Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive behaviour scales

  1. Integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.

  2. The frequency of actions and thoughts scale: development and psychometric validation of a measure of adaptive behaviours and cognitions.

    PubMed

    Terides, Matthew D; Dear, Blake F; Karin, Eyal; Jones, Michael P; Gandy, Milena; Fogliati, Vincent J; Kayrouz, Rony; Staples, Lauren G; Titov, Nickolai

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of an instrument that measures the frequency of adaptive behaviours and cognitions related to therapeutic change during cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Two studies were conducted. In study one, 661 participants completed an online survey with 28 items targeting adaptive behaviours and cognitions. Exploratory factor analysis performed on part of the sample (n = 451) revealed that a four-factor solution 'characterised' the data. This led to the development of a 12-item instrument, the Frequency of Actions and Thoughts Scale (FATS). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the factor structure of the FATS using the remaining sample (n = 210), which revealed an acceptable model fit. In study two, 125 participants with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, depression, or both were recruited to an Internet-delivered CBT (iCBT) treatment course. Participants completed the FATS and other measures throughout treatment, after treatment, and at three-month follow-up. Correlations and residual change scores of the FATS and its subscales with measures of anxiety, depression, behavioural activation, and CBT-related skills usage supported the construct validity of the FATS. A significant increase in FATS scores over treatment was also observed. The findings provide preliminary support for the psychometric properties of the FATS, which appears to have utility in research investigating mechanisms of change in CBT. PMID:26926484

  3. Urban behavioural adaptation.

    PubMed

    Garroway, Colin J; Sheldon, Ben C

    2013-07-01

    A large and growing proportion of the world is impacted directly by human activities; among the most extreme of these is the spread of urban environments. Environmental change associated with urbanization represents a potentially potent source of selection. While urban environments generally have lowered biodiversity, some clades seem to thrive in urban settings. For example, many members of the bird family Turdidae, known as the ‘truethrushes’ and the blackbird Turdus merula (Fig. 1) in particular, are familiar urban species. Indeed, the colonization of urban environments by blackbirds has become a textbook case study for our understanding of the many ways a wild species can deal with urbanization. In this issue, Mueller et al. (Molecular Ecology, 00, 2013, 00) add to that story by beginning to address the genetic nature of behavioural adaptation of blackbirds colonizing urban areas. They do this by testing for divergence between paired urban and rural samples at a suite of candidate genes with hypothesized effects on behaviours thought to be important for the colonization of urban environments.They find evidence for consistent patterns of divergence at an exonic microsatellite associated with the SERT gene. SERT has a number of hypothesized behavioural effects, including harm avoidance, which may be associated with tolerating the hustle and bustle of urban environments. This is among the first evidence that behavioural differences between urban and rural environments have a genetic basis and this work suggests that urban environments can in some cases exert homogeneous selection pressures. PMID:23967452

  4. Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social learning is the main mode of human adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Sarah; Perreault, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The behavioural variation among human societies is vast and unmatched in the animal world. It is unclear whether this variation is due to variation in the ecological environment or to differences in cultural traditions. Underlying this debate is a more fundamental question: is the richness of humans’ behavioural repertoire due to non-cultural mechanisms, such as causal reasoning, inventiveness, reaction norms, trial-and-error learning and evoked culture, or is it due to the population-level dynamics of cultural transmission? Here, we measure the relative contribution of environment and cultural history in explaining the behavioural variation of 172 Native American tribes at the time of European contact. We find that the effect of cultural history is typically larger than that of environment. Behaviours also persist over millennia within cultural lineages. This indicates that human behaviour is not predominantly determined by single-generation adaptive responses, contra theories that emphasize non-cultural mechanisms as determinants of human behaviour. Rather, the main mode of human adaptation is social learning mechanisms that operate over multiple generations. PMID:26085589

  5. Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social learning is the main mode of human adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sarah; Perreault, Charles

    2015-07-01

    The behavioural variation among human societies is vast and unmatched in the animal world. It is unclear whether this variation is due to variation in the ecological environment or to differences in cultural traditions. Underlying this debate is a more fundamental question: is the richness of humans' behavioural repertoire due to non-cultural mechanisms, such as causal reasoning, inventiveness, reaction norms, trial-and-error learning and evoked culture, or is it due to the population-level dynamics of cultural transmission? Here, we measure the relative contribution of environment and cultural history in explaining the behavioural variation of 172 Native American tribes at the time of European contact. We find that the effect of cultural history is typically larger than that of environment. Behaviours also persist over millennia within cultural lineages. This indicates that human behaviour is not predominantly determined by single-generation adaptive responses, contra theories that emphasize non-cultural mechanisms as determinants of human behaviour. Rather, the main mode of human adaptation is social learning mechanisms that operate over multiple generations. PMID:26085589

  6. Spatio-temporal behaviour of atomic-scale tribo-ceramic films in adaptive surface engineered nano-materials.

    PubMed

    Fox-Rabinovich, G; Kovalev, A; Veldhuis, S; Yamamoto, K; Endrino, J L; Gershman, I S; Rashkovskiy, A; Aguirre, M H; Wainstein, D L

    2015-01-01

    Atomic-scale, tribo-ceramic films associated with dissipative structures formation are discovered under extreme frictional conditions which trigger self-organization. For the first time, we present an actual image of meta-stable protective tribo-ceramics within thicknesses of a few atomic layers. A mullite and sapphire structure predominates in these phases. They act as thermal barriers with an amazing energy soaking/dissipating capacity. Less protective tribo-films cannot sustain in these severe conditions and rapidly wear out. Therefore, a functional hierarchy is established. The created tribo-films act in synergy, striving to better adapt themselves to external stimuli. Under a highly complex structure and non-equilibrium state, the upcoming generation of adaptive surface engineered nano-multilayer materials behaves like intelligent systems - capable of generating, with unprecedented efficiency, the necessary tribo-films to endure an increasingly severe environment. PMID:25740153

  7. Spatio-temporal behaviour of atomic-scale tribo-ceramic films in adaptive surface engineered nano-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox-Rabinovich, G.; Kovalev, A.; Veldhuis, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Endrino, J. L.; Gershman, I. S.; Rashkovskiy, A.; Aguirre, M. H.; Wainstein, D. L.

    2015-03-01

    Atomic-scale, tribo-ceramic films associated with dissipative structures formation are discovered under extreme frictional conditions which trigger self-organization. For the first time, we present an actual image of meta-stable protective tribo-ceramics within thicknesses of a few atomic layers. A mullite and sapphire structure predominates in these phases. They act as thermal barriers with an amazing energy soaking/dissipating capacity. Less protective tribo-films cannot sustain in these severe conditions and rapidly wear out. Therefore, a functional hierarchy is established. The created tribo-films act in synergy, striving to better adapt themselves to external stimuli. Under a highly complex structure and non-equilibrium state, the upcoming generation of adaptive surface engineered nano-multilayer materials behaves like intelligent systems - capable of generating, with unprecedented efficiency, the necessary tribo-films to endure an increasingly severe environment.

  8. Scaling behaviour of entropy estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürmann, Thomas

    2002-02-01

    Entropy estimation of information sources is highly non-trivial for symbol sequences with strong long-range correlations. The rabbit sequence, related to the symbolic dynamics of the nonlinear circle map at the critical point as well as the logistic map at the Feigenbaum point, is known to produce long memory tails. For both dynamical systems the scaling behaviour of the block entropy of order n has been shown to increase ∝log n. In contrast to such probabilistic concepts, we investigate the scaling behaviour of certain non-probabilistic entropy estimation schemes suggested by Lempel and Ziv (LZ) in the context of algorithmic complexity and data compression. These are applied in a sequential manner with the scaling variable being the length N of the sequence. We determine the scaling law for the LZ entropy estimate applied to the case of the critical circle map and the logistic map at the Feigenbaum point in a binary partition.

  9. Plant adaptive behaviour in hydrological models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, M. J.; Teuling, R.

    2013-12-01

    Models that will be able to cope with future precipitation and evaporation regimes need a solid base that describes the essence of the processes involved [1]. Micro-behaviour in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system may have a large impact on patterns emerging at larger scales. A complicating factor in the micro-behaviour is the constant interaction between vegetation and geology in which water plays a key role. The resilience of the coupled vegetation-soil system critically depends on its sensitivity to environmental changes. As a result of environmental changes vegetation may wither and die, but such environmental changes may also trigger gene adaptation. Constant exposure to environmental stresses, biotic or abiotic, influences plant physiology, gene adaptations, and flexibility in gene adaptation [2-6]. Gene expression as a result of different environmental conditions may profoundly impact drought responses across the same plant species. Differences in response to an environmental stress, has consequences for the way species are currently being treated in models (single plant to global scale). In particular, model parameters that control root water uptake and plant transpiration are generally assumed to be a property of the plant functional type. Assigning plant functional types does not allow for local plant adaptation to be reflected in the model parameters, nor does it allow for correlations that might exist between root parameters and soil type. Models potentially provide a means to link root water uptake and transport to large scale processes (e.g. Rosnay and Polcher 1998, Feddes et al. 2001, Jung 2010), especially when powered with an integrated hydrological, ecological and physiological base. We explore the experimental evidence from natural vegetation to formulate possible alternative modeling concepts. [1] Seibert, J. 2000. Multi-criteria calibration of a conceptual runoff model using a genetic algorithm. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 4(2): 215

  10. Circuit dynamics of adaptive and maladaptive behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of technologies for investigating specific components of intact biological systems has allowed elucidation of the neural circuitry underlying adaptive and maladaptive behaviours. Investigators are now able to observe and control, with high spatio-temporal resolution, structurally defined intact pathways along which electrical activity flows during and after the performance of complex behaviours. These investigations have revealed that control of projection-specific dynamics is well suited to modulating behavioural patterns that are relevant to a broad range of psychiatric diseases. Structural dynamics principles have emerged to provide diverse, unexpected and causal insights into the operation of intact and diseased nervous systems, linking form and function in the brain. PMID:24429629

  11. The Adaptive Behavior Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, William J.

    A scale to identify important behaviors in preschool children was developed, and ratings were related to more traditional indices of development and academic readiness. Teacher interviews were used to identify 62 specific behaviors related to maximally adapted and maximally maladapted kindergarten children. These were incorporated into a…

  12. Development of the Mentor Behaviour Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruyn, Eddy H.

    2004-01-01

    The present study described the development of the Mentor Behaviour Rating Scale. In the Dutch secondary educational system, the mentor is a teacher responsible for individual students' academic and socio-emotional progress throughout the academic year. In order to assess the mentor behaviours conducive to pupils' acceptance levels of their…

  13. Universal scaling behaviour in weighted trade networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, W. Q.

    2007-09-01

    Identifying universal patterns in complex economic systems can reveal the dynamics and organizing principles underlying the process of system evolution. We investigate the scaling behaviours that have emerged in the international trade system by describing them as a series of evolving weighted trade networks. The maximum-flow spanning trees (constructed by maximizing the total weight of the edges) of these networks exhibit two universal scaling exponents: (1) topological scaling exponent η = 1.30 and (2) flow scaling exponent zeta = 1.03.

  14. The Vocational Adaptation Rating Scales.

    PubMed

    Malgady, R G; Barcher, P R

    1982-01-01

    The Vocational Adaptation Rating Scales (VARS) were developed to provide a comprehensive assessment of maladaptive social behavior related to vocational success, but not directly measuring job performance of mentally retarded workers. Psychometric information derived from the VARS is useful for developing individualized educational plans (IEPs) for compliance with Public Law 94-142; for program, worker or curriculum evaluations; and for predicting placement of workers in vocational training. Research indicates that VARS scores are internally consistent, moderately correlated with other vocational measures, unbiased with respect to sex and age differences, and independent of IQ. Inter-rater reliability is acceptable, and VARS profiles are accurate predictors of level of sheltered workshop placement of mentally retarded workers, independent of IQ, sex and age. Unlike other instruments, the VARS offers a profile of social behavior in a vocational context. PMID:7168570

  15. The Influence of Learning Behaviour on Team Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Peter A.; Millett, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Multiple contexts shape team activities and how they learn, and group learning is a dynamic construct that reflects a repertoire of potential behaviour. The purpose of this developmental paper is to examine how better learning behaviours in semi-autonomous teams improves the level of team adaptability and performance. The discussion suggests that…

  16. Anticipated adaptation or scale recalibration?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to investigate anticipated adaptation among patients in the subacute phase of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Methods We used an observational longitudinal design. Patients with SCI (N = 44) rated their actual, previous and expected future Quality of Life (QoL) at three time points: within two weeks of admission to the rehabilitation center (RC), a few weeks before discharge from the RC, and at least three months after discharge. We compared the expected future rating at the second time point with the actual ratings at the third time point, using student’s t-tests. To gain insight into scale recalibration we also compared actual and previous ratings. Results At the group level, patients overpredicted their improvement on the VAS. Actual health at T3(M = 0.65, sd =0.20)) was significantly lower than the predicted health at T1 of T3 (M = 0.76, sd = 0.1; t(43) = 3.24, p < 0.01), and at T2 of T3(M = 0.75,sd = 0.13; t(43) = 3.44, p < 0.001). Similarly the recalled health at T3 of T2 (M = 0.59, sd = 0.18) was significantly lower than the actual health at T2 (M = 0.67, sd = 0.15; t(43) = 3.26, p <0.01). Patients rated their future and past health inaccurately compared to their actual ratings on the VAS. In contrast, on the TTO patients gave accurate estimates of their future and previous health, and they also accurately valued their previous health. Looking at individual ratings, the number of respondents with accurate estimates of their future and previous health were similar between the VAS and TTO. However, the Bland-Altman plots show that the deviation of the accuracy is larger for the TTO then the VAS. That is the accuracy of 95% of the respondents was lower in the TTO then in the VAS. Conclusions Patients at the onset of a disability were able to anticipate adaptation. Valuations given on the VAS seem to be biased by scale recalibration. PMID:24139246

  17. Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System: Indigenous Australian Adaptation Model (ABAS: IAAM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Santie

    2015-01-01

    The study objectives were to develop, trial and evaluate a cross-cultural adaptation of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition Teacher Form (ABAS-II TF) ages 5-21 for use with Indigenous Australian students ages 5-14. This study introduced a multiphase mixed-method design with semi-structured and informal interviews, school…

  18. Periodic activations of behaviours and emotional adaptation in behaviour-based robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.

  19. The GO4KIDDS Brief Adaptive Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Adrienne; Taheri, Azin; Ting, Victoria; Weiss, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accurate measurement of adaptive behaviour is important in both clinical and research contexts. While several good clinical measures exist, as well as brief research measures for adults with intellectual disability, there is need for a brief and efficient measure for research with children and youth. We present preliminary psychometric…

  20. The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, William R.

    2015-09-01

    The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure (AMSI) is a set of libraries and tools developed to support the development, implementation, and execution of general multimodel simulations. Using a minimal set of simulation meta-data AMSI allows for minimally intrusive work to adapt existent single-scale simulations for use in multi-scale simulations. Support for dynamic runtime operations such as single- and multi-scale adaptive properties is a key focus of AMSI. Particular focus has been spent on the development on scale-sensitive load balancing operations to allow single-scale simulations incorporated into a multi-scale simulation using AMSI to use standard load-balancing operations without affecting the integrity of the overall multi-scale simulation.

  1. Development of Underwater Laser Scaling Adapter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluss, Kaspars

    2012-12-01

    In this paper the developed laser scaling adapter is presented. The scaling adapter is equipped with a twin laser unit where the two parallel laser beams are projected onto any target giving an exact indication of scale. The body of the laser scaling adapter is made of Teflon, the density of which is approximately two times the water density. The development involved multiple challenges - numerical hydrodynamic calculations for choosing an appropriate shape which would reduce the effects of turbulence, an accurate sealing of the power supply and the laser diodes, and others. The precision is estimated by the partial derivation method. Both experimental and theoretical data conclude the overall precision error to be in the 1% margin. This paper presents the development steps of such an underwater laser scaling adapter for a remotely operated vehicle (ROV).

  2. Influence of Teachers' Behaviour on Students' Adaptation after School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupsiene, Liudmila; Kucinskiene, Ramute

    2005-01-01

    This research aimed to reveal how students' adaptation after a school transition is related to teachers' behaviour. The gross sample of the research consisted of 1078 students (from 159 schools, representing almost all municipalities of the country) and 999 of their parents. The main research instrument was questionnaires for both children and…

  3. The Differentiation of Adaptive Behaviours: Evidence from High and Low Performers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Harrison; Oakland, Thomas David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Professionals who use measures of adaptive behaviour when working with special populations may assume that adaptive behaviour is a consistent and linear construct at various ability levels and thus believe the construct of adaptive behaviour is the same for high and low performers. That is, highly adaptive people simply are assumed to…

  4. Risk, resources and state-dependent adaptive behavioural syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Luttbeg, Barney; Sih, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Many animals exhibit behavioural syndromes—consistent individual differences in behaviour across two or more contexts or situations. Here, we present adaptive, state-dependent mathematical models for analysing issues about behavioural syndromes. We find that asset protection (where individuals with more ‘assets’ tend be more cautious) and starvation avoidance, two state-dependent mechanisms, can explain short-term behavioural consistency, but not long-term stable behavioural types (BTs). These negative-feedback mechanisms tend to produce convergence in state and behaviour over time. In contrast, a positive-feedback mechanism, state-dependent safety (where individuals with higher energy reserves, size, condition or vigour are better at coping with predators), can explain stable differences in personality over the long term. The relative importance of negative- and positive-feedback mechanisms in governing behavioural consistency depends on environmental conditions (predation risk and resource availability). Behavioural syndromes emerge more readily in conditions of intermediate ecological favourability (e.g. medium risk and medium resources, or high risk and resources, or low risk and resources). Under these conditions, individuals with higher initial state maintain a tendency to be bolder than individuals that start with low initial state; i.e. later BT is determined by state during an early ‘developmental window’. In contrast, when conditions are highly favourable (low risk, high resources) or highly unfavourable (high risk, low resources), individuals converge to be all relatively bold or all relatively cautious, respectively. In those circumstances, initial differences in BT are not maintained over the long term, and there is no early developmental window where initial state governs later BT. The exact range of ecological conditions favouring behavioural syndromes depends also on the strength of state-dependent safety. PMID:21078650

  5. Modelling Adaptive Learning Behaviours for Consensus Formation in Human Societies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Tan, Guozhen; Lv, Hongtao; Wang, Zhen; Meng, Jun; Hao, Jianye; Ren, Fenghui

    2016-01-01

    Learning is an important capability of humans and plays a vital role in human society for forming beliefs and opinions. In this paper, we investigate how learning affects the dynamics of opinion formation in social networks. A novel learning model is proposed, in which agents can dynamically adapt their learning behaviours in order to facilitate the formation of consensus among them, and thus establish a consistent social norm in the whole population more efficiently. In the model, agents adapt their opinions through trail-and-error interactions with others. By exploiting historical interaction experience, a guiding opinion, which is considered to be the most successful opinion in the neighbourhood, can be generated based on the principle of evolutionary game theory. Then, depending on the consistency between its own opinion and the guiding opinion, a focal agent can realize whether its opinion complies with the social norm (i.e., the majority opinion that has been adopted) in the population, and adapt its behaviours accordingly. The highlight of the model lies in that it captures the essential features of people's adaptive learning behaviours during the evolution and formation of opinions. Experimental results show that the proposed model can facilitate the formation of consensus among agents, and some critical factors such as size of opinion space and network topology can have significant influences on opinion dynamics. PMID:27282089

  6. Modelling Adaptive Learning Behaviours for Consensus Formation in Human Societies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chao; Tan, Guozhen; Lv, Hongtao; Wang, Zhen; Meng, Jun; Hao, Jianye; Ren, Fenghui

    2016-01-01

    Learning is an important capability of humans and plays a vital role in human society for forming beliefs and opinions. In this paper, we investigate how learning affects the dynamics of opinion formation in social networks. A novel learning model is proposed, in which agents can dynamically adapt their learning behaviours in order to facilitate the formation of consensus among them, and thus establish a consistent social norm in the whole population more efficiently. In the model, agents adapt their opinions through trail-and-error interactions with others. By exploiting historical interaction experience, a guiding opinion, which is considered to be the most successful opinion in the neighbourhood, can be generated based on the principle of evolutionary game theory. Then, depending on the consistency between its own opinion and the guiding opinion, a focal agent can realize whether its opinion complies with the social norm (i.e., the majority opinion that has been adopted) in the population, and adapt its behaviours accordingly. The highlight of the model lies in that it captures the essential features of people’s adaptive learning behaviours during the evolution and formation of opinions. Experimental results show that the proposed model can facilitate the formation of consensus among agents, and some critical factors such as size of opinion space and network topology can have significant influences on opinion dynamics. PMID:27282089

  7. Modelling Adaptive Learning Behaviours for Consensus Formation in Human Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chao; Tan, Guozhen; Lv, Hongtao; Wang, Zhen; Meng, Jun; Hao, Jianye; Ren, Fenghui

    2016-06-01

    Learning is an important capability of humans and plays a vital role in human society for forming beliefs and opinions. In this paper, we investigate how learning affects the dynamics of opinion formation in social networks. A novel learning model is proposed, in which agents can dynamically adapt their learning behaviours in order to facilitate the formation of consensus among them, and thus establish a consistent social norm in the whole population more efficiently. In the model, agents adapt their opinions through trail-and-error interactions with others. By exploiting historical interaction experience, a guiding opinion, which is considered to be the most successful opinion in the neighbourhood, can be generated based on the principle of evolutionary game theory. Then, depending on the consistency between its own opinion and the guiding opinion, a focal agent can realize whether its opinion complies with the social norm (i.e., the majority opinion that has been adopted) in the population, and adapt its behaviours accordingly. The highlight of the model lies in that it captures the essential features of people’s adaptive learning behaviours during the evolution and formation of opinions. Experimental results show that the proposed model can facilitate the formation of consensus among agents, and some critical factors such as size of opinion space and network topology can have significant influences on opinion dynamics.

  8. Inter-plant communication through mycorrhizal networks mediates complex adaptive behaviour in plant communities

    PubMed Central

    Gorzelak, Monika A.; Asay, Amanda K.; Pickles, Brian J.; Simard, Suzanne W.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour of plants, including rapid changes in physiology, gene regulation and defence response, can be altered when linked to neighbouring plants by a mycorrhizal network (MN). Mechanisms underlying the behavioural changes include mycorrhizal fungal colonization by the MN or interplant communication via transfer of nutrients, defence signals or allelochemicals. We focus this review on our new findings in ectomycorrhizal ecosystems, and also review recent advances in arbuscular mycorrhizal systems. We have found that the behavioural changes in ectomycorrhizal plants depend on environmental cues, the identity of the plant neighbour and the characteristics of the MN. The hierarchical integration of this phenomenon with other biological networks at broader scales in forest ecosystems, and the consequences we have observed when it is interrupted, indicate that underground ‘tree talk’ is a foundational process in the complex adaptive nature of forest ecosystems. PMID:25979966

  9. Inter-plant communication through mycorrhizal networks mediates complex adaptive behaviour in plant communities.

    PubMed

    Gorzelak, Monika A; Asay, Amanda K; Pickles, Brian J; Simard, Suzanne W

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour of plants, including rapid changes in physiology, gene regulation and defence response, can be altered when linked to neighbouring plants by a mycorrhizal network (MN). Mechanisms underlying the behavioural changes include mycorrhizal fungal colonization by the MN or interplant communication via transfer of nutrients, defence signals or allelochemicals. We focus this review on our new findings in ectomycorrhizal ecosystems, and also review recent advances in arbuscular mycorrhizal systems. We have found that the behavioural changes in ectomycorrhizal plants depend on environmental cues, the identity of the plant neighbour and the characteristics of the MN. The hierarchical integration of this phenomenon with other biological networks at broader scales in forest ecosystems, and the consequences we have observed when it is interrupted, indicate that underground 'tree talk' is a foundational process in the complex adaptive nature of forest ecosystems. PMID:25979966

  10. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control

    PubMed Central

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a synthesis these classical processes and cast them as successive hierarchical contextualisations of sensorimotor constructs, using the generative models that underpin Active Inference. This dissolves any apparent mechanistic distinction between the optimization processes that mediate classical control or learning. Furthermore, we generalize the scope of Active Inference by emphasizing interoceptive inference and homeostatic regulation. The ensuing homeostatic (or allostatic) perspective provides an intuitive explanation for how priors act as drives or goals to enslave action, and emphasises the embodied nature of inference. PMID:26365173

  11. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl

    2015-11-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a synthesis these classical processes and cast them as successive hierarchical contextualisations of sensorimotor constructs, using the generative models that underpin Active Inference. This dissolves any apparent mechanistic distinction between the optimization processes that mediate classical control or learning. Furthermore, we generalize the scope of Active Inference by emphasizing interoceptive inference and homeostatic regulation. The ensuing homeostatic (or allostatic) perspective provides an intuitive explanation for how priors act as drives or goals to enslave action, and emphasises the embodied nature of inference. PMID:26365173

  12. A hybrid behavioural rule of adaptation and drift explains the emergent architecture of antagonistic networks

    PubMed Central

    Nuwagaba, S.; Zhang, F.; Hui, C.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological processes that can realistically account for network architectures are central to our understanding of how species assemble and function in ecosystems. Consumer species are constantly selecting and adjusting which resource species are to be exploited in an antagonistic network. Here we incorporate a hybrid behavioural rule of adaptive interaction switching and random drift into a bipartite network model. Predictions are insensitive to the model parameters and the initial network structures, and agree extremely well with the observed levels of modularity, nestedness and node-degree distributions for 61 real networks. Evolutionary and community assemblage histories only indirectly affect network structure by defining the size and complexity of ecological networks, whereas adaptive interaction switching and random drift carve out the details of network architecture at the faster ecological time scale. The hybrid behavioural rule of both adaptation and drift could well be the key processes for structure emergence in real ecological networks. PMID:25925104

  13. A hybrid behavioural rule of adaptation and drift explains the emergent architecture of antagonistic networks.

    PubMed

    Nuwagaba, S; Zhang, F; Hui, C

    2015-05-22

    Ecological processes that can realistically account for network architectures are central to our understanding of how species assemble and function in ecosystems. Consumer species are constantly selecting and adjusting which resource species are to be exploited in an antagonistic network. Here we incorporate a hybrid behavioural rule of adaptive interaction switching and random drift into a bipartite network model. Predictions are insensitive to the model parameters and the initial network structures, and agree extremely well with the observed levels of modularity, nestedness and node-degree distributions for 61 real networks. Evolutionary and community assemblage histories only indirectly affect network structure by defining the size and complexity of ecological networks, whereas adaptive interaction switching and random drift carve out the details of network architecture at the faster ecological time scale. The hybrid behavioural rule of both adaptation and drift could well be the key processes for structure emergence in real ecological networks. PMID:25925104

  14. Candidate gene polymorphisms for behavioural adaptations during urbanization in blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Mueller, J C; Partecke, J; Hatchwell, B J; Gaston, K J; Evans, K L

    2013-07-01

    Successful urban colonization by formerly rural species represents an ideal situation in which to study adaptation to novel environments. We address this issue using candidate genes for behavioural traits that are expected to play a role in such colonization events. We identified and genotyped 16 polymorphisms in candidate genes for circadian rhythms, harm avoidance and migratory and exploratory behaviour in 12 paired urban and rural populations of the blackbird Turdus merula across the Western Palaearctic. An exonic microsatellite in the SERT gene, a candidate gene for harm avoidance behaviour, exhibited a highly significant association with habitat type in an analysis conducted across all populations. Genetic divergence at this locus was consistent in 10 of the 12 population pairs; this contrasts with previously reported stochastic genetic divergence between these populations at random markers. Our results indicate that behavioural traits related to harm avoidance and associated with the SERT polymorphism experience selection pressures during most blackbird urbanization events. These events thus appear to be influenced by homogeneous adaptive processes in addition to previously reported demographic founder events. PMID:23495914

  15. Small scale adaptive optics experiment systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of the current technology relating to the laser power beaming system which in full scale is called the Beam Transmission Optical System (BTOS). Evaluation of system integration efforts are being conducted by the various government agencies and industry. Concepts are being developed for prototypes of adaptive optics for a BTOS.

  16. The Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Preusser, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of the Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale (AMPS) for children. Expert reviewers and samples of 4th- and 5th-grade students were used to develop items and evaluate the internal structure and reliability of scores for the resulting instrument. Results supported 4 dimensions of perfectionism that could be reliably…

  17. Disgust as an adaptive system for disease avoidance behaviour.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Valerie; de Barra, Mícheál; Aunger, Robert

    2011-02-12

    Disgust is an evolved psychological system for protecting organisms from infection through disease avoidant behaviour. This 'behavioural immune system', present in a diverse array of species, exhibits universal features that orchestrate hygienic behaviour in response to cues of risk of contact with pathogens. However, disgust is also a dynamic adaptive system. Individuals show variation in pathogen avoidance associated with psychological traits like having a neurotic personality, as well as a consequence of being in certain physiological states such as pregnancy or infancy. Three specialized learning mechanisms modify the disgust response: the Garcia effect, evaluative conditioning and the law of contagion. Hygiene behaviour is influenced at the group level through social learning heuristics such as 'copy the frequent'. Finally, group hygiene is extended symbolically to cultural rules about purity and pollution, which create social separations and are enforced as manners. Cooperative hygiene endeavours such as sanitation also reduce pathogen prevalence. Our model allows us to integrate perspectives from psychology, ecology and cultural evolution with those of epidemiology and anthropology. Understanding the nature of disease avoidance psychology at all levels of human organization can inform the design of programmes to improve public health. PMID:21199843

  18. Disgust as an adaptive system for disease avoidance behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Valerie; de Barra, Mícheál; Aunger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Disgust is an evolved psychological system for protecting organisms from infection through disease avoidant behaviour. This ‘behavioural immune system’, present in a diverse array of species, exhibits universal features that orchestrate hygienic behaviour in response to cues of risk of contact with pathogens. However, disgust is also a dynamic adaptive system. Individuals show variation in pathogen avoidance associated with psychological traits like having a neurotic personality, as well as a consequence of being in certain physiological states such as pregnancy or infancy. Three specialized learning mechanisms modify the disgust response: the Garcia effect, evaluative conditioning and the law of contagion. Hygiene behaviour is influenced at the group level through social learning heuristics such as ‘copy the frequent’. Finally, group hygiene is extended symbolically to cultural rules about purity and pollution, which create social separations and are enforced as manners. Cooperative hygiene endeavours such as sanitation also reduce pathogen prevalence. Our model allows us to integrate perspectives from psychology, ecology and cultural evolution with those of epidemiology and anthropology. Understanding the nature of disease avoidance psychology at all levels of human organization can inform the design of programmes to improve public health. PMID:21199843

  19. Development and Validation of Supervisory Behaviour Description Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale which will describe how education supervisors' behaviours are perceived. Four separate studies have been conducted in order to develop the scale. In the first study the scale that was developed is applied to a working group consisting of 704 teachers. The factor structure of the scale is examined by…

  20. The tale of the finch: adaptive radiation and behavioural flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Tebbich, Sabine; Sterelny, Kim; Teschke, Irmgard

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's finches are a classic example of adaptive radiation. The ecological diversity of the Galápagos in part explains that radiation, but the fact that other founder species did not radiate suggests that other factors are also important. One hypothesis attempting to identify the extra factor is the flexible stem hypothesis, connecting individual adaptability to species richness. According to this hypothesis, the ancestral finches were flexible and therefore able to adapt to the new and harsh environment they encountered by exploiting new food types and developing new foraging techniques. Phenotypic variation was initially mediated by learning, but genetic accommodation entrenched differences and supplemented them with morphological adaptations. This process subsequently led to diversification and speciation of the Darwin's finches. Their current behaviour is consistent with this hypothesis as these birds use unusual resources by extraordinary means. In this paper, we identify cognitive capacities on which flexibility and innovation depend. The flexible stem hypothesis predicts that we will find high levels of these capacities in all species of Darwin's finches (not just those using innovative techniques). Here, we test that prediction, and find that while most of our data are in line with the flexible stem hypothesis, some are in tension with it. PMID:20194172

  1. Wealth, fertility and adaptive behaviour in industrial populations.

    PubMed

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    2016-04-19

    The lack of association between wealth and fertility in contemporary industrialized populations has often been used to question the value of an evolutionary perspective on human behaviour. Here, we first present the history of this debate, and the evolutionary explanations for why wealth and fertility (the number of children) are decoupled in modern industrial settings. We suggest that the nature of the relationship between wealth and fertility remains an open question because of the multi-faceted nature of wealth, and because existing cross-sectional studies are ambiguous with respect to how material wealth and fertility are linked. A literature review of longitudinal studies on wealth and fertility shows that the majority of these report positive effects of wealth, although levels of fertility seem to fall below those that would maximize fitness. We emphasize that reproductive decision-making reflects a complex interplay between individual and societal factors that resists simple evolutionary interpretation, and highlight the role of economic insecurity in fertility decisions. We conclude by discussing whether the wealth-fertility relationship can inform us about the adaptiveness of modern fertility behaviour, and argue against simplistic claims regarding maladaptive behaviour in humans. PMID:27022080

  2. Adaptive behaviours of attacking futsal teams to opposition defensive formations.

    PubMed

    Travassos, B; Bourbousson, J; Esteves, P T; Marcelino, R; Pacheco, M; Davids, K

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated tendencies towards flexibility/stability of coordinated behaviours in international futsal teams, considered as complex collective systems, according to changes in opposition defensive formations. Six games of two international futsal teams (Spain and Portugal) were selected for Social Network Analysis to capture the coordination tendencies that emerge in the tactical behaviours of players when performing against different defensive formations. Ball trajectories in each offensive pattern of play were notated in an adjacency matrix where each entry accounted for the linkages between 12 spatial field areas. Each offensive play was coded according to the defensive formation of an opposing team (i.e. conservative or risky formation). Results revealed similar network properties between teams when competing against more risky defensive formations, while notable differences were observed against conservative defences. Effect of defensive formation of opponents on macro network properties was observed in both the Portuguese and Spanish teams. At a meso-level, only the Spanish national team exhibited notable changes, suggesting a greater level of adaptability to unfolding performance events. The observed flexibility in tactical behaviours of the Spanish team appeared to express their greater expertise levels. PMID:26918489

  3. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Construction, Reliability, and Measurement Equivalence across 13 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from 13 countries collaborated in constructing a psychometric scale to measure career adaptability. Based on four pilot tests, a research version of the proposed scale consisting of 55 items was field tested in 13 countries. The resulting Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items. The four scales…

  4. Measuring Academic Behavioural Confidence: The ABC Scale Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2009-01-01

    The Academic Behavioural Confidence (ABC) scale has been shown to be valid and can be useful to teachers in understanding their students, enabling the design of more effective teaching sessions with large cohorts. However, some of the between-group differences have been smaller than expected, leading to the hypothesis that the ABC scale many not…

  5. Adapting to Adaptations: Behavioural Strategies that are Robust to Mutations and Other Organisational-Transformations.

    PubMed

    Egbert, Matthew D; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic mutations, infection by parasites or symbionts, and other events can transform the way that an organism's internal state changes in response to a given environment. We use a minimalistic computational model to support an argument that by behaving "interoceptively," i.e. responding to internal state rather than to the environment, organisms can be robust to these organisational-transformations. We suggest that the robustness of interoceptive behaviour is due, in part, to the asymmetrical relationship between an organism and its environment, where the latter more substantially influences the former than vice versa. This relationship means that interoceptive behaviour can respond to the environment, the internal state and the interaction between the two, while exteroceptive behaviour can only respond to the environment. We discuss the possibilities that (i) interoceptive behaviour may play an important role of facilitating adaptive evolution (especially in the early evolution of primitive life) and (ii) interoceptive mechanisms could prove useful in efforts to create more robust synthetic life-forms. PMID:26743579

  6. Adapting to Adaptations: Behavioural Strategies that are Robust to Mutations and Other Organisational-Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Egbert, Matthew D.; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic mutations, infection by parasites or symbionts, and other events can transform the way that an organism’s internal state changes in response to a given environment. We use a minimalistic computational model to support an argument that by behaving “interoceptively,” i.e. responding to internal state rather than to the environment, organisms can be robust to these organisational-transformations. We suggest that the robustness of interoceptive behaviour is due, in part, to the asymmetrical relationship between an organism and its environment, where the latter more substantially influences the former than vice versa. This relationship means that interoceptive behaviour can respond to the environment, the internal state and the interaction between the two, while exteroceptive behaviour can only respond to the environment. We discuss the possibilities that (i) interoceptive behaviour may play an important role of facilitating adaptive evolution (especially in the early evolution of primitive life) and (ii) interoceptive mechanisms could prove useful in efforts to create more robust synthetic life-forms. PMID:26743579

  7. The Behavioural Biogeosciences: Moving Beyond Evolutionary Adaptation and Innate Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation over our evolutionary past to frequently experienced situations that affected our survival and that provided sharp distinguished feedbacks at the level of the individual. Human behavior, however, is not well adapted to the more diffusely experienced (i.e. less immediately/locally acute) problems and issues that scientists and society often seek to address today. Several human biases are identified that affect how science is conducted and used. These biases include an innate discounting of less visible phenomena/systems and of long-term perspectives; as well as a general lack of consideration of the coupling between the resources that we use and the waste that we consequently produce. Other biases include strong beliefs in human exceptionalism and separatedness from "nature". Francis Bacon (The New Organon, 1620) provided a classification of the factors, of the "idols of the mind", that bias pursuit of greater knowledge. How can we address these biases and the factors that affect behaviour and pursuit of knowledge; and ultimately impact the sustainability and resilience of human societies, resources and environments? A process for critical analysis is proposed that solicits explicit accounting and cognizance of these potential human biases and factors. Seeking a greater diversity of independant perspectives is essential: in both the conduct of science and in its application to the management of natural resources and environments. Accountability, traceability and structured processes are critical in this endeavor. The scientific methods designed during the industrial revolution are necessary, but insufficient, in addressing the issues of today. A new area of study in "the behavioral biogeosciences" is suggested that counters, or at least closely re-evaluates, our normal (i.e. adapted) human priorities of observation and study, as well as our judgements and decision-making.

