0.6 to 3.8 GPa (PBMA) and from 2 to 5.2 GPa (PVAc). The reinforcement was much more dramatic above Tg, where E′ increased from 1.2 to 690 MPa (PVAc) and ~1 to 1.1 GPa (PBMA). Upon exposure to physiological conditions (immersion in artificial cerebrospinal fluid, ACSF, at 37 °C) all materials displayed a decrease of E′. The most significant contrast was seen in PVAc; for example the E′ of a 16.5% v/v PVAc/whisker nanocomposite decreased from 5.2 GPa to 12.7 MPa. Only a modest modulus decrease was measured for PBMA/whisker nanocomposite; here the E′ of a 15.1% v/v PBMA/whisker nanocomposite decreased from 3.8 to 1.2 GPa. A systematic investigation revealed that the magnitude of the mechanical contrast was related to the degree of swelling with ACSF, which was shown to increase with whisker content, temperature, and polarity of the matrix (PVAc > PBMA). The mechanical morphing of the new materials can be described in the framework of both the percolation and Halpin-Kardos models for nanocomposite reinforcement, and is the result of changing interactions among the nanoparticles and plasticization of the matrix upon swelling. PMID:20305827

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior…

  6. A Sharing Item Response Theory Model for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Daniel O.

    2004-01-01

    A new sharing item response theory (SIRT) model is presented that explicitly models the effects of sharing item content between informants and test takers. This model is used to construct adaptive item selection and scoring rules that provide increased precision and reduced score gains in instances where sharing occurs. The adaptive item selection…

  7. Responsiveness-to-Intervention: A "Systems" Approach to Instructional Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2016-01-01

    Classroom research on adaptive teaching indicates few teachers modify instruction for at-risk students in a manner that benefits them. Responsiveness-To-Intervention, with its tiers of increasingly intensive instruction, represents an alternative approach to adaptive instruction that may prove more workable in today's schools.

  8. Adaptive neural coding: from biological to behavioral decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Kenway; Glimcher, Paul W.; Webb, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Empirical decision-making in diverse species deviates from the predictions of normative choice theory, but why such suboptimal behavior occurs is unknown. Here, we propose that deviations from optimality arise from biological decision mechanisms that have evolved to maximize choice performance within intrinsic biophysical constraints. Sensory processing utilizes specific computations such as divisive normalization to maximize information coding in constrained neural circuits, and recent evidence suggests that analogous computations operate in decision-related brain areas. These adaptive computations implement a relative value code that may explain the characteristic context-dependent nature of behavioral violations of classical normative theory. Examining decision-making at the computational level thus provides a crucial link between the architecture of biological decision circuits and the form of empirical choice behavior. PMID:26722666

  9. Microswitch Clusters Promote Adaptive Responses and Reduce Finger Mouthing in a Boy with Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Baccani, Simona; Groeneweg, Jop

    2006-01-01

    The authors assessed new microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of two microswitches) and contingent stimulation to increase adaptive responses (i.e., foot and head movements) and reduce aberrant behavior (i.e., finger mouthing) in a boy with multiple disabilities. Initially, intervention was directed at increasing the frequency of each adaptive…

  10. Starvation stress during larval development reveals predictive adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of organisms exhibit developmental plasticity that results in differences in adult morphology, physiology or behavior. This variation in the phenotype, called “Predictive Adaptive Response (PAR),” gives a selective advantage in an adult's environment if the adult experiences environments s...

  11. Rhetorical Dissent as an Adaptive Response to Classroom Problems: A Test of Protection Motivation Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2016-01-01

    Protection motivation theory (PMT) explains people's adaptive behavior in response to personal threats. In this study, PMT was used to predict rhetorical dissent episodes related to 210 student reports of perceived classroom problems. In line with theoretical predictions, a moderated moderation analysis revealed that students were likely to voice…

  12. Adaptive Behavior of Primary School Students with Visual Impairments: The Impact of Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsiou, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the adaptive behavior of primary school students with visual impairments, as well as the impact of educational setting on their adaptive behavior. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Participants were 36 primary school students with visual impairments. The educational…

  13. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Profiles in Children with Autism and Moderate to Severe Developmental Delay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Gemma; D'Ardia, Caterina; Valente, Donatella; Vecchio, Ilaria del; Fabrizi, Anna; Bernabei, Paola

    2003-01-01

    A study examined adaptive behavior profiles in children (ages 21-108 months) with moderate to severe developmental delay and autism (n=23) and without autism (n=27). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales was administered, and contrary to initial predictions, the sample presented fairly homogeneous adaptive behavior profiles. (Contains references.)…

  14. Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Staci C.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the…

  15. Impaired Adaptive Response to Mechanical Overloading in Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Joanne, Pierre; Hourdé, Christophe; Ochala, Julien; Caudéran, Yvain; Medja, Fadia; Vignaud, Alban; Mouisel, Etienne; Hadj-Said, Wahiba; Arandel, Ludovic; Garcia, Luis; Goyenvalle, Aurélie; Mounier, Rémi; Zibroba, Daria; Sakamato, Kei; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Agbulut, Onnik; Ferry, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Dystrophin contributes to force transmission and has a protein-scaffolding role for a variety of signaling complexes in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the muscle adaptive response following mechanical overloading (ML) would be decreased in MDX dystrophic muscle lacking dystrophin. We found that the gains in muscle maximal force production and fatigue resistance in response to ML were both reduced in MDX mice as compared to healthy mice. MDX muscle also exhibited decreased cellular and molecular muscle remodeling (hypertrophy and promotion of slower/oxidative fiber type) in response to ML, and altered intracellular signalings involved in muscle growth and maintenance (mTOR, myostatin, follistatin, AMPKα1, REDD1, atrogin-1, Bnip3). Moreover, dystrophin rescue via exon skipping restored the adaptive response to ML. Therefore our results demonstrate that the adaptive response in response to ML is impaired in dystrophic MDX muscle, most likely because of the dystrophin crucial role. PMID:22511986

  16. Exposure to stressful environments - Strategy of adaptive responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Stresses such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure can produce strains in more than a single organ system, in turn stimulating the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups: (1) conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, (2) stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products such as CO2 and heat, and (3) environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of microenvironment, is often favored by the animal.

  17. Response of sensitive behaviors to frequent measurement.

    PubMed

    Axinn, William G; Jennings, Elyse A; Couper, Mick P

    2015-01-01

    We study the influence of frequent survey measurement on behavior. Widespread access to the Internet has made important breakthroughs in frequent measurement possible-potentially revolutionizing social science measurement of processes that change quickly over time. One key concern about using such frequent measurement is that it may influence the behavior being studied. We investigate this possibility using both a population-based experiment with random assignment to participation in a weekly journal for twelve months (versus no journal) and a large-scale, population-based, journal-keeping study with weekly measurement for 30 months. Results reveal few of the measured behaviors are correlated with assignment to frequent measurement. Theoretical reasoning regarding the likely behavioral response to frequent measurement correctly predicts domains most vulnerable to this possibility. Overall, however, we found little evidence of behavioral response to frequent measurement.

  18. Response of Sensitive Behaviors to Frequent Measurement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We study the influence of frequent survey measurement on behavior. Widespread access to the Internet has made important breakthroughs in frequent measurement possible—potentially revolutionizing social science measurement of processes that change quickly over time. One key concern about using such frequent measurement is that it may influence the behavior being studied. We investigate this possibility using both a population-based experiment with random assignment to participation in a weekly journal for twelve months (versus no journal) and a large scale population-based journal-keeping study with weekly measurement for 30 months. Results reveal few of the measured behaviors are correlated with assignment to frequent measurement. Theoretical reasoning regarding the likely behavioral response to frequent measurement correctly predicts domains most vulnerable to this possibility. Overall, however, we found little evidence of behavioral response to frequent measurement. PMID:25432599

  19. Human Adaptive Behavior in Common Pool Resource Systems

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Gunnar; Merico, Agostino; Vollan, Björn; Schlüter, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users’ expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users’ current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users’ perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns. PMID:23285180

  20. Effects of the emotion system on adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Giske, Jarl; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Fiksen, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Per J; Aksnes, Dag L; Jørgensen, Christian; Mangel, Marc

    2013-12-01

    A central simplifying assumption in evolutionary behavioral ecology has been that optimal behavior is unaffected by genetic or proximate constraints. Observations and experiments show otherwise, so that attention to decision architecture and mechanisms is needed. In psychology, the proximate constraints on decision making and the processes from perception to behavior are collectively described as the emotion system. We specify a model of the emotion system in fish that includes sensory input, neuronal computation, developmental modulation, and a global organismic state and restricts attention during decision making for behavioral outcomes. The model further includes food competition, safety in numbers, and a fluctuating environment. We find that emergent strategies in evolved populations include common emotional appraisal of sensory input related to fear and hunger and also include frequency-dependent rules for behavioral responses. Focused attention is at times more important than spatial behavior for growth and survival. Spatial segregation of the population is driven by personality differences. By coupling proximate and immediate influences on behavior with ultimate fitness consequences through the emotion system, this approach contributes to a unified perspective on the phenotype, by integrating effects of the environment, genetics, development, physiology, behavior, life history, and evolution.

  1. Adaptive behavior among adults with intellectual disabilities and its relationship to community independence.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System--Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003 ) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and residential independence. The participants' adaptive behavior accounted for 40%-43% of the variance in their work and residence independence. The results from this field-based study indicated that participants who displayed higher levels of adaptive behavior generally worked and lived more independently. Participants with the lowest general adaptive behavior required the highest degree of community supports. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Oxidative stress, radiation-adaptive responses, and aging.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yuri

    2004-09-01

    Organisms living in an aerobic environment were forced to evolve effective cellular strategies to detoxify reactive oxygen species. Besides diverse antioxidant enzymes and compounds, DNA repair enzymes, and disassembly systems, which remove damaged proteins, regulation systems that control transcription, translation, and activation have also been developed. The adaptive responses, especially those to radiation, are defensive regulation mechanisms by which oxidative stress (conditioning irradiation) elicits a response against damage because of subsequent stress (challenging irradiation). Although many researchers have investigated these molecular mechanisms, they remain obscure because of their complex signaling pathways and the involvement of various proteins. This article reviews the factors concerned with radiation-adaptive response, the signaling pathways activated by conditioning irradiation, and the effects of aging on radiation-adaptive response. The proteomics approach is also introduced, which is a useful method for studying stress response in cells.

  3. Longitudinal Examination of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Executive Function.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Cara E; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Strang, John F; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L; Naiman, Daniel Q; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2016-02-01

    This study characterizes longitudinal change in adaptive behavior in 64 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability evaluated on multiple occasions, and examines whether prior estimate of executive function (EF) problems predicts future adaptive behavior scores. Compared to standardized estimates for their developmental stage, adaptive behavior in most participants was impaired and did not improve over time. Prior EF predicted later adaptive behavior in daily living skills and socialization domains after controlling for age and IQ. Self-monitoring behaviors robustly predicted later adaptive behavior in all domains (d = 0.60-0.94). Results support targeting treatment of adaptive skills in ASD, as well as the importance of assessing for EF problems that may contribute to adaptive behavior difficulties.

  4. Behavior of an adaptive bio-inspired spider web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lingyue; Behrooz, Majid; Huie, Andrew; Hartman, Alex; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of an artificial adaptive spider web with comparable behavior to a real spider web. First, the natural frequency and energy absorption ability of a passive web is studied. Next, a control system that consists of stepper motors, load cells and an Arduino, is constructed to mimic a spider's ability to control the tension of radial strings in the web. The energy related characteristics in the artificial spider web is examined while the pre-tension of the radial strings are varied. Various mechanical properties of a damaged spider web are adjusted to study their effect on the behavior of the web. It is demonstrated that the pre-tension and stiffness of the web's radial strings can significantly affect the natural frequency and the total energy of the full and damaged webs.

  5. Frontal theta links prediction errors to behavioral adaptation in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Frank, Michael J; Klein, Theresa J; Allen, John J B

    2010-02-15

    Investigations into action monitoring have consistently detailed a frontocentral voltage deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) following the presentation of negatively valenced feedback, sometimes termed the feedback-related negativity (FRN). The FRN has been proposed to reflect a neural response to prediction errors during reinforcement learning, yet the single-trial relationship between neural activity and the quanta of expectation violation remains untested. Although ERP methods are not well suited to single-trial analyses, the FRN has been associated with theta band oscillatory perturbations in the medial prefrontal cortex. Mediofrontal theta oscillations have been previously associated with expectation violation and behavioral adaptation and are well suited to single-trial analysis. Here, we recorded EEG activity during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task and fit the performance data to an abstract computational model (Q-learning) for calculation of single-trial reward prediction errors. Single-trial theta oscillatory activities following feedback were investigated within the context of expectation (prediction error) and adaptation (subsequent reaction time change). Results indicate that interactive medial and lateral frontal theta activities reflect the degree of negative and positive reward prediction error in the service of behavioral adaptation. These different brain areas use prediction error calculations for different behavioral adaptations, with medial frontal theta reflecting the utilization of prediction errors for reaction time slowing (specifically following errors), but lateral frontal theta reflecting prediction errors leading to working memory-related reaction time speeding for the correct choice.

  6. Incorporating adaptive responses into future projections of coral bleaching.

    PubMed

    Logan, Cheryl A; Dunne, John P; Eakin, C Mark; Donner, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming threatens to increase mass coral bleaching events, and several studies have projected the demise of tropical coral reefs this century. However, recent evidence indicates corals may be able to respond to thermal stress though adaptive processes (e.g., genetic adaptation, acclimatization, and symbiont shuffling). How these mechanisms might influence warming-induced bleaching remains largely unknown. This study compared how different adaptive processes could affect coral bleaching projections. We used the latest bias-corrected global sea surface temperature (SST) output from the NOAA/GFDL Earth System Model 2 (ESM2M) for the preindustrial period through 2100 to project coral bleaching trajectories. Initial results showed that, in the absence of adaptive processes, application of a preindustrial climatology to the NOAA Coral Reef Watch bleaching prediction method overpredicts the present-day bleaching frequency. This suggests that corals may have already responded adaptively to some warming over the industrial period. We then modified the prediction method so that the bleaching threshold either permanently increased in response to thermal history (e.g., simulating directional genetic selection) or temporarily increased for 2-10 years in response to a bleaching event (e.g., simulating symbiont shuffling). A bleaching threshold that changes relative to the preceding 60 years of thermal history reduced the frequency of mass bleaching events by 20-80% compared with the 'no adaptive response' prediction model by 2100, depending on the emissions scenario. When both types of adaptive responses were applied, up to 14% more reef cells avoided high-frequency bleaching by 2100. However, temporary increases in bleaching thresholds alone only delayed the occurrence of high-frequency bleaching by ca. 10 years in all but the lowest emissions scenario. Future research should test the rate and limit of different adaptive responses for coral species across latitudes and

  7. Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

  8. Exposure to Stressful Environments: Strategy of Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Any new natural environment may generate a number of stresses (such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure), each of which can produce strains in more than a single organ system. Every strain may in turn stimulate the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups. The first category includes conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, while the second is made up by those stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products, such as CO2 and heat. In both classes, there is a small number of responses, similar in principle, regardless of the specific situation. The third unit is created by environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of micro-environment, is often favored by the animal.

  9. Adaptive behavior of bacterial mechanosensitive channels is coupled to membrane mechanics.

    PubMed

    Belyy, Vladislav; Kamaraju, Kishore; Akitake, Bradley; Anishkin, Andriy; Sukharev, Sergei

    2010-06-01

    Mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS), a tension-driven osmolyte release valve residing in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli, exhibits a complex adaptive behavior, whereas its functional counterpart, mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL), was generally considered nonadaptive. In this study, we show that both channels exhibit similar adaptation in excised patches, a process that is completely separable from inactivation prominent only in MscS. When a membrane patch is held under constant pressure, adaptation of both channels is manifested as a reversible current decline. Their dose-response curves recorded with 1-10-s ramps of pressure are shifted toward higher tension relative to the curves measured with series of pulses, indicating decreased tension sensitivity. Prolonged exposure of excised patches to subthreshold tensions further shifts activation curves for both MscS and MscL toward higher tension with similar magnitude and time course. Whole spheroplast MscS recordings performed with simultaneous imaging reveal activation curves with a midpoint tension of 7.8 mN/m and the slope corresponding to approximately 15-nm(2) in-plane expansion. Inactivation was retained in whole spheroplast mode, but no adaptation was observed. Similarly, whole spheroplast recordings of MscL (V23T mutant) indicated no adaptation, which was present in excised patches. MscS activities tried in spheroplast-attached mode showed no adaptation when the spheroplasts were intact, but permeabilized spheroplasts showed delayed adaptation, suggesting that the presence of membrane breaks or edges causes adaptation. We interpret this in the framework of the mechanics of the bilayer couple linking adaptation of channels in excised patches to the relaxation of the inner leaflet that is not in contact with the glass pipette. Relaxation of one leaflet results in asymmetric redistribution of tension in the bilayer that is less favorable for channel opening.

  10. Ceteacean Social Behavioral Response to Sonar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    responses to sonar signals and other stimuli (tagging effort, killer whale playbacks) as well as baseline behavior, are studied within the larger... killer whale vocalizations in 3S2 - Response to tagging and vessel noise exposure in Azores-Baseline - Species: Northern bottlenose whale , Risso’s...common dolphin, bottlenose dolphin, killer whale  Cross-study implementation of group sampling methodology - Protocols used in four BRS studies

  11. Mast cells in allergy: innate instructors of adaptive responses.

    PubMed

    Stelekati, Erietta; Orinska, Zane; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    The function of mast cells as effector cells in allergy has been extensively studied. However, increasing insight into mast cell physiology has revealed new mast cell functions and has introduced mast cells as key players in the regulation of innate as well as adaptive immunity. For example, mast cells have recently been found to express Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which enable them to participate in the innate immune response against pathogens. Furthermore, mast cells have been reported to interact with B cells, dendritic cells and T cells and thereby modulate the direction of an adaptive immune response. Finally, recent documentation that mast cells express functional MHC class II and costimulatory molecules and release immunologically active exosomes, has raised the possibility that mast cells also engage in (as yet) poorly understood antigen presentation functions. In this review, we explore the hypothesis that mast cells serve as central mediators between innate and adaptive immunity, rather as pure effector cells, during allergic innate responses.

  12. Personality traits, future time perspective and adaptive behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gomes Carvalho, Renato Gil; Novo, Rosa Ferreira

    2015-04-24

    Several studies provide evidence of the importance of future time perspective (FTP) for individual success. However, little research addresses the relationship between FTP and personality traits, particularly if FTP can mediate their influence on behavior. In this study we analyze the mediating of FTP in the influence of personality traits on the way adolescents live their life at school. Sample consisted in 351 students, aged from 14 to 18 years-old, at different schooling levels. Instruments were the Portuguese version of the MMPI-A, particularly the PSY-5 dimensions (Aggressiveness, Psychoticism, Disconstraint, Neuroticism, Introversion), a FTP questionnaire, and a survey on school life, involving several indicators of achievement, social integration, and overall satisfaction. With the exception of Neuroticism, the results show significant mediation effects (p < .001) of FTP on most relationships between PSY-5 dimensions and school life variables. Concerning Disconstraint, FTP mediated its influence on overall satisfaction (β = -.125) and school achievement (β = -.106). In the case of Introversion, significant mediation effects occurred for interpersonal difficulties (β = .099) and participation in extracurricular activities (β = -.085). FTP was also a mediator of Psychoticism influence in overall satisfaction (β = -.094), interpersonal difficulties (β = .057), and behavior problems (β = .037). Finally, FTP mediated the influence of Aggressiveness on overall satisfaction (β = -.061), interpersonal difficulties (β = .040), achievement (β = -.052), and behavior problems (β = .023). Results are discussed considering the importance of FTP in the impact of some personality structural characteristics in students' school adaptation.

  13. Readapting the adaptive immune response - therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sage, Andrew P; Mallat, Ziad

    2017-01-04

    Cardiovascular diseases remain a major global health issue, with the development of atherosclerosis as a major underlying cause. Our treatment of cardiovascular disease has improved greatly over the past three decades, but much remains to be done reduce disease burden. Current priorities include reducing atherosclerosis advancement to clinically significant stages and preventing plaque rupture or erosion. Inflammation and involvement of the adaptive immune system influences all these aspects and therefore is one focus for future therapeutic development. The atherosclerotic vascular wall is now recognized to be invaded from both sides (arterial lumen and adventitia), for better or worse, by the adaptive immune system. Atherosclerosis is also affected at several stages by adaptive immune responses, overall providing many opportunities to target these responses and to reduce disease progression. Protective influences that may be defective in diseased individuals include humoral responses to modified LDL and regulatory T cell responses. There are many strategies in development to boost these pathways in humans, including vaccine-based therapies. The effects of various existing adaptive immune targeting therapies, such as blocking critical co-stimulatory pathways or B cell depletion, on cardiovascular disease are beginning to emerge with important consequences for both autoimmune disease patients and the potential for wider use of such therapies. Entering the translation phase for adaptive immune targeting therapies is an exciting and promising prospect.

  14. Adaptive shaping of cortical response selectivity in the vibrissa pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, He J. V.; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    One embodiment of context-dependent sensory processing is bottom-up adaptation, where persistent stimuli decrease neuronal firing rate over hundreds of milliseconds. Adaptation is not, however, simply the fatigue of the sensory pathway, but shapes the information flow and selectivity to stimulus features. Adaptation enhances spatial discriminability (distinguishing stimulus location) while degrading detectability (reporting presence of the stimulus), for both the ideal observer of the cortex and awake, behaving animals. However, how the dynamics of the adaptation shape the cortical response and this detection and discrimination tradeoff is unknown, as is to what degree this phenomenon occurs on a continuum as opposed to a switching of processing modes. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in anesthetized rats to capture the temporal and spatial characteristics of the cortical response to tactile inputs, we showed that the suppression of the cortical response, in both magnitude and spatial spread, is continuously modulated by the increasing amount of energy in the adapting stimulus, which is nonuniquely determined by its frequency and velocity. Single-trial ideal observer analysis demonstrated a tradeoff between detectability and spatial discriminability up to a moderate amount of adaptation, which corresponds to the frequency range in natural whisking. This was accompanied by a decrease in both detectability and discriminability with high-energy adaptation, which indicates a more complex coupling between detection and discrimination than a simple switching of modes. Taken together, the results suggest that adaptation operates on a continuum and modulates the tradeoff between detectability and discriminability that has implications for information processing in ethological contexts. PMID:25787959

  15. Women's Sexuality: Behaviors, Responses, and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Cyranowski, Jill M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses classic and contemporary approaches to the assessment of female sexuality. General approaches, assessment strategies, and models of female sexuality are organized within the conceptual domains of sexual behaviors, sexual responses, and individual differences, including general and sex-specific personality models. Highlights trends and…

  16. An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Impulsive Behaviors Checklist for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom; Lai, Ching-man; Fu, Kei

    2011-01-01

    This study used item response theory (IRT) to examine the Impulsive Behaviors Checklist for Adolescents (IBCL-A) among 6,276 (67.7% girls) Chinese secondary school students. The IBCL-A included 15 maladaptive impulsive behaviors adapted from the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines. The authors obtained the severity and discrimination…

  17. Using Learning Labs for Culturally Responsive Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Aydin; Schrader, Elizabeth M.; Afacan, Kemal; Mawene, Dian

    2016-01-01

    Culturally responsive positive behavioral interventions and supports (CRPBIS) is a statewide research project designed to renovate behavioral support systems to become more inclusive, adaptive, and supportive for all. The CRPBIS methodology, called "learning lab," provides a research-based process to bring together local stakeholders and…

  18. Population variability in biological adaptive responses to DNA damage and the shapes of carcinogen dose-response curves

    SciTech Connect

    Conolly, Rory B. . E-mail: Conolly.Rory@epa.gov; Gaylor, David W.; Lutz, Werner K.

    2005-09-01

    Carcinogen dose-response curves for both ionizing radiation and chemicals are typically assumed to be linear at environmentally relevant doses. This assumption is used to ensure protection of the public health in the absence of relevant dose-response data. A theoretical justification for the assumption has been provided by the argument that low dose linearity is expected when an exogenous agent adds to an ongoing endogenous process. Here, we use computational modeling to evaluate (1) how two biological adaptive processes, induction of DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, may affect the shapes of dose-response curves for DNA-damaging carcinogens and (2) how the resulting dose-response behaviors may vary within a population. Each model incorporating an adaptive process was capable of generating not only monotonic dose-responses but also nonmonotonic (J-shaped) and threshold responses. Monte Carlo analysis suggested that all these dose-response behaviors could coexist within a population, as the spectrum of qualitative differences arose from quantitative changes in parameter values. While this analysis is largely theoretical, it suggests that (a) accurate prediction of the qualitative form of the dose-response requires a quantitative understanding of the mechanism (b) significant uncertainty is associated with human health risk prediction in the absence of such quantitative understanding and (c) a stronger experimental and regulatory focus on biological mechanisms and interindividual variability would allow flexibility in regulatory treatment of environmental carcinogens without compromising human health.

  19. Adaptation responses of crops to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Seino, Hiroshi

    1993-12-31

    Appreciable global climatic responses to increasing levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and other trace gases are expected to take place over the next 50 to 80 years. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are producing or will produce changes in the climate of the Earth. In particular, numerous efforts of climate modeling project very substantial increase of surface air temperature. In addition to a general warming of the atmosphere, the possibility of increased summer dryness in the continental mid-latitudes has been suggested on the basis of both historical analogues and some General Circulation Model (GCM) studies. There are three types of effect of climatic change on agriculture: (1) the physiological (direct) effect of elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} on crop plants and weeds, (2) the effect of changes in parameters of climate (e.g., temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation) on plants and animals, and (3) the effects of climate-related rises in sea-level on land use. The direct effects of elevated CO{sub 2} are on photosynthesis and respiration and thereby on growth, and there are additional effects of increased CO{sub 2} on development, yield quality and stomatal aperture and water use. A doubling of CO{sub 2} increases the instantaneous photosynthetic rate by 30% to 100%, depending on the other environmental conditions, and reduce water requirements of plants by reducing transpiration (per unit leaf area) through reductions in stomatal aperture. A doubling of CO{sub 2} causes partial stomatal closure on both C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} plants (approximately a 40% decrease in aperture). In many experiments this results in reductions of transpiration of about 23% to 46%. However. there is considerable uncertainty over the magnitude of this in natural conditions.

  20. Memory and adaptive behavior in population dynamics: anti-predator behavior as a case study.

    PubMed

    Pimenov, Alexander; Kelly, Thomas C; Korobeinikov, Andrei; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Rachinskii, Dmitrii

    2016-10-04

    Memory allows organisms to forecast the future on the basis of experience, and thus, in some form, is important for the development of flexible adaptive behavior by animal communities. To model memory, we use the concept of hysteresis, which mathematically is described by the Preisach operator. As a case study, we consider anti-predator adaptation in the classic Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. Despite its simplicity, the model allows us to naturally incorporate essential features of an adaptive system and memory. Our analysis and simulations show that a system with memory can have a continuum of equilibrium states with non-trivial stability properties. The main factor that determines the actual equilibrium state to which a trajectory converges is the maximal number achieved by the population of predator along this trajectory.

  1. Genetic erosion impedes adaptive responses to stressful environments

    PubMed Central

    Bijlsma, R; Loeschcke, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity is increasingly subjected to human-induced changes of the environment. To persist, populations continually have to adapt to these often stressful changes including pollution and climate change. Genetic erosion in small populations, owing to fragmentation of natural habitats, is expected to obstruct such adaptive responses: (i) genetic drift will cause a decrease in the level of adaptive genetic variation, thereby limiting evolutionary responses; (ii) inbreeding and the concomitant inbreeding depression will reduce individual fitness and, consequently, the tolerance of populations to environmental stress. Importantly, inbreeding generally increases the sensitivity of a population to stress, thereby increasing the amount of inbreeding depression. As adaptation to stress is most often accompanied by increased mortality (cost of selection), the increase in the ‘cost of inbreeding’ under stress is expected to severely hamper evolutionary adaptive processes. Inbreeding thus plays a pivotal role in this process and is expected to limit the probability of genetically eroded populations to successfully adapt to stressful environmental conditions. Consequently, the dynamics of small fragmented populations may differ considerably from large nonfragmented populations. The resilience of fragmented populations to changing and deteriorating environments is expected to be greatly decreased. Alleviating inbreeding depression, therefore, is crucial to ensure population persistence. PMID:25568035

  2. An analysis of the impact of auditory-nerve adaptation on behavioral measures of temporal integration in cochlear implant recipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J.; Brown, Carolyn J.; Abbas, Paul J.

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact that auditory-nerve adaptation has on behavioral measures of temporal integration in Nucleus 24 cochlear implant recipients. It was expected that, because the auditory nerve serves as the input to central temporal integrator, a large degree of auditory-nerve adaptation would reduce the amount of temporal integration. Neural adaptation was measured by tracking amplitude changes of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) in response to 1000-pps biphasic pulse trains of varying durations. Temporal integration was measured at both suprathreshold and threshold levels by an adaptive procedure. Although varying degrees of neural adaptation and temporal integration were observed across individuals, results of this investigation revealed no correlation between the degree of neural adaptation and psychophysical measures of temporal integration.

  3. An analysis of the impact of auditory-nerve adaptation on behavioral measures of temporal integration in cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J; Brown, Carolyn J; Abbas, Paul J

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact that auditory-nerve adaptation has on behavioral measures of temporal integration in Nucleus 24 cochlear implant recipients. It was expected that, because the auditory nerve serves as the input to central temporal integrator, a large degree of auditory-nerve adaptation would reduce the amount of temporal integration. Neural adaptation was measured by tracking amplitude changes of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) in response to 1000-pps biphasic pulse trains of varying durations. Temporal integration was measured at both suprathreshold and threshold levels by an adaptive procedure. Although varying degrees of neural adaptation and temporal integration were observed across individuals, results of this investigation revealed no correlation between the degree of neural adaptation and psychophysical measures of temporal integration.

  4. Adaptation responses to climate change differ between global megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgeson, Lucien; Maslin, Mark; Poessinouw, Martyn; Howard, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Urban areas are increasingly at risk from climate change, with negative impacts predicted for human health, the economy and ecosystems. These risks require responses from cities to improve their resilience. Policymakers need to understand current adaptation spend to plan comprehensively and effectively. Through the measurement of spend in the newly defined `adaptation economy', we analyse current climate change adaptation efforts in ten megacities. In all cases, the adaptation economy remains a small part of the overall economy, representing a maximum of 0.33% of a city's gross domestic product (here referred to as GDPc). Differences in total spend are significant between cities in developed, emerging and developing countries, ranging from #15 million to #1,600 million. Comparing key subsectors, we demonstrate the differences in adaptation profiles. Developing cities have higher proportional spend on health and agriculture, whereas developed cities have higher spend on energy and water. Spend per capita and percentage of GDPc comparisons more clearly show disparities between cities. Developing country cities spend half the proportion of GDPc and significantly less per capita, suggesting that adaptation spend is driven by wealth rather than the number of vulnerable people. This indicates that current adaptation activities are insufficient in major population centres in developing and emerging economies.

  5. Replicated evolution of integrated plastic responses during early adaptive divergence.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Kevin J; Robinson, Beren W

    2006-04-01

    Colonization of a novel environment is expected to result in adaptive divergence from the ancestral population when selection favors a new phenotypic optimum. Local adaptation in the new environment occurs through the accumulation and integration of character states that positively affect fitness. The role played by plastic traits in adaptation to a novel environment has generally been ignored, except for variable environments. We propose that if conditions in a relatively stable but novel environment induce phenotypically plastic responses in many traits, and if genetic variation exists in the form of those responses, then selection may initially favor the accumulation and integration of functionally useful plastic responses. Early divergence between ancestral and colonist forms will then occur with respect to their plastic responses across the gradient bounded by ancestral and novel environmental conditions. To test this, we compared the magnitude, integration, and pattern of plastic character responses in external body form induced by shallow versus open water conditions between two sunfish ecomorphs that coexist in four postglacial lakes. The novel sunfish ecomorph is present in the deeper open water habitat, whereas the ancestral ecomorph inhabits the shallow waters along the lake margin. Plastic responses by open water ecomorphs were more correlated than those of their local shallow water ecomorph in two of the populations, whereas equal levels of correlated plastic character responses occurred between ecomorphs in the other two populations. Small but persistent differences occurred between ecomorph pairs in the pattern of their character responses, suggesting a recent divergence. Open water ecomorphs shared some similarities in the covariance among plastic responses to rearing environment. Replication in the form of correlated plastic responses among populations of open water ecomorphs suggests that plastic character states may evolve under selection

  6. Beyond Adapting to Climate Change: Embedding Adaptation in Responses to Multiple Threats and Stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Kates, Dr. Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change impacts are already being experienced in every region of the United States and every part of the world most severely in Arctic regions and adaptation is needed now. Although climate change adaptation research is still in its infancy, significant adaptation planning in the United States has already begun in a number of localities. This article seeks to broaden the adaptation effort by integrating it with broader frameworks of hazards research, sustainability science, and community and regional resilience. To extend the range of experience, we draw from ongoing case studies in the Southeastern United States and the environmental history of New Orleans to consider the multiple threats and stresses that all communities and regions experience. Embedding climate adaptation in responses to multiple threats and stresses helps us to understand climate change impacts, themselves often products of multiple stresses, to achieve community acceptance of needed adaptations as co-benefits of addressing multiple threats, and to mainstream the process of climate adaptation through the larger envelope of social relationships, communication channels, and broad-based awareness of needs for risk management that accompany community resilience.

  7. Neural Basis of Adaptive Response Time Adjustment during Saccade Countermanding

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Pierre; Logan, Gordon D.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Boucher, Leanne; Paré, Martin; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Humans and macaque monkeys adjust their response time adaptively in stop signal (countermanding) tasks, responding slower after stop-signal trials than after control trials with no stop signal. We investigated the neural mechanism underlying this adaptive response time adjustment in macaque monkeys performing a saccade countermanding task. Earlier research showed that movements are initiated when the random accumulation of presaccadic movement-related activity reaches a fixed threshold. We found that a systematic delay in response time after stop signal trials was accomplished not through a change of threshold, baseline, or accumulation rate, but instead through a change in the time when activity first began to accumulate. The neurons underlying movement initiation have been identified with mathematical accumulator models of response time performance. Therefore, this new result provides surprising new insights into the neural instantiation of stochastic accumulator models and the mechanisms through which executive control can be exerted. PMID:21880921

  8. Toward a mechanics of adaptive behavior: evolutionary dynamics and matching theory statics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J; Popa, Andrei

    2010-09-01

    One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm. The behavior of virtual organisms animated by this theory may be studied in any experimental environment. The evolutionary theory was tested by comparing the steady-state behavior it generated on concurrent schedules to the description of steady state behavior provided by modern matching theory. Ensemble fits of modern matching theory that enforced its constant-k requirement and the parametric identities required by its equations, accounted for large proportions of data variance, left random residuals, and yielded parameter estimates with values and properties similar to those obtained in experiments with live organisms. These results indicate that the dynamics of the evolutionary theory and the statics of modern matching theory together constitute a good candidate for a mechanics of adaptive behavior.

  9. Toward a Mechanics of Adaptive Behavior: Evolutionary Dynamics and Matching Theory Statics

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, J.J; Popa, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm. The behavior of virtual organisms animated by this theory may be studied in any experimental environment. The evolutionary theory was tested by comparing the steady-state behavior it generated on concurrent schedules to the description of steady state behavior provided by modern matching theory. Ensemble fits of modern matching theory that enforced its constant-k requirement and the parametric identities required by its equations, accounted for large proportions of data variance, left random residuals, and yielded parameter estimates with values and properties similar to those obtained in experiments with live organisms. These results indicate that the dynamics of the evolutionary theory and the statics of modern matching theory together constitute a good candidate for a mechanics of adaptive behavior. PMID:21451751

  10. Iron Supplementation in Infancy Contributes to More Adaptive Behavior at 10 Years of Age1234

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M.; Smith, Julia B.; Sturza, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14–0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

  11. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern…

  12. Clark's Nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) Flexibly Adapt Caching Behavior to a Cooperative Context.

    PubMed

    Clary, Dawson; Kelly, Debbie M

    2016-01-01

    Corvids recognize when their caches are at risk of being stolen by others and have developed strategies to protect these caches from pilferage. For instance, Clark's nutcrackers will suppress the number of caches they make if being observed by a potential thief. However, cache protection has most often been studied using competitive contexts, so it is unclear whether corvids can adjust their caching in beneficial ways to accommodate non-competitive situations. Therefore, we examined whether Clark's nutcrackers, a non-social corvid, would flexibly adapt their caching behaviors to a cooperative context. To do so, birds were given a caching task during which caches made by one individual were reciprocally exchanged for the caches of a partner bird over repeated trials. In this scenario, if caching behaviors can be flexibly deployed, then the birds should recognize the cooperative nature of the task and maintain or increase caching levels over time. However, if cache protection strategies are applied independent of social context and simply in response to cache theft, then cache suppression should occur. In the current experiment, we found that the birds maintained caching throughout the experiment. We report that males increased caching in response to a manipulation in which caches were artificially added, suggesting the birds could adapt to the cooperative nature of the task. Additionally, we show that caching decisions were not solely due to motivational factors, instead showing an additional influence attributed to the behavior of the partner bird.

  13. Clark’s Nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) Flexibly Adapt Caching Behavior to a Cooperative Context

    PubMed Central

    Clary, Dawson; Kelly, Debbie M.

    2016-01-01

    Corvids recognize when their caches are at risk of being stolen by others and have developed strategies to protect these caches from pilferage. For instance, Clark’s nutcrackers will suppress the number of caches they make if being observed by a potential thief. However, cache protection has most often been studied using competitive contexts, so it is unclear whether corvids can adjust their caching in beneficial ways to accommodate non-competitive situations. Therefore, we examined whether Clark’s nutcrackers, a non-social corvid, would flexibly adapt their caching behaviors to a cooperative context. To do so, birds were given a caching task during which caches made by one individual were reciprocally exchanged for the caches of a partner bird over repeated trials. In this scenario, if caching behaviors can be flexibly deployed, then the birds should recognize the cooperative nature of the task and maintain or increase caching levels over time. However, if cache protection strategies are applied independent of social context and simply in response to cache theft, then cache suppression should occur. In the current experiment, we found that the birds maintained caching throughout the experiment. We report that males increased caching in response to a manipulation in which caches were artificially added, suggesting the birds could adapt to the cooperative nature of the task. Additionally, we show that caching decisions were not solely due to motivational factors, instead showing an additional influence attributed to the behavior of the partner bird. PMID:27826273

  14. Adaptive all the way down: building responsive materials from hierarchies of chemomechanical feedback.

    PubMed

    Grinthal, Alison; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-09-07

    A living organism is a bundle of dynamic, integrated adaptive processes: not only does it continuously respond to constant changes in temperature, sunlight, nutrients, and other features of its environment, but it does so by coordinating hierarchies of feedback among cells, tissues, organs, and networks all continuously adapting to each other. At the root of it all is one of the most fundamental adaptive processes: the constant tug of war between chemistry and mechanics that interweaves chemical signals with endless reconfigurations of macromolecules, fibers, meshworks, and membranes. In this tutorial we explore how such chemomechanical feedback - as an inherently dynamic, iterative process connecting size and time scales - can and has been similarly evoked in synthetic materials to produce a fascinating diversity of complex multiscale responsive behaviors. We discuss how chemical kinetics and architecture can be designed to generate stimulus-induced 3D spatiotemporal waves and topographic patterns within a single bulk material, and how feedback between interior dynamics and surface-wide instabilities can further generate higher order buckling and wrinkling patterns. Building on these phenomena, we show how yet higher levels of feedback and spatiotemporal complexity can be programmed into hybrid materials, and how these mechanisms allow hybrid materials to be further integrated into multicompartmental systems capable of hierarchical chemo-mechano-chemical feedback responses. These responses no doubt represent only a small sample of the chemomechanical feedback behaviors waiting to be discovered in synthetic materials, and enable us to envision nearly limitless possibilities for designing multiresponsive, multifunctional, self-adapting materials and systems.

  15. Bayesian optimal response-adaptive design for binary responses using stopping rule.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Fumiyasu; Biswas, Atanu

    2016-05-02

    Response-adaptive designs are used in phase III clinical trials to allocate a larger number of patients to the better treatment arm. Optimal designs are explored in the recent years in the context of response-adaptive designs, in the frequentist view point only. In the present paper, we propose some response-adaptive designs for two treatments based on Bayesian prediction for phase III clinical trials. Some properties are studied and numerically compared with some existing competitors. A real data set is used to illustrate the applicability of the proposed methodology where we redesign the experiment using parameters derived from the data set.

  16. Vibrational behavior of adaptive aircraft wing structures modelled as composite thin-walled beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, O.; Librescu, L.; Rogers, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vibrational behavior of cantilevered aircraft wings modeled as thin-walled beams and incorporating piezoelectric effects is studied. Based on the converse piezoelectric effect, the system of piezoelectric actuators conveniently located on the wing yield the control of its associated vertical and lateral bending eigenfrequencies. The possibility revealed by this study enabling one to increase adaptively the eigenfrequencies of thin-walled cantilevered beams could play a significant role in the control of the dynamic response and flutter of wing and rotor blade structures.