  8. Entrepreneurial Orientation Scale: Adaptation to Spanish.

    PubMed

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Sánchez-García, José Carlos; Viardot, Eric; Boada-Cuerva, Maria; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is linked to the perception of opportunities, to orientation, to attitudes, to the fear of failure and to entrepreneurial motivations. Entrepreneurial orientation is a fundamental construct for understanding the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. What is more, it is multidimensional and has attracted considerable attention from researchers in recent years. The objective of this study was to adapt the original 12-item English scale to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties. The participants in the present study were 925 Spanish employees (48.2% men, 51.5% women, M age = 42.49 years, SD age = 11.25) from the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Castilla-León. After applying an ESEM (RMSEA = .06; CFI = .97 and TLI = .95) a structure was determined made up of four factors which corroborated the structure of the original scale: Autonomy (α = .71 and CI = .68 - .73), Innovativeness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73), Risk Taking (α = .72 and CI = .68 - .74) and Competitive Aggressiveness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73). The four factors displayed suitable reliability. The study also found evidences of validity in relation to a series of external correlates and various scales which refer to workaholism, irritation and burnout. The scale presented here may prove useful for satisfactorily identifying, in Spanish, the entrepreneurial orientation of the working population. PMID:27453429

  9. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Helen E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups…

  10. Statistical behaviour of adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms in simple models

    SciTech Connect

    Rolland, Joran Simonnet, Eric

    2015-02-15

    Adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms have been introduced rather recently for estimating tail distributions in a fast and efficient way. In particular, they can be used for computing the so-called reactive trajectories corresponding to direct transitions from one metastable state to another. The algorithm is based on successive selection–mutation steps performed on the system in a controlled way. It has two intrinsic parameters, the number of particles/trajectories and the reaction coordinate used for discriminating good or bad trajectories. We investigate first the convergence in law of the algorithm as a function of the timestep for several simple stochastic models. Second, we consider the average duration of reactive trajectories for which no theoretical predictions exist. The most important aspect of this work concerns some systems with two degrees of freedom. They are studied in detail as a function of the reaction coordinate in the asymptotic regime where the number of trajectories goes to infinity. We show that during phase transitions, the statistics of the algorithm deviate significatively from known theoretical results when using non-optimal reaction coordinates. In this case, the variance of the algorithm is peaking at the transition and the convergence of the algorithm can be much slower than the usual expected central limit behaviour. The duration of trajectories is affected as well. Moreover, reactive trajectories do not correspond to the most probable ones. Such behaviour disappears when using the optimal reaction coordinate called committor as predicted by the theory. We finally investigate a three-state Markov chain which reproduces this phenomenon and show logarithmic convergence of the trajectory durations.

  11. Behavioural adaptations of argulid parasites (Crustacea: Branchiura) to major challenges in their life cycle.

    PubMed

    Mikheev, V N; Pasternak, A F; Valtonen, E T

    2015-01-01

    Fish lice (Argulus spp.) are obligate ectoparasites, which contrary to most aquatic parasites, retain the ability to swim freely throughout the whole of their life. In fish farms, they can quickly increase in numbers and without effective control cause argulosis, which results in the reduced growth and survival of their fish hosts. The morphology of Argulus spp, including their sensory organs, is suitable for both parasitism and free-swimming. By spending a considerable amount of time away from their host, these parasites risk being excessively dispersed, which could endanger mating success. Here we present a review of recent studies on the behaviour of Argulus spp, especially the aggregative behaviour that mitigates the dilution of the parasite population. Aggregation of parasites, which is especially important during the period of reproduction, occurs on different scales and involves both the aggregation of the host and the aggregation of the parasites on the host. The main behavioural adaptations of Argulus spp, including searches for hosts and mates, host manipulation and host choice, are all focused on the fish. As these ectoparasites repeatedly change hosts and inflict skin damage, they can act as vectors for fish pathogens. The development of environmentally friendly measures for the control and prevention of argulosis needs to take into account the behaviour of the parasites. PMID:26205259

  12. Neurorehabilitation for Parkinson's disease: Future perspectives for behavioural adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ekker, Merel S; Janssen, Sabine; Nonnekes, Jorik; Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Vries, Nienke M

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder, resulting in both motor and non-motor symptoms that significantly reduce quality of life. Treatment consists of both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical treatment approaches. Neurorehabilitation is an important non-pharmaceutical treatment approach, and a prime component of this is formed by the training of behavioural adaptations that can assist patients to cope better with their motor and non-motor symptoms. Optimal delivery of neurorehabilitation requires a tailor-made, personalized approach. In this review we discuss the great potential for growth in the field of neurorehabilitation. Specifically, we will focus on four relatively new developments: visual rehabilitation (because Parkinson patients are very dependent on optimal vision); cueing delivered by wearable devices (allowing for objective, continuous, and quantitative detection of mobility problems, such that cueing can be delivered effectively in an on-demand manner - i.e., with external cues being delivered only at a time when they are needed most); exergaming (to promote compliance with exercise programs); and telemedicine (allowing for delivery of expert rehabilitation advice to the patient's own home). Evidence in these new fields is growing, based on good clinical trials, fuelling hope that state-of-the-art neurorehabilitation can make a real impact on improving the quality of life of patients affected by Parkinson's disease. PMID:26362955

  13. Estimating the limits of adaptation from historical behaviour: Insights from the American Climate Prospectus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jina, A.; Hsiang, S. M.; Kopp, R. E., III; Rasmussen, D.; Rising, J.

    2014-12-01

    The American Climate Prospectus (ACP), the technical analysis underlying the Risky Business project, quantitatively assessed the climate risks posed to the United States' economy in a number of economic sectors [1]. The main analysis presents projections of climate impacts with an assumption of "no adaptation". Yet, historically, when the climate imposed an economic cost upon society, adaptive responses were taken to minimise these costs. These adaptive behaviours, both autonomous and planned, can be expected to occur as climate impacts increase in the future. To understand the extent to which adaptation might decrease some of the worst impacts of climate change, we empirically estimate adaptive responses. We do this in three sectors considered in the analysis - crop yield, crime, and mortality - and estimate adaptive capacity in two steps. First, looking at changes in climate impacts through time, we identify a historical rate of adaptation. Second, spatial differences in climate impacts are then used to stratify regions into more adapted or less adapted based on climate averages. As these averages change across counties in the US, we allow each to become more adapted at the rate identified in step one. We are then able to estimate the residual damages, assuming that only the historical adaptive behaviours have taken place (fig 1). Importantly, we are unable to estimate any costs associated with these adaptations, nor are we able to estimate more novel (for example, new technological discoveries) or more disruptive (for example, migration) adaptive behaviours. However, an important insight is that historical adaptive behaviours may not be capable of reducing the worst impacts of climate change. The persistence of impacts in even the most exposed areas indicates that there are non-trivial costs associated with adaptation that will need to be met from other sources or through novel behavioural changes. References: [1] T. Houser et al. (2014), American Climate

  14. Parental modelling of eating behaviours: observational validation of the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours scale (PARM).

    PubMed

    Palfreyman, Zoe; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Parents are important role models for their children's eating behaviours. This study aimed to further validate the recently developed Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM) by examining the relationships between maternal self-reports on the PARM with the modelling practices exhibited by these mothers during three family mealtime observations. Relationships between observed maternal modelling and maternal reports of children's eating behaviours were also explored. Seventeen mothers with children aged between 2 and 6 years were video recorded at home on three separate occasions whilst eating a meal with their child. Mothers also completed the PARM, the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and provided demographic information about themselves and their child. Findings provided validation for all three PARM subscales, which were positively associated with their observed counterparts on the observational coding scheme (PARM-O). The results also indicate that habituation to observations did not change the feeding behaviours displayed by mothers. In addition, observed maternal modelling was significantly related to children's food responsiveness (i.e., their interest in and desire for foods), enjoyment of food, and food fussiness. This study makes three important contributions to the literature. It provides construct validation for the PARM measure and provides further observational support for maternal modelling being related to lower levels of food fussiness and higher levels of food enjoyment in their children. These findings also suggest that maternal feeding behaviours remain consistent across repeated observations of family mealtimes, providing validation for previous research which has used single observations. PMID:25111293

  15. Adaptation of the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) to Turkish Students: Factorial Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cikrikci-Demirtash, R. Nukhet

    2005-01-01

    The study presented in this article was conducted to determine psychometric features of scales for Turkish students by adapting the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) developed by Midgley and others (2000) to the Turkish language in order to measure personal and classroom goal orientations. The scales were developed to test…

  16. Illness Adaptation: Clarifying the Concept and Validating a Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rosalie F.; Kahana, Eva

    Traditionally, coping and adaptation have been considered synonymous in individual's responses to illness and other stressful situations. The Illness Adaptation Scale (IAS) is a 12-item instrument which was designed to assess adaptational outcomes in illness situations as well as four coping modes (instrumental-self oriented, instrumental-other…

  17. Real-Data Simulation of Computerized Adaptive Bayesian Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Paul

    1993-01-01

    Investigated model for reducing time for administration of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) using real-data simulation of Bayesian scaling in computerized adaptive administration. Findings from simulation study using data from 127 undergraduates are strongly supportive of use of Bayesian scaled computerized adaptive administration of MBTI.…

  18. Assessing Minority Students: The Role of Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Hermes; Baca, Leonard M.

    1979-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales can be very helpful in the overall assessment of minority children. In some states they are mandatory. Their weaknesses, particularly with the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale, are sampling bias and appropriateness in the areas of culture, language, and socioeconomic status. (Author)

  19. Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale: School Version Technical Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarney, Stephen B.

    This test manual provides information on the Adaptive Behavior Education Scale-Revised (ABES-R), a 25-minute behavior scale designed to evaluate adaptive skills in students with behavioral, learning, and intellectual disabilities, including educationally relevant behavior which may be identified as contributing to more appropriate diagnosis,…

  20. Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale: Home Version Technical Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarney, Stephen B.

    This test manual provides information on the Adaptive Behavior Education Scale-Home Version (ABES), a 25-minute behavior scale designed to evaluate adaptive skills in students with behavioral, learning, and intellectual disabilities, including educationally relevant behavior which may be identified as contributing to more appropriate diagnosis,…

  1. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-USA Form: Psychometric Properties and Relation to Vocational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports construction and initial validation of the United States form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS). The CAAS consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas.…

  2. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Jacobus Gideon

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  3. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Icelandic Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Guobjorg; Kjartansdottir, Guorun Birna; Smaradottir, Sigriour Briet; Einarsdottir, Sif

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics and construct validity of the Icelandic form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS-Iceland). The CAAS consists of four scales that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The…

  4. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Marco Antonio Pereira; Bardagi, Marucia Patta; Lassance, Maria Celia Pacheco; Magalhaes, Mauro de Oliveira; Duarte, Maria Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form (CAASBrazil) consists of four scales which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to excellent. The…

  5. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form: Psychometric Characteristics and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dries, Nicky; Van Esbroeck, Raoul; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; De Cooman, Rein; Pepermans, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form (CAAS-Belgium) consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. A pilot survey was administered to 700 high school,…

  6. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Taiwan Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley; Wang, Yu-Chen; Chu, Hui-Chuang; Huang, Tsu-Lun

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested the reliability and validity of the Career Adapt-Ability Scale--Taiwan Form (CAAS-Taiwan Form). The CAAS consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal…

  7. Adaptive foraging behaviour of individual pollinators and the coexistence of co-flowering plants

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhiyuan; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2014-01-01

    Although pollinators can play a central role in determining the structure and stability of plant communities, little is known about how their adaptive foraging behaviours at the individual level, e.g. flower constancy, structure these interactions. Here, we construct a mathematical model that integrates individual adaptive foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a community consisting of two plant species and a pollinator species. We find that adaptive foraging at the individual level, as a complementary mechanism to adaptive foraging at the species level, can further enhance the coexistence of plant species through niche partitioning between conspecific pollinators. The stabilizing effect is stronger than that of unbiased generalists when there is also strong competition between plant species over other resources, but less so than that of multiple specialist species. This suggests that adaptive foraging in mutualistic interactions can have a very different impact on the plant community structure from that in predator–prey interactions. In addition, the adaptive behaviour of individual pollinators may cause a sharp regime shift for invading plant species. These results indicate the importance of integrating individual adaptive behaviour and population dynamics for the conservation of native plant communities. PMID:24352943

  8. Full-Scale Flight Research Testbeds: Adaptive and Intelligent Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the adaptive and intelligent control methods used for aircraft survival. The contents include: 1) Motivation for Adaptive Control; 2) Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project; 3) Full-scale Flight Assets in Use for IRAC; 4) NASA NF-15B Tail Number 837; 5) Gen II Direct Adaptive Control Architecture; 6) Limited Authority System; and 7) 837 Flight Experiments. A simulated destabilization failure analysis along with experience and lessons learned are also presented.

  9. Behavioural adaptations of Rana temporaria to cold climates.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Gerda; Sinsch, Ulrich; Pelster, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions at the edge of a species' ecological optimum can exert great ecological or evolutionary pressure at local populations. For ectotherms like amphibians temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors of their environment as it influences directly their metabolism and sets limits to their distribution. Amphibians have evolved three ways to cope with sub-zero temperatures: freeze tolerance, freeze protection, freeze avoidance. The aim of this study was to assess which strategy common frogs at mid and high elevation use to survive and thrive in cold climates. In particular we (1) tested for the presence of physiological freeze protection, (2) evaluated autumnal activity and overwintering behaviour with respect to freeze avoidance and (3) assessed the importance of different high-elevation microhabitats for behavioural thermoregulation. Common frogs did not exhibit any signs of freeze protection when experiencing temperatures around 0 °C. Instead they retreated to open water for protection and overwintering. High elevation common frogs remained active for around the same period of time than their conspecifics at lower elevation. Our results suggest that at mid and high elevation common frogs use freeze avoidance alone to survive temperatures below 0 °C. The availability of warm microhabitats, such as rock or pasture, provides high elevation frogs with the opportunity of behavioural thermoregulation and thus allows them to remain active at temperatures at which common frogs at lower elevation cease activity. PMID:25774030

  10. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Helen E; Smith, Isabel M; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-09-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups (N = 289). At school entry, 24 % of children met criteria for intellectual disability (cognitive and adaptive behaviour scores <70). No children with both scores ≥70 at diagnosis later met criteria for intellectual disability. Outcomes were more variable for children with initial delays in both areas (in 57 %, both scores remained <70). Findings are relevant to clinical decision-making, including specification of intellectual disability in young children with ASD. PMID:25835210

  11. Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Gh.; Adam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1-16 (2012)] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule), mesoscopic (Simpson rule), and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision). Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.

  12. Spanish adaptation of the structural empowerment scale.

    PubMed

    Jáimez Román, María J; Bretones, Francisco D

    2013-01-01

    The present study's objective is to create a Spanish adaptation of the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire II (CWEQ-II) by Laschinger, Finegan, Shamian, and Wilk (2004) in order to measure structural empowerment in an organizational context. To do so, this study was conducted in two distinct phases. In the first, a group of experts carried out a back-translation of the questionnaire and in the second phase, we analyzed the questionnaire's internal structure (through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis) and external validity. The resulting Spanish version of the questionnaire (CWEQ-S) demonstrated/exhibited good factor structure and good psychometric properties as far as reliability and validity are concerned. PMID:23866208

  13. [Spanish adaptation of the "Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale" for adolescent population].

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Ma Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Problematic use of the mobile telephone is an emerging phenomenon in our society, and one which particularly affects the teenage population. Knowledge from research on the problematic use of this technology is necessary, since such use can give rise to a behavioural pattern with addictive characteristics. There are hardly any scales for measuring possible problematic use of mobile phones, and none at all adapted exclusively for the Spanish adolescent population. The scale most widely used internationally is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS). The aim of the present study is to adapt the MPPUS for use with Spanish adolescents. The Spanish version of the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1132 adolescents aged 12 to 18. Reliability and factorial validity were comparable to those obtained in adult population, so that the measure of problematic mobile phone use in Spanish teenagers is one-dimensional. A prevalence of 14.8% of problematic users was detected. PMID:22648315

  14. Adapting Online Self-Regulated Learning Scale into Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Ozgen; Kaya, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine online self-regulated learning levels of students by adapting "Online Self-Regulated Learning Scale" designed by Barnard and his colleagues into Turkish. Present study, irrespective of being a scale analysis, is at the same time a qualitative research. It is executed via scan model. Study group of research…

  15. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Korea Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Jinkook

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Korea Form consists of four subscales, each with six items. The subscales measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  16. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--China Form: Construction and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Zhi-Jin; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xixi; Li, Xu; Xu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--China Form consists of four subscales, with six items each to measure Concern, Control, Curiosity, and Confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. This study investigated the construction and validation of its Chinese Form. Results…

  17. Validation of an Adapted French Form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in Four Francophone Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Claire S.; Broonen, Jean-Paul; Stauffer, Sarah D.; Hamtiaux, Armanda; Pouyaud, Jacques; Zecca, Gregory; Houssemand, Claude; Rossier, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the validation of a French version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in four Francophone countries. The aim was to re-analyze the item selection and then compare this newly developed French-language form with the international form 2.0. Exploratory factor analysis was used as a tool for item selection, and confirmatory factor…

  18. Adaptive changes in locust kicking and jumping behaviour during development

    PubMed

    Norman

    1995-01-01

    The hind, or metathoracic, leg of a locust is specialised, enabling it to store energy that is used to extend the tibia rapidly during kicking and jumping; behaviours which share a common motor pattern. This study describes developmental changes in kicking and jumping behaviour and relates these changes to the development of the exoskeleton and jumping performance. In mature adults and intermoult larvae, the exoskeleton is strong and kicks can readily be elicited. Before and after the adult moult, when the exoskeleton is weak, kicks can be elicited less frequently, thus avoiding skeletal damage. At these times, animals do not generate the adult motor pattern for kicking, so that extension of the tibia is powered by direct muscle contraction, rather than through the release of stored energy. The muscles of all newly moulted animals are capable of generating sufficient force to damage the leg, but 14 days later the muscles can rarely generate sufficient force to damage the leg. To mimic the forces generated during the preparation for a kick, when the flexor and extensor tibiae muscles co-contract, the extensor muscle was stimulated electrically at a range of frequencies and the nature and occurrence of the resulting mechanical damage to components of the skeleton were assessed over a 14 day period following the adult moult. In newly moulted animals, the proximal femur partially collapses and thus protects the leg from damage before the muscles generate sufficient force to damage chronically other components of the leg. This partial collapse of the femur is reversible when the extensor muscle is activated at low frequency, but high frequencies cause permanent damage. The muscles of all animals 1 day after the moult are also capable of generating sufficient force to damage the leg, but the proximal tibia breaks most commonly in the region where the extensor muscle apodeme attaches. 5 days after the moult, the muscles in only 50 % of animals can damage the leg and most

  19. Early Learning and Adaptive Behaviour in Toddlers with Down Syndrome: Evidence for an Emerging Behavioural Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Deborah; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Background: Though the Down syndrome behavioural phenotype has been described as involving relative strengths in visuo-spatial processing and sociability, and relative weaknesses in verbal skills and motor planning, the early emergence of this phenotypic pattern of strengths and weaknesses has not yet been fully explored. Method: In this study, we…

  20. Scaled norm-based Euclidean projection for sparse speaker adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younggwan; Kim, Myung Jong; Kim, Hoirin

    2015-12-01

    To reduce data storage for speaker adaptive (SA) models, in our previous work, we proposed a sparse speaker adaptation method which can efficiently reduce the number of adapted parameters by using Euclidean projection onto the L 1-ball (EPL1) while maintaining recognition performance comparable to maximum a posteriori (MAP) adaptation. In the EPL1-based sparse speaker adaptation framework, however, the adapted Gaussian mean vectors are mostly concentrated on dimensions having large variances because of assuming unit variance for all dimensions. To make EPL1 more flexible, in this paper, we propose scaled norm-based Euclidean projection (SNEP) which can consider dimension-specific variances. By using SNEP, we also propose a new sparse speaker adaptation method which can consider the variances of a speaker-independent model. Our experiments show that the adapted components of mean vectors are evenly distributed in all dimensions, and we can obtain sparsely adapted models with no loss of phone recognition performance from the proposed method compared with MAP adaptation.

  1. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: II Profile of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sabrina; Paynter, Jessica M.; Gilmore, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour is a crucial area of assessment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study examined the adaptive behaviour profile of 77 young children with ASD using the Vineland-II, and analysed factors associated with adaptive functioning. Consistent with previous research with the original Vineland a distinct autism…

  2. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  3. Behavioural Precursors of Attachment Representations in Middle Childhood and Links with Child Social Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau, Jean-Francois; Moss, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Concordance between age-6 attachment behaviour and age-8 doll play attachment representations during the school-age period, and associations between these measures and child social adaptation at school were examined. One hundred and twenty-nine 6-year-olds and their mothers participated in a separation/reunion protocol. Two years later, 104…

  4. ADHD and Adaptability: The Roles of Cognitive, Behavioural, and Emotional Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Emma; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptability has been recently proposed as cognitive, behavioural, and emotional regulation assisting individuals to effectively respond to change, uncertainty and novelty. Given students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have known impairments with regulatory functions, they may be at particular disadvantage as they seek to…

  5. Assessment of Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour among Individuals with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erez, Daniella Levy; Levy, Jacov; Friger, Michael; Aharoni-Mayer, Yael; Cohen-Iluz, Moran; Goldstein, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) are reported to have mental retardation but to our knowledge no detailed study on the subject has ever been published. The present study assessed and documented cognitive and adaptive behaviour among Arab Bedouin children with CIPA. Methods: Twenty-three Arab Bedouin…

  6. Fine-scale recombination and adaptive radiation could be linked.

    PubMed

    Bodilis, Josselin

    2013-09-15

    The difficult reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the major surface protein gene oprF highlighted an adaptive radiation in the Pseudomonas fluorescens group. The recent work of Hao (2013) showed that partial recombination events in oprF gene occurred specifically in a P. fluorescens lineage under ecological niche segregation. So, I suggest that identification of lineage-specific fine-scale recombination may be a way to detect putative adaptive radiation in bacteria. PMID:23774687

  7. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Portugal Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M. Eduarda; Soares, M. C.; Fraga, S.; Rafael, M.; Lima, M. R.; Paredes, I.; Agostinho, R.; Djalo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Career-Adaptabilities Scale (CAAS)--Portugal Form consists of four scales, each with seven items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  8. A Description of Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, M. C. T. V.; Emerich, D. R.; Orsati, F. T.; Rimerio, R. C.; Gatto, K. R.; Chappaz, I. O.; Kim, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psychological tests can be useful to record adaptive and maladaptive behaviours of children with intellectual disability. The objective of this study was to describe the adaptive and maladaptive behaviour of children and adolescents with Cri-du-chat syndrome. Methods: The sample consisted of 10 children and adolescents with Cri-du-chat…

  9. Adaptive Functioning and Behaviour Problems in Relation to Level of Education in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bildt, A.; Sytema, S.; Kraijer, D.; Sparrow, S.; Minderaa, R.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The interrelationship between adaptive functioning, behaviour problems and level of special education was studied in 186 children with IQs ranging from 61 to 70. The objective was to increase the insight into the contribution of adaptive functioning and general and autistic behaviour problems to the level of education in children with…

  10. Tribological behaviour of graphite powders at nano- and macroscopic scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, M.; Bistac, S.; Jradi, K.

    2007-04-01

    With its high resistance, good hardness and electrical conductibility in the basal plans, graphite is used for many years in various tribological fields such as seals, bearings or electrical motor brushes, and also for applications needing excellent lubrication and wearreducing properties. But thanks to its low density, graphite is at the moment destined for technologies which need a reducing of the weight combined with an enhancement of the efficiency, as it is the case in aeronautical industry. In this contexte, the friction and wear of natural (named graphite A) and synthetic (called graphites B and C) powders were evaluated, first at the macroscopic scale when sliding against steel counterfaces, under various applied normal loads. Scanning Electron Microscopy and AFM in tapping mode were used to observe the morphological modifications of the graphites. It is noticed that an enlargement of the applied normal load leads to an increase of the friction coefficient for graphites A and C; but for the graphite B, it seems that a ''limit'' load can induce a complete change of the tribological behaviour. At the same time, the nano-friction properties of these powders were evaluated by AFM measurements in contact mode, at different contact loads. As it was the case at the macroscopic scale, an increase of the nano-contact load induces higher friction coefficients. The determining of the friction and wear mechanisms of the graphite powders, as a function of both their intrinsic characteristics and the applied normal load, is then possible.

  11. Unmasking the linear behaviour of slow motor adaptation to prolonged convergence.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Ian M; Thompson, Benjamin; Bobier, William R

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation to changing environmental demands is central to maintaining optimal motor system function. Current theories suggest that adaptation in both the skeletal-motor and oculomotor systems involves a combination of fast (reflexive) and slow (recalibration) mechanisms. Here we used the oculomotor vergence system as a model to investigate the mechanisms underlying slow motor adaptation. Unlike reaching with the upper limbs, vergence is less susceptible to changes in cognitive strategy that can affect the behaviour of motor adaptation. We tested the hypothesis that mechanisms of slow motor adaptation reflect early neural processing by assessing the linearity of adaptive responses over a large range of stimuli. Using varied disparity stimuli in conflict with accommodation, the slow adaptation of tonic vergence was found to exhibit a linear response whereby the rate (R(2)  = 0.85, P < 0.0001) and amplitude (R(2)  = 0.65, P < 0.0001) of the adaptive effects increased proportionally with stimulus amplitude. These results suggest that this slow adaptive mechanism is an early neural process, implying a fundamental physiological nature that is potentially dominated by subcortical and cerebellar substrates. PMID:26991129

  12. Scaling Limits and Critical Behaviour of the 4 -Dimensional n -Component |\\varphi |^4 Spin Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerschmidt, Roland; Brydges, David C.; Slade, Gordon

    2014-08-01

    We consider the n -component |\\varphi |^4 spin model on {mathbb {Z}}^4 , for all n ge 1 , with small coupling constant. We prove that the susceptibility has a logarithmic correction to mean field scaling, with exponent n+2/n+8 for the logarithm. We also analyse the asymptotic behaviour of the pressure as the critical point is approached, and prove that the specific heat has fractional logarithmic scaling for n =1,2,3 ; double logarithmic scaling for n=4 ; and is bounded when n>4 . In addition, for the model defined on the 4 -dimensional discrete torus, we prove that the scaling limit as the critical point is approached is a multiple of a Gaussian free field on the continuum torus, whereas, in the subcritical regime, the scaling limit is Gaussian white noise with intensity given by the susceptibility. The proofs are based on a rigorous renormalisation group method in the spirit of Wilson, developed in a companion series of papers to study the 4-dimensional weakly self-avoiding walk, and adapted here to the |\\varphi |^4 model.

  13. Mitigation of climate change impacts on raptors by behavioural adaptation: ecological buffering mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichmann, Matthias C.; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Jeltsch, Florian; Grimm, Volker

    2005-07-01

    The predicted climate change causes deep concerns on the effects of increasing temperatures and changing precipitation patterns on species viability and, in turn, on biodiversity. Models of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) provide a powerful tool to assess the risk of species extinction. However, most PVA models do not take into account the potential effects of behavioural adaptations. Organisms might adapt to new environmental situations and thereby mitigate negative effects of climate change. To demonstrate such mitigation effects, we use an existing PVA model describing a population of the tawny eagle ( Aquila rapax) in the southern Kalahari. This model does not include behavioural adaptations. We develop a new model by assuming that the birds enlarge their average territory size to compensate for lower amounts of precipitation. Here, we found the predicted increase in risk of extinction due to climate change to be much lower than in the original model. However, this "buffering" of climate change by behavioural adaptation is not very effective in coping with increasing interannual variances. We refer to further examples of ecological "buffering mechanisms" from the literature and argue that possible buffering mechanisms should be given due consideration when the effects of climate change on biodiversity are to be predicted.

  14. The Adaptive Behavior Scale: A Study of Criterion Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreat, Scott

    1980-01-01

    The validity of the Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) for placement purposes was estimated using as Ss 95 formerly institutionalized retarded persons, 97 institutional residents referred for discharge, and 178 institutional residents. Results suggest that knowledge of an individual's ABS scores would enable a test user to make valid estimates of group…

  15. Predicting Adaptive Behavior from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotard, Stephen; McWhirter, Richard

    To examine the proportion of variance in adaptive functioning predictable from mental ability, chronological age, I.Q., evidence of brain malfunction, seizure medication, and receptive and expressive language scores, 25 severely and profoundly retarded institutionalized persons (2-19 years old) were administered the Bayley Infant Scale Mental…

  16. The adaptive-loop-gain adaptive-scale CLEAN deconvolution of radio interferometric images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Liu, X.

    2016-05-01

    CLEAN algorithms are a class of deconvolution solvers which are widely used to remove the effect of the telescope Point Spread Function (PSF). Loop gain is one important parameter in CLEAN algorithms. Currently the parameter is fixed during deconvolution, which restricts the performance of CLEAN algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new deconvolution algorithm with an adaptive loop gain scheme, which is referred to as the adaptive-loop-gain adaptive-scale CLEAN (Algas-Clean) algorithm. The test results show that the new algorithm can give a more accurate model with faster convergence.

  17. Sexual compulsivity scale: adaptation and validation in the spanish population.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gómez-Martínez, Sandra; Llario, M Dolores-Gil; Salmerón-Sánchez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Sexual compulsivity has been studied in relation to high-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections. The aim of this study was the adaptation and validation of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale to a sample of Spanish young people. This scale was applied to 1,196 (891 female, 305 male) Spanish college students. The results of principal components factor analysis using a varimax rotation indicated a two-factor solution. The reliability of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale was found to be high. Moreover, the scale showed good temporal stability. External correlates were examined through Pearson correlations between the Sexual Compulsivity Scale and other constructs related with HIV prevention. The authors' results suggest that the Sexual Compulsivity Scale is an appropriate measure for assessing sexual compulsivity, showing adequate psychometric properties in the Spanish population. PMID:23631692

  18. The spatial scale of local adaptation in a stochastic environment.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Jarrod D

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of phenotypes in space will be a compromise between adaptive plasticity and local adaptation increasing the fit of phenotypes to local conditions and gene flow reducing that fit. Theoretical models on the evolution of quantitative characters on spatially explicit landscapes have only considered scenarios where optimum trait values change as deterministic functions of space. Here, these models are extended to include stochastic spatially autocorrelated aspects to the environment, and consequently the optimal phenotype. Under these conditions, the regression of phenotype on the environmental variable becomes steeper as the spatial scale on which populations are sampled becomes larger. Under certain deterministic models - such as linear clines - the regression is constant. The way in which the regression changes with spatial scale is informative about the degree of phenotypic plasticity, the relative scale of effective gene flow and the environmental dependency of selection. Connections to temporal models are discussed. PMID:27188689

  19. Armoured spiderman: morphological and behavioural adaptations of a specialised araneophagous predator (Araneae: Palpimanidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekár, Stano; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Yael

    2011-07-01

    In a predator-prey system where both intervenients come from the same taxon, one can expect a strong selection on behavioural and morphological traits involved in prey capture. For example, in specialised snake-eating snakes, the predator is unaffetced by the venom of the prey. We predicted that similar adaptations should have evolved in spider-eating (araneophagous) spiders. We investigated potential and actual prey of two Palpimanus spiders ( P. gibbulus, P. orientalis) to support the prediction that these are araneophagous predators. Specific behavioural adaptations were investigated using a high-speed camera during staged encounters with prey, while morphological adaptations were investigated using electron microscopy. Both Palpimanus species captured a wide assortment of spider species from various guilds but also a few insect species. Analysis of the potential prey suggested that Palpimanus is a retreat-invading predator that actively searches for spiders that hide in a retreat. Behavioural capture adaptations include a slow, stealthy approach to the prey followed by a very fast attack. Morphological capture adaptations include scopulae on forelegs used in grabbing prey body parts, stout forelegs to hold the prey firmly, and an extremely thick cuticle all over the body preventing injury from a counter bite of the prey. Palpimanus overwhelmed prey that was more than 200% larger than itself. In trials with another araneophagous spider, Cyrba algerina (Salticidae), Palpimanus captured C. algerina in more than 90% of cases independent of the size ratio between the spiders. Evidence indicates that both Palpimanus species possesses remarkable adaptations that increase its efficiency in capturing spider prey.