  17. Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km2), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km2), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km2), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality. PMID:25419085

  18. Ceteacean Social Behavioral Response to Sonar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    experimental sonar exposure in SOCAL-BRS (Risso’s dolphin )  Data-collection: Baseline social behavior - SOCAL-BRS projects (Risso’s dolphin ...playbacks using visual observation techniques 3 - Species evaluated: long-beaked common dolphin , bottlenose dolphin , killer whale - 2014: Design...data processing and analysis for Risso’s dolphin sonar response (SOCAL-BRS, Azores-Baseline) - Cross-study cooperation in data processing and analysis

  19. The Dose Window for Radiation-Induced Protective Adaptive Responses

    PubMed Central

    Mitchel, Ronald E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive responses to low doses of low LET radiation occur in all organisms thus far examined, from single cell lower eukaryotes to mammals. These responses reduce the deleterious consequences of DNA damaging events, including radiation-induced or spontaneous cancer and non-cancer diseases in mice. The adaptive response in mammalian cells and mammals operates within a certain window that can be defined by upper and lower dose thresholds, typically between about 1 and 100 mGy for a single low dose rate exposure. However, these thresholds for protection are not a fixed function of total dose, but also vary with dose rate, additional radiation or non-radiation stressors, tissue type and p53 functional status. Exposures above the upper threshold are generally detrimental, while exposures below the lower threshold may or may not increase either cancer or non-cancer disease risk. PMID:20585438

  20. The Influence of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses on Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Witztum, Joseph L.; Lichtman, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Both the chronic development of atherosclerotic lesions and the acute changes in lesion phenotype that lead to clinical cardiovascular events are significantly influenced by the innate and adaptive immune responses to lipoprotein deposition and oxidation in the arterial wall. The rapid pace of discovery of mechanisms of immunologic recognition, effector functions, and regulation has significantly influenced the study of atherosclerosis, and our new knowledge is beginning to affect how we treat this ubiquitous disease. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how innate and adaptive immunity contribute to atherosclerosis, as well as therapeutic opportunities that arise from this knowledge. PMID:23937439

  1. Immune and stress responses in oysters with insights on adaptation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ximing; He, Yan; Zhang, Linlin; Lelong, Christophe; Jouaux, Aude

    2015-09-01

    Oysters are representative bivalve molluscs that are widely distributed in world oceans. As successful colonizers of estuaries and intertidal zones, oysters are remarkably resilient against harsh environmental conditions including wide fluctuations in temperature and salinity as well as prolonged air exposure. Oysters have no adaptive immunity but can thrive in microbe-rich estuaries as filter-feeders. These unique adaptations make oysters interesting models to study the evolution of host-defense systems. Recent advances in genomic studies including sequencing of the oyster genome have provided insights into oyster's immune and stress responses underlying their amazing resilience. Studies show that the oyster genomes are highly polymorphic and complex, which may be key to their resilience. The oyster genome has a large gene repertoire that is enriched for immune and stress response genes. Thousands of genes are involved in oyster's immune and stress responses, through complex interactions, with many gene families expanded showing high sequence, structural and functional diversity. The high diversity of immune receptors and effectors may provide oysters with enhanced specificity in immune recognition and response to cope with diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Some members of expanded immune gene families have diverged to function at different temperatures and salinities or assumed new roles in abiotic stress response. Most canonical innate immunity pathways are conserved in oysters and supported by a large number of diverse and often novel genes. The great diversity in immune and stress response genes exhibited by expanded gene families as well as high sequence and structural polymorphisms may be central to oyster's adaptation to highly stressful and widely changing environments.

  2. Interferon regulatory factor 3 in adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ysebrant de Lendonck, Laure; Martinet, Valerie; Goriely, Stanislas

    2014-10-01

    Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 plays a key role in innate responses against viruses. Indeed, activation of this transcription factor triggers the expression of type I interferons and downstream interferon-stimulated genes in infected cells. Recent evidences indicate that this pathway also modulates adaptive immune responses. This review focuses on the different mechanisms that are implicated in this process. We discuss the role of IRF3 within antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in the polarization of the cellular immune response and its implication in the pathogenesis of immune disorders.

  3. Alterations of the Host Microbiome Affect Behavioral Responses to Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Kiraly, Drew D.; Walker, Deena M.; Calipari, Erin S.; Labonte, Benoit; Issler, Orna; Pena, Catherine J.; Ribeiro, Efrain A.; Russo, Scott J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants represents a major public health crisis. The development and persistence of addictive behaviors comes from a complex interaction of genes and environment - the precise mechanisms of which remain elusive. In recent years a surge of evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome can have tremendous impact on behavioral via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In this study we characterized the influence of the gut microbiota on cocaine-mediated behaviors. Groups of mice were treated with a prolonged course of non-absorbable antibiotics via the drinking water, which resulted in a substantial reduction of gut bacteria. Animals with reduced gut bacteria showed an enhanced sensitivity to cocaine reward and enhanced sensitivity to the locomotor-sensitizing effects of repeated cocaine administration. These behavioral changes were correlated with adaptations in multiple transcripts encoding important synaptic proteins in the brain’s reward circuitry. This study represents the first evidence that alterations in the gut microbiota affect behavioral response to drugs of abuse. PMID:27752130

  4. Adapting cognitive behavioral therapy to meet the needs of Chinese clients: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Hanley, Terry

    2015-06-01

    With the growing influence of China (Chinese people/culture) on the world's politics, economy, and culture, the psychological wellbeing of Chinese people is becoming increasingly important for both researchers and practitioners. Despite this, the cultural responsiveness of many conventional psychotherapeutic models has often been brought into question. In contrast, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is rapidly becoming one of the most popular approaches in the mental health service industry and has been successfully adapted into many different cultural contexts. The current article is a theoretical discussion of the opportunities and challenges that CBT faces with respect to how it might meet the cultural needs and preferences of Chinese clients. Suggestions for successful cultural adaptation are offered based on existing research and practices. It is concluded that many features of CBT appear to match well with the Chinese cultural perspective. However, despite this promising start further work is needed to focus specifically on its practical effectiveness for Chinese clients.

  5. Feed-forward mechanisms: addiction-like behavioral and molecular adaptations in overeating.

    PubMed

    Alsiö, Johan; Olszewski, Pawel K; Levine, Allen S; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2012-04-01

    Food reward, not hunger, is the main driving force behind eating in the modern obesogenic environment. Palatable foods, generally calorie-dense and rich in sugar/fat, are thus readily overconsumed despite the resulting health consequences. Important advances have been made to explain mechanisms underlying excessive consumption as an immediate response to presentation of rewarding tastants. However, our understanding of long-term neural adaptations to food reward that oftentimes persist during even a prolonged absence of palatable food and contribute to the reinstatement of compulsive overeating of high-fat high-sugar diets, is much more limited. Here we discuss the evidence from animal and human studies for neural and molecular adaptations in both homeostatic and non-homeostatic appetite regulation that may underlie the formation of a "feed-forward" system, sensitive to palatable food and propelling the individual from a basic preference for palatable diets to food craving and compulsive, addiction-like eating behavior.

  6. BYSTANDERS, ADAPTIVE RESPONSES AND GENOMIC INSTABILITY - POTENTIAL MODIFIERS OF LOW-DOSE CANCER RESPONSES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bystanders, Adaptive Responses and Genomic Instability -Potential Modifiers ofLow-Dose
    Cancer Responses
    .
    There has been a concerted effort in the field of radiation biology to better understand cellular
    responses that could have an impact on the estin1ation of cancer...

  7. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect.

  8. Adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mark William; Wick, David Victor

    2004-11-01

    The combination of phase diversity and adaptive optics offers great flexibility. Phase diverse images can be used to diagnose aberrations and then provide feedback control to the optics to correct the aberrations. Alternatively, phase diversity can be used to partially compensate for aberrations during post-detection image processing. The adaptive optic can produce simple defocus or more complex types of phase diversity. This report presents an analysis, based on numerical simulations, of the efficiency of different modes of phase diversity with respect to compensating for specific aberrations during post-processing. It also comments on the efficiency of post-processing versus direct aberration correction. The construction of a bench top optical system that uses a membrane mirror as an active optic is described. The results of characterization tests performed on the bench top optical system are presented. The work described in this report was conducted to explore the use of adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

  9. The adaptive response of jaw muscles to varying functional demands.

    PubMed

    Grünheid, Thorsten; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Korfage, Joannes A M; Zentner, Andrej; van Eijden, Theo M G J

    2009-12-01

    Jaw muscles are versatile entities that are able to adapt their anatomical characteristics, such as size, cross-sectional area, and fibre properties, to altered functional demands. The dynamic nature of muscle fibres allows them to change their phenotype to optimize the required contractile function while minimizing energy use. Changes in these anatomical parameters are associated with changes in neuromuscular activity as the pattern of muscle activation by the central nervous system plays an important role in the modulation of muscle properties. This review summarizes the adaptive response of jaw muscles to various stimuli or perturbations in the orofacial system and addresses general changes in muscles as they adapt, specific adaptive changes in jaw muscles under various physiologic and pathologic conditions, and their adaptive response to non-surgical and surgical therapeutic interventions. Although the jaw muscles are used concertedly in the masticatory system, their adaptive changes are not always uniform and vary with the nature, intensity, and duration of the stimulus. In general, stretch, increases neuromuscular activity, and resistance training result in hypertrophy, elicits increases in mitochondrial content and cross-sectional area of the fibres, and may change the fibre-type composition of the muscle towards a larger percentage of slow-type fibres. In contrast, changes in the opposite direction occur when neuromuscular activity is reduced, the muscle is immobilized in a shortened position, or paralysed. The broad range of stimuli that affect the properties of jaw muscles might help explain the large variability in the anatomical and physiological characteristics found among individuals, muscles, and muscle portions.

  10. Seed Pubescence and Shape Modulate Adaptive Responses to Fire Cues.

    PubMed

    Gómez-González, Susana; Ojeda, Fernando; Torres-Morales, Patricio; Palma, Jazmín E

    2016-01-01

    Post-fire recruitment by seeds is regarded as an adaptive response in fire-prone ecosystems. Nevertheless, little is known about which heritable seed traits are functional to the main signals of fire (heat and smoke), thus having the potential to evolve. Here, we explored whether three seed traits (pubescence, dormancy and shape) and fire regime modulate seed response to fire cues(heat and smoke). As a model study system, we used Helenium aromaticum (Asteraceae), a native annual forb from the Chilean matorral, where fires are anthropogenic. We related seed trait values with fitness responses (germination and survival) after exposure to heat-shock and smoke experimental treatments on seeds from 10 H. aromaticum wild populations. We performed a phenotypic selection experiment to examine the relationship of seed traits with post-treatment fitness within a population (adaptive hypothesis). We then explored whether fire frequency in natural habitats was associated with trait expression across populations, and with germination and survival responses to experimental fire-cues. We found that populations subjected to higher fire frequency had, in average, more rounded and pubescent seeds than populations from rarely burned areas. Populations with more rounded and pubescent seeds were more resistant to 80°C heat-shock and smoke treatments.There was correlated selection on seed traits: pubescent-rounded or glabrouscent-elongated seeds had the highest probability of germinating after heat-shock treatments. Seed pubescence and shape in H. aromaticum are heritable traits that modulate adaptive responses to fire. Our results provide new insights into the process of plant adaptation to fire and highlight the relevance of human-made fires as a strong evolutionary agent in the Anthropocene.

  11. Adaptive thermoregulation in endotherms may alter responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Justin G; Seebacher, Frank; Smit, Ben; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2011-11-01

    Climate change is one of the major issues facing natural populations and thus a focus of recent research has been to predict the responses of organisms to these changes. Models are becoming more complex and now commonly include physiological traits of the organisms of interest. However, endothermic species have received less attention than have ectotherms in these mechanistic models. Further, it is not clear whether responses of endotherms to climate change are modified by variation in thermoregulatory characteristics associated with phenotypic plasticity and/or adaptation to past selective pressures. Here, we review the empirical data on thermal adaptation and acclimatization in endotherms and discuss how those factors may be important in models of responses to climate change. We begin with a discussion of why thermoregulation and thermal sensitivity at high body temperatures should be co-adapted. Importantly, we show that there is, in fact, considerable variation in the ability of endotherms to tolerate high body temperatures and/or high environmental temperatures, but a better understanding of this variation will likely be critical for predicting responses to future climatic scenarios. Next, we discuss why variation in thermoregulatory characteristics should be considered when modeling the effects of climate change on heterothermic endotherms. Finally, we review some biophysical and biochemical factors that will limit adaptation and acclimation in endotherms. We consider both long-term, directional climate change and short-term (but increasingly common) anomalies in climate such as extreme heat waves and we suggest areas of important future research relating to both our basic understanding of endothermic thermoregulation and the responses of endotherms to climate change.

  12. Seed Pubescence and Shape Modulate Adaptive Responses to Fire Cues

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-González, Susana; Ojeda, Fernando; Torres-Morales, Patricio; Palma, Jazmín E.

    2016-01-01

    Post-fire recruitment by seeds is regarded as an adaptive response in fire-prone ecosystems. Nevertheless, little is known about which heritable seed traits are functional to the main signals of fire (heat and smoke), thus having the potential to evolve. Here, we explored whether three seed traits (pubescence, dormancy and shape) and fire regime modulate seed response to fire cues(heat and smoke). As a model study system, we used Helenium aromaticum (Asteraceae), a native annual forb from the Chilean matorral, where fires are anthropogenic. We related seed trait values with fitness responses (germination and survival) after exposure to heat-shock and smoke experimental treatments on seeds from 10 H. aromaticum wild populations. We performed a phenotypic selection experiment to examine the relationship of seed traits with post-treatment fitness within a population (adaptive hypothesis). We then explored whether fire frequency in natural habitats was associated with trait expression across populations, and with germination and survival responses to experimental fire-cues. We found that populations subjected to higher fire frequency had, in average, more rounded and pubescent seeds than populations from rarely burned areas. Populations with more rounded and pubescent seeds were more resistant to 80°C heat-shock and smoke treatments.There was correlated selection on seed traits: pubescent-rounded or glabrouscent-elongated seeds had the highest probability of germinating after heat-shock treatments. Seed pubescence and shape in H. aromaticum are heritable traits that modulate adaptive responses to fire. Our results provide new insights into the process of plant adaptation to fire and highlight the relevance of human-made fires as a strong evolutionary agent in the Anthropocene. PMID:27438267

  13. Neuropsychological predictors of adaptive kitchen behavior in geriatric psychiatry inpatients.

    PubMed

    Benedict, R H; Goldstein, M Z; Dobraski, M; Tannenhaus, J

    1997-10-01

    This study examined the degree to which demographic variables, psychiatric diagnosis, depression rating, and neuropsychological test performance predict adaptive kitchen behavior in geriatric psychiatry patients and normal elderly volunteers. Amixed group of 27 participants including 8 normal volunteers and 19 geriatric psychiatry inpatients underwent psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and a kitchen skills assessment conducted in a natural setting. Both depression and dementia were prevalent among patients. The kitchen skills assessment was abnormal in 69% of patients, compared to none of the normal volunteers. Estimated premorbid IQs, psychiatric diagnosis, and neuropsychological test scores significantly predicted the pass/fail status on the kitchen skills assessment, but there was no effect for age, education, gender, or depression. The discriminant function analysis classified 92% of cases, and the canonical correlation coefficient was .84. Of the neuropsychological tests employed in the study, two tests involving visuospatial processing and attention were retained in the discriminant function analysis. The results are consistent with previous studies that suggest that visuospatial tasks are more predictive of instrumental activities of daily living than are cognitive tasks emphasizing verbal and memory abilities. In addition, we conclude that neuropsychological test data are useful and valid for the purpose of guiding clinical judgments regarding activities of daily living in geriatric psychiatry patients.

  14. Global relationships in fluctuation and response in adaptive evolution

    PubMed Central

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2015-01-01

    Cells change their internal state to adapt to environmental changes, and evolve in response to the new conditions. The phenotype changes first via adaptation in response to environmental changes, and then through mutational changes in the genomic sequence, followed by selection in evolution. Here, we analysed simulated adaptive evolution using a simple cell model consisting of thousands of intracellular components, and found that the changes in their concentrations by adaptation are proportional to those by evolution across all the components, where the proportion coefficient between the two agreed well with the change in the growth rate of a cell. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the phenotypic variance in concentrations of cellular components due to (non-genetic) noise and to genomic alternations is proportional across all components. This implies that the specific phenotypes that are highly evolvable were already given by non-genetic fluctuations. These global relationships in cellular states were also supported by phenomenological theory based on steady reproduction and transcriptome analysis of laboratory evolution in Escherichia coli. These findings demonstrate that a possible evolutionary change in phenotypic state is highly restricted. Our results provide a basis for the development of a quantitative theory of plasticity and robustness in phenotypic evolution. PMID:26202686

  15. Membrane vesicle production by Chlamydia trachomatis as an adaptive response

    PubMed Central

    Frohlich, Kyla M.; Hua, Ziyu; Quayle, Alison J.; Wang, Jin; Lewis, Maria E.; Chou, Chau-wen; Luo, Miao; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved specific adaptive responses to cope with changing environments. These adaptations include stress response phenotypes with dynamic modifications of the bacterial cell envelope and generation of membrane vesicles (MVs). The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, typically has a biphasic lifestyle, but can enter into an altered growth state typified by morphologically aberrant chlamydial forms, termed persistent growth forms, when induced by stress in vitro. How C. trachomatis can adapt to a persistent growth state in host epithelial cells in vivo is not well understood, but is an important question, since it extends the host-bacterial relationship in vitro and has thus been indicated as a survival mechanism in chronic chlamydial infections. Here, we review recent findings on the mechanistic aspects of bacterial adaptation to stress with a focus on how C. trachomatis remodels its envelope, produces MVs, and the potential important consequences of MV production with respect to host-pathogen interactions. Emerging data suggest that the generation of MVs may be an important mechanism for C. trachomatis intracellular survival of stress, and thus may aid in the establishment of a chronic infection in human genital epithelial cells. PMID:24959424

  16. Higher Plants in Space: Microgravity Perception, Response, and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hui Qiong; Han, Fei; Le, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Microgravity is a major abiotic stress in space. Its effects on plants may depend on the duration of exposure. We focused on two different phases of microgravity responses in space. When higher plants are exposed to short-term (seconds to hours) microgravity, such as on board parabolic flights and sounding rockets, their cells usually exhibit abiotic stress responses. For example, Ca 2+-, lipid-, and pH-signaling are rapidly enhanced, then the production of reactive oxygen species and other radicals increase dramatically along with changes in metabolism and auxin signaling. Under long-term (days to months) microgravity exposure, plants acclimatize to the stress by changing their metabolism and oxidative response and by enhancing other tropic responses. We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of regulatory networks at the molecular level of higher plants is needed to understand the molecular signals in the distinct phases of the microgravity response and adaptation.

  17. Adaptive Behavior among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Relationship to Community Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…

  18. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…

  19. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  20. Exploring the Structure of Adaptive Behavior: Project Report Number 87-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruininks, Robert H.; McGrew, Kevin

    This report presents results from three research studies that were designed to explore both the definition and the structure of the adaptive behavior construct. The first study investigated the structure of adaptive behavior as a function of age, developmental level, and type of handicap through an exploratory factor analysis of both the…

  1. Longitudinal Examination of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This study characterizes longitudinal change in adaptive behavior in 64 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability evaluated on multiple occasions, and examines whether prior estimate of executive function (EF) problems predicts future adaptive behavior scores. Compared to standardized estimates…

  2. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    welfare can be very good when it is occurring. Other adaptation is difficult and may involve lower or higher level emergency physiological responses or abnormal behaviour, often with bad feelings such as pain or fear. In that case, welfare is poor or very poor even if complete adaptation eventually occurs and there is no long-term threat to the life of the individual. In some circumstances, adaptation may be unsuccessful, the individual is not able to cope, stress occurs and welfare is ultimately very poor.

  3. Landowner response to wildfire risk: Adaptation, mitigation or doing nothing.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jianbang; Jarrett, Adam; Johnson Gaither, Cassandra

    2015-08-15

    Wildfire has brought about ecological, economic, and social consequences that engender human responses in many parts of the world. How to respond to wildfire risk is a common challenge across the globe particularly in areas where lands are controlled by many small private owners because effective wildfire prevention and protection require coordinated efforts of neighboring stakeholders. We explore (i) wildfire response strategies adopted by family forestland owners in the southern United States, one of the most important and productive forest regions in the world, through a landowner survey; and (ii) linkages between the responses of these landowners and their characteristics via multinomial logistic regression. We find that landowners used diverse strategies to respond to wildfire risk, with the most popular responses being "doing nothing" and combined adaptation and mitigation, followed by adaptation or mitigation alone. Landowners who had lost properties to wildfire, lived on their forestlands, had a forest management plan, and were better educated were more likely to proactively respond to wildfire risk. Our results indicate the possibility to enhance the effectiveness of collective action of wildfire risk response by private forestland owners and to coordinate wildfire response with forest conservation and certification efforts. These findings shed new light on engaging private landowners in wildfire management in the study region and beyond.

  4. Adaptive Responses to Tissue Injury: Role of Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anupam; Bolisetty, Subhashini

    2013-01-01

    Tissue injury may result as a consequence of a physical, chemical, or biological insult. Such injury recruits an adaptive response to restore homeostasis and protect against further injury. One of the most prompt protective and adaptive responses by all tissues is the robust activation of the highly inducible, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1, a microsomal enzyme, catalyzes the breakdown of pro-oxidant heme, which is released from heme proteins to equimolar quantities of iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin. Biliverdin is converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. The beneficial effects of HO-1 expression are not merely due to heme degradation but are also attributed to the cytoprotective properties of the byproducts of the reaction. Manipulation of this enzymatic system in a myriad of disease models has provided substantial evidence to support its role as a cytoprotective enzyme and is therefore an emerging therapeutic molecule. PMID:23874015

  5. Cold microgradients elicit adaptive behavior in isotropically cooled, inert populations of Oxytricha bifaria (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida).

    PubMed

    Barbanera, F; Erra, F; Ricci, N

    2000-01-01

    To complete our investigations on the oriented behavioral response of isotropically cooled, inert populations of Oxytricha bifaria to a warm thermal gradient, their physiological potentialities under cold microgradient conditions arising at 8.5 degrees C were studied. We monitored the behavior of the experimental populations, both at the level of the passing cold wave front, and afterwards when the thermal gradient stabilized, evaluating (i) their distribution in general, (ii) their relative centroids, (iii) the percentage of both backward creeping and immobile ciliates, and (iv) the numerical indices and rates of their creeping tracks. At the arrival of the cold wave front, the oxytrichas react immediately to the thermal stimulus, creep backwards at very high velocity along uninterrupted linear tracks, and thus move away from the cooling source. No specific behavioral response was ever observed in the static microgradient conditions. At 8.5 degrees C, despite their inertness, the ciliates are still able to behave adaptively, reacting immediately and orientatedly, once a directional factor (the cold-repelling thermal gradient) arises in an isotropic environment. This is similar to their behavior in the symmetric warm attracting thermal gradient.

  6. Biological Bases for Radiation Adaptive Responses in the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Bobby R.; Lin, Yong; Wilder, Julie; Belinsky, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Our main research objective was to determine the biological bases for low-dose, radiation-induced adaptive responses in the lung and use the knowledge gained to produce an improved risk model for radiation-induced lung cancer that accounts for activated natural protection, genetic influences, and the role of epigenetic regulation (epiregulation). Currently, low-dose radiation risk assessment is based on the linear-no-threshold hypothesis which now is known to be unsupported by a large volume of data.

  7. Facets and mechanisms of adaptive pain behavior: predictive regulation and action

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, India; Perini, Irene; Dunham, James

    2013-01-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying nociception and pain perception are considered to serve the ultimate goal of limiting tissue damage. However, since pain usually occurs in complex environments and situations that call for elaborate control over behavior, simple avoidance is insufficient to explain a range of mammalian pain responses, especially in the presence of competing goals. In this integrative review we propose a Predictive Regulation and Action (PRA) model of acute pain processing. It emphasizes evidence that the nervous system is organized to anticipate potential pain and to adjust behavior before the risk of tissue damage becomes critical. Regulatory processes occur on many levels, and can be dynamically influenced by local interactions or by modulation from other brain areas in the network. The PRA model centers on neural substrates supporting the predictive nature of pain processing, as well as on finely-calibrated yet versatile regulatory processes that ultimately affect behavior. We outline several operational categories of pain behavior, from spinally-mediated reflexes to adaptive voluntary action, situated at various neural levels. An implication is that neural processes that track potential tissue damage in terms of behavioral consequences are an integral part of pain perception. PMID:24348358

  8. Treatment Sequencing for Childhood ADHD: A Multiple-Randomization Study of Adaptive Medication and Behavioral Interventions.

    PubMed

    Pelham, William E; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waxmonsky, James G; Greiner, Andrew R; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Coxe, Stefany; Verley, Jessica; Bhatia, Ira; Hart, Katie; Karch, Kathryn; Konijnendijk, Evelien; Tresco, Katy; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Murphy, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and pharmacological treatments for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were evaluated to address whether endpoint outcomes are better depending on which treatment is initiated first and, in case of insufficient response to initial treatment, whether increasing dose of initial treatment or adding the other treatment modality is superior. Children with ADHD (ages 5-12, N = 146, 76% male) were treated for 1 school year. Children were randomized to initiate treatment with low doses of either (a) behavioral parent training (8 group sessions) and brief teacher consultation to establish a Daily Report Card or (b) extended-release methylphenidate (equivalent to .15 mg/kg/dose bid). After 8 weeks or at later monthly intervals as necessary, insufficient responders were rerandomized to secondary interventions that either increased the dose/intensity of the initial treatment or added the other treatment modality, with adaptive adjustments monthly as needed to these secondary treatments. The group beginning with behavioral treatment displayed significantly lower rates of observed classroom rule violations (the primary outcome) at study endpoint and tended to have fewer out-of-class disciplinary events. Further, adding medication secondary to initial behavior modification resulted in better outcomes on the primary outcomes and parent/teacher ratings of oppositional behavior than adding behavior modification to initial medication. Normalization rates on teacher and parent ratings were generally high. Parents who began treatment with behavioral parent training had substantially better attendance than those assigned to receive training following medication. Beginning treatment with behavioral intervention produced better outcomes overall than beginning treatment with medication.

  9. Adaptive immune response during hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Larrubia, Juan Ramón; Moreno-Cubero, Elia; Lokhande, Megha Uttam; García-Garzón, Silvia; Lázaro, Alicia; Miquel, Joaquín; Perna, Cristian; Sanz-de-Villalobos, Eduardo

    2014-04-07

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects about 170 million people worldwide and it is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is a hepatotropic non-cytopathic virus able to persist in a great percentage of infected hosts due to its ability to escape from the immune control. Liver damage and disease progression during HCV infection are driven by both viral and host factors. Specifically, adaptive immune response carries out an essential task in controlling non-cytopathic viruses because of its ability to recognize infected cells and to destroy them by cytopathic mechanisms and to eliminate the virus by non-cytolytic machinery. HCV is able to impair this response by several means such as developing escape mutations in neutralizing antibodies and in T cell receptor viral epitope recognition sites and inducing HCV-specific cytotoxic T cell anergy and deletion. To impair HCV-specific T cell reactivity, HCV affects effector T cell regulation by modulating T helper and Treg response and by impairing the balance between positive and negative co-stimulatory molecules and between pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. In this review, the role of adaptive immune response in controlling HCV infection and the HCV mechanisms to evade this response are reviewed.

  10. Context-Specific Adaptation of Gravity-Dependent Vestibular Reflex Responses (NSBRI Neurovestibular Project 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Goldberg, Jefim; Minor, Lloyd B.; Paloski, William H.; Young, Laurence R.; Zee, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Impairment of gaze and head stabilization reflexes can lead to disorientation and reduced performance in sensorimotor tasks such as piloting of spacecraft. Transitions between different gravitoinertial force (gif) environments - as during different phases of space flight - provide an extreme test of the adaptive capabilities of these mechanisms. We wish to determine to what extent the sensorimotor skills acquired in one gravity environment will transfer to others, and to what extent gravity serves as a context cue for inhibiting such transfer. We use the general approach of adapting a response (saccades, vestibuloocular reflex: VOR, or vestibulocollic reflex: VCR) to a particular change in gain or phase in one gif condition, adapting to a different gain or phase in a second gif condition, and then seeing if gif itself - the context cue - can recall the previously-learned adapted responses. Previous evidence indicates that unless there is specific training to induce context-specificity, reflex adaptation is sequential rather than simultaneous. Various experiments in this project investigate the behavioral properties, neurophysiological basis, and anatomical substrate of context-specific learning, using otolith (gravity) signals as a context cue. In the following, we outline the methods for all experiments in this project, and provide details and results on selected experiments.

  11. DO CHILDREN WITH FRAGILE X SYNDROME SHOW DECLINES OR PLATEAUS IN ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR?

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Laura J.; Brady, Nancy C.; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace K.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores if children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) show advances, declines, or plateaus in adaptive behavior over time and the relationship of nonverbal cognitive abilities and autistic behavior on these trajectories. Parents of 55 children with FXS completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales between 3 and 6 times from 2 to 10 years of age. Using raw scores, results indicate that about half of the sample showed advances in adaptive behavior, while the other half showed declines, indicating a regression in skills. Children who were more cognitively advanced and had less autistic behaviors had higher trajectories. Understanding the developmental course of adaptive behavior in FXS has implications for educational planning and intervention, especially for those children showing declines. PMID:26322389

  12. How do people's perceptions and climatic disaster experiences influence their daily behaviors regarding adaptation to climate change? - A case study among young generations.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ying; Wang, Ming; Yousefpour, Rasoul

    2017-03-01

    Adaptation is a commonly applied strategy used to address individual behavior changes, in response to climate change. However, in-depth, evidence-based investigations of the relationships among individual perceptions, climatic disaster experiences, and daily behaviors regarding adaptation to climate change remain to be conducted. We obtained survey data from 488 respondents in southwestern China, a region prone to frequent and severe droughts, to assess factors that influence adaptive behaviors and to identify their pathways. We applied Construal Level Theory (CLT) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to differentiate between respondents' high-level abstract construals and their low-level concrete construals. We analyzed the influences of these two levels of perception, combined with drought experiences on water-saving behaviors. We developed a structural equation model to estimate the correlation coefficients of the latent and observed variables in the structural process linked to the respondents' adaptive behaviors. The results found that a concrete perception of saving water plays a more significant part than an abstract perception of climate change in prompting specific adaptive behaviors. Improving public perceptions of climate change might increase the desirability of adaptation, whereas improving perceptions of water saving might increase the feasibility of implementing adaptive measures. Experience influenced individual behaviors, but that influence was indirect through its effects on perceptions.

  13. Universal response-adaptation relation in bacterial chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Krembel, Anna K; Neumann, Silke; Sourjik, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial strategy of chemotaxis relies on temporal comparisons of chemical concentrations, where the probability of maintaining the current direction of swimming is modulated by changes in stimulation experienced during the recent past. A short-term memory required for such comparisons is provided by the adaptation system, which operates through the activity-dependent methylation of chemotaxis receptors. Previous theoretical studies have suggested that efficient navigation in gradients requires a well-defined adaptation rate, because the memory time scale needs to match the duration of straight runs made by bacteria. Here we demonstrate that the chemotaxis pathway of Escherichia coli does indeed exhibit a universal relation between the response magnitude and adaptation time which does not depend on the type of chemical ligand. Our results suggest that this alignment of adaptation rates for different ligands is achieved through cooperative interactions among chemoreceptors rather than through fine-tuning of methylation rates for individual receptors. This observation illustrates a yet-unrecognized function of receptor clustering in bacterial chemotaxis.

  14. Stress and adaptation responses to repeated acute acceleration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Study in which groups of adult male chickens (single-comb white leghorn) were exposed daily to acceleration (centrifugation) of 2 or 3 G for 10 min, 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 hr (continuously), or 0 time (controls). After approximately five months of this intermittent treatment (training), the birds were exposed to continuous accelerations of the same G force (intensity). The degree of stress and adaptation of each bird was determined by survival and relative lymphocyte count criteria. Intermittent training exposures of 2 G developed levels of adaptation in birds directly proportional to the duration of their daily exposure. Intermittent training periods at 3 G, however, produced a physiological deterioration in birds receiving daily exposures of 8 hr or more. Adaptive benefits were found only in the 1- and 4-hr-daily intermittent 3-G exposure groups. Exposure to 3 G produced an immediate stress response as indicated by a low relative lymphocyte count which returned to control (preexposed) values prior to the next daily acceleration period in the 10-min, 1-hr, and 4-hr groups. This daily recovery period from stress appeared to be necessary for adaptation as opposed to deterioration for the more severe environmental (3 G) alteration.

  15. Bayesian response-adaptive designs for basket trials.

    PubMed

    Ventz, Steffen; Barry, William T; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Trippa, Lorenzo

    2017-02-17

    We develop a general class of response-adaptive Bayesian designs using hierarchical models, and provide open source software to implement them. Our work is motivated by recent master protocols in oncology, where several treatments are investigated simultaneously in one or multiple disease types, and treatment efficacy is expected to vary across biomarker-defined subpopulations. Adaptive trials such as I-SPY-2 (Barker et al., 2009) and BATTLE (Zhou et al., 2008) are special cases within our framework. We discuss the application of our adaptive scheme to two distinct research goals. The first is to identify a biomarker subpopulation for which a therapy shows evidence of treatment efficacy, and to exclude other subpopulations for which such evidence does not exist. This leads to a subpopulation-finding design. The second is to identify, within biomarker-defined subpopulations, a set of cancer types for which an experimental therapy is superior to the standard-of-care. This goal leads to a subpopulation-stratified design. Using simulations constructed to faithfully represent ongoing cancer sequencing projects, we quantify the potential gains of our proposed designs relative to conventional non-adaptive designs.

  16. Engaging African American Fathers in Behavioral Parent Training: To Adapt or Not Adapt

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Seay, Kristen D.

    2015-01-01

    The Positive Parenting Program, Triple P, is an evidence-based parenting program with strong empirical support that increases parenting skills and decreases child behavior problems. Few studies on Triple P include fathers or African American fathers. This study was undertaken to determine if adaptation to Triple P level 4 is necessary to ensure fit with urban African American fathers. Qualitative focus groups and interviews were conducted with African American fathers. Some received a brief overview of the program before giving feedback (series A) and others received the entire intervention (series B). Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze transcripts and codebooks were developed through an iterative process. Series B fathers had fewer negative perceptions and a more detailed perspective. Limited exposure to an intervention may cause participants to provide inaccurate data on intervention acceptability. The fathers’ initial perceptions of interventions, regardless of accuracy, will affect recruitment and engagement and must be addressed. One strategy is to tailor program examples and language to reflect the experiences of African American fathers. PMID:26190952

  17. Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Opendak, Maya; Offit, Lily; Monari, Patrick; Schoenfeld, Timothy J.; Sonti, Anup N.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Research on social instability has focused on its detrimental consequences, but most people are resilient and respond by invoking various coping strategies. To investigate cellular processes underlying such strategies, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Social disruption produced a preference for familiar over novel conspecifics, a change that did not involve global memory impairments or increased anxiety. Using the neuropeptide oxytocin as a tool to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of disrupted rats restored preference for novel conspecifics to predisruption levels. Conversely, reducing the number of new neurons by limited inhibition of adult neurogenesis in naive transgenic GFAP–thymidine kinase rats resulted in social behavior similar to disrupted rats. Together, these results provide novel mechanistic evidence that social disruption shapes behavior in a potentially adaptive way, possibly by reducing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate cellular processes underlying adaptation to social instability, a dominance hierarchy of rats was formed and then destabilized. Regardless of social position, rats from disrupted hierarchies had fewer new neurons in the hippocampus compared with rats from control cages and those from stable hierarchies. Unexpectedly, these changes were accompanied by changes in social strategies without evidence of impairments in cognition or anxiety regulation. Restoring adult neurogenesis in disrupted rats using oxytocin and conditionally suppressing the production of new neurons in socially naive GFAP–thymidine kinase rats showed that loss of 6-week-old neurons may be responsible for adaptive changes in social behavior. PMID:27358459

  18. Nutritional strategies to modulate the adaptive response to endurance training.

    PubMed

    Hawley, John A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, advances in molecular biology have allowed scientists to elucidate how endurance exercise training stimulates skeletal muscle remodeling (i.e. promotes mitochondrial biogenesis). A growing field of interest directly arising from our understanding of the molecular bases of training adaptation is how nutrient availability can alter the regulation of many contraction-induced events in muscle in response to endurance exercise. Acutely manipulating substrate availability can exert profound effects on muscle energy stores and patterns of fuel metabolism during exercise, as well as many processes activating gene expression and cell signaling. Accordingly, such interventions when repeated over weeks and months have the potential to modulate numerous adaptive processes in skeletal muscle that ultimately drive the phenotype-specific characteristics observed in highly trained athletes. In this review, the molecular and cellular events that occur in skeletal muscle during and after endurance exercise are discussed and evidence provided to demonstrate that nutrient availability plays an important role in modulating many of the adaptive responses to training. Emphasis is on human studies that have determined the regulatory role of muscle glycogen availability on cell metabolism, endurance training capacity and performance.

  19. Frontostriatal and behavioral adaptations to daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Burger, Kyle S

    2017-03-01

    Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response.Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli.Design: We performed an experiment with 20 healthy-weight individuals who were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 sugar-sweetened beverages daily for 21 d, underwent 2 functional MRI sessions, and completed behavioral and explicit hedonic assessments.Results: Consistent with preclinical experiments, daily beverage consumption resulted in decreases in dorsal striatal response during receipt of the consumed beverage (r = -0.46) and decreased ventromedial prefrontal response during logo-elicited anticipation (r = -0.44). This decrease in the prefrontal response correlated with increases in behavioral disinhibition toward the logo of the consumed beverage (r = 0.54; P = 0.02). Daily beverage consumption also increased precuneus response to both juice logos compared with a tasteless control (r = 0.45), suggesting a more generalized effect toward beverage cues. Last, the repeated consumption of 1 beverage resulted in an explicit hedonic devaluation of a similar nonconsumed beverage (P < 0.001).Conclusions: Analogous to previous reports, these initial results provide convergent data for a role of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake in altering neurobehavioral responses to the regularly consumed beverage that may also extend to other beverage stimuli. Future research is required to provide evidence of replication in a larger sample and to establish whether the neurobehavioral adaptations observed herein are

  20. Imbalanced adaptive responses associated with microsatellite instability in cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Loilome, Watcharin; Kadsanit, Sasithorn; Muisook, Kanha; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Namwat, Nisana; Techasen, Anchalee; Puapairoj, Anucha; Khuntikeo, Narong; Phonjit, Pichai

    2017-01-01

    The adaptive response of the genome protection mechanism occurs in cells when exposed to genotoxic stress due to the overproduction of free radicals via inflammation and infection. In such circumstances, cells attempt to maintain health via several genome protection mechanisms. However, evidence is increasing that this adaptive response may have deleterious effect; a reduction of antioxidant enzymes and/or imbalance in the DNA repair system generates microsatellite instability (MSI), which has procarcinogenic implications. Therefore, the present study hypothesized that MSI caused by imbalanced responses of antioxidant enzymes and/or DNA repair enzymes as a result of oxidative/nitrative stress arising from the inflammatory response is involved in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis. The present study investigated this hypothesis by identifying the expression patterns of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT), and DNA repair enzymes, including alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG), apurinic endonuclease (APE) and DNA polymerase β (DNA pol β). In addition, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, SOD2 and CAT, were examined in human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) tissues using immunohistochemical staining. MSI was also analyzed in human CCA tissues. The resulting data demonstrated that the expression levels of the SOD2 and CAT enzymes decreased. The activities of SOD2 and CAT decreased significantly in the CCA tissues, compared with the hepatic tissue of cadaveric donors. In the DNA repairing enzymes, it was found that the expression levels of AAG and DNA pol β enzymes increased, whereas the expression of APE decreased. In addition, it was found that MSI-high was present in 69% of patients, whereas MSI-low was present in 31% of patients, with no patients classified as having microsatellite stability. In the patients, a MSI-high was correlated with poor prognosis, indicated by a shorter survival rate. These results

  1. The changing brain--insights into the mechanisms of neural and behavioral adaptation to the environment.

    PubMed

    Bergersen, L H; Bramham, C R; Hugdahl, K; Sander, M; Storm-Mathisen, J

    2013-09-05

    The Kavli Prize in Neuroscience was awarded for the third time in September 2012, by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters in Oslo. The accompanying Kavli Prize Symposium on Neuroscience, held in Bergen and Trondheim, was a showcase of excellence in neuroscience research. The common theme of the Symposium presentations was the mechanisms by which animals adapt to their environment. The symposium speakers--Michael Greenberg, Erin Schuman, Chiara Cirelli, Michael Meaney, Catherine Dulac, Hopi Hoekstra, and Stanislas Dehaene--covered topics ranging from the molecular and cellular levels to the systems level and behavior. Thus a single amino acid change in a transcriptional repressor can disrupt gene regulation through neural activity (Greenberg). Deep sequencing analysis of the neuropil transcriptome indicates that a large fraction of the synaptic proteome is synthesized in situ in axons and dendrites, permitting local regulation (Schuman). The nature of the 'reset' function that makes animals dependent of sleep is being revealed (Cirelli). Maternal behavior can cause changes in gene expression that stably modify behavior in the offspring (Meaney). Removal of a single sensory channel protein in the vomero-nasal organ can switch off male-specific and switch on female-specific innate behavior of mice in response to environmental stimulation (Dulac). Innate behaviors can be stably transmitted from parent to offspring through generations even when those behaviors cannot be expressed, as illustrated by the elaborate burrowing behavior in a rodent species, in which independent genetic regions regulate distinct modules of the burrowing pattern (Hoekstra). Finally, at the other extreme of the nature-nurture scale, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis in children and adults identified a brain area specifically involved in reading (Dehaene). As the area must originally have developed for a purpose other than reading, such as shape recognition, this

  2. Treating Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors With Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:23914278

  3. Response and adaptation of bone cells to simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lifang; Li, Runzhi; Su, Peihong; Arfat, Yasir; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-11-01

    Bone loss induced by microgravity during space flight is one of the most deleterious factors on astronaut's health and is mainly attributed to an unbalance in the process of bone remodeling. Studies from the space microgravity have demonstrated that the disruption of bone remodeling is associated with the changes of four main functional bone cells, including osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, and mesenchymal stem cells. For the limited availability, expensive costs and confined experiment conditions for conducting space microgravity studies, the mechanism of bone cells response and adaptation to microgravity is still unclear. Therefore, some ground-based simulated microgravity methods have been developed to investigate the bioeffects of microgravity and the mechanisms. Here, based on our studies and others, we review how bone cells (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and mesenchymal stem cells) respond and adapt to simulated microgravity.

  4. Arousal regulation and affective adaptation to human responsiveness by a robot that explores and learns a novel environment.

    PubMed

    Hiolle, Antoine; Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot-human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a "baby" robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a "caregiver" to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two "idealized" robot profiles-a "needy" and an "independent" robot-in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the "stress" (arousal) produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b) the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness-"responsive" and "non-responsive"-to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a) assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (b) bring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to adapt its regulatory behavior along the "needy" and "independent" axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c) analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot.

  5. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary–developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via finite mixture modeling. Moreover, the 4 patterns of responsivity showed the predicted associations with family stress levels but no association with measures of ecological stress. Our hypotheses concerning sex differences in responsivity were only partly confirmed. This preliminary study provides initial support for the key predictions of the ACM and highlights some of the methodological challenges that will need to be considered in future research on this topic. PMID:22148947

  6. The adaptive response in radiobiology: evolving insights and implications.

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, S

    1998-01-01

    The first of the regularly reproducible experiments to show that very low doses of ionizing radiation, like very low doses of chemical agents, could induce mechanisms whereby cells become better fit to cope with subsequent exposures to high doses were carried out on the induction of chromosome aberrations in cultures of human lymphocytes. If cells that had been exposed to a very low dose (1 cGy) of X rays were subsequently exposed to a relatively high dose (1 Gy), approximately half as many chromosome breaks were induced. Subsequent experiments showed that this adaptive response to low doses requires a certain minimal dose before it becomes active; occurs only within a relatively small window of dose; is dose-rate dependent; and depends on the genetic constitution of the people or animals exposed, with some being unresponsive. It was further shown that the response to the low-dose preexposure was not instantaneous but took approximately 4 to 6 hr to become fully active, and could be prevented if during this period protein synthesis was inhibited, i.e., a necessary protein (enzyme) was being induced. In fact, subsequent experiments with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed new proteins in cells irradiated with 1 to 2 cGy. The adaptation induced by low doses of radiation was therefore attributed to the induction of a novel efficient chromosome break repair mechanism that if active at the time of challenge with high doses would lead to less residual damage. This hypothesis was strengthened by a series of experiments in which it was found that inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, an enzyme implicated in DNA strand break rejoining, could prevent the adaptive response. Although the phenomenon is well established in cellular systems, it is still problematical as to whether or not it will have any utility in establishing risks of ionizing radiation to humans. Newer experiments have now been carried out on the mechanisms underlying the effect and whether or not

  7. Linking Screening for Emotional and Behavioral Problems to Problem-Solving Efforts: An Adaptive Model of Behavioral Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses several objectives of the special issue on universal screening by addressing gaps in the current research base concerning universal screening for mental, emotional, and behavioral health and by providing a framework for addressing the limitations of extant approaches. Specifically, an adaptive model of behavioral assessment…

  8. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  9. Vocalization behavior and response of black rails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Legare, M.L.; Eddleman, W.R.; Buckley, P.A.; Kelly, C.

    1999-01-01

    . Observers should be trained to identify black rail vocalizations and should have acceptable hearing ability. Given the number of variables that may have large effects on the response behavior of black rails to tape playback, we recommend that future studies using playback surveys should be cautious when presenting estimates of 'absolute' density. Though results did account for variation in response behavior, we believe that additional variation in vocal response between sites, with breeding status, and bird density remains in question. Playback surveys along fixed routes providing a simple index of abundance would be useful to monitor populations over large geographic areas, and over time. Considering the limitations of most agency resources for webless waterbirds, index surveys may be more appropriate. Future telemetry studies of this type on other species and at other sites would be useful to calibrate information obtained from playback surveys whether reporting an index of abundance or density estimate.

  10. Plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures: potential molecular responses.

    PubMed

    Ferl, Robert J; Schuerger, Andrew C; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Gurley, William B; Corey, Kenneth; Bucklin, Ray

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that it may be impossible to attain Earth normal atmospheric pressures in orbital, lunar, or Martian greenhouses, simply because the construction materials do not exist to meet the extraordinary constraints imposed by balancing high engineering requirements against high lift costs. This equation essentially dictates that NASA have in place the capability to grow plants at reduced atmospheric pressure. Yet current understanding of plant growth at low pressures is limited to just a few experiments and relatively rudimentary assessments of plant vigor and growth. The tools now exist, however, to make rapid progress toward understanding the fundamental nature of plant responses and adaptations to low pressures, and to develop strategies for mitigating detrimental effects by engineering the growth conditions or by engineering the plants themselves. The genomes of rice and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have recently been sequenced in their entirety, and public sector and commercial DNA chips are becoming available such that thousands of genes can be assayed at once. A fundamental understanding of plant responses and adaptation to low pressures can now be approached and translated into procedures and engineering considerations to enhance plant growth at low atmospheric pressures. In anticipation of such studies, we present here the background arguments supporting these contentions, as well as informed speculation about the kinds of molecular physiological responses that might be expected of plants in low-pressure environments.

  11. Plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures: potential molecular responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert J.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Gurley, William B.; Corey, Kenneth; Bucklin, Ray

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that it may be impossible to attain Earth normal atmospheric pressures in orbital, lunar, or Martian greenhouses, simply because the construction materials do not exist to meet the extraordinary constraints imposed by balancing high engineering requirements against high lift costs. This equation essentially dictates that NASA have in place the capability to grow plants at reduced atmospheric pressure. Yet current understanding of plant growth at low pressures is limited to just a few experiments and relatively rudimentary assessments of plant vigor and growth. The tools now exist, however, to make rapid progress toward understanding the fundamental nature of plant responses and adaptations to low pressures, and to develop strategies for mitigating detrimental effects by engineering the growth conditions or by engineering the plants themselves. The genomes of rice and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have recently been sequenced in their entirety, and public sector and commercial DNA chips are becoming available such that thousands of genes can be assayed at once. A fundamental understanding of plant responses and adaptation to low pressures can now be approached and translated into procedures and engineering considerations to enhance plant growth at low atmospheric pressures. In anticipation of such studies, we present here the background arguments supporting these contentions, as well as informed speculation about the kinds of molecular physiological responses that might be expected of plants in low-pressure environments.

  12. Adaptive changes in prey vulnerability shape the response of predator populations to mortality.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Peter A

    2009-11-21

    Simple models are used to explore how adaptive changes in prey vulnerability alter the population response of their predator to increased mortality. If the mortality is an imposed harvest, the change in prey vulnerability also influences the relationship between harvest effort and yield of the predator. The models assume that different prey phenotypes share a single resource, but have different vulnerabilities to the predator. Decreased vulnerability is assumed to decrease resource consumption rate. Adaptive change may occur by phenotypic changes in the traits of a single species or by shifts in the abundances of a pair of coexisting species or morphs. The response of the predator population is influenced by the shape of the predator's functional response, the shape of resource density dependence, and the shape of the tradeoff between vulnerability and food intake in the prey. Given a linear predator functional response, adaptive prey defense tends to produce a decelerating decline in predator population size with increased mortality. Prey defense may also greatly increase the range of mortality rates that allow predator persistence. If the predator has a type-2 response with a significant handling time, adaptive prey defense may have a greater variety of effects on the predator's response to mortality, sometimes producing alternative attractors, population cycles, or increased mean predator density. Situations in which there is disruptive selection on prey defense often imply a bimodal change in yield as a function of harvesting effort, with a minimum at intermediate effort. These results argue against using single-species models of density dependent growth to manage predatory species, and illustrate the importance of incorporating anti-predator behavior into models in applied population ecology.

  13. Aeroelastic Response of the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Transtition Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Claudia Y.; Spivey, Natalie D.; Lung, Shun-fat

    2016-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge demonstrator was a joint task under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory and FlexSys, Inc. (Ann Arbor, Michigan), chartered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to develop advanced technologies that enable environmentally friendly aircraft, such as continuous mold-line technologies. The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge demonstrator encompassed replacing the Fowler flaps on the SubsoniC Aircraft Testbed, a Gulfstream III (Gulfstream Aerospace, Savannah, Georgia) aircraft, with control surfaces developed by FlexSys, Inc., a pair of uniquely-designed, unconventional flaps to be used as lifting surfaces during flight-testing to substantiate their structural effectiveness. The unconventional flaps consisted of a main flap section and two transition sections, inboard and outboard, which demonstrated the continuous mold-line technology. Unique characteristics of the transition sections provided a challenge to the airworthiness assessment for this part of the structure. A series of build-up tests and analyses were conducted to ensure the data required to support the airworthiness assessment were acquired and applied accurately. The transition sections were analyzed both as individual components and as part of the flight-test article assembly. Instrumentation was installed in the transition sections based on the analysis to best capture the in-flight aeroelastic response. Flight-testing was conducted and flight data were acquired to validate the analyses. This paper documents the details of the aeroelastic assessment and in-flight response of the transition sections of the unconventional Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge flaps.

  14. Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: behavioral health.

    PubMed

    Goel, Namni; Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill; Kornstein, Susan G; Leon, Gloria R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stuster, Jack W; Dinges, David F

    2014-11-01

    This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space." It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup-consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector-investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight.

  15. Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Behavioral Health

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Tracy L.; Epperson, C. Neill; Kornstein, Susan G.; Leon, Gloria R.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stuster, Jack W.; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, “The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space.” It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, “Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era,” which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup—consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector—investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

  16. Behavioral responses of freshwater mussels to experimental dewatering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Lellis, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of flow alteration on freshwater ecosystems is critical for predicting species responses and restoring appropriate flow regimes. We experimentally evaluated the effects of 3 dewatering rates on behavior of 6 freshwater mussel species in the context of water-removal rates observed in 21 Atlantic Coast rivers. Horizontal movement differed significantly among species and dewatering rates, but a significant species × dewatering interaction suggested that these factors influence movement in complex ways. Species differences in movement were evident only in controls and under slow dewatering rates, but these differences disappeared at moderate and fast dewatering rates. Burrowing behavior did not differ with respect to species identity or dewatering rate. The proportion of individuals that became stranded did not differ among species, but most individuals became stranded under low and moderate dewatering, and all individuals became stranded under fast dewatering. Mortality after stranding differed strongly among species along a gradient from 25% inPyganodon cataracta to 92% in Alasmidonta marginata. Together, these results suggest that species behavior may differ under gradual dewatering, but all species in our study are poorly adapted for rapid dewatering. Most of the 21 rivers we assessed experienced dewatering events comparable to our moderate rate, and several experienced events comparable to our fast rate. Dewatering events that exceed the movement or survival capability of most mussel species can be expected to result in assemblage-wide impacts. Consequently, the rate of water level change may be important in refining target flow conditions for restoration.

  17. Protein phosphorylation and regulation of adaptive responses in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Stock, J B; Ninfa, A J; Stock, A M

    1989-01-01

    Bacteria continuously adapt to changes in their environment. Responses are largely controlled by signal transduction systems that contain two central enzymatic components, a protein kinase that uses adenosine triphosphate to phosphorylate itself at a histidine residue and a response regulator that accepts phosphoryl groups from the kinase. This conserved phosphotransfer chemistry is found in a wide range of bacterial species and operates in diverse systems to provide different regulatory outputs. The histidine kinases are frequently membrane receptor proteins that respond to environmental signals and phosphorylate response regulators that control transcription. Four specific regulatory systems are discussed in detail: chemotaxis in response to attractant and repellent stimuli (Che), regulation of gene expression in response to nitrogen deprivation (Ntr), control of the expression of enzymes and transport systems that assimilate phosphorus (Pho), and regulation of outer membrane porin expression in response to osmolarity and other culture conditions (Omp). Several additional systems are also examined, including systems that control complex developmental processes such as sporulation and fruiting-body formation, systems required for virulent infections of plant or animal host tissues, and systems that regulate transport and metabolism. Finally, an attempt is made to understand how cross-talk between parallel phosphotransfer pathways can provide a global regulatory curcuitry. PMID:2556636

  18. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  19. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  20. Responsible Assertive Behavior Promotes Effective Interpersonal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert, Jack E.

    1983-01-01

    Assertive behavior promotes the development of mutually satisfying relationships, with none of the disadvantages of passive or aggressive behavior. Because of the interpersonal and organizational benefits, managers should encourage assertive behavior throughout their organizations. (SK)

  1. Biological and Theoretical Studies of Adaptive Networks: The Conditioned Response.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-30

    Eichenbaum , H. and Butter, C.M., The role of frontalcortex-reticular interactions in performance and extinction of Recordings of multiple-unit activity in...such a way that they are appropriate to the ’task demands’ imposed by training parameters (Levey and Martin , 1968). The main evidence for this adaptive...8217 Science 237, 1445-1452. 12. Levey, A. B. and Martin , I. (1968) ’Shape of the conditioned eyelid response,’ Psychological Review 75, 398-408. 13. Millenson

  2. Deciphering the Adaptive Immune Response to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Weinstein JN, Collisson EA, Mills GB, Shaw KR, Ozenberger BA, Ellrott K, Shmulevich I, Sander C, Stuart JM. The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer analysis...Holt, Ph.D., John Webb Ph.D., Peter Watson, M.D. Title of Project: Deciphering the Adaptive Immune Response to Ovarian Cancer INTRODUCTION...Cherniack AD, Akbani R, Liu Y, Shen H, Robertson AG, Pashtan I, Shen R, Benz CC, Yau C, Laird PW, Ding L, Zhang W, Mills GB, Kucherlapati R, Mardis ER

  3. Neuroticism and responsiveness to error feedback: adaptive self-regulation versus affective reactivity.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Fetterman, Adam K

    2010-10-01

    Responsiveness to negative feedback has been seen as functional by those who emphasize the value of reflecting on such feedback in self-regulating problematic behaviors. On the other hand, the very same responsiveness has been viewed as dysfunctional by its link to punishment sensitivity and reactivity. The present 4 studies, involving 203 undergraduate participants, sought to reconcile such discrepant views in the context of the trait of neuroticism. In cognitive tasks, individuals were given error feedback when they made mistakes. It was found that greater tendencies to slow down following error feedback were associated with higher levels of accuracy at low levels of neuroticism but lower levels of accuracy at high levels of neuroticism. Individual differences in neuroticism thus appear crucial in understanding whether behavioral alterations following negative feedback reflect proactive versus reactive mechanisms and processes. Implications for understanding the processing basis of neuroticism and adaptive self-regulation are discussed.

  4. Adapting Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children With Down Syndrome Based on the Behavioral Phenotype: A Promising Approach?

    PubMed

    Lemons, Christopher J; King, Seth A; Davidson, Kimberly A; Puranik, Cynthia S; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J

    2015-08-01

    Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down syndrome would increase children's learning of phonological awareness, letter sounds, and words. Five children with Down syndrome, ages 6 to 8 years, participated in a multiple baseline across participants single case design experiment in which response to an adapted phonological awareness intervention was compared with response to the nonadapted program. Results indicate a functional relation between the adapted program and phonological awareness. Suggestions for future research and implications for practice are provided.

  5. Stability and change: Stress responses and the shaping of behavioral phenotypes over the life span.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael B; Kaiser, Sylvia; Tiedtke, Tobias; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, maternal signals conveyed via influences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity may shape behavior of the young to be better adapted for prevailing environmental conditions. However, the mother's influence extends beyond classic stress response systems. In guinea pigs, several hours (h) of separation from the mother activates not only the HPA axis, but also the innate immune system, which effects immediate behavioral change, as well as modifies behavioral responsiveness in the future. Moreover, the presence of the mother potently suppresses the behavioral consequences of this innate immune activation. These findings raise the possibility that long-term adaptive behavioral change can be mediated by the mother's influence on immune-related activity of her pups. Furthermore, the impact of social partners on physiological stress responses and their behavioral outcomes are not limited to the infantile period. A particularly crucial period for social development in male guinea pigs is that surrounding the attainment of sexual maturation. At this time, social interactions with adults can dramatically affect circulating cortisol concentrations and social behavior in ways that appear to prepare the male to best cope in its likely future social environment. Despite such multiple social influences on the behavior of guinea pigs at different ages, inter-individual differences in the magnitude of the cortisol response remain surprisingly stable over most of the life span. Together, it appears that throughout the life span, physiological stress responses may be regulated by social stimuli. These influences are hypothesized to adjust behavior for predicted environmental conditions. In addition, stable individual differences might provide a means of facilitating adaptation to less predictable conditions.

  6. Context-Specific Adaptation of Gravity-Dependent Vestibular Reflex Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    much better analog of the situation encountered in space flight. Various experiments investigate the behavioral properties, neurophysiological basis, and anatomical substrate of context-specific learning mechanisms. We use otolith (gravity) signals as the contextual cue for switching between adapted states of the saccadic system, the angular and linear vestibulo-ocular reflexes, and the VCR. (By LVOR we mean the oculomotor response - horizontal, vertical, and torsional - to linear translation of the head and body.) We are studying the effect of context on adaptation of saccade gain, phase and gain of the AVOR and LVOR, on ocular counterrolling (OCR) in response to static head tilt, and on head/neck reflexes (VCR) in response to rotation in different orientations. Such research is particularly germane to potential problems of postural and oculomotor control upon exposure to different gravitational environments.

  7. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  8. Glassy Dynamics in the Adaptive Immune Response Prevents Autoimmune Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun; Earl, David J.; Deem, Michael W.

    2005-09-01

    The immune system normally protects the human host against death by infection. However, when an immune response is mistakenly directed at self-antigens, autoimmune disease can occur. We describe a model of protein evolution to simulate the dynamics of the adaptive immune response to antigens. Computer simulations of the dynamics of antibody evolution show that different evolutionary mechanisms, namely, gene segment swapping and point mutation, lead to different evolved antibody binding affinities. Although a combination of gene segment swapping and point mutation can yield a greater affinity to a specific antigen than point mutation alone, the antibodies so evolved are highly cross reactive and would cause autoimmune disease, and this is not the chosen dynamics of the immune system. We suggest that in the immune system’s search for antibodies, a balance has evolved between binding affinity and specificity.

  9. Innate and adaptive immune responses in neurodegeneration and repair.

    PubMed

    Amor, Sandra; Woodroofe, M Nicola

    2014-03-01

    Emerging evidence suggests important roles of the innate and adaptive immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS) in neurodegenerative diseases. In this special review issue, five leading researchers discuss the evidence for the beneficial as well as the detrimental impact of the immune system in the CNS in disorders including Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and CNS injury. Several common pathological mechanisms emerge indicating that these pathways could provide important targets for manipulating the immune reposes in neurodegenerative disorders. The articles highlight the role of the traditional resident immune cell of the CNS - the microglia - as well as the role of other glia astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in immune responses and their interplay with other immune cells including, mast cells, T cells and B cells. Future research should lead to new discoveries which highlight targets for therapeutic interventions which may be applicable to a range of neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. A Critical Analysis of the Behavioral Adaptation Explanation of the Probing Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; McCornack, Steven A.

    1996-01-01

    Documents three problems with the behavioral adaption explanation (BAE) that, taken together, suggest that it cannot account for the probing effect, i.e., the finding that sources interrogatively probed appear more honest to message recipients than nonprobed sources. (TB)

  11. Glycerol stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Cellular responses and evolved adaptations.

    PubMed

    Mattenberger, Florian; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Hallsworth, John E; Fares, Mario A

    2017-03-01

    Glycerol synthesis is key to central metabolism and stress biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet the cellular adjustments needed to respond and adapt to glycerol stress are little understood. Here, we determined impacts of acute and chronic exposures to glycerol stress in S. cerevisiae. Glycerol stress can result from an increase of glycerol concentration in the medium due to the S. cerevisiae fermenting activity or other metabolic activities. Acute glycerol-stress led to a 50% decline in growth rate and altered transcription of more than 40% of genes. The increased genetic diversity in S. cerevisiae population, which had evolved in the standard nutrient medium for hundreds of generations, led to an increase in growth rate and altered transcriptome when such population was transferred to stressful media containing a high concentration of glycerol; 0.41 M (0.990 water activity). Evolution of S. cerevisiae populations during a 10-day period in the glycerol-containing medium led to transcriptome changes and readjustments to improve control of glycerol flux across the membrane, regulation of cell cycle, and more robust stress response; and a remarkable increase of growth rate under glycerol stress. Most of the observed regulatory changes arose in duplicated genes. These findings elucidate the physiological mechanisms, which underlie glycerol-stress response, and longer-term adaptations, in S. cerevisiae; they also have implications for enigmatic aspects of the ecology of this otherwise well-characterized yeast.

  12. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Fungal Products and Allergens.

    PubMed

    Williams, P Brock; Barnes, Charles S; Portnoy, Jay M

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fungi and their products is practically ubiquitous, yet most of this is of little consequence to most healthy individuals. This is because there are a number of elaborate mechanisms to deal with these exposures. Most of these mechanisms are designed to recognize and neutralize such exposures. However, in understanding these mechanisms it has become clear that many of them overlap with our ability to respond to disruptions in tissue function caused by trauma or deterioration. These responses involve the innate and adaptive immune systems usually through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B and the production of cytokines that are considered inflammatory accompanied by other factors that can moderate these reactivities. Depending on different genetic backgrounds and the extent of activation of these mechanisms, various pathologies with resulting symptoms can ensue. Complicating this is the fact that these mechanisms can bias toward type 2 innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, to understand what we refer to as allergens from fungal sources, we must first understand how they influence these innate mechanisms. In doing so it has become clear that many of the proteins that are described as fungal allergens are essentially homologues of our own proteins that signal or cause tissue disruptions.

  13. Autophagy is an adaptive response in desmin-related cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tannous, Paul; Zhu, Hongxin; Johnstone, Janet L.; Shelton, John M.; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S.; Benjamin, Ivor J.; Nguyen, Lan; Gerard, Robert D.; Levine, Beth; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    A missense mutation in the αB-crystallin (CryAB) gene triggers a severe form of desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DRCM) characterized by accumulation of misfolded proteins. We hypothesized that autophagy increases in response to protein aggregates and that this autophagic activity is adaptive. Mutant CryAB (CryABR120G) triggered a >2-fold increase in cardiomyocyte autophagic activity, and blunting autophagy increased the rate of aggregate accumulation and the abundance of insoluble CryABR120G-associated aggregates. Cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of CryABR120G in mice induced intracellular aggregate accumulation and systolic heart failure by 12 months. As early as 2 months (well before the earliest declines in cardiac function), we detected robust autophagic activity. To test the functional significance of autophagic activation, we crossed CryABR120G mice with animals harboring heterozygous inactivation of beclin 1, a gene required for autophagy. Blunting autophagy in vivo dramatically hastened heart failure progression with a 3-fold increase in interstitial fibrosis, greater accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins, larger and more extensive intracellular aggregates, accelerated ventricular dysfunction, and early mortality. This study reports activation of autophagy in DRCM. Further, our findings point to autophagy as an adaptive response in this proteotoxic form of heart disease. PMID:18621691

  14. Descriptive analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior following training.

    PubMed

    Addison, Laura; Lerman, Dorothea C

    2009-01-01

    The procedures described by Sloman et al. (2005) were extended to an analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior after they had been taught to withhold potential sources of positive and negative reinforcement following instances of problem behavior. Results were consistent with those reported previously, suggesting that escape from child problem behavior may shape and maintain adult behavior that is potentially countertherapeutic.

  15. Adapting Autonomous Behavior Based on an Estimate of an Operator’s Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    teammate’s trust and adapt to it, and also pro- vide directions for this work. 2 Inverse Trust and Behavior Adaptation Traditional trust metrics measure how...looking at an inverse trust metric where an agent (the robot) estimates how much trust another agent has in it. One option would be to get direct feedback...trustworthy behaviors from previous adap- tations (Floyd, Drinkwater, and Aha 2014b). 3 Discussion Our work has focused on an approach for inverse trust

  16. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2 to 7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies,…

  17. The Relation between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…

  18. A Pilot Study of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Hispanics with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interian, Alejandro; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Escobar, Javier I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All…

  19. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  20. Someone has to give in: theta oscillations correlate with adaptive behavior in social bargaining

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Francisco; López, Tamara; Rodriguez, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    During social bargain, one has to both figure out the others’ intentions and behave strategically in such a way that the others’ behaviors will be consistent with one’s expectations. To understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors, we used electroencephalography while subjects played as proposers in a repeated ultimatum game. We found that subjects adapted their offers to obtain more acceptances in the last round and that this adaptation correlated negatively with prefrontal theta oscillations. People with higher prefrontal theta activity related to a rejection did not adapt their offers along the game to maximize their earning. Moreover, between-subject variation in posterior theta oscillations correlated positively with how individual theta activity influenced the change of offer after a rejection, reflecting a process of behavioral adaptation to the others’ demands. Interestingly, people adapted better their offers when they knew that they where playing against a computer, although the behavioral adaptation did not correlate with prefrontal theta oscillation. Behavioral changes between human and computer games correlated with prefrontal theta activity, suggesting that low adaptation in human games could be a strategy. Taken together, these results provide evidence for specific roles of prefrontal and posterior theta oscillations in social bargaining. PMID:24493841

  1. Someone has to give in: theta oscillations correlate with adaptive behavior in social bargaining.

    PubMed

    Billeke, Pablo; Zamorano, Francisco; López, Tamara; Rodriguez, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    During social bargain, one has to both figure out the others' intentions and behave strategically in such a way that the others' behaviors will be consistent with one's expectations. To understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors, we used electroencephalography while subjects played as proposers in a repeated ultimatum game. We found that subjects adapted their offers to obtain more acceptances in the last round and that this adaptation correlated negatively with prefrontal theta oscillations. People with higher prefrontal theta activity related to a rejection did not adapt their offers along the game to maximize their earning. Moreover, between-subject variation in posterior theta oscillations correlated positively with how individual theta activity influenced the change of offer after a rejection, reflecting a process of behavioral adaptation to the others' demands. Interestingly, people adapted better their offers when they knew that they where playing against a computer, although the behavioral adaptation did not correlate with prefrontal theta oscillation. Behavioral changes between human and computer games correlated with prefrontal theta activity, suggesting that low adaptation in human games could be a strategy. Taken together, these results provide evidence for specific roles of prefrontal and posterior theta oscillations in social bargaining.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis: Protective Adaptive Responses and Prospects for a Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Poston, Taylor B; Darville, Toni

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection globally. These infections translate to a significant public health burden, particularly women's healthcare costs due to serious disease sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and ectopic pregnancy. There is no evidence that natural immunity can provide complete, long-term protection necessary to prevent chronic pathology, making human vaccine development critical. Vaccine design will require careful consideration of protective versus pathological host-response mechanisms in concert with elucidation of optimal antigens and adjuvants. Evidence suggests that a Th1 response, facilitated by IFN-γ-producing CD4 T cells, will be instrumental in generating long-term, sterilizing immunity. Although the role of antibodies is not completely understood, they have exhibited a protective effect by enhancing chlamydial clearance. Future work will require investigation of broadly neutralizing antibodies and antibody-augmented cellular immunity to successfully design a vaccine that potently elicits both arms of the immune response. Sterilizing immunity is the ultimate goal. However, vaccine-induced partial immunity that prevents upper genital tract infection and inflammation would be cost-effective compared to current screening and treatment strategies. In this chapter, we examine evidence from animal and human studies demonstrating protective adaptive immune responses to Chlamydia and discuss future challenges and prospects for vaccine development.

  3. Comparison of Measures of Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Linda I.; Servos, Andria B.

    1978-01-01

    Nonproblem and problem children were compared on Minnesota Child Development Inventory, Classroom Adjustment Rating Scale, Ottawa School Behavior Survey, AML Behavior Rating Scale, Teacher Rating Scale, and Denver Developmental Screening Test. Problem children scored significantly lower than nonproblem children on all measures. Minnesota Child…

  4. Autophagy orchestrates adaptive responses to targeted therapy in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Eritja, Núria; Chen, Bo-Juen; Rodríguez-Barrueco, Ruth; Santacana, Maria; Gatius, Sònia; Vidal, August; Martí, Maria Dolores; Ponce, Jordi; Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Encinas, Mario; Ribera, Joan; Reventós, Jaume; Boyd, Jeff; Villanueva, Alberto; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier; Llobet-Navàs, David

    2017-01-05

    Targeted therapies in endometrial cancer (EC) using kinase inhibitors rarely result in complete tumor remission and are frequently challenged by the appearance of refractory cell clones, eventually resulting in disease relapse. Dissecting adaptive mechanisms is of vital importance to circumvent clinical drug resistance and improve the efficacy of targeted agents in EC. Sorafenib is an FDA-approved multitarget tyrosine and serine/threonine kinase inhibitor currently used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, advanced renal carcinoma and radioactive iodine-resistant thyroid carcinoma. Unfortunately, sorafenib showed very modest effects in a multi-institutional phase II trial in advanced uterine carcinoma patients. Here, by leveraging RNA-sequencing data from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and cell survival studies from compound-based high-throughput screenings we have identified the lysosomal pathway as a potential compartment involved in the resistance to sorafenib. By performing additional functional biology studies we have demonstrated that this resistance could be related to macroautophagy/autophagy. Specifically, our results indicate that sorafenib triggers a mechanistic MAPK/JNK-dependent early protective autophagic response in EC cells, providing an adaptive response to therapeutic stress. By generating in vivo subcutaneous EC cell line tumors, lung metastatic assays and primary EC orthoxenografts experiments, we demonstrate that targeting autophagy enhances sorafenib cytotoxicity and suppresses tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis progression. In conclusion, sorafenib induces the activation of a protective autophagic response in EC cells. These results provide insights into the unopposed resistance of advanced EC to sorafenib and highlight a new strategy for therapeutic intervention in recurrent EC.

  5. PD-1 blockade induces responses by inhibiting adaptive immune resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tumeh, Paul C.; Harview, Christina L.; Yearley, Jennifer H.; Shintaku, I. Peter; Taylor, Emma J. M.; Robert, Lidia; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Spasic, Marko; Henry, Gina; Ciobanu, Voicu; West, Alisha N.; Carmona, Manuel; Kivork, Christine; Seja, Elizabeth; Cherry, Grace; Gutierrez, Antonio; Grogan, Tristan R.; Mateus, Christine; Tomasic, Gorana; Glaspy, John A.; Emerson, Ryan O.; Robins, Harlan; Pierce, Robert H.; Elashoff, David A.; Robert, Caroline; Ribas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Therapies that target the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor have shown unprecedented rates of durable clinical responses in patients with various cancer types.1–5 One mechanism by which cancer tissues limit the host immune response is via upregulation of PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) and its ligation to PD-1 on antigen-specific CD8 T-cells (termed adaptive immune resistance).6,7 Here we show that pre-existing CD8 T-cells distinctly located at the invasive tumour margin are associated with expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune inhibitory axis and may predict response to therapy. We analyzed samples from 46 patients with metastatic melanoma obtained before and during anti-PD1 therapy (pembrolizumab) using quantitative immunohistochemistry, quantitative multiplex immunofluorescence, and next generation sequencing for T-cell receptors (TCR). In serially sampled tumours, responding patients showed proliferation of intratumoural CD8+ T-cells that directly correlated with radiographic reduction in tumour size. Pre-treatment samples obtained from responding patients showed higher numbers of CD8, PD1, and PD-L1 expressing cells at the invasive tumour margin and inside tumours, with close proximity between PD-1 and PD-L1, and a more clonal TCR repertoire. Using multivariate analysis, we established a predictive model based on CD8 expression at the invasive margin and validated the model in an independent cohort of 15 patients. Our findings indicate that tumour regression following therapeutic PD-1 blockade requires pre-existing CD8+ T cells that are negatively regulated by PD-1/PD-L1 mediated adaptive immune resistance. PMID:25428505

  6. Autophagy orchestrates adaptive responses to targeted therapy in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eritja, Núria; Chen, Bo-Juen; Rodríguez-Barrueco, Ruth; Santacana, Maria; Gatius, Sònia; Vidal, August; Martí, Maria Dolores; Ponce, Jordi; Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Encinas, Mario; Ribera, Joan; Reventós, Jaume; Boyd, Jeff; Villanueva, Alberto; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Targeted therapies in endometrial cancer (EC) using kinase inhibitors rarely result in complete tumor remission and are frequently challenged by the appearance of refractory cell clones, eventually resulting in disease relapse. Dissecting adaptive mechanisms is of vital importance to circumvent clinical drug resistance and improve the efficacy of targeted agents in EC. Sorafenib is an FDA-approved multitarget tyrosine and serine/threonine kinase inhibitor currently used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, advanced renal carcinoma and radioactive iodine-resistant thyroid carcinoma. Unfortunately, sorafenib showed very modest effects in a multi-institutional phase II trial in advanced uterine carcinoma patients. Here, by leveraging RNA-sequencing data from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and cell survival studies from compound-based high-throughput screenings we have identified the lysosomal pathway as a potential compartment involved in the resistance to sorafenib. By performing additional functional biology studies we have demonstrated that this resistance could be related to macroautophagy/autophagy. Specifically, our results indicate that sorafenib triggers a mechanistic MAPK/JNK-dependent early protective autophagic response in EC cells, providing an adaptive response to therapeutic stress. By generating in vivo subcutaneous EC cell line tumors, lung metastatic assays and primary EC orthoxenografts experiments, we demonstrate that targeting autophagy enhances sorafenib cytotoxicity and suppresses tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis progression. In conclusion, sorafenib induces the activation of a protective autophagic response in EC cells. These results provide insights into the unopposed resistance of advanced EC to sorafenib and highlight a new strategy for therapeutic intervention in recurrent EC. PMID:28055301

  7. Adaptations in endocannabinoid signaling in response to repeated homotypic stress: a novel mechanism for stress habituation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sachin; Hillard, Cecilia J

    2008-06-01

    Daily life stressors are a major environmental factor contributing to precipitation and exacerbation of mental illness. Animal models using repeated homotypic stress induce anxious and depressive phenotypes and are used to study the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Here we discuss data demonstrating that repeated homotypic stress produces temporally and anatomically distinct changes in endocannabinoid signaling components within stress-responsive brain regions. We also present evidence describing the neural and behavioral correlates of these adaptations in endocannabinoid signaling. These data support a role for endocannabinoid signaling in the central nervous system response to chronic, homotypic stress, and specifically in the process of stress-response habituation. The clinical implications of these findings for the pathophysiology and treatment of affective disorders are discussed.

  8. Innate and adaptive immune responses against Staphylococcus aureus skin infections.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Sheila; Miller, Lloyd S

    2012-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that is responsible for the vast majority of bacterial skin and soft tissue infections in humans. S. aureus can also become more invasive and cause life-threatening infections such as bacteremia, pneumonia, abscesses of various organs, meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and sepsis. These infections represent a major public health threat due to the enormous numbers of these infections and the widespread emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. MSRA is endemic in hospitals worldwide and is rapidly spreading throughout the normal human population in the community. The increasing frequency of MRSA infections has complicated treatment as these strains are more virulent and are increasingly becoming resistant to multiple different classes of antibiotics. The important role of the immune response against S. aureus infections cannot be overemphasized as humans with certain genetic and acquired immunodeficiency disorders are at an increased risk for infection. Understanding the cutaneous immune responses against S. aureus is essential as most of these infections occur or originate from a site of infection or colonization of the skin and mucosa. This review will summarize the innate immune responses against S. aureus skin infections, including antimicrobial peptides that have direct antimicrobial activity against S. aureus as well as pattern recognition receptors and proinflammatory cytokines that promote neutrophil abscess formation in the skin, which is required for bacterial clearance. Finally, we will discuss the recent discoveries involving IL-17-mediated responses, which provide a key link between cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses against S. aureus skin infections.

  9. Kindergarten Children's Perceptions of "Anthropomorphic Artifacts" with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Asi; Mioduser, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, children from a kindergarten in central Israel have been exposed to learning experiences in technology as part of the implementation of a curriculum based on technological thinking, including topics related to behaving-adaptive-artifacts (e.g., robots). This study aims to unveil children's stance towards behaving artifacts:…

  10. Predicting Adaptive Behavior from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotard, Stephen; McWhirter, Richard

    To examine the proportion of variance in adaptive functioning predictable from mental ability, chronological age, I.Q., evidence of brain malfunction, seizure medication, and receptive and expressive language scores, 25 severely and profoundly retarded institutionalized persons (2-19 years old) were administered the Bayley Infant Scale Mental…

  11. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J; Bachmann, Kenneth A; Bailer, A John; Bolger, P Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M George; Chiueh, Chuang C; Clarkson, Thomas W; Cook, Ralph R; Diamond, David M; Doolittle, David J; Dorato, Michael A; Duke, Stephen O; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E; Hart, Ronald W; Hastings, Kenneth L; Hayes, A Wallace; Hoffmann, George R; Ives, John A; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E; Jonas, Wayne B; Kaminski, Norbert E; Keller, John G; Klaunig, James E; Knudsen, Thomas B; Kozumbo, Walter J; Lettieri, Teresa; Liu, Shu-Zheng; Maisseu, Andre; Maynard, Kenneth I; Masoro, Edward J; McClellan, Roger O; Mehendale, Harihara M; Mothersill, Carmel; Newlin, David B; Nigg, Herbert N; Oehme, Frederick W; Phalen, Robert F; Philbert, Martin A; Rattan, Suresh I S; Riviere, Jim E; Rodricks, Joseph; Sapolsky, Robert M; Scott, Bobby R; Seymour, Colin; Sinclair, David A; Smith-Sonneborn, Joan; Snow, Elizabeth T; Spear, Linda; Stevenson, Donald E; Thomas, Yolene; Tubiana, Maurice; Williams, Gary M; Mattson, Mark P

    2007-07-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines.

  12. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, Edward J. . E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu; Bachmann, Kenneth A.; Bailer, A. John; Bolger, P. Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M. George; Chiueh, Chuang C.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Cook, Ralph R.; Diamond, David M.; Doolittle, David J.; Dorato, Michael A.; Duke, Stephen O.; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E.; Hart, Ronald W.; Hastings, Kenneth L.; Hayes, A. Wallace; Hoffmann, George R.; Ives, John A.; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E.; Jonas, Wayne B.; Kaminski, Norbert E.

    2007-07-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines.

  13. Role of brain norepinephrine in the behavioral response to stress.

    PubMed

    Morilak, David A; Barrera, Gabe; Echevarria, David J; Garcia, April S; Hernandez, Angelica; Ma, Shuaike; Petre, Corina O

    2005-12-01

    the HPA axis in Wistar-Kyoto rats compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. The recruitment of a robust noradrenergic facilitatory influence following repeated cold exposure in this previously deficient strain resulted in an aberrant HPA response, which may be illustrative of the kinds of neurobiological changes that may contribute to the development of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, or other anxiety disorders in predisposed or susceptible individuals. On the other side of the same issue, regulatory alterations in noradrenergic neurotransmission, or in the stress-modulatory functions of NE, may be important in the behavioral effects of chronic antidepressant drug treatment. We present recent preliminary results addressing the effects of chronic treatment with the selective NE reuptake inhibitor, desipramine, on acute behavioral reactivity to stress. A better understanding of the role of NE in adaptive responses to acute stress, the pathological consequences of prolonged, repeated or severe stress, and the mechanisms of action of drugs used to treat stress-related diseases, may contribute to the future development of more effective strategies for the treatment or even prevention of such disorders.

  14. Adaptability: How Students' Responses to Uncertainty and Novelty Predict Their Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Nejad, Harry G.; Colmar, Susan; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptability is defined as appropriate cognitive, behavioral, and/or affective adjustment in the face of uncertainty and novelty. Building on prior measurement work demonstrating the psychometric properties of an adaptability construct, the present study investigates dispositional predictors (personality, implicit theories) of adaptability, and…

  15. Interpreting problematic behavior: systematic compensatory adaptations as emergent phenomena in autism.

    PubMed

    Damico, Jack S; Nelson, Ryan L

    2005-01-01

    Based upon an emergent account of pragmatic ability and disability, this article provides theoretical and empirical support for a conceptually deeper understanding of some systematic behaviors that have served as diagnostic indices in communicatively impaired populations. Specifically, by employing conversation analysis, several examples of problematic behaviors in autism are analysed as a specific type of compensatory adaptation. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  16. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for the Vocational Rehabilitation of Significantly Disabled Mentally Ill Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…

  17. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  18. Making Sense by Building Sense: Kindergarten Children's Construction and Understanding of Adaptive Robot Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mioduser, David; Levy, Sharona T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores young children's ability to construct and explain adaptive behaviors of a behaving artifact, an autonomous mobile robot with sensors. A central component of the behavior construction environment is the RoboGan software that supports children's construction of spatiotemporal events with an a-temporal rule structure. Six…

  19. Use of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II in Children with Autism--An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohari, S. M.; Raman, Vijaya; Ashok, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Edition 2005 (Vineland-II) is useful in assessing abilities in autism spectrum disorder, where an accurate assessment of intelligence using standardized tools is difficult both due to the unique social and communication difficulties that these children present with and the behavioral issues that occur as…

  20. Visual Behaviors and Adaptations Associated with Cortical and Ocular Impairment in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, J. E.; Groenveld, M.