  20. Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation

    PubMed Central

    Peternel, Luka; Noda, Tomoyuki; Petrič, Tadej; Ude, Aleš; Morimoto, Jun; Babič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion. PMID:26881743

  1. Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Luka; Noda, Tomoyuki; Petrič, Tadej; Ude, Aleš; Morimoto, Jun; Babič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion. PMID:26881743

  2. A behavioural scale to measure ease of farrowing in sows.

    PubMed

    Mainau, E; Dalmau, A; Ruiz-de-la-Torre, J L; Manteca, X

    2010-10-15

    Farrowing is one of the most critical phases in pig production, as it has an impact on neonatal pig survival. Assessing the ease of farrowing can improve the management of sows and thus increase litter survival. The aims of this study were: 1) to develop an ease of farrowing score (EFS) in sows based on the behaviour of the sows and their piglets, and 2) to determine the relationship between the EFS and productive, physiological, and subjective parameters. Eighty hybrid (Large White × Landrace) sows from first to seventh parity housed in individual crates were used. An EFS was constructed using the total duration of farrowing, the birth interval, the total time standing or sitting, the number of position changes during the day before and the day of farrowing, the sow posture at birth, the viability and the position of the piglets at birth (head or back born). Moreover, rectal temperature at 90 min after farrowing, a four categorical subjective visual assessment (VA) of farrowing and litter size (piglets born alive, stillborn and mummified foetus) were recorded. A common factor analysis model yielded five factors with an eigenvalue higher than 0.95 that accounted for 75.05% of the total variation between individuals. The three main factors were "farrowing duration", "sow posture", and "sow activity" of sows and explained 23.44%, 15.67%, and 14.23% of the variance, respectively. Primiparous sows had higher values for factor 3 (sow activity) than multiparous sows (P = 0.02). Sows without stillborn or mummification foetus showed higher values of EFS than sows with at least one stillborn or mummification foetus (P = 0.06 and 0.01, respectively). Sows that received a visual assessment of 3 and 4 showed higher values of EFS than sows that received a VA of 1 and 2 (P = 0.0017). The EFS appears to be a good behavioural scale to measure ease of farrowing in sows kept in individual farrowing crates. Duration of farrowing, sow position, and presence of stillborn piglets and

  3. Housing and care of monkeys and apes in laboratories: adaptations allowing essential species-specific behaviour.

    PubMed

    Röder, E L; Timmermans, P J A

    2002-07-01

    During the last two decades an increasing amount of attention has been paid to the housing and care of monkeys and apes in laboratories, as has been done with the housing and care of other categories of captive animals. The purpose of this review is to develop recommendations for adaptations of housing and care from our knowledge of the daily behavioural activity of monkeys and apes in natural conditions and in enriched laboratory conditions. This review deals mainly with adaptations of daily housing and care with respect to behaviour, and it is restricted to commonly-used species: Callitrichidae (Callitrix jacchus, Saguinus oedipus); Cebidae (Aotus trivirgatus, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella); Cercopithecidae (Macaca fascicularis, M. mulatta, M. nemestrina, M. arctoides, Chlorocebus aethiops, Papio hamadryas, P. cynocephalus); Pongidae (Pan troglodytes). PMID:12144737

  4. Investigating catchment-scale hysteretic behaviour of nutrients at annual and individual storm time-resolutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Charlotte; Freer, Jim; Johnes, Penny; Collins, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that all water bodies should be maintained at, or raised to, good ecological status, driven by improved integrated catchment management. Therefore, it is necessary to implement cost-effective mitigation strategies to reduce pollution from nutrients and improve overall water quality. If successful mitigation strategies are to be designed then it is imperative that catchment scale responses to environmental and anthropogenic changes are better understood. Against this background, this presentation investigates changes in hysteretic behaviours of nutrients in response to different environmental drivers using high resolution monitoring techniques. Observations of hysteretic behaviour can provide insights into the dominant flow pathways of pollutants. Therefore, monitoring changes in nutrient hysteresis can provide a useful tool for detecting regime differences or changes within and between catchments. In the UK, the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project has been set up to monitor evidence for improving water quality problems arising specifically from diffuse pollution from agriculture using targeted mitigation experiments and high resolution monitoring. This research platform provides an opportunity to compare storm-driven nutrient behaviour between catchments which have differing geologies, as well as how these behaviours evolve on a seasonal and annual basis. The monitoring to date has included a period of drought, directly followed by extreme wet conditions in the UK and therefore offers opportunities to assess the effect of differences in antecedent conditions on monitored nutrient response to rainfall events. The study compares the hysteretic behaviour of nutrients, including nitrogen and phosphorus species as well as sediment from a number of storm events of varying magnitudes throughout the 2011-2012 monitoring period in the Hampshire Avon catchment as part of the DTC programme. The investigation focuses

  5. Parental effects alter the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait

    PubMed Central

    Kilner, Rebecca M; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Henshaw, Jonathan M; Jarrett, Benjamin JM; De Gasperin, Ornela; Attisano, Alfredo; Kokko, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    The parents' phenotype, or the environment they create for their young, can have long-lasting effects on their offspring, with profound evolutionary consequences. Yet, virtually no work has considered how such parental effects might change the adaptive value of behavioural traits expressed by offspring upon reaching adulthood. To address this problem, we combined experiments on burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) with theoretical modelling and focussed on one adult behavioural trait in particular: the supply of parental care. We manipulated the early-life environment and measured the fitness payoffs associated with the supply of parental care when larvae reached maturity. We found that (1) adults that received low levels of care as larvae were less successful at raising larger broods and suffered greater mortality as a result: they were low-quality parents. Furthermore, (2) high-quality males that raised offspring with low-quality females subsequently suffered greater mortality than brothers of equivalent quality, which reared larvae with higher quality females. Our analyses identify three general ways in which parental effects can change the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait: by influencing the associated fitness benefits and costs; by consequently changing the evolutionary outcome of social interactions; and by modifying the evolutionarily stable expression of behavioural traits that are themselves parental effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07340.001 PMID:26393686

  6. Multi-neuronal refractory period adapts centrally generated behaviour to reward.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christopher A; Buckley, Christopher L; Nowotny, Thomas; Passaro, Peter A; Seth, Anil K; Kemenes, György; O'Shea, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Oscillating neuronal circuits, known as central pattern generators (CPGs), are responsible for generating rhythmic behaviours such as walking, breathing and chewing. The CPG model alone however does not account for the ability of animals to adapt their future behaviour to changes in the sensory environment that signal reward. Here, using multi-electrode array (MEA) recording in an established experimental model of centrally generated rhythmic behaviour we show that the feeding CPG of Lymnaea stagnalis is itself associated with another, and hitherto unidentified, oscillating neuronal population. This extra-CPG oscillator is characterised by high population-wide activity alternating with population-wide quiescence. During the quiescent periods the CPG is refractory to activation by food-associated stimuli. Furthermore, the duration of the refractory period predicts the timing of the next activation of the CPG, which may be minutes into the future. Rewarding food stimuli and dopamine accelerate the frequency of the extra-CPG oscillator and reduce the duration of its quiescent periods. These findings indicate that dopamine adapts future feeding behaviour to the availability of food by significantly reducing the refractory period of the brain's feeding circuitry. PMID:22860134

  7. Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition…

  8. Behavioural adaptations of birds to environments where evaporation is high and water is in short supply.

    PubMed

    Davies, S J

    1982-01-01

    1. Behaviour that reduces the heat load or evaporation experienced by birds living in arid areas is reviewed. Many species have evolved hunting behaviour that enables them to remain inactive during the hottest parts of the day and thus greatly reduce the amount of metabolic heat that they need to dissipate. Flights to water are made at low ambient temperatures, either early in the morning or late in the evening. Fighting is rare in many species of desert birds, avoiding the excess generation of heat by this activity. Many arid zone birds maintain long-lasting pair bonds, avoiding the necessity for active, elaborate display before breeding and again reducing activity. 2. The observations on nomadism are discussed. No unifying principles that might control the behaviour of birds seeking widely separated areas of abundance of food have yet emerged. 3. Some species have evolved mechanisms, embodied in behavioural characteristics, that ensure that the eggs and chicks are sheltered from high temperatures and are provided with adequate moisture. 4. Birds have evolved many different kinds of behavioural adaptation to arid zones and representatives from many avian families live there, apparently successfully. PMID:6124344

  9. Synaptic plasticity and neuronal refractory time cause scaling behaviour of neuronal avalanches.

    PubMed

    Michiels van Kessenich, L; de Arcangelis, L; Herrmann, H J

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal avalanches measured in vitro and in vivo in different cortical networks consistently exhibit power law behaviour for the size and duration distributions with exponents typical for a mean field self-organized branching process. These exponents are also recovered in neuronal network simulations implementing various neuronal dynamics on different network topologies. They can therefore be considered a very robust feature of spontaneous neuronal activity. Interestingly, this scaling behaviour is also observed on regular lattices in finite dimensions, which raises the question about the origin of the mean field behavior observed experimentally. In this study we provide an answer to this open question by investigating the effect of activity dependent plasticity in combination with the neuronal refractory time in a neuronal network. Results show that the refractory time hinders backward avalanches forcing a directed propagation. Hebbian plastic adaptation plays the role of sculpting these directed avalanche patterns into the topology of the network slowly changing it into a branched structure where loops are marginal. PMID:27534901

  10. Synaptic plasticity and neuronal refractory time cause scaling behaviour of neuronal avalanches

    PubMed Central

    Michiels van Kessenich, L.; de Arcangelis, L.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal avalanches measured in vitro and in vivo in different cortical networks consistently exhibit power law behaviour for the size and duration distributions with exponents typical for a mean field self-organized branching process. These exponents are also recovered in neuronal network simulations implementing various neuronal dynamics on different network topologies. They can therefore be considered a very robust feature of spontaneous neuronal activity. Interestingly, this scaling behaviour is also observed on regular lattices in finite dimensions, which raises the question about the origin of the mean field behavior observed experimentally. In this study we provide an answer to this open question by investigating the effect of activity dependent plasticity in combination with the neuronal refractory time in a neuronal network. Results show that the refractory time hinders backward avalanches forcing a directed propagation. Hebbian plastic adaptation plays the role of sculpting these directed avalanche patterns into the topology of the network slowly changing it into a branched structure where loops are marginal. PMID:27534901

  11. Reversal of cocaine-evoked synaptic potentiation resets drug-induced adaptive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pascoli, Vincent; Turiault, Marc; Lüscher, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Drug-evoked synaptic plasticity is observed at many synapses and may underlie behavioural adaptations in addiction. Mechanistic investigations start with the identification of the molecular drug targets. Cocaine, for example, exerts its reinforcing and early neuroadaptive effects by inhibiting the dopamine transporter, thus causing a strong increase in mesolimbic dopamine. Among the many signalling pathways subsequently engaged, phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the nucleus accumbens is of particular interest because it has been implicated in NMDA-receptor and type 1 dopamine (D1)-receptor-dependent synaptic potentiation as well as in several behavioural adaptations. A causal link between drug-evoked plasticity at identified synapses and behavioural adaptations, however, is missing, and the benefits of restoring baseline transmission have yet to be demonstrated. Here we find that cocaine potentiates excitatory transmission in D1-receptor-expressing medium-sized spiny neurons (D1R-MSNs) in mice via ERK signalling with a time course that parallels locomotor sensitization. Depotentiation of cortical nucleus accumbens inputs by optogenetic stimulation in vivo efficiently restored normal transmission and abolished cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. These findings establish synaptic potentiation selectively in D1R-MSNs as a mechanism underlying a core component of addiction, probably by creating an imbalance between distinct populations of MSNs in the nucleus accumbens. Our data also provide proof of principle that reversal of cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity can treat behavioural alterations caused by addictive drugs and may inspire novel therapeutic approaches involving deep brain stimulation or transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:22158102

  12. An investigation of behavioural adaptation to airbags and antilock brakes among taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Sagberg, F; Fosser, S; Saetermo, I A

    1997-05-01

    Previous research has indicated that safety measures may lead to behavioural adaptation (also termed risk compensation) among road users, partly or completely offsetting the intended safety effects. There is, however, limited knowledge about characteristics of safety measures possibly determining the occurrence of behavioural adaptation. The present study addresses the relationship of driving behaviour to two different kinds of in-car safety equipment, airbags and antilock braking systems (ABS). It is hypothesized that accident-reducing measures like ABS are compensated for to a larger extent than injury-reducing measures like an airbag. On-road unobtrusive measurements of speed, headway, lane occupancy, lane changes, and variability of lateral position were performed on 213 taxis, on the basis of video recordings of traffic travelling to Oslo airport. The behavioural data were matched to questionnaire information collected when the taxis arrived at the airport. In addition to information regarding ABS and airbags, the drivers reported personal background information and answered questions about driving behaviour. Taxis with ABS had significantly shorter time headways than taxis without ABS. There were no relationships with speed, possibly because dense traffic during the observation period may have prevented the drivers from driving at their preferred speed. Simple comparisons also showed fewer lane changes and a lower rate of seat-belt use among drivers of taxis with ABS. However, multiple regression analyses indicated that the latter effects might be explained by driver background factors or by car characteristics other than ABS or airbag. The headway results support the hypothesis of larger compensation for accident-reducing than for injury-reducing measures. PMID:9183467

  13. Magnetic hysteresis at the domain scale of a multi-scale material model for magneto-elastic behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanoost, D.; Steentjes, S.; Peuteman, J.; Gielen, G.; De Gersem, H.; Pissoort, D.; Hameyer, K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a multi-scale energy-based material model for poly-crystalline materials. Describing the behaviour of poly-crystalline materials at three spatial scales of dominating physical mechanisms allows accounting for the heterogeneity and multi-axiality of the material behaviour. The three spatial scales are the poly-crystalline, grain and domain scale. Together with appropriate scale transitions rules and models for local magnetic behaviour at each scale, the model is able to describe the magneto-elastic behaviour (magnetostriction and hysteresis) at the macroscale, although the data input is merely based on a set of physical constants. Introducing a new energy density function that describes the demagnetisation field, the anhysteretic multi-scale energy-based material model is extended to the hysteretic case. The hysteresis behaviour is included at the domain scale according to the micro-magnetic domain theory while preserving a valid description for the magneto-elastic coupling. The model is verified using existing measurement data for different mechanical stress levels.

  14. The Scales of Coccolithophores: Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderiks, J.; Hannisdal, B.; Rickaby, R. E.; Zondervan, I.; Winter, A.; Pagani, M.

    2008-12-01

    Rising ocean temperatures and lowering of ocean pH may disrupt marine productivity and calcification by coccolithophores, affecting natural biosphere-climate feedbacks. A better understanding of both the mechanisms and the rates of climatic adaptation by coccolithophores is critical for predicting future impacts of climate change. We will discuss how contrasts in the physiology and biogeography of modern coccolithophores could relate to different climatic adaptation strategies of their Cenozoic ancestors. On short time scales, experimental results highlight species-specific sensitivities to changing ocean carbonate chemistry, which is consistent with differences in cell size of the investigated taxa and likely related to intracellular pH control. On geological time-scales, coccolithophores appear to have adapted to a long- term decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) and cooling ocean temperatures by decreasing their coccolith and cell size. We employed a novel, information-theoretic approach to quantify the relative influence of different environmental variables on coccolith size. This analysis suggests that the macroevolutionary size decrease primarily reflects a physiological adaptation to CO2 limitation, rather than decreased nutrient availability caused by large-scale changes in ocean stratification. The recent dominance of Emiliania huxleyi is likely due to its fast growing, small cells and light calcification. This allowed it to outcompete larger and heavily calcified coccolithophores under low pCO2 conditions of the Pleistocene. However, as the ocean carbonate system is rapidly reversing to more acidic pre-Pleistocene conditions, the fate of E. huxleyi and other modern prolific bloomers is uncertain. The potential expansion of the larger, pH-resistant species Coccolithus braarudii away from its restricted high- pCO2 niches remains untested.

  15. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  16. Can enforced behaviour change attitudes: exploring the influence of Intelligent Speed Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Chorlton, Kathryn; Conner, Mark

    2012-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behaviour model (Ajzen, 1985) was used to determine whether long-term experience with Intelligent Speed Adaption (ISA) prompts a change in speed related cognitions. The study examines data collected as part of a project examining driver behaviour with an intervening but overridable ISA system. Data was collected in four six-month field trials. The trials followed an A-B-A design (28 days driving with no ISA, 112 days driving with ISA, 28 days driving without ISA) to monitor changes in speeding behaviour as a result of the ISA system and any carry-over effect of the system. Findings suggested that following experience with the system, drivers' intention to speed significantly weakened, beyond the removal of ISA support. Drivers were also less likely to believe that exceeding the speed would 'get them to their destination more quickly' and less likely to believe that 'being in a hurry' would facilitate speeding. However, the positive change in intentions and beliefs failed to translate into behaviour. Experience with the ISA system significantly reduced the percentage of distance travelled whilst exceeding the speed limit but this effect was not evident when the ISA support was removed. PMID:22664667

  17. Adaptive behaviour and multiple equilibrium states in a predator-prey model.

    PubMed

    Pimenov, Alexander; Kelly, Thomas C; Korobeinikov, Andrei; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Rachinskii, Dmitrii

    2015-05-01

    There is evidence that multiple stable equilibrium states are possible in real-life ecological systems. Phenomenological mathematical models which exhibit such properties can be constructed rather straightforwardly. For instance, for a predator-prey system this result can be achieved through the use of non-monotonic functional response for the predator. However, while formal formulation of such a model is not a problem, the biological justification for such functional responses and models is usually inconclusive. In this note, we explore a conjecture that a multitude of equilibrium states can be caused by an adaptation of animal behaviour to changes of environmental conditions. In order to verify this hypothesis, we consider a simple predator-prey model, which is a straightforward extension of the classic Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model. In this model, we made an intuitively transparent assumption that the prey can change a mode of behaviour in response to the pressure of predation, choosing either "safe" of "risky" (or "business as usual") behaviour. In order to avoid a situation where one of the modes gives an absolute advantage, we introduce the concept of the "cost of a policy" into the model. A simple conceptual two-dimensional predator-prey model, which is minimal with this property, and is not relying on odd functional responses, higher dimensionality or behaviour change for the predator, exhibits two stable co-existing equilibrium states with basins of attraction separated by a separatrix of a saddle point. PMID:25732186

  18. Predicting organismal vulnerability to climate warming: roles of behaviour, physiology and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Huey, Raymond B.; Kearney, Michael R.; Krockenberger, Andrew; Holtum, Joseph A. M.; Jess, Mellissa; Williams, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    A recently developed integrative framework proposes that the vulnerability of a species to environmental change depends on the species' exposure and sensitivity to environmental change, its resilience to perturbations and its potential to adapt to change. These vulnerability criteria require behavioural, physiological and genetic data. With this information in hand, biologists can predict organisms most at risk from environmental change. Biologists and managers can then target organisms and habitats most at risk. Unfortunately, the required data (e.g. optimal physiological temperatures) are rarely available. Here, we evaluate the reliability of potential proxies (e.g. critical temperatures) that are often available for some groups. Several proxies for ectotherms are promising, but analogous ones for endotherms are lacking. We also develop a simple graphical model of how behavioural thermoregulation, acclimation and adaptation may interact to influence vulnerability over time. After considering this model together with the proxies available for physiological sensitivity to climate change, we conclude that ectotherms sharing vulnerability traits seem concentrated in lowland tropical forests. Their vulnerability may be exacerbated by negative biotic interactions. Whether tropical forest (or other) species can adapt to warming environments is unclear, as genetic and selective data are scant. Nevertheless, the prospects for tropical forest ectotherms appear grim. PMID:22566674

  19. An adaptive governance approach to disaster-related behavioural health services.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Simon A; Kendra, James M

    2012-07-01

    This paper explores the provision of disaster-related behavioural and mental health (DBH) services as a problem of institutional collective action in the United States. This study reviews the challenges that providers have in surmounting multi-organizational disconnects, unstable professional legitimacy, ambiguous information, and shifting disaster needs in developing a system for delivering DBH services. Based on the adaptive governance framework, it argues that existing protocols such as the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICS) may be helpful in advancing collective action, but that real progress will depend on a recognition of norms, expectations, and credentials across many spheres-in other words, on the ability of responders to continuously adjust their procedures and administrative boundaries for behavioural health institutions. PMID:22066735

  20. Cognitive behavioural therapy for individuals with longstanding anorexia nervosa: adaptations, clinician survival and system issues.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Bryony H; Mountford, Victoria A

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of anorexia nervosa, some individuals will progress to a severe and enduring illness, with associated physical, psychological and social consequences. Working with these patients, however, may leave clinicians feeling overwhelmed, risking difficulties in the therapeutic relationship including disengagement or despair. Cognitive behaviour therapy has shown some promise in the treatment of eating disorders, yet some features may not be appropriate for this group. In this paper, we outline the ways in which we have adapted cognitive behaviour therapy to best meet the complex and challenging needs of this group. We stress the importance of maintaining a reassuring, accepting and motivational approach in combination with clear goal setting and boundaries. PMID:22223392

  1. Behavioural adaptations of two sympatric sandhoppers living on a mesotidal European Atlantic sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa, Filipa; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2014-06-01

    Behavioural adaptations of supralittoral species on sandy beaches are expressed as responses to environmental changes and constitute a key factor in their survival and evolution. Two sympatric talitrid amphipods (Talitrus saltator and Britorchestia brito) from a mesotidal exposed sandy beach on the European Atlantic coast (Portugal) were compared as regards orientation and littoral zonation patterns under natural conditions. Orientation experiments were carried out during spring and summer 2011 and 2012 at Quiaios beach, a highly dynamic exposed sandy beach. Multiple regression models were fitted to the angular data and the environmental effects on orientation were investigated for each species. Both talitrids were shown to be well orientated towards the shoreline and finely adapted to the mesotidal environment but a different use of local cues and climatic features between the two species was apparent. T. saltator showed a lower precision in the orientation performance (with a bimodal distribution sea- and land-wards), with less dependence on the sun cues and higher dependence on climatic features. In addition, the zonation of T. saltator was across the land-sea axis during both seasons. For B. brito the landscape vision, sun visibility and the tidal range enhanced the orientation to the shoreline. On this mesotidal Atlantic beach, T. saltator appeared to have a more flexible orientation with respect to B. brito, which appeared to be more dependent on the conditions offered by the intertidal zone, a behaviour confirmed by its restricted zonation below the high tide mark. Consequently, T. saltator showed a more flexible behaviour that may be considered an important evolutionary adaptation to dynamic and mesotidal sandy beaches.

  2. Scaling up breastfeeding programmes in a complex adaptive world.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Hall Moran, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    The 2016 Breastfeeding Lancet Series continues to provide unequivocal evidence regarding the numerous benefits that optimal breastfeeding practices offer to children and women worldwide and the major savings that improving these practices can have as a result of their major public health benefits. Unfortunately, this knowledge remains underutilized as there has been little progress scaling up effective breastfeeding programmes globally. Improving the uptake and scaling up of effective national breastfeeding programmes that are potent enough to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration should be a top priority for all countries. Complex analysis systems longitudinal research is needed to understand how best to empower decision makers to achieve this goal through well-validated participatory decision-making tools to help their countries assess baseline needs, including costs, as well as progress with their scaling-up efforts. Sound systems thinking frameworks and scaling-up models are now available to guide and research prospectively future scaling-up efforts that can be replicated, with proper adaptations, across countries. PMID:27161881

  3. Scaling behaviours in the growth of networked systems and their geometric origins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiang; Li, Xintong; Wang, Xinran; Wang, Wen-Xu; Wu, Lingfei

    2015-01-01

    Two classes of scaling behaviours, namely the super-linear scaling of links or activities, and the sub-linear scaling of area, diversity, or time elapsed with respect to size have been found to prevail in the growth of complex networked systems. Despite some pioneering modelling approaches proposed for specific systems, whether there exists some general mechanisms that account for the origins of such scaling behaviours in different contexts, especially in socioeconomic systems, remains an open question. We address this problem by introducing a geometric network model without free parameter, finding that both super-linear and sub-linear scaling behaviours can be simultaneously reproduced and that the scaling exponents are exclusively determined by the dimension of the Euclidean space in which the network is embedded. We implement some realistic extensions to the basic model to offer more accurate predictions for cities of various scaling behaviours and the Zipf distribution reported in the literature and observed in our empirical studies. All of the empirical results can be precisely recovered by our model with analytical predictions of all major properties. By virtue of these general findings concerning scaling behaviour, our models with simple mechanisms gain new insights into the evolution and development of complex networked systems. PMID:25924057

  4. The effect of redox conditions and adaptation time on organic micropollutant removal during river bank filtration: A laboratory-scale column study.

    PubMed

    Bertelkamp, C; Verliefde, A R D; Schoutteten, K; Vanhaecke, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Singhal, N; van der Hoek, J P

    2016-02-15

    This study investigated the redox dependent removal and adaptive behaviour of a mixture of 15 organic micropollutants (OMPs) in laboratory-scale soil columns fed with river water. Three separate pilot systems were used consisting of: (1) two columns, (2) ten columns and (3) twenty two columns to create oxic, suboxic (partial nitrate removal) and anoxic (complete nitrate removal). The pilot set-up has some unique features--it can simulate fairly long residence times (e.g., 45 days using the 22 column system) and reduced conditions developed naturally within the system. Dimethoate, diuron, and metoprolol showed redox dependent removal behaviour with higher biodegradation rates in the oxic zone compared to the suboxic/anoxic zone. The redox dependent behaviour of these three OMPs could not be explained based on their physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, charge and molecular weight) or functional groups present in the molecular structure. OMPs that showed persistent behaviour in the oxic zone (atrazine, carbamazepine, hydrochlorothiazide and simazine) were also not removed under more reduced conditions. Adaptive behaviour was observed for five OMPs: dimethoate, chloridazon, lincomycin, sulfamethoxazole and phenazone. However, the adaptive behaviour could not be explained by the physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, charge and molecular weight) investigated in this study and only rough trends were observed with specific functional groups (e.g. ethers, sulphur, primary and secondary amines). Finally, the adaptive behaviour of OMPs was found to be an important factor that should be incorporated in predictive models for OMP removal during river bank filtration. PMID:26657377

  5. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Netherlands Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Ability, Personality, and Regulatory Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Koen, Jessie; Dries, Nicky

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Netherlands Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  6. Large-Scale Liquid Simulation on Adaptive Hexahedral Grids.

    PubMed

    Ferstl, Florian; Westermann, Rudiger; Dick, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Regular grids are attractive for numerical fluid simulations because they give rise to efficient computational kernels. However, for simulating high resolution effects in complicated domains they are only of limited suitability due to memory constraints. In this paper we present a method for liquid simulation on an adaptive octree grid using a hexahedral finite element discretization, which reduces memory requirements by coarsening the elements in the interior of the liquid body. To impose free surface boundary conditions with second order accuracy, we incorporate a particular class of Nitsche methods enforcing the Dirichlet boundary conditions for the pressure in a variational sense. We then show how to construct a multigrid hierarchy from the adaptive octree grid, so that a time efficient geometric multigrid solver can be used. To improve solver convergence, we propose a special treatment of liquid boundaries via composite finite elements at coarser scales. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for liquid simulations that would require hundreds of millions of simulation elements in a non-adaptive regime. PMID:26357387

  7. Observations to support adaptation: Principles, scales and decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    As has been long noted, a comprehensive, coordinated observing system is the backbone of any Earth information system. Demands are increasingly placed on earth observation and prediction systems and attendant services to address the needs of economically and environmentally vulnerable sectors and investments, including energy, water, human health, transportation, agriculture, fisheries, tourism, biodiversity, and national security. Climate services include building capacity to interpret information and recognize standards and limitations of data in the promotion of social and economic development in a changing climate. This includes improving the understanding of climate in the context of a variety of temporal and spatial scales (including the influence of decadal scale forcings and land surface feedbacks on seasonal forecast reliability). Climate data and information are central for developing decision options that are sensitive to climate-related uncertainties and the design of flexible adaptation pathways. Ideally monitoring should be action oriented to support climate risk assessment and adaptation including informing robust decision making to multiple risks over the long term. Based on the experience of global observations programs and empirical research we outline- Challenges in developing effective monitoring and climate information systems to support adaptation. The types of observations of critical importance needed for sector planning to enhance food, water and energy security, and to improve early warning for disaster risk reduction Observations needed for ecosystem-based adaptation including the identification of thresholds, maintenance of biological diversity and land degradation The benefits and limits of linking regional model output to local observations including analogs and verification for adaptation planning To support these goals a robust systems of integrated observations are needed to characterize the uncertainty surrounding emergent risks

  8. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bost, Charles A.; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-10-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes.

  9. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography

    PubMed Central

    Bost, Charles A.; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes. PMID:26506134

  10. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography.

    PubMed

    Bost, Charles A; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes. PMID:26506134

  11. Scaling behaviours of the p T spectra for identified hadrons in pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. C.

    2016-08-01

    We extend the scaling behaviour observed in the inclusive charged hadron transverse momentum (p T ) distributions to the p T spectra of pions, kaons and protons produced in proton-proton (pp) collisions with center of mass energies (\\sqrt{s}) at 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV. This scaling behaviour arises when a linear transformation, {p}T\\to {p}T/K, is applied on the pion, kaon or proton p T spectra. The scaling parameter K depends on \\sqrt{s} and is determined by a new method, the quality factor method, which does not rely on the shape of the scaling function. We argue that the pions, kaons and protons originate from different distributions of clusters which are formed by strings overlapping, and the scaling behaviours of these identified particles p T spectra could be understood with the colour string percolation model in a quantitative way simultaneously.

  12. Core set of recommendations for patients with ankylosing spondylitis concerning behaviour and environmental adaptations.

    PubMed

    Feldtkeller, Ernst; Lind-Albrecht, Gudrun; Rudwaleit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Advice concerning behaviour and adaptations of living and working environment is considered an unmet need by patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aim of this study was to develop a core set of recommendations to be given to patients by their rheumatologists. A systematic literature research of scientific and patient-oriented literature revealed 70 raw recommendations. These recommendations were evaluated and ranked at a meeting of the Ankylosing Spondylitis International Federation (ASIF, 26 participants including 19 patients with AS, 5 rheumatologists and 2 physiotherapists from 13 countries) in November 2011. Thereafter, the 59 remaining recommendations were extensively discussed, supplemented, reworded, condensed and voted on during a meeting of local branch leaders of the AS patient organisation in Germany (Deutsche Vereinigung Morbus Bechterew, DVMB) with 80 participants (95 % of whom with AS), 2 rheumatologists and 1 occupational therapist in March 2012. The core set of final recommendations comprises (1) a general statement regarding living with AS which was considered highly important by patients and (2) the following domains: sitting position, walking, sleeping, at work, exercises, sports and recreational activities, diet and lifestyle, sexuality and pregnancy, fall prevention, car driving and advantages of membership in an AS-specific patient organisation. Most recommendations are relevant already in early disease, others concern advanced AS (e.g. fall prevention and car driving). The selected recommendations received high agreements (80-100 %). A first core set of recommendations for the behaviour and environmental adaptations of patients with AS was established under participation of many patients. PMID:23539272

  13. Translation, adaptation, and validation of the Sunderland Scale and the Cubbin & Jackson Revised Scale in Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Objective To translate into Portuguese and evaluate the measuring properties of the Sunderland Scale and the Cubbin & Jackson Revised Scale, which are instruments for evaluating the risk of developing pressure ulcers during intensive care. Methods This study included the process of translation and adaptation of the scales to the Portuguese language, as well as the validation of these tools. To assess the reliability, Cronbach alpha values of 0.702 to 0.708 were identified for the Sunderland Scale and the Cubbin & Jackson Revised Scale, respectively. The validation criteria (predictive) were performed comparatively with the Braden Scale (gold standard), and the main measurements evaluated were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve, which were calculated based on cutoff points. Results The Sunderland Scale exhibited 60% sensitivity, 86.7% specificity, 47.4% positive predictive value, 91.5% negative predictive value, and 0.86 for the area under the curve. The Cubbin & Jackson Revised Scale exhibited 73.3% sensitivity, 86.7% specificity, 52.4% positive predictive value, 94.2% negative predictive value, and 0.91 for the area under the curve. The Braden scale exhibited 100% sensitivity, 5.3% specificity, 17.4% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 0.72 for the area under the curve. Conclusions Both tools demonstrated reliability and validity for this sample. The Cubbin & Jackson Revised Scale yielded better predictive values for the development of pressure ulcers during intensive care. PMID:23917975

  14. Fine-scale thermal adaptation in a green turtle nesting population

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Sam B.; Broderick, Annette C.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Ellick, Jacqui; Godley, Brendan J.; Blount, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the reproductive success of ectothermic animals is currently a subject of major conservation concern. However, for many threatened species, we still know surprisingly little about the extent of naturally occurring adaptive variation in heat-tolerance. Here, we show that the thermal tolerances of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) embryos in a single, island-breeding population have diverged in response to the contrasting incubation temperatures of nesting beaches just a few kilometres apart. In natural nests and in a common-garden rearing experiment, the offspring of females nesting on a naturally hot (black sand) beach survived better and grew larger at hot incubation temperatures compared with the offspring of females nesting on a cooler (pale sand) beach nearby. These differences were owing to shallower thermal reaction norms in the hot beach population, rather than shifts in thermal optima, and could not be explained by egg-mediated maternal effects. Our results suggest that marine turtle nesting behaviour can drive adaptive differentiation at remarkably fine spatial scales, and have important implications for how we define conservation units for protection. In particular, previous studies may have underestimated the extent of adaptive structuring in marine turtle populations that may significantly affect their capacity to respond to environmental change. PMID:21937495

  15. Efficient implementation of the adaptive scale pixel decomposition algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Bhatnagar, S.; Rau, U.; Zhang, M.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Most popular algorithms in use to remove the effects of a telescope's point spread function (PSF) in radio astronomy are variants of the CLEAN algorithm. Most of these algorithms model the sky brightness using the delta-function basis, which results in undesired artefacts when used to image extended emission. The adaptive scale pixel decomposition (Asp-Clean) algorithm models the sky brightness on a scale-sensitive basis and thus gives a significantly better imaging performance when imaging fields that contain both resolved and unresolved emission. Aims: However, the runtime cost of Asp-Clean is higher than that of scale-insensitive algorithms. In this paper, we identify the most expensive step in the original Asp-Clean algorithm and present an efficient implementation of it, which significantly reduces the computational cost while keeping the imaging performance comparable to the original algorithm. The PSF sidelobe levels of modern wide-band telescopes are significantly reduced, allowing us to make approximations to reduce the computational cost, which in turn allows for the deconvolution of larger images on reasonable timescales. Methods: As in the original algorithm, scales in the image are estimated through function fitting. Here we introduce an analytical method to model extended emission, and a modified method for estimating the initial values used for the fitting procedure, which ultimately leads to a lower computational cost. Results: The new implementation was tested with simulated EVLA data and the imaging performance compared well with the original Asp-Clean algorithm. Tests show that the current algorithm can recover features at different scales with lower computational cost.

  16. Tunable scaling behaviour observed in Barkhausen criticality of a ferromagnetic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Kwang-Su; Akinaga, Hiro; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2007-08-01

    A ferromagnetic material shows a sequence of discrete and jerky domain jumps, known as the Barkhausen avalanche, in the presence of an external magnetic field. Studies of Barkhausen avalanches reveal power-law scaling behaviour that suggests an underlying criticality, as observed in a wide variety of systems such as superconductor vortices, microfractures, earthquakes, lung inflations, mass extinctions, financial markets and charge-density waves. The most interesting unsolved fundamental question is whether the universality in the scaling exponent holds regardless of the material and its detailed microstructure. Here we show that the scaling behaviour of Barkhausen criticality in a given ferromagnetic film is experimentally tunable by varying the temperature (not dimensionality). We observe for the first time that the scaling behaviour in the Barkhausen criticality of a given system crosses over between two universality classes when the relative contributions from the dipolar interaction and domain-wall energies are altered by an experimental parameter.

  17. Cell-intrinsic adaptation of lipid composition to local crowding drives social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Frechin, Mathieu; Stoeger, Thomas; Daetwyler, Stephan; Gehin, Charlotte; Battich, Nico; Damm, Eva-Maria; Stergiou, Lilli; Riezman, Howard; Pelkmans, Lucas

    2015-07-01

    Cells sense the context in which they grow to adapt their phenotype and allow multicellular patterning by mechanisms of autocrine and paracrine signalling. However, patterns also form in cell populations exposed to the same signalling molecules and substratum, which often correlate with specific features of the population context of single cells, such as local cell crowding. Here we reveal a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism that allows multicellular patterning without requiring specific communication between cells. It acts by sensing the local crowding of a single cell through its ability to spread and activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2), resulting in adaptation of genes controlling membrane homeostasis. In cells experiencing low crowding, FAK suppresses transcription of the ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) by inhibiting FOXO3 and TAL1. Agent-based computational modelling and experimental confirmation identified membrane-based signalling and feedback control as crucial for the emergence of population patterns of ABCA1 expression, which adapts membrane lipid composition to cell crowding and affects multiple signalling activities, including the suppression of ABCA1 expression itself. The simple design of this cell-intrinsic system and its broad impact on the signalling state of mammalian single cells suggests a fundamental role for a tunable membrane lipid composition in collective cell behaviour. PMID:26009010

  18. Self-* and Adaptive Mechanisms for Large Scale Distributed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragopoulou, P.; Mastroianni, C.; Montero, R.; Andrjezak, A.; Kondo, D.

    Large-scale distributed computing systems and infrastructure, such as Grids, P2P systems and desktop Grid platforms, are decentralized, pervasive, and composed of a large number of autonomous entities. The complexity of these systems is such that human administration is nearly impossible and centralized or hierarchical control is highly inefficient. These systems need to run on highly dynamic environments, where content, network topologies and workloads are continuously changing. Moreover, they are characterized by the high degree of volatility of their components and the need to provide efficient service management and to handle efficiently large amounts of data. This paper describes some of the areas for which adaptation emerges as a key feature, namely, the management of computational Grids, the self-management of desktop Grid platforms and the monitoring and healing of complex applications. It also elaborates on the use of bio-inspired algorithms to achieve self-management. Related future trends and challenges are described.

  19. Scale-adaptive surface modeling of vascular structures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The effective geometric modeling of vascular structures is crucial for diagnosis, therapy planning and medical education. These applications require good balance with respect to surface smoothness, surface accuracy, triangle quality and surface size. Methods Our method first extracts the vascular boundary voxels from the segmentation result, and utilizes these voxels to build a three-dimensional (3D) point cloud whose normal vectors are estimated via covariance analysis. Then a 3D implicit indicator function is computed from the oriented 3D point cloud by solving a Poisson equation. Finally the vessel surface is generated by a proposed adaptive polygonization algorithm for explicit 3D visualization. Results Experiments carried out on several typical vascular structures demonstrate that the presented method yields both a smooth morphologically correct and a topologically preserved two-manifold surface, which is scale-adaptive to the local curvature of the surface. Furthermore, the presented method produces fewer and better-shaped triangles with satisfactory surface quality and accuracy. Conclusions Compared to other state-of-the-art approaches, our method reaches good balance in terms of smoothness, accuracy, triangle quality and surface size. The vessel surfaces produced by our method are suitable for applications such as computational fluid dynamics simulations and real-time virtual interventional surgery. PMID:21087525

  20. [Spanish adaptation of a perceived Social Support Scale in sportspeople].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Ignacio; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Pérez Sánchez, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    Social support is a variable that has a great influence in the sport context. In fact, this variable not only affects the athlete's performance but it has also shown to be related to psychological disorders such as Burnout Syndrome. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the Spanish adaptation of a social support scale in the sport context. The normative group who took part in the final version of the research was composed of 397 athletes aged between 13 and 64 years old (mean= 19.23 and standard deviation= 6.67). The scale shows: adequate factorial and construct validity, acceptable fit indexes (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin= 0.785, Root Mean Square Residual= 0.078; Kelly's criterion= 0.075), a negative correlation with the dimensions of burnout and no relationship with respect to self-esteem. In addition, it also shows high reliability (a= 0.88). Furthermore, statistically significant differences have been found in relation to genders - where women require greater social support. In contrast, males tend to display a lower level of social support with team players and international athletes. Moreover, differential item functioning (DIF) was carried out to explore sex bias, however, none of the items exhibit DIF problems. PMID:22748742

  1. Designing for Change: Interoperability in a scaling and adapting environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmey, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth Science cyberinfrastructure landscape is constantly changing. Technologies advance and technical implementations are refined or replaced. Data types, volumes, packaging, and use cases evolve. Scientific requirements emerge and mature. Standards shift while systems scale and adapt. In this complex and dynamic environment, interoperability remains a critical component of successful cyberinfrastructure. Through the resource- and priority-driven iterations on systems, interfaces, and content, questions fundamental to stable and useful Earth Science cyberinfrastructure arise. For instance, how are sociotechnical changes planned, tracked, and communicated? How should operational stability balance against 'new and shiny'? How can ongoing maintenance and mitigation of technical debt be managed in an often short-term resource environment? The Arctic Data Explorer is a metadata brokering application developed to enable discovery of international, interdisciplinary Arctic data across distributed repositories. Completely dependent on interoperable third party systems, the Arctic Data Explorer publicly launched in 2013 with an original 3000+ data records from four Arctic repositories. Since then the search has scaled to 25,000+ data records from thirteen repositories at the time of writing. In the final months of original project funding, priorities shift to lean operations with a strategic eye on the future. Here we present lessons learned from four years of Arctic Data Explorer design, development, communication, and maintenance work along with remaining questions and potential directions.

  2. Scaling behaviour of lattice animals at the upper critical dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Ferber, C.; Foster, D.; Hsu, H. P.; Kenna, R.

    2011-09-01

    We perform numerical simulations of the lattice-animal problem at the upper critical dimension d = 8 on hypercubic lattices in order to investigate logarithmic corrections to scaling there. Our stochastic sampling method is based on the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM), appropriate to linear polymers, and yields high statistics with animals comprised of up to 8000 sites. We estimate both the partition sums (number of different animals) and the radii of gyration. We re-verify the Parisi-Sourlas prediction for the leading exponents and compare the logarithmic-correction exponents to two partially differing sets of predictions from the literature. Finally, we propose, and test, a new Parisi-Sourlas-type scaling relation appropriate for the logarithmic-correction exponents.