    1993-01-01

    This article shows the usefulness of understanding visual behaviors in the diagnosis of various types of visual impairments that are due to ocular and cortical disorders. Behaviors discussed include nystagmus, ocular motor dyspraxia, head position, close viewing, field loss adaptations, mannerisms, photophobia, and abnormal color perception. (JDD)

  1. Stress or no stress: mineralocorticoid receptors in the forebrain regulate behavioral adaptation.

    PubMed

    ter Horst, J P; van der Mark, M H; Arp, M; Berger, S; de Kloet, E R; Oitzl, M S

    2012-07-01

    Corticosteroid effects on cognitive abilities during behavioral adaptation to stress are mediated by two types of receptors. While the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is mainly involved in the consolidation of memory, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mediates appraisal and initial responses to novelty. Recent findings in humans and mice suggest that under stress, the MR might be involved in the use of different learning strategies. Here, we used male mice lacking the MR in the forebrain (MR(CaMKCre)), which were subjected to 5-10 min acute restraint stress, followed 30 min later by training trials on the circular hole board. Mice had to locate an exit hole using extra- and intra-maze cues. We assessed performance and the use of spatial and stimulus-response strategies. Non-stressed MR(CaMKCre) mice showed delayed learning as compared to control littermates. Prior stress impaired performance in controls, but did not further deteriorate learning in MR(CaMKCre) mice. When stressed, 20-30% of both MR(CaMKCre) and control mice switched from a spatial to a stimulus-response strategy, which rescued performance in MR(CaMKCre) mice. Furthermore, MR(CaMKCre) mice showed increased GR mRNA expression in all CA areas of the hippocampus and an altered basal and stress-induced corticosterone secretion, which supports their role in the modulation of neuroendocrine activity. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for the critical role of MR in the fast formation of spatial memory. In the absence of forebrain MR spatial learning performance was under basal circumstances impaired, while after stress further deterioration of performance was rescued by switching behavior increasingly to a stimulus-response strategy.

  2. Studying adaptation and homeostatic behaviors of kinetic networks by using MATLAB.

    PubMed

    Drengstig, Tormod; Kjosmoen, Thomas; Ruoff, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Organisms have the ability to counteract environmental perturbations and keep certain components within a cell homeostatically regulated. Closely related to homeostasis is the behavior of perfect adaptation where an organism responds to a step-wise perturbation by regulating some of its components, after a transient period, to their original pre-perturbation values. A particular interesting type of model relates to the so-called robust behavior where the homeostatic or perfect adaptation property is independent of the magnitude of the applied step-wise perturbation. It has been shown that this type of behavior is related to the control-theoretic concept of integral feedback (or integral control). Using downloadable MATLAB examples, we demonstrate how robust perfect adaptation sites can be identified in reaction kinetic networks by linearizing the system, applying the Laplace transform and inspecting the transfer function. We also show how the homeostatic set point in perfect adaptation is related to the presence of zero-order fluxes.

  3. Response Latency as an Index of Response Strength during Functional Analyses of Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason-Sassi, Jessica L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2011-01-01

    Dependent variables in research on problem behavior typically are based on measures of response repetition, but these measures may be problematic when behavior poses high risk or when its occurrence terminates a session. We examined response latency as the index of behavior during assessment. In Experiment 1, we compared response rate and latency…

  4. Growth responses and adaptations of Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings to flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Sena Gomes, A.R.; Kozlowski, T.T.

    1980-01-01

    Flooding induced several physiological and morphological changes in Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings, with stomatal closure among the earliest responses. Subsequent changes included: reduction in dry weight increment of roots, stems, and leaves; formation of hypertrophied lenticles and production of adventitious roots on submerged portions of the stem above the soil line; leaf necrosis; and leaf abscission. After 15 days of stomatal closure as a results of flooding, stomata began to reopen progressively until stomata aperture was similar in flooded and unflooded plants. Adventitious roots began to form at about the time stomatal reopening began. As more adventitious roots formed, elongated, and branched, the stomata opened further. The formation of adventitious roots was in important adaptation for flooding tolerance as shown by the high efficiency of adventitious roots in absorption of water and in high correlation between the production of adventitious roots and stomatal reopening. 6 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Interparental Aggression and Infant Patterns of Adrenocortical and Behavioral Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on emotional security theory, this study examined linkages between interparental aggression, infant self-regulatory behaviors, and patterns of physiological and behavioral stress responses in a diverse sample of 735 infants residing in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. Latent profile analysis revealed four classes of adrenocortical and behavioral stress response patterns at 7-months of age, using assessments of behavioral and cortisol reactivity to an emotion eliciting challenge, as well as global ratings of the child’s negative affect and basal cortisol levels. The addition of covariates within the latent profile model suggested that children with more violence in the home and who used less caregiver-oriented regulation strategies were more likely to exhibit a pattern of high cortisol reactivity with moderate signs of distress rather than the average stress response, suggesting possible patterns of adaptation in violent households. PMID:22127795

  6. Behavioral and neural correlates of visuomotor adaptation observed through a brain-computer interface in primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Chase, Steven M; Kass, Robert E; Schwartz, Andrew B

    2012-07-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a defined link between neural activity and devices, allowing a detailed study of the neural adaptive responses generating behavioral output. We trained monkeys to perform two-dimensional center-out movements of a computer cursor using a BCI. We then applied a perturbation by randomly selecting a subset of the recorded units and rotating their directional contributions to cursor movement by a consistent angle. Globally, this perturbation mimics a visuomotor transformation, and in the first part of this article we characterize the psychophysical indications of motor adaptation and compare them with known results from adaptation of natural reaching movements. Locally, however, only a subset of the neurons in the population actually contributes to error, allowing us to probe for signatures of neural adaptation that might be specific to the subset of neurons we perturbed. One compensation strategy would be to selectively adapt the subset of cells responsible for the error. An alternate strategy would be to globally adapt the entire population to correct the error. Using a recently developed mathematical technique that allows us to differentiate these two mechanisms, we found evidence of both strategies in the neural responses. The dominant strategy we observed was global, accounting for ∼86% of the total error reduction. The remaining 14% came from local changes in the tuning functions of the perturbed units. Interestingly, these local changes were specific to the details of the applied rotation: in particular, changes in the depth of tuning were only observed when the percentage of perturbed cells was small. These results imply that there may be constraints on the network's adaptive capabilities, at least for perturbations lasting only a few hundreds of trials.

  7. Adaptive and maladaptive behavior in children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Staci C; Wolters, Pamela L; Smith, Ann C M

    2006-05-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Cognitive functioning was evaluated with an age-appropriate test. Children scored below average on VABS Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization scales. Learning problems and hyperactivity scales on the Conner's Parent Rating Scale were elevated, and girls were more impulsive than boys. Stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors were present in all children. Cognitive functioning was delayed and consistent with communication and daily living skills, while socialization scores were higher than IQ.

  8. CRYPTOCHROME mediates behavioral executive choice in response to UV light

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Lisa S.; Fogle, Keri J.; Roberts, Logan; Galschiodt, Alexis M.; Chevez, Joshua A.; Recinos, Yocelyn; Nguy, Vinh; Holmes, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) mediates behavioral and electrophysiological responses to blue light coded by circadian and arousal neurons. However, spectroscopic and biochemical assays of heterologously expressed CRY suggest that CRY may mediate functional responses to UV-A (ultraviolet A) light as well. To determine the relative contributions of distinct phototransduction systems, we tested mutants lacking CRY and mutants with disrupted opsin-based phototransduction for behavioral and electrophysiological responses to UV light. CRY and opsin-based external photoreceptor systems cooperate for UV light-evoked acute responses. CRY mediates behavioral avoidance responses related to executive choice, consistent with its expression in central brain neurons. PMID:28062690

  9. Increasing adaptive behavior skill deficits from childhood to adolescence in autism spectrum disorder: role of executive function.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Cara E; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2015-06-01

    Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive behavior, with specific attention to the role of executive function (EF) in youth with HFASD aged 4-23. There was a negative relationship between age and adaptive behavior and the discrepancy between IQ and adaptive behavior increased with age. EF problems contributed to lower adaptive behavior scores across domains. As such, it is important to target adaptive skills, and the EF problems that may contribute to them, in youth with HFASD.

  10. Literacy and cultural adaptations for cognitive behavioral therapy in a rural pain population.

    PubMed

    Kuhajda, Melissa C; Thorn, Beverly E; Gaskins, Susan W; Day, Melissa A; Cabbil, Chalanda M

    2011-06-01

    Low literacy and chronic pain have been identified as significant problems in the rural USA. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a widely used efficacious psychosocial treatment for chronic pain; adaptations for low-literacy rural populations are lacking. This paper reports on preparatory steps implemented to address this deficit. Adapting an existing group, CBT patient workbook for rural adults with low literacy is described, and adaptations to reduce cognitive demand inherent in CBT are explained via cognitive load theory. Adhering to health literacy guidelines, the patient workbook readability was lowered to the fifth grade. Two key informant interviews and four focus groups provided the impetus for structural and procedural adaptations. Using health literacy guidelines and participant feedback, the patient workbook and treatment approach were adapted for implementation in low-literacy rural adult chronic pain populations, setting the stage for proceeding with a larger trial using the adapted materials.

  11. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Teacher Form, Ages 5 to 21, of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aricak, O. Tolga; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model that highlighted 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II) was designed to be consistent with these models.…

  12. Aggression and Adaptive Functioning: The Bright Side to Bad Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Patricia H.; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that effective children and adolescents can engage in socially undesirable behavior to attain personal goals at relatively little personal or interpersonal cost, implying that relations between adjustment and aggression may not be optimally described by standard linear models. Suggests that if researchers recognize that some aggression…

  13. Musical Aptitude and Adaptive Behavior of People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leon K.; Monroe, Melinda J.

    1990-01-01

    Musical aptitude and behavioral adjustment were assessed in 16 mentally retarded adults nominated as having special musical interests and/or skills. Evidence of difficulties in adjustment associated with musical skill or interest was mixed, though results suggested no pervasive maladjustment among those with exceptional skill combined with mental…

  14. Glassy Dynamics in the Adaptive Immune Response Prevents Autoimmune Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun; Deem, Michael

    2006-03-01

    The immune system normally protects the human host against death by infection. However, when an immune response is mistakenly directed at self antigens, autoimmune disease can occur. We describe a model of protein evolution to simulate the dynamics of the adaptive immune response to antigens. Computer simulations of the dynamics of antibody evolution show that different evolutionary mechanisms, namely gene segment swapping and point mutation, lead to different evolved antibody binding affinities. Although a combination of gene segment swapping and point mutation can yield a greater affinity to a specific antigen than point mutation alone, the antibodies so evolved are highly cross-reactive and would cause autoimmune disease, and this is not the chosen dynamics of the immune system. We suggest that in the immune system a balance has evolved between binding affinity and specificity in the mechanism for searching the amino acid sequence space of antibodies. Our model predicts that chronic infection may lead to autoimmune disease as well due to cross-reactivity and suggests a broad distribution for the time of onset of autoimmune disease due to chronic exposure. The slow search of antibody sequence space by point mutation leads to the broad of distribution times.

  15. Arousal regulation and affective adaptation to human responsiveness by a robot that explores and learns a novel environment

    PubMed Central

    Hiolle, Antoine; Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot–human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a “baby” robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a “caregiver” to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two “idealized” robot profiles—a “needy” and an “independent” robot—in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the “stress” (arousal) produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b) the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness—“responsive” and “non-responsive”—to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a) assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (b) bring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to adapt its regulatory behavior along the “needy” and “independent” axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c) analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot. PMID:24860492

  16. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  17. The influence of behavior preceding a reinforced response on behavior change in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, A E

    1977-01-01

    The influence of behavior that immediately precedes a reinforced target response on the effectiveness of a reinforcement contingency was examined in two experiments with mentally retarded children in a special-education classroom. Two reinforcement schedules were examined in each experiment. For each schedule, a prespecified period of attentive behavior served as the target response. The schedules differed in whether inattentive or attentive behavior was required immediately to precede the target response. These schedules were examined with one child in a simultaneous treatment design using praise as the reinforcer (Experiment I), and with two children in separate reversal designs using tokens as the reinforcer (Experiment II). While attentive behavior increased under each schedule, the increase was greater when attentive rather than inattentive behavior preceded the reinforced response. The results indicated that the effect of a contingency may be determined not only by the specific response reinforced but also by the behavior that immediately precedes that response.

  18. Extratropical Transitions in Atlantic Canada: Impacts and Adaptive Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Athena; Catto, Norm

    2013-04-01

    . Storm surge damage occurred along the north shore of the Bonavista Peninsula. Similar effects, differing only in the size of the affected areas, have resulted from several extratropical transitions which have impacted Atlantic Canada since July 1989. Extratropical transition "Leslie" impacted Newfoundland on 10-11 September 2012. Although the area affected was comparable to "Igor", wind velocities and rainfall totals were less, fortunately limiting damage. Preparation, advance warning to the population, proaction, and response efforts all showed significant improvement, however, indicating that the experience gained from coping with "Igor" had been successfully applied in adaptation to "Leslie". Extratropical transitions pose a significantly different set of challenges for adaptation in comparison to purely tropical hurricanes, and responses and adaptation strategies should be tailored to address these specific events. Calculating the frequency, magnitude and intensity of potential shifts is important for accurate forecasting and public awareness, safety management, preparedness, and adaptation. Available data indicate an increase in extratropical frequency and severity in Atlantic Canada since 1991, but there are difficulties in establishing the extent and nature of transition for previous storm events. A cautionary policy would assume no significant changes in extratropical transition frequency for Atlantic Canada, but would also acknowledge that large events remain probable.

  19. Development and Validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Ok, Ahmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Though environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) has been a focus of many studies in the field of environmental education, very few scales have been developed to assess children's ERB. In this regard, this article focuses on the development and validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale (CREBS) and also reports the…

  20. Systematic Review of Engagement in Culturally Adapted Parent Training for Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Ashley M.; Titus, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the literature reporting engagement (enrollment, attendance, and attrition) in culturally adapted parent training for disruptive behavior among racial/ethnic minority parents of children ages 2–7 years. The review describes the reported rates of engagement in adapted interventions and how engagement is analyzed in studies, methods to develop adaptations, and adaptations that have been implemented. Seven studies were identified. Parental engagement varied across and within studies. Only one study examined whether adaptations improved engagement compared to non-adapted intervention. Frequent methods to develop adaptations were building partnerships or conducting interviews/focus groups with minority parents or community members. Adaptations included addressing cultural beliefs (perceptions of parenting skills), values (interdependence), or experiences (immigration) that affect parenting or receptivity to interventions; ensuring racial/ethnic diversity of interventionists; and addressing cultural relevancy and literacy level of materials. Future research should examine engagement in adapted interventions compared to non-adapted interventions and examine factors (e.g., immigration status) that may moderate impact on engagement. PMID:27429537

  1. Behavioral responses to noxious stimuli shape the perception of pain

    PubMed Central

    May, Elisabeth S.; Tiemann, Laura; Schmidt, Paul; Nickel, Moritz M.; Wiedemann, Nina; Dresel, Christian; Sorg, Christian; Ploner, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Pain serves vital protective functions. To fulfill these functions, a noxious stimulus might induce a percept which, in turn, induces a behavioral response. Here, we investigated an alternative view in which behavioral responses do not exclusively depend on but themselves shape perception. We tested this hypothesis in an experiment in which healthy human subjects performed a reaction time task and provided perceptual ratings of noxious and tactile stimuli. A multi-level moderated mediation analysis revealed that behavioral responses are significantly involved in the translation of a stimulus into perception. This involvement was significantly stronger for noxious than for tactile stimuli. These findings show that the influence of behavioral responses on perception is particularly strong for pain which likely reflects the utmost relevance of behavioral responses to protect the body. These observations parallel recent concepts of emotions and entail implications for the understanding and treatment of pain. PMID:28276487

  2. Behavioral responses to noxious stimuli shape the perception of pain.

    PubMed

    May, Elisabeth S; Tiemann, Laura; Schmidt, Paul; Nickel, Moritz M; Wiedemann, Nina; Dresel, Christian; Sorg, Christian; Ploner, Markus

    2017-03-09

    Pain serves vital protective functions. To fulfill these functions, a noxious stimulus might induce a percept which, in turn, induces a behavioral response. Here, we investigated an alternative view in which behavioral responses do not exclusively depend on but themselves shape perception. We tested this hypothesis in an experiment in which healthy human subjects performed a reaction time task and provided perceptual ratings of noxious and tactile stimuli. A multi-level moderated mediation analysis revealed that behavioral responses are significantly involved in the translation of a stimulus into perception. This involvement was significantly stronger for noxious than for tactile stimuli. These findings show that the influence of behavioral responses on perception is particularly strong for pain which likely reflects the utmost relevance of behavioral responses to protect the body. These observations parallel recent concepts of emotions and entail implications for the understanding and treatment of pain.

  3. Framing Obesity: How News Frames Shape Attributions and Behavioral Responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Krakow, Melinda; John, Kevin K; Liu, Miao; Weaver, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Based on a public health model of obesity, this study set out to examine whether a news article reporting the obesity issue in a societal versus individual frame would increase perceptions of societal responsibilities for the obesity problem and motivate responsibility-taking behaviors. Responsibility-taking behaviors were examined at 3 levels: personal, interpersonal, and societal. Data from a Web-based experiment revealed significant framing effects on behaviors via causal and treatment responsibility attributions. The societal frame increased societal causal and treatment attribution, which led to greater likelihoods of interpersonal and social responsibility-taking behaviors as well as personal behaviors. Our findings suggest that news framing can be an effective venue for raising awareness of obesity as a societal issue and mobilizing collective efforts.

  4. Adapting Autonomous Behavior Using an Inverse Trust Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    to achieve team goals. Trustworthy behavior is not something that can be programmed into an agent in advance since how humans measure trust may be task...Inverse Trust Estimation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...wheeled unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) and uses eBotwork’s built-in natural language processing (for interpreting user commands), locomotion, and path

  5. Cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral features in Joubert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bulgheroni, Sara; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Signorini, Sabrina; Briguglio, Marilena; Di Sabato, Maria Lucia; Casarano, Manuela; Mancini, Francesca; Romani, Marta; Alfieri, Paolo; Battini, Roberta; Zoppello, Marina; Tortorella, Gaetano; Bertini, Enrico; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Valente, Enza Maria; Riva, Daria

    2016-12-01

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is a recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive cerebellar and brainstem malformation recognizable on brain imaging, the so-called molar tooth sign. The full spectrum of cognitive and behavioral phenotypes typical of JS is still far from being elucidated. The aim of this multicentric study was to define the clinical phenotype and neurobehavioral features of a large cohort of subjects with a neuroradiologically confirmed diagnosis of JS. Fifty-four patients aged 10 months to 29 years were enrolled. Each patient underwent a neurological evaluation as well as psychiatric and neuropsychological assessments. Global cognitive functioning was remarkably variable with Full IQ/General Quotient ranging from 32 to 129. Communication skills appeared relatively preserved with respect to both Daily Living and Socialization abilities. The motor domain was the area of greatest vulnerability, with a negative impact on personal care, social, and academic skills. Most children did not show maladaptive behaviors consistent with a psychiatric diagnosis but approximately 40% of them presented emotional and behavioral problems. We conclude that intellectual disability remains a hallmark but cannot be considered a mandatory diagnostic criterion of JS. Despite the high variability in the phenotypic spectrum and the extent of multiorgan involvement, nearly one quarter of JS patients had a favorable long-term outcome with borderline cognitive deficit or even normal cognition. Most of JS population also showed relatively preserved communication skills and overall discrete behavioral functioning in everyday life, independently from the presence and/or level of intellectual disability. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Adaptive behaviors in multi-agent source localization using passive sensing

    PubMed Central

    Shaukat, Mansoor; Chitre, Mandar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the role of adaptive group cohesion in a cooperative multi-agent source localization problem is investigated. A distributed source localization algorithm is presented for a homogeneous team of simple agents. An agent uses a single sensor to sense the gradient and two sensors to sense its neighbors. The algorithm is a set of individualistic and social behaviors where the individualistic behavior is as simple as an agent keeping its previous heading and is not self-sufficient in localizing the source. Source localization is achieved as an emergent property through agent’s adaptive interactions with the neighbors and the environment. Given a single agent is incapable of localizing the source, maintaining team connectivity at all times is crucial. Two simple temporal sampling behaviors, intensity-based-adaptation and connectivity-based-adaptation, ensure an efficient localization strategy with minimal agent breakaways. The agent behaviors are simultaneously optimized using a two phase evolutionary optimization process. The optimized behaviors are estimated with analytical models and the resulting collective behavior is validated against the agent’s sensor and actuator noise, strong multi-path interference due to environment variability, initialization distance sensitivity and loss of source signal. PMID:28018121

  7. Adaptive behaviors in multi-agent source localization using passive sensing.

    PubMed

    Shaukat, Mansoor; Chitre, Mandar

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the role of adaptive group cohesion in a cooperative multi-agent source localization problem is investigated. A distributed source localization algorithm is presented for a homogeneous team of simple agents. An agent uses a single sensor to sense the gradient and two sensors to sense its neighbors. The algorithm is a set of individualistic and social behaviors where the individualistic behavior is as simple as an agent keeping its previous heading and is not self-sufficient in localizing the source. Source localization is achieved as an emergent property through agent's adaptive interactions with the neighbors and the environment. Given a single agent is incapable of localizing the source, maintaining team connectivity at all times is crucial. Two simple temporal sampling behaviors, intensity-based-adaptation and connectivity-based-adaptation, ensure an efficient localization strategy with minimal agent breakaways. The agent behaviors are simultaneously optimized using a two phase evolutionary optimization process. The optimized behaviors are estimated with analytical models and the resulting collective behavior is validated against the agent's sensor and actuator noise, strong multi-path interference due to environment variability, initialization distance sensitivity and loss of source signal.

  8. Complex Features in Lotka-Volterra Systems with Behavioral Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebaldi, Claudio; Lacitignola, Deborah

    Lotka-Volterra systems have played a fundamental role for mathematical modelling in many branches of theoretical biology and proved to describe, at least qualitatively, the essential features of many phenomena, see for example Murray [Murray 2002]. Furthermore models of that kind have been considered successfully also in quite different and less mathematically formalized context: Goodwin' s model of economic growth cycles [Goodwin 1967] and urban dynamics [Dendrinos 1992] are only two of a number of examples. Such systems can certainly be defined as complex ones and in fact the aim of modelling was essentially to clarify mechanims rather than to provide actual precise simulations and predictions. With regards to complex systems, we recall that one of their main feature, no matter of the specific definition one has in mind, is adaptation, i. e. the ability to adjust.

  9. Adaptation or Malignant Transformation: The Two Faces of Epigenetically Mediated Response to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive response to stress is a fundamental property of living systems. At the cellular level, many different types of stress elicit an essentially limited repertoire of adaptive responses. Epigenetic changes are the main mechanism for medium- to long-term adaptation to accumulated (intense, long-term, or repeated) stress. We propose the adaptive deregulation of the epigenome in response to stress (ADERS) hypothesis which assumes that the unspecific adaptive stress response grows stronger with the increasing stress level, epigenetically activating response gene clusters while progressively deregulating other cellular processes. The balance between the unspecific adaptive response and the general epigenetic deregulation is critical because a strong response can lead to pathology, particularly to malignant transformation. The main idea of our hypothesis is the continuum traversed by a cell subjected to accumulated stress, which lies between an unspecific adaptive response and pathological deregulation—the two extremes sharing the same underlying cause, which is a manifestation of a unified epigenetically mediated adaptive response to stress. The evolutionary potential of epigenetic regulation in multigenerational adaptation is speculatively discussed in the light of neo-Lamarckism. Finally, an approach to testing the proposed hypothesis is presented, relying on either the publicly available datasets or on conducting new experiments. PMID:24187667

  10. Adaptation or malignant transformation: the two faces of epigenetically mediated response to stress.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Aleksandar; Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive response to stress is a fundamental property of living systems. At the cellular level, many different types of stress elicit an essentially limited repertoire of adaptive responses. Epigenetic changes are the main mechanism for medium- to long-term adaptation to accumulated (intense, long-term, or repeated) stress. We propose the adaptive deregulation of the epigenome in response to stress (ADERS) hypothesis which assumes that the unspecific adaptive stress response grows stronger with the increasing stress level, epigenetically activating response gene clusters while progressively deregulating other cellular processes. The balance between the unspecific adaptive response and the general epigenetic deregulation is critical because a strong response can lead to pathology, particularly to malignant transformation. The main idea of our hypothesis is the continuum traversed by a cell subjected to accumulated stress, which lies between an unspecific adaptive response and pathological deregulation--the two extremes sharing the same underlying cause, which is a manifestation of a unified epigenetically mediated adaptive response to stress. The evolutionary potential of epigenetic regulation in multigenerational adaptation is speculatively discussed in the light of neo-Lamarckism. Finally, an approach to testing the proposed hypothesis is presented, relying on either the publicly available datasets or on conducting new experiments.

  11. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior.

    PubMed

    Fox-Rabinovich, German S; Yamamoto, Kenji; Beake, Ben D; Gershman, Iosif S; Kovalev, Anatoly I; Veldhuis, Stephen C; Aguirre, Myriam H; Dosbaeva, Goulnara; Endrino, Jose L

    2012-08-01

    Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a) nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b) an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation) with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality and high wear

  12. Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fox-Rabinovich, German S; Yamamoto, Kenji; Beake, Ben D; Gershman, Iosif S; Kovalev, Anatoly I; Veldhuis, Stephen C; Aguirre, Myriam H.; Dosbaeva, Goulnara; Endrino, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a) nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b) an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation) with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality and high wear

  13. The adaptive trade-off between detection and discrimination in cortical representations and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ollerenshaw, Douglas R; Zheng, He J V; Millard, Daniel C; Wang, Qi; Stanley, Garrett B

    2014-03-05

    It has long been posited that detectability of sensory inputs can be sacrificed in favor of improved discriminability and that sensory adaptation may mediate this trade-off. The extent to which this trade-off exists behaviorally and the complete picture of the underlying neural representations that likely subserve the phenomenon remain unclear. In the rodent vibrissa system, an ideal observer analysis of cortical activity measured using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in anesthetized animals was combined with behavioral detection and discrimination tasks, thalamic recordings from awake animals, and computational modeling to show that spatial discrimination performance was improved following adaptation, but at the expense of the ability to detect weak stimuli. Together, these results provide direct behavioral evidence for the trade-off between detectability and discriminability, that this trade-off can be modulated through bottom-up sensory adaptation, and that these effects correspond to important changes in thalamocortical coding properties.

  14. Distributed adaptive diagnosis of sensor faults using structural response data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragos, Kosmas; Smarsly, Kay

    2016-10-01

    The reliability and consistency of wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can be compromised by sensor faults, leading to miscalibrations, corrupted data, or even data loss. Several research approaches towards fault diagnosis, referred to as ‘analytical redundancy’, have been proposed that analyze the correlations between different sensor outputs. In wireless SHM, most analytical redundancy approaches require centralized data storage on a server for data analysis, while other approaches exploit the on-board computing capabilities of wireless sensor nodes, analyzing the raw sensor data directly on board. However, using raw sensor data poses an operational constraint due to the limited power resources of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a new distributed autonomous approach towards sensor fault diagnosis based on processed structural response data is presented. The inherent correlations among Fourier amplitudes of acceleration response data, at peaks corresponding to the eigenfrequencies of the structure, are used for diagnosis of abnormal sensor outputs at a given structural condition. Representing an entirely data-driven analytical redundancy approach that does not require any a priori knowledge of the monitored structure or of the SHM system, artificial neural networks (ANN) are embedded into the sensor nodes enabling cooperative fault diagnosis in a fully decentralized manner. The distributed analytical redundancy approach is implemented into a wireless SHM system and validated in laboratory experiments, demonstrating the ability of wireless sensor nodes to self-diagnose sensor faults accurately and efficiently with minimal data traffic. Besides enabling distributed autonomous fault diagnosis, the embedded ANNs are able to adapt to the actual condition of the structure, thus ensuring accurate and efficient fault diagnosis even in case of structural changes.

  15. Adaptation responses in C4 photosynthesis of maize under salinity.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Eiji; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka; Miyake, Hiroshi

    2012-03-15

    The effect of salinity on C(4) photosynthesis was examined in leaves of maize, a NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) type C(4) species. Potted plants with the fourth leaf blade fully developed were treated with 3% NaCl solution for 5d. Under salt treatment, the activities of pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase), NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) and NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NAD-MDH), which are derived mainly from mesophyll cells, increased, whereas those of NADP-ME and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, which are derived mainly from bundle sheath cells (BSCs), decreased. Immunocytochemical studies by electron microscopy revealed that PPDK protein increased, while the content of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein decreased under salinity. In salt-treated plants, the photosynthetic metabolites malate, pyruvate and starch decreased by 40, 89 and 81%, respectively. Gas-exchange analysis revealed that the net photosynthetic rate, the transpiration rate, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and the intercellular CO(2) concentration decreased strongly in salt-treated plants. The carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) in these plants was significantly lower than that in control. These findings suggest that the decrease in photosynthetic metabolites under salinity was induced by a reduction in gas-exchange. Moreover, in addition to the decrease in g(s), the decrease in enzyme activities in BSCs was responsible for the decline of C(4) photosynthesis. The increase of PPDK, PEPCase, NADP-MDH, and NAD-MDH activities and the decrease of NADP-ME activity are interpreted as adaptation responses to salinity.

  16. ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A UNIQUE CULTURAL COMPARISON IN ITALY

    PubMed Central

    Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Axia, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors. PMID:21532914

  17. Cardiac adaptations of bullfrog tadpoles in response to chytrid infection.

    PubMed

    Salla, Raquel Fernanda; Gamero, Fernando Urban; Ribeiro, Larissa Rodrigues; Rizzi, Gisele Miglioranza; Medico, Samuel Espinosa Dal; Rissoli, Rafael Zanelli; Vieira, Conrado Augusto; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias; Leite, Domingos Silva; Abdalla, Fábio Camargo; Toledo, Luis Felipe; Costa, Monica Jones

    2015-08-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can result in heart failure in Bd-susceptible species. Since Bd infection generally does not cause mortality in North American bullfrogs, the aim of this work was to verify whether this species presents any cardiac adaptation that could improve the tolerance to the fungus. Thus, we analyzed tadpoles' activity level, relative ventricular mass, ventricle morphology, in loco heart frequency, and in vitro cardiac function. The results indicate that infected animals present an increase in both ventricular relative mass and in myofibrils' incidence, which accompanied the increase in myocytes' diameter. Such morphological alterations enabled an increase in the in vitro twitch force that, in vivo, would result in elevation of the cardiac stroke volume. This response requires much less energy expenditure than an elevation in heart frequency, but still enables the heart to pump a higher volume of blood per minute (i.e., an increase in cardiac output). As a consequence, the energy saved in the regulation of the cardiac function of Bd-infected tadpoles can be employed in other homeostatic adjustments to avoid the lethal effect of the fungus. Whether other species present this ability, and to what extent, remains uncertain, but such possible interspecific variability might explain different mortality rates among different species of Bd-infected amphibians.

  18. Epigenetic memory for stress response and adaptation in plants.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Tetsu; Seki, Motoaki

    2014-11-01

    In contrast to the majority of animal species, plants are sessile organisms and are, therefore, constantly challenged by environmental perturbations. Over the past few decades, our knowledge of how plants perceive environmental stimuli has increased considerably, e.g. the mechanisms for transducing environmental stress stimuli into cellular signaling cascades and gene transcription networks. In addition, it has recently been shown that plants can remember past environmental events and can use these memories to aid responses when these events recur. In this mini review, we focus on recent progress in determination of the epigenetic mechanisms used by plants under various environmental stresses. Epigenetic mechanisms are now known to play a vital role in the control of gene expression through small RNAs, histone modifications and DNA methylation. These are inherited through mitotic cell divisions and, in some cases, can be transmitted to the next generation. They therefore offer a possible mechanism for stress memories in plants. Recent studies have yielded evidence indicating that epigenetic mechanisms are indeed essential for stress memories and adaptation in plants.

  19. Mitochondrial role in adaptive response to stress conditions in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Vishnyakova, Polina A.; Volodina, Maria A.; Tarasova, Nadezhda V.; Marey, Maria V.; Tsvirkun, Daria V.; Vavina, Olga V.; Khodzhaeva, Zulfiya S.; Kan, Natalya E.; Menon, Ramkumar; Vysokikh, Mikhail Yu.; Sukhikh, Gennady T.

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome, characterized in general by hypertension with proteinuria or other systemic disturbances. PE is the major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the etiology of PE still remains unclear. Our study involved 38 patients: 14 with uncomplicated pregnancy; 13 with early-onset PE (eoPE); and 11 with late-onset PE (loPE). We characterized the immunophenotype of cells isolated from the placenta and all biopsy samples were stained positive for Cytokeratin 7, SOX2, Nestin, Vimentin, and CD44. We obtained a significant increase in OPA1 mRNA and protein expression in the eoPE placentas. Moreover, TFAM expression was down-regulated in comparison to the control (p < 0.01). Mitochondrial DNA copy number in eoPE placentas was significantly higher than in samples from normal pregnancies. We observed an increase of maximum coupled state 3 respiration rate in mitochondria isolated from the placenta in the presence of complex I substrates in the eoPE group and an increase of P/O ratio, citrate synthase activity and decrease of Ca2+-induced depolarization rate in both PE groups. Our results suggest an essential role of mitochondrial activity changes in an adaptive response to the development of PE. PMID:27573305

  20. Distributed reinforcement learning for adaptive and robust network intrusion response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malialis, Kleanthis; Devlin, Sam; Kudenko, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks constitute a rapidly evolving threat in the current Internet. Multiagent Router Throttling is a novel approach to defend against DDoS attacks where multiple reinforcement learning agents are installed on a set of routers and learn to rate-limit or throttle traffic towards a victim server. The focus of this paper is on online learning and scalability. We propose an approach that incorporates task decomposition, team rewards and a form of reward shaping called difference rewards. One of the novel characteristics of the proposed system is that it provides a decentralised coordinated response to the DDoS problem, thus being resilient to DDoS attacks themselves. The proposed system learns remarkably fast, thus being suitable for online learning. Furthermore, its scalability is successfully demonstrated in experiments involving 1000 learning agents. We compare our approach against a baseline and a popular state-of-the-art throttling technique from the network security literature and show that the proposed approach is more effective, adaptive to sophisticated attack rate dynamics and robust to agent failures.

  1. Mobile and Wireless Technologies in Health Behavior and the Potential for Intensively Adaptive Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Riley, William T.; Serrano, Katrina J.; Nilsen, Wendy; Atienza, Audie A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in mobile and wireless technologies have made real-time assessments of health behaviors and their influences possible with minimal respondent burden. These tech-enabled real-time assessments provide the basis for intensively adaptive interventions (IAIs). Evidence of such studies that adjust interventions based on real-time inputs is beginning to emerge. Although IAIs are promising, the development of intensively adaptive algorithms generate new research questions, and the intensive longitudinal data produced by IAIs require new methodologies and analytic approaches. Research considerations and future directions for IAIs in health behavior research are provided. PMID:26086033

  2. Mobile and Wireless Technologies in Health Behavior and the Potential for Intensively Adaptive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Serrano, Katrina J; Nilsen, Wendy; Atienza, Audie A

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances in mobile and wireless technologies have made real-time assessments of health behaviors and their influences possible with minimal respondent burden. These tech-enabled real-time assessments provide the basis for intensively adaptive interventions (IAIs). Evidence of such studies that adjust interventions based on real-time inputs is beginning to emerge. Although IAIs are promising, the development of intensively adaptive algorithms generate new research questions, and the intensive longitudinal data produced by IAIs require new methodologies and analytic approaches. Research considerations and future directions for IAIs in health behavior research are provided.

  3. Using practical and social information to influence flood adaptation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaire, Maura C.

    2016-08-01

    As the prospect for more frequent and severe extreme weather events gains scientific support, many nations are evaluating mitigation and adaptation options. Insurance and home retrofits could reduce household welfare losses due to flood events. Yet even after disasters, households often fail to take risk mitigation actions. This paper presents the first randomized field experiment that tests the effect of information provision on household uptake of flood insurance and home retrofits. A sample of 364 flood-prone households in Bangkok was randomly split into treatment and control groups. The treatment group received practical details on home retrofits and flood insurance as well as social information regarding the insurance purchase decisions of peers. Results indicate that the information intervention increased insurance purchases by about five percentage points, while no effect was detected for home retrofits. This effect is nearly equal to the increase in uptake that the national insurance program in Thailand has achieved through all other means since its establishment in 2012. If scaled up to include all uninsured, flood-prone households in Bangkok, nearly 70,000 additional households could be insured. The results suggest that well-designed information interventions could increase uptake of flood insurance, without additional premium subsidies or mandates.

  4. Toward a Mechanics of Adaptive Behavior: Evolutionary Dynamics and Matching Theory Statics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, J. J.; Popa, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm.…

  5. Effects of escape to alone versus escape to enriched environments on adaptive and aberrant behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Golonka, Z; Wacker, D; Berg, W; Derby, K M; Harding, J; Peck, S

    2000-01-01

    Escape-maintained aberrant behavior may be influenced by two outcomes: (a) a break from the activity and (b) subsequent access to preferred activities. To assess this hypothesis, a treatment was developed that analyzed response allocation across two break options: break alone and break with access to preferred social activities. The break with preferred activities decreased aberrant behavior and increased appropriate behavior. PMID:10885532

  6. Experimental analysis of response covariation among compliant and inappropriate behaviors.

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, J M; Cataldo, M F; Kolko, D J; Neef, N A; Egel, A L

    1986-01-01

    Reliable changes in a variety of behaviors, or classes of behaviors, when only one is manipulated experimentally, have demonstrated that even topographically dissimilar responses can be functionally related. We investigated such a relationship between topographically different child behaviors (compliance and inappropriate activities) by using a methodology that tests for response covariation. Five conditions were provided to sequentially increase and decrease first one and then the other of these behaviors, with the degree of covariation between the two behaviors (i.e., the relationship between changes in the targeted and nontargeted behaviors) being the finding of interest. Results showed that, regardless of the intervention used, the behavior targeted, or the direction manipulated, the nontargeted behavior reliably covaried inversely with the targeted one. The findings have immediate relevance to the clinical treatment of multiple behavior problems exhibited by children. Furthermore, the study of relationships between responses and the processes underlying these relationships can have important implications for understanding the complexity characteristic of human behavior not yet analyzed by behavioral research. PMID:3771417

  7. Delphinid behavioral responses to incidental mid-frequency active sonar.

    PubMed

    Henderson, E Elizabeth; Smith, Michael H; Gassmann, Martin; Wiggins, Sean M; Douglas, Annie B; Hildebrand, John A

    2014-10-01

    Opportunistic observations of behavioral responses by delphinids to incidental mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar were recorded in the Southern California Bight from 2004 through 2008 using visual focal follows, static hydrophones, and autonomous recorders. Sound pressure levels were calculated between 2 and 8 kHz. Surface behavioral responses were observed in 26 groups from at least three species of 46 groups out of five species encountered during MFA sonar incidents. Responses included changes in behavioral state or direction of travel, changes in vocalization rates and call intensity, or a lack of vocalizations while MFA sonar occurred. However, 46% of focal groups not exposed to sonar also changed their behavior, and 43% of focal groups exposed to sonar did not change their behavior. Mean peak sound pressure levels when a behavioral response occurred were around 122 dB re: 1 μPa. Acoustic localizations of dolphin groups exhibiting a response gave insight into nighttime movement patterns and provided evidence that impacts of sonar may be mediated by behavioral state. The lack of response in some cases may indicate a tolerance of or habituation to MFA sonar by local populations; however, the responses that occur at lower received levels may point to some sensitization as well.

  8. Group Selection as Behavioral Adaptation to Systematic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J.; Lo, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form “groups”, even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution—selection with correlated reproductive risk–that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon. PMID:25353167

  9. A Brief Review of Cephalopod Behavioral Responses to Sound.

    PubMed

    Samson, Julia E; Mooney, T Aran; Gussekloo, Sander W S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2016-01-01

    Sound is a widely available cue in aquatic environments and is used by many marine animals for vital behaviors. Most research has focused on marine vertebrates. Relatively little is known about sound detection in marine invertebrates despite their abundance and importance in marine environments. Cephalopods are a key taxon in many ecosystems, but their behavioral interactions relative to acoustic stimuli have seldom been studied. Here we review current knowledge regarding (1) the frequency ranges and sound levels that generate behavioral responses and (2) the types of behavioral responses and their biological relevance.

  10. Setting the Response Time Threshold Parameter to Differentiate Solution Behavior from Rapid-Guessing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Xiaojing J.; Wise, Steven L.; Bhola, Dennison S.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared four methods for setting item response time thresholds to differentiate rapid-guessing behavior from solution behavior. Thresholds were either (a) common for all test items, (b) based on item surface features such as the amount of reading required, (c) based on visually inspecting response time frequency distributions, or (d)…

  11. Adaptation of community health worker-delivered behavioral activation for torture survivors in Kurdistan, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, J. F.; Lejuez, C. W.; Kamal, T.; Blevins, E. J.; Murray, L. K.; Bass, J. K.; Bolton, P.; Pagoto, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Growing evidence supports the use of Western therapies for the treatment of depression, trauma, and stress delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in conflict-affected, resource-limited countries. A recent randomized controlled trial (Bolton et al. 2014a) supported the efficacy of two CHW-delivered interventions, cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and brief behavioral activation treatment for depression (BATD), for reducing depressive symptoms and functional impairment among torture survivors in the Kurdish region of Iraq. Methods This study describes the adaptation of the CHW-delivered BATD approach delivered in this trial (Bolton et al.2014a), informed by the Assessment–Decision–Administration-Production–Topical experts–Integration–Training–Testing (ADAPT–ITT) framework for intervention adaptation (Wingood & DiClemente, 2008). Cultural modifications, adaptations for low-literacy, and tailored training and supervision for non-specialist CHWs are presented, along with two clinical case examples to illustrate delivery of the adapted intervention in this setting. Results Eleven CHWs, a study psychiatrist, and the CHW clinical supervisor were trained in BATD. The adaptation process followed the ADAPT–ITT framework and was iterative with significant input from the on-site supervisor and CHWs. Modifications were made to fit Kurdish culture, including culturally relevant analogies, use of stickers for behavior monitoring, cultural modifications to behavioral contracts, and including telephone-delivered sessions to enhance feasibility. Conclusions BATD was delivered by CHWs in a resource-poor, conflict-affected area in Kurdistan, Iraq, with some important modifications, including low-literacy adaptations, increased cultural relevancy of clinical materials, and tailored training and supervision for CHWs. Barriers to implementation, lessons learned, and recommendations for future efforts to adapt behavioral therapies for resource

  12. Copepod Behavioral Response to Simulated Frontal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; True, A. C.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.; Genin, A.