  3. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  4. Scaling behaviour of relaxation dependencies in metaloxide superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidorenko, A. S.; Panaitov, G. I.; Gabovich, A. M.; Moiseev, D. P.; Postnikov, V. M.

    1990-01-01

    Superconducting glass state has been investigated in different types of metaloxide ceramics, Y-Ba-Cu-O, Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, Ba-Pb-Bi-O, using the highly sensitive SQUID magnetometer. The analysis of long-time relaxation processes of thermoremanent magnetization m(sup trm) (+) = M(sub o) - Slnt displayed scaling dependence of the decay rate S = -dM/dlnt on quantity of trapped magnetic flux M(sub o): 1gs = 31g M(sub o) - observed universal dependence S is approximately M(sup 3) (sub o) seems to one of the features of superconducting glass state in metaloxide ceramics.

  5. Behavioural and physiological adaptations to low-temperature environments in the common frog, Rana temporaria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extreme environments can impose strong ecological and evolutionary pressures at a local level. Ectotherms are particularly sensitive to low-temperature environments, which can result in a reduced activity period, slowed physiological processes and increased exposure to sub-zero temperatures. The aim of this study was to assess the behavioural and physiological responses that facilitate survival in low-temperature environments. In particular, we asked: 1) do high-altitude common frog (Rana temporaria) adults extend the time available for larval growth by breeding at lower temperatures than low-altitude individuals?; and 2) do tadpoles sampled from high-altitude sites differ physiologically from those from low-altitude sites, in terms of routine metabolic rate (RMR) and freeze tolerance? Breeding date was assessed as the first day of spawn observation and local temperature recorded for five, paired high- and low-altitude R. temporaria breeding sites in Scotland. Spawn was collected and tadpoles raised in a common laboratory environment, where RMR was measured as oxygen consumed using a closed respiratory tube system. Freeze tolerance was measured as survival following slow cooling to the point when all container water had frozen. Results We found that breeding did not occur below 5°C at any site and there was no significant relationship between breeding temperature and altitude, leading to a delay in spawning of five days for every 100 m increase in altitude. The relationship between altitude and RMR varied by mountain but was lower for individuals sampled from high- than low-altitude sites within the three mountains with the highest high-altitude sites (≥900 m). In contrast, individuals sampled from low-altitudes survived freezing significantly better than those from high-altitudes, across all mountains. Conclusions Our results suggest that adults at high-altitude do not show behavioural adaptations in terms of breeding at lower temperatures. However

  6. Scaling behaviour for the water transport in nanoconfined geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Fasano, Matteo; Asinari, Pietro; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The transport of water in nanoconfined geometries is different from bulk phase and has tremendous implications in nanotechnology and biotechnology. Here molecular dynamics is used to compute the self-diffusion coefficient D of water within nanopores, around nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and proteins. For almost 60 different cases, D is found to scale linearly with the sole parameter θ as D(θ)=DB[1+(DC/DB-1)θ], with DB and DC the bulk and totally confined diffusion of water, respectively. The parameter θ is primarily influenced by geometry and represents the ratio between the confined and total water volumes. The D(θ) relationship is interpreted within the thermodynamics of supercooled water. As an example, such relationship is shown to accurately predict the relaxometric response of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The D(θ) relationship can help in interpreting the transport of water molecules under nanoconfined conditions and tailoring nanostructures with precise modulation of water mobility.

  7. Scaling behaviour for the water transport in nanoconfined geometries

    PubMed Central

    Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Fasano, Matteo; Asinari, Pietro; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The transport of water in nanoconfined geometries is different from bulk phase and has tremendous implications in nanotechnology and biotechnology. Here molecular dynamics is used to compute the self-diffusion coefficient D of water within nanopores, around nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and proteins. For almost 60 different cases, D is found to scale linearly with the sole parameter θ as D(θ)=DB[1+(DC/DB−1)θ], with DB and DC the bulk and totally confined diffusion of water, respectively. The parameter θ is primarily influenced by geometry and represents the ratio between the confined and total water volumes. The D(θ) relationship is interpreted within the thermodynamics of supercooled water. As an example, such relationship is shown to accurately predict the relaxometric response of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The D(θ) relationship can help in interpreting the transport of water molecules under nanoconfined conditions and tailoring nanostructures with precise modulation of water mobility. PMID:24699509

  8. The Adaptive Behaviour Dementia Questionnaire (ABDQ): Screening Questionnaire for Dementia in Alzheimer's Disease in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Farooq, A.; Holder, R.

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of dementia in Alzheimer's disease remains at times problematic in adults with intellectual disability. The analysis of 5-year consecutive data developed a researched-based clinical screening tool for dementia in Alzheimer's disease in adults with Down syndrome. The Adaptive Behaviour Dementia Questionnaire (ABDQ) is a 15-item…

  9. Measuring and Validating a General Cancer Predisposition Perception Scale: An Adaptation of the Revised-IPQ-Genetic Predisposition Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Liao, Qiuyan; Wong, Jennifer Hiu Fai; Lai, Ching Lung; Yuen, Man Fung; Tsang, Janice Wing Hang; Fielding, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Illness perceptions are linked to individual help-seeking and preventive behaviors. Previous illness perception studies have identified five dimensions of illness-related experience and behaviour. The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) for genetic predisposition (IPQ-R-GP) was developed to measure illness perceptions in those genetically-predisposed to blood disease. We adapted the IPQ-R-GP to measure perceptions of generalized cancer predisposition. This paper describes the development and validation of the Cancer Predisposition Perception Scale (CPPS). Methods The draft CPPS scale was first administered to 167 well Hepatitis B carriers and 123 other healthy individuals and the factor structure was examined using Exploratory Factor Analysis. Then the factor structure was confirmed in a second sample comprising 148 healthy controls, 150 smokers and 152 passive smokers using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Results Six-factors comprising 26 items provided optimal fit by eigen and scree-plot methods, accounting for 58.9% of the total variance. CFA indicated good fit of the six-factor model after further excluding three items. The six factors, Emotional representation (5 items), Illness coherence (4 items), Treatment control (3 items), Consequences (5 items), Internal locus of control (2 items) and External locus of control (4 items) demonstrated adequate-to-good subscale internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.63–0.90). Divergent validity was suggested by low correlations with optimism, self-efficacy, and scales for measuring physical and psychological health symptoms. Conclusion The CPPS appears to be a valid measure of perceived predisposition to generic cancer risks and can be used to examine cancer-risk-related cognitions in individuals at higher and lower cancer risk. PMID:26559191

  10. Adaptive Texture Synthesis for Large Scale City Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despine, G.; Colleu, T.

    2015-02-01

    Large scale city models textured with aerial images are well suited for bird-eye navigation but generally the image resolution does not allow pedestrian navigation. One solution to face this problem is to use high resolution terrestrial photos but it requires huge amount of manual work to remove occlusions. Another solution is to synthesize generic textures with a set of procedural rules and elementary patterns like bricks, roof tiles, doors and windows. This solution may give realistic textures but with no correlation to the ground truth. Instead of using pure procedural modelling we present a method to extract information from aerial images and adapt the texture synthesis to each building. We describe a workflow allowing the user to drive the information extraction and to select the appropriate texture patterns. We also emphasize the importance to organize the knowledge about elementary pattern in a texture catalogue allowing attaching physical information, semantic attributes and to execute selection requests. Roofs are processed according to the detected building material. Façades are first described in terms of principal colours, then opening positions are detected and some window features are computed. These features allow selecting the most appropriate patterns from the texture catalogue. We experimented this workflow on two samples with 20 cm and 5 cm resolution images. The roof texture synthesis and opening detection were successfully conducted on hundreds of buildings. The window characterization is still sensitive to the distortions inherent to the projection of aerial images onto the facades.

  11. Scaling laws of ambush predator 'waiting' behaviour are tuned to a common ecology.

    PubMed

    Wearmouth, Victoria J; McHugh, Matthew J; Humphries, Nicolas E; Naegelen, Aurore; Ahmed, Mohammed Z; Southall, Emily J; Reynolds, Andrew M; Sims, David W

    2014-05-01

    The decisions animals make about how long to wait between activities can determine the success of diverse behaviours such as foraging, group formation or risk avoidance. Remarkably, for diverse animal species, including humans, spontaneous patterns of waiting times show random 'burstiness' that appears scale-invariant across a broad set of scales. However, a general theory linking this phenomenon across the animal kingdom currently lacks an ecological basis. Here, we demonstrate from tracking the activities of 15 sympatric predator species (cephalopods, sharks, skates and teleosts) under natural and controlled conditions that bursty waiting times are an intrinsic spontaneous behaviour well approximated by heavy-tailed (power-law) models over data ranges up to four orders of magnitude. Scaling exponents quantifying ratios of frequent short to rare very long waits are species-specific, being determined by traits such as foraging mode (active versus ambush predation), body size and prey preference. A stochastic-deterministic decision model reproduced the empirical waiting time scaling and species-specific exponents, indicating that apparently complex scaling can emerge from simple decisions. Results indicate temporal power-law scaling is a behavioural 'rule of thumb' that is tuned to species' ecological traits, implying a common pattern may have naturally evolved that optimizes move-wait decisions in less predictable natural environments. PMID:24619440

  12. No evidence for behavioural adaptations to nematode parasitism by the fly Drosophila putrida.

    PubMed

    Debban, C L; Dyer, K A

    2013-08-01

    Behavioural adaptations of hosts to their parasites form an important component of the evolutionary dynamics of host-parasite interactions. As mushroom-feeding Drosophila can tolerate deadly mycotoxins, but their Howardula nematode parasites cannot, we asked how consuming the potent mycotoxin α-amanitin has affected this host-parasite interaction. We used the fly D. putrida and its parasite H. aoronymphium, which is both highly virulent and at high prevalence in some populations, and investigated whether adult flies utilize food with toxin to prevent infection in the next generation or consume the toxin to reduce the virulence of an already established infection. First, we found that uninfected females did not prefer to eat or lay their eggs on toxic food, indicating that selection has not acted on the flies to alter their behaviour towards α-amanitin to prevent their offspring from becoming infected by Howardula. However, we cannot rule out that flies use an alternate cue that is associated with toxin presence in the wild. Second, we found that infected females did not prefer to eat food with α-amanitin and that consuming α-amanitin did not cure or reduce the virulence of the parasite in adults that were already infected. In sum, our results indicate there are no direct effects of eating α-amanitin on this host-parasite interaction, and we suggest that toxin tolerance is more likely maintained by selection due to competition for resources than as a mechanism to avoid parasite infection or to reduce the virulence of infection. PMID:23663194

  13. Tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) adapt their communicative behaviour to human's attentional states.

    PubMed

    Defolie, Charlotte; Malassis, Raphaëlle; Serre, Marion; Meunier, Hélène

    2015-05-01

    Animal communication has become a widely studied field of research, especially because of the associated debates on the origin of human language. Due to their phylogenetic proximity with humans, non-human primates represent a suitable model to investigate the precursors of language. This study focuses on the perception of the attentional states of others, an important prerequisite to intentional communication. We investigated whether capuchins (Cebus apella) produce a learnt pointing gesture towards a hidden and unreachable food reward as a function of the attentional status of the human experimenter. For that purpose, we tested five subjects that we first trained to indicate by a pointing gesture towards the human partner the position of a reward hidden by an assistant. Then, capuchins were tested in two experimental conditions randomly ordered. In the first condition-motivation trial-the experimenter was attentive to the subject gestures and rewarded him immediately when it pointed towards the baited cylinder. During the second condition-test trial-the experimenter adopted one of the following attention states and the subject was rewarded after 10 s has elapsed, regardless of the subject's behaviour. Five attentional states were tested: (1) experimenter absent, (2) experimenter back to the monkey, (3) experimenter's head away, (4) experimenter watching above the monkey, and (5) experimenter watching the monkey face. Our results reveal a variation in our subjects' communicative behaviours with a discrimination of the different postural clues (body and head orientation) available in our experimental conditions. This study suggests that capuchins can flexibly use a communicative gesture to adapt to the attentional state of their partner and provides evidence that acquired communicative gestures of monkeys might be used intentionally. PMID:25630371

  14. The Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale: further evidence for construct validity and reliability.

    PubMed

    Kavussanu, Maria; Stanger, Nicholas; Boardley, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to provide further evidence for the construct validity (i.e., convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity) of the Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale (PABSS), an instrument that has four subscales measuring prosocial and antisocial behaviour toward teammates and opponents. We also investigated test-retest reliability and stability of the PABSS. We conducted three studies using athletes from a variety of team sports. In Study 1, participants (N = 129) completed the PABSS and measures of physical and verbal aggression, hostility, anger, moral identity, and empathy; a sub-sample (n = 111) also completed the PABSS one week later. In Study 2, in addition to the PABSS, participants (N = 89) completed measures of competitive aggressiveness and anger, moral attitudes, moral disengagement, goal orientation, and anxiety. In Study 3, participants (N = 307) completed the PABSS and a measure of social goals. Across the three studies, the four subscales evidenced the hypothesised relationships with a number of variables. Correlations were large between the two antisocial behaviours and small between the two prosocial behaviours. Overall, the findings supported the convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity of the scale, provided evidence for its test-retest reliability and stability, and suggest that the instrument is a valid and reliable measure of prosocial and antisocial behaviour in sport. PMID:23472827

  15. Behavioural profile and human adaptation of survivors after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a lack of good data in the literature evaluating the Health-Related Quality of Life (HR- QoL) in patients with urinary diversions. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in expectation and needs in terms of human adaptation and behavioural profiles in patients with ileal conduit (IC) after radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer (BC). Materials and methods A qualitative, multicenter cross-sectional study using a “narrative based” approach was planned. We proceed with a sampling reasoned choice (purposive), selecting groups of patients with follow-up from one up to more than 7 years after surgery. Data were collected through individual interviews. Results Thirty patients participated in the study. The processing of the interviews allowed us to identify 2 major profiles: positive and negative. Patients with a positive profile resumed normal daily activities with no or limited restrictions both on the personal and the social level. This profile reflects a good HR-QoL. The negative profile reflects the patients for whom the ostomy has meant a worsening of HR-QoL. A positive profile was statistically more frequent in older patients (p = 0.023), with a longer follow-up (p = 0.042) and less complications rates (p = 0.0002). According to the length of follow-up and the occurrence of complitations, we identified further 5 intermediate profiles. Conclusions Patients’ satisfaction is related to the degree of adaptation to their new life with an urinary stoma and its correct management. Live “with urinary diversion” represents a new phase of life and not a deterioration. PMID:24708662

  16. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    PubMed

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. PMID:23043440

  17. Linear-scaling symmetry-adapted perturbation theory with scaled dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, Simon A.; Beer, Matthias; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2013-11-14

    We present a linear-scaling symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) method that is based on an atomic orbital (AO) formulation of zeroth-order SAPT (SAPT0). The non-dispersive terms are realized with linear-scaling cost using both the continuous fast multipole method (CFMM) and the linear exchange (LinK) approach for integral contractions as well as our efficient Laplace-based coupled-perturbed self-consistent field method (DL-CPSCF) for evaluating response densities. The reformulation of the dispersion term is based on our linear-scaling AO Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (AO-MP2) method, that uses our recently introduced QQR-type screening [S. A. Maurer, D. S. Lambrecht, J. Kussmann, and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 014101 (2013)] for preselecting numerically significant energy contributions. Similar to scaled opposite-spin MP2, we neglect the exchange-dispersion term in SAPT and introduce a scaling factor for the dispersion term, which compensates for the error and at the same time accounts for basis set incompleteness effects and intramonomer correlation. We show in extensive benchmark calculations that the new scaled-dispersion (sd-)SAPT0 approach provides reliable results for small and large interacting systems where the results with a small 6-31G** basis are roughly comparable to supermolecular MP2 calculations in a triple-zeta basis. The performance of our method is demonstrated with timings on cellulose fragments, DNA systems, and cutouts of a protein-ligand complex with up to 1100 atoms on a single computer core.

  18. The Adaptation of Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scales: Case from Turkish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurioglu, Lili; Tümkaya, Songül

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on adapting the scales known as "Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scales" ("ABAS") into Turkish version. The general aim of the study is to propound the Turkish version of the ABAS and to see if the scale functions in a similar fashion in Turkey in terms of its psychometric properties. The scales were…

  19. The Adaptation of Creativity Fostering Primary Teachers Index Scale into Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikici, Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the creativity fostering teacher index scale into Turkish. For the language equivalence, firstly, the English version of the scale was translated by 30 English lecturers and then the Turkish version of the scale retranslated by the same lecturers. Later, the scale was applied to 288 teachers working in Nigde…

  20. Behavioural and physiological effect of dental environment sensory adaptation on children's dental anxiety.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Michele; Melmed, Raphael N; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Eli, Ilana; Parush, Shula

    2007-12-01

    Dental anxiety is a serious obstacle in conventional oral healthcare delivery. A sensory adapted dental environment (SDE) might be effective in reducing anxiety and inducing relaxation. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a Snoezelen SDE in reducing anxiety among children undergoing scaling and polishing by a dental hygienist. The Snoezelen environment consists of a partially dimmed room with lighting effects, vibroacoustic stimuli, and deep pressure. Nineteen children, aged 6-11 yr, participated in a cross-over intervention trial. Behavioral parameters included the mean number, duration, and magnitude of anxious behaviors, as monitored by videotaped recordings. Physiological parameters reflecting arousal were monitored by changes in dermal resistance. Results, by all measures, consistently indicated that both behavioral and psychophysiological measures of relaxation improved significantly in the SDE compared with a conventional dental environment. The findings support recommending the SDE as an effective and practical alternative in oral healthcare delivery to anxious children. PMID:18028056

  1. The Adaptation of Academic Motivation Scale to Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaguven, M. Hulya Unal

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the psychometric evidence of Turkish form of the Academic Motivation Scale. The scale was based on the tenets of self-determination theory. It was designed to assess an individual's academic motivation if intrinsically or extrinsically driven with 28 questions. University form of the scale was translated into Turkish…

  2. Enriching practice of dialectic behaviour therapy with the dynamic maturational model of attachment and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    The major challenge for a clinician is integration of the wisdom available in the wide range of therapeutic paradigms available. I have found the principles guiding dialectic behaviour therapy (DBT; see Miller, Rathus, & Linehan, 2007, for applying DBT to adolescents) extremely useful in my practice running a general adolescent unit; similarly, the understanding of the different information processing and learning principles associated with each of the Type A and C attachment strategies, as understood in dynamic maturational model (DMM), has guided me through the dark corners of treatment. Specifically, how does DMM inform practice of DBT? As a 'DBTer' might say, 'Where is the wisdom in both points of view?' Nevertheless, DMM is not primarily about treatment. It concerns how different ways of adapting to developmental contingencies bias perceptual propensities, and hence the information available for reflective brain function. Recognition of these twists to knowing what is going on can then be used to inform a variety of therapeutic approaches. The purpose of this article is to look for the signposts in DBT and DMM which together help navigate the comprehensive approach necessary in complicated therapy. In the process, hopefully some more general principles for addressing discomfited adolescents arise for informing future practice. Although many steer shy of using personality disorder diagnoses for adolescents, clinicians are nevertheless addressing, directly or indirectly, the personality development of all adolescents in treatment, regardless of their classical axis I diagnoses, including both those with developing emotional instability and a group of avoidant over-controlled adolescents, which in Norway is growing in prominence. PMID:25410887

  3. Landscape behaviour at storm and millennial time scales: How good are landscape evolution models at prediction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, G. R.; Coulthard, T. J.; Lowry, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landscape evolution models theoretically provide the ability to examine both short and long-term evolution processes. The hydrology and sediment transport components of these models have been largely based on physical principals and well understood theory yet they have not been fully assessed or employed across all environments. They have been recognised as valuable tools with which to explore the short and long-term erosional behaviour of both natural and anthropogenic landscapes. Of particular interest are anthropogenic landscapes (i.e. post-mining landscapes) which often have steeper slopes, unconsolidated materials and a higher erodibility than the undisturbed surface where these models have been used to examine the long-term erosional behaviour usually at millennial scales. Further, such landscapes often have to contain potential contaminants (i.e. radionuclides, acid generating materials) that need to be contained over geological timescales. Here two landscape evolution models (SIBERIA and CAESAR) are used to examine a proposed rehabilitation design for the ERA Ranger mine in the Northern Territory, Australia. The SIBERIA model has been developed to operate at annual timescales and has been calibrated for surface conditions at the site. CAESAR operates at sub-hourly time scales and employs hydrology and sediment characteristics in its calibration. The results demonstrate that despite the different modelling approaches, both SIBERIA and CAESAR produce similar spatial and temporal outcomes with erosion patterns (i.e. gullying) and rates very comparable. As a result of SIBERIA using annual time scales the model run time is significantly quicker than CAESAR however CAESAR can provide important information at the storm scale. Significantly, both models are sensitive to parameterisation with soils evolution (pedogenesis) and vegetation having significant influences on erosion rates. The findings demonstrate the usefulness of landscape evolution models to explore

  4. Optimal Control Modification Adaptive Law for Time-Scale Separated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2010-01-01

    Recently a new optimal control modification has been introduced that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. This modification is based on an optimal control formulation to minimize the L2 norm of the tracking error. The optimal control modification adaptive law results in a stable adaptation in the presence of a large adaptive gain. This study examines the optimal control modification adaptive law in the context of a system with a time scale separation resulting from a fast plant with a slow actuator. A singular perturbation analysis is performed to derive a modification to the adaptive law by transforming the original system into a reduced-order system in slow time. A model matching conditions in the transformed time coordinate results in an increase in the actuator command that effectively compensate for the slow actuator dynamics. Simulations demonstrate effectiveness of the method.

  5. How do fish ectoparasites Argulus spp. (Crustacea: Branchiura) match with their hosts at the behavioural and ecological scales?

    PubMed

    Mikheev, V N; Pasternak, A F; Valtonen, E T

    2003-01-01

    Features of the Argulus foliaceus and A. coregoni life cycles including spatial distribution and hatching patterns of the resting eggs as well as their host searching behaviour were analyzed on the basis of field and experimental data obtained in lakes and a fish farm in the Central Finland. Published data on behaviour and ecology of these parasites were also used. The main point of this analysis was an ecological adjustment of the life cycles of parasites to that of their fish hosts at different spatial and temporal scales. Due to different spatial distribution of overwintering eggs, the newly hatched larvae of A. coregoni are more likely to attach to salmonids, which are their main hosts, while A. foliaceus to percids and cyprinids. The main peak of argulid hatching occurs in late spring-early summer and coincides with the period when most of freshwater fishes concentrate close to the shore, either for spawning, or, foraging. Nevertheless, despite the general coincidence, the parasite-host encounter rate could still be very low. The main peak of hatching is followed by a long "tail". We suggest that under fluctuating and uncertain environmental conditions characterised by both abiotic stochasticity and poor predictability of the hosts, an optimal recruitment strategy is to hedge a bet, with a proportion of eggs synchronously hatching and a proportion remaining dormant and hatching at much lower rate during an extended period. One of the main behavioural adaptations to match with the hosts is all-over-the-day searching activity of argulids. The boreal A. coregoni relies primarily on vision, which is most effective in transparent waters during long polar days in summer. Vision is also important in the behavioural repertoire of the temperate A. foliaceus in the light, but olfaction and mechanoreception in the dark provide the highest host searching rate. The two generally sympatric species of argulids segregated on the finer habitat scale. Partially overlapping on

  6. Turkish Adaptation of the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yirci, Ramazan; Karakose, Turgut; Uygun, Harun; Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness Scale to Turkish, and to conduct validity and reliability tests regarding the scale. The study group consisted of 156 university science students receiving graduate education. Construct validity and factor structure of the scale was analyzed first through exploratory…

  7. An Adaptation, Validity and Reliability of the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale to the Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öz, F. Selda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale (LSRS) developed by Riggio (2000) to Turkish. The scale with its original form in English consists of 48 items in total. The original scale was translated into Turkish by three instructors who are proficient both in the field and the language. Later, the original and…

  8. The Assessment of Minority Students: Are Adaptive Behavior Scales the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baca, Leonard; Cervantes, Hermes

    1978-01-01

    The use of adaptive behavior scales in the assessment of minority children was discussed. Positive and negative characteristics of the scales developed by Mercer and Lambert were identified and discussed. Recommendations included cautions for the use of such scales in the evaluation of culturally different minority children. (Author)

  9. Computer Adaptive Testing for Small Scale Programs and Instructional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Guo, Fanmin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates measurement decision theory (MDT) as an underlying model for computer adaptive testing when the goal is to classify examinees into one of a finite number of groups. The first analysis compares MDT with a popular item response theory model and finds little difference in terms of the percentage of correct classifications. The…

  10. Adaptation of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Scale to Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Zehra; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Emre, Irfan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt "Survey of Pre-service Teachers' Knowledge of Teaching and Technology" in order to assess pre-service primary teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) to Turkish. 407 pre-service primary teachers (227 female and 180 male) in their final semester in Education Faculties…

  11. Climate scaling behaviour in the dynamics of the marine interstitial ciliate community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Mazei, Yuri A.; Burkovsky, Igor; Efstathiou, Maria N.; Tzanis, Chris G.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper uses characteristics of the marine interstitial ciliate community in the White Sea intertidal sandflat during the period of 1991-2011, in order to study its long-term dynamics, investigating in particular whether it exhibits scaling behaviour into its fluctuations, which is a characteristic feature of the climate system. To this aim, a recently proposed version of the detrended fluctuation analysis is herewith employed which has been successfully applied to a wide range of simulated and physiologic time series in recent years. In case that the fluctuations of the ciliate community present self-similarity processes, an ideal field test for the currently proposed biological models will be established, allowing to evaluate their reliability. Indeed, we show for the first time that different ciliate species exhibit long-range power-law persistent correlations. This means that ciliate fluctuations in different intervals are positively correlated, obeying a power-law behaviour. Although the origin of power-law temporal evolution of ciliates should be further investigated, this finding is probably associated with the self-organized criticality of ciliates. It should be noted that the long-range correlations obtained do not imply the presence of specific cycles but rather the existence of dynamic links between long-term and short-term temporal evolution. The scaling behaviour found in marine interstitial ciliate community should be taken into account in the investigation of their response to the present or future climate change.

  12. Combined Use of Self-Efficacy Scale for Oral Health Behaviour and Oral Health Questionnaire: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soutome, Sakiko; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Oho, Takahiko

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the combined use of a task-specific self-efficacy scale for oral health behaviour (SEOH) and an oral health questionnaire (OHQ) would be useful for evaluating subjects' behaviours and cognitions. Design: Questionnaires. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five students completed the SEOH and OHQ. The 30-item OHQ uses a…

  13. Schooling behaviour and environmental forcing in relation to anchoveta distribution: An analysis across multiple spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Gerlotto, François; Bertrand, Sophie; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Alza, Luis; Chipollini, Andres; Díaz, Erich; Espinoza, Pepe; Ledesma, Jesús; Quesquén, Roberto; Peraltilla, Salvador; Chavez, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    The Peruvian anchovy or anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) supports the highest worldwide fishery landings and varies in space and time over many scales. Here we present the first comprehensive sub-mesocale study of anchoveta distribution in relation to the environment. During November 2004, we conducted a behavioural ecology survey off central Peru and used a series of observational and sampling tools including SST and CO 2 sensors, Niskin bottles, CTD probes, zooplankton sampling, stomach content analysis, echo-sounder, multibeam sonar, and bird observations. The sub-mesoscale survey areas were chosen from mesoscale acoustic surveys. A routine coast-wide (∼2000 km) acoustic survey performed just after the sub-mesoscale surveys, provided information at an even larger population scale. The availability of nearly concurrent sub-mesoscale, mesoscale and coast-wide information on anchoveta distribution allowed for a unique multi-scale synthesis. At the sub-mesoscale (100s m to km) physical processes (internal waves and frontogenesis) concentrated plankton into patches and determined anchoveta spatial distribution. At the mesoscale (10s km) location relative to the zone of active upwelling (and age of the upwelled water) and the depth of the oxycline had strong impacts on the anchoveta. Finally, over 100s km the size of the productive area, as defined by the upwelled cold coastal waters, was the determining factor. We propose a conceptual view of the relative importance of social behaviour and environmental (biotic and abiotic) processes on the spatial distribution of anchoveta. Our ecological space has two y-axis; one based on self-organization (social behaviour), and the other based on the environmental processes. At scales from the individual (10s cm), to the nucleus (m), social behaviour (e.g. the need to school) drives spatial organization. At scales larger than the school, environmental forces are the main driver of fish distribution. The conceptual ecosystem

  14. Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Babakus, E; Mangold, W G

    1992-01-01

    Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge for health care marketers. A comprehensive service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) is empirically evaluated for its potential usefulness in a hospital service environment. Active participation by hospital management helped to address practical and user-related aspects of the assessment. The completed expectations and perceptions scales met various criteria for reliability and validity. Suggestions are provided for the managerial use of the scale, and a number of future research issues are identified. PMID:1737708

  15. Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Babakus, E; Mangold, W G

    1992-02-01

    Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge for health care marketers. A comprehensive service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) is empirically evaluated for its potential usefulness in a hospital service environment. Active participation by hospital management helped to address practical and user-related aspects of the assessment. The completed expectations and perceptions scales met various criteria for reliability and validity. Suggestions are provided for the managerial use of the scale, and a number of future research issues are identified. PMID:1737708

  16. Coping behaviour as an adaptation to stress: post-disturbance preening in colonial seabirds.

    PubMed

    Henson, Shandelle M; Weldon, Lynelle M; Hayward, James L; Greene, Daniel J; Megna, Libby C; Serem, Maureen C

    2012-01-01

    In humans, coping behaviour is an action taken to soothe oneself during or after a stressful or threatening situation. Some human behaviours with physiological functions also serve as coping behaviours, for example, comfort sucking in infants and comfort eating in adults. In birds, the behaviour of preening, which has important physiological functions, has been postulated to soothe individuals after stressful situations. We combine two existing modelling approaches - logistic regression and Darwinian dynamics - to explore theoretically how a behaviour with crucial physiological function might evolve into a coping behaviour. We apply the method to preening in colonial seabirds to investigate whether and how preening might be co-opted as a coping behaviour in the presence of predators. We conduct an in-depth study of the environmental correlates of preening in a large gull colony in Washington, USA, and we perform an independent field test for comfort preening by computing the change in frequency of preening in gulls that were alerted to a predator, but did not flee. PMID:22873521

  17. Sports teams as complex adaptive systems: manipulating player numbers shapes behaviours during football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-01-01

    Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players. PMID:27026887

  18. Ontogeny of behavioural adaptations in beach crustaceans: some temporal considerations for integrated coastal zone management and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, E.; Kennedy, F.

    2003-10-01

    So-called "typical" behavioural responses of coastal animals to particular stimuli have previously been shown often to vary cyclically in phase with diel or tidal cycles in the environment. Less well-studied are differences in the behaviour of adults and juveniles of the same species at the same time of day or tidal state, or in response to the same stimulus. Experimental studies of such differences in behaviour are reviewed and compared for three species of beach crustaceans, namely, the crab Carcinus maenas, the isopod Eurydice pulchra and the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. Juvenile, but not adult, Carcinus will entrain circatidal rhythmicity after exposure to artificial tidal cycles of immersion/emersion; juvenile, but not adult, Eurydice express pronounced free-running circatidal swimming rhythms at neap tides as well as at springs; and, in Orchestoidea, juveniles and adults express patterns of daily locomotor activity that are complementary, both on the shore and in the laboratory. These ontogenetic differences are discussed in relation to distributional and behavioural differences between adults and juveniles in each species, drawing attention to their adaptive significance and wider implications for coastal management and conservation.

  19. Reduced error signalling in medication-naive children with ADHD: associations with behavioural variability and post-error adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Plessen, Kerstin J.; Allen, Elena A.; Eichele, Heike; van Wageningen, Heidi; Høvik, Marie Farstad; Sørensen, Lin; Worren, Marius Kalsås; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Eichele, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the blood-oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) activation in brain regions that signal errors and their association with intraindividual behavioural variability and adaptation to errors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods We acquired functional MRI data during a Flanker task in medication-naive children with ADHD and healthy controls aged 8–12 years and analyzed the data using independent component analysis. For components corresponding to performance monitoring networks, we compared activations across groups and conditions and correlated them with reaction times (RT). Additionally, we analyzed post-error adaptations in behaviour and motor component activations. Results We included 25 children with ADHD and 29 controls in our analysis. Children with ADHD displayed reduced activation to errors in cingulo-opercular regions and higher RT variability, but no differences of interference control. Larger BOLD amplitude to error trials significantly predicted reduced RT variability across all participants. Neither group showed evidence of post-error response slowing; however, post-error adaptation in motor networks was significantly reduced in children with ADHD. This adaptation was inversely related to activation of the right-lateralized ventral attention network (VAN) on error trials and to task-driven connectivity between the cingulo-opercular system and the VAN. Limitations Our study was limited by the modest sample size and imperfect matching across groups. Conclusion Our findings show a deficit in cingulo-opercular activation in children with ADHD that could relate to reduced signalling for errors. Moreover, the reduced orienting of the VAN signal may mediate deficient post-error motor adaptions. Pinpointing general performance monitoring problems to specific brain regions and operations in error processing may help to guide the targets of future treatments for ADHD. PMID:26441332

  20. Achieving behaviour change at scale: Alive & Thrive's infant and young child feeding programme in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, Tina; Haque, Raisul; Roy, Sumitro; Afsana, Kaosar; Seidel, Renata; Islam, Sanjeeda; Jimerson, Ann; Baker, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The Alive & Thrive programme scaled up infant and young child feeding interventions in Bangladesh from 2010 to 2014. In all, 8.5 million mothers benefited. Approaches - including improved counselling by frontline health workers during home visits; community mobilization; mass media campaigns reaching mothers, fathers and opinion leaders; and policy advocacy - led to rapid and significant improvements in key practices related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding. (Evaluation results are forthcoming.) Intervention design was based on extensive formative research and behaviour change theory and principles and was tailored to the local context. The programme focused on small, achievable actions for key audience segments identified through rigorous testing. Promotion strategies took into account underlying behavioural determinants and reached a high per cent of the priority groups through repeated contacts. Community volunteers received monetary incentives for mothers in their areas who practised recommended behaviours. Programme monitoring, midterm surveys and additional small studies to answer questions led to ongoing adjustments. Scale-up was achieved through streamlining of tools and strategies, government branding, phased expansion through BRAC - a local non-governmental implementing partner with an extensive community-based platform - and nationwide mainstreaming through multiple non-governmental organization and government programmes. Key messages Well-designed and well-implemented large-scale interventions that combine interpersonal counselling, community mobilization, advocacy, mass communication and strategic use of data have great potential to improve IYCF practices rapidly. Formative research and ongoing studies are essential to tailor strategies to the local context and to the perspectives of mothers, family members, influential community members and policymakers. Continued use of data to adjust programme elements is also central to the process. Scale

  1. Identifying Recent Adaptations in Large-scale Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Sharon R.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Shlyakhter, Ilya; Tabrizi, Shervin; Winnicki, Sarah; Yen, Angela; Park, Daniel J.; Griesemer, Dustin; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Wong, Sunny H.; Cabili, Moran; Adegbola, Richard A.; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Rinn, John L.; Lander, Eric S.; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY While several hundred regions of the human genome harbor signals of positive natural selection, few of the relevant adaptive traits and variants have been elucidated. Using full-genome sequence variation from the 1000 Genomes Project (1000G) and the Composite of Multiple Signals (CMS) test, we investigated 412 candidate signals and leveraged functional annotation, protein structure modeling, epigenetics, and association studies to identify and extensively annotate candidate causal variants. The resulting catalog provides a tractable list for experimental follow-up; it includes thirty-five high-scoring non-synonymous variants, fifty-nine variants associated with expression levels of a nearby coding gene or lincRNA, and numerous variants associated with susceptibility to infectious disease and other phenotypes. We experimentally characterized one candidate non-synonymous variant in TLR5, and show that it leads to altered NF-κB signaling in response to bacterial flagellin. PMID:23415221

  2. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  3. Adaptive Haar transforms with arbitrary time and scale splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egiazarian, Karen O.; Astola, Jaakko T.

    2001-05-01

    The Haar transform is generalized to the case of an arbitrary time and scale splitting. To any binary tree we associate an orthogonal system of Haar-type functions - tree-structured Haar (TSH) functions. Unified fast algorithm for computation of the introduced tree-structured Haar transforms is presented. It requires 2(N - 1) additions and 3N - 2 multiplications, where N is transform order or, equivalently, the number of leaves of the binary tree.

  4. The technological influence on health professionals' care: translation and adaptation of scales1

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Carlos Manuel Torres; Almeida, Filipe Nuno Alves dos Santos; Escola, Joaquim José Jacinto; Rodrigues, Vitor Manuel Costa Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: in this study, two research tools were validated to study the impact of technological influence on health professionals' care practice. Methods: the following methodological steps were taken: bibliographic review, selection of the scales, translation and cultural adaptation and analysis of psychometric properties. Results: the psychometric properties of the scale were assessed based on its application to a sample of 341 individuals (nurses, physicians, final-year nursing and medical students). The validity, reliability and internal consistency were tested. Two scales were found: Caring Attributes Questionnaire (adapted) with a Cronbach's Alpha coefficient of 0.647 and the Technological Influence Questionnaire (adapted) with an Alpha coefficient of 0.777. Conclusions: the scales are easy to apply and reveal reliable psychometric properties, an additional quality as they permit generalized studies on a theme as important as the impact of technological influence in health care. PMID:27143537

  5. Event-scale investigations of natural and anthropogenic controls on river recession behaviour and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaart, Patrick; van der Velde, Ype; Dekker, Stefan; Lyon, Steve; Wassen, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we investigate how river basin storage-discharge relationships are related to landscape and climate characteristics in Sweden, and how humans might have changed these storage-discharge relationships during the last 50 years. One of the key questions in understanding the dynamics behind 'fresh water' as a planetary boundary is how terrestrial precipitation is divided between evapotranspiration, storage in biomass, soil and subsurface, and river runoff, and how this division is affected by climate change and human actions. Answering these questions means facing the complexity and multitude of interactions between soil, vegetation, atmosphere and humans in which clear cause-effect relations are rare. These relationships can be studied on the various time scales, for example the annual time scale, using the Budyko framework, or on the event time scale, allowing for a physical based approach. Here, we use the Brutsaert-Nieber (1977) approach to streamflow recession analysis to summarize the event-scale dynamic behaviour of streams and catchments while allowing, through the use of the Boussinesq equation and/or similar storage-discharge relations, a physically-based interpretation in terms of catchment variables such as effective hydraulic conductivity and drainage density. We hypothesize that natural and anthropogenic (both direct and indirect) causes influence the catchment hydrological behaviour by means of these physical parameters. To test this hypothesis, we analysed 50-100 year of daily discharge time series for > 100 catchments in Sweden. For each catchment, the event-scale hydrological behaviour is captured with the Brutsaert-Nieber (BN) approach. By using maps of climate, land use and catchment physiography, we explained the spatial variability in BN parameters in terms of natural and anthropogenic environmental controls. We found that the BN coefficient varied most strongly with the amount of open water, catchment area, precipitation rate

  6. A computerized approach to cognitive behavioural assessment: an introduction to CBA-2.0 primary scales.

    PubMed

    Bertolotti, G; Zotti, A M; Michielin, P; Vidotto, G; Sanavio, E

    1990-03-01

    The Cognitive Behavioural Assessment-2.0 (CBA-2.0) Primary Scales is an automated assessment package investigating the cognitive-verbal response system. It consists of: (1) self-reports and questionnaires aimed at identifying and specifying patients' problems; (2) a group of programs and logical rules, implemented on personal computers, providing an editor with items, questionnaire scoring and an analysis of responses; (3) an intelligent program which analyzes the responses emerging from the questionnaires and forms hypotheses for the selection of Secondary Scales and for further assessment. The package is part of a research project aimed at reducing part of the decision-making process to an operational language and simulating behavioral therapists decisions in cases of clinical assessment. PMID:2197296

  7. The neurobehavioural rating scale: assessment of the behavioural sequelae of head injury by the clinician.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, H S; High, W M; Goethe, K E; Sisson, R A; Overall, J E; Rhoades, H M; Eisenberg, H M; Kalisky, Z; Gary, H E

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the inter-rater reliability and validity of the Neurobehavioural Rating Scale at various stages of recovery after hospitalisation for closed head injury, we studied 101 head trauma patients who had no antecedent neuropsychiatric disorder. The results demonstrated satisfactory inter-rater reliability and showed that the Neurobehavioural Rating Scale reflects both the severity and chronicity of closed head injury. A principal components analysis revealed four factors which were differentially related to severity of head injury and the presence of a frontal lobe mass lesion. Although our findings provide support for utilising clinical ratings of behaviour to investigate sequelae of head injury, extension of this technique to other settings is necessary to evaluate the distinctiveness of the neurobehavioural profile of closed head injury as compared with other aetiologies of brain damage. PMID:3572433

  8. Appropriate complexity for the prediction of coastal and estuarine geomorphic behaviour at decadal to centennial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Jon; Payo, Andres; Murray, Brad; Orford, Julian; Eliot, Matt; Cowell, Peter

    2016-03-01

    a reduced complexity model and the term itself is both misleading and, arguably, unhelpful. Accordingly, we synthesise a set of requirements for what might be termed 'appropriate complexity modelling' of quantitative coastal morphological change at scales commensurate with contemporary management and policy-making requirements: 1) The system being studied must be bounded with reference to the time and space scales at which behaviours of interest emerge and/or scientific or management problems arise; 2) model complexity and comprehensiveness must be appropriate to the problem at hand; 3) modellers should seek a priori insights into what kind of behaviours are likely to be evident at the scale of interest and the extent to which the behavioural validity of a model may be constrained by its underlying assumptions and its comprehensiveness; 4) informed by qualitative insights into likely dynamic behaviour, models should then be formulated with a view to resolving critical state changes; and 5) meso-scale modelling of coastal morphological change should reflect critically on the role of modelling and its relation to the observable world.

  9. Adaptation of an Acculturation Scale for African Refugee Women

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Priscilla; Asiedu, Gladys B.; Hedberg, Eric; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2014-01-01

    Newly-arrived African refugees are a vulnerable group of immigrants for whom no validated acculturation measures exist. A valid measurement tool is essential to understand how acculturative processes impact health and health disparities. We adapted the Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire (BIQ) to characterize its reliability among ethnic Somali women residing in Minnesota, and Somali, Somali Bantu, and Burundian women in Arizona. Surveys were administered to 164 adult women. Analyses were conducted along socio-demographic variables of ethnicity, geographic residence, age, and length of time in the United States through t tests and one-way analysis of variance. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the modified BIQ. Exploratory factor analyses yielded five subscales: “Speak Native Language”, “Speak English Language”, “Enjoy Native Activities”, “Enjoy American Activities”, and “Desired Ideal Culture”. The subscales of the modified BIQ possessed Cronbach’s α ranging from 0.68 to 0.92, suggestive that all subscales had acceptable to excellent internal consistency. The modified BIQ maintained its psychometric properties across geographic regions of resettled Central and East African refugees. PMID:24573644

  10. Adaptive Behaviour in Angelman Syndrome: Its Profile and Relationship to Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasca, C. Brun; Obiols, J. E.; Bonillo, A.; Artigas, J.; Lorente, I.; Gabau, E.; Guitart, M.; Turk, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder usually caused by an anomaly in the maternally inherited chromosome 15. The main features are severe intellectual disability, speech impairment, ataxia, epilepsy, sleep disorder and a behavioural phenotype that reportedly includes happy disposition, attraction to/fascination with…

  11. Development and Use of an Adaptive Learning Environment to Research Online Study Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsdottir, Anna Helga; Jakobsdottir, Audbjorg; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a system for research on the behaviour of students taking online drills. The system is accessible and free to use for anyone with web access. Based on open source software, the teaching material is licensed under a Creative Commons License. The system has been used for computer-assisted education in statistics, mathematics and…

  12. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Italian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Breadth of Interests, Quality of Life, and Perceived Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soresi, Salvatore; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)-Italian Form consists of four 6-item scales, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The 24-item CAAS-Italian Form is identical to the International Form 2.0. The factor structure was…

  13. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-France Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Anxiety and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouyaud, Jacques; Vignoli, Emmanuelle; Dosnon, Odile; Lallemand, Noelle

    2012-01-01

    The CAAS-France Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from moderate to good. The factor structure was…

  14. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  15. Covariance of phenotypically plastic traits induces an adaptive shift in host selection behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Lee M; Roitberg, Bernard D; Gillespie, David R

    2006-01-01

    Flexibility in adult body size allows generalist parasitoids to use many host species at a cost of producing a range of adult sizes. Consequently, host selection behaviour must also maintain a level of flexibility as adult size is related to capture efficiency. In the present study, we investigated covariance of two plastic traits—size at pupation and host size selection behaviour—using Aphidius ervi reared on either Acyrthosiphon pisum or Aulacorthum solani, generating females of disparate sizes. Natal host was shown to change the ranking of perceived host quality with relation to host size. Parasitoids preferentially attacked hosts that corresponded to the size of the second instar of their natal host species. This resulted in optimal host selection behaviour when parasitoids were exposed to the same host species from which they emerged. Parasitoid size was positively correlated with host size preference, indicating that females use relative measurements when selecting suitable hosts. These coadapted gene complexes allow generalist parasitoids to effectively use multiple host species over several generations. However, the fixed nature of the behavioural response, within a parasitoid's lifetime, suggests that these traits may have evolved in a patchy host species environment. PMID:17015365

  16. Fine-scale behavioural differences distinguish resource use by ecomorphs in a closed ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Kate L.; Rosten, Carolyn M.; Christensen, Guttorm; Lucas, Martyn C.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal differences in habitat use and foraging specialisms between ecomorphs represent aspects of behavioural phenotype that are poorly understood with regard to the origin and maintenance of ecological diversity. We tested the role of behaviour in resource use divergence of two Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) phenotypes, a slim, putatively pelagic-dwelling morph and a robust, putatively littoral-dwelling generalist morph, over an annual cycle, using biotelemetry and stable isotopes. Pelagic morph charr exhibited significantly greater δC13 depletion, concordant with increased zooplanktivory, than for the Littoral morph. Although three-dimensional space-use of the morphs strongly overlapped, on average, the Littoral morph used that habitat 19.3% more than the Pelagic morph. Pelagic morph fish were significantly more active, further from the lake bed and at greater depth than Littoral fish (annual means respectively, Pelagic, 0.069BLs−1, 8.21 m and 14.11 m; Littoral, 0.047BLs−1, 5.87 m and 10.47 m). Patterns of habitat use differed between ecomorphs at key times, such as during autumn and at ice break, likely related to spawning and resumption of intensive foraging respectively. Extensive space-use overlap, but fine-scale differences in habitat use between charr ecomorphs, suggests the importance of competition for generating and maintaining polymorphism, and its potential for promoting reproductive isolation and evolution in sympatry. PMID:27098197

  17. Fine-scale behavioural differences distinguish resource use by ecomorphs in a closed ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Kate L; Rosten, Carolyn M; Christensen, Guttorm; Lucas, Martyn C

    2016-01-01

    Temporal differences in habitat use and foraging specialisms between ecomorphs represent aspects of behavioural phenotype that are poorly understood with regard to the origin and maintenance of ecological diversity. We tested the role of behaviour in resource use divergence of two Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) phenotypes, a slim, putatively pelagic-dwelling morph and a robust, putatively littoral-dwelling generalist morph, over an annual cycle, using biotelemetry and stable isotopes. Pelagic morph charr exhibited significantly greater δC(13) depletion, concordant with increased zooplanktivory, than for the Littoral morph. Although three-dimensional space-use of the morphs strongly overlapped, on average, the Littoral morph used that habitat 19.3% more than the Pelagic morph. Pelagic morph fish were significantly more active, further from the lake bed and at greater depth than Littoral fish (annual means respectively, Pelagic, 0.069 BL s(-1), 8.21 m and 14.11 m; Littoral, 0.047 BL s(-1), 5.87 m and 10.47 m). Patterns of habitat use differed between ecomorphs at key times, such as during autumn and at ice break, likely related to spawning and resumption of intensive foraging respectively. Extensive space-use overlap, but fine-scale differences in habitat use between charr ecomorphs, suggests the importance of competition for generating and maintaining polymorphism, and its potential for promoting reproductive isolation and evolution in sympatry. PMID:27098197

  18. Response normalization and blur adaptation: Data and multi-scale model

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sarah L.; Georgeson, Mark A.; Webster, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Adapting to blurred or sharpened images alters perceived blur of a focused image (M. A. Webster, M. A. Georgeson, & S. M. Webster, 2002). We asked whether blur adaptation results in (a) renormalization of perceived focus or (b) a repulsion aftereffect. Images were checkerboards or 2-D Gaussian noise, whose amplitude spectra had (log–log) slopes from −2 (strongly blurred) to 0 (strongly sharpened). Observers adjusted the spectral slope of a comparison image to match different test slopes after adaptation to blurred or sharpened images. Results did not show repulsion effects but were consistent with some renormalization. Test blur levels at and near a blurred or sharpened adaptation level were matched by more focused slopes (closer to 1/f) but with little or no change in appearance after adaptation to focused (1/f) images. A model of contrast adaptation and blur coding by multiple-scale spatial filters predicts these blur aftereffects and those of Webster et al. (2002). A key proposal is that observers are pre-adapted to natural spectra, and blurred or sharpened spectra induce changes in the state of adaptation. The model illustrates how norms might be encoded and recalibrated in the visual system even when they are represented only implicitly by the distribution of responses across multiple channels. PMID:21307174

  19. Exponential Scaling Limit of the Single-Particle Anderson Model Via Adaptive Feedback Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulaevsky, Victor

    2016-02-01

    We propose a twofold extension of the Germinet-Klein bootstrap multi-scale analysis (BMSA) for the Anderson models on graphs. First, we show, with the help of a single scaling algorithm, that power-law decay bounds at some initial scale imply an asymptotically exponential decay of eigenfunctions (EFs) and of EF correlators (EFCs), even on graphs (of polynomial growth) which do not fulfill the uniform scalability condition required for the existing BMSA techniques. We also show that the exponential scaling limit of the EFs and EFCs holds true for a class of marginal distributions of the random potential with regularity lower than Hölder continuity of any positive order.

  20. The Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment Programme for Special Needs Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.

    2006-01-01

    The need for specialized treatment programmes to address the specific requirements of different populations has been well recognized. One important area of treatment development has been for offenders who are unsuitable for existing mainstream treatment programmes. This paper describes the process of adapting an existing sexual offender treatment…

  1. Adaptation of the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Styles Scale to the Basque language: evidence of validity.

    PubMed

    López-Jáuregui, Alicia; Oliden, Paula Elosua

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to adapt the ESPA29 scale of parental socialization styles in adolescence to the Basque language. The study of its psychometric properties is based on the search for evidence of internal and external validity. The first focuses on the assessment of the dimensionality of the scale by means of exploratory factor analysis. The relationship between the dimensions of parental socialization styles and gender and age guarantee the external validity of the scale. The study of the equivalence of the adapted and original versions is based on the comparisons of the reliability coefficients and on factor congruence. The results allow us to conclude the equivalence of the two scales. PMID:19899674

  2. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese - Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Li, Fang; Nydegger, Liesl; Gong, Jie; Ren, Yuanjing; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Sun, Huiling; Stanton, Bonita

    2013-04-01

    International behavioral research requires instruments that are not culturally-biased to assess sensation seeking. In this study we described a culturally adapted version of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese (BSSS-C) and its psychometric characteristics. The adapted scale was assessed using an adult sample (n=238) with diverse educational and residential backgrounds. The BSSS-C (Cronbach alpha=0.90) was correlated with the original Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (r = 0.85, p<0.01) and fitted the four-factor model well (CFI=0.98, SRMR=0.03). The scale scores significantly predicted intention to and actual engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and sexual risk behaviors. In conclusion, the BSSS-C has adequate reliability and validity, supporting its utility in China and potential in other developing countries. PMID:23316097

  3. A scale- and orientation-adaptive extension of Local Binary Patterns for texture classification

    PubMed Central

    Hegenbart, Sebastian; Uhl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Local Binary Patterns (LBPs) have been used in a wide range of texture classification scenarios and have proven to provide a highly discriminative feature representation. A major limitation of LBP is its sensitivity to affine transformations. In this work, we present a scale- and rotation-invariant computation of LBP. Rotation-invariance is achieved by explicit alignment of features at the extraction level, using a robust estimate of global orientation. Scale-adapted features are computed in reference to the estimated scale of an image, based on the distribution of scale normalized Laplacian responses in a scale-space representation. Intrinsic-scale-adaption is performed to compute features, independent of the intrinsic texture scale, leading to a significantly increased discriminative power for a large amount of texture classes. In a final step, the rotation- and scale-invariant features are combined in a multi-resolution representation, which improves the classification accuracy in texture classification scenarios with scaling and rotation significantly. PMID:26240440

  4. Reynolds number scaling of coherent vortex simulation and stochastic coherent adaptive large eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejadmalayeri, Alireza; Vezolainen, Alexei; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2013-11-01

    In view of the ongoing longtime pursuit of numerical approaches that can capture important flow physics of high Reynolds number flows with fewest degrees of freedom, two important wavelet-based multi-resolution schemes are thoroughly examined, namely, the Coherent Vortex Simulation (CVS) and the Stochastic Coherent Adaptive Large Eddy Simulation (SCALES) with constant and spatially/temporarily variable thresholding. Reynolds number scaling of active spatial modes for CVS and SCALES of linearly forced homogeneous turbulence at high Reynolds numbers is investigated in dynamic study for the first time. This dynamic computational complexity study demonstrates that wavelet-based methods can capture flow-physics while using substantially fewer degrees of freedom than both direct numerical simulation and marginally resolved LES with the same level of fidelity or turbulence resolution, defined as ratio of subgrid scale and the total dissipations. The study provides four important observations: (1) the linear Reynolds number scaling of energy containing structures at a fixed level of kinetic energy, (2) small, close to unity, fractal dimension for constant-threshold CVS and SCALES simulations, (3) constant, close to two, fractal dimension for constant-dissipation SCALES that is insensitive to the level of fidelity, and (4) faster than quadratic decay of the compression ratio as a function of turbulence resolution. The very promising slope for Reynolds number scaling of CVS and SCALES demonstrates the potential of the wavelet-based methodologies for hierarchical multiscale space/time adaptive variable fidelity simulations of high Reynolds number turbulent flows.

  5. Adaptive Control of a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Operating in Region 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.; Wright, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive control techniques are well suited to nonlinear applications, such as wind turbines, which are difficult to accurately model and which have effects from poorly known operating environments. The turbulent and unpredictable conditions in which wind turbines operate create many challenges for their operation. In this paper, we design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a utility scale, variable-speed horizontal axis wind turbine. The objective of the adaptive pitch controller in Region 3 is to regulate generator speed and reject step disturbances. The control objective is accomplished by collectively pitching the turbine blades. We use an extension of the Direct Model Reference Adaptive Control (DMRAC) approach to track a reference point and to reject persistent disturbances. The turbine simulation models the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. The CART is a utility-scale wind turbine which has a well-developed and extensively verified simulator. The adaptive collective pitch controller for Region 3 was compared in simulations with a bas celliansesical Proportional Integrator (PI) collective pitch controller. In the simulations, the adaptive pitch controller showed improved speed regulation in Region 3 when compared with the baseline PI pitch controller and it demonstrated robustness to modeling errors.

  6. Adapting to a changing environment: non-obvious thresholds in multi-scale systems.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Clare; Wieczorek, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    Many natural and technological systems fail to adapt to changing external conditions and move to a different state if the conditions vary too fast. Such 'non-adiabatic' processes are ubiquitous, but little understood. We identify these processes with a new nonlinear phenomenon-an intricate threshold where a forced system fails to adiabatically follow a changing stable state. In systems with multiple time scales, we derive existence conditions that show such thresholds to be generic, but non-obvious, meaning they cannot be captured by traditional stability theory. Rather, the phenomenon can be analysed using concepts from modern singular perturbation theory: folded singularities and canard trajectories, including composite canards. Thus, non-obvious thresholds should explain the failure to adapt to a changing environment in a wide range of multi-scale systems including: tipping points in the climate system, regime shifts in ecosystems, excitability in nerve cells, adaptation failure in regulatory genes and adiabatic switching in technology. PMID:25294963

  7. Adapting to a changing environment: non-obvious thresholds in multi-scale systems

    PubMed Central

    Perryman, Clare; Wieczorek, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Many natural and technological systems fail to adapt to changing external conditions and move to a different state if the conditions vary too fast. Such ‘non-adiabatic’ processes are ubiquitous, but little understood. We identify these processes with a new nonlinear phenomenon—an intricate threshold where a forced system fails to adiabatically follow a changing stable state. In systems with multiple time scales, we derive existence conditions that show such thresholds to be generic, but non-obvious, meaning they cannot be captured by traditional stability theory. Rather, the phenomenon can be analysed using concepts from modern singular perturbation theory: folded singularities and canard trajectories, including composite canards. Thus, non-obvious thresholds should explain the failure to adapt to a changing environment in a wide range of multi-scale systems including: tipping points in the climate system, regime shifts in ecosystems, excitability in nerve cells, adaptation failure in regulatory genes and adiabatic switching in technology. PMID:25294963

  8. Self-adaptive phosphor coating technology for wafer-level scale chip packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsong, Zhou; Haibo, Rao; Wei, Wang; Xianlong, Wan; Junyuan, Liao; Xuemei, Wang; Da, Zhou; Qiaolin, Lei

    2013-05-01

    A new self-adaptive phosphor coating technology has been successfully developed, which adopted a slurry method combined with a self-exposure process. A phosphor suspension in the water-soluble photoresist was applied and exposed to LED blue light itself and developed to form a conformal phosphor coating with self-adaptability to the angular distribution of intensity of blue light and better-performing spatial color uniformity. The self-adaptive phosphor coating technology had been successfully adopted in the wafer surface to realize a wafer-level scale phosphor conformal coating. The first-stage experiments show satisfying results and give an adequate demonstration of the flexibility of self-adaptive coating technology on application of WLSCP.

  9. Use of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II in Children with Autism--An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohari, S. M.; Raman, Vijaya; Ashok, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Edition 2005 (Vineland-II) is useful in assessing abilities in autism spectrum disorder, where an accurate assessment of intelligence using standardized tools is difficult both due to the unique social and communication difficulties that these children present with and the behavioral issues that occur as…

  10. Adaptation of Distributed Leadership Scale into Turkish: The Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersozlu, Alpay; Ulusoy, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt "Distributed Leadership Scale" originally developed by Davis into Turkish Language. A total of 386 participants including teachers employed in high schools in Tokat participated in the study. Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were performed to test the…

  11. Adaptation of Internet Addiction Scale in Azerbaijani Language: A Validity-Reliability and Prevalence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerimova, Melek; Gunuc, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to adapt Gunuc and Kayri's (2010) "Internet Addiction Scale," with show validity and reliability for many various sampling groups, into the Azerbaijani language. Another objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among Azerbaijani adolescents and youth, which…

  12. Adapting the Sheehan Disability Scale to Assess Child and Parent Impairment Related to Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a child adaptation of the Sheehan Disability Scale, a measure of impairment among anxious adults. Parallel child and parent report forms were created to assess the degree to which anxiety interferes with child and parent social, educational/occupational, and family functioning. Data from 267 anxious children (140 boys ages…

  13. An ICF-CY-Based Content Analysis of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Kara; Coster, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and its version for children and youth (ICF-CY), has been increasingly adopted as a system to describe function and disability. A content analysis of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II) was conducted to examine congruence with the functioning…

  14. The Turkish Adaptation of the Friendship Qualities Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkan Atik, Zeynep; Cok, Figen; Esen Coban, Aysel; Dogan, Turkan; Guney Karaman, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors have aimed to adapt the Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS) in order to determine friendship relation levels among adolescents. A total of 603 high school students from Ankara Turkey, were selected using convenient sampling to participate in this study. During the course of this study, the FQS was first translated into…

  15. Validity of the Vocational Adaptation Rating Scale: Prediction of Mentally Retarded Workers' Placement in Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malgady, Robert G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The validity of the Vocational Adaptation Rating Scale (VARS) for predicting placement of 125 mentally retarded workers in sheltered workshop settings was investigated. Results indicated low to moderate significant partial correlations with concurrent placement and one year follow-up placement (controlling IQ, age, and sex). (Author)

  16. A Practical Computer Adaptive Testing Model for Small-Scale Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Yu-Hui; Wu, Yu-Lung; Chang, Hsin-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Computer adaptive testing (CAT) is theoretically sound and efficient, and is commonly seen in larger testing programs. It is, however, rarely seen in a smaller-scale scenario, such as in classrooms or business daily routines, because of the complexity of most adopted Item Response Theory (IRT) models. While the Sequential Probability Ratio Test…

  17. Trauma Resilience Scale: Validation of Protective Factors Associated with Adaptation following Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Machelle D.; Abell, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The Trauma Resilience Scale (TRS), assessing protective factors associated with positive adaptation following violence, was tested in three waves of data collection. Empirical and theoretical literature shaped subscale and item formation emphasizing resilience following physical abuse, sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, and/or a…

  18. Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Version of the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdugo, Miguel-Angel; Arias, Benito; Ibanez, Alba; Schalock, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) is used to determine the profile and intensity of the supports needed by a person to participate successfully in major life activities. With its publication into 13 languages, a need has arisen to document its reliability and validity across language and cultural groups. Here we explain the adaptation and the…

  19. Psychometric Characteristics of the Korean Version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, factorial structure validity, and convergent validity of a Korean version of the Satisfaction With Life Scale adapted for children (K-SWLS-C). Participants consisted of 653 elementary school students (48% were male). The internal consistency of the…

  20. Reliability of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale-Public School Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Kathy L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigated interrater reliability of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale-Public School Version in a sample of 31 educable mentally handicapped children who were rated by their parents, special education teacher, classroom teacher, and an independent observer. Results showed ratings of the special education teacher were generally lower. (JAC)

  1. Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Large-Scale Systems With Unknown Dead Zone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mou; Tao, Gang

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, an adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme is proposed and analyzed for a class of uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems with unknown dead zone and external disturbances. To tackle the unknown nonlinear interaction functions in the large-scale system, the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is employed to approximate them. To further handle the unknown approximation errors and the effects of the unknown dead zone and external disturbances, integrated as the compounded disturbances, the corresponding disturbance observers are developed for their estimations. Based on the outputs of the RBFNN and the disturbance observer, the adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme is designed for uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems by using a decentralized backstepping technique. The closed-loop stability of the adaptive control system is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the satisfactory tracking performance is achieved under the integrated effects of unknown dead zone, actuator fault, and unknown external disturbances. Simulation results of a mass-spring-damper system are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme for uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems. PMID:26340792

  2. Echolocation behaviour adapted to prey in foraging Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M; Hickmott, L.S; Aguilar Soto, N; Madsen, P.T

    2007-01-01

    Toothed whales echolocating in the wild generate clicks with low repetition rates to locate prey but then produce rapid sequences of clicks, called buzzes, when attempting to capture prey. However, little is known about the factors that determine clicking rates or how prey type and behaviour influence echolocation-based foraging. Here we study Blainville's beaked whales foraging in deep water using a multi-sensor DTAG that records both outgoing echolocation clicks and echoes returning from mesopelagic prey. We demonstrate that the clicking rate at the beginning of buzzes is related to the distance between whale and prey, supporting the presumption that whales focus on a specific prey target during the buzz. One whale showed a bimodal relationship between target range and clicking rate producing abnormally slow buzz clicks while attempting to capture large echoic targets, probably schooling prey, with echo duration indicating a school diameter of up to 4.3 m. These targets were only found when the whale performed tight circling manoeuvres spending up to five times longer in water volumes with large targets than with small targets. The result indicates that toothed whales in the wild can adjust their echolocation behaviour and movement for capture of different prey on the basis of structural echo information. PMID:17986434

  3. The legacy effects of keystone individuals on collective behaviour scale to how long they remain within a group.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Jonathan N; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2015-09-01

    The collective behaviour of social groups is often strongly influenced by one or few individuals, termed here 'keystone individuals'. We examined whether the influence of keystone individuals on collective behaviour lingers after their departure and whether these lingering effects scale with their tenure in the group. In the social spider, Stegodyphus dumicola, colonies' boldest individuals wield a disproportionately large influence over colony behaviour. We experimentally manipulated keystones' tenure in laboratory-housed colonies and tracked their legacy effects on collective prey capture following their removal. We found that bolder keystones caused more aggressive collective foraging behaviour and catalysed greater inter-individual variation in boldness within their colonies. The longer keystones remained in a colony, the longer both of these effects lingered after their departure. Our data demonstrate that, long after their disappearance, keystones have large and lasting effects on social dynamics at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26336171

  4. The legacy effects of keystone individuals on collective behaviour scale to how long they remain within a group

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Jonathan N.; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2015-01-01

    The collective behaviour of social groups is often strongly influenced by one or few individuals, termed here ‘keystone individuals’. We examined whether the influence of keystone individuals on collective behaviour lingers after their departure and whether these lingering effects scale with their tenure in the group. In the social spider, Stegodyphus dumicola, colonies' boldest individuals wield a disproportionately large influence over colony behaviour. We experimentally manipulated keystones' tenure in laboratory-housed colonies and tracked their legacy effects on collective prey capture following their removal. We found that bolder keystones caused more aggressive collective foraging behaviour and catalysed greater inter-individual variation in boldness within their colonies. The longer keystones remained in a colony, the longer both of these effects lingered after their departure. Our data demonstrate that, long after their disappearance, keystones have large and lasting effects on social dynamics at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26336171

  5. Avian responses to an extreme ice storm are determined by a combination of functional traits, behavioural adaptations and habitat modifications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Hong, Yongmi; Zou, Fasheng; Zhang, Min; Lee, Tien Ming; Song, Xiangjin; Rao, Jiteng

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which species' traits, behavior and habitat synergistically determine their response to extreme weather events (EWE) remains poorly understood. By quantifying bird and vegetation assemblages before and after the 2008 ice storm in China, combined with interspecific interactions and foraging behaviours, we disentangled whether storm influences avian reassembly directly via functional traits (i.e. behavioral adaptations), or indirectly via habitat variations. We found that overall species richness decreased, with 20 species detected exclusively before the storm, and eight species detected exclusively after. These shifts in bird relative abundance were linked to habitat preferences, dietary guild and flocking behaviours. For instance, forest specialists at higher trophic levels (e.g. understory-insectivores, woodpeckers and kingfishers) were especially vulnerable, whereas open-habitat generalists (e.g. bulbuls) were set to benefit from potential habitat homogenization. Alongside population fluctuations, we found that community reassembly can be rapidly adjusted via foraging plasticity (i.e. increased flocking propensity and reduced perching height). And changes in preferred habitat corresponded to a variation in bird assemblages and traits, as represented by intact canopy cover and high density of large trees. Accurate predictions of community responses to EWE are crucial to understanding ecosystem disturbances, thus linking species-oriented traits to a coherent analytical framework. PMID:26929387

  6. Avian responses to an extreme ice storm are determined by a combination of functional traits, behavioural adaptations and habitat modifications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Hong, Yongmi; Zou, Fasheng; Zhang, Min; Lee, Tien Ming; Song, Xiangjin; Rao, Jiteng

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which species’ traits, behavior and habitat synergistically determine their response to extreme weather events (EWE) remains poorly understood. By quantifying bird and vegetation assemblages before and after the 2008 ice storm in China, combined with interspecific interactions and foraging behaviours, we disentangled whether storm influences avian reassembly directly via functional traits (i.e. behavioral adaptations), or indirectly via habitat variations. We found that overall species richness decreased, with 20 species detected exclusively before the storm, and eight species detected exclusively after. These shifts in bird relative abundance were linked to habitat preferences, dietary guild and flocking behaviours. For instance, forest specialists at higher trophic levels (e.g. understory-insectivores, woodpeckers and kingfishers) were especially vulnerable, whereas open-habitat generalists (e.g. bulbuls) were set to benefit from potential habitat homogenization. Alongside population fluctuations, we found that community reassembly can be rapidly adjusted via foraging plasticity (i.e. increased flocking propensity and reduced perching height). And changes in preferred habitat corresponded to a variation in bird assemblages and traits, as represented by intact canopy cover and high density of large trees. Accurate predictions of community responses to EWE are crucial to understanding ecosystem disturbances, thus linking species-oriented traits to a coherent analytical framework. PMID:26929387

  7. Why did the meerkat cross the road? Flexible adaptation of phylogenetically-old behavioural strategies to modern-day threats.

    PubMed

    Perony, Nicolas; Townsend, Simon W

    2013-01-01

    Risk-sensitive adaptive spatial organisation during group movement has been shown to efficiently minimise the risks associated with external ecological threats. Whether animals can draw on such behaviours when confronted with man-made threats is generally less clear. We studied road-crossing in a wild, but habituated, population of meerkats living in the Kalahari Desert, South Africa. We found that dominant females, the core member in meerkat social systems, led groups to the road significantly more often than subordinates, yet were consistently less likely to cross first. Our results suggest that a reshuffling occurs in progression order when meerkat groups reach the road. By employing a simple model of collective movement, we have shown that risk aversion alone may be sufficient to explain this reshuffling, but that the risk aversion of dominant females toward road crossing is significantly higher than that of subordinates. It seems that by not crossing first, dominant females avoid occupying the most risky, exposed locations, such as at the front of the group--a potential selfish strategy that also promotes the long-term stability and hence reproductive output of their family groups. We argue that our findings support the idea that animals can flexibly apply phylogenetically-old behavioural strategies to deal with emerging modern-day problems. PMID:23441144

  8. DTCWT based high capacity steganography using coefficient replacement and adaptive scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathisha, N.; Priya, R.; Babu, K. Suresh; Raja, K. B.; Venugopal, K. R.; Patnaik, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    The steganography is used for secure communication. In this paper we propose Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) based high capacity steganography using coefficient replacement and adaptive scaling. The DTCWT is applied on cover image and Lifting Wavelet Transform2 (LWT2) is applied on payload to convert spatial domain into transform domain. The new concept of replacing HH sub band coefficients of DTCWT of cover image by LL sub band coefficients of payload is introduced to generate intermediate stego object. The adaptive scaling factor is used based on entropy of cover image to scale down intermediate stego object coefficient values to generate final stego object. It is observed that the capacity and security are increased in the proposed algorithm compared to existing algorithms.

  9. Validity of the social responsiveness scale to differentiate between autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behaviour disorders.