    2015-11-01

    When presented with a fine-scale upwelling or downwelling shear flow in a laboratory flume, two tropical copepods from the Red Sea, Acartia negligens and Clausocalanus furcatus, performed a set of behaviors that resulted in apparent depth-keeping and the potential for producing patchiness. Analyses of free-swimming trajectories revealed a behavioral threshold shear deformation rate value of 0.05 s-1 for both species. This threshold triggered statistically significant changes in path kinematics (i.e., relative swimming speed and turn frequency) in the shear layer versus out-of-layer. Gross path characteristics (i.e., net-to-gross displacement ratio, NGDR, and proportional vicinity time, PVT) were also significantly different in the shear layer treatments compared to controls. The vertical net-to-gross displacement ratio (VNGDR) was introduced here to explain a spectrum of depth-keeping behaviors. The mean value of VNGDR significantly increased in the shear layer treatments and, coupled with excited relative swimming speeds, suggested the potential to induce large vertical transport (at the 10 cm scale of the observation). However, histograms of VNGDR revealed a bimodality, which indicated a sizable portion of the population was also displaying depth-keeping behavior. Those copepod trajectories displaying large VNGDR predominately consisted of copepods swimming against the flow, thereby resisting vertical advection, which is another potential depth-keeping mechanism.

  13. Five Steps to Teach Responsible Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, Jamie; Brewer, John; Quirin, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Imagine a school where students hold doors, make welcoming comments, and offer to carry packages into the building. Or a school that's distinguishing feature is a culture of respect and helpfulness that manifests daily in positive student behavior. Or a school where even such seemingly small events as tornado and fire drills, which can be quite…

  14. The Montana Behavioral Initiative: A Statewide Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbaugh, Mary Susan E.; Furshong, Joe

    1998-01-01

    The Montana Behavioral Initiative (MBI) is a staff development program created to stem school violence. Program components include summer institutes, site teams, ongoing technical assistance, interagency cooperation, program evaluation, information dissemination, and governance by the MBI council. MBI has expanded to include nearly 100 Montana…

  15. Adaptive response of bacteria: Multiple hurdles, cross-tolerance and tools to illustrate underlying mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramythiotis, Spyridon; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.

    2015-01-01

    A basic principle in the bacterial resistance against lethal stresses is that exposure of microbial cells to a sublethal hurdle (e.g., pH 5.0, 3% NaCl, or 48°C) may induce resistance to lethal level of the same or different stress. The latter is called "cross-tolerance" and the bacteria experiencing such situations are termed "stress-hardened". The majority of scientific reports on the adaptive responses of bacteria to stresses have recently addressed the need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms controlling bacterial stress response. This in turn, will assist in the efficient application of the multiple hurdle approach, e.g., by selecting specific sanitizers, combining stress treatments or antimicrobials, especially in mild processing, against specific cellular targets, eliminating the possibility of the development of stress adapted cells. Common scientific approaches for studying the link between phenotype (e.g., inactivation, survival, or growth) and physiology is the assessment of global transcriptional changes (up- or down-regulation) or those of certain genes, as well as of proteins involved in certain metabolic pathways, occurring during exposure to stress. This may also be performed in parallel to comparative evaluation of the phenotypic response of wild and mutant strains. The post-genomics research on foodborne pathogens has extended our knowledge beyond their phenotypic behavior and may offer mechanistic insights in the following: (i) the top-down approach (induction), which is the search of the underlying mechanisms (low level) responsible for a specific phenotype based on "-omic" studies; and (ii) the bottom-up approach (deduction), which starts from intracellular level and forms a mechanistic (functional) basis for the cellular response. All these may eventually enable the development of mechanistic microbial models and efficient strategies for controlling survival and growth of pathogens in foods.

  16. Cognitive flexibility in adolescence: neural and behavioral mechanisms of reward prediction error processing in adaptive decision making during development.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Tobias U; Iannaccone, Reto; Walitza, Susanne; Brandeis, Daniel; Brem, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with quickly changing environmental demands which require excellent adaptive skills and high cognitive flexibility. Feedback-guided adaptive learning and cognitive flexibility are driven by reward prediction error (RPE) signals, which indicate the accuracy of expectations and can be estimated using computational models. Despite the importance of cognitive flexibility during adolescence, only little is known about how RPE processing in cognitive flexibility deviates between adolescence and adulthood. In this study, we investigated the developmental aspects of cognitive flexibility by means of computational models and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We compared the neural and behavioral correlates of cognitive flexibility in healthy adolescents (12-16years) to adults performing a probabilistic reversal learning task. Using a modified risk-sensitive reinforcement learning model, we found that adolescents learned faster from negative RPEs than adults. The fMRI analysis revealed that within the RPE network, the adolescents had a significantly altered RPE-response in the anterior insula. This effect seemed to be mainly driven by increased responses to negative prediction errors. In summary, our findings indicate that decision making in adolescence goes beyond merely increased reward-seeking behavior and provides a developmental perspective to the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility in the context of reinforcement learning.

  17. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed <4, 4–7, and >7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing <4 adaptation behaviors during heat waves had the highest risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health

  18. Evolutionary responses of innate Immunity to adaptive immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innate immunity is present in all metazoans, whereas the evolutionarily more novel adaptive immunity is limited to jawed fishes and their descendants (gnathostomes). We observe that the organisms that possess adaptive immunity lack diversity in their innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), rais...

  19. Human adaptation genetic response suites: Toward new interventions and countermeasures for spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N. R.

    2005-08-01

    Genetic response suites in human lymphocytes in response to microgravity are important to identify and further study in order to augment human physiological adaptation to novel environments. Emerging technologies, such as DNA micro array profiling, have the potential to identify novel genes that are involved in mediating adaptation to these environments. These genes may prove to be therapeutically valuable as new targets for countermeasures, or as predictive biomarkers of response to these new environments. Human lymphocytes cultured in 1g and microgravity analog culture were analyzed for their differential gene expression response. Different groups of genes related to the immune response, cardiovascular system and stress response were then analyzed. Analysis of cells from multiple donors reveals a small shared set that are likely to be essential to adaptation. These three groups focus on human adaptation to new environments. The shared set contains genes related to T cell activation, immune response and stress response to analog microgravity.

  20. Human Adaptation Genetic Response Suites: Toward New Interventions and Countermeasures for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N. R.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic response suites in human lymphocytes in response to microgravity are important to identify and further study in order to augment human physiological adaptation to novel environments. Emerging technologies, such as DNA micro array profiling, have the potential to identify novel genes that are involved in mediating adaptation to these environments. These genes may prove to be therapeutically valuable as new targets for countermeasures, or as predictive biomarkers of response to these new environments. Human lymphocytes cultured in lg and microgravity analog culture were analyzed for their differential gene expression response. Different groups of genes related to the immune response, cardiovascular system and stress response were then analyzed. Analysis of cells from multiple donors reveals a small shared set that are likely to be essential to adaptation. These three groups focus on human adaptation to new environments. The shared set contains genes related to T cell activation, immune response and stress response to analog microgravity.

  1. Compensatory Expressive Behavior for Facial Paralysis: Adaptation to Congenital or Acquired Disability

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Kathleen R.; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Ambady, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective Although there has been little research on the adaptive behavior of people with congenital compared to acquired disability, there is reason to predict that people with congenital conditions may be better adapted because they have lived with their conditions for their entire lives (Smart, 2008). We examined whether people with congenital facial paralysis (FP), compared to people with acquired FP, compensate more for impoverished facial expression by using alternative channels of expression (i.e. voice and body). Research Method/Design Participants with congenital (n = 13) and acquired (n = 14) FP were videotaped while recalling emotional events. Main Outcome Measures Expressive verbal behavior was measured using the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (Pennebaker, Booth & Francis, 2007). Nonverbal behavior and FP severity were rated by trained coders. Results People with congenital FP, compared to acquired FP, used more compensatory expressive verbal and nonverbal behavior in their language, voices, and bodies. The extent of FP severity had little effect on compensatory expressivity. Conclusions/Implications This study provides the first behavioral evidence that people with congenital FP use more adaptations to express themselves than people with acquired FP. These behaviors could inform social functioning interventions for people with FP. PMID:22369116

  2. Bioenergetic adaptation in response to autophagy regulators during rotenone exposure

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Samantha; Dodson, Matthew; Ravi, Saranya; Redmann, Matthew; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Usmar, Victor M Darley; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with both mitochondrial dysfunction and insufficient autophagy playing a key role in its pathogenesis. Among the risk factors, exposure to the environmental neurotoxin rotenone increases the probability of developing PD. We previously reported that in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, rotenone-induced cell death is directly related to inhibition of mitochondrial function. How rotenone at nM concentrations inhibits mitochondrial function, and whether it can engage the autophagy pathway necessary to remove damaged proteins and organelles, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that autophagy plays a protective role against rotenone toxicity in primary neurons. We found that rotenone (10–100 nM) immediately inhibited cellular bioenergetics. Concentrations that decreased mitochondrial function at 2 hr, caused cell death at 24 hr with an LD50 of 10 nM. Overall autophagic flux was decreased by 10 nM rotenone at both 2 and 24 hr, but surprisingly mitophagy, or autophagy of the mitochondria, was increased at 24 hr, suggesting that a mitochondrial-specific lysosomal degradation pathway may be activated. Upregulation of autophagy by rapamycin protected against cell death while inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) exacerbated cell death. Interestingly, while 3-MA exacerbated the rotenone-dependent effects on bioenergetics, rapamycin did not prevent rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, but caused reprogramming of mitochondrial substrate usage associated with both complex I and complex II activities. Taken together, these data demonstrate that autophagy can play a protective role in primary neuron survival in response to rotenone; moreover, surviving neurons exhibit bioenergetic adaptations to this metabolic stressor. PMID:25081478

  3. Depression and sickness behavior are Janus-faced responses to shared inflammatory pathways

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    It is of considerable translational importance whether depression is a form or a consequence of sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is a behavioral complex induced by infections and immune trauma and mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is an adaptive response that enhances recovery by conserving energy to combat acute inflammation. There are considerable phenomenological similarities between sickness behavior and depression, for example, behavioral inhibition, anorexia and weight loss, and melancholic (anhedonia), physio-somatic (fatigue, hyperalgesia, malaise), anxiety and neurocognitive symptoms. In clinical depression, however, a transition occurs to sensitization of immuno-inflammatory pathways, progressive damage by oxidative and nitrosative stress to lipids, proteins, and DNA, and autoimmune responses directed against self-epitopes. The latter mechanisms are the substrate of a neuroprogressive process, whereby multiple depressive episodes cause neural tissue damage and consequent functional and cognitive sequelae. Thus, shared immuno-inflammatory pathways underpin the physiology of sickness behavior and the pathophysiology of clinical depression explaining their partially overlapping phenomenology. Inflammation may provoke a Janus-faced response with a good, acute side, generating protective inflammation through sickness behavior and a bad, chronic side, for example, clinical depression, a lifelong disorder with positive feedback loops between (neuro)inflammation and (neuro)degenerative processes following less well defined triggers. PMID:22747645

  4. Behavioral responses to injury and death in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Liz A D; Tkaczynski, Patrick J; Mouna, Mohamed; Qarro, Mohamed; Waterman, James; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-07-01

    The wounding or death of a conspecific has been shown to elicit varied behavioral responses throughout thanatology. Recently, a number of reports have presented contentious evidence of epimeletic behavior towards the dying and dead among non-human animals, a behavioral trait previously considered uniquely human. Here, we report on the behavioral responses of Barbary macaques, a social, non-human primate, to the deaths of four group members (one high-ranking adult female, one high-ranking adult male, one juvenile male, and one female infant), all caused by road traffic accidents. Responses appeared to vary based on the nature of the death (protracted or instant) and the age class of the deceased. Responses included several behaviors with potential adaptive explanations or consequences. These included exploration, caretaking (guarding, carrying, and grooming), and proximity to wounded individuals or corpses, and immediate as well as longer-lasting distress behaviors from other group members following death, all of which have been reported in other non-human primate species. These observations add to a growing body of comparative evolutionary analysis of primate thanatology and help to highlight the multifaceted impacts of human-induced fatalities on an endangered and socially complex primate.

  5. Dissociation of the behavioral and subjective components of nitrogen narcosis and diver adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, K; Laliberté, M F; Fowler, B

    1995-03-01

    We investigated adaptation to nitrogen narcosis by compressing 11 highly experienced divers in a hyperbaric chamber to the equivalent of 54.6 meters of seawater once a day for 5 consecutive days. The behavioral component of narcosis was assessed with a serial choice-reaction time (RT) task, and the subjective component with a global magnitude estimate. Supplementary magnitude estimates were obtained with adjectives describing work effectiveness and body sensations. The results showed that there was no adaptation on the RT task, although learning was evident. In contrast, the global estimate dissociated from RT and showed clear adaptation by Day 3. The work effectiveness adjectives followed RT and did not show adaptation. Some body sensation adjectives showed clear adaptation, but others did not. These results lead to the conclusion that the anecdotal reports of adaptation by divers can probably be attributed to the subjective rather than the behavioral component of narcosis. Dissociation of these components suggests mediation by different brain mechanisms, and it is speculated that the gamma-aminobutyric acidA/benzodiazepine receptor complex, which has been implicated in both the anesthetic and anxiolytic properties of agents such as nitrous oxide, may be involved.

  6. State Norms for IQ, Adaptive Behavior, and Sociocultural Status: Implications for Nonbiased Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J.; And Others

    Findings from the Iowa Assessment Project are examined regarding the assessment and use of information on adaptive behavior and sociocultural background in decisions about students with mild mental retardation. Background aspects reviewed include terminology regarding mild retardation; research, litigation, and legislation on the topic during the…

  7. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  8. Intelligence, Parental Depression, and Behavior Adaptability in Deaf Children Being Considered for Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Krull, Kevin; Hannay, Julia; Mehta, Paras; Caudle, Susan; Oghalai, John

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive ability and behavioral adaptability are distinct, yet related, constructs that can impact childhood development. Both are often reduced in deaf children of hearing parents who do not provide sufficient language and communication access. Additionally, parental depression is commonly observed due to parent-child communication difficulties…

  9. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  10. Adaptive Interventions and SMART Designs: Application to Child Behavior Research in a Community Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Kelley M.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity between and within people necessitates the need for sequential personalized interventions to optimize individual outcomes. Personalized or adaptive interventions (AIs) are relevant for diseases and maladaptive behavioral trajectories when one intervention is not curative and success of a subsequent intervention may depend on…

  11. Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…

  12. Behavioral Adaptation in Deceptive Transactions: Fact or Fiction: Reply to Levine and McCornack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Takes issue with the findings of T. Levine, and S. McCornack, which suggest that behavioral adaption explanation (BAE) cannot account for the probing effect, the effect that sources interrogatively probed appear more honest to message recipients than nonprobed sources. (TB)

  13. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome: Interim Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)

  14. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Rebecca M.; Martens, Marilee A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months – 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007 to 2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3%) of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self-care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills. PMID:27199832

  15. Future Time Perspective as a Predictor of Adolescents' Adaptive Behavior in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Renato Gil Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents' development across different contexts. However, the extent to which FTP influences adaptation needs additional understanding. In this study, we analysed the relationship between FTP and adolescents' behavior in school, as expressed in several indicators of…

  16. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals…

  17. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behaviors of Movers and Stayers: Findings from a Controlled Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Paul; Apgar, Dawn Hall; Jordan,Tameeka

    2005-01-01

    Reviews of research on deinstitutionalization show that investigators have focused primarily on adaptive behavior changes of "movers," while paying minimal attention to "stayers." Analysis of their research also revealed some methodological problems. We assessed 150 movers and 150 stayers in 1994, before deinstitutionalization began in 1997. We…

  18. Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Charles R.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2005-01-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Adaptive Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Sofia; Morato, Pedro; Luckasson, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive behavior construct has gained prominent attention in human services over the last several years in Portugal, and its measurement has become an integral part of the assessment of populations with intellectual disability. In Portugal, diagnosis remains exclusively based on IQ measures, although some attention recently has been given to…

  20. A Post-Genomic View of Behavioral Development and Adaptation to the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFreniere, Peter; MacDonald, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics are reviewed that have major implications for the bio-behavioral sciences and for understanding how organisms adapt to their environments at both phylogenetic and ontogenic levels. From a post-genomics perspective, the environment is as crucial as the DNA sequence for constructing the…

  1. Studying the Genetics of Behavior and Evolution by Adaptation and Natural Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Jules

    1998-01-01

    Provides an exercise designed to give students an appreciation for the genetic basis of behavior. Employs the phenomenon of glucose aversion as an example of evolution by mutation and accelerated natural selection, thereby revealing one of the ways in which organisms adapt to human interference. (DDR)

  2. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    PubMed Central

    Mhaidat, Fatin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades) enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure) and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. PMID:27175098

  3. Waking State: Rapid Variations Modulate Neural and Behavioral Responses

    PubMed Central

    McGinley, Matthew J.; Vinck, Martin; Reimer, Jacob; Batista-Brito, Renata; Zagha, Edward; Cadwell, Cathryn R.

    2015-01-01

    The state of the brain and body constantly varies on rapid and slow time scales. These variations contribute to the apparent noisiness of sensory responses at both the neural and behavioral level. Recent investigations of rapid state changes in awake, behaving animals have provided insight into the mechanisms by which optimal sensory encoding and behavioral performance are achieved. Fluctuations in state, as indexed by pupillometry, impact both the “signal” (sensory evoked response) and the “noise” (spontaneous activity) of cortical responses. By taking these fluctuations into account, neural response (co-)variability is significantly reduced, revealing the brain to be more reliable and predictable than previously thought. PMID:26402600

  4. Emotional Responses to Environmental Messages and Future Behavioral Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigated effects of message framing (losses-framed or gains-framed), message modality (video with text or text-only) and emotional arousal on environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The sample consisted of 161 college students. The present research did not find a significant difference in behavioral intentions…

  5. Behavioral Theory and Culture Special Issue: Authors' Response to Commentaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasick, Rena J.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to commentaries that focus on the "Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening" (3Cs) study. The 3Cs study had an unremarkable beginning, with two colleagues discussing their frustration over the narrow range of behavioral theories and the limited guidance the theories offered for a study…

  6. Reinforcing Positive Behavior in a Prison: Whose Responsibility Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonio, Michael E.; Young, Jacqueline L.; Wingeard, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    In July 2006, the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections began delivering a two-hour training session titled Reinforcing Positive Behavior to new employees as part of their required orientation to the Department. The purpose of the training was to inform all employees about their roles and responsibilities for reinforcing positive behavior and…

  7. Descriptive Analysis of Teachers' Responses to Problem Behavior Following Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Laura; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2009-01-01

    The procedures described by Sloman et al. (2005) were extended to an analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior after they had been taught to withhold potential sources of positive and negative reinforcement following instances of problem behavior. Results were consistent with those reported previously, suggesting that escape from child…

  8. Social stratification, classroom climate, and the behavioral adaptation of kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W Thomas; Obradovic, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Kim, Young Shin; Adler, Nancy

    2012-10-16

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is the single most potent determinant of health within human populations, from infancy through old age. Although the social stratification of health is nearly universal, there is persistent uncertainty regarding the dimensions of SES that effect such inequalities and thus little clarity about the principles of intervention by which inequalities might be abated. Guided by animal models of hierarchical organization and the health correlates of subordination, this prospective study examined the partitioning of children's adaptive behavioral development by their positions within kindergarten classroom hierarchies. A sample of 338 5-y-old children was recruited from 29 Berkeley, California public school classrooms. A naturalistic observational measure of social position, parent-reported family SES, and child-reported classroom climate were used in estimating multilevel, random-effects models of children's adaptive behavior at the end of the kindergarten year. Children occupying subordinate positions had significantly more maladaptive behavioral outcomes than their dominant peers. Further, interaction terms revealed that low family SES and female sex magnified, and teachers' child-centered pedagogical practices diminished, the adverse influences of social subordination. Taken together, results suggest that, even within early childhood groups, social stratification is associated with a partitioning of adaptive behavioral outcomes and that the character of larger societal and school structures in which such groups are nested can moderate rank-behavior associations.

  9. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  10. No Evidence for a Low Linear Energy Transfer Adaptive Response in Irradiated RKO Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, Marianne B.; Goetz, Wilfried; Baulch, Janet E.; Lewis, Adam J.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-01-06

    It has become increasingly evident from reports in the literature that there are many confounding factors that are capable of modulating radiation induced non-targeted responses such as the bystander effect and the adaptive response. In this paper we examine recent data that suggest that the observation of non-targeted responses may not be universally observable for differing radiation qualities. We have conducted a study of the adaptive response following low LET exposures for human colon carcinoma cells and failed to observe adaption for the endpoints of clonogenic survival or micronucleus formation.

  11. Treating Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors with Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in…

  12. Effects of alternative responses on behavior exposed to noncontingent reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Iwata, Brian A; Fahmie, Tara A; Harper, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) may decrease the frequency of behavior by either inducing satiation or terminating the response-reinforcer contingency (extinction). Another possibility is that the target behavior is replaced by other behaviors maintained by preexisting contingencies. We conducted 2 experiments in which we allowed access to a target response and several alternatives. In Experiment 1, NCR, preceded by contingent reinforcement (CR) for the target, produced a reduction in the target and an increase in the alternatives in 2 subjects with intellectual disabilities. To separate the effects of NCR from the availability of alternative responses, we presented CR conditions to 4 subjects in Experiment 2 with and without the availability of alternatives. The availability of alternatives decreased the target in only 1 subject. Subsequent manipulations showed that reductions in the target were solely a function of NCR for the other 3 subjects. Thus, response competition may have marginal effects on response suppression during NCR.

  13. Covert rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS): A hypothesis of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions for adaptive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jane X.; Cohen, Neal J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    Effective choices generally require memory, yet little is known regarding the cognitive or neural mechanisms that allow memory to influence choices. We outline a new framework proposing that covert memory processing of hippocampus interacts with action-generation processing of prefrontal cortex in order to arrive at optimal, memory-guided choices. Covert, rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS) is proposed here as a framework for understanding cognitive and/or behavioral choices, whereby prefrontal-hippocampal interactions quickly provide multiple simulations of potential outcomes used to evaluate the set of possible choices. We hypothesize that this CRAMS process is automatic, obligatory, and covert, meaning that many cycles of action-memory simulation occur in response to choice conflict without an individual’s necessary intention and generally without awareness of the simulations, leading to adaptive behavior with little perceived effort. CRAMS is thus distinct from influential proposals that adaptive memory-based behavior in humans requires consciously experienced memory-based construction of possible future scenarios and deliberate decisions among possible future constructions. CRAMS provides an account of why hippocampus has been shown to make critical contributions to the short-term control of behavior, and it motivates several new experimental approaches and hypotheses that could be used to better understand the ubiquitous role of prefrontal-hippocampal interactions in situations that require adaptively using memory to guide choices. Importantly, this framework provides a perspective that allows for testing decision-making mechanisms in a manner that translates well across human and nonhuman animal model systems. PMID:24752152

  14. Adaptive Behavior Ratings Correlate with Symptomatology and IQ among Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Harms, Madeline B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    Caregiver report on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptive behavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…

  15. Health-related quality of life and adaptive behaviors of adolescents with sickle cell disease: stress processing moderators.

    PubMed

    Ziadni, Maisa S; Patterson, Chavis A; Pulgarón, Elizabeth R; Robinson, M Renée; Barakat, Lamia P

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine resilience among adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD), focusing on the interaction of health-related quality of life with stress processing to explain adaptive behavior. Forty-four adolescents with SCD completed paper-and-pencil measures of health-related quality of life, appraisals (hope), pain coping strategies (e.g. adherence), and adaptive behavior. Self-reported health-related quality of life was significantly associated with adaptive behavior, as was adherence. Findings for moderation were mixed. Pain coping strategies moderated the association of health-related quality of life with adaptive behavior such that at lower levels of Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) Adherence, better quality of life was associated with higher adaptive behavior. Similarly, at higher levels of hope, better quality of life was associated with higher adaptive behavior, and poorer quality of life was associated with lower adaptive behavior. Adolescents with SCD showed resilience, particularly in terms of personal adjustment, that may be explained by their appraisals and stress processing strategies. Interventions to support an optimistic or hopeful outlook and improve adherence to recommendations for medical management of sickle cell pain may result in improved resilience/adaptive behavior.

  16. Increasing Adaptive Behavior Skill Deficits from Childhood to Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Role of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive…

  17. Different neural systems adjust motor behavior in response to reward and punishment.

    PubMed

    Wrase, Jana; Kahnt, Thorsten; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Beck, Anne; Cohen, Michael X; Knutson, Brian; Heinz, Andreas

    2007-07-15

    Individuals use the outcomes of their actions to adjust future behavior. However, it remains unclear whether the same neural circuits are used to adjust behavior due to rewarding and punishing outcomes. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a reward-providing reaction time task to investigate the adaptation of a simple motor response following four different outcomes (delivery versus omission and monetary gain versus loss). We found that activation in the thalamus and insula predicted adjustments of motor responses due to outcomes that were cued and delivered, whereas activation in the ventral striatum predicted such adjustments when outcomes were cued but omitted. Further, activation of OFC predicted improvement after all punishing outcomes, independent of whether they were omitted rewards or delivered punishments. Finally, we found that activity in anterior cingulate predicted adjustment after delivered punishments and activity in dorsal striatum predicted adaptation after delivered rewards. Our results provide evidence that different but somewhat overlapping circuits mediate the same behavioral adaptation when it is driven by different incentive outcomes.

  18. Invader danger: lizards faced with novel predators exhibit an altered behavioral response to stress.

    PubMed

    Trompeter, Whitney P; Langkilde, Tracy

    2011-07-01

    Animals respond to stressors by producing glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT). CORT acts too slowly to trigger immediate behavioral responses to a threat, but can change longer-term behavior, facilitating an individual's survival to subsequent threats. To be adaptive, the nature of an animal's behavior following elevated CORT levels should be matched to the predominant threats that they face. Seeking refuge following a stressful encounter could be beneficial if the predominant predator is a visual hunter, but may prove detrimental when the predominant predator is able to enter these refuge sites. As a result, an individual's behavior when their CORT levels are high may differ among populations of a single species. Invasive species impose novel pressures on native populations, which may select for a shift in their behavior when CORT levels are high. We tested whether the presence of predatory invasive fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) at a site affects the behavioral response of native eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) to elevated CORT levels. Lizards from an uninvaded site were more likely to hide when their CORT levels were experimentally elevated; a response that likely provides a survival advantage for lizards faced with native predatory threats (e.g. birds and snakes). Lizards from a fire ant invaded site showed the opposite response; spending more time moving and up on the basking log when their CORT levels were elevated. Use of the basking log likely reflects a refuge-seeking behavior, rather than thermoregulatory activity, as selected body temperatures were not affected by CORT. Fleeing off the ground may prove more effective than hiding for lizards that regularly encounter small, terrestrially-foraging fire ant predators. This study suggests that invasive species may alter the relationship between the physiological and behavioral stress response of native species.

  19. Behaviorally Mediated, Warm Adaptation: A Physiological Strategy When Mice Are Allowed to Behaviorally Thermoregulate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of -22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller int...

  20. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Li, Deshi

    2015-09-16

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness.

  1. Grade of Membership Response Time Model for Detecting Guessing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokropek, Artur

    2016-01-01

    A response model that is able to detect guessing behaviors and produce unbiased estimates in low-stake conditions using timing information is proposed. The model is a special case of the grade of membership model in which responses are modeled as partial members of a class that is affected by motivation and a class that responds only according to…

  2. Application of Low Dose Radiation Adaptive Response to Control Aging-Related Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, Mohan

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative damage has been implicated in the pathogenesis of most aging-related diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidant supplementation has been found to be ineffective in reducing such diseases, but increased endogenous production of antioxidants from the adaptive response due to physical and cognitive exercises (which increase oxidative metabolism and oxidative stress) has been effective in reducing some of the diseases. Low dose radiation (LDR), which increases oxidative stress and results in adaptive response of increased antioxidants, may provide an alternative method of controlling the aging-related diseases. We have studied the effect of LDR on the induction of adaptive response in rat brains and the effectiveness of the LDR in reducing the oxidative damage caused by subsequent high dose radiation. We have also investigated the effect of LDR on apomorphine-induced rotations in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) unilaterally-lesioned rat model of Parkinson?s disease (PD). LDR was observed to initiate an adaptive response in the brain, and reduce the oxidative damage from subsequent high dose radiation exposure, confirming the effectiveness of LDR adaptive response in reducing the oxidative damage from the free radicals due to high dose radiation. LDR resulted in a slight improvement in Tyrosine hydroxylase expression on the lesioned side of substantia nigra (indicative of its protective effect on the dopaminergic neurons), and reduced the behavioral symptoms in the 6-OHDA rat model of PD. Translation of this concept to humans, if found to be applicable, may be a possible approach for controlling the progression of PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Since any translation of the concept to humans would be hindered by the currently prevalent carcinogenic concerns regarding LDR based on the linear no-threshold (LNT) model, we have also studied the justifications for the use of the LNT model. One of the shortcomings of the LNT model is that it

  3. [Adaptation of vigilance behavior in ex situ conservation of Tibetan antelope].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Yu, Hong-Hao; Zhao, Xin-Quan; Wang, De-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni) are an endemic and endangered species of the Tibetan Plateau. Ex situ conservation may represent an important way to protect Tibetan antelope; however, this process may influence aspects of their behavior. To investigate the ability of these antelopes to adapt to new environments, a study on the vigilance behavior of captive antelope in different seasons was conducted. Using instantaneous scan sampling, focal animal sampling, and all-occurrence recording methods, the vigilance rate and vigilance time of captive male and female Tibetan antelope during cold and warm seasons were recorded and analyzed. Very significant sex differences in vigilance behavior were observed during the warm season, but were not observed in the cold season. Interestingly, vigilance behavior showed seasonal variation as there were significant differences in vigilance time and vigilance rate between cold and warm seasons in both males and females. Specifically, males and females showed more vigilance during the cold than warm season. No interaction between season and sex was found in the vigilance behavior of antelope. Comparing vigilance behavioral characteristic with the Kekexili Tibetan antelope indicated that captive antelope could adapt to a new environment.

  4. A comparison of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior to reduce disruptive behavior in a preschool classroom.

    PubMed

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Maki, Amber; Barenz, Rebecca; Jurgens, Mandy; Sailer, Angela; Haugen, Meredith; Kopp, Brandon

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing the disruptive behaviors of 25 children in a preschool classroom. Using an alternating treatments design, disruptive behavior was reduced when the participants earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior (DRO) or lost tokens for the occurrence of disruptive behavior (response cost). Initially, DRO was more successful in reducing the number of disruptive behaviors; however, over time, response cost proved to be more effective.

  5. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school

    PubMed Central

    Cillessen, Antonius H.N.; de Weerth, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6‐year‐olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (M age = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an age‐appropriate innovative social evaluative stress test. Saliva cortisol samples were collected six times during the stress test to calculate two indices of the cortisol stress response: cortisol stress reactivity and total stress cortisol. Teachers assessed children's internalizing, externalizing, and prosocial behaviors. Stress in the family environment was operationalized as maternally reported parenting stress. Results indicated a significant increase in cortisol concentrations in response to the stressor. No significant associations were found between cortisol stress responses and behavioral functioning at school and there was no evidence for moderation by maternal parenting stress. Potential theoretical and methodological explanations for these results are discussed. PMID:27774583

  6. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior: From Animals to Animats 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    stimulus-response units has been controversial: been implemented on robots [34]. But instrumental learning, Skinner [30] claimed that all behavior , including...Learning, 8:323-339, 1992. [30] B.F. Skinner . Behavior of Organisms. Appleton- Century-Crofts, 1938. [31] B.F. Skinner . "Superstition" in the pigeon...Elsevier. Mowrer, 0. H., (1960/1973), Learning theory and behavior , New York: Wiley. Pavlov , I. P., (1927), Conditioned reflexes, Oxford: Oxford

  7. Behavioral response of Caenorhabditis elegans to localized thermal stimuli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nociception evokes a rapid withdrawal behavior designed to protect the animal from potential danger. C. elegans performs a reflexive reversal or forward locomotory response when presented with noxious stimuli at the head or tail, respectively. Here, we have developed an assay with precise spatial and temporal control of an infrared laser stimulus that targets one-fifth of the worm’s body and quantifies multiple aspects of the worm’s escape response. Results When stimulated at the head, we found that the escape response can be elicited by changes in temperature as small as a fraction of a degree Celsius, and that aspects of the escape behavior such as the response latency and the escape direction change advantageously as the amplitude of the noxious stimulus increases. We have mapped the behavioral receptive field of thermal nociception along the entire body of the worm, and show a midbody avoidance behavior distinct from the head and tail responses. At the midbody, the worm is sensitive to a change in the stimulus location as small as 80 μm. This midbody response is probabilistic, producing either a backward, forward or pause state after the stimulus. The distribution of these states shifts from reverse-biased to forward-biased as the location of the stimulus moves from the middle towards the anterior or posterior of the worm, respectively. We identified PVD as the thermal nociceptor for the midbody response using calcium imaging, genetic ablation and laser ablation. Analyses of mutants suggest the possibility that TRPV channels and glutamate are involved in facilitating the midbody noxious response. Conclusion Through high resolution quantitative behavioral analysis, we have comprehensively characterized the C. elegans escape response to noxious thermal stimuli applied along its body, and found a novel midbody response. We further identified the nociceptor PVD as required to sense noxious heat at the midbody and can spatially differentiate

  8. Adaptive changes in echolocation sounds by Pipistrellus abramus in response to artificial jamming sounds.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eri; Hyomoto, Kiri; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Ohta, Tetsuo; Hiryu, Shizuko

    2014-08-15

    The echolocation behavior of Pipistrellus abramus during exposure to artificial jamming sounds during flight was investigated. Echolocation pulses emitted by the bats were recorded using a telemetry microphone mounted on the bats' backs, and their adaptation based on acoustic characteristics of emitted pulses was assessed in terms of jamming-avoidance responses (JARs). In experiment 1, frequency-modulated jamming sounds (3 ms duration) mimicking echolocation pulses of P. abramus were prepared. All bats showed significant increases in the terminal frequency of the frequency-modulated pulse by an average of 2.1-4.5 kHz when the terminal frequency of the jamming sounds was lower than the bats' own pulses. This frequency shift was not observed using jamming frequencies that overlapped with or were higher than the bats' own pulses. These findings suggest that JARs in P. abramus are sensitive to the terminal frequency of jamming pulses and that the bats' response pattern was dependent on the slight difference in stimulus frequency. In experiment 2, when bats were repeatedly exposed to a band-limited noise of 70 ms duration, the bats in flight more frequently emitted pulses during silent periods between jamming sounds, suggesting that the bats could actively change the timing of pulse emissions, even during flight, to avoid temporal overlap with jamming sounds. Our findings demonstrate that bats could adjust their vocalized frequency and emission timing during flight in response to acoustic jamming stimuli.

  9. Stress response in Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 under starvation conditions: adaptive reactions at a low population density.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Olga; Gorshkov, Vladimir; Daminova, Amina; Ageeva, Marina; Moleleki, Lucy N; Gogolev, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive reactions of plant pathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 under starvation conditions were studied. The main emphasis was given to the peculiarities of stress responses depending on the bacterial population densities. When bacteria were subjected to starvation at high population densities (10(7)-10(9) CFU ml(-1)), their adaptive reactions conformed to the conventional conception of bacterial adaptation related to autolysis of part of the population, specific modification of cell ultrastructure, activation of expression of stress responsive genes and acquiring cross protection against other stress factors. In contrast, at low initial population densities (10(3)-10(5) CFU ml(-1)), as described in our recent work, the cell density increased due to multiple cell division despite the absence of exogenous growth substrate. Here we present data that demonstrate that such unconventional behavior is part of a stress response, which provides increased stress tolerance while retaining virulence. Cell morphology and gene expression in high- and low-cell-density starving Pba cultures were compared. Our investigation demonstrates the existence of alternative adaptive strategies enabling pathogenic bacteria to cope with a variety of stress factors, including starvation, especially necessary when residing outside of their host.

  10. Estradiol and osmolality: Behavioral responses and central pathways.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Regulation of appropriate osmolality of body fluid is critical for survival, yet there are sex differences in compensatory responses to osmotic challenges. Few studies have focused on the role of sex hormones such as estradiol in behavioral responses to increases or decreases in systemic osmolality, and even fewer studies have investigated whether central actions of estrogens contribute to these responses. This overview integrates findings from a series of ongoing and completed experiments conducted in my laboratory to assess estradiol effects on water and NaCl intake in response to osmotic challenges, and on activity in central pathways that mediate such responses.

  11. Setting the Response Time Threshold Parameter to Differentiate Solution Behavior from Rapid-Guessing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Xiaojing J.; Bhola, Dennison S.; Wise, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    In this study four methods were compared for setting a response time threshold that differentiates rapid-guessing behavior from solution behavior when examinees are obliged to complete a low-stakes test. The four methods examined were: (1) a fixed threshold for all test items; (2) thresholds based on item surface features such as the amount of…

  12. Neurocognitive, Social-Behavioral, and Adaptive Functioning in Preschool Children with Mild to Moderate Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Gerson, Arlene C.; Johnson, Rebecca J.; Mendley, Susan R.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lande, Marc B.; Matheson, Matthew B.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Morgenstern, Bruce; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The negative impact of End Stage Kidney Disease on cognitive function in children is well established, but no studies have examined the neurocognitive, social-behavioral, and adaptive behavior skills of preschool children with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Participants included 124 preschool children with mild to moderate CKD, ages 12-68 months (median=3.7 years), and an associated mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 50.0 ml/min per 1.73m2. In addition to level of function and percent of participants scoring≥1SD below the test mean, regression models examined the associations between biomarkers of CKD (GFR, anemia, hypertension, seizures, abnormal birth history), and Developmental Level/IQ, attention regulation, and parent ratings of executive functions, social-behavior, and adaptive behaviors. Results Median scores for all measures were in the average range; however, 27% were deemed at-risk for a Developmental Level/IQ<85, 20% were at-risk for attention variability, and parent ratings indicated 30% and 37% to be at-risk for executive dysfunction and adaptive behavior problems, respectively. Approximately 43% were deemed at-risk on two or more measures. None of the disease-related variables were significantly associated with these outcomes, although the presence of hypertension approached significance for attention variability (p<.09). Abnormal birth history and lower maternal education were significantly related to lower Developmental Level/IQ; seizures were related to lower parental ratings of executive function and adaptive behavior; and abnormal birth history was significantly related to lower ratings of adaptive behavior. When predicting risk status, the logistic regression did evidence both higher GFR and the lack of anemia to be associated with more intact Developmental Level/IQ. Conclusions These findings suggest relatively intact functioning for preschool children with mild to moderate CKD, but the need for ongoing

  13. Adaptive response to hydrogen peroxide in yeast: induction, time course, and relationship to dose-response models.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, George R; Moczula, Andrew V; Laterza, Amanda M; Macneil, Lindsey K; Tartaglione, Jason P

    2013-07-01

    The assay for trp5 gene conversion and ilv1-92 reversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D7 was used to characterize the induction of an adaptive response by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Effects of a small priming dose on the genotoxic effects of a larger challenge dose were measured in exponential cultures and in early stationary phase. An adaptive response, indicated by smaller convertant and revertant frequencies after the priming dose, occurred at lower priming and challenge doses in young, well-aerated cultures. Closely spaced priming doses from 0.000975 to 2 mM, followed by a 1 mM challenge, showed that the induction of the adaptive response is biphasic. In exponential cultures it was maximal with a priming dose of 0.125-0.25 mM. Very small priming doses were insufficient to induce the adaptive response, whereas higher doses contributed to damage. A significant adaptive response was detected when the challenge dose was administered 10-20 min after the priming exposure. It was fully expressed within 45 min, and the yeast began to return to the nonadapted state after 4-6 hr. Because of the similarity of the biphasic induction to hormetic curves and the proposal that adaptive responses are a manifestation of hormesis, we evaluated whether the low doses of H(2)O(2) that induce the adaptive response show a clear hormetic response without a subsequent challenge dose. Hormesis was not evident, but there was an apparent threshold for genotoxicity at or slightly below 0.125 mM. The results are discussed with respect to linear, threshold, and hormesis dose-response models.

  14. The effect of prism adaptation on the response AC/A ratio.

    PubMed

    Rainey, B B

    2000-05-01

    Vergence adaptation, also known as prism adaptation, is a phenomenon in which a patient's heterophoria changes after prolonged viewing through prism. The effect of prism adaptation on the accommodation-convergence relationship, quantified by the AC/A ratio, is not known. Previous studies of AC/A ratio stability and alterability have used only stimulus AC/A ratio calculations, or have measured accommodative responses to only one or two stimuli. The ideal study of AC/A ratio stability and alterability would measure accommodative responses to several accommodative stimuli, and use these along with vergence responses to calculate response AC/A ratios, rather than stimulus AC/A ratios. In addition, the gradient method should be used to avoid any effect of proximal vergence resulting from changes in target distance. This paper describes a project which investigated the effect of vergence (prism) adaptation on the gradient response AC/A ratio, using accommodative responses measured for five different accommodative stimuli. The response AC/A ratio did not significantly change following a period of adaptation to base-in prism for six of the eight subjects in this study. In addition, the response AC/A ratio did not significantly change following a period of adaptation to base-out prism for six of the eight subjects.