    PubMed

    Cholemkery, Hannah; Kitzerow, Janina; Rohrmann, Sonja; Freitag, Christine M

    2014-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is characterised by difficulties in social interaction with peers. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) measures reciprocal social behaviour in children and adolescents and was originally developed as a quantitative measure of autistic traits. In the present study, we compare parent-rated SRS scores in children with ODD, CD, and ASD and examine the diagnostic validity of the SRS alone and in combination with additional questionnaires to differentiate between groups. We hypothesize that the SRS better differentiates ASD and typically developing controls (TD) than ASD and the disruptive behaviour disorders ODD and CD. The sample consists of three clinical groups: ASD without comorbid intellectual delay (N = 55), ODD/CD (N = 55), and TD (N = 55), between 6 and 18 years. The groups were matched by age, sex, and IQ. SRS scores were compared for the three groups. Sensitivity and specificity of the SRS total and sub-scores were examined by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses. Logistic regression analyses were calculated for estimating the rate of correctly specified individuals. The SRS differentiated excellently between ASD and TD (ROC-AUC = 1.00), but sensitivity and specificity were considerably lower when ASD was compared with ODD/CD (ROC-AUC = 0.82). A combination of three parent-rated questionnaires resulted in an improved validity to differentiate ASD and ODD/CD. For clinical screening purposes in children suspicious of ASD and/or ODD/CD, the SRS should be used in combination with additional disorder-specific questionnaires to improve the rate of correct classification of both disorders. PMID:23719758

  10. The signature of fine scale local adaptation in Atlantic salmon revealed from common garden experiments in nature

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Ciar L; Reed, Thomas E; Bailie, Deborah; Bradley, Caroline; Cotter, Deirdre; Coughlan, Jamie; Cross, Tom; Dillane, Eileen; McEvoy, Sarah; Ó Maoiléidigh, Niall; Prodöhl, Paulo; Rogan, Ger; McGinnity, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the extent, scale and genetic basis of local adaptation (LA) is important for conservation and management. Its relevance in salmonids at microgeographic scales, where dispersal (and hence potential gene flow) can be substantial, has however been questioned. Here, we compare the fitness of communally reared offspring of local and foreign Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from adjacent Irish rivers and reciprocal F1 hybrid crosses between them, in the wild ‘home’ environment of the local population. Experimental groups did not differ in wild smolt output but a catastrophic flood event may have limited our ability to detect freshwater performance differences, which were evident in a previous study. Foreign parr exhibited higher, and hybrids intermediate, emigration rates from the natal stream relative to local parr, consistent with genetically based behavioural differences. Adult return rates were lower for the foreign compared to the local group. Overall lifetime success of foreigners and hybrids relative to locals was estimated at 31% and 40% (mean of both hybrid groups), respectively. The results imply a genetic basis to fitness differences among populations separated by only 50 km, driven largely by variation in smolt to adult return rates. Hence even if supplementary stocking programs obtain broodstock from neighbouring rivers, the risk of extrinsic outbreeding depression may be high. PMID:26495041

  11. The signature of fine scale local adaptation in Atlantic salmon revealed from common garden experiments in nature.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Ciar L; Reed, Thomas E; Bailie, Deborah; Bradley, Caroline; Cotter, Deirdre; Coughlan, Jamie; Cross, Tom; Dillane, Eileen; McEvoy, Sarah; Ó Maoiléidigh, Niall; Prodöhl, Paulo; Rogan, Ger; McGinnity, Philip

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the extent, scale and genetic basis of local adaptation (LA) is important for conservation and management. Its relevance in salmonids at microgeographic scales, where dispersal (and hence potential gene flow) can be substantial, has however been questioned. Here, we compare the fitness of communally reared offspring of local and foreign Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from adjacent Irish rivers and reciprocal F1 hybrid crosses between them, in the wild 'home' environment of the local population. Experimental groups did not differ in wild smolt output but a catastrophic flood event may have limited our ability to detect freshwater performance differences, which were evident in a previous study. Foreign parr exhibited higher, and hybrids intermediate, emigration rates from the natal stream relative to local parr, consistent with genetically based behavioural differences. Adult return rates were lower for the foreign compared to the local group. Overall lifetime success of foreigners and hybrids relative to locals was estimated at 31% and 40% (mean of both hybrid groups), respectively. The results imply a genetic basis to fitness differences among populations separated by only 50 km, driven largely by variation in smolt to adult return rates. Hence even if supplementary stocking programs obtain broodstock from neighbouring rivers, the risk of extrinsic outbreeding depression may be high. PMID:26495041

  12. Executive Functions and Adaptive Behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorders with and without Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Elia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been often investigated, although results seem to be rather inconsistent. The first aim of this study was to detect which EF components are common to the ASD continuum (from high- to low-functioning ASD) and identify a possible EF profile for ASD people. Planning, mental flexibility, inhibition of response, generativity, and ecologic EF were investigated. This study was extended not only to high-functioning ASD, but also to ASD with intellectual disability (ID). The second aim was to find EF aspects correlating with adaptive skills in ASD. A total of 61 children participated in the study (27 ASD with and without ID and 34 controls). Results highlight an executive profile characterised by impaired flexibility and deficient planning; these deficits are associated with decreased adaptive ability, particularly socialization, and a deficient shifting in ecologic conditions. These features are present in all ASD subgroups with and without ID; for this reason, they might be assumed as being specific features in ASD. PMID:24829905

  13. Executive Functions and Adaptive Behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorders with and without Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Elia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been often investigated, although results seem to be rather inconsistent. The first aim of this study was to detect which EF components are common to the ASD continuum (from high- to low-functioning ASD) and identify a possible EF profile for ASD people. Planning, mental flexibility, inhibition of response, generativity, and ecologic EF were investigated. This study was extended not only to high-functioning ASD, but also to ASD with intellectual disability (ID). The second aim was to find EF aspects correlating with adaptive skills in ASD. A total of 61 children participated in the study (27 ASD with and without ID and 34 controls). Results highlight an executive profile characterised by impaired flexibility and deficient planning; these deficits are associated with decreased adaptive ability, particularly socialization, and a deficient shifting in ecologic conditions. These features are present in all ASD subgroups with and without ID; for this reason, they might be assumed as being specific features in ASD. PMID:24829905

  14. Changing demography and dispersal behaviour: ecological adaptations in an alpine butterfly.

    PubMed

    Junker, Marius; Wagner, Stefan; Gros, Patrick; Schmitt, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    High mountain ecosystems are extreme habitats for all organisms and therefore demand specific adaptations. In this context, we studied the ecology of the butterfly Euphydryas aurinia debilis in the High Tauern (Austria) and compared the obtained data against the ecology of the species in lower elevation habitats. We performed mark-release-recapture studies over the entire flight periods (end of June to end of July) in 2007 and 2008 to analyse the fundamental ecological parameters of a population. The demography of males and females was similar in both years, and no indication of typical protandry was detected. We observed a generally low dispersal of the individuals in both years, but males dispersed significantly more than females in 2008; this finding of low vagility was supported by allozyme analyses. Furthermore, butterflies survived periods of several days of continuously closed snow cover without any indication of increased mortality rates. In these three traits, this alpine population of E. aurinia apparently has ecological and physiological adaptations to the extreme requirements of high-altitude habitats and strongly deviates from the lower elevation populations. PMID:20652595

  15. Adapting SimpleTreat for simulating behaviour of chemical substances during industrial sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Struijs, J; van de Meent, D; Schowanek, D; Buchholz, H; Patoux, R; Wolf, T; Austin, T; Tolls, J; van Leeuwen, K; Galay-Burgos, M

    2016-09-01

    The multimedia model SimpleTreat, evaluates the distribution and elimination of chemicals by municipal sewage treatment plants (STP). It is applied in the framework of REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals). This article describes an adaptation of this model for application to industrial sewage treatment plants (I-STP). The intended use of this re-parametrized model is focused on risk assessment during manufacture and subsequent uses of chemicals, also in the framework of REACH. The results of an inquiry on the operational characteristics of industrial sewage treatment installations were used to re-parameterize the model. It appeared that one property of industrial sewage, i.e. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in combination with one parameter of the activated sludge process, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) is satisfactory to define treatment of industrial wastewater by means of the activated sludge process. The adapted model was compared to the original municipal version, SimpleTreat 4.0, by means of a sensitivity analysis. The consistency of the model output was assessed by computing the emission to water from an I-STP of a set of fictitious chemicals. This set of chemicals exhibit a range of physico-chemical and biodegradability properties occurring in industrial wastewater. Predicted removal rates of a chemical from raw sewage are higher in industrial than in municipal STPs. The latter have typically shorter hydraulic retention times with diminished opportunity for elimination of the chemical due to volatilization and biodegradation. PMID:27344605

  16. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in a French-Speaking Swiss Sample: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Personality and Work Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossier, Jerome; Zecca, Gregory; Stauffer, Sarah D.; Maggiori, Christian; Dauwalder, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) in a French-speaking Swiss sample and its relationship with personality dimensions and work engagement. The heterogeneous sample of 391 participants (M[subscript age] = 39.59, SD = 12.30) completed the CAAS-International and a short version…

  17. Adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support for Arab immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Aroian, Karen; Templin, Thomas N; Ramaswamy, Vidya

    2010-02-01

    We adapted the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) for use with Arab immigrant women (MSPSS-AW) and estimated the psychometric properties of the adapted version with a sample of 539 Arab immigrant women living in the United States. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the proposed three-factor solution. Internal consistency reliability coefficients for the three subscales ranged from good to very good. Additional evidence for construct validity of the MSPSS-AW subscales was demonstrated through relationships with theoretically related measures. We conclude that the MSPSS-AW is reliable and valid for use with Arab immigrant women. PMID:20390643

  18. Image retargeting using non-uniform scaling with adaptive local search window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Abdel-Dayem, Amr

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a new content-aware image-retargeting scheme, based on non-uniform scaling, to adaptively adjust the image's dimensions for various screen sizes. Based on an importance map, the energy contribution for each line in the reduced dimension to the overall energy within the image is computed. Then, the image is adaptively mapped and resampled based on the energy contribution function. Experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed scheme is comparable to seam carving in visual quality. However, it is computationally less expensive.

  19. Direct Adaptive Control of Utility-Scale Wind Turbine for Speed Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, S. A.; Balas, M. J.; Wright, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    The accurate modeling of wind turbines is an extremely challenging problem due to the tremendous complexity of the machines and the turbulent and unpredictable conditions in which they operate. Adaptive control techniques are well suited to nonlinear applications, such as wind turbines, which are difficult to accurately model and which have effects from poorly known operating environments. In this paper, we extended the direct model reference adaptive control (DMRAC) approach to track a reference point and to reject persistent disturbances. This approach was then used to design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a variable-speed horizontal axis wind turbine. The objective of the adaptive pitch controller was to regulate generator speed in Region 3 and to reject step disturbances. The control objective was accomplished by collectively pitching the turbine blades. The turbine simulation models the controls advanced research turbine (CART) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. The CART is a utility-scale wind turbine that has a well-developed and extensively verified simulator. This novel application of adaptive control was compared in simulations with a classical proportional integrator (PI) collective pitch controller. In the simulations, the adaptive pitch controller showed improved speed regulation in Region 3 when compared with the PI pitch controller.

  20. Towards an improved wind speed scale and damage description adapted for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, Bernold; Groenemeijer, Pieter; Dirksen, Erik; Hubrig, Martin; Holzer, Alois M.; Dotzek, Nikolai

    2011-06-01

    We propose an updated wind speed scale description adapted for Central Europe considering wind impact to buildings as well as to vegetation. The scale is motivated by the need of a broadly applicable, accurate and consistent tornado or downburst intensity rating system based on a standardised wind speed scale for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. The description comprises building and vegetation damage characteristics, which can be found in Central Europe - but similar in other parts of the world, occurring with the various classes of the Fujita- and T-scales. The scale description is supplemented by photographs of typical damage. For practical application, an ensemble-based use of a decision matrix for specific building structures and vegetation types is suggested.

  1. Translation, cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire for Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chiari, Aline; de Souza Sardim, Carla Caires; Natour, Jamil

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To translate, to perform a cultural adaptation of and to test the reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire for Brazil. METHODS: First, the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire was translated into Portuguese and was then back-translated into French. These translations were reviewed by a committee to establish a Brazilian version of the questionnaire to be tested. The validity and reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire was evaluated. Patients of both sexes, who were aged 18 to 60 years and presented with rheumatoid arthritis affecting their hands, were interviewed. The patients were initially interviewed by two observers and were later interviewed by a single rater. First, the Visual Analogue Scale for hand pain, the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Disability questionnaire and the Health Assessment Questionnaire were administered. The third administration of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale was performed fifteen days after the first administration. Ninety patients were assessed in the present study. RESULTS: Two questions were modified as a result of the assessment of cultural equivalence. The Cronbach's alpha value for this assessment was 0.93. The intraclass intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients were 0.76 and 0.96, respectively. The Spearman's coefficient indicated that there was a low level of correlation between the Cochin Hand Functional Scale and the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (0.46) and that there was a moderate level of correlation of the Cochin Scale with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (0.66) and with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (0.63). The average administration time for the Cochin Scale was three minutes. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian version of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale was successfully translated and adapted, and this version exhibited good internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. PMID:21789372

  2. The Glenwood Assessment of Behavior of the Mentally Retarded: A Well-Factored Scale of Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Gary Y.

    The paper describes the reasons for developing a new instrument to measure adaptive behavior of mentally retarded residents at Glenwood State Hospital-School and recounts the processes involved in constructing the new scale. Among complaints about the American Association on Mental Deficiency Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) are its inappropriateness…

  3. Is It the Teaching or the Discipline? Influences of Disciplinary Epistemology and Pedagogy on Students Adapting Study Behaviour and Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kember, David; Hong, Celina; Yau, Vickie; Ho, Amaly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the pace and degree of adaptation of study behaviour and personal epistemological beliefs between school and university through interviews with 110 final-year university students. The study took place in Hong Kong, where the highly competitive school system encourages remembering modelling answers for the public examinations;…

  4. Mechanics of the trachea and behaviour of its slowly adapting stretch receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Mortola, J P; Sant'Ambrogio, G

    1979-01-01

    1. The trachea is constructed by a series of U-shaped cartilaginous rings supporting a membranous posterior wall. We have studied separately the pressure-volume relationships of the two components. 2. The motion of the membranous posterior wall contributes most to the tracheal volume change caused by any given transmural pressure change; the cartilaginous rings provide a semi-rigid support to the posterior wall and have a far greater compliance with negative than positive transmural pressure. 3. The response of tracheal stretch receptors to transmural pressure can be explained by the mechanical coupling between cartilages and posterior wall. They respond both to positive and negative transmural pressure, they are active at zero transmural pressure and have a point of least activity with small negative transmural pressures. 4. The stress-strain relationship of the posterior wall has been studied in static and dynamic conditions in control situations and after removal of either the tunica fibrosa or the trachealis muscle. Each of these two components contributes to the stiffness of the posterior wall, with the trachealis muscle providing most of its viscosity. 5. The response of tracheal stretch receptors to transverse traction of the posterior membranous wall has been studied in both static and dynamic conditions before and after removal of the tunica fibrosa. The behaviour of these receptors reflects the visco-elastic properties of the trachealis muscle in which they have been localized. PMID:439039

  5. Ascent exhalations of Antarctic fur seals: a behavioural adaptation for breath-hold diving?

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Sascha K.; Miller, Patrick J. O.; Johnson, Mark P.; Cox, Oliver P.; Boyd, Ian L.

    2005-01-01

    Novel observations collected from video, acoustic and conductivity sensors showed that Antarctic fur seals consistently exhale during the last 50–85% of ascent from all dives (10–160 m, n>8000 dives from 50 seals). The depth of initial bubble emission was best predicted by maximum dive depth, suggesting an underlying physical mechanism. Bubble sound intensity recorded from one seal followed predictions of a simple model based on venting expanding lung air with decreasing pressure. Comparison of air release between dives, together with lack of variation in intensity of thrusting movement during initial descent regardless of ultimate dive depth, suggested that inhaled diving lung volume was constant for all dives. The thrusting intensity in the final phase of ascent was greater for dives in which ascent exhalation began at a greater depth, suggesting an energetic cost to this behaviour, probably as a result of loss of buoyancy from reduced lung volume. These results suggest that fur seals descend with full lung air stores, and thus face the physiological consequences of pressure at depth. We suggest that these regular and predictable ascent exhalations could function to reduce the potential for a precipitous drop in blood oxygen that would result in shallow-water blackout. PMID:15734689

  6. From Dinosaurs to Modern Bird Diversity: Extending the Time Scale of Adaptive Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Daniel; Morlon, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    What explains why some groups of organisms, like birds, are so species rich? And what explains their extraordinary ecological diversity, ranging from large, flightless birds to small migratory species that fly thousand of kilometers every year? These and similar questions have spurred great interest in adaptive radiation, the diversification of ecological traits in a rapidly speciating group of organisms. Although the initial formulation of modern concepts of adaptive radiation arose from consideration of the fossil record, rigorous attempts to identify adaptive radiation in the fossil record are still uncommon. Moreover, most studies of adaptive radiation concern groups that are less than 50 million years old. Thus, it is unclear how important adaptive radiation is over temporal scales that span much larger portions of the history of life. In this issue, Benson et al. test the idea of a “deep-time” adaptive radiation in dinosaurs, compiling and using one of the most comprehensive phylogenetic and body-size datasets for fossils. Using recent phylogenetic statistical methods, they find that in most clades of dinosaurs there is a strong signal of an “early burst” in body-size evolution, a predicted pattern of adaptive radiation in which rapid trait evolution happens early in a group's history and then slows down. They also find that body-size evolution did not slow down in the lineage leading to birds, hinting at why birds survived to the present day and diversified. This paper represents one of the most convincing attempts at understanding deep-time adaptive radiations. PMID:24802950

  7. Data-based information gain on the response behaviour of hydrological models at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willems, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    A data-based approach is presented to analyse the response behaviour of hydrological models at the catchment scale. The approach starts with a number of sequential time series processing steps, applied to available rainfall, ETo and river flow observation series. These include separation of the high frequency (e.g., hourly, daily) river flow series into subflows, split of the series in nearly independent quick and slow flow hydrograph periods, and the extraction of nearly independent peak and low flows. Quick-, inter- and slow-subflow recession behaviour, sub-responses to rainfall and soil water storage are derived from the time series data. This data-based information on the catchment response behaviour can be applied on the basis of: - Model-structure identification and case-specific construction of lumped conceptual models for gauged catchments; or diagnostic evaluation of existing model structures; - Intercomparison of runoff responses for gauged catchments in a river basin, in order to identify similarity or significant differences between stations or between time periods, and relate these differences to spatial differences or temporal changes in catchment characteristics; - (based on the evaluation of the temporal changes in previous point:) Detection of temporal changes/trends and identification of its causes: climate trends, or land use changes; - Identification of asymptotic properties of the rainfall-runoff behaviour towards extreme peak or low flow conditions (for a given catchment) or towards extreme catchment conditions (for regionalization, ungauged basin prediction purposes); hence evaluating the performance of the model in making extrapolations beyond the range of available stations' data; - (based on the evaluation in previous point:) Evaluation of the usefulness of the model for making extrapolations to more extreme climate conditions projected by for instance climate models. Examples are provided for river basins in Belgium, Ethiopia, Kenya

  8. Adapting CEF-Descriptors for Rating Purposes: Validation by a Combined Rater Training and Scale Revision Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsch, Claudia; Martin, Guido

    2012-01-01

    We explore how a local rating scale can be based on the Common European Framework CEF-proficiency scales. As part of the scale validation (Alderson, 1991; Lumley, 2002), we examine which adaptations are needed to turn CEF-proficiency descriptors into a rating scale for a local context, and to establish a practicable method to revise the initial…

  9. Adaptive Profiles in Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouga, Susana; Almeida, Joana; Café, Cátia; Duque, Frederico; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of specific autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deficits in learning adaptive behaviour, besides intelligence quotient (IQ). Participated 217 school-aged: ASD (N = 115), and other neurodevelopmental disorders (OND) groups (N = 102) matched by Full-Scale IQ. We compared standard scores of Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale…

  10. [A behavioural rating scale of activity engagement in psychogeriatric day care].

    PubMed

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2014-09-01

    The Participation Scale was developed as an observational measure of activity engagement (as rated by group facilitators) of adult day care clients with mild to moderate dementia. In a consecutive sample of 448 subjects Mokken scaling procedure was conducted to assess the latent structure of 27 questionnaire items. The study included an exploratory and a confirmatory approach. For that purpose the sample was randomly divided into two halves. Exploratory analysis revealed three dimensions of participation that adequately captured the item structure: motivation (10 items; Loevinger's H = 0.48), competence (7 items; H = 0.56) and self-confidence (4 items; H = 0.57). The structure was validated in a confirmatory analysis. In a stepwise multiple regression model 49% of the variance in motivation was explained by independent behavioural measures of apathy and affect. Apathy and cognitive impairment were significant predictors of competence in participation (R(2) = 31.2%). Negative affect was the main predictor of reduced self-confidence (R(2) = 37.9%). Cross-validation of these exploratory regression models on the confirmatory sample explained 39.6%, 29.2% and 23.1% of the variance in motivation, competence and self-confidence, respectively. Test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2(A,1)) as determined in a random subsample of 56 participants, were 0.77 (motivation), 0.85 (competence) and 0.76 (self-confidence). The three measures allow the differentiation and ordering of individual participants on separate dimensions of activity engagement in psychogeriatric day care. PMID:25007866

  11. Temporal patterns of human behaviour: are there signs of deterministic 1/ f scaling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dünki, Rudolf M.; Keller, Elvira; Meier, Peter F.; Ambühl, Brigitte

    2000-02-01

    Temporal patterns apparently exhibiting scaling properties may originate either from fractal stochastic processes or from causal (i.e., deterministic) dynamics. In general, the distinction between the possible two origins remains a non-trivial task. This holds especially for the interpretation of properties derived from temporal patterns of various types of human behaviour, which were reported repeatedly. We propose here a computational scheme based on a generic intermittency model to test predictability (thus determinism) of a part of a time series with knowledge gathered from another part. The method is applied onto psychodynamic time series related to turns from non-psychosis to psychosis. A nonrandom correlation ( ρ=0.76) between prediction and real outcome is found. Our scheme thus provides a particular kind of fractal risk-assessment for this possibly deterministic process. We briefly discuss possible implications of these findings to evaluate the risk to undergo a state transition, in our case a patients risk to enter a next psychotic state. We further point to some problems concerning data sample pecularities and equivalence between data and model setup.

  12. Screening for feeding disorders. Creating critical values using the behavioural pediatrics feeding assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Dovey, Terence M; Jordan, Caroline; Aldridge, Victoria K; Martin, Clarissa I

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to discriminate between clinical and non-clinical samples on the Behavioural Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS). The objective was to present a cut-off value, that was derived statistically, which could be used to screen for feeding disorders. A sample of five hundred and seventy-three families with a target child ranging in age from 20 to 85 months took part in the current study. Sixty-four children had a known diagnosis of a feeding disorder and were embedded into a typically developing sample of families that had not sought professional intervention. All families completed the BPFAS in order to provide a known database to measure discriminative statistics. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the cut off value for the BPFAS was a Child Frequency score of 61 and a Child Problem score of six. This offered an 87% accuracy rate at these values. The current study offered definitive evidence that the BPFAS was accurate (both sensitive and specific) to determine differences between clinical and non-clinical samples in the United Kingdom. It is therefore advocated that BPFAS should be adopted in future studies exploring the impact of feeding disorders and problems in both clinical and research settings. PMID:23742944

  13. Adapting and Validating a Scale to Measure Sexual Stigma among Lesbian, Bisexual and Queer Women

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen H.; Earnshaw, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience pervasive sexual stigma that harms wellbeing. Stigma is a multi-dimensional construct and includes perceived stigma, awareness of negative attitudes towards one’s group, and enacted stigma, overt experiences of discrimination. Despite its complexity, sexual stigma research has generally explored singular forms of sexual stigma among LBQ women. The study objective was to develop a scale to assess perceived and enacted sexual stigma among LBQ women. We adapted a sexual stigma scale for use with LBQ women. The validation process involved 3 phases. First, we held a focus group where we engaged a purposively selected group of key informants in cognitive interviewing techniques to modify the survey items to enhance relevance to LBQ women. Second, we implemented an internet-based, cross-sectional survey with LBQ women (n=466) in Toronto, Canada. Third, we administered an internet-based survey at baseline and 6-week follow-up with LBQ women in Toronto (n=24) and Calgary (n=20). We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis and descriptive statistics to explore health and demographic correlates of the sexual stigma scale. Analyses yielded one scale with two factors: perceived and enacted sexual stigma. The total scale and subscales demonstrated adequate internal reliability (total scale alpha coefficient: 0.78; perceived sub-scale: 0.70; enacted sub-scale: 0.72), test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Perceived and enacted sexual stigma were associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem, social support, and self-rated health scores. Results suggest this sexual stigma scale adapted for LBQ women has good psychometric properties and addresses enacted and perceived stigma dimensions. The overwhelming majority of participants reported experiences of perceived sexual stigma. This underscores the importance of moving beyond a singular focus on

  14. Pollutants leaching behaviour from solidified wastes: a selection of adapted various models.

    PubMed

    Moszkowicz, P; Sanchez, F; Barna, R; Méhu, J

    1998-07-01

    Leaching tests are essential in the environmental assessment of stabilized wastes. Research programmes were conducted on their interpretation in order to develop tools for the evaluation of long term release of pollutants contained in solidified wastes. Models for the leaching of porous materials are discussed in this paper according to the specificity of the chemical species (i.e. transport model with total dissolution of species-diffusional model; transport model with progressive dissolution of species due to limitation of solubility-shrinking core model; and the model coupling transport and chemical phenomena). The leaching behaviour of pollutants (i.e. lead) solidified in a cement matrix was studied under different chemical conditions. Results have shown that the release of species whose solubilities depend on the physico-chemical conditions, and especially the pH (e.g. amphoteric metals), is governed by the solubility of the species in the pore water at local conditions and by the pH evolution within the matrix. A coupled dissolution/diffusion model was developed to describe the release of chemically complex species contained in a porous medium in contact with water. Leaching tests of cement matrices and artificial porous matrices containing calcium hydroxide and pollutants were conducted in order to validate the coupled dissolution/diffusion model. A good assessment of the retention of some pollutants contained in cement matrices could then be obtained by the association of two tests: solubilization of the pollutants related to the chemical context (pH) under steady state conditions and monolithic long term dynamic leaching tests in order to characterize the evolution of the chemical context (pH) and consequently the release of pollutants. The objective is to integrate this approach in the standardization process (CEN TC 292- WG 6, in progress). PMID:18967159

  15. Fine-scale temporal adaptation within a salmonid population: mechanism and consequences.

    PubMed

    Gharrett, Anthony J; Joyce, John; Smoker, William W

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a clear example of local adaptation of seasonal timing of spawning and embryo development. The consequence is a population of pink salmon that is segmented into spawning groups that use the same limited habitat. We synthesize published observations with results of new analyses to demonstrate that genetic variation of these traits results in survival differentials related to that variation, and that density-dependent embryo mortality and seasonally variable juvenile mortality are a mechanism of selection. Most examples of local adaptation in natural systems depend on observed correlations between environments and fitness traits, but do not fully demonstrate local adaptation: that the trait is genetically determined, exhibits different fitness in common environments or across different environments, and its variation is mechanistically connected to fitness differences. The geographic or temporal scales of local adaptation often remain obscure. Here, we show that heritable, fine-scale differences of timing of reproductive migration in a pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) resulted in temporal structure that persisted several generations; the differences enable a density-dependent population to pack more spawners into limited spawning habitat, that is, enhance its fitness. A balanced trade-off of survivals results because embryos from early-migrating fish have a lower freshwater survival (harsh early physical conditions and disturbance by late spawners), but emigrant fry from late-migrating fish have lower marine survivals (timing of their vernal emergence into the estuarine environment). Such fine-scale local adaptations increase the genetic portfolio of the populations and may provide a buffer against the impacts of climate change. PMID:23980763

  16. Adapting the Bayley Scales of infant and toddler development in Ethiopia: evaluation of reliability and validity

    PubMed Central

    Medhin, G.; Worku, B.; Tomlinson, M.; Alem, A.; Dewey, M.; Prince, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a need for valid and reliable observational measures of early child development in low‐income and middle‐income country settings. Methods The aims of the study were to adapt the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Bayley III) for a rural Ethiopian setting and evaluate reliability and validity. The study was carried out between January 2008 and January 2009 in the Butajira demographic surveillance site, south central Ethiopia. The Bayley III was adapted to be socioculturally appropriate for a rural Ethiopian context. Nurses and high school graduates were trained in administration of the measure for 10 days. Inter‐rater reliability was evaluated (n = 60). Content, construct and convergent validity was then examined on a population‐based cohort of children at the ages of 30 (n = 440) and 42 months (n = 456). Mokken scale analysis was used to determine the scalability of items in unidimensional, hierarchical sub‐scales. The mean score was compared by age of child and by stunting status (less than −2 z scores below the standard height‐for‐age). Results The intra‐class correlations between raters were above 0.90 for all sub‐scales of the child development measure. Some scale items were not contextually relevant and showed poor scalability. However, the majority of items scaled onto the existing sub‐scales of the international measure to form adequate‐to‐strong hierarchical scales with good internal consistency (Cronbach's α above 0.70 except for gross motor and expressive language sub‐scales). Item‐scale coefficients were good. The mean score of all sub‐scales was significantly higher in the older group of children (33.02 higher total score; P < 0.001) and in the children who were stunted (total Bayley score 2.58 (95% confidence interval 0.07 to 5.10) points lower at 30 months and 3.87 (1.94 to 5.81) points lower at 42 months. Conclusions An adapted version of an international

  17. On distributed wavefront reconstruction for large-scale adaptive optics systems.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Cornelis C; Brunner, Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The distributed-spline-based aberration reconstruction (D-SABRE) method is proposed for distributed wavefront reconstruction with applications to large-scale adaptive optics systems. D-SABRE decomposes the wavefront sensor domain into any number of partitions and solves a local wavefront reconstruction problem on each partition using multivariate splines. D-SABRE accuracy is within 1% of a global approach with a speedup that scales quadratically with the number of partitions. The D-SABRE is compared to the distributed cumulative reconstruction (CuRe-D) method in open-loop and closed-loop simulations using the YAO adaptive optics simulation tool. D-SABRE accuracy exceeds CuRe-D for low levels of decomposition, and D-SABRE proved to be more robust to variations in the loop gain. PMID:27140879

  18. Psychometric Properties of the "Sport Motivation Scale (SMS)" Adapted to Physical Education.

    PubMed

    Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Abraldes, J Arturo

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted to physical education. A second aim was to test which one of three hypothesized models (three, five and seven-factor) provided best model fit. 758 Spanish high school students completed the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for Physical Education and also completed the Learning and Performance Orientation in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire. We examined the factor structure of each model using confirmatory factor analysis and also assessed internal consistency and convergent validity. The results showed that all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model (χ(2)/gl = 2.73; ECVI = 1.38) as it produces better values when adapted to physical education, that five-factor model (χ(2)/gl = 2.82; ECVI = 1.44) and three-factor model (χ(2)/gl = 3.02; ECVI = 1.53). Key PointsPhysical education research conducted in Spain has used the version of SMS designed to assess motivation in sport, but validity reliability and validity results in physical education have not been reported.Results of the present study lend support to the factorial validity and internal reliability of three alternative factor structures (3, 5, and 7 factors) of SMS adapted to Physical Education in Spanish.Although all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model. PMID:25435772

  19. Psychometric Properties of the “Sport Motivation Scale (SMS)” Adapted to Physical Education

    PubMed Central

    Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Abraldes, J. Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted to physical education. A second aim was to test which one of three hypothesized models (three, five and seven-factor) provided best model fit. 758 Spanish high school students completed the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for Physical Education and also completed the Learning and Performance Orientation in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire. We examined the factor structure of each model using confirmatory factor analysis and also assessed internal consistency and convergent validity. The results showed that all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model (χ2/gl = 2.73; ECVI = 1.38) as it produces better values when adapted to physical education, that five-factor model (χ2/gl = 2.82; ECVI = 1.44) and three-factor model (χ2/gl = 3.02; ECVI = 1.53). Key Points Physical education research conducted in Spain has used the version of SMS designed to assess motivation in sport, but validity reliability and validity results in physical education have not been reported. Results of the present study lend support to the factorial validity and internal reliability of three alternative factor structures (3, 5, and 7 factors) of SMS adapted to Physical Education in Spanish. Although all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model. PMID:25435772

  20. Adaptation of the schupmann medial telescope to a large scale astronomical optical system.

    PubMed

    Villa, J J

    1972-08-01

    The classical Schupmann medial telescope is free of the secondary-spectrum residual associated with large refractors. The difficulties in obtaining large glass disks of the necessary optical quality and the problem associated with their mounting preclude the use of this unconventional lens in large scale astronomical systems. However, to circumvent these limitations, the Schupmann lens was modified by replacing the refractive objective with a spherical mirror producing a new catadioptric lens configuration adaptable to large-scale astronomy. The design parameters and performance data are given for an f/5.4, 5.5-m focal length design covering a 2 degrees full field. PMID:20119238

  1. Measuring HIV felt stigma: a culturally adapted scale targeting PLWHA in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Julio Cesar; Puig, Marieva; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Morales, Marangelie; Asencio, Gloria; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Castro, Eida; Santori, Carmen Vélez; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to culturally adapt and validate a scale to measure HIV-related felt stigma in a group of People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Puerto Rico. The researchers conducted a two-phase cross-sectional study with 216 participants (60, first phase; 156, second phase). The first phase consisted of the cultural adaptation of the scale; the second evaluated its psychometric properties. After conducting a factor analysis, a 17-item scale, the HIV Felt-Stigma Scale (HFSS), resulted. Participants completed the Puerto Rico Comprehensive Center for the Study of Health Disparities Socio-demographic Questionnaire, the HFSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Sexual Abuse dimension of the History of Abuse Questionnaire; the case managers completed the Case Manager Stigma Guide with subjects. The HFSS measures four dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. The alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients (0.91 and 0.68, respectively) indicated satisfactory validity and reliability; the scale suggested adequate convergent validity. The HFSS is a culturally sensitive instrument that fills the existing gap in the measurement of felt stigma in Spanish-speaking PLWHA. PMID:20665283

  2. Measuring HIV felt stigma: a culturally adapted scale targeting PLWHA in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Julio Cesar; Puig, Marieva; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Morales, Marangelie; Asencio, Gloria; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Castro, Eida; Velez Santori, Carmen; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to culturally adapt and validate a scale to measure HIV-related felt stigma in a group of People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Puerto Rico. The researchers conducted a two-phase cross-sectional study with 216 participants (60, first phase; 156, second phase). The first phase consisted of the cultural adaptation of the scale; the second evaluated its psychometric properties. After conducting a factor analysis, a 17-item scale, the HIV Felt-Stigma Scale (HFSS), resulted. Participants completed the Puerto Rico Comprehensive Center for the Study of Health Disparities Socio-demographic Questionnaire, the HFSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Sexual Abuse dimension of the History of Abuse Questionnaire; the case managers completed the Case Manager Stigma Guide with subjects. The HFSS measures four dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. The alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients (0.91 and 0.68, respectively) indicated satisfactory validity and reliability; the scale suggested adequate convergent validity. The HFSS is a culturally sensitive instrument that fills the existing gap in the measurement of felt stigma in Spanish-speaking PLWHA. PMID:20665283

  3. Digital redesign of the decentralised adaptive tracker for linear large-scale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Hong; Sheng-Hong Tsai, Jason; Chen, Chia-Wei; Guo, Shu-Mei; Chu, Che-An

    2010-02-01

    A novel digital redesign of the analogue model-reference-based decentralized adaptive tracker is proposed for the sampled-data large scale system consisting of N interconnected linear subsystems, so that the system output will follow any trajectory specified at sampling instant which may not be presented by the analytic reference initially, and shows that the proposed decentralized controller induces a good robustness on the decoupling of the closed-loop controlled system. The adaptation of the analogue controller gain is derived by using the model-reference adaptive control theory based on Lyapunov's method. In this article, it is shown that using the sampled-data decentralized adaptive control system it is theoretically possible to asymptotically track the desired output with a desired performance. It is assumed that all the controllers share their prior information and the principal result is derived when they cooperate implicitly. Based on the prediction-based digital redesign methodology, the optimal digital redesigned tracker for the sampled-data decentralised adaptive control systems is newly proposed. An illustrative example of interconnected linear system is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design methodology.

  4. Scale-adaptive tensor algebra for local many-body methods of electronic structure theory

    SciTech Connect

    Liakh, Dmitry I

    2014-01-01

    While the formalism of multiresolution analysis (MRA), based on wavelets and adaptive integral representations of operators, is actively progressing in electronic structure theory (mostly on the independent-particle level and, recently, second-order perturbation theory), the concepts of multiresolution and adaptivity can also be utilized within the traditional formulation of correlated (many-particle) theory which is based on second quantization and the corresponding (generally nonorthogonal) tensor algebra. In this paper, we present a formalism called scale-adaptive tensor algebra (SATA) which exploits an adaptive representation of tensors of many-body operators via the local adjustment of the basis set quality. Given a series of locally supported fragment bases of a progressively lower quality, we formulate the explicit rules for tensor algebra operations dealing with adaptively resolved tensor operands. The formalism suggested is expected to enhance the applicability and reliability of local correlated many-body methods of electronic structure theory, especially those directly based on atomic orbitals (or any other localized basis functions).

  5. A Decentralized Multivariable Robust Adaptive Voltage and Speed Regulator for Large-Scale Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okou, Francis A.; Akhrif, Ouassima; Dessaint, Louis A.; Bouchard, Derrick

    2013-05-01

    This papter introduces a decentralized multivariable robust adaptive voltage and frequency regulator to ensure the stability of large-scale interconnnected generators. Interconnection parameters (i.e. load, line and transormer parameters) are assumed to be unknown. The proposed design approach requires the reformulation of conventiaonal power system models into a multivariable model with generator terminal voltages as state variables, and excitation and turbine valve inputs as control signals. This model, while suitable for the application of modern control methods, introduces problems with regards to current design techniques for large-scale systems. Interconnection terms, which are treated as perturbations, do not meet the common matching condition assumption. A new adaptive method for a certain class of large-scale systems is therefore introduces that does not require the matching condition. The proposed controller consists of nonlinear inputs that cancel some nonlinearities of the model. Auxiliary controls with linear and nonlinear components are used to stabilize the system. They compensate unknown parametes of the model by updating both the nonlinear component gains and excitation parameters. The adaptation algorithms involve the sigma-modification approach for auxiliary control gains, and the projection approach for excitation parameters to prevent estimation drift. The computation of the matrix-gain of the controller linear component requires the resolution of an algebraic Riccati equation and helps to solve the perturbation-mismatching problem. A realistic power system is used to assess the proposed controller performance. The results show that both stability and transient performance are considerably improved following a severe contingency.

  6. Heat Waves and Climate Change: Applying the Health Belief Model to Identify Predictors of Risk Perception and Adaptive Behaviours in Adelaide, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Akompab, Derick A.; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants’ perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07–0.62), who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17–0.94) and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11–0.79) were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19–6.90) were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00–4.58), a high “cues to action” (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63–8.43), who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25–5.58) and who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07–6.56) were more likely to have good

  7. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale in Iranian Men

    PubMed Central

    Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H.; Burri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Certain sexual health problems in men can be attributed to genital self-image. Therefore, a culturally adapted version of a Male Genital Self-Image Scale (MGSIS) could help health professionals understand this concept and its associated correlates. Aim To translate the original English version of the MGSIS into Persian and to assess the psychometric properties of this culturally adapted version (MGSIS-I) for use in Iranian men. Methods In total, 1,784 men were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Backward and forward translations of the MGSIS were used to produce the culturally adapted version. Reliability of the MGSIS-I was assessed using Cronbach α and intra-class correlation coefficients. Divergent and convergent validities were examined using Pearson correlation and known-group validity was assessed in subgroups of participants with different sociodemographic statuses. Factor validity of the scale was investigated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Main Outcome Measures Demographic information, the International Index of Erectile Function, the Body Appreciation Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the MGSIS. Results Mean age of participants was 38.13 years (SD = 11.45) and all men were married. Cronbach α of the MGSIS-I was 0.89 and interclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.70 to 0.94. Significant correlations were found between the MGSIS-I and the International Index of Erectile Function (P < .01), whereas correlation of the scale with non-similar scales was lower than with similar scale (confirming convergent and divergent validity). The scale could differentiate between subgroups in age, smoking status, and income (known-group validity). A single-factor solution that explained 70% variance of the scale was explored using exploratory factor analysis (confirming uni-dimensionality); confirmatory factor analysis indicated better fitness for the five-item version than the seven-item version of the MGSIS

  8. Cultural adaptation of the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale (CUSES) in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of self-reports of sexual behaviours is vital to the evaluation of HIV prevention and family planning interventions. This investigation was to determine the cross-cultural suitability of the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale (CUSES) originally developed for American adolescents and young adults by examining the structure and psychometric properties. Method A self-administered cross-sectional survey of a convenient sample of 511 participants from a private university in Ghana with mean age 21.59 years. Result A Principal Component Analysis with varimax rotation identified a 14 item scale with four reliable factors labelled Appropriation (Cronbach alpha = .85), Assertive (Cronbach alpha = .90), Pleasure and Intoxicant (Cronbach alpha = .83), and STDs (Cronbach alpha = .81) that altogether explained 73.72% of the total variance. The scale correlated well with a measure of condom use at past sexual encounter (r = .73), indicating evidence of construct and discriminatory validity. The factor loadings were similar to the original CUSES scale but not identical suggesting relevant cultural variations. Conclusion The 14 item scale (CUSES-G) is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing condom use self efficacy. It is culturally appropriate for use among Ghanaian youth to gauge actual condom use and to evaluate interventions meant to increase condom use. Finally, the study cautioned researchers against the use of the original CUSES without validation in African settings and contexts. PMID:20433724

  9. Interpretation of hysteresis behaviour of PI-PS multigraft copolymers by adapting to the dynamic flocculation model.

    SciTech Connect

    Staudinger, Ulrike; Schlegel, Ralf; Weidisch, Roland; Fritzsche, Juliane; Kluppel, Manfred; Heinrich, G.; Mays, Jimmy; Uhrig, David; Hadjichristidis, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    Hysteresis behaviour of highly elastic multigraft copolymers with a polyisoprene (PI) backbone and branched polystyrene (PS) arms has been interpreted by applying the extended non-affine tube model of filler reinforced rubber elasticity (dynamic flocculation model), which takes into account that conformational fluctuations in bulk networks are strongly suppressed by packing effects. Originally, this model was developed to describe hyperelasticity of unfilled networks, and later, stress softening and hysteresis of filler reinforced elastomer materials like carbon black and silica filled rubbers. The evaluation of stress softening is obtained via pre-strain dependent hydrodynamic amplification of the rubber matrix by a fraction of rigid filler clusters with virgin filler filler bonds. The filler-induced hysteresis is described by a cyclic breakdown and re-aggregation of the residual fraction of more soft filler clusters with already broken filler filler bonds. We show, for the first time that the developed concept is in fair agreement with experimental stress strain data of superelastic PI PS multigraft copolymers. Depending on the PS-content and their functionality multigraft copolymers form microphase separated structures according to the constituting block copolymer concept, where the PS arms act as multi-domains in a PI matrix. The adaptation of the model is based on the assumption that the PS-domains are acting similar to filler clusters. The obtained microscopic material parameters appear reasonable for the description of the structure and mechanical properties of multigraft copolymers.