  15. Skip the trip: air travelers' behavioral responses to pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Eli P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Chowell, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that human behavior has implications for disease spread. We examine the hypothesis that individuals engage in voluntary defensive behavior during an epidemic. We estimate the number of passengers missing previously purchased flights as a function of concern for swine flu or A/H1N1 influenza using 1.7 million detailed flight records, Google Trends, and the World Health Organization's FluNet data. We estimate that concern over "swine flu," as measured by Google Trends, accounted for 0.34% of missed flights during the epidemic. The Google Trends data correlates strongly with media attention, but poorly (at times negatively) with reported cases in FluNet. Passengers show no response to reported cases. Passengers skipping their purchased trips forwent at least $50 M in travel related benefits. Responding to actual cases would have cut this estimate in half. Thus, people appear to respond to an epidemic by voluntarily engaging in self-protection behavior, but this behavior may not be responsive to objective measures of risk. Clearer risk communication could substantially reduce epidemic costs. People undertaking costly risk reduction behavior, for example, forgoing nonrefundable flights, suggests they may also make less costly behavior adjustments to avoid infection. Accounting for defensive behaviors may be important for forecasting epidemics, but linking behavior with epidemics likely requires consideration of risk communication.

  16. Physician behavioral response to a Medicare price reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, N X; Derrick, F W

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate at the individual practice level physician behavioral responses to the Medicare fee reductions mandated in the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989. Symmetric and nonsymmetric behavioral responses are modeled and investigated. DATA SOURCES: Volume index calculated from data in the Part B Medicare Annual Data (BMAD) Provider Files for 1989 and 1990. The pricing data are from the Procedure Files. STUDY DESIGN: A fixed-effects model in carrier and in specialty is employed. DATA COLLECTION: No direct data collection is required as BMAD files are used in the study. Price and volume variables are expressed as Fisher indexes of change. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results show nonsymmetrical behavioral response because practices that did not face significant fee reductions do not exhibit behavioral change. By contrast, losers partially compensate for the fee reductions. For every dollar cut in their fees, physicians recoup approximately 40 cents by increasing volume. Loser behavioral responses vary by specialty. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of a volume response suggests that price control alone is not sufficient to cap rising healthcare costs. This indicates that additional or other tools must be considered if cost containment is to be attained. PMID:9240281

  17. Media interventions to promote responsible sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Keller, Sarah N; Brown, Jane D

    2002-02-01

    While the media have been used effectively to promote sexual responsibility in other countries for decades, few such opportunities have been seized in the United States. Mass media may be especially useful for teaching young people about reproductive health because elements of popular culture can be used to articulate messages in young people s terms, in language that won t embarrass them and may even make safe sex more attractive. Media can potentially change the way people think about sex, amidst cultural pressures to have sex at a young age, to have sex forcefully, or to have unsafe sex. Information can be communicated through a variety of channels--small media (e.g., pamphlets, brochures, and the Internet) and mass media--and in a variety of formats--campaigns, news coverage, and educational messages inserted into regular entertainment programming. Several international studies show that exposure to family planning messages through television, radio, and print media are strongly associated with contraceptive use. Domestically, safe sex media campaigns have been associated with increased teen condom use with casual partners, and reductions in the numbers of teenagers reporting sexual activity. Due to private ownership and First Amendment concerns, U.S. sexual health advocates have been working with the commercial media to incorporate subtle health messages into existing entertainment programming.

  18. AgRP Neural Circuits Mediate Adaptive Behaviors in the Starved State

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Stephanie L.; Qiu, Jian; Soden, Marta E.; Sanz, Elisenda; Nestor, Casey C; Barker, Forrest D.; Quintana, Albert; Zweifel, Larry S.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    In the face of starvation animals will engage in high-risk behaviors that would normally be considered maladaptive. Starving rodents for example will forage in areas that are more susceptible to predators and will also modulate aggressive behavior within a territory of limited or depleted nutrients. The neural basis of these adaptive behaviors likely involves circuits that link innate feeding, aggression, and fear. Hypothalamic AgRP neurons are critically important for driving feeding and project axons to brain regions implicated in aggression and fear. Using circuit-mapping techniques, we define a disynaptic network originating from a subset of AgRP neurons that project to the medial nucleus of the amygdala and then to the principle bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which plays a role in suppressing territorial aggression and reducing contextual fear. We propose that AgRP neurons serve as a master switch capable of coordinating behavioral decisions relative to internal state and environmental cues. PMID:27019015

  19. Energy Sector Adaptation in Response to Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. A.; Fricko, O.; Parkinson, S.; Riahi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global energy systems models have largely ignored the impacts of water scarcity on the energy sector and the related implications for climate change mitigation. However, significant water is required in the production of energy, including for thermoelectric power plant cooling, hydropower generation, irrigation for bioenergy, and the extraction and refining of liquid fuels. With a changing climate and expectations of increasing competition for water from the agricultural and municipal sectors, it is unclear whether sufficient water will be available where needed to support water-intensive energy technologies in the future. Thus, it is important that water use and water constraints are incorporated into energy systems models to better understand energy sector adaptation to water scarcity. The global energy systems model, MESSAGE, has recently been updated to quantify the water consumption and withdrawal requirements of the energy sector and now includes several cooling technologies for addressing water scarcity. This study introduces water constraints into the model to examine whether and how the energy sector can adapt to water scarcity over the next century. In addition, the implications for climate mitigation are evaluated under a scenario in which warming is limited to 2˚C over the pre-industrial level. Given the difficulty of introducing meaningful water constraints into global models, we use a simplistic approach and evaluate a series of scenarios in which the water available to the energy sector is systematically reduced. This approach allows for the evaluation of energy sector adaptations under various levels of water scarcity and can provide insight into how water scarcity, whether from climate change or competing demands, may impact the energy sector in different world regions. This study will provide insight into the following questions: How does the energy sector adapt to water scarcity in different regions? What are the costs associated with adaptation

  20. Improving the reliability of autism diagnoses: examining the utility of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Tomanik, Stacey S; Pearson, Deborah A; Loveland, Katherine A; Lane, David M; Bryant Shaw, J

    2007-05-01

    The classification agreement of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) was examined in 129 children and adolescents (aged 7-18 years) who were evaluated for autism. Participants received a diagnosis of autism or non-autism based on the ADI-R. Linear discriminant analysis revealed adequate concordance between the ADI-R and ADOS, with 75% of the participants being correctly classified using the ADOS. Classification accuracy significantly improved to 84% when a measure of adaptive functioning (i.e., the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales) was included in the analysis. The findings suggest that when clinicians obtain discrepant information on the ADI-R and ADOS, assessment of an individual's adaptive functioning may reduce diagnostic errors.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of vibration nonlinearity on convergence behavior of adaptive higher harmonic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molusis, J. A.; Mookerjee, P.; Bar-Shalom, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Effect of nonlinearity on convergence of the local linear and global linear adaptive controllers is evaluated. A nonlinear helicopter vibration model is selected for the evaluation which has sufficient nonlinearity, including multiple minimum, to assess the vibration reduction capability of the adaptive controllers. The adaptive control algorithms are based upon a linear transfer matrix assumption and the presence of nonlinearity has a significant effect on algorithm behavior. Simulation results are presented which demonstrate the importance of the caution property in the global linear controller. Caution is represented by a time varying rate weighting term in the local linear controller and this improves the algorithm convergence. Nonlinearity in some cases causes Kalman filter divergence. Two forms of the Kalman filter covariance equation are investigated.

  2. The Influence of Cultural Adaptation and Sexual Risk Behaviors on Cervical Cytology in a Hispanic Population

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kristy K.; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if the level of cultural adaptation (acculturation) of Hispanic women is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors and cervical cytological abnormalities. METHODS Hispanic women 18 to 55 years of age (mean = 30.5 ± 8.32) underwent routine Papanicoulaou (Pap) testing and completed a comprehensive survey (N=3149). Acculturation (cultural adaptation) was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test a mediation model. RESULTS Highly acculturated women engaged in a greater number of sexual risk behaviors and were more likely to have an abnormal Pap test when compared to less acculturated Hispanic women (p < .001). CONCLUSION Acculturation is related to sexual risk taking and abnormal cervical cytology. Determination of acculturation level as part of culturally competent healthcare will aid in tailoring patient communication and counseling on the prevention of cervical cancer among Hispanic women. PMID:20864073

  3. Developing predictive approaches to characterize adaptive responses of the reproductive endocrine axis to aromatase inhibition: II. Computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Breen, Miyuki; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Bencic, David C; Breen, Michael S; Watanabe, Karen H; Lloyd, Alun L; Conolly, Rory B

    2013-06-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in humans and wildlife. We developed a computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course (DRTC) behaviors for endocrine effects of the aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole (FAD). The model describes adaptive responses to endocrine stress involving regulated secretion of a generic gonadotropin (LH/FSH) from the hypothalamic-pituitary complex. For model development, we used plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations and ovarian cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19A aromatase mRNA data from two time-course experiments, each of which included both an exposure and a depuration phase, and plasma E2 data from a third 4-day study. Model parameters were estimated using E2 concentrations for 0, 0.5, and 3 µg/l FAD exposure concentrations, and good fits to these data were obtained. The model accurately predicted CYP19A mRNA fold changes for controls and three FAD doses (0, 0.5, and 3 µg/l) and plasma E2 dose response from the 4-day study. Comparing the model-predicted DRTC with experimental data provided insight into how the feedback control mechanisms in the HPG axis mediate these changes: specifically, adaptive changes in plasma E2 levels occurring during exposure and "overshoot" occurring postexposure. This study demonstrates the value of mechanistic modeling to examine and predict dynamic behaviors in perturbed systems. As this work progresses, we will obtain a refined understanding of how adaptive responses within the vertebrate HPG axis affect DRTC behaviors for aromatase inhibitors and other types of endocrine-active chemicals and apply that knowledge in support of risk assessments.

  4. Acute and adaptive motor responses to caffeine in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Dennis E; Huggler, April L; Rhoads, Lucas J

    2011-07-01

    Caffeine is a psychostimulant with intake through foods or beverages tending to increase from childhood through adolescence. The goals of the present study were to examine the effects of caffeine on young adolescent Long-Evans rats and to compare the motor-behavioral responses of adolescent and adult rats to acute and chronic caffeine. Adolescent rats had a biphasic dose-response to caffeine comparable to that reported for adult rats. The magnitude of the motor response to a challenge dose of caffeine (30mg/kg, ip) was similar between adolescent and adult rats. Administration of caffeine in the drinking water (1mg/ml) for a period of 2 weeks led to overall consumption of caffeine which was not significantly different between adolescents and adults when normalized to body mass. There were no impacts of caffeinated drinking water on volume of fluid consumed nor weight gain in either age group compared to age matched controls drinking non-caffeinated tap water. Following this period of caffeine consumption, return to regular drinking water (caffeine withdrawal) led to a significant decrease in baseline movement compared to caffeine-naïve rats. This effect inversion was observed for adolescents but not adults. In addition, the response of the adolescents to the challenge dose of caffeine (30mg/kg, ip) was reduced significantly after chronic caffeine consumption and withdrawal. This apparent tolerance to the caffeine challenge dose was not seen with the adults. Thus, the developing brain of these adolescents may show similar sensitivity to adults in acute caffeine exposure but greater responsiveness to adaptive changes associated with chronic caffeine consumption.

  5. The effect of repeated mild cold water immersions on the adaptation of the vasomotor responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Kuroki, Hideto; Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-07-01

    There are several types of cold adaptation based on the alteration of thermoregulatory response. It has been thought that the temperature of repeated cold exposures during the adaptation period is one of the factors affecting the type of cold adaptation developed. This study tested the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersions would induce an insulative cold adaptation but would not alter the metabolic response. Seven healthy male participants were immersed to their xiphoid process level repeatedly in 26°C water for 60 min, 3 days every week, for 4 weeks. During the first and last exposure of this cold acclimation period, the participants underwent body immersion tests measuring their thermoregulatory responses to cold. Separately, they conducted finger immersion into 5°C water for 30 min to assess their cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) response before and after cold acclimation. During the immersion to xiphoid process, participants showed significantly lower mean skin temperature and skin blood flow in the forearm post-acclimation, while no adaptation was observed in the metabolic response. Additionally, blunted CIVD responses were observed after cold acclimation. From these results, it was considered that the participants showed an insulative-type of cold acclimation after the repeated mild cold immersions. The major finding of this study was the acceptance of the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersion was sufficient to induce insulative cold adaptation but did not alter the metabolic response. It is suggested that the adaptation in the thermoregulatory response is specific to the response which is repeatedly stimulated during the adaptation process.

  6. The Association of Intelligence, Visual-Motor Functioning, and Personality Characteristics With Adaptive Behavior in Individuals With Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Trista J; Lincoln, Alan J; Bellugi, Ursula; Searcy, Yvonne M

    2015-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with deficits in adaptive behavior and an uneven adaptive profile. This study investigated the association of intelligence, visual-motor functioning, and personality characteristics with the adaptive behavior in individuals with WS. One hundred individuals with WS and 25 individuals with developmental disabilities of other etiologies were included in this study. This study found that IQ and visual-motor functioning significantly predicted adaptive behavior in individuals of WS. Visual-motor functioning especially predicted the most amount of unique variance in overall adaptive behavior and contributed to the variance above and beyond that of IQ. Present study highlights the need for interventions that address visual-motor and motor functioning in individuals with WS.

  7. Clinal adaptation and adaptive plasticity in Artemisia californica: implications for the response of a foundation species to predicted climate change.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Jessica D; Mooney, Kailen A

    2013-08-01

    Local adaptation and plasticity pose significant obstacles to predicting plant responses to future climates. Although local adaptation and plasticity in plant functional traits have been documented for many species, less is known about population-level variation in plasticity and whether such variation is driven by adaptation to environmental variation. We examined clinal variation in traits and performance - and plastic responses to environmental change - for the shrub Artemisia californica along a 700 km gradient characterized (from south to north) by a fourfold increase in precipitation and a 61% decrease in interannual precipitation variation. Plants cloned from five populations along this gradient were grown for 3 years in treatments approximating the precipitation regimes of the north and south range margins. Most traits varying among populations did so clinally; northern populations (vs. southern) had higher water-use efficiencies and lower growth rates, C : N ratios and terpene concentrations. Notably, there was variation in plasticity for plant performance that was strongly correlated with source site interannual precipitation variability. The high-precipitation treatment (vs. low) increased growth and flower production more for plants from southern populations (181% and 279%, respectively) than northern populations (47% and 20%, respectively). Overall, precipitation variability at population source sites predicted 86% and 99% of variation in plasticity in growth and flowering, respectively. These striking, clinal patterns in plant traits and plasticity are indicative of adaptation to both the mean and variability of environmental conditions. Furthermore, our analysis of long-term coastal climate data in turn indicates an increase in interannual precipitation variation consistent with most global change models and, unexpectedly, this increased variation is especially pronounced at historically stable, northern sites. Our findings demonstrate the

  8. Alterations of molecular and behavioral responses to cocaine by selective inhibition of Elk-1 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Antoine; Bouveyron, Nicolas; Kappes, Vincent; Pascoli, Vincent; Pagès, Christiane; Heck, Nicolas; Vanhoutte, Peter; Caboche, Jocelyne

    2011-10-05

    Activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in the striatum is crucial for molecular adaptations and long-term behavioral alterations induced by cocaine. In response to cocaine, ERK controls the phosphorylation levels of both mitogen and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK-1), a nuclear kinase involved in histone H3 (Ser10) and cAMP response element binding protein phosphorylation, and Elk-1, a transcription factor involved in serum response element (SRE)-driven gene regulations. We recently characterized the phenotype of msk-1 knock-out mice in response to cocaine. Herein, we wanted to address the role of Elk-1 phosphorylation in cocaine-induced molecular, morphological, and behavioral responses. We used a cell-penetrating peptide, named TAT-DEF-Elk-1 (TDE), which corresponds to the DEF docking domain of Elk-1 toward ERK and inhibits Elk-1 phosphorylation induced by ERKs without modifying ERK or MSK-1 in vitro. The peptide was injected in vivo before cocaine administration in mice. Immunocytochemical, molecular, morphological, and behavioral studies were performed. The TDE inhibited Elk-1 and H3 (Ser10) phosphorylation induced by cocaine, sparing ERK and MSK-1 activation. Consequently, TDE altered cocaine-induced regulation of genes bearing SRE site(s) in their promoters, including c-fos, zif268, ΔFosB, and arc/arg3.1 (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein). In a chronic cocaine administration paradigm, TDE reversed cocaine-induced increase in dendritic spine density. Finally, the TDE delayed the establishment of cocaine-induced psychomotor sensitization and conditioned-place preference. We conclude that Elk-1 phosphorylation downstream from ERK is a key molecular event involved in long-term neuronal and behavioral adaptations to cocaine.

  9. Behavioral responses of silverback gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to videos.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Margaret A; Leighty, Katherine A; Kuhar, Christopher W; Bettinger, Tamara L

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of video presentations on the behavior of 4 silverback, western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). On each of 5 occasions, gorillas viewed 6 types of videos (blue screen, humans, an all-male or mixed-sex group engaged in low activity, and an all-male or mixed-sex group engaged in agonistic behavior). The study recorded behavioral responses and watching rates. All gorillas preferred dynamic over static videos; 3 watched videos depicting gorillas significantly more than those depicting humans. Among the gorilla videos, the gorillas clearly preferred watching the mixed-sex group engaged in agonistic behavior; yet, this did not lead to an increase in aggression or behavior indicating agitation. Further, habituation to videos depicting gorillas did not occur. This supports the effectiveness of this form of enrichment, particularly for a nonhuman animal needing to be separated temporarily due to illness, shipment quarantine, social restructuring, or exhibit modification.

  10. Evaluating Satiated Copepod Behavioral Responses to Thin Layer Flow Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    True, Aaron C.; Webster, Donald R.; Weissburg, Marc J.; Yen, Jeannette

    2011-11-01

    Zooplankton exploit a variety of chemical and fluid mechanical cues in foraging, mate-seeking, and habitat partitioning contexts. To examine the influence of environmental cues on zooplankton aggregations in coastal marine thin layers, a laboratory thin layer mimic was built. The apparatus uses a laminar, planar jet (the Bickley jet) to produce ecologically-relevant layers of chemical (beneficial and harmful phytoplankton) and fluid mechanical (shear strain rate) cues for zooplankton behavioral assays. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) were employed to fully quantify the spatial structure of the chemical and fluid mechanical cues, ensuring a close match to in situ conditions and allowing for investigations into threshold cue levels responsible for inducing behavioral responses. Evaluating the effect of hunger level on behavioral responses is particularly important for producing accurate individual-based simulations of zooplankton population dynamics. Behavioral assays with the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis have produced digitized trajectories and, subsequently, path kinematics. Observed behaviors include increased turn frequency and decreased relative swimming speed, which result in increased residence time in the free jet shear layer. Cue-induced individual behaviors have the potential to produce population-scale aggregations.

  11. Introduction to the symposium: responses of organisms to climate change: a synthetic approach to the role of thermal adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sears, Michael W; Angilletta, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    On a global scale, changing climates are affecting ecological systems across multiple levels of biological organization. Moreover, climates are changing at rates unprecedented in recent geological history. Thus, one of the most pressing concerns of the modern era is to understand the biological responses to climate such that society can both adapt and implement measures that attempt to offset the negative impacts of a rapidly changing climate. One crucial question, to understand organismal responses to climate, is whether the ability of organisms to adapt can keep pace with quickly changing environments. To address this question, a syntheses of knowledge from a broad set of biological disciplines will be needed that integrates information from the fields of ecology, behavior, physiology, genetics, and evolution. This symposium assembled a diverse group of scientists from these subdisciplines to present their perspectives regarding the ability of organisms to adapt to changing climates. Specifically, the goals of this symposia were to (1) highlight what each discipline brings to a discussion of organismal responses to climate, (2) to initiate and foster a discussion to break barriers in the transfer of knowledge across disciplines, and (3) to synthesize an approach to address ongoing issues concerning biological responses to climate.

  12. Investigating Robustness of Item Response Theory Proficiency Estimators to Atypical Response Behaviors under Two-Stage Multistage Testing. ETS GRE® Board Research Report. ETS GRE®-16-03. ETS Research Report No. RR-16-22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which item response theory (IRT) proficiency estimation methods are robust to the presence of aberrant responses under the "GRE"® General Test multistage adaptive testing (MST) design. To that end, a wide range of atypical response behaviors affecting as much as 10% of the test items…

  13. Allocation of household responsibilities influences change in dietary behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Candace C.; Sapp, Amy; Berkman, Lisa F.; Li, Yi; Sorensen, Glorian

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to understand dietary behavior as situated within the household, an important social context that serves to either inhibit or promote a healthy diet. Data were collected as part of a worksite-based health behavior intervention trial that took place between 1999 and 2003 in small manufacturing businesses in New England, USA. The subjects were a cohort of 790 male and female workers who participated in the intervention trial and responded to both the baseline and the 18-month follow-up surveys. Regression models were built to determine whether proportion of household responsibility predicted daily fruit and vegetable consumption and weekly red meat consumption at 18-months. The results indicate that participants who were responsible for earning most or all of the money to support the household ate more servings of fruits and vegetables per day at 18-month follow-up than those without this responsibility. Further, those responsible for earning about half ate fewer servings of red meat than those responsible for earning most or all of the money to support the household. The results for red meat consumption differed by sex, such that responsibility for more than half or less than half of the money to support the household had different effects for men and women. The results of this study demonstrate that the distribution of household responsibilities can be an important factor in determining the effectiveness of a worksite-based health behavior intervention and that these effects can be different for women versus men. PMID:21975026

  14. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement.

  15. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  16. Isoforms of Melanopsin Mediate Different Behavioral Responses to Light

    PubMed Central

    Jagannath, Aarti; Hughes, Steven; Abdelgany, Amr; Pothecary, Carina A.; Di Pretoro, Simona; Pires, Susana S.; Vachtsevanos, Athanasios; Pilorz, Violetta; Brown, Laurence A.; Hossbach, Markus; MacLaren, Robert E.; Halford, Stephanie; Gatti, Silvia; Hankins, Mark W.; Wood, Matthew J.A.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Melanopsin (OPN4) is a retinal photopigment that mediates a wide range of non-image-forming (NIF) responses to light [1, 2] including circadian entrainment [3], sleep induction [4], the pupillary light response (PLR) [5], and negative masking of locomotor behavior (the acute suppression of activity in response to light) [6]. How these diverse NIF responses can all be mediated by a single photopigment has remained a mystery. We reasoned that the alternative splicing of melanopsin could provide the basis for functionally distinct photopigments arising from a single gene. The murine melanopsin gene is indeed alternatively spliced, producing two distinct isoforms, a short (OPN4S) and a long (OPN4L) isoform, which differ only in their C terminus tails [7]. Significantly, both isoforms form fully functional photopigments [7]. Here, we show that different isoforms of OPN4 mediate different behavioral responses to light. By using RNAi-mediated silencing of each isoform in vivo, we demonstrated that the short isoform (OPN4S) mediates light-induced pupillary constriction, the long isoform (OPN4L) regulates negative masking, and both isoforms contribute to phase-shifting circadian rhythms of locomotor behavior and light-mediated sleep induction. These findings demonstrate that splice variants of a single receptor gene can regulate strikingly different behaviors. PMID:26320947

  17. Isoforms of Melanopsin Mediate Different Behavioral Responses to Light.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Aarti; Hughes, Steven; Abdelgany, Amr; Pothecary, Carina A; Di Pretoro, Simona; Pires, Susana S; Vachtsevanos, Athanasios; Pilorz, Violetta; Brown, Laurence A; Hossbach, Markus; MacLaren, Robert E; Halford, Stephanie; Gatti, Silvia; Hankins, Mark W; Wood, Matthew J A; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N

    2015-09-21

    Melanopsin (OPN4) is a retinal photopigment that mediates a wide range of non-image-forming (NIF) responses to light including circadian entrainment, sleep induction, the pupillary light response (PLR), and negative masking of locomotor behavior (the acute suppression of activity in response to light). How these diverse NIF responses can all be mediated by a single photopigment has remained a mystery. We reasoned that the alternative splicing of melanopsin could provide the basis for functionally distinct photopigments arising from a single gene. The murine melanopsin gene is indeed alternatively spliced, producing two distinct isoforms, a short (OPN4S) and a long (OPN4L) isoform, which differ only in their C terminus tails. Significantly, both isoforms form fully functional photopigments. Here, we show that different isoforms of OPN4 mediate different behavioral responses to light. By using RNAi-mediated silencing of each isoform in vivo, we demonstrated that the short isoform (OPN4S) mediates light-induced pupillary constriction, the long isoform (OPN4L) regulates negative masking, and both isoforms contribute to phase-shifting circadian rhythms of locomotor behavior and light-mediated sleep induction. These findings demonstrate that splice variants of a single receptor gene can regulate strikingly different behaviors.

  18. The Stress Response Systems: Universality and Adaptive Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Jackson, Jenee James; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Biological reactivity to psychological stressors comprises a complex, integrated system of central neural and peripheral neuroendocrine responses designed to prepare the organism for challenge or threat. Developmental experience plays a role, along with heritable variation, in calibrating the response dynamics of this system. This calibration…

  19. Molecular characterization of an adaptive response to alkylating agents in the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    O’Hanlon, Karen A.; Margison, Geoffrey P.; Hatch, Amy; Fitzpatrick, David A.; Owens, Rebecca A.; Doyle, Sean; Jones, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    An adaptive response to alkylating agents based upon the conformational change of a methylphosphotriester (MPT) DNA repair protein to a transcriptional activator has been demonstrated in a number of bacterial species, but this mechanism appears largely absent from eukaryotes. Here, we demonstrate that the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus elicits an adaptive response to sub-lethal doses of the mono-functional alkylating agent N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). We have identified genes that encode MPT and O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) DNA repair proteins; deletions of either of these genes abolish the adaptive response and sensitize the organism to MNNG. In vitro DNA repair assays confirm the ability of MPT and AGT to repair methylphosphotriester and O6-methylguanine lesions respectively. In eukaryotes, the MPT protein is confined to a select group of fungal species, some of which are major mammalian and plant pathogens. The evolutionary origin of the adaptive response is bacterial and rooted within the Firmicutes phylum. Inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer between Firmicutes and Ascomycete ancestors introduced the adaptive response into the Fungal kingdom. Our data constitute the first detailed characterization of the molecular mechanism of the adaptive response in a lower eukaryote and has applications for development of novel fungal therapeutics targeting this DNA repair system. PMID:22669901

  20. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot.

    PubMed

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles

  1. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot

    PubMed Central

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles

  2. Cardiovascular and organ responses and adaptation responses to hypogravity in an experimental animal model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, R.; Capodicasa, E.; Tassi, C.; Mezzasomal, L.; Benedetti, C.; Valiani, M.; Marconi, P.; Rossi, R.

    1995-10-01

    The head-down suspension (i.e antiorthostatic hypokinesia) rat is used to simulate weightlessness. However, little is known about cardiovascular and organ adaptation responses which, over a long time, can become pathologically significant. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate regional changes in the hematology parameters, Endotheline-1 (ET-1) concentration and urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) (NAG) in an experimental antiorthostatic rat model. The data indicate significant variations in the plasma ET-1 level in time, in the superior and inferior cava vessel blood of animals maintained for 10 days in hypogravity with respect to controls. These changes do not seem to be due to hemoconcentration. The increase in urinary NAG was observed during the first 24h of experiment, indicating renal stress, probably due to adverse blood flow variations within the organ. We conclude that the plasma ET-1 level changes could be responsible, overall for the blood flow variations in the kidney and renal stress could be the consequence of extended antiorthostatic hypokinesia. The ET-1 behaviour and urinary NAG excretion in rats exposed to antiorthostatic hypokjnetic hydynamia offer possibilities for understanding if these changes might be reversible or when they become pathological. This could give some relevant information about the effects of prolonged hypogravity during the space voyage.

  3. Cardiovascular and organ responses and adaptation responses to hypogravity in an experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Biondi, R; Capodicasa, E; Tassi, C; Mezzasoma, L; Benedetti, C; Valiani, M; Marconi, P; Rossi, R

    1995-10-01

    The head-down suspension (i.e. antiorthostatic hypokinesia) rat is used to simulate weightlessness. However, little is known about cardiovascular and organ adaptation responses which, over a long time, can become pathologically significant. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate regional changes in the hematology parameters. Endotheline-1 (ET-1) concentration and urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) (NAG) in an experimental antiorthostatic rat model. The data indicate significant variations in the plasma ET-1 level in time, in the superior and inferior cava vessel blood of animals maintained for 10 days in hypogravity with respect to controls. These changes do not seem to be due to hemoconcentration. The increase in urinary NAG was observed during the first 24h of experiment, indicating renal stress, probably due to adverse blood flow variations within the organ. We conclude that the plasma ET-1 level changes could be responsible, overall for the blood flow variations in the kidney and renal stress could be the consequence of extended antiorthostatic hypokinesia. The ET-1 behaviour and urinary NAG excretion in rats exposed to antiorthostatic hypokinetic hydynamia offer possibilities for understanding if these changes might be reversible or when they become pathological. This could give some relevant information about the effects of prolonged hypogravity during the space voyage.

  4. Maternal inhibition of infant behavioral response following isolation in novel surroundings and inflammatory challenge.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael B; Jacobs, Sarah; Schiml, Patricia A; Hawk, Kiel; Stafford, Nathan; Deak, Terrence

    2013-05-01

    During isolation in a novel environment, guinea pig pups gradually begin to display passive behavior that appears to be mediated by proinflammatory activity, that is, "sickness behavior.". Administration of substances that increase proinflammatory activity [corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] prior to isolation induces passive behavior from the beginning of the isolation episode. Here, we show that reunion with the mother in the novel environment rapidly and potently suppresses the passive behavior of isolated pups (Experiment 1); inhibits the passive behavior of pups administered CRF (10 µg, subcutaneous; Experiment 2); and inhibits the passive behavior of male, though not female, pups administered LPS (250 µg/kg, intraperitoneal; Experiment 3). Together these findings suggest that the presence of the mother either recruits other processes that moderate the impact of proinflammatory processes on brain mechanisms mediating the passive response or initiates compensatory mechanisms that counter the effect of proinflammatory activity. Further, the results suggest that for physically ill animals of social species, the adaptive advantage that accrues from maintaining normal social interactions may sometimes outweigh the advantage gained by engaging in sickness behavior.

  5. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Adaptively Adjust Information Seeking in Response to Information Accumulated

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Pani, Alex A.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition consists of monitoring and control processes. Monitoring has been inferred when nonhumans use a “decline test” response to selectively escape difficult test trials. Cognitive control has been inferred from selective information seeking behavior by nonhumans ignorant of needed knowledge. Here we describe a computerized paradigm that extends previous work and begins to assess dynamic interactions between monitoring and control. Monkeys classified images as containing birds, fish, flowers, or people. To-be-classified images were initially masked, and monkeys were trained to gradually reveal the images by touching a “reveal button.” Monkeys could choose to classify images at any time or to reveal more of the images. Thus, they had the opportunity to assess when enough of an image had been revealed to support accurate classification. In Experiment 1, monkeys made more reveal responses before classifying when smaller amounts of the image were revealed by each button touch. In Experiment 2, to-be-classified images were shrunken and covered by one critical blocker among other blockers that did not provide information when removed. Monkeys made more reveal responses as the critical blocker was removed later in the trial. In Experiment 3, monkeys were re-presented with previously classified images with either more or fewer blockers obscuring the image than was the case when they chose to classify that image previously. Monkeys made more reveal responses when information was insufficient compared to when it was excessive. These results indicate that monkeys dynamically monitor evolving decision processes and adaptively collect information as necessary to maintain accuracy. PMID:26280597

  6. Horizontal vestibuloocular reflex evoked by high-acceleration rotations in the squirrel monkey. IV. Responses after spectacle-induced adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clendaniel, R. A.; Lasker, D. M.; Minor, L. B.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    of the VOR containing linear and nonlinear pathways that describe the normal behavior and adaptive processes. Adaptation for the linear pathway is described by a transfer function that shows the dependence of adaptation on the frequency of the head movement. The adaptive process for the nonlinear pathway is a gain enhancement element that provides for the accentuated gain with rising head velocity and the increased cubic component of the responses to steps of acceleration. While this model is substantially different from earlier models of VOR adaptation, it accounts for the data in the present experiments and also predicts the findings observed in the earlier studies.

  7. Changes in cortical activity associated with adaptive behavior during repeated balance perturbation of unpredictable timing

    PubMed Central

    Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2015-01-01

    The compensation for a sudden balance perturbation, unpracticed and unpredictable in timing and magnitude is accompanied by pronounced postural instability that is suggested to be causal to falls. However, subsequent presentations of an identical perturbation are characterized by a marked decrease of the amplitude of postural reactions; a phenomenon called adaptation or habituation. This study aimed to identify cortical characteristics associated with adaptive behavior during repetitive balance perturbations based on single-trial analyses of the P1 and N1 perturbation-evoked potentials. Thirty-seven young men were exposed to ten transient balance perturbations while balancing on the dominant leg. Thirty two-channel electroencephalography (EEG), surface electromyography (EMG) of the ankle plantar flexor muscles and postural sway (i.e., Euclidean distance of the supporting platform) were recorded simultaneously. The P1 and N1 potentials were localized and the amplitude/latency was analyzed trial by trial. The best match sources for P1 and N1 potentials were located in the parietal (Brodmann area (BA) 5) and midline fronto-central cortex (BA 6), respectively. The amplitude and latency of the P1 potential remained unchanged over trials. In contrast, a significant adaptation of the N1 amplitude was observed. Similar adaptation effects were found with regard to postural sway and ankle plantarflexors EMG activity of the non-dominant (free) leg; i.e., an indicator for reduced muscular co-contraction and/or less temporary bipedal stance to regain stability. Significant but weak correlations were found between N1 amplitude and postural sway as well as EMG activity. These results highlight the important role of the midline fronto-central cortex for adaptive behavior associated with balance control. PMID:26528154

  8. Changes in cortical activity associated with adaptive behavior during repeated balance perturbation of unpredictable timing.

    PubMed

    Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Strüder, Heiko K

    2015-01-01

    The compensation for a sudden balance perturbation, unpracticed and unpredictable in timing and magnitude is accompanied by pronounced postural instability that is suggested to be causal to falls. However, subsequent presentations of an identical perturbation are characterized by a marked decrease of the amplitude of postural reactions; a phenomenon called adaptation or habituation. This study aimed to identify cortical characteristics associated with adaptive behavior during repetitive balance perturbations based on single-trial analyses of the P1 and N1 perturbation-evoked potentials. Thirty-seven young men were exposed to ten transient balance perturbations while balancing on the dominant leg. Thirty two-channel electroencephalography (EEG), surface electromyography (EMG) of the ankle plantar flexor muscles and postural sway (i.e., Euclidean distance of the supporting platform) were recorded simultaneously. The P1 and N1 potentials were localized and the amplitude/latency was analyzed trial by trial. The best match sources for P1 and N1 potentials were located in the parietal (Brodmann area (BA) 5) and midline fronto-central cortex (BA 6), respectively. The amplitude and latency of the P1 potential remained unchanged over trials. In contrast, a significant adaptation of the N1 amplitude was observed. Similar adaptation effects were found with regard to postural sway and ankle plantarflexors EMG activity of the non-dominant (free) leg; i.e., an indicator for reduced muscular co-contraction and/or less temporary bipedal stance to regain stability. Significant but weak correlations were found between N1 amplitude and postural sway as well as EMG activity. These results highlight the important role of the midline fronto-central cortex for adaptive behavior associated with balance control.

  9. Adapting Dialectical Behavior Therapy for the Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Foote, Brad; Van Orden, Kim

    2016-12-31

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), created by Marsha Linehan, has been shown to be an effective therapy for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and for suicidal and self-harming behavior. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex post-traumatic disorder which is highly comorbid with BPD, shares a number of clinical features with BPD, and which like BPD features a high degree of suicidality. The DID treatment literature emphasizes the importance of a staged approach, beginning with the creation of a safe therapeutic frame prior to addressing traumatic material; DBT is also a staged treatment, in which behavioral and safety issues are addressed in Stage 1, and trauma work reserved for Stage 2. The authors describe adapting DBT, and especially its techniques for Stage 1 safety work, for work with DID patients. Basic theoretical principles are described and illustrated with a case example.

  10. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  11. Behavioral response of manatees to variations in environmental sound levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miksis-Olds, J. L.; Wagner, T.

    2011-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabit coastal regions because they feed on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters, which are the same areas where human activities are greatest. Noise produced from anthropogenic and natural sources has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. Sound levels were calculated from recordings made throughout behavioral observation periods. An information theoretic approach was used to investigate the relationship between behavior patterns and sound level. Results indicated that elevated sound levels affect manatee activity and are a function of behavioral state. The proportion of time manatees spent feeding and milling changed in response to sound level. When ambient sound levels were highest, more time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behavior of feeding, whereas less time was spent engaged in undirected behavior such as milling. This work illustrates how shifts in activity of individual manatees may be useful parameters for identifying impacts of noise on manatees and might inform population level effects. ?? 2010 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

  12. Cortisol profiles: A test for adaptive calibration of the stress response system in maltreated and nonmaltreated youth

    PubMed Central

    PECKINS, MELISSA K.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; NEGRIFF, SONYA; NOLL, JENNIE; TRICKETT, PENELOPE K.

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the life span, exposure to chronic stress such as child maltreatment is thought to contribute to future dysfunction of the stress response system (SRS) through the process of adaptive calibration. Dysfunction of the SRS is associated with numerous health and behavior problems, so it is important to understand under what conditions and what time frame adaptive calibration occurs. The present study tested for adaptive calibration of the SRS in a sample of maltreated (n = 303) and nonmaltreated (n = 151) youth during the important developmental period of adolescence. Data were used from Waves 2, 3, and 4 of a larger study of the consequences of maltreatment on health and well-being. At each time point, participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test for Children and provided a baseline and four poststressor saliva samples to measure cortisol reactivity. Adaptive calibration was tested by performing a latent profile analysis using the five samples of salivary cortisol provided at each time point, and testing whether maltreatment status predicted the likelihood of profile membership at Time 2, Time 3, and Time 4. Three cortisol profiles emerged from the data at each time point (blunted, moderate, and elevated), and results indicated that maltreated youth were more likely than nonmaltreated youth to present with the blunted cortisol profile compared to the moderate and elevated profiles at Time 2 and Time 3, even after controlling for recent exposure to violence and trauma. At Time 4, there was no longer a difference in profile membership between maltreated and nonmaltreated youth, suggesting adaptive calibration may be a lengthy process requiring a period of years to become evident. Overall, the findings provide support for adaptive calibration and offer insight into the conditions under which adaptive calibration occurs. PMID:26535937

  13. Fractal behavior of traffic volume on urban expressway through adaptive fractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-di; Wang, Jun-li; Wei, Hai-rui; Ye, Cheng; Ding, Yi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fractal behavior of traffic volume in urban expressway based on a newly developed adaptive fractal analysis (AFA), which has a number of advantages over traditional method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Before fractal analysis, autocorrelation function was first adopted on traffic volume data and the long-range correlation behavior was found to be existed in both on-ramp and off-ramp situations. Then AFA as well as DFA was applied to further examine the fractal behavior. The results showed that the multifractality and the long-range anti-persistent behavior existed on both on-ramp and off-ramp. Additionally, multifractal analysis on weekdays and weekends are performed respectively and the results show that the degree of multifractality on weekdays is higher than that on weekends, implying that long-range correlation behaviors were more obvious on weekdays. Finally, the source of multifractality is examined with randomly shuffled and the surrogated series. Long-range correlation behaviors are identified in both on-ramp and off-ramp situations and fat-tail distributions were found to make little in the contributions of multifractality.

  14. School Refusal Behavior: Prevalence, Characteristics, and the Schools' Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 288 elementary and secondary North Dakota schools found 75% had a school refusal behavior (SRB) identification system in place, 57% had a school psychologist available, principals were most frequently responsible for identifying school refusers, 2.3% of students were identified as school refusers of which 49% falsely claimed illness,…

  15. Workplace mobbing: How the victim's coping behavior influences bystander responses.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. Response and adaptation of Beagle dogs to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, J.

    1975-01-01

    Eight male Beagle dogs, five months old, were centrifuged continuously for three months at progressively increasing loads. Heart rate and deep body temperature were monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry. Initially, centrifuged dogs showed transient decreases in heart rate and body temperature along with changes in their diurnal rhythm patterns. Compared with normal gravity controls, exposed dogs showed a slower growth rate and a reduced amount of body fat. Blood protein, total lipids, cholesterol, calcium, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin were also decreased significantly. Absolute weights of the leg bones of centrifuged dogs were significantly greater than controls. Photon absorptiometry revealed significant density increases in selective regions of the femur and humerus of centrifuged dogs. In spite of the various changes noted, results from this and other studies affirm the view that dogs can tolerate and adapt to sustained loads as high as 2.5 g without serious impairment of their body structure and function.

  17. Exercise training - Blood pressure responses in subjects adapted to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional endurance exercise training that involves daily workouts of 1-2 hr duration during exposure to microgravity has not proven completely effective in ameliorating postexposure orthostatic hypotension. Single bouts of intense exercise have been shown to increase plasma volume and baroreflex sensitivity in ambulatory subjects through 24 hr postexercise and to reverse decrements in maximal oxygen uptake and syncopal episodes following exposure to simulated microgravity. These physiological adaptations to acute intense exercise were opposite to those observed following exposure to microgravity. These results suggest that the 'exercise training' stimulus used to prevent orthostatic hypotension induced by microgravity may be specific and should be redefined to include single bouts of maximal exercise which may provide an acute effective countermeasure against postflight hypotension.