  10. Scaling behaviour in the number of criminal acts committed by individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Will; Ormerod, Paul; Cooper, Ellie

    2004-07-01

    We examine the distribution of the extent of criminal activity by individuals in two widely cited data bases. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development records criminal convictions amongst a group of working class youths in the UK over a 14 year period. The Pittsburgh Youth Study measures self-reported criminal acts over intervals of six months or a year in three groups of boys in the public school system in Pittsburgh, PA. The range of the data is very substantially different between these two measures of criminal activity, one of which is convictions and the other self-reported acts. However, there are many similarities between the characteristics of the data sets. A power law relationship between the frequency and rank of the number of criminal acts describes the data well in both cases, and fits the data better than an exponential relationship. Power law distributions of macroscopic observables are ubiquitous in both the natural and social sciences. They are indicative of correlated, cooperative phenomena between groups of interacting agents at the microscopic level. However, there is evidence of a bimodal distribution, again in each case. Excluding the frequency with which zero crimes are committed or reported reduces the absolute size of the estimated exponent in the power law relationship. The exponent is virtually identical in both cases. A better fit is obtained for the tail of the distribution. In other words, there appears to be a subtle deviation from straightforward power law behaviour. The description of the data when the number of boys committing or reporting zero crimes are excluded is different from that when they are included. The crucial step in the criminal progress of an individual appears to be committing the first act. Once this happens, the number of criminal acts committed by an individual can take place on all scales.

  11. Holocene river behaviour in New Zealand: response to regional centennial-scale climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. M.; Fuller, I. C.; Macklin, M. G.; Jones, A. F.; Holt, K. A.; Litchfield, N. J.; Bebbington, M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper applies meta-analysis techniques to a database of 401 14C-dated Holocene fluvial units in New Zealand. We use the database to produce a probability-based reconstruction of Holocene river behaviour at a national and regional scale. Records of river activity in northern (North Island) and southern (South Island) New Zealand are compared with independent hydro-climate proxy records that reflect regional, tropical and polar influences on Southern Hemisphere climate. During the Holocene, 12 multi-centennial length episodes of river activity and flooding were identified in the North Island, and in the South Island record 11 periods exceed the mean relative probability of activity. These records show that episodes of river activity have exhibited a predominantly out-of-phase relationship, suggesting the relationship between ENSO and SAM, and the relative dominance of the two modes, may be influencing Holocene river activity in New Zealand. The emerging pattern in the South Island Holocene fluvial record is one of increased river activity in response to enhanced westerly atmospheric circulation associated with a predominance of trough regime synoptic type (negative SAM-like circulation). In the North Island episodes of river activity are driven by increased meridional atmospheric circulation associated with blocking regime synoptic conditions (La Niña-like and positive SAM-like circulation). Analysis of floodplain sedimentation rates shows a rapid increase after ˜500 cal yr BP following the arrival of humans and the beginning of widespread deforestation. Regional climate complexity in New Zealand presents opportunities for palaeoclimate reconstruction, with the New Zealand fluvial 14C-database ideally placed to fill geographical gaps in the long-term hydrological record.

  12. Incorrect Likelihood Methods Were Used to Infer Scaling Laws of Marine Predator Search Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Andrew M.; Freeman, Mervyn P.; Breed, Greg A.; Jonsen, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ecologists are collecting extensive data concerning movements of animals in marine ecosystems. Such data need to be analysed with valid statistical methods to yield meaningful conclusions. Principal Findings We demonstrate methodological issues in two recent studies that reached similar conclusions concerning movements of marine animals (Nature 451∶1098; Science 332∶1551). The first study analysed vertical movement data to conclude that diverse marine predators (Atlantic cod, basking sharks, bigeye tuna, leatherback turtles and Magellanic penguins) exhibited “Lévy-walk-like behaviour”, close to a hypothesised optimal foraging strategy. By reproducing the original results for the bigeye tuna data, we show that the likelihood of tested models was calculated from residuals of regression fits (an incorrect method), rather than from the likelihood equations of the actual probability distributions being tested. This resulted in erroneous Akaike Information Criteria, and the testing of models that do not correspond to valid probability distributions. We demonstrate how this led to overwhelming support for a model that has no biological justification and that is statistically spurious because its probability density function goes negative. Re-analysis of the bigeye tuna data, using standard likelihood methods, overturns the original result and conclusion for that data set. The second study observed Lévy walk movement patterns by mussels. We demonstrate several issues concerning the likelihood calculations (including the aforementioned residuals issue). Re-analysis of the data rejects the original Lévy walk conclusion. Conclusions We consequently question the claimed existence of scaling laws of the search behaviour of marine predators and mussels, since such conclusions were reached using incorrect methods. We discourage the suggested potential use of “Lévy-like walks” when modelling consequences of fishing and climate change, and caution that

  13. Therapeutic adherence and competence scales for Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy for adolescents with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Gutermann, Jana; Schreiber, Franziska; Matulis, Simone; Stangier, Ulrich; Rosner, Rita; Steil, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Background The assessment of therapeutic adherence and competence is often neglected in psychotherapy research, particularly in children and adolescents; however, both variables are crucial for the interpretation of treatment effects. Objective Our aim was to develop, adapt, and pilot two scales to assess therapeutic adherence and competence in a recent innovative program, Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (D-CPT), for adolescents suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childhood abuse. Method Two independent raters assessed 30 randomly selected sessions involving 12 D-CPT patients (age 13–20 years, M age=16.75, 91.67% female) treated by 11 therapists within the pilot phase of a multicenter study. Results Three experts confirmed the relevance and appropriateness of each item. All items and total scores for adherence (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]=0.76–1.00) and competence (ICC=0.78–0.98) yielded good to excellent inter-rater reliability. Cronbach's alpha was 0.59 for the adherence scale and 0.96 for the competence scale. Conclusions The scales reliably assess adherence and competence in D-CPT for adolescent PTSD patients. The ratings can be helpful in the interpretation of treatment effects, the assessment of mediator variables, and the identification and training of therapeutic skills that are central to achieving good treatment outcomes. Both adherence and competence will be assessed as possible predictor variables for treatment success in future D-CPT trials. PMID:25791915

  14. Leap of faith: voluntary emersion behaviour and physiological adaptations to aerial exposure in a non-aestivating freshwater fish in response to aquatic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Mauricio A; Forster, Malcolm E; Glover, Chris N

    2011-05-01

    Lowland stream fauna in areas of intensive agriculture are increasingly under threat from anthropogenic activities leading to eutrophication and subsequent hypoxia. Survival of hypoxic episodes depends upon a combination of behavioural and physiological adaptations. Responses of inanga (Galaxias maculatus: Galaxiidae) to aquatic hypoxia were investigated in the laboratory. Contrary to expectation inanga did not display behaviour that might reduce energy expenditure during oxygen limitation, with swimming activity slightly, but significantly elevated relative to normoxia. Instead, as dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased, the fish moved higher in the water column, increased their swimming speed and exhibited aquatic surface respiration. Physiological changes such as enhanced opercular frequency were also noted. As hypoxia deepened inanga started to leap out of the water, emersing themselves on a floating platform. Once emersed, fish exhibited an enhanced oxygen consumption rate compared to hypoxic fish. Thus inanga appear better adapted to escape hypoxia (a behavioural adaptation) rather than tolerate it (physiological adaptation). The emersion strategy used for inanga in response to severe hypoxia is in agreement with their ability to take up more oxygen from the air than from hypoxic water and therefore may justify the potentially increased risks of desiccation and predation associated with leaving the water. PMID:21316378

  15. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India)

    PubMed Central

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J. Aaron; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394

  16. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India).

    PubMed

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J Aaron; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-04-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2-3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48-0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394

  17. Thermal Behaviour of Unusual Local-Scale Surface Features on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosi, F.; Capria, M. T.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Palomba, E.; Grassi, D.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Sunshine, J. M.; McCord, T. B.; Titus, T. N.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Toplis, M. J.; Forni, O.; Sykes, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    On Vesta, the region of the infrared spectrum beyond approximately 3.5 micrometers is dominated by the thermal emission of the asteroid's surface, which can be used to determine surface temperature by means of temperature-retrieval algorithms. The thermal behavior of areas of unusual albedo seen at the local scale can be related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. Dawn's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) hyperspectral cubes are used to retrieve surface temperatures, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 180 K. Data acquired in the Survey phase (23 July through 29 August 2011) show several unusual surface features: 1) high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material deposits, 2) spectrally distinct ejecta, 3) regions suggesting finer-grained materials. Some of the unusual dark and bright features were re-observed by VIR in the subsequent High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) phases at increased pixel resolution. To calculate surface temperatures, we applied a Bayesian approach to nonlinear inversion based on the Kirchhoff law and the Planck function. These results were cross-checked through application of alternative methods. Here we present temperature maps of several local-scale features that were observed by Dawn under different illumination conditions and different local solar times. Some bright terrains have an overall albedo in the visible as much as 40% brighter than surrounding areas. Data from the IR channel of VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower thermal emission, i.e. lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher thermal emission, i.e. higher temperature. This behavior confirms that many of the dark appearances in the VIS mainly reflect albedo variations. In particular, it is shown that during maximum daily insolation, dark features in the equatorial region may rise to

  18. Costs and benefits of adapting to river floods at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Philip; Aerts, Jeroen; Botzen, Wouter; Hallegatte, Stephane; Jongman, Brenden; Kind, Jarl; Scussolini, Paolo; Winsemius, Hessel

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that the economic losses associated with flooding are huge; for example in 2012 alone the economic losses from flooding exceeded 19 billion. As a result, different models have been developed to assess global scale flood risk. Recently, these have been used in several studies to assess current flood risk at the global scale, and to project how risk may increase as a result of climate change and/or socioeconomic development. In most regions, these studies show rapid increases in risk into the future, and therefore call for urgent adaptation. However, to date no studies have attempted to assess the costs of carrying out such adaptation, nor the benefits. In this paper, we therefore present the first global scale estimate of the costs and benefits of adapting to increased river flood risk caused by factors such as climate change and socioeconomic development. For this study, we concentrate on structural adaptation measures, such as dikes, designed to prevent flood hazard up to a certain design standard. We address two questions: 1. What would be the costs and benefits of maintaining current flood protection standards, accounting for future climate and socioeconomic change until 2100? 2. What flood protection standards would be required by 2100 to keep future flood risk constant at today's levels? And what would be the costs and benefits associated with this? In this paper, we will present our first global estimates of the costs and benefits of adaptation to increased flood risk, as well as maps of these findings per country and river basin. We present the results under 4 emission scenarios (RCPs), 5 socioeconomic scenarios (SSPs), and under several assumptions relating to total potential flood damages, discount rates, construction costs, maintenance costs, and so forth. The research was carried out using the GLOFRIS modelling cascade. This global flood risk model calculates flood risk in terms of annual expected damage, and has been developed and

  19. Behaviour of the constitutive biota of two types of Spanish dry-sausages ripened in a pilot-scale chamber.

    PubMed

    López, Carmen; Medina, L M; Priego, R; Jordano, R

    2006-05-01

    The behaviour of the constitutive biota in eighty four samples belonging to two different types of Spanish dry-cured sausages during the ripening process in a pilot-scale chamber was investigated. Samples were analyzed in three stages during production: fresh product, first drying stage and finished product. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Coagulase-negative cocci (CNC) were identified by the API system. In general, evolution of LAB and CNC during the ripening process of Spanish dry-cured sausages increased during the first days after which numbers of these organisms remained stable. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus, were the dominant species. Lactobacillus plantarum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus Staphylococcus simulans and Kocuria varians were also present. The results obtained show that the ripening process in a pilot-scale chamber under controlled conditions contributes to a more homogeneous behaviour of the constitutive biota, in comparison with commercial production standards. PMID:22062067

  20. Spanish adaptation of the scale of psychological empowerment in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Albar, Maria-Jesús; García-Ramírez, Manuel; López Jiménez, Ana María; Garrido, Rocío

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to adapt and translate into Spanish Spreitzer's Psychological Empowerment Scale (1995a). A process of translation and reverse-translation was applied to the scale's items, whose psychometric properties were then examined using a sample of 272 professional nurses at public hospitals in the province of Seville. The data were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. The significance of the factor loadings demonstrated the need to create a new model eliminating one item. The 11-item model was shown to possess adequate construct validity and internal consistency. The results confirm the original, four-factor structure obtained by Spreitzer, with the exception of item 10, and support the utilization of the Spanish version of this scale in the workplace. Future research should more extensively investigate its construct validity, and test the nomological network of the operationalized construct within the field of psychological well-being and in the context of the workplace. PMID:22774453

  1. Persian adaptation of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale: a psychometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Baghaei, Purya; Hohensinn, Christine; Kubinger, Klaus D

    2014-04-01

    The validity and psychometric properties of a new Persian adaptation of the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale were investigated. The scale was translated into Persian and administered to 160 undergraduate students (131 women, 29 men; M age = 23.4 yr., SD = 4.3). Rasch model analysis on the scale's original 20 items revealed that the data do not fit the partial credit model. Principal components analysis identified three factors: one related to feelings of anxiety about reading, the second reflected the reverse-worded items, and the third related to general ideas about reading in a foreign language. In a re-analysis, the 12 items that loaded on the first factor showed a good fit with the partial credit model. PMID:24897892

  2. Self-Adaptive Event-Driven Simulation of Multi-Scale Plasma Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelchenko, Yuri; Karimabadi, Homayoun

    2005-10-01

    Multi-scale plasmas pose a formidable computational challenge. The explicit time-stepping models suffer from the global CFL restriction. Efficient application of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to systems with irregular dynamics (e.g. turbulence, diffusion-convection-reaction, particle acceleration etc.) may be problematic. To address these issues, we developed an alternative approach to time stepping: self-adaptive discrete-event simulation (DES). DES has origin in operations research, war games and telecommunications. We combine finite-difference and particle-in-cell techniques with this methodology by assuming two caveats: (1) a local time increment, dt for a discrete quantity f can be expressed in terms of a physically meaningful quantum value, df; (2) f is considered to be modified only when its change exceeds df. Event-driven time integration is self-adaptive as it makes use of causality rules rather than parametric time dependencies. This technique enables asynchronous flux-conservative update of solution in accordance with local temporal scales, removes the curse of the global CFL condition, eliminates unnecessary computation in inactive spatial regions and results in robust and fast parallelizable codes. It can be naturally combined with various mesh refinement techniques. We discuss applications of this novel technology to diffusion-convection-reaction systems and hybrid simulations of magnetosonic shocks.

  3. Fibrin Networks Support Recurring Mechanical Loads by Adapting their Structure across Multiple Scales.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Vos, Bart E; Biebricher, Andreas; Wuite, Gijs J L; Peterman, Erwin J G; Koenderink, Gijsje H

    2016-09-01

    Tissues and cells sustain recurring mechanical loads that span a wide range of loading amplitudes and timescales as a consequence of exposure to blood flow, muscle activity, and external impact. Both tissues and cells derive their mechanical strength from fibrous protein scaffolds, which typically have a complex hierarchical structure. In this study, we focus on a prototypical hierarchical biomaterial, fibrin, which is one of the most resilient naturally occurring biopolymers and forms the structural scaffold of blood clots. We show how fibrous networks composed of fibrin utilize irreversible changes in their hierarchical structure at different scales to maintain reversible stress stiffening up to large strains. To trace the origin of this paradoxical resilience, we systematically tuned the microstructural parameters of fibrin and used a combination of optical tweezers and fluorescence microscopy to measure the interactions of single fibrin fibers for the first time, to our knowledge. We demonstrate that fibrin networks adapt to moderate strains by remodeling at the network scale through the spontaneous formation of new bonds between fibers, whereas they adapt to high strains by plastic remodeling of the fibers themselves. This multiscale adaptation mechanism endows fibrin gels with the remarkable ability to sustain recurring loads due to shear flows and wound stretching. Our findings therefore reveal a microscopic mechanism by which tissues and cells can balance elastic nonlinearity and plasticity, and thus can provide microstructural insights into cell-driven remodeling of tissues. PMID:27602730

  4. Gene expression clines reveal local adaptation and associated trade-offs at a continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Damiano; Westram, Anja M.; Pascual, Marta; Gaston, Kevin J.; Butlin, Roger K.; Snook, Rhonda R.

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation, where fitness in one environment comes at a cost in another, should lead to spatial variation in trade-offs between life history traits and may be critical for population persistence. Recent studies have sought genomic signals of local adaptation, but often have been limited to laboratory populations representing two environmentally different locations of a species’ distribution. We measured gene expression, as a proxy for fitness, in males of Drosophila subobscura, occupying a 20° latitudinal and 11 °C thermal range. Uniquely, we sampled six populations and studied both common garden and semi-natural responses to identify signals of local adaptation. We found contrasting patterns of investment: transcripts with expression positively correlated to latitude were enriched for metabolic processes, expressed across all tissues whereas negatively correlated transcripts were enriched for reproductive processes, expressed primarily in testes. When using only the end populations, to compare our results to previous studies, we found that locally adaptive patterns were obscured. While phenotypic trade-offs between metabolic and reproductive functions across widespread species are well-known, our results identify underlying genetic and tissue responses at a continental scale that may be responsible for this. This may contribute to understanding population persistence under environmental change. PMID:27599812

  5. Towards a large-scale scalable adaptive heart model using shallow tree meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Dorian; Dickopf, Thomas; Potse, Mark; Krause, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    Electrophysiological heart models are sophisticated computational tools that place high demands on the computing hardware due to the high spatial resolution required to capture the steep depolarization front. To address this challenge, we present a novel adaptive scheme for resolving the deporalization front accurately using adaptivity in space. Our adaptive scheme is based on locally structured meshes. These tensor meshes in space are organized in a parallel forest of trees, which allows us to resolve complicated geometries and to realize high variations in the local mesh sizes with a minimal memory footprint in the adaptive scheme. We discuss both a non-conforming mortar element approximation and a conforming finite element space and present an efficient technique for the assembly of the respective stiffness matrices using matrix representations of the inclusion operators into the product space on the so-called shallow tree meshes. We analyzed the parallel performance and scalability for a two-dimensional ventricle slice as well as for a full large-scale heart model. Our results demonstrate that the method has good performance and high accuracy.

  6. Gene expression clines reveal local adaptation and associated trade-offs at a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, Damiano; Westram, Anja M; Pascual, Marta; Gaston, Kevin J; Butlin, Roger K; Snook, Rhonda R

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation, where fitness in one environment comes at a cost in another, should lead to spatial variation in trade-offs between life history traits and may be critical for population persistence. Recent studies have sought genomic signals of local adaptation, but often have been limited to laboratory populations representing two environmentally different locations of a species' distribution. We measured gene expression, as a proxy for fitness, in males of Drosophila subobscura, occupying a 20° latitudinal and 11 °C thermal range. Uniquely, we sampled six populations and studied both common garden and semi-natural responses to identify signals of local adaptation. We found contrasting patterns of investment: transcripts with expression positively correlated to latitude were enriched for metabolic processes, expressed across all tissues whereas negatively correlated transcripts were enriched for reproductive processes, expressed primarily in testes. When using only the end populations, to compare our results to previous studies, we found that locally adaptive patterns were obscured. While phenotypic trade-offs between metabolic and reproductive functions across widespread species are well-known, our results identify underlying genetic and tissue responses at a continental scale that may be responsible for this. This may contribute to understanding population persistence under environmental change. PMID:27599812

  7. Optimal Stomatal Behaviour Around the World: Synthesis of a Global Stomatal Conductance Database and Scaling from Leaf to Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. S.; Medlyn, B. E.; Duursma, R.; Prentice, I. C.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) is a key land surface attribute as it links transpiration, the dominant component of global land evapotranspiration and a key element of the global water cycle, and photosynthesis, the driving force of the global carbon cycle. Despite the pivotal role of gs in predictions of global water and carbon cycles, a global scale database and an associated globally applicable model of gs that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. We present a unique database of globally distributed gs obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We employed a model of optimal stomatal conductance to assess differences in stomatal behaviour, and estimated the model slope coefficient, g1, which is directly related to the marginal carbon cost of water, for each dataset. We found that g1 varies considerably among PFTs, with evergreen savanna trees having the largest g1 (least conservative water use), followed by C3 grasses and crops, angiosperm trees, gymnosperm trees, and C4 grasses. Amongst angiosperm trees, species with higher wood density had a higher marginal carbon cost of water, as predicted by the theory underpinning the optimal stomatal model. There was an interactive effect between temperature and moisture availability on g1: for wet environments, g1 was largest in high temperature environments, indicated by high mean annual temperature during the period when temperature above 0oC (Tm), but it did not vary with Tm across dry environments. We examine whether these differences in leaf-scale behaviour are reflected in ecosystem-scale differences in water-use efficiency. These findings provide a robust theoretical framework for understanding and predicting the behaviour of stomatal conductance across biomes and across PFTs that can be applied to regional, continental and global-scale modelling of productivity and ecohydrological processes in a future changing climate.

  8. Development of a compassion-focused and contextual behavioural environment and validation of the Therapeutic Environment Scales (TESS)

    PubMed Central

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Naismith, Iona; Pieta, Maria; Gilbert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method The aims of the study were to develop a scale sensitive enough to measure the interpersonal processes within a therapeutic environment, and to explore whether the new scale was sensitive enough to detect differences between settings, including a community based on compassionate mind and contextual behaviourism. The Therapeutic Environment Scales (TESS) were validated with 81 participants in three different settings: a specialist service for anxiety disorders, a specialist in-patient ward and a psychodynamic therapeutic community. Results TESS was found to be reliable and valid. Significant differences were seen between the services on the dimensions of compassion, belongingness, feeling safe, positive reinforcement of members' acts of courage, extinction and accommodation of unhelpful behaviours, inconsistency and high expressed emotion. These processes were over time associated with improved outcomes on a specialist service for anxiety disorders. Clinical implications The TESS offers a first step in exploring important interpersonal relationships in therapeutic environments and communities. An environment based on a compassionate mind and contextual behaviourism offers promise for the running of a therapeutic community. PMID:26958353

  9. Development of a compassion-focused and contextual behavioural environment and validation of the Therapeutic Environment Scales (TESS).

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Naismith, Iona; Pieta, Maria; Gilbert, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Aims and method The aims of the study were to develop a scale sensitive enough to measure the interpersonal processes within a therapeutic environment, and to explore whether the new scale was sensitive enough to detect differences between settings, including a community based on compassionate mind and contextual behaviourism. The Therapeutic Environment Scales (TESS) were validated with 81 participants in three different settings: a specialist service for anxiety disorders, a specialist in-patient ward and a psychodynamic therapeutic community. Results TESS was found to be reliable and valid. Significant differences were seen between the services on the dimensions of compassion, belongingness, feeling safe, positive reinforcement of members' acts of courage, extinction and accommodation of unhelpful behaviours, inconsistency and high expressed emotion. These processes were over time associated with improved outcomes on a specialist service for anxiety disorders. Clinical implications The TESS offers a first step in exploring important interpersonal relationships in therapeutic environments and communities. An environment based on a compassionate mind and contextual behaviourism offers promise for the running of a therapeutic community. PMID:26958353

  10. Integrating Systems Health Management with Adaptive Controls for a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Goebel, Kai; Trinh, Khanh V.; Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. Systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage. Advanced adaptive controls can provide the mechanism to enable optimized operations that also provide the enabling technology for Systems Health Management goals. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency management and adaptive controls. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  11. Adapting the academic motivation scale for use in pre-tertiary mathematics classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine

    2015-09-01

    The Academic Motivation Scale ( ams) is a comprehensive and widely used instrument for assessing motivation based on the self-determination theory. Currently, no such comprehensive instrument exists to assess the different domains of motivation (stipulated by the self-determination theory) in mathematics education at the pre-tertiary level (grades 11 and 12) in Asia. This study adapted the ams for this use and assessed the properties of the adapted instrument with 1610 students from Singapore. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a five-factor structure for the modified instrument (the three original ams intrinsic subscales collapsed into a single factor). Additionally, the modified instrument exhibited good internal consistency (mean α = .88), and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 1-month interval (mean r xx = .73). The validity of the modified ams was further demonstrated through correlational analyses among scores on its subscales, and with scores on other instruments measuring mathematics attitudes, anxiety and achievement.

  12. 17β-Oestradiol Modulates Glucocorticoid, Neural and Behavioural Adaptations to Repeated Restraint Stress in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lunga, P.; Herbert, J.

    2009-01-01

    of the maze as controls, indicating adaptation. By contrast, nonreplaced rats were still showing a significant reduction in open arm exploration after repeated restraint. The present study presents novel data showing that the HPA axis remains reactive to repeated stress in 17β-oestradiol-treated ovariectomized rats, but stress-induced anxiety behaviour is reduced. PMID:15344916

  13. 17Beta-oestradiol modulates glucocorticoid, neural and behavioural adaptations to repeated restraint stress in female rats.

    PubMed

    Lunga, P; Herbert, J

    2004-09-01

    exploring the open arms of the maze as controls, indicating adaptation. By contrast, nonreplaced rats were still showing a significant reduction in open arm exploration after repeated restraint. The present study presents novel data showing that the HPA axis remains reactive to repeated stress in 17beta-oestradiol-treated ovariectomized rats, but stress-induced anxiety behaviour is reduced. PMID:15344916

  14. Adaptation and validation of stroke-aphasia quality of life (SAQOL-39) scale to Malayalam

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Ria; Krishnan, Gopee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aphasia, an acquired inability to understand and/or speak language, is a common repercussion of stroke that denigrates the quality of life (QOL) in the affected persons. Several languages in India experience the dearth of instruments to measure the QOL of persons with aphasia. Malayalam, the language spoken by more than 33 million people in Kerala, the southern state of India, is not an exception to this. Objective: This study aimed to adapt and validate the widely-used stroke-aphasia quality of life (SAQOL-39) scale to Malayalam. Materials and Methods: We required seven Malayalam-speaking Speech Language Pathologists (SLPs), hailing from different regions of Kerala, to examine the socio-cultural suitability of the original items in SAQOL-39 and indicate modifications, wherever necessary. Subsequently, the linguistic adaptation was performed through a forward-backward translation scheme. The socio-culturally and linguistically adapted Malayalam version was then administered on a group of 48 Malayalam-speaking persons with aphasia to examine the test-retest reliability, acceptability, as well as the internal consistency of the instrument. Results: The Malayalam SAQOL-39 scale showed high test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.91) as well as acceptability with minimal missing data (0.52%). Further, it yielded high internal consistency (Chronbach's ∝ = 0.98) as well as item-to-total and inter-domain correlations. Conclusions: The Malayalam version of SAQOL-39 is the first socio-culturally and linguistically adapted tool to measure the QOL of persons with stroke-aphasia speaking this language. It may serve as a potential tool to measure the QOL of this population in both clinical practice and future research endeavors. PMID:26713018

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the teamwork climate scale

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mariana Charantola; Peduzzi, Marina; Sangaleti, Carine Teles; da Silva, Dirceu; Agreli, Heloise Fernandes; West, Michael A; Anderson, Neil R

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To adapt and validate the Team Climate Inventory scale, of teamwork climate measurement, for the Portuguese language, in the context of primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Methodological study with quantitative approach of cross-cultural adaptation (translation, back-translation, synthesis, expert committee, and pretest) and validation with 497 employees from 72 teams of the Family Health Strategy in the city of Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil. We verified reliability by the Cronbach’s alpha, construct validity by the confirmatory factor analysis with SmartPLS software, and correlation by the job satisfaction scale. RESULTS We problematized the overlap of items 9, 11, and 12 of the “participation in the team” factor and the “team goals” factor regarding its definition. The validation showed no overlapping of items and the reliability ranged from 0.92 to 0.93. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated suitability of the proposed model with distribution of the 38 items in the four factors. The correlation between teamwork climate and job satisfaction was significant. CONCLUSIONS The version of the scale in Brazilian Portuguese was validated and can be used in the context of primary health care in the Country, constituting an adequate tool for the assessment and diagnosis of teamwork. PMID:27556966

  16. Combined block-matching and adaptive differential motion estimation in a hierarchical multi-scale framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüggemann, Matthias; Kays, Rüdiger; Springer, Paul; Erdler, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present a combination of block-matching and differential motion field estimation. We initialize the motion field using a predictive hierarchical block-matching approach. This vector field is refined by a pixel-recursive differential motion estimation method. We integrate image warping and adaptive filter kernels into the Horn and Schunck differential optical flow estimation approach to break the block structure of the initial correspondence vector fields and compute motion field updates to fulfill the smoothness constraint inside motion boundaries. The influence of occlusion areas is reduced by integrating an in-the-loop occlusion detection and adjusting the adaptive filter weights in the iteration process. We integrate the combined estimation into a hierarchical multi-scale framework. The refined motion on the current scale is upscaled and used as prediction for block-matching motion estimation on the next scale. With the proposed system we are able to combine the advantages of block-matching and differential motion estimation and achieve a dense vector field with floating point precision even for large motion.

  17. Validation of an adaptation of Levenson's locus of control scale with adult male incarcerated sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Fay L; Palmer, Emma J; Wakeling, Helen C

    2012-02-01

    This article examines the psychometric properties of an adaptation of Levenson's Locus of Control (LoC) measure that is used by the English and Welsh Prison Service as part of the psychometric assessment battery for sexual offenders participating in the Sex Offender Treatment Programme (SOTP). Reliability and validity analyses were conducted on a sample of 2,497 sexual offenders who had completed SOTP. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and relationship to socially desirable responding were investigated. Construct validity was assessed via exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Test-retest reliability data were collected from an additional sample of 26 sexual offenders. The scale was found to have excellent internal consistency, good test-retest reliability, and weak to moderate convergent validity with measures of self-esteem, attachment styles, emotional loneliness, and social problem solving. There was a moderate correlation between the scale and socially desirable responding. EFA and CFA suggested that a four-factor solution provided an acceptable fit to the data, with the factors relating to constructs of chance, problem solving, powerful others, and internal control. The findings of the present study suggest that the adapted LoC Scale is a useful tool for assessing sexual offenders' locus of control. PMID:21788438

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale for Brazilian nurses 1

    PubMed Central

    Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; da Silveira, Rosemary Silva; Dalmolin, Graziele de Lima; Ramos, Aline Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to adapt culturally and validate the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale for Brazilian nurses. Method: methodological study carried out with 153 nurses from two hospitals in the South region of Brazil, one public and the other philanthropic. The cross-cultural adaptation of the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale was performed according to international standards, and its validation was carried out for use in the Brazilian context, by means of factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha as measure of internal consistency. Results: by means of evaluation by a committee of experts and application of pre-test, face validity and content validity of the instrument were considered satisfactory. From the factor analysis, five constructs were identified: negative implications of the advocacy practice, advocacy actions, facilitators of the advocacy practice, perceptions that favor practice advocacy and barriers to advocacy practice. The instrument showed satisfactory internal consistency, with Cronbach's alpha values ranging from 0.70 to 0.87. Conclusion: it was concluded that the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale - Brazilian version, is a valid and reliable instrument for use in the evaluation of beliefs and actions of health advocacy, performed by Brazilian nurses in their professional practice environment. PMID:26444169

  19. Dispersal strategies of phytophagous insects at a local scale: adaptive potential of aphids in an agricultural environment

    PubMed Central

    Lombaert, Eric; Boll, Roger; Lapchin, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    Background The spread of agriculture greatly modified the selective pressures exerted by plants on phytophagous insects, by providing these insects with a high-level resource, structured in time and space. The life history, behavioural and physiological traits of some insect species may have evolved in response to these changes, allowing them to crowd on crops and to become agricultural pests. Dispersal, which is one of these traits, is a key concept in evolutionary biology but has been over-simplified in most theoretical studies. We evaluated the impact of the local-scale dispersal strategy of phytophagous insects on their fitness, using an individual-based model to simulate population dynamics and dispersal between leaves and plants, by walking and flying, of the aphid Aphis gossypii, a major agricultural pest, in a melon field. We compared the optimal values for dispersal parameters in the model with the corresponding observed values in experimental trials. Results We show that the rates of walking and flying disperser production on leaves were the most important traits determining the fitness criteria, whereas dispersal distance and the clustering of flying dispersers on the target plant had no effect. We further show that the effect of dispersal parameters on aphid fitness depended strongly on plant characteristics. Conclusion Parameters defining the dispersal strategies of aphids at a local scale are key components of the fitness of these insects and may thus be essential in the adaptation to agricultural environments that are structured in space and time. Moreover, the fact that the effect of dispersal parameters on aphid fitness depends strongly on plant characteristics suggests that traits defining aphid dispersal strategies may be a cornerstone of host-plant specialization. PMID:17014710

  20. Mechanically adaptive and shape-memory behaviour of chitosan-modified cellulose whisker/elastomer composites in different pH environments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tongfei; Su, Yuli; Chen, Biqiong

    2014-09-15

    Biomimetic polymer composites with water-active mechanically adaptive and shape-memory behaviour in different pH environments are synthesised by using chitosan-modified cellulose whiskers (CS-CWs) as the stimulus-responsive phase and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) as the resilient matrix. The effect of surface modification on the mechanically adaptive behaviour of CS-CW/TPU composites is investigated by using three representative solutions with various pH values. The results show that surface modification significantly enhances the modulus contrast under wet and dry conditions with the acidic solution as the stimulus, while maintaining the high modulus contrast with the basic solution as the stimulus. CS-CW/TPU composites also exhibit excellent shape-memory effects in all three solutions that are comparable to those pristine CW/TPU composites. Furthermore, activation of force generation in the stretched CS-CW/TPU composites by water absorption/desorption was observed. PMID:24976483

  1. Academic Motivation Scale: adaptation and psychometric analyses for high school and college students.

    PubMed

    Stover, Juliana Beatriz; de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Boubeta, Antonio Rial; Liporace, Mercedes Fernández

    2012-01-01

    The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), supported in Self-Determination Theory, has been applied in recent decades as well in high school as in college education. Although several versions in Spanish are available, the underlying linguistic and cultural differences raise important issues when they are applied to Latin-American population. Consequently an adapted version of the AMS was developed, and its construct validity was analyzed in Argentine students. Results obtained on a sample that included 723 students from Buenos Aires (393 high school and 330 college students) verified adequate psychometric properties in this new version, solving some controversies regarded to its dimensionality. PMID:22888280

  2. Academic Motivation Scale: adaptation and psychometric analyses for high school and college students

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Juliana Beatriz; de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Boubeta, Antonio Rial; Liporace, Mercedes Fernández

    2012-01-01

    The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), supported in Self-Determination Theory, has been applied in recent decades as well in high school as in college education. Although several versions in Spanish are available, the underlying linguistic and cultural differences raise important issues when they are applied to Latin-American population. Consequently an adapted version of the AMS was developed, and its construct validity was analyzed in Argentine students. Results obtained on a sample that included 723 students from Buenos Aires (393 high school and 330 college students) verified adequate psychometric properties in this new version, solving some controversies regarded to its dimensionality. PMID:22888280

  3. An epidemic spreading model on adaptive scale-free networks with feedback mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Liu, Xiongding; Wu, Jie; Wan, Chen; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Yuanmei

    2016-05-01

    A SIRS epidemic model with feedback mechanism on adaptive scale-free networks is presented. Using the mean field theory the spreading dynamics of the epidemic is studied in detail. The basic reproductive number and equilibriums are derived. Theoretical results indicate that the basic reproductive number is significantly dependent on the topology of the underlying networks. The existence of equilibriums is determined by the basic reproductive number. The global stability of disease-free equilibrium and the epidemic permanence are proved in detail. The feedback mechanism cannot change the basic reproductive number, but it can reduce the endemic level and weaken the epidemic spreading. Numerical simulations confirmed the analytical results.