  18. Neural response in vestibular organ of Helix aspersa to centrifugation and re-adaptation to normal gravity.

    PubMed

    Popova, Yekaterina; Boyle, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Gravity plays a key role in shaping the vestibular sensitivity (VS) of terrestrial organisms. We studied VS changes in the statocyst of the gastropod Helix aspersa immediately after 4-, 16-, and 32-day exposures to a 1.4G hypergravic field or following a 7-day recovery period. In the same animals we measured latencies of behavioral "negative gravitaxis" responses to a head-down pitch before and after centrifugation and found significant delays after 16- and 32-day runs. In an isolated neural preparation we recorded the electrophysiological responses of the statocyst nerve to static tilt (±19°) and sinusoids (±12°; 0.1 Hz). Spike sorting software was used to separate individual sensory cells' patterns out of a common trace. In correspondence with behavior we observed a VS decrease in animals after 16- (p < 0.05) and 32-day (p < 0.01) centrifugations. These findings reveal the capability of statoreceptors to adjust their sensitivity in response to a prolonged change in the force of gravity. Interestingly, background discharge rate increased after 16 and 32 days in hypergravity and continued to rise through the recovery period. This result indicates that adaptive mechanisms to novel gravity levels were long lasting, and re-adaptation from hypergravity is a more complex process than just "return to normal".

  19. Converging concepts: adaptive response, preconditioning, and the Yerkes-Dodson Law are manifestations of hormesis.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    The adaptive response in toxicology and environmental mutagenesis, preconditioning in biomedicine and the Yerkes-Dodson Law in psychology have dominating research themes with widespread and significant scientific and societal implications. This paper suggests that these apparently independent biological dose-response phenomena are manifestations of the common and more general biphasic dose-response relationship concept called hormesis. These three types of dose-response, as well as the hormesis concept, may represent the same general type of adaptation, which were discovered independently in different biological disciplines, amongst which there has been little communication. This intellectual isolation, due principally to progressively greater disciplinary specialization, resulted in the evolution of different terminologies for dose-response phenomena with strikingly similar quantitative features. This lack of recognition of converging dose-response concepts across disciplines has important implications since it limits the recognition of a common and basic biological concept while minimizing collaborations by investigators in related areas. The paper concludes that the broadly recognized biological adaptive responses, as described by the concepts of adaptive response, preconditioning and the Yerkes-Dodson Law, are special cases of the more general hormesis dose-response concept.

  20. Adaptation response of Arabidopsis thaliana to random positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittang, A.-I.; Winge, P.; van Loon, J. J. W. A.; Bones, A. M.; Iversen, T.-H.

    2013-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were exposed on a Random Positioning Machine (RPM) under light conditions for 16 h and the samples were analysed using microarray techniques as part of a preparation for a space experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). The results demonstrated a moderate to low regulation of 55 genes (<0.2% of the analysed genes). Genes encoding proteins associated with the chaperone system (e.g. heat shock proteins, HSPs) and enzymes in the flavonoid biosynthesis were induced. Most of the repressed genes were associated with light and sugar responses. Significant up-regulation of selected HSP genes was found by quantitative Real-Time PCR in 1 week old plants after the RPM exposure both in light and darkness. Higher quantity of DPBA (diphenylboric acid 2-amino-ethyl ester) staining was observed in the whole root and in the root elongation zone of the seedlings exposed on the RPM by use of fluorescent microscopy, indicating higher flavonoid content. The regulated genes and an increase of flavonoids are related to several stresses, but increased occurrence of HSPs and flavonoids are also representative for normal growth (e.g. gravitropism). The response could be a direct stress response or an integrated response of the two signal pathways of light and gravity resulting in an overall light response.

  1. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals.

  2. International adoption: assessment of adaptive and maladaptive behavior of adopted minors in Spain.

    PubMed

    Barcons-Castel, Natalia; Fornieles-Deu, Albert; Costas-Moragas, Carme

    2011-05-01

    Research on adjustment of internationally adopted children indicates that, although they have adequate development, more emotional and behavioral problems are detected compared with nonadopted children. In this research, emotional and behavioral characteristics of a sample of 52 internationally adopted minors were examined with the BASC (Parent Rating Scales and Self-Report of Personality), comparing the outcomes with 44 nonadopted minors, all of them of ages between 6 and 11 years (mean age = 8.01 years). Results indicate differences between adopted and nonadopted children related to somatization, adopted minors are those that obtain lower scores in the scale, and in the adaptability scale, where nonadopted minors obtain higher scores. Significant differences were found in the adaptive abilities scales, suggesting that nonadopted boys show better abilities than adopted ones, and no differences were found among girls. In general, boys present higher scores in externalizing symptomatology and depression than girls. Among adopted children, time spent in an institution is a variable that has negative impact on the onset of externalizing and internalizing problems. Minors coming from Eastern Europe display more attentional problems, poorer adaptive abilities and poorer interpersonal relations than the rest of the minors. According to the age at placement, attentional problems appear in minors adopted after the age of 3 years.

  3. Sensory processing, school performance, and adaptive behavior of young school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Kartin, Deborah

    2008-05-01

    This study described sensory processing behaviors and sensory-motor abilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and explored their relationship to home and school function. A clinic-referred sample of 25 children with FASD, ages 5 to 8 years, was compared with 26 children with typical development, balanced for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, on standardized tests examining sensory processing, sensory-motor performance, school performance, and adaptive behavior. Children with FASD scored significantly more poorly on sensory processing, sensory-motor, adaptive, and academic achievement measures, and demonstrated more problem behaviors at home and school. Correlations were significant between measures of sensory processing and sensory-motor performance, adaptive behavior, and some aspects of academic performance. Sensory processing and related foundational sensory-motor impairments should be considered when determining the developmental needs of children with FASD. These impairments may co-occur with and contribute, at least in part, to decreased adaptive and school function.

  4. Adaptive response of human melanoma cells to methylglyoxal injury.

    PubMed

    Amicarelli, F; Bucciarelli, T; Poma, A; Aimola, P; Di Ilio, C; Ragnelli, A M; Miranda, M

    1998-03-01

    The effects of methylglyoxal on the growth of a line of human melanoma cells are investigated. Methylglyoxal inhibits cell growth in a dose-dependent manner and causes an increase in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glyoxalase 1 and glyoxalase 2 specific activities. The cellular response to increasing concentrations of methylglyoxal in the culture medium is also studied by measuring L-lactate production, reduced-oxidized glutathione levels and apoptotic cell death. Methylglyoxal seems to promote a change of cell population phenotypic repertoire toward a more monomorphic phenotype. In conclusion, methylglyoxal seems to induce an enzymatic cellular response that lowers methylglyoxal levels and selects the most resistant cells.

  5. Response-Adaptive Decision-Theoretic Trial Design: Operating Characteristics and Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Ari M.; Lewis, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive randomization is used in clinical trials to increase statistical efficiency. In addition, some clinicians and researchers believe that using adaptive randomization leads necessarily to more ethical treatment of subjects in a trial. We develop Bayesian, decision-theoretic, clinical trial designs with response-adaptive randomization and a primary goal of estimating treatment effect, and then contrast these designs with designs that also include in their loss function a cost for poor subject outcome. When the loss function did not incorporate a cost for poor subject outcome, the gains in efficiency from response-adaptive randomization were accompanied by ethically concerning subject allocations. Conversely, including a cost for poor subject outcome demonstrated a more acceptable balance between the competing needs in the trial. A subsequent, parallel set of trials designed to control explicitly type I and II error rates showed that much of the improvement achieved through modification of the loss function was essentially negated. Therefore, gains in efficiency from the use of a decision-theoretic, response-adaptive design using adaptive randomization may only be assumed to apply to those goals which are explicitly included in the loss function. Trial goals, including ethical ones, which do not appear in the loss function are ignored and may even be compromised; it is thus inappropriate to assume that all adaptive trials are necessarily more ethical. Controlling type I and II error rates largely negates the benefit of including competing needs in favor of the goal of parameter estimation. PMID:23558674

  6. [Individual behavioral and autonomic response to emotional stress in humans].

    PubMed

    Ukraintseva, Iu V; Berlov, D N; Rusalova, M N

    2006-01-01

    Healthy subjects (n = 53) performed a sound version of the proof-reading test under normal conditions and in the state of emotional stress. Stress resistance was evaluated by the overall number of errors. The propensity to active or passive response to stress was evaluated by the number of "false alarms" and signal omissions. The reaction pattern to emotional stress in stress-resistant subjects, irrespective of their behavioral features, consisted in an increase in sympathetic effects on the cardiac rhythm and a decrease in the reaction time to significant signals. In subjects with low stress resistance, no statistically significant changes in the level of sympathetic tone and reaction time were revealed in the state of stress. Subjects with active behavioral response to stress, irrespective of their level of stress resistance, were characterized by aggressiveness, boldness and independence. Subjects with passive response to stress were inclined to conformism, dependence, and passivity.

  7. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  8. Variability in the adaptive acid tolerance response phenotype of Salmonella enterica strains.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Nychas, George-John E; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was the assessment of the stationary-phase, low-pH-inducible acid tolerance response (ATR) of different Salmonella enterica strains. For this purpose, 30 strains of the pathogen were grown in tryptone soy broth in the absence (non-adapted cultures) and presence (1% w/v; acid-adapted cultures) of glucose, and then subjected to 4-h acid challenge trials at pH 3.0. Surviving populations of each strain were determined at 1-h intervals, and the Weibull model was fitted to the derived microbiological data. Extensive variability in the acid stress responses of the tested S. enterica strains was observed, with the total population reductions (log CFU/ml) attained in 4 h of acid challenge ranging from 0.9 to 5.5 and from 0.6 to 7.0 for the non-adapted and acid-adapted cultures, respectively. As demonstrated by the model scale parameter δ and shape parameter p, the effect of acid adaptation on the inactivation curves was strain-specific. Although acid adaptation resulted in enhanced acid survival for the majority of the tested strains, there were strains exhibiting similar or decreased acid resistance compared to their non-adapted counterparts. Moreover, acid adaptation appeared to decrease the strain variability of δ whereas increasing the strain variability of p: the coefficient of variation of δ among the tested strains was 97.2 and 54.9% for the non-adapted and acid-adapted cultures, respectively, while the corresponding values for p were 12.7 and 48.1%. The data of the present study, which is the first one to systematically evaluate the adaptive ATR of multiple S. enterica strains, clearly demonstrate that this phenotype (attempted to be induced by growing the pathogen in the presence of glucose) is strain-dependent.

  9. Design of artificial genetic regulatory networks with multiple delayed adaptive responses*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Inoue, Masayo

    2016-06-01

    Genetic regulatory networks with adaptive responses are widely studied in biology. Usually, models consisting only of a few nodes have been considered. They present one input receptor for activation and one output node where the adaptive response is computed. In this work, we design genetic regulatory networks with many receptors and many output nodes able to produce delayed adaptive responses. This design is performed by using an evolutionary algorithm of mutations and selections that minimizes an error function defined by the adaptive response in signal shapes. We present several examples of network constructions with a predefined required set of adaptive delayed responses. We show that an output node can have different kinds of responses as a function of the activated receptor. Additionally, complex network structures are presented since processing nodes can be involved in several input-output pathways. Supplementary material in the form of one nets file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70172-9

  10. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, YuFeng; Martin, David A; Kenkel, Justin; Zhang, Kang; Ogden, Carol Anne; Elkon, Keith B.

    2007-01-01

    The immune system is constantly exposed to dying cells, most of which arise during central tolerance and from effete circulating immune cells. Under homeostatic conditions, phagocytes (predominantly macrophages and dendritic cells) belonging to the innate immune system, rapidly ingest cells and their debris. Apoptotic cell removal requires recognition of altered self on the apoptotic membrane, a process which is facilitated by natural antibodies and serum opsonins. Recognition, may be site and context specific. Uptake and ingestion of apoptotic cells promotes an immunosuppressive environment that avoids inflammatory responses to self antigens. However, it does not preclude a T cell response and it is likely that constant exposure to self antigen, particularly by immature dendritic cells, leads to T cell tolerance. Tolerance occurs by several different mechanisms including anergy and deletion (for CD8+ T cells) and induction of T regulatory cells (for CD4+ T cells). Failed apoptotic cell clearance promotes immune responses to self antigens, especially when the cellular contents are leaked from the cell (necrosis). Inflammatory responses may be induced by nucleic acid stimulation of toll like receptors and other immune sensors, specific intracellular proteins and non protein (uric acid) stimulation of inflammasomes. PMID:17888627

  11. Trait agreeableness and social status moderate behavioral responsiveness to communal behavior.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi; Moskowitz, Debbie S

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the influence of trait Agreeableness and its interaction with social role status on interpersonal correspondence as reflected in the within-person relation between a person's communal (agreeable-quarrelsome) behavior and perceptions of the interaction partner's communal behavior. We used a sample of working adults (original data set: 113 participants and 12,303 interpersonal events; constrained data set in the work setting: 109 participants and 3,193 interpersonal events) and an event-contingent recording procedure to assess behavior in naturalistic interpersonal events. The results of multilevel modeling indicated that interpersonal correspondence was lower for high trait Agreeableness persons than for low trait Agreeableness persons, apparently due to less responsiveness to more disagreeable behavior by the other person in an interaction. High Agreeableness persons manifest greater interpersonal correspondence when in a high-status role than when in a low-status role, apparently by increasing responsiveness to disagreeable behavior from others. The results imply that high social role status may influence the effortful control process of high trait Agreeableness persons over their behavioral reactions to others' disagreeable behavior during interpersonal interactions.

  12. Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

  13. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  14. Criticality as a Set-Point for Adaptive Behavior in Neuromorphic Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Stepp, Nigel D.; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware are designed by drawing inspiration from biology to overcome limitations of current computer architectures while forging the development of a new class of autonomous systems that can exhibit adaptive behaviors. Several designs in the recent past are capable of emulating large scale networks but avoid complexity in network dynamics by minimizing the number of dynamic variables that are supported and tunable in hardware. We believe that this is due to the lack of a clear understanding of how to design self-tuning complex systems. It has been widely demonstrated that criticality appears to be the default state of the brain and manifests in the form of spontaneous scale-invariant cascades of neural activity. Experiment, theory and recent models have shown that neuronal networks at criticality demonstrate optimal information transfer, learning and information processing capabilities that affect behavior. In this perspective article, we argue that understanding how large scale neuromorphic electronics can be designed to enable emergent adaptive behavior will require an understanding of how networks emulated by such hardware can self-tune local parameters to maintain criticality as a set-point. We believe that such capability will enable the design of truly scalable intelligent systems using neuromorphic hardware that embrace complexity in network dynamics rather than avoiding it. PMID:26648839

  15. Reinforcement learning and counterfactual reasoning explain adaptive behavior in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Paik, Jaehyon; Pirolli, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Animals routinely adapt to changes in the environment in order to survive. Though reinforcement learning may play a role in such adaptation, it is not clear that it is the only mechanism involved, as it is not well suited to producing rapid, relatively immediate changes in strategies in response to environmental changes. This research proposes that counterfactual reasoning might be an additional mechanism that facilitates change detection. An experiment is conducted in which a task state changes over time and the participants had to detect the changes in order to perform well and gain monetary rewards. A cognitive model is constructed that incorporates reinforcement learning with counterfactual reasoning to help quickly adjust the utility of task strategies in response to changes. The results show that the model can accurately explain human data and that counterfactual reasoning is key to reproducing the various effects observed in this change detection paradigm.

  16. Analysis of differential immune responses induced by innate and adaptive immunity following transplantation

    PubMed Central

    He, Hongzhen; Stone, James R; Perkins, David L

    2003-01-01

    The roles of innate and adaptive immunity in allograft rejection remain incompletely understood. Previous studies analysing lymphocyte deficient or syngeneic graft recipients have identified subsets of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines induced by antigen independent mechanisms. In the current study, we analysed a panel of 60 inflammatory parameters including serum cytokines, intragraft chemokines and cytokines, receptors, and cellular markers. Our results confirmed the up-regulation of a subset of markers by innate mechanisms and also identified a subset of parameters up-regulated only in the context of an adaptive response. Thus, we successfully differentiated markers of the innate and adaptive phases of rejection. Current paradigms emphasize that innate signals can promote a subsequent adaptive response. Interestingly, in our studies, expression of the markers induced by innate mechanisms was markedly amplified in the allogeneic, but not syngeneic or lymphocyte deficient, recipients. These results suggest that inflammatory mediators can have functional overlap between the innate and adaptive responses, and that the adaptive component of the rejection process amplifies the innate response by positive feedback regulation. PMID:12757613

  17. Roles and Responsibilities of Adapted Physical Education Teachers in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akuffo, Patrick B.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the roles and responsibilities of itinerant adapted physical education (APE) teachers at urban public schools. A second purpose is to determine how they execute their roles and responsibilities. Participants include six women with experience as itinerant APE teachers from the same urban school district. The…

  18. The innate and adaptive immune response to avian influenza virus infections and vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against viruses is mediated by the early innate immune responses and later on by the adaptive immune responses. The early innate immunity is designed to contain and limit virus replication in the host, primarily through cytokine and interferon production. Most all cells are cap...

  19. Adaptive response studies may help choose astronauts for long-term space travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, S.

    Long-term manned exploratory missions are planned for the next decades. Exposure to high-energy neutrons, protons and high charge and energy particles during a deep space mission, requires proper radiation protection planning against the detrimental effects of space radiation. It has been estimated that exposure to unpredictable extremely large solar particle events would kill the astronauts without massive shielding in interplanetary space. Recent findings concerning the induction of adaptive response by neutrons or high levels of external and internal exposures including radon in human cells have opened a new horizon for possible implications of adaptive response in radiation protection and especially in protection against detrimental effects of high levels of radiation during a long-term space journey. Significant adaptive response has been demonstrated in humans after exposure to high levels of natural radiation. It has been shown that in some individuals who fail to show an adaptive response, extraordinary synergism was observed. Interestingly, it was observed that even when the frequency of chromosome aberrations in cells exposed to adapting dose alone or challenge dose alone, were not different than those of other study participants, a severe synergism observed in the cells exposed to challenge dose after an adapting dose. Based on the results obtained in this experiment, due to possible interactions between a chronic low dose and an acute high dose, a common G2 radiosensitivity assay cannot predict radiation risk during a long-term space mission. It can be suggested that the magnitude of adaptive response in lymphocyte samples of potential crew for a deep space mission should be assessed in ground based laboratory studies. Selected space crew who show a high magnitude of adaptive response in ground experiments, will be exposed to adapting higher than normal background radiation doses during mission and they will be considerably more resistant to high doses

  20. Adaptive dose finding based on t-statistic for dose-response trials.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Bolognese, James A; Perevozskaya, Inna

    2008-05-10

    The goals of phase II dose-response studies are to prove that the treatment is effective and to choose the dose for further development. Randomized designs with equal allocation to either a high dose and placebo or to each of several doses and placebo are typically used. However, in trials where response is observed relatively quickly, adaptive designs might offer an advantage over equal allocation. We propose an adaptive design for dose-response trials that concentrates the allocation of subjects in one or more areas of interest, for example, near a minimum clinically important effect level, or near some maximal effect level, and also allows for the possibility to stop the trial early if needed. The proposed adaptive design yields higher power to detect a dose-response relationship, higher power in comparison with placebo, and selects the correct dose more frequently compared with a corresponding randomized design with equal allocation to doses.

  1. gammadelta T cells link innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Holtmeier, Wolfgang; Kabelitz, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    While most T cells use a CD3-associated alpha/beta T cell receptor as antigen recognition structure, a second population of T cells expresses the alternative gamma/delta T cell receptor. gamma/delta T cells are a minor population in the peripheral blood but constitute a major population among intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. Most gamma/delta T cells recognize ligands which are fundamentally different from the short peptides that are seen by alpha/beta T cells in the context of MHC class I or class II molecules. Thus, human Vdelta2 T cells recognize small bacterial phosphoantigens, alkylamines and synthetic aminobisphosphonates, whereas Vdelta1 T cells recognize stress-inducible MHC-related molecules MICA/B as well as several other ligands. At the functional level, gamma/delta T cells rapidly produce a variety of cytokines and usually exert potent cytotoxic activity, also towards many tumor cells. In this article, we discuss the role of gamma/delta T cells as a bridge between the innate and the adaptive immune system, based on the interpretation that gamma/delta T cells use their T cell receptor as a pattern recognition receptor. Our increasing understanding of the ligand recognition and activation mechanisms of gamma/delta T cells also opens new perspectives for the development of gamma/delta T cell-based immunotherapies.

  2. Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study With Two Teens.

    PubMed

    DePrince, Anne P; Shirk, Stephen R

    2013-05-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports on the development of a modified CBT (mCBT) protocol that has been adapted for treating depressed adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic interpersonal events (physical/sexual abuse or witnessing domestic violence). First, we provide an empirical rationale for targeting executive function deficits and trauma-related cognitions in the mCBT protocol. Second, we present promising results from 2 community clinic cases.

  3. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  4. Chemical Tools To Monitor and Manipulate Adaptive Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Doran, Todd M; Sarkar, Mohosin; Kodadek, Thomas

    2016-05-18

    Methods to monitor and manipulate the immune system are of enormous clinical interest. For example, the development of vaccines represents one of the earliest and greatest accomplishments of the biomedical research enterprise. More recently, drugs capable of "reawakening" the immune system to cancer have generated enormous excitement. But, much remains to be done. All drugs available today that manipulate the immune system cannot distinguish between "good" and "bad" immune responses and thus drive general and systemic immune suppression or activation. Indeed, with the notable exception of vaccines, our ability to monitor and manipulate antigen-specific immune responses is in its infancy. Achieving this finer level of control would be highly desirable. For example, it might allow the pharmacological editing of pathogenic immune responses without restricting the ability of the immune system to defend against infection. On the diagnostic side, a method to comprehensively monitor the circulating, antigen-specific antibody population could provide a treasure trove of clinically useful biomarkers, since many diseases expose the immune system to characteristic molecules that are deemed foreign and elicit the production of antibodies against them. This Perspective will discuss the state-of-the-art of this area with a focus on what we consider seminal opportunities for the chemistry community to contribute to this important field.

  5. Graded behavioral responses and habituation to sound in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Samson, Julia E; Mooney, T Aran; Gussekloo, Sander W S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-12-15

    Sound is a widely available and vital cue in aquatic environments, yet most bioacoustic research has focused on marine vertebrates, leaving sound detection in invertebrates poorly understood. Cephalopods are an ecologically key taxon that likely use sound and may be impacted by increasing anthropogenic ocean noise, but little is known regarding their behavioral responses or adaptations to sound stimuli. These experiments identify the acoustic range and levels that elicit a wide range of secondary defense behaviors such as inking, jetting and rapid coloration change. Secondarily, it was found that cuttlefish habituate to certain sound stimuli. The present study examined the behavioral responses of 22 cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to pure-tone pips ranging from 80 to 1000 Hz with sound pressure levels of 85-188 dB re. 1 μPa rms and particle accelerations of 0-17.1 m s(-2). Cuttlefish escape responses (inking, jetting) were observed between frequencies of 80 and 300 Hz and at sound levels above 140 dB re. 1 μPa rms and 0.01 m s(-2) (0.74 m s(-2) for inking responses). Body patterning changes and fin movements were observed at all frequencies and sound levels. Response intensity was dependent upon stimulus amplitude and frequency, suggesting that cuttlefish also possess loudness perception with a maximum sensitivity around 150 Hz. Cuttlefish habituated to repeated 200 Hz tone pips, at two sound intensities. Total response inhibition was not reached, however, and a basal response remained present in most animals. The graded responses provide a loudness sensitivity curve and suggest an ecological function for sound use in cephalopods.

  6. Behavioral Avoidance - Will Physiological Insecticide Resistance Level of Insect Strains Affect Their Oviposition and Movement Responses?

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Baissac, Olivier; Nansen, Maria; Powis, Kevin; Baker, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural organisms, such as insect herbivores, provide unique opportunities for studies of adaptive evolutionary processes, including effects of insecticides on movement and oviposition behavior. In this study, Brassica leaves were treated with one of two non-systemic insecticides and exposed to two individual strains (referred to as single or double resistance) of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) (DBM) exhibiting physiological resistance. Behavioral responses by these two strains were compared as part of characterizing the relative effect of levels of physiological resistance on the likelihood of insects showing signs of behavioral avoidance. For each DBM strain, we used choice bioassays to quantify two possible types of behavioral avoidance: 1) females ovipositing predominantly on leaf surfaces without insecticides, and 2) larvae avoiding insecticide-treated leaf surfaces. In three-choice bioassays (leaves with no pesticide, 50% coverage with pesticide, or 100% coverage with pesticide), females from the single resistance DBM strain laid significantly more eggs on water treated leaves compared to leaves with 100% insecticide coverage (both gamma-cyhalothrin and spinetoram). Females from the double resistance DBM strain also laid significantly more eggs on water treated leaves compared to leaves with 100% gamma-cyhalothrin, while moths did not adjust their oviposition behavior in response to spinetoram. Larvae from the single resistance DBM strain showed a significant increase in mobility in response to both insecticides and avoided insecticide-treated portions of leaves when given a choice. On the other hand, DBM larvae from the double resistance strain showed a significant decrease in mobility in response to insecticides, and they did not avoid insecticide-treated portions of leaves when given a choice. Our results suggest that pest populations with physiological resistance may show behavioral avoidance, as resistant females avoided oviposition on

  7. Behavioral Avoidance - Will Physiological Insecticide Resistance Level of Insect Strains Affect Their Oviposition and Movement Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Nansen, Christian; Baissac, Olivier; Nansen, Maria; Powis, Kevin; Baker, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural organisms, such as insect herbivores, provide unique opportunities for studies of adaptive evolutionary processes, including effects of insecticides on movement and oviposition behavior. In this study, Brassica leaves were treated with one of two non-systemic insecticides and exposed to two individual strains (referred to as single or double resistance) of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) (DBM) exhibiting physiological resistance. Behavioral responses by these two strains were compared as part of characterizing the relative effect of levels of physiological resistance on the likelihood of insects showing signs of behavioral avoidance. For each DBM strain, we used choice bioassays to quantify two possible types of behavioral avoidance: 1) females ovipositing predominantly on leaf surfaces without insecticides, and 2) larvae avoiding insecticide-treated leaf surfaces. In three-choice bioassays (leaves with no pesticide, 50% coverage with pesticide, or 100% coverage with pesticide), females from the single resistance DBM strain laid significantly more eggs on water treated leaves compared to leaves with 100% insecticide coverage (both gamma-cyhalothrin and spinetoram). Females from the double resistance DBM strain also laid significantly more eggs on water treated leaves compared to leaves with 100% gamma-cyhalothrin, while moths did not adjust their oviposition behavior in response to spinetoram. Larvae from the single resistance DBM strain showed a significant increase in mobility in response to both insecticides and avoided insecticide-treated portions of leaves when given a choice. On the other hand, DBM larvae from the double resistance strain showed a significant decrease in mobility in response to insecticides, and they did not avoid insecticide-treated portions of leaves when given a choice. Our results suggest that pest populations with physiological resistance may show behavioral avoidance, as resistant females avoided oviposition on

  8. Gender differences in farmers' responses to climate change adaptation in Yongqiao District, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jianjun; Wang, Xiaomin; Gao, Yiwei

    2015-12-15

    This study examines the gender differences in farmers' responses to climate change adaption in Yongqiao District, China. A random sampling technique was used to select 220 household heads, while descriptive statistics and binary logit models were used to analyze the data obtained from the households. We determine that male and female respondents are not significantly different in their knowledge and perceptions of climate change, but there is a gender difference in adopting climate change adaptation measures. Male-headed households are more likely to adopt new technology for water conservation and to increase investment in irrigation infrastructure. The research also indicates that the adaptation decisions of male and female heads are influenced by different sets of factors. The findings of this research help to elucidate the determinants of climate change adaptation decisions for male and female-headed households and the strategic interventions necessary for effective adaptation.

  9. Allocation of household responsibilities influences change in dietary behavior.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Candace C; Sapp, Amy; Berkman, Lisa F; Li, Yi; Sorensen, Glorian

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to understand dietary behavior as situated within the household, an important social context that serves to either inhibit or promote a healthy diet. Data were collected as part of a worksite-based health behavior intervention trial that took place between 1999 and 2003 in small manufacturing businesses in New England, U.S.A. The subjects were a cohort of 790 male and female workers who participated in the intervention trial and responded to both the baseline and the 18-month follow-up surveys. Regression models were built to determine whether proportion of household responsibility predicted daily fruit and vegetable consumption and weekly red meat consumption at 18-months. The results indicate that participants who were responsible for earning most or all of the money to support the household ate more servings of fruits and vegetables per day at 18-month follow-up than those without this responsibility. Further, those responsible for earning about half ate fewer servings of red meat than those responsible for earning most or all of the money to support the household. The results for red meat consumption differed by sex, such that responsibility for more than half or less than half of the money to support the household had different effects for men and women. The results of this study demonstrate that the distribution of household responsibilities can be an important factor in determining the effectiveness of a worksite-based health behavior intervention and that these effects can be different for women versus men.

  10. Plant volatiles influence electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Lygus hesperus.

    PubMed

    Williams, Livy; Blackmer, Jacquelyn L; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Zhu, Su

    2010-05-01

    Previous laboratory studies have shown that the mirid Lygus hesperus is attracted to volatiles emitted from alfalfa; feeding damage increases the amounts of several of these volatiles, and visual cues can enhance attraction further. The present study tested single plant volatiles in electrophysiological and behavioral trials with L. hesperus. Electroantennogram (EAG) analyses indicated that antennae responded to most plant volatiles included in the test, and that when gender differences were observed, males usually were more responsive than females. Antennal responses to the alcohols ((E)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenol, 1-hexanol), the acetate (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, and the aldehyde (E)-2-hexenal were among the strongest. Moderate responses were observed for (E)-beta-ocimene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, (+/-)-linalool, and methyl salicylate. A dose dependent response was not observed for several terpenes (beta-myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, (+)-limonene, or both (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-alpha-pinenes). EAG responses, however, were not always consistent with behavioral assays. In Y-tube bioassays, males did not exhibit a positive behavioral response to any of the compounds tested. Instead, males were repelled by (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, (+/-)-linalool, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and methyl salicylate. In contrast, female L. hesperus moved upwind towards (R)-(+)-alpha-pinene, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and showed a negative response towards (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (S)-(-)-alpha-pinene, and methyl salicylate. This study emphasizes the use of multiple approaches to better understand host plant finding in the generalist herbivore L. hesperus.

  11. Behavior Change Interventions to Improve the Health of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: A Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Emma M; Liu, Jing Jing; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark RD; Netto, Gina; Wabnitz, Cecile; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Context Adapting behavior change interventions to meet the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations has the potential to enhance their effectiveness in the target populations. But because there is little guidance on how best to undertake these adaptations, work in this field has proceeded without any firm foundations. In this article, we present our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches as a framework for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers interested in delivering behavior change interventions to ethnically diverse, underserved populations in the United Kingdom. Methods We undertook a mixed-method program of research on interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and promoting healthy eating that had been adapted to improve salience and acceptability for African-, Chinese-, and South Asian–origin minority populations. This program included a systematic review (reported using PRISMA criteria), qualitative interviews, and a realist synthesis of data. Findings We compiled a richly informative data set of 161 publications and twenty-six interviews detailing the adaptation of behavior change interventions and the contexts in which they were undertaken. On the basis of these data, we developed our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches, which contains (1) a forty-six-item Typology of Adaptation Approaches; (2) a Pathway to Adaptation, which shows how to use the Typology to create a generic behavior change intervention; and (3) RESET, a decision tool that provides practical guidance on which adaptations to use in different contexts. Conclusions Our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches provides the first evidence-derived suite of materials to support the development, design, implementation, and reporting of health behavior change interventions for minority groups. The Tool Kit now needs prospective, empirical evaluation in a range of intervention and population settings. PMID:24320170

  12. Global transcriptional, physiological, and metabolite analyses of the responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris hildenborough to salt adaptation.

    PubMed

    He, Zhili; Zhou, Aifen; Baidoo, Edward; He, Qiang; Joachimiak, Marcin P; Benke, Peter; Phan, Richard; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Hemme, Christopher L; Huang, Katherine; Alm, Eric J; Fields, Matthew W; Wall, Judy; Stahl, David; Hazen, Terry C; Keasling, Jay D; Arkin, Adam P; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-03-01

    The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by performing physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. Salt adaptation was reflected by increased expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). The expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell growth, and phage structures was decreased. Transcriptome profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation were compared with transcriptome profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure). Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine accumulated under salt adaptation conditions, suggesting that these amino acids may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. Addition of amino acids (glutamate, alanine, and tryptophan) or yeast extract to the growth medium relieved salt-related growth inhibition. A conceptual model that links the observed results to currently available knowledge is proposed to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl levels.

  13. The adaptive evolution of plasticity: phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance responses.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Johanna; Stinchcombe, John R; Heschel, M Shane; Huber, Heidrun

    2003-07-01

    Many plants display a characteristic suite of developmental "shade avoidance" responses, such as stem elongation and accelerated reproduction, to the low ratio of red to far-red wavelengths (R:FR) reflected or transmitted from green vegetation. This R:FR cue of crowding and vegetation shade is perceived by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. Phytochrome-mediated responses provide an ideal system for investigating the adaptive evolution of phenotypic plasticity in natural environments. The molecular and developmental mechanisms underlying shade avoidance responses are well studied, and testable ecological hypotheses exist for their adaptive significance. Experimental manipulation of phenotypes demonstrates that shade avoidance responses may be adaptive, resulting in phenotypes with high relative fitness in the environments that induce those phenotypes. The adaptive value of shade avoidance depends upon the competitive environment, resource availability, and the reliability of the R:FR cue for predicting the selective environment experienced by an induced phenotype. Comparative studies and a reciprocal transplant experiment with Impatiens capensis provide evidence of adaptive divergence in shade avoidance responses between woodland and clearing habitats, which may result from population differences in the frequency of selection on shade avoidance traits, as well as differences in the reliability of the R:FR cue. Recent rapid progress in elucidating phytochrome signaling pathways in the genetic model Arabidopsis thaliana and other species now provides the opportunity for studying how selection on shade avoidance traits in natural environments acts upon the molecular mechanisms underlying natural phenotypic variation.

  14. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    PubMed

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  15. The Driving Behavior Survey as a measure of behavioral stress responses to MVA-related PTSD.

    PubMed

    Baker, Aaron S; Litwack, Scott D; Clapp, Joshua D; Beck, J Gayle; Sloan, Denise M

    2014-03-01

    Numerous treatments are available that address the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are a number of related behavioral stress responses that are not assessed with PTSD measures, yet these behavioral stress responses affect quality of life. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a recently developed measure of behavioral stress response, the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), was sensitive to change associated with treatment among a group of participants diagnosed with PTSD. The DBS indexes anxious driving behavior, which is frequently observed among individuals with motor vehicle accident-related PTSD. Participants (n=40) were racially diverse adults (M age=40.78, 63% women) who met diagnostic criteria for motor vehicle accident-related PTSD. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that participants who were assigned to a brief, exposure-based intervention displayed significant reductions on the DBS subscales relative to participants assigned to the wait-list control condition (r=.41-.43). Moreover, mediational analyses indicated that the observed reductions on the DBS subscales were not better accounted for by reductions in PTSD. Taken together, these findings suggest that the DBS subscales are sensitive to changes associated with PTSD treatment and can be used to augment outcome assessment in PTSD treatment trials.

  16. The driving behavior survey as a measure of behavioral stress responses to MVA-related PTSD.

    PubMed

    Baker, Aaron S; Litwack, Scott D; Clapp, Joshua D; Beck, Gayle; Sloan, Denise M

    2014-05-01

    Numerous treatments are available that address the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are a number of related behavioral stress responses that are not assessed with PTSD measures, yet these behavioral stress responses affect quality of life. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a recently developed measure of behavioral stress response, the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), was sensitive to change associated with treatment among a group of participants diagnosed with PTSD. The DBS indexes anxious driving behavior, which is frequently observed among individuals with motor vehicle accident-related PTSD. Participants (n = 40) were racially diverse adults (M age = 40.78, 63% women) who met diagnostic criteria for motor vehicle accident-related PTSD. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that participants who were assigned to a brief, exposure-based intervention displayed significant reductions on the DBS subscales relative to participants assigned to the wait-list control condition (r = .41–.43). Moreover, mediational analyses indicated that the observed reductions on the DBS subscales were not better accounted for by reductions in PTSD. Taken together, these findings suggest that the DBS subscales are sensitive to changes associated with PTSD treatment and can be used to augment outcome assessment in PTSD treatment trials.

  17. Understanding the adaptive response in vertebrates: the phenomenon of ease and ease response during post-stress acclimation.

    PubMed

    Subhash Peter, M C

    2013-01-15

    Vertebrates have evolved mechanisms to perceive stressors that arise either from their body or from the environment. Consequently, a state of stress and stress response occur in fish which is characterized by a disturbed physiological homeostasis. The pattern of stress response becomes complex as a result of neuroendocrine involvement and shows varied magnitudes in fishes depending on the nature and the severity of stressors. The integrated and compensatory physiological modifications in fishes during their early phase of adaptive response favor them to accommodate the imposed stressor through the process of stress acclimation. In contrast, with the direction of neuroendocrine signals, a phase of recovery often called post-stress acclimation occurs if the animal gets away from the stressor exposure. During this late phase of adaptive response, physiological modifications operate in favor of the animal that reduces the magnitude of stress response and finally to a phase of normality as animals possess the urge to correct its disrupted homeostasis. The phenomenon of ease and its response thus reduces the allostatic load, resets the homeostatic state through physiologic processes and corrects the stress-induced homeostatic disturbance with the aid of neuroendocrine signals. Ample evidences are now available to support this novel concept of ease and ease response where mitigation of the intensity of stress response occurs physiologically. Treatment of fish with melatonin or serotonin precursor tryptophan can modify the magnitude of stress response as evident in the pattern of tested physiological indices. In addition to cortisol, thyroid hormone as a major stress modifier hormone is involved in the regulation of ease response in fish probably due to the mechanisms involving inter-hormonal interference. Understanding the mechanisms of adaptive responses in vertebrates thus warranties more studies on the physiology of ease and its response.

  18. Quantifying Rates of Evolutionary Adaptation in Response to Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Sunday, Jennifer M.; Crim, Ryan N.; Harley, Christopher D. G.; Hart, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The global acidification of the earth's oceans is predicted to impact biodiversity via physiological effects impacting growth, survival, reproduction, and immunology, leading to changes in species abundances and global distributions. However, the degree to which these changes will play out critically depends on the evolutionary rate at which populations will respond to natural selection imposed by ocean acidification, which remains largely unquantified. Here we measure the potential for an evolutionary response to ocean acidification in larval development rate in two coastal invertebrates using a full-factorial breeding design. We show that the sea urchin species Strongylocentrotus franciscanus has vastly greater levels of phenotypic and genetic variation for larval size in future CO2 conditions compared to the mussel species Mytilus trossulus. Using these measures we demonstrate that S. franciscanus may have faster evolutionary responses within 50 years of the onset of predicted year-2100 CO2 conditions despite having lower population turnover rates. Our comparisons suggest that information on genetic variation, phenotypic variation, and key demographic parameters, may lend valuable insight into relative evolutionary potentials across a large number of species. PMID:21857962

  19. [Translation and adaptation of the Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire: a Brazilian version].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Roberta Paula Schell; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Machado, Mônica; Williams, Anna Virginia; Matte, Breno Córdova; Pechansky, Flavio; Rohde, Luis Augusto Paim; Szobot, Claudia Maciel

    2012-06-01

    Traffic accidents are a leading cause of death in young adults. In Brazil, traffic accidents are proportionally more prevalent among motorcyclists as compared to automobile drivers. Although numerous data indicate that individual characteristics are involved in traffic accident risk, there is no instrument in Brazil to assess motorcyclists' traffic behavior. The authors thus proposed to perform translation and cultural adaptation of the Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ) into Brazilian Portuguese. The translation process consisted of: two independent translations into Brazilian Portuguese; unification of the translations; back-translation into English; formal assessment of semantic equivalence; application of a summary version in a convenience sample of motorcyclists; generation of a final version; and back-translation and submission to the original author, who approved this version. The Brazilian version maintained its semantic equivalence and was accepted by the convenience sample, an important characteristic for a self-completed instrument. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the questionnaire's psychometric properties in the Brazilian cultural context.

  20. Effects of local adaptation and interspecific competition on species' responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Bocedi, Greta; Atkins, Katherine E; Liao, Jishan; Henry, Roslyn C; Travis, Justin M J; Hellmann, Jessica J

    2013-09-01

    Local adaptation and species interactions have been shown to affect geographic ranges; therefore, we need models of climate impact that include both factors. To identify possible dynamics of species when including these factors, we ran simulations of two competing species using an individual-based, coupled map-lattice model using a linear climatic gradient that varies across latitude and is warmed over time. Reproductive success is governed by an individual's adaptation to local climate as well as its location relative to global constraints. In exploratory experiments varying the strength of adaptation and competition, competition reduces genetic diversity and slows range change, although the two species can coexist in the absence of climate change and shift in the absence of competitors. We also found that one species can drive the other to extinction, sometimes long after climate change ends. Weak selection on local adaptation and poor dispersal ability also caused surfing of cooler-adapted phenotypes from the expanding margin backwards, causing loss of warmer-adapted phenotypes. Finally, geographic ranges can become disjointed, losing centrally-adapted genotypes. These initial results suggest that the interplay between local adaptation and interspecific competition can significantly influence species' responses to climate change, in a way that demands future research.