  4. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  5. A scale-based forward-and-backward diffusion process for adaptive image enhancement and denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Zhang, Liangpei; Wu, Ke; Sahli, Hichem

    2011-12-01

    This work presents a scale-based forward-and-backward diffusion (SFABD) scheme. The main idea of this scheme is to perform local adaptive diffusion using local scale information. To this end, we propose a diffusivity function based on the Minimum Reliable Scale (MRS) of Elder and Zucker (IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20(7), 699-716, 1998) to detect the details of local structures. The magnitude of the diffusion coefficient at each pixel is determined by taking into account the local property of the image through the scales. A scale-based variable weight is incorporated into the diffusivity function for balancing the forward and backward diffusion. Furthermore, as numerical scheme, we propose a modification of the Perona-Malik scheme (IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629-639, 1990) by incorporating edge orientations. The article describes the main principles of our method and illustrates image enhancement results on a set of standard images as well as simulated medical images, together with qualitative and quantitative comparisons with a variety of anisotropic diffusion schemes.

  6. [Decision making satisfaction in health scale: instrument adapted and validated to Portuguese].

    PubMed

    Martinho, Maria Júlia Costa Marques; Martins, Maria Manuela Ferreira Pereira da Silva; Angelo, Margareth

    2014-01-01

    Decision making is an area of health research that has gained importance both for the partnership models of care that give prominence to the patient and family, either by growing concern about quality and customer satisfaction with the care provided. So we decided to make the cultural adaptation and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version "The Satisfaction with Decision Scale" de Holmes-Rovner (1996), which aims to assess satisfaction with the decisions taken in health. The sample consisted of 521 nursing students the School of Nursing of Porto. The results of reliability tests show good internal consistency for the total items (Alpha Cronbach = 0.88). The psychometric study allows us to state that the Portuguese version of "The Satisfaction with Decision Scale", we call "Escala da Satisfação com a Decisão em Saúde", is an instrument comparable with the original in terms of validity and reliability. PMID:25590878

  7. Fuzzy adaptive strong tracking scaled unscented Kalman filter for initial alignment of large misalignment angles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Song, Ningfang; Yang, Gongliu; Jiang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    In the initial alignment process of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), large misalignment angles always bring nonlinear problem, which can usually be processed using the scaled unscented Kalman filter (SUKF). In this paper, the problem of large misalignment angles in SINS alignment is further investigated, and the strong tracking scaled unscented Kalman filter (STSUKF) is proposed with fixed parameters to improve convergence speed, while these parameters are artificially constructed and uncertain in real application. To further improve the alignment stability and reduce the parameters selection, this paper proposes a fuzzy adaptive strategy combined with STSUKF (FUZZY-STSUKF). As a result, initial alignment scheme of large misalignment angles based on FUZZY-STSUKF is designed and verified by simulations and turntable experiment. The results show that the scheme improves the accuracy and convergence speed of SINS initial alignment compared with those based on SUKF and STSUKF. PMID:27475606

  8. Fuzzy adaptive strong tracking scaled unscented Kalman filter for initial alignment of large misalignment angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Song, Ningfang; Yang, Gongliu; Jiang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    In the initial alignment process of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), large misalignment angles always bring nonlinear problem, which can usually be processed using the scaled unscented Kalman filter (SUKF). In this paper, the problem of large misalignment angles in SINS alignment is further investigated, and the strong tracking scaled unscented Kalman filter (STSUKF) is proposed with fixed parameters to improve convergence speed, while these parameters are artificially constructed and uncertain in real application. To further improve the alignment stability and reduce the parameters selection, this paper proposes a fuzzy adaptive strategy combined with STSUKF (FUZZY-STSUKF). As a result, initial alignment scheme of large misalignment angles based on FUZZY-STSUKF is designed and verified by simulations and turntable experiment. The results show that the scheme improves the accuracy and convergence speed of SINS initial alignment compared with those based on SUKF and STSUKF.

  9. Motion Estimation Based on Mutual Information and Adaptive Multi-Scale Thresholding.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Taubman, David; Naman, Aous Thabit

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a new method of calculating a matching metric for motion estimation. The proposed method splits the information in the source images into multiple scale and orientation subbands, reduces the subband values to a binary representation via an adaptive thresholding algorithm, and uses mutual information to model the similarity of corresponding square windows in each image. A moving window strategy is applied to recover a dense estimated motion field whose properties are explored. The proposed matching metric is a sum of mutual information scores across space, scale, and orientation. This facilitates the exploitation of information diversity in the source images. Experimental comparisons are performed amongst several related approaches, revealing that the proposed matching metric is better able to exploit information diversity, generating more accurate motion fields. PMID:26742132

  10. Adaptive control of a millimeter-scale flapping-wing robot.

    PubMed

    Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Ma, Kevin Y; Wood, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Challenges for the controlled flight of a robotic insect are due to the inherent instability of the system, complex fluid-structure interactions, and the general lack of a complete system model. In this paper, we propose theoretical models of the system based on the limited information available from previous work and a comprehensive flight controller. The modular flight controller is derived from Lyapunov function candidates with proven stability over a large region of attraction. Moreover, it comprises adaptive components that are capable of coping with uncertainties in the system that arise from manufacturing imperfections. We have demonstrated that the proposed methods enable the robot to achieve sustained hovering flights with relatively small errors compared to a non-adaptive approach. Simple lateral maneuvers and vertical takeoff and landing flights are also shown to illustrate the fidelity of the flight controller. The analysis suggests that the adaptive scheme is crucial in order to achieve millimeter-scale precision in flight control as observed in natural insect flight. PMID:24855052

  11. Linguistic Adaptation of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale for a Spanish-Speaking Population

    PubMed Central

    Oquendo-Jiménez, Ilia; Mena, Rafaela; Antoun, Mikhail D.; Wojna, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. In Hispanic populations there are few validated tests for the accurate identification and diagnosis of AD. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale is an internationally recognized questionnaire used to stage dementia. This study's objective was to develop a linguistic adaptation of the CDR for the Puerto Rican population. Methods The linguistic adaptation consisted of the evaluation of each CDR question (item) and the questionnaire's instructions, for similarities in meaning (semantic equivalence), relevance of content (content equivalence), and appropriateness of the questionnaire's format and measuring technique (technical equivalence). A focus group methodology was used to assess cultural relevance, clarity, and suitability of the measuring technique in the Argentinean version of the CDR for use in a Puerto Rican population. Results A total of 27 semantic equivalence changes were recommended in four categories: higher than 6th grade level of reading, meaning, common use, and word preference. Four content equivalence changes were identified, all focused on improving the applicability of the test questions to the general population's concept of street addresses and common dietary choices. There were no recommendations for changes in the assessment of technical equivalence. Conclusions We developed a linguistically adapted CDR instrument for the Puerto Rican population, preserving the semantic, content, and technical equivalences of the original version. Further studies are needed to validate the CDR instrument with the staging of Alzheimer's disease in the Puerto Rican population. PMID:20496524

  12. Investigating Low Adaptive Behaviour and Presence of the Triad of Impairments Characteristic of Autistic Spectrum Disorder as Indicators of Risk for Challenging Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, D.; Kerr, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Identification of possible personal indicators of risk for challenging behaviour has generally been through association in cross-sectional prevalence studies, but few analyses have controlled for intercorrelation between potential risk factors. The aim was to investigate the extent to which gender, age, presence of the triad of…

  13. Coping with Spatial Heterogeneity and Temporal Variability in Resources and Risks: Adaptive Movement Behaviour by a Large Grazing Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jodie; Benhamou, Simon; Yoganand, K.; Owen-Smith, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Movement is a key mean for mobile species to cope with heterogeneous environments. While in herbivorous mammals large-scale migration has been widely investigated, fine-scale movement responses to local variations in resources and predation risk remain much less studied, especially in savannah environments. We developed a novel approach based on complementary movement metrics (residence time, frequency of visits and regularity of visits) to relate movement patterns of a savannah grazer, the blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, to fine-scale variations in food availability, predation risk and water availability in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Wildebeests spent more time in grazing lawns where the grass is of higher quality but shorter than in seep zones, where the grass is of lower quality but more abundant. Although the daily distances moved were longer during the wet season compared to the dry season, the daily net displacement was lower, and the residence time higher, indicating a more frequent occurrence of area-concentred searching. In contrast, during the late dry season the foraging sessions were more fragmented and wildebeests moved more frequently between foraging areas. Surprisingly, predation risk appeared to be the second factor, after water availability, influencing movement during the dry season, when resources are limiting and thus expected to influence movement more. Our approach, using complementary analyses of different movement metrics, provided an integrated view of changes in individual movement with varying environmental conditions and predation risk. It makes it possible to highlight the adaptive behavioral decisions made by wildebeest to cope with unpredictable environmental variations and provides insights for population conservation. PMID:25719494

  14. Adaptation and Validation of the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) in a Sample of Male Drug Users.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Medina, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to adapt and validate the Sexual Assertiveness Scale (SAS) in a sample of male drug users. A sample of 326 male drug users and 322 non-clinical males was selected by cluster sampling and convenience sampling, respectively. Results showed that the scale had good psychometric properties and adequate internal consistency reliability (Initiation = .66, Refusal = .74 and STD-P = .79). An evaluation of the invariance showed strong factor equivalence between both samples. A high and moderate effect of Differential Item Functioning was only found in items 1 and 14 (∆R 2 Nagelkerke = .076 and .037, respectively). We strongly recommend not using item 1 if the goal is to compare the scores of both groups, otherwise the comparison will be biased. Correlations obtained between the CSFQ-14 and the safe sex ratio and the SAS subscales were significant (CI = 95%) and indicated good concurrent validity. Scores of male drug users were similar to those of non-clinical males. Therefore, the adaptation of the SAS to drug users provides enough guarantees for reliable and valid use in both clinical practice and research, although care should be taken with item 1. PMID:25896498

  15. Requirements and approaches to adapting laser writers for fabrication of gray-scale masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkov, Victor P.; Shimansky, Ruslan; Poleshchuk, Alexander G.; Cherkashin, Vadim V.; Kharissov, Andrey A.; Denk, Dmitry

    2001-11-01

    The photolithography using gray-scale masks (GSM) with multilevel transmittance is now one of promising ways for manufacturing of high efficiency diffractive optical elements and microoptics. Such masks can be most effectively fabricated by laser or electron-beam writers on materials with a transmittance changing under influence of high-energy beams. The basic requirements for adaptation of existing and developed scanning laser writers are formulated. These systems create an image by continuous movement of a writing beam along one coordinate and overlapping of adjacent written tracks along another coordinate. Several problems must be solved at the GSM manufacturing: the calibration of the influence of the laser beam on a recording material without transferring the gray-scale structure into photoresist; the transmittance at the current exposed pixel depends on surrounding structures generated before recording of the current track and a character of the laser beam power modulation; essential increasing of the computed data in comparison with binary elements. The offered solutions are based on the results of investigations of the materials with variable transmittance (LDW-glass, a-Si film) and takes into account the specificity of diffractive blazed microstructures. The reduction of data amount for fabrication of multi-level DOEs is effectively performed using offered vector-gradient data format, which is based on piecewise-linear approximation of phase profile. The presented approaches to adaptation of laser writers are realized in software and hardware, and they allow to solve the basic problems of manufacturing GSMs.

  16. Combined Use of GPS and Accelerometry Reveals Fine Scale Three-Dimensional Foraging Behaviour in the Short-Tailed Shearwater.

    PubMed

    Berlincourt, Maud; Angel, Lauren P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Determining the foraging behaviour of free-ranging marine animals is fundamental for assessing their habitat use and how they may respond to changes in the environment. However, despite recent advances in bio-logging technology, collecting information on both at-sea movement patterns and activity budgets still remains difficult in small pelagic seabird species due to the constraints of instrument size. The short-tailed shearwater, the most abundant seabird species in Australia (ca 23 million individuals), is a highly pelagic procellariiform. Despite its ecological importance to the region, almost nothing is known about its at-sea behaviour, in particular, its foraging activity. Using a combination of GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data-loggers, the fine scale three-dimensional foraging behaviour of 10 breeding individuals from two colonies was investigated. Five at-sea behaviours were identified: (1) resting on water, (2) flapping flight, (3) gliding flight, (4) foraging (i.e., surface foraging and diving events), and (5) taking-off. There were substantial intra- and inter- individual variations in activity patterns, with individuals spending on average 45.8% (range: 17.1-70.0%) of time at sea resting on water and 18.2% (range: 2.3-49.6%) foraging. Individuals made 76.4 ± 65.3 dives (range: 8-237) per foraging trip (mean duration 9.0 ± 1.9 s), with dives also recorded during night-time. With the continued miniaturisation of recording devices, the use of combined data-loggers could provide us with further insights into the foraging behaviour of small procellariiforms, helping to better understand interactions with their prey. PMID:26439491

  17. Combined Use of GPS and Accelerometry Reveals Fine Scale Three-Dimensional Foraging Behaviour in the Short-Tailed Shearwater

    PubMed Central

    Berlincourt, Maud; Angel, Lauren P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the foraging behaviour of free-ranging marine animals is fundamental for assessing their habitat use and how they may respond to changes in the environment. However, despite recent advances in bio-logging technology, collecting information on both at-sea movement patterns and activity budgets still remains difficult in small pelagic seabird species due to the constraints of instrument size. The short-tailed shearwater, the most abundant seabird species in Australia (ca 23 million individuals), is a highly pelagic procellariiform. Despite its ecological importance to the region, almost nothing is known about its at-sea behaviour, in particular, its foraging activity. Using a combination of GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data-loggers, the fine scale three-dimensional foraging behaviour of 10 breeding individuals from two colonies was investigated. Five at-sea behaviours were identified: (1) resting on water, (2) flapping flight, (3) gliding flight, (4) foraging (i.e., surface foraging and diving events), and (5) taking-off. There were substantial intra- and inter- individual variations in activity patterns, with individuals spending on average 45.8% (range: 17.1–70.0%) of time at sea resting on water and 18.2% (range: 2.3–49.6%) foraging. Individuals made 76.4 ± 65.3 dives (range: 8–237) per foraging trip (mean duration 9.0 ± 1.9 s), with dives also recorded during night-time. With the continued miniaturisation of recording devices, the use of combined data-loggers could provide us with further insights into the foraging behaviour of small procellariiforms, helping to better understand interactions with their prey. PMID:26439491

  18. [Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Health and Taste Attitude Scale (HTAS) in Portuguese].

    PubMed

    Koritar, Priscila; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Alvarenga, Marle dos Santos; Santos, Bernardo dos

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this study was to show the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Health and Taste Attitude Scale in Portuguese. The methodology included translation of the scale; evaluation of conceptual, operational and item-based equivalence by 14 experts and 51 female undergraduates; semantic equivalence and measurement assessment by 12 bilingual women by the paired t-test, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the coefficient intraclass correlation; internal consistency and test-retest reliability by Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient, respectively, after application on 216 female undergraduates; assessment of discriminant and concurrent validity via the t-test and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively, in addition to Confirmatory Factor and Exploratory Factor Analysis. The scale was considered adequate and easily understood by the experts and university students and presented good internal consistency and reliability (µ 0.86, ICC 0.84). The results show that the scale is valid and can be used in studies with women to better understand attitudes related to taste. PMID:25119096

  19. Rising to the Challenge: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Adapted German Version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy for Students (JSPE-S)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preusche, Ingrid; Wagner-Menghin, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of students' attitudes towards physicians' empathy is essential in medical education and in practice because empathy is vital in physician-patient communication. To cross-culturally adapt the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (S-version, JSPE-S) into a German version, examine its psychometric properties in comparison to the…

  20. The Use of the Graded Response Model in Computerized Adaptive Testing of the Attitudes to Science Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foong, Yoke-Yeen; Lam, Tit-Loong

    The graded response model for two-stage testing was applied to an attitudes toward science scale using real-data simulation. The 48-item scale was administered to 920 students at a grade-8 equivalent in Singapore. A two-stage 16-item computerized adaptive test was developed. In two-stage testing an initial, or routing, test is followed by a…

  1. Peer Preference: A Way of Evaluating Social Competence and Behavioural Well-Being in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öneren Sendil, Çagla; Tantekin Erden, Feyza

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in peer preference, gender and temperamental characteristics of children aged five to six in relation to their social competence (SC) and behavioural adaptation. The data were collected through the use of "Picture Sociometry Scale", "SC and Behaviour Evaluation Scale" and "Short…

  2. Stochastic and scale-adaptive shallow cumulus parameterization (EDMF-DualM-S in ICON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakradzija, M.; Seifert, A.; Heus, T.; Dipankar, A.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical cloud-resolving studies of cumulus clouds reveal the small-scale variability of convection that is not fully controlled by the large scale environment. From the parameterization point of view, this means that there is a whole distribution of the sub-grid convective states that can correspond to the same large scale forcing. Moreover, the stochastic variability becomes higher with the increasing model resolution. As the cloud sample within a model grid box becomes smaller, the most probable realization of the sub-grid convection deviates further away from the convective ensemble mean. Therefore, as the atmospheric models approach higher and higher resolution, it becomes more important to develop stochastic schemes that sub-sample the convective cloud ensemble and adapt to the model resolution. We propose an approach to represent the stochastic variability of the unresolved shallow-convective states, and the dependence of the distribution of sub-grid states on the model horizontal resolution. We combine the theory of fluctuations in a convective ensemble based on a statistical mechanics approach and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of shallow cumulus clouds of an idealized case over the ocean. Based on the empirical and theoretical findings, a stochastic cloud generator is developed and coupled to the EDMF-DualM cloud scheme in the ICON model as a stochastic process that runs simultaneously with the EDMF scheme. The stochastic scheme adds more complexity to the cloud parameterization in EDMF, but on the other side, the cloud mass flux profiles are locally sampled instead of using the buoyancy sorting closure for the bulk vertical profile. The scheme also relaxes the statistical equilibrium assumption by applying it only at the scale at which it is appropriate and by including the memory component. Preliminary results show that the variability is well reproduced and that the scheme is scale-adaptive. Impact on the mean profiles is small, except for a significant

  3. Quantification of organ motion based on an adaptive image-based scale invariant feature method

    SciTech Connect

    Paganelli, Chiara; Peroni, Marta

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The availability of corresponding landmarks in IGRT image series allows quantifying the inter and intrafractional motion of internal organs. In this study, an approach for the automatic localization of anatomical landmarks is presented, with the aim of describing the nonrigid motion of anatomo-pathological structures in radiotherapy treatments according to local image contrast.Methods: An adaptive scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was developed from the integration of a standard 3D SIFT approach with a local image-based contrast definition. The robustness and invariance of the proposed method to shape-preserving and deformable transforms were analyzed in a CT phantom study. The application of contrast transforms to the phantom images was also tested, in order to verify the variation of the local adaptive measure in relation to the modification of image contrast. The method was also applied to a lung 4D CT dataset, relying on manual feature identification by an expert user as ground truth. The 3D residual distance between matches obtained in adaptive-SIFT was then computed to verify the internal motion quantification with respect to the expert user. Extracted corresponding features in the lungs were used as regularization landmarks in a multistage deformable image registration (DIR) mapping the inhale vs exhale phase. The residual distances between the warped manual landmarks and their reference position in the inhale phase were evaluated, in order to provide a quantitative indication of the registration performed with the three different point sets.Results: The phantom study confirmed the method invariance and robustness properties to shape-preserving and deformable transforms, showing residual matching errors below the voxel dimension. The adapted SIFT algorithm on the 4D CT dataset provided automated and accurate motion detection of peak to peak breathing motion. The proposed method resulted in reduced residual errors with respect to standard SIFT

  4. Temporal fractals in seabird foraging behaviour: diving through the scales of time

    PubMed Central

    MacIntosh, Andrew J. J.; Pelletier, Laure; Chiaradia, Andre; Kato, Akiko; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Animal behaviour exhibits fractal structure in space and time. Fractal properties in animal space-use have been explored extensively under the Lévy flight foraging hypothesis, but studies of behaviour change itself through time are rarer, have typically used shorter sequences generated in the laboratory, and generally lack critical assessment of their results. We thus performed an in-depth analysis of fractal time in binary dive sequences collected via bio-logging from free-ranging little penguins (Eudyptula minor) across full-day foraging trips (216 data points; 4 orders of temporal magnitude). Results from 4 fractal methods show that dive sequences are long-range dependent and persistent across ca. 2 orders of magnitude. This fractal structure correlated with trip length and time spent underwater, but individual traits had little effect. Fractal time is a fundamental characteristic of penguin foraging behaviour, and its investigation is thus a promising avenue for research on interactions between animals and their environments. PMID:23703258

  5. Adaptation study of the Turkish version of the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-T).

    PubMed

    Arcan, K; Karanci, A N

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to adapt and to test the validity and the reliability of the Turkish version of the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-T) that was developed by Raylu and Oei (Addiction 99(6):757-769, 2004a). The significance of erroneous cognitions in the development and the maintenance of gambling problems, the importance of promoting gambling research in different cultures, and the limited information about the gambling individuals in Turkey due to limited gambling research interest inspired the present study. The sample consisted of 354 voluntary male participants who were above age 17 and betting on sports and horse races selected through convenience sampling in betting terminals. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis following the original scale's five factor structure indicated a good fit for the data. The analyses were carried out with 21 items due to relatively inadequate psychometric properties of two GRCS-T items. Correlational analyses and group comparison tests supported the concurrent and the criterion validity of the GRCS-T. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the whole scale was 0.84 whereas the coefficients ranged between 0.52 and 0.78 for the subscales of GRCS-T. The findings suggesting that GRCS-T is a valid and reliable instrument to identify gambling cognitions in Turkish samples are discussed considering the possible influence of the sample make-up and cultural texture within the limitations of the present study and in the light of the relevant literature. PMID:24146305

  6. Using high-resolution water quality monitoring to investigate hysteretic behaviour of nutrients at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, C.; Freer, J. E.; Johnes, P.; Collins, A.

    2013-12-01

    Changing climate and a growing population are increasing pressures on the world's water bodies. Maintaining food security has resulted in changes in agricultural practices, leading to adverse impacts on water quality. To address this problem robust evidence is needed to determine which on-farm mitigation strategies are likely to be most effective in reducing pollutant impacts. The introduction of in-situ quasi-continuous monitoring of water quality provides the means to improve the characterisation of pollutant behaviour and gain new understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical processes occurring within catchments. Here we use a suite of in-situ monitoring sensors to investigate changes in hysteretic patterns of nutrients in response to different environmental drivers. Observations of hysteretic behaviour can provide insights into the dominant transport pathways of pollutants. Therefore, monitoring changes in nutrient hysteresis can provide a useful tool for detecting catchment change. Such data also improves the quantification of pollutant loads and concentration dynamics. In the UK, the Demonstration Test Catchments (DTC) programme has been established to deliver evidence for improvements in water quality arising specifically from the deployment of measures to mitigate diffuse pollution from agriculture using high resolution in-situ monitoring. This research platform provides an opportunity to compare storm-driven nutrient behaviour between catchments which have differing geologies, and determine how these behaviours evolve on a seasonal and annual basis. The monitoring to date has included a period of drought in WY2011, directly followed by extreme wet conditions in the UK in WY2012 and therefore offers opportunities to assess the effect of differences in antecedent conditions on monitored nutrient response to rainfall events. The study compares the hysteretic behaviour of nutrients, including nitrogen and phosphorus species as well as turbidity from a

  7. Adaptive scaling model of the main pycnocline and the associated overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuckar, Neven-Stjepan

    This thesis examines a number of crucial factors and processes that control the structure of the main pycnocline and the associated overturning circulation that maintains the ocean stratification. We construct an adaptive scaling model: a semi-empirical low-order theory based on the total transformation balance that linearly superimposes parameterized transformation rate terms of various mechanisms that participate in the water-mass conversion between the warm water sphere and the cold water sphere. The depth of the main pycnocline separates the light-water domain from the dense-water domain beneath the surface, hence we introduce a new definition in an integral form that is dynamically based on the large-scale potential vorticity (i.e., vertical density gradient is selected for the kernel function of the normalized vertical integral). We exclude the abyssal pycnocline from our consideration and limit our domain of interest to the top 2 km of water column. The goal is to understand the controlling mechanisms, and analytically predict and describe a wide spectrum of ocean steady states in terms of key large-scale indices relevant for understanding the ocean's role in climate. A devised polynomial equation uses the average depth of the main pycnocline as a single unknown (the key vertical scale of the upper ocean stratification) and gives us an estimate for the northern hemisphere deep water production and export across the equator from the parts of this equation. The adaptive scaling model aims to elucidate the roles of a limited number of dominant processes that determine some key upper ocean circulation and stratification properties. Additionally, we use a general circulation model in a series of simplified single-basin ocean configurations and surface forcing fields to confirm the usefulness of our analytical model and further clarify several aspects of the upper ocean structure. An idealized numerical setup, containing all the relevant physical and dynamical

  8. Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Circumstances, Motivation, and Readiness Scale

    PubMed Central

    Norozi, Ensiyeh; Miri, Mohammad Reza; Soltani, Raheleh; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Harivandi, Ali Reza; Dastjerdi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment motivation has always been an important issue in substance abuse treatment. In recent decades, several instruments have been developed to measure this concept. Objectives In this study, cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the circumstances, motivation and readiness scale (CMR) are illustrated in a sample of Iranian addicts. Materials and Methods The translation process followed Beaton et al.’s (2000) guideline for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-administered questionnaires, including the steps of translation, synthesis, back translation, expert committee review, and pre-testing. The final version of the Persian CMR was assessed for internal consistency and construct validity (n = 203). Results There was one eliminated item in the cross-cultural adaptation process. Also, four items that had low correlation with the total score were excluded from the questionnaire during the initial analysis. Using the remaining items, Principle axis factoring with Promax rotation was performed and three factors, circumstance, motivation, and readiness, were identified. The secondary order three factor model provided a good statistical and conceptual fit for the data. Internal consistency met the criterion for a reliable measure (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.840). The α range for these identified factors was 0.597 to 0.837. Conclusions Although the CMR was originally designed for use in TC treatment, this study suggests that it is also applicable, with some modifications, in short-term residential camps. Also, it is concluded that the Persian translation of the CMR can be applied for studies among Persian addicts. PMID:27622165

  9. Aeroelastic Deformation: Adaptation of Wind Tunnel Measurement Concepts to Full-Scale Vehicle Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Lokos, William A.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2005-01-01

    The adaptation of a proven wind tunnel test technique, known as Videogrammetry, to flight testing of full-scale vehicles is presented. A description is presented of the technique used at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center for the measurement of the change in wing twist and deflection of an F/A-18 research aircraft as a function of both time and aerodynamic load. Requirements for in-flight measurements are compared and contrasted with those for wind tunnel testing. The methodology for the flight-testing technique and differences compared to wind tunnel testing are given. Measurement and operational comparisons to an older in-flight system known as the Flight Deflection Measurement System (FDMS) are presented.

  10. Adaptive consensus of scale-free multi-agent system by randomly selecting links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Jinping; Ge, Huafeng

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates an adaptive consensus problem for distributed scale-free multi-agent systems (SFMASs) by randomly selecting links, where the degree of each node follows a power-law distribution. The randomly selecting links are based on the assumption that every agent decides to select links among its neighbours according to the received data with a certain probability. Accordingly, a novel consensus protocol with the range of the received data is developed, and each node updates its state according to the protocol. By the iterative method and Cauchy inequality, the theoretical analysis shows that all errors among agents converge to zero, and in the meanwhile, several criteria of consensus are obtained. One numerical example shows the reliability of the proposed methods.

  11. Dynamic Large-Scale Chromosomal Rearrangements Fuel Rapid Adaptation in Yeast Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shang-Lin; Lai, Huei-Yi; Tung, Shu-Yun; Leu, Jun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale genome rearrangements have been observed in cells adapting to various selective conditions during laboratory evolution experiments. However, it remains unclear whether these types of mutations can be stably maintained in populations and how they impact the evolutionary trajectories. Here we show that chromosomal rearrangements contribute to extremely high copper tolerance in a set of natural yeast strains isolated from Evolution Canyon (EC), Israel. The chromosomal rearrangements in EC strains result in segmental duplications in chromosomes 7 and 8, which increase the copy number of genes involved in copper regulation, including the crucial transcriptional activator CUP2 and the metallothionein CUP1. The copy number of CUP2 is correlated with the level of copper tolerance, indicating that increasing dosages of a single transcriptional activator by chromosomal rearrangements has a profound effect on a regulatory pathway. By gene expression analysis and functional assays, we identified three previously unknown downstream targets of CUP2: PHO84, SCM4, and CIN2, all of which contributed to copper tolerance in EC strains. Finally, we conducted an evolution experiment to examine how cells maintained these changes in a fluctuating environment. Interestingly, the rearranged chromosomes were reverted back to the wild-type configuration at a high frequency and the recovered chromosome became fixed in less selective conditions. Our results suggest that transposon-mediated chromosomal rearrangements can be highly dynamic and can serve as a reversible mechanism during early stages of adaptive evolution. PMID:23358723

  12. Query-Adaptive Hash Code Ranking for Large-Scale Multi-View Visual Search.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglong; Huang, Lei; Deng, Cheng; Lang, Bo; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-10-01

    Hash-based nearest neighbor search has become attractive in many applications. However, the quantization in hashing usually degenerates the discriminative power when using Hamming distance ranking. Besides, for large-scale visual search, existing hashing methods cannot directly support the efficient search over the data with multiple sources, and while the literature has shown that adaptively incorporating complementary information from diverse sources or views can significantly boost the search performance. To address the problems, this paper proposes a novel and generic approach to building multiple hash tables with multiple views and generating fine-grained ranking results at bitwise and tablewise levels. For each hash table, a query-adaptive bitwise weighting is introduced to alleviate the quantization loss by simultaneously exploiting the quality of hash functions and their complement for nearest neighbor search. From the tablewise aspect, multiple hash tables are built for different data views as a joint index, over which a query-specific rank fusion is proposed to rerank all results from the bitwise ranking by diffusing in a graph. Comprehensive experiments on image search over three well-known benchmarks show that the proposed method achieves up to 17.11% and 20.28% performance gains on single and multiple table search over the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27448359

  13. Cross cultural adaptation and validation of the Early Childhood Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) in Peruvian preschoolers.

    PubMed

    López Ramos, Roxana P; García Rupaya, Carmen R; Villena-Sarmiento, Rita; Bordoni, Noemí E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to perform semantic adjustment and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) in Spanish on a sample of the Peruvian population. The study was conducted on a sample of 128 children aged 3-5 years, who attended a public school (Hualmay District, Huaura Province, Lima, Peru) in 2011. The ECOHIS questionnaire, developed to measure the impact of oral conditions and/or experiences of dental treatment on oral health-related quality of life in children under 5 years old and their parents or other family members was adapted cross-culturally and subjected to psychometric tests: validity (in terms of construct and discriminant) and reliability (in terms of internal consistency and stability). The cultural adaptation addressed ECOHIS semantic equivalence (Bordoni et al., 2012) and showed that 80-100% of respondents understood the questions. Construct validity was r = .557 (p < .05) between the scores of the Spanish version of ECOHIS and dental caries experience (dmft). Statistically significant differences (p < .001) were found for ECOHIS values between groups with and without tooth decay. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha (.948) and stability by intra-class correlation (.992). The Peruvian version of ECOHIS demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability, enabling assessment of the impact of oral health problems in children under 5 years old. PMID:24303728

  14. Body-scaled perception is subjected to adaptation when repetitively judging opportunities for grasping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seokhun; Frank, Till D

    2016-09-01

    Experimental evidence is given that the perceptual system adapts to repetitive task execution in a perceptual two-choice judgment task. Participants were tested with respect to their perception of opportunities for plank grasping. Participants had to report whether planks were perceived as objects being graspable with either one hand or two hands. When the plank size was gradually increased and subsequently decreased, transitions from one hand judgments to two hands judgments and vice versa were observed. Analysis of the transition scores revealed that the perceptual judgments were body-scaled, as it is known in the literature. However, judgments were also found to be context dependent. Judgment transition scores were affected in a systematic way by the kind of and the number of previously made judgments. The latter quantitative impact was observed in three related experiments and suggests that perceptual judgments about opportunities for action adapt to task repetition. Overall, the experimental findings are consistent with the predictions of a dynamical systems model, which assumes that perceptual judgments are emergent properties of a self-organizing process that involves inhibitory top-down feedback. PMID:27220768

  15. Broad-scale adaptive genetic variation in alpine plants is driven by temperature and precipitation

    PubMed Central

    MANEL, STÉPHANIE; GUGERLI, FELIX; THUILLER, WILFRIED; ALVAREZ, NADIR; LEGENDRE, PIERRE; HOLDEREGGER, ROLF; GIELLY, LUDOVIC; TABERLET, PIERRE

    2014-01-01

    Identifying adaptive genetic variation is a challenging task, in particular in non-model species for which genomic information is still limited or absent. Here, we studied distribution patterns of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) in response to environmental variation, in 13 alpine plant species consistently sampled across the entire European Alps. Multiple linear regressions were performed between AFLP allele frequencies per site as dependent variables and two categories of independent variables, namely Moran’s eigenvector map MEM variables (to account for spatial and unaccounted environmental variation, and historical demographic processes) and environmental variables. These associations allowed the identification of 153 loci of ecological relevance. Univariate regressions between allele frequency and each environmental factor further showed that loci of ecological relevance were mainly correlated with MEM variables. We found that precipitation and temperature were the best environmental predictors, whereas topographic factors were rarely involved in environmental associations. Climatic factors, subject to rapid variation as a result of the current global warming, are known to strongly influence the fate of alpine plants. Our study shows, for the first time for a large number of species, that the same environmental variables are drivers of plant adaptation at the scale of a whole biome, here the European Alps. PMID:22680783

  16. Adaptive sequentially space-filling metamodeling applied in optimal water quantity allocation at basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. Jamshid; Shourian, M.

    2010-03-01

    Global optimization models in many problems suffer from high computational costs due to the need for performing high-fidelity simulation models for objective function evaluations. Metamodeling is a useful approach to dealing with this problem in which a fast surrogate model replaces the detailed simulation model. However, training of the surrogate model needs enough input-output data which in case of absence of observed data, each of them must be obtained by running the simulation model and may still cause computational difficulties. In this paper a new metamodeling approach called adaptive sequentially space filling (ASSF) is presented by which the regions in the search space that need more training data are sequentially identified and the process of design of experiments is performed adaptively. Performance of the ASSF approach is tested against a benchmark function optimization problem and optimum basin-scale water allocation problems, in which the MODSIM river basin decision support system is approximated. Results show the ASSF model with fewer actual function evaluations is able to find comparable solutions to other metamodeling techniques using random sampling and evolution control strategies.

  17. Translation, adaptation and validation of the Moroccan version of the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale.

    PubMed

    Bendeddouche, Imad; Rostom, Samira; Bahiri, Rachid; Boudali, Aziza; Srifi, Najlaa; Mawani, Nada; Mengat, Mariam; El Badri, Dalal; Lazrak, Noufissa; Abouqal, Redouane; Allali, Fadoua; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Moroccan version of the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QDS) and to investigate its reliability and validity in Moroccan patients with low back pain (LBP). The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the QDS were developed in agreement with published guidelines. The QDS was translated by use of the forward and backward translation procedure. After pretest, it was validated in 64 Moroccan patients with LBP. The QDS was recorded twice, at baseline visit and 72 h later. Reproducibility was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland and Altman method. Internal consistency was measured by Cronbach α coefficient. Ceiling and floor effects were assessed. Validity was measured by correlating the scores of the Moroccan QDS with visual analogue scale (VAS) for Pain, Disability VAS, Schober test, fingertip-floor measurement and the Moroccan version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) by means of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Association with gender and education level was also studied. Reliability was excellent with an ICC (type 2.1) of 0.959 (CI 95%: 0.934-0.975). The internal consistency was high with a Cronbach α of 0.979. The Bland and Altman method showed homogenous distribution of the differences, with no systematic trend. There were no floor or ceiling effects. The correlation between QDS and RMDQ was very good (r = 0.664; p ≤ 0.001). There was no correlation between QDS and the other variables. Accordingly, the Moroccan version of QDS has good reproducibility, internal consistency and validity for the assessment of disability in Moroccan-speaking patients with LBP. PMID:22349881

  18. Adaptive profiles in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Mouga, Susana; Almeida, Joana; Café, Cátia; Duque, Frederico; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the influence of specific autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deficits in learning adaptive behaviour, besides intelligence quotient (IQ). Participated 217 school-aged: ASD (N = 115), and other neurodevelopmental disorders (OND) groups (N = 102) matched by Full-Scale IQ. We compared standard scores of Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale (VABS) in communication, daily living skills, socialization and adaptive behaviour composite. Pearson-correlation analysis was performed between each domain of VABS and Full-Scale, Verbal and Performance IQ, and chronological age (CA). Results indicated that impairment in adaptive behaviour within the domain of socialization skills remains a distinctive factor of ASD versus OND, independently of intellectual disability (ID). Co-occurring ID result in further debilitating effects on overall functioning, especially in ASD. CA is negatively associated with VABS scores. PMID:25241010

  19. [Evaluation of the scales used to measure anxiety and child behaviour during the induction of anaesthesia. Literature review].

    PubMed

    Jerez, C; Lázaro, J J; Ullán, A M

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of children's anxiety during anaesthetic induction is useful