  1. Cold stimulates the behavioral response to hypoxia in newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Bieke; Bouslama, Myriam; Matrot, Boris; Rotrou, Yann; Vardon, Guy; Lofaso, Frédéric; Van den Bergh, Omer; D'Hooge, Rudi; Gallego, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    In newborns, hypoxia elicits increased ventilation, arousal followed by defensive movements, and cries. Cold is known to affect the ventilatory response to hypoxia, but whether it affects the arousal response remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of cold on the ventilatory and arousal responses to hypoxia in newborn mice. We designed an original platform measuring noninvasively and simultaneously the breathing pattern by whole body plethysmography, body temperature by infrared thermography, as well as motor and ultrasonic vocal (USV) responses. Six-day-old mice were exposed twice to 10% O(2) for 3 min at either cold temperature (26 degrees C) or thermoneutrality (33 degrees C). At 33 degrees C, hypoxia elicited a marked increase in ventilation followed by a small ventilatory decline, small motor response, and almost no USVs. Body temperature was not influenced by hypoxia, and oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) displayed minimal changes. At 26 degrees C, hypoxia elicited a slight increase in ventilation with a large ventilatory decline and a large drop of Vo(2). This response was accompanied by marked USV and motor responses. Hypoxia elicited a small decrease in temperature after the return to normoxia, thus precluding any causal influence on the motor and USV responses to hypoxia. In conclusion, cold stimulated arousal and stress responses to hypoxia, while depressing hypoxic hyperpnea. Arousal is an important defense mechanism against sleep-disordered breathing. The dissociation between ventilatory and behavioral responses to hypoxia suggests that deficits in the arousal response associated with sleep breathing disorders cannot be attributed to a depressed hypoxic response.

  2. Dynamic brain mapping of behavior change: tracking response initiation and inhibition to changes in reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Schlund, Michael W; Magee, Sandy; Hudgins, Caleb D

    2012-10-01

    Adaptive behavior change is supported by executive control processes distributed throughout a prefrontal-striatal-parietal network. Yet, the temporal dynamics of regions in the network have not been characterized. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tracked changes brain activation while subjects initiated and inhibited responding in accordance with changes in reinforcement rate. During imaging, subjects completed a free-operant task that involved repeated transitions between fixed-ratio reinforcement and extinction (RF:EXT), where reinforcement rate decreased and responding was inhibited, and between extinction and fixed-ratio reinforcement (EXT:RF), where reinforcement rate increased and responding was initiated. Our whole-brain temporal assessment revealed that transitions which required initiating and inhibiting responding prompted positive phasic responses in a prefrontal-parietal network, the insula and thalamus. However, response initiation prompted by an increase in reinforcement rate during the EXT:RF transition elicited positive phasic responses in reward-sensitive striatal regions. Furthermore, response inhibition prompted by a decrease in reinforcement rate during the RF:EXT transition elicited negative phasic responses in ventral frontal regions sensitive to value and contingency. Our findings highlight the temporal dynamics of a brain network that supports behavioral changes (initiation and inhibition) resulting from changes in local reinforcement rates.

  3. Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Agarwal, Abhishek K.; Beebe, David J.; Jiang, Hongrui

    2006-08-01

    Despite its compactness, the human eye can easily focus on different distances by adjusting the shape of its lens with the help of ciliary muscles. In contrast, traditional man-made optical systems achieve focusing by physical displacement of the lenses used. But in recent years, advances in miniaturization technology have led to optical systems that no longer require complicated mechanical systems to tune and adjust optical performance. These systems have found wide use in photonics, displays and biomedical systems. They are either based on arrays of microlenses with fixed focal lengths, or use external control to adjust the microlens focal length. An intriguing example is the tunable liquid lens, where electrowetting or external pressure manipulates the shape of a liquid droplet and thereby adjusts its optical properties. Here we demonstrate a liquid lens system that allows for autonomous focusing. The central component is a stimuli-responsive hydrogel integrated into a microfluidic system and serving as the container for a liquid droplet, with the hydrogel simultaneously sensing the presence of stimuli and actuating adjustments to the shape-and hence focal length-of the droplet. By working at the micrometre scale where ionic diffusion and surface tension scale favourably, we can use pinned liquid-liquid interfaces to obtain stable devices and realize response times of ten to a few tens of seconds. The microlenses, which can have a focal length ranging from -∞ to +∞ (divergent and convergent), are also readily integrated into arrays that may find use in applications such as sensing, medical diagnostics and lab-on-a-chip technologies.

  4. Endogenous nociceptin system involvement in stress responses and anxiety behavior.

    PubMed

    Fulford, Allison Jane

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms underpinning stress-related behavior and dysfunctional events leading to the expression of neuropsychiatric disorders remain incompletely understood. Novel candidates involved in the neuromodulation of stress, mediated both peripherally and centrally, provide opportunities for improved understanding of the neurobiological basis of stress disorders and may represent targets for novel therapeutic development. This chapter provides an overview of the mechanisms by which the opioid-related peptide, nociceptin, regulates the neuroendocrine stress response and stress-related behavior. In our research, we have employed nociceptin receptor antagonists to investigate endogenous nociceptin function in tonic control over stress-induced activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Nociceptin demonstrates a wide range of functions, including modulation of psychological and inflammatory stress responses, modulation of neurotransmitter release, immune homeostasis, in addition to anxiety and cognitive behaviors. Greater appreciation of the complexity of limbic-hypothalamic neuronal networks, together with attention toward gender differences and the roles of steroid hormones, provides an opportunity for deeper understanding of the importance of the nociceptin system in the context of the neurobiology of stress and behavior.

  5. Behavioral responses to resource heterogeneity can accelerate biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Lutscher, Frithjof; Musgrave, Jeffrey A

    2017-02-14

    The abundance and spatial distribution of resources in a landscape and the behavioral response of individuals determines whether and how fast an invasive species spreads in an environment. Whether and how landscape manipulations can be used to slow invasive species is of great interest, in particular in forest ecosystems, where tree removal, thinning, and increasing tree diversity are discussed as management options. Classically, the focus is on availability and accessibility of resources; more recent considerations include individual-level behavioral movement responses to a spatially heterogeneous resource distribution. We derive a novel model for insect-host dynamics that includes three common behavioral aspects of foraging: higher movement rate in resource-poor areas, lower ovipositioning rate in resource poor areas, and movement preference for resource-rich areas. We show that each of these basic mechanisms can increase the speed of invasion in a source-sink landscape above that in a homogeneous landscape with larger overall resource availability. We parameterize our model and illustrate our results with data for Emerald ash borer, a recent highly destructive forest pest in North America. Our results highlight the importance of empirical work on movement behavior in different landscape types and near the interface between types. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex differences in autism spectrum disorders: does sex moderate the pathway from clinical symptoms to adaptive behavior?

    PubMed

    Mandic-Maravic, Vanja; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Kostic, Milutin; Aleksic-Hil, Olivera; Radosavljev-Kircanski, Jelena; Mincic, Teodora; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

    2015-05-19

    We explored sex differences in diagnostic categories, clinical symptoms and adaptive behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders, as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical and adaptive caracteristics. The study involved 108 patients (83 males, 6.73 ± 4.33 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment included ADI-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. Males were more often diagnosed with typical autism. There were no sex differences in the autistic symptoms, while females showed better functioning in Daily living skills, without reaching statistically significant difference (p = 0.062). We have found different associations of autistic symptoms with different aspects of adaptive behavior in males and females. Social reciprocity in females correlated with social domain of adaptive behavior, in a positive direction. Our findings have shown that although there are no sex differences in autistic symptoms, females tend to be somewhat more functional, and are also less frequently diagnosed with typical autism. Our results have also shown that sex might moderate the way clinical symptoms are expressed in adaptive behavior. Social reciprocity might be the core feature regarding sex differences in ASD. Our findings might have diagnostic and therapeutical implications, pointing out to the need for individualized, sex-specific treatment in this group of disorders.

  7. Children with Autism and Attention Difficulties: A Pilot Study of the Association between Sensory, Motor, and Adaptive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mattard-Labrecque, Carolanne; Ben Amor, Leila; Couture, Mélanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study aimed to compare sensory processing, motor skills and adaptive behaviors in children with a double diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (ASD+ADHD) with children with ADHD alone and to examine the association of sensory processing and motor skills with adaptive behaviors (self-care). Method: Thirty children aged 5–14 years diagnosed with ASD+ADHD (n = 13) or ADHD (n = 17) were evaluated on their sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Analysis of covariance compared the groups on these dimensions. Correlation analyses examined the association between sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Results: Compared to children with ADHD alone, children with ASD+ADHD had poorer skills in sensory processing (p < 0.001), motor (p = 0.001) and adaptive behaviors (p < 0.001). For all children, increased autonomy in self-care was correlated with better sensory processing (p < 0.001) and motor skills (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Children with ASD+ADHD have poorer sensory processing, motor and adaptive skills than those with ADHD alone. Sensory processing and motor deficits were negatively associated with autonomy in self-care. Interventions aiming to improve sensory processing and motor skills and autonomy in self-care should become important targets for these children. PMID:23667360

  8. Cognitive Abilities, Social Adaptation, and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: Specific Cascade Effects Across Development.

    PubMed

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H

    2016-11-04

    Children's and adolescents' cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors are broadly associated with each other at the bivariate level; however, the direction, ordering, and uniqueness of these associations have yet to be identified. Developmental cascade models are particularly well-suited to (1) discern unique pathways among psychological domains and (2) model stability in and covariation among constructs, allowing for conservative tests of longitudinal associations. The current study aimed to identify specific cascade effects among children's cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors, beginning in preschool and extending through adolescence. Children (46.2 % female) and mothers (N = 351 families) provided data when children were 4, 10, and 14 years old. Cascade effects highlighted significant stability in these domains. Unique longitudinal associations were identified between (1) age-10 cognitive abilities and age-14 social adaptation, (2) age-4 social adaptation and age-10 externalizing behavior, and (3) age-10 externalizing behavior and age-14 social adaptation. These findings suggest that children's social adaptation in preschool and externalizing behavior in middle childhood may be ideal intervention targets to enhance adolescent well-being.

  9. Adaptive response in animals exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: some underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Tong, Jian

    2014-04-22

    During the last few years, our research group has been investigating the phenomenon of adaptive response in animals exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields. The results from several separate studies indicated a significant increase in survival, decreases in genetic damage as well as oxidative damage and, alterations in several cellular processes in mice pre-exposed to radiofrequency fields and subsequently subjected to sub-lethal or lethal doses of γ-radiation or injected with bleomycin, a radiomimetic chemical mutagen. These observations indicated the induction of adaptive response providing the animals the ability to resist subsequent damage. Similar studies conducted by independent researchers in mice and rats have supported our observation on increased survival. In this paper, we have presented a brief review of all of our own and other independent investigations on radiofrequency fields-induced adaptive response and some underlying mechanisms discussed.

  10. Concluding remarks: nutritional strategies to support the adaptive response to prolonged exercise training.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Luc J C; Tipton, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition plays a key role in allowing the numerous training hours to be translated into useful adaptive responses of various tissues in the individual athlete. Research over the last decade has shown many examples of the impact of dietary interventions to modulate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Proper nutritional coaching should be applied throughout both training and competition, each with their specific requirements regarding nutrient provision. Such dietary support will improve exercise training efficiency and, as such, further increase performance capacity. Here, we provide an overview on the properties of various nutritional interventions that may be useful to support the adaptive response to exercise training and competition and, as such, to augment exercise training efficiency.

  11. A lack of response of the financial behaviors of biodiversity conservation nonprofits to changing economic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Eric R; Boyer, Alison G; Armsworth, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of conservation organizations is determined in part by how they adapt to changing conditions. Over the previous decade, economic conditions in the United States (US) showed marked variation including a period of rapid growth followed by a major recession. We examine how biodiversity conservation nonprofits in the US responded to these changes through their financial behaviors, focusing on a sample of 90 biodiversity conservation nonprofits and the largest individual organization (The Nature Conservancy; TNC). For the 90 sampled organizations, an analysis of financial ratios derived from tax return data revealed little response to economic conditions. Similarly, more detailed examination of conservation expenditures and land acquisition practices of TNC revealed only one significant relationship with economic conditions: TNC accepted a greater proportion of conservation easements as donated in more difficult economic conditions. Our results suggest that the financial behaviors of US biodiversity conservation nonprofits are unresponsive to economic conditions. PMID:25512840

  12. Providing Field Support for the Behavior Response Study (BRS-08)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    pp. Evans, D.I. and G.R. England. (2001) Joint interim report Bahamas marine mammal stranding event of 15 – 16 March 2000. National Oceanographic...Providing Field Support for the Behavior Response Study (BRS-08) Diane Elaine Claridge Bahamas Marine Mammal Research Organisation P.O. Box AB...took place in 2008, known as BRS-08. Specific objectives were: 1) To work with the Marine Mammal Monitoring (M3R) program at the Atlantic Undersea

  13. Response to Intervention for Social Behavior: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawken, Leanne S.; Vincent, Claudia G.; Schumann, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the three-tiered response-to-intervention (RtI) model is to catch students who are at risk early and to provide an appropriate level of intervention. Although RtI has been recommended for academic and social behavior, to date there has been little discussion about the differences associated with implementing RtI across these domains.…

  14. Brief Report: Examination of Correlates of Adaptive Behavior in Children with HFASD using the BASC-2 Parent Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Christin A; Donnelly, James P; Rodgers, Jonathan D; Thomeer, Marcus L; Lopata, Christopher; Jordan, Allyson K

    2017-02-10

    This study extended the research on correlates of adaptive functioning of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2). Specifically, this study investigated the relationships between adaptive behavior and age, IQ, and ASD symptomology, in a well-characterized sample of 119 children with HFASD, ages 6-11 years. Results revealed age and IQ were not significantly correlated with adaptive ability. However, total autism symptoms [measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)], as well as ASD-social symptoms were negatively correlated with adaptive ability. Mean comparisons revealed that participants falling into the clinically-significant range of the BASC-2 Adaptive Skills Composite (ASC) displayed significantly greater levels of both overall and social ASD symptoms.

  15. Innate and adaptive antifungal immune responses: partners on an equal footing.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Mawieh

    2012-05-01

    Adaptive immunity has long been regarded as the major player in protection against most fungal infections. Mounting evidence suggest however, that both innate and adaptive responses intricately collaborate to produce effective antifungal protection. Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in initiating and orchestrating antifungal immunity; neutrophils, macrophages and other phagocytes also participate in recognising and eliminating fungal pathogens. Adaptive immunity provides a wide range of effector and regulatory responses against fungal infections. Th1 responses protect against most forms of mycoses but they associate with significant inflammation and limited pathogen persistence. By contrast, Th2 responses enhance persistence of and tolerance to fungal infections thus permitting the generation of long-lasting immunological memory. Although the role of Th17 cytokines in fungal immunity is not fully understood, they can enhance proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses or play a regulatory role in fungal immunity all depending on the pathogen, site/phase of infection and host immunostatus. T regulatory cells balance the activities of various Th cell subsets thereby permitting inflammation and protection on the one hand and allowing for tolerance and memory on the other. Here, recent developments in fungal immunity research are reviewed as means of tracing the emergence of a refined paradigm where innate and adaptive responses are viewed in the same light.

  16. Ebola Virus Altered Innate and Adaptive Immune Response Signalling Pathways: Implications for Novel Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) arise attention for their impressive lethality by the poor immune response and high inflammatory reaction in the patients. It causes a severe hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates of up to 90%. The mechanism underlying this lethal outcome is poorly understood. In 2014, a major outbreak of Ebola virus spread amongst several African countries, including Leone, Sierra, and Guinea. Although infections only occur frequently in Central Africa, but the virus has the potential to spread globally. Presently, there is no vaccine or treatment is available to counteract Ebola virus infections due to poor understanding of its interaction with the immune system. Accumulating evidence indicates that the virus actively alters both innate and adaptive immune responses and triggers harmful inflammatory responses. In the literature, some reports have shown that alteration of immune signaling pathways could be due to the ability of EBOV to interfere with dendritic cells (DCs), which link innate and adaptive immune responses. On the other hand, some reports have demonstrated that EBOV, VP35 proteins act as interferon antagonists. So, how the Ebola virus altered the innate and adaptive immune response signaling pathways is still an open question for the researcher to be explored. Thus, in this review, I try to summarize the mechanisms of the alteration of innate and adaptive immune response signaling pathways by Ebola virus which will be helpful for designing effective drugs or vaccines against this lethal infection. Further, potential targets, current treatment and novel therapeutic approaches have also been discussed.

  17. Plasticity and genetic adaptation mediate amphibian and reptile responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Urban, Mark C; Richardson, Jonathan L; Freidenfelds, Nicole A

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation are predicted to mitigate some of the negative biotic consequences of climate change. Here, we evaluate evidence for plastic and evolutionary responses to climate variation in amphibians and reptiles via a literature review and meta-analysis. We included studies that either document phenotypic changes through time or space. Plasticity had a clear and ubiquitous role in promoting phenotypic changes in response to climate variation. For adaptive evolution, we found no direct evidence for evolution of amphibians or reptiles in response to climate change over time. However, we found many studies that documented adaptive responses to climate along spatial gradients. Plasticity provided a mixture of adaptive and maladaptive responses to climate change, highlighting that plasticity frequently, but not always, could ameliorate climate change. Based on our review, we advocate for more experiments that survey genetic changes through time in response to climate change. Overall, plastic and genetic variation in amphibians and reptiles could buffer some of the formidable threats from climate change, but large uncertainties remain owing to limited data.

  18. Plasticity and genetic adaptation mediate amphibian and reptile responses to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Mark C; Richardson, Jonathan L; Freidenfelds, Nicole A

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation are predicted to mitigate some of the negative biotic consequences of climate change. Here, we evaluate evidence for plastic and evolutionary responses to climate variation in amphibians and reptiles via a literature review and meta-analysis. We included studies that either document phenotypic changes through time or space. Plasticity had a clear and ubiquitous role in promoting phenotypic changes in response to climate variation. For adaptive evolution, we found no direct evidence for evolution of amphibians or reptiles in response to climate change over time. However, we found many studies that documented adaptive responses to climate along spatial gradients. Plasticity provided a mixture of adaptive and maladaptive responses to climate change, highlighting that plasticity frequently, but not always, could ameliorate climate change. Based on our review, we advocate for more experiments that survey genetic changes through time in response to climate change. Overall, plastic and genetic variation in amphibians and reptiles could buffer some of the formidable threats from climate change, but large uncertainties remain owing to limited data. PMID:24454550

  19. LABRADOR: a learning autonomous behavior-based robot for adaptive detection and object retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Brian; Moseley, Mark; Brookshire, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the TARDEC-funded CANINE (Cooperative Autonomous Navigation in a Networked Environment) Program, iRobot developed LABRADOR (Learning Autonomous Behavior-based Robot for Adaptive Detection and Object Retrieval). LABRADOR was based on the rugged, man-portable, iRobot PackBot unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with an explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) manipulator arm and a custom gripper. For LABRADOR, we developed a vision-based object learning and recognition system that combined a TLD (track-learn-detect) filter based on object shape features with a color-histogram-based object detector. Our vision system was able to learn in real-time to recognize objects presented to the robot. We also implemented a waypoint navigation system based on fused GPS, IMU (inertial measurement unit), and odometry data. We used this navigation capability to implement autonomous behaviors capable of searching a specified area using a variety of robust coverage strategies - including outward spiral, random bounce, random waypoint, and perimeter following behaviors. While the full system was not integrated in time to compete in the CANINE competition event, we developed useful perception, navigation, and behavior capabilities that may be applied to future autonomous robot systems.

  20. Increased anterior cingulate cortex response precedes behavioural adaptation in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Daniel; Ritschel, Franziska; King, Joseph A.; Bernardoni, Fabio; Seidel, Maria; Boehm, Ilka; Runge, Franziska; Goschke, Thomas; Roessner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N.; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterised by increased self-control, cognitive rigidity and impairments in set-shifting, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural correlates of behavioural adaptation to changes in reward contingencies in young acutely ill AN patients. Thirty-six adolescent/young adult, non-chronic female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy females completed a well-established probabilistic reversal learning task during fMRI. We analysed hemodynamic responses in empirically-defined regions of interest during positive feedback and negative feedback not followed/followed by behavioural adaptation and conducted functional connectivity analyses. Although overall task performance was comparable between groups, AN showed increased shifting after receiving negative feedback (lose-shift behaviour) and altered dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) responses as a function of feedback. Specifically, patients had increased dACC responses (which correlated with perfectionism) and task-related coupling with amygdala preceding behavioural adaption. Given the generally preserved task performance in young AN, elevated dACC responses specifically during behavioural adaption is suggestive of increased monitoring for the need to adjust performance strategies. Higher dACC-amygdala coupling and increased adaptation after negative feedback underlines this interpretation and could be related to intolerance of uncertainty which has been suggested for AN. PMID:28198813

  1. Increased anterior cingulate cortex response precedes behavioural adaptation in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Daniel; Ritschel, Franziska; King, Joseph A; Bernardoni, Fabio; Seidel, Maria; Boehm, Ilka; Runge, Franziska; Goschke, Thomas; Roessner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2017-02-13

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterised by increased self-control, cognitive rigidity and impairments in set-shifting, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural correlates of behavioural adaptation to changes in reward contingencies in young acutely ill AN patients. Thirty-six adolescent/young adult, non-chronic female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy females completed a well-established probabilistic reversal learning task during fMRI. We analysed hemodynamic responses in empirically-defined regions of interest during positive feedback and negative feedback not followed/followed by behavioural adaptation and conducted functional connectivity analyses. Although overall task performance was comparable between groups, AN showed increased shifting after receiving negative feedback (lose-shift behaviour) and altered dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) responses as a function of feedback. Specifically, patients had increased dACC responses (which correlated with perfectionism) and task-related coupling with amygdala preceding behavioural adaption. Given the generally preserved task performance in young AN, elevated dACC responses specifically during behavioural adaption is suggestive of increased monitoring for the need to adjust performance strategies. Higher dACC-amygdala coupling and increased adaptation after negative feedback underlines this interpretation and could be related to intolerance of uncertainty which has been suggested for AN.

  2. Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.; Zhou, A.; Baidoo, E.; He, Q.; Joachimiak, M. P.; Benke, P.; Phan, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wall, J.; Stahl, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Zhou, J.

    2009-12-01

    The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. The growth of D. vulgaris was inhibited by high levels of NaCl, and the growth inhibition could be relieved by the addition of exogenous amino acids (e.g., glutamate, alanine, tryptophan) or yeast extract. Salt adaptation induced the expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). Genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell motility, and phage structures were repressed. Comparison of transcriptomic profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation with those of salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure) showed some similarity as well as a significant difference. Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine were accumulated under salt adaptation, suggesting that they may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. A conceptual model is proposed to link the observed results to currently available knowledge for further understanding the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl.

  3. Behavioral responses of adult Sitophilus granarius to individual cereal volatiles.

    PubMed

    Germinara, Giacinto S; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    The antennae of Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults detect a wide variety of compounds in the odor blend of various cereal grains (Germinara et al., Tec. Molit., 53:27-34, 2002). In the present study, we looked at the behavioral responses of the granary weevil to 20 of these individual volatiles (aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and aromatics) in a two-choice pitfall olfactometer, using the aggregation pheromone and propionic acid as the attractant and repellent controls, respectively. Five doses, ranging from 1 microg to 1 mg, of each compound were tested. At least one concentration of eight compounds attracted beetles but required doses 1,000- to 5,000-fold higher than the concentration of aggregation pheromone to elicit a response. Three compounds, while attractive at lower concentrations, acted as repellents at higher doses. Twelve compounds were repellent at concentrations similar to the quantity of propionic acid that significantly repelled beetles. The data show that granary weevil adults have the ability to respond behaviorally to a wide range of cereal volatiles and that responses may change as a function of concentration. The results suggest that host finding behavior of weevils will depend on the balance of positive and negative volatile stimuli from grain as the relative concentrations of volatiles may change during storage. An understanding of how the weevils respond to such changes could be useful for the development of effective integrated pest management strategies.

  4. Model-on-Demand Predictive Control for Nonlinear Hybrid Systems With Application to Adaptive Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a data-centric modeling and predictive control approach for nonlinear hybrid systems. System identification of hybrid systems represents a challenging problem because model parameters depend on the mode or operating point of the system. The proposed algorithm applies Model-on-Demand (MoD) estimation to generate a local linear approximation of the nonlinear hybrid system at each time step, using a small subset of data selected by an adaptive bandwidth selector. The appeal of the MoD approach lies in the fact that model parameters are estimated based on a current operating point; hence estimation of locations or modes governed by autonomous discrete events is achieved automatically. The local MoD model is then converted into a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) system representation which can be used directly in a model predictive control (MPC) law for hybrid systems using multiple-degree-of-freedom tuning. The effectiveness of the proposed MoD predictive control algorithm for nonlinear hybrid systems is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive behavioral intervention problem inspired by Fast Track, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can be useful for adaptive intervention problems exhibiting both nonlinear and hybrid character. PMID:21874087

  5. A Novel Model Predictive Control Formulation for Hybrid Systems With Application to Adaptive Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel model predictive control (MPC) formulation for linear hybrid systems. The algorithm relies on a multiple-degree-of-freedom formulation that enables the user to adjust the speed of setpoint tracking, measured disturbance rejection and unmeasured disturbance rejection independently in the closed-loop system. Consequently, controller tuning is more flexible and intuitive than relying on move suppression weights as traditionally used in MPC schemes. The formulation is motivated by the need to achieve robust performance in using the algorithm in emerging applications, for instance, as a decision policy for adaptive, time-varying interventions used in behavioral health. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive intervention problem inspired by the Fast Track program, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results in the presence of simultaneous disturbances and significant plant-model mismatch are presented. These demonstrate that a hybrid MPC-based approach for this class of interventions can be tuned for desired performance under demanding conditions that resemble participant variability that is experienced in practice when applying an adaptive intervention to a population. PMID:20830213

  6. Neocortical Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine promotes rapid behavioral adaptation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Widagdo, Jocelyn; Baker-Andresen, Danay; Flavell, Charlotte R; D'Alessio, Ana; Zhang, Yi; Bredy, Timothy W

    2014-05-13

    5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a novel DNA modification that is highly enriched in the adult brain and dynamically regulated by neural activity. 5-hmC accumulates across the lifespan; however, the functional relevance of this change in 5-hmC and whether it is necessary for behavioral adaptation have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, although the ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of enzymes is known to be essential for converting methylated DNA to 5-hmC, the role of individual Tet proteins in the adult cortex remains unclear. Using 5-hmC capture together with high-throughput DNA sequencing on individual mice, we show that fear extinction, an important form of reversal learning, leads to a dramatic genome-wide redistribution of 5-hmC within the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Moreover, extinction learning-induced Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hmC is associated with the establishment of epigenetic states that promote gene expression and rapid behavioral adaptation.

  7. Adaptive and Context-Aware Reconciliation of Reactive and Pro-active Behavior in Evolving Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajcevski, Goce; Scheuermann, Peter

    One distinct characteristics of the context-aware systems is their ability to react and adapt to the evolution of the environment, which is often a result of changes in the values of various (possibly correlated) attributes. Based on these changes, reactive systems typically take corrective actions, e.g., adjusting parameters in order to maintain the desired specifications of the system's state. Pro-active systems, on the other hand, may change the mode of interaction with the environment as well as the desired goals of the system. In this paper we describe our (ECA)2 paradigm for reactive behavior with proactive impact and we present our ongoing work and vision for a system that is capable of context-aware adaptation, while ensuring the maintenance of a set of desired behavioral policies. Our main focus is on developing a formalism that provides tools for expressing normal, as well as defeasible and/or exceptional specification. However, at the same time, we insist on a sound semantics and the capability of answering hypothetical "what-if" queries. Towards this end, we introduce the high-level language L_{ EAR} that can be used to describe the dynamics of the problem domain, specify triggers under the (ECA)2 paradigm, and reason about the consequences of the possible evolutions.

  8. A Comparison of Response Cost and Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond; Maki, Amber; Barenz, Rebecca; Jurgens, Mandy; Sailer, Angela; Haugen, Meredith; Kopp, Brandon

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing the disruptive behaviors of 25 children in a preschool classroom. Using an alternating treatments design, disruptive behavior was reduced when the participants earned tokens for the absence of disruptive behavior (DRO) or…

  9. Immune adjuvants in early life: targeting the innate immune system to overcome impaired adaptive response.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Cyro Alves; Goldoni, Adriana Letícia; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2009-09-01

    The neonatal phase is a transitory period characterized by an absence of memory cells, favoring a slow adaptive response prone to tolerance effects and the development of Th2-type responses. However, when appropriately stimulated, neonates may achieve an immune response comparable with adult counterparts. One strategy to stimulate the immunological response of neonates or children in early infancy has been to explore natural or synthetic ligands of cell receptors to stimulate innate immunity. The use of adjuvants for activating different cell receptors may be the key to enhancing neonatal adaptive immunity. This review highlights recent advances in the emerging field of molecular adjuvants of innate immune response and their implications for the development of immunotherapies, with particular focus on the neonatal period.

  10. Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of Cotesia plutellae to plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, You-Nan; Gurr, Geoff M; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Plant volatiles have been demonstrated to play an important role in regulating the behavior of Cotesia plutellae, a major larval parasitoid of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, but little is currently known about the function of each volatile and their mixtures. We selected 13 volatiles of the DBM host plant, a cruciferous vegetable, to study the electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral responses of C. plutellae. EAG responses to each of the compounds generally increased with concentration. Strong EAG responses were to 100 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, nonanal and cis-3-hexenol, and 10 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal and benzaldehyde with the strongest response provoked by trans-2-hexenal at 100 μL/mL. In the Y-tube olfactometer, C. plutellae, was significantly attracted by 1 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal and benzaldehyde. β-caryophyllene, cis-3-hexenol or trans-2-hexenal significantly attracted C. plutellae at 10 μL/mL, while nonanal, benzyl alcohol, cis-3-hexenol or benzyl cyanide at 100 μL/mL significantly attracted C. plutellae. Trans-2-hexenal significantly repelled C. plutellae at 100 μL/mL. EAG of C. plutellae showed strong responses to all mixtures made of five various compounds with mixtures 3 (trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, nonanal, cis-3-hexenol, benzyl cyanide, farnesene, eucalyptol) and 4 (trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, (R)-(+)-limonene, β-ionone, farnesene, eucalyptol) significantly attracting C. plutellae. These findings demonstrate that the behavior of C. plutellae can be affected either by individual compounds or mixtures of plant volatiles, suggesting a potential of using plant volatiles to improve the efficiency of this parasitoid for biocontrol of P. xylostella.

  11. Evolution of taxis responses in virtual bacteria: non-adaptive dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Richard A; Soyer, Orkun S

    2008-05-23

    Bacteria are able to sense and respond to a variety of external stimuli, with responses that vary from stimuli to stimuli and from species to species. The best-understood is chemotaxis in the model organism Escherichia coli, where the dynamics and the structure of the underlying pathway are well characterised. It is not clear, however, how well this detailed knowledge applies to mechanisms mediating responses to other stimuli or to pathways in other species. Furthermore, there is increasing experimental evidence that bacteria integrate responses from different stimuli to generate a coherent taxis response. We currently lack a full understanding of the different pathway structures and dynamics and how this integration is achieved. In order to explore different pathway structures and dynamics that can underlie taxis responses in bacteria, we perform a computational simulation of the evolution of taxis. This approach starts with a population of virtual bacteria that move in a virtual environment based on the dynamics of the simple biochemical pathways they harbour. As mutations lead to changes in pathway structure and dynamics, bacteria better able to localise with favourable conditions gain a selective advantage. We find that a certain dynamics evolves consistently under different model assumptions and environments. These dynamics, which we call non-adaptive dynamics, directly couple tumbling probability of the cell to increasing stimuli. Dynamics that are adaptive under a wide range of conditions, as seen in the chemotaxis pathway of E. coli, do not evolve in these evolutionary simulations. However, we find that stimulus scarcity and fluctuations during evolution results in complex pathway dynamics that result both in adaptive and non-adaptive dynamics depending on basal stimuli levels. Further analyses of evolved pathway structures show that effective taxis dynamics can be mediated with as few as two components. The non-adaptive dynamics mediating taxis responses

  12. Adaptation and Implementation of a Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Girls in Child Welfare.

    PubMed

    Auslander, Wendy; McGinnis, Hollee; Tlapek, Sarah; Smith, Penny; Foster, April; Edmond, Tonya; Dunn, Jerry

    2016-12-15

    This study describes the process of adapting and implementing Girls Aspiring toward Independence (GAIN), a trauma-focused, group-based therapy adapted from Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) for girls in child welfare. Descriptive data were examined on 3 outcomes: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and social problem-solving skills among adolescent girls in the child welfare system. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to inform the adaptation of the CBITS intervention, evaluate feasibility, treatment fidelity, and acceptability, and to test the effects of the intervention. Girls ages 12 to 18 (N = 27) were randomly assigned to the experimental and usual care conditions. Participants' symptoms of PTSD and depression and social problem-solving skills were evaluated at pre, post- (3 months), and follow-up (6 months) assessments. Adaptations for GAIN were primarily related to program structure. Data indicated that the program was receptive to girls in child welfare and that it was feasible to recruit, randomize, assess outcomes, and implement with adequate fidelity. Retention was more successful among younger girls. Descriptive initial data showed greater reductions in the percentage of girls with PTSD and depression, and modest increases in social problem-solving skills in the experimental versus usual care condition. Despite the growth of knowledge in dissemination and implementation research, the application of trauma-focused empirically supported treatment to child welfare populations lags behind. A large-scale RCT is needed to determine if GAIN is effective in reducing mental health problems and social problem-solving in the child welfare population. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Position- and quantity-dependent responses in zebrafish turning behavior

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Keiko; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu; Shoji, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Neural reflexes are stereotypical automatic responses often modulated by both intrinsic and environmental factors. We report herein that zebrafish larval C-shaped turning is modulated by the stimulated position of Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons. Targeted stimulation of more anterior RB neurons produces larger trunk flexion, which anticipates adult escape behavior by coordinated turning toward the appropriate direction. We also demonstrated that turning laterality varies with the numbers of stimulated neurons. Multi-cell stimulation of RB neurons elicits contralateral turning, as seen in the touch response to physical contact, while minimum input from single-cell stimulation induces ipsilateral turning, a phenomenon not previously reported. This ipsilateral response, but not the contralateral one, is impaired by transecting the ascending neural tract known as the dorsolateral fascicule (DLF), indicating that two, distinct neural circuits trigger these two responses. Our results suggest that RB neurons transmit the position and quantity of sensory information, which are then processed separately to modulate behavioral strength and to select turning laterality. PMID:27292818

  14. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate OFF responses in light-adapted ON bipolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Ji-Jie; Gao, Fan; Wu, Samuel M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that photoreceptor synaptic inputs to depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs or ON bipolar cells) are mediated by mGluR6 receptors and those to hyperpolarizing bipolar cells (HBCs or OFF bipolar cells) are mediated by AMPA/kainate receptors. Here we show that in addition to mGluR6 receptors which mediate the sign-inverting, depolarizing light responses, subpopulations of cone-dominated and rod/cone mixed DBCs use GluR4 AMPA receptors to generate a transient sign-preserving OFF response under light adapted conditions. These AMPA receptors are located at the basal junctions postsynaptic to rods and they are silent under dark-adapted conditions, as tonic glutamate release in darkness desensitizes these receptors. Light adaptation enhances rod-cone coupling and thus allows cone photocurrents with an abrupt OFF depolarization to enter the rods. The abrupt rod depolarization triggers glutamate activation of unoccupied AMPA receptors, resulting in a transient OFF response in DBCs. It has been widely accepted that the DNQX-sensitive, OFF transient responses in retinal amacrine cells and ganglion cells are mediated exclusively by HBCs. Our results suggests that this view needs revision as AMPA receptors in subpopulations of DBCs are likely to significantly contribute to the DNQX-sensitive OFF transient responses in light-adapted third- and higher-order visual neurons. PMID:22842089

  15. The contribution of children's self-regulation and classroom quality to children's adaptive behaviors in the kindergarten classroom.

    PubMed

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Curby, Tim W; Grimm, Kevin J; Nathanson, Lori; Brock, Laura L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which children's self-regulation upon kindergarten entrance and classroom quality in kindergarten contributed to children's adaptive classroom behavior. Children's self-regulation was assessed using a direct assessment upon entrance into kindergarten. Classroom quality was measured on the basis of multiple classroom observations during the kindergarten year. Children's adaptive classroom behavior in kindergarten was assessed through teacher report and classroom observations: Teachers rated children's cognitive and behavioral self-control and work habits during the spring of the kindergarten year; observers rated children's engagement and measured off-task behavior at 2-month intervals from November to May. Hierarchical linear models revealed that children's self-regulation upon school entry in a direct assessment related to teachers' report of behavioral self-control, cognitive self-control, and work habits in the spring of the kindergarten year. Classroom quality, particularly teachers' effective classroom management, was linked to children's greater behavioral and cognitive self-control, children's higher behavioral engagement, and less time spent off-task in the classroom. Classroom quality did not moderate the relation between children's self-regulation upon school entry and children's adaptive classroom behaviors in kindergarten. The discussion considers the implications of classroom management for supporting children's early development of behavioral skills that are important in school settings.

  16. Adaptive responses reveal contemporary and future ecotypes in a desert shrub.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bryce A; Kitchen, Stanley G; Pendleton, Rosemary L; Pendleton, Burton K; Germino, Matthew J; Rehfeldt, Gerald E; Meyer, Susan E

    2014-03-01

    Interacting threats to ecosystem function, including climate change, wildfire, and invasive species necessitate native plant restoration in desert ecosystems. However, native plant restoration efforts often remain unguided by ecological genetic information. Given that many ecosystems are in flux from climate change, restoration plans need to account for both contemporary and future climates when choosing seed sources. In this study we analyze vegetative responses, including mortality, growth, and carbon isotope ratios in two blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) common gardens that included 26 populations from a range-wide collection. This shrub occupies ecotones between the warm and cold deserts of Mojave and Colorado Plateau ecoregions in western North America. The variation observed in the vegetative responses of blackbrush populations was principally explained by grouping populations by ecoregions and by regression with site-specific climate variables. Aridity weighted by winter minimum temperatures best explained vegetative responses; Colorado Plateau sites were usually colder and drier than Mojave sites. The relationship between climate and vegetative response was mapped within the boundaries of the species-climate space projected for the contemporary climate and for the decade surrounding 2060. The mapped ecological genetic pattern showed that genetic variation could be classified into cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes, with populations often separated by steep dines. These transitions are predicted to occur in both the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. While under contemporary conditions the warm-adapted ecotype occupies the majority of climate space, climate projections predict that the cool-adapted ecotype could prevail as the dominant ecotype as the climate space of blackbrush expands into higher elevations and latitudes. This study provides the framework for delineating climate change-responsive seed transfer guidelines, which are needed

  17. Adaptive responses reveal contemporary and future ecotypes in a desert shrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Bryce A.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Pendleton, Rosemary L.; Pendleton, Burton K.; Germino, Matthew J.; Rehfeldt, Gerald E.; Meyer, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Interacting threats to ecosystem function, including climate change, wildfire, and invasive species necessitate native plant restoration in desert ecosystems. However, native plant restoration efforts often remain unguided by ecological genetic information. Given that many ecosystems are in flux from climate change, restoration plans need to account for both contemporary and future climates when choosing seed sources. In this study we analyze vegetative responses, including mortality, growth, and carbon isotope ratios in two blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) common gardens that included 26 populations from a range-wide collection. This shrub occupies ecotones between the warm and cold deserts of Mojave and Colorado Plateau ecoregions in western North America. The variation observed in the vegetative responses of blackbrush populations was principally explained by grouping populations by ecoregions and by regression with site-specific climate variables. Aridity weighted by winter minimum temperatures best explained vegetative responses; Colorado Plateau sites were usually colder and drier than Mojave sites. The relationship between climate and vegetative response was mapped within the boundaries of the species–climate space projected for the contemporary climate and for the decade surrounding 2060. The mapped ecological genetic pattern showed that genetic variation could be classified into cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes, with populations often separated by steep clines. These transitions are predicted to occur in both the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. While under contemporary conditions the warm-adapted ecotype occupies the majority of climate space, climate projections predict that the cool-adapted ecotype could prevail as the dominant ecotype as the climate space of blackbrush expands into higher elevations and latitudes. This study provides the framework for delineating climate change-responsive seed transfer guidelines, which are

  18. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  19. The Treatment of Severe Self-Injurious Behavior by the Systematic Fading of Restraints: Effects of Self-Injury, Self-Restraint, Adaptive Behavior, and Behavioral Correlates of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott; Hales, Jackie; Watts, Derek; Murphy, Glynis

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effects of introducing flexion into a straight-arm splint, on self-injurious behavior (SIB), self-restraint, adaptive behavior, and behavioral correlates of affect for three individuals with severe mental retardation. For two individuals, SIB was reduced to zero, while overall level of restriction was also significantly…

  20. Modeling Light Adaptation in Circadian Clock: Prediction of the Response That Stabilizes Entrainment

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, Tetsuya; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Periods of biological clocks are close to but often different from the rotation period of the earth. Thus, the clocks of organisms must be adjusted to synchronize with day-night cycles. The primary signal that adjusts the clocks is light. In Neurospora, light transiently up-regulates the expression of specific clock genes. This molecular response to light is called light adaptation. Does light adaptation occur in other organisms? Using published experimental data, we first estimated the time course of the up-regulation rate of gene expression by light. Intriguingly, the estimated up-regulation rate was transient during light period in mice as well as Neurospora. Next, we constructed a computational model to consider how light adaptation had an effect on the entrainment of circadian oscillation to 24-h light-dark cycles. We found that cellular oscillations are more likely to be destabilized without light adaption especially when light intensity is very high. From the present results, we predict that the instability of circadian oscillations under 24-h light-dark cycles can be experimentally observed if light adaptation is altered. We conclude that the functional consequence of light adaptation is to increase the adjustability to 24-h light-dark cycles and then adapt to fluctuating environments in nature. PMID:21698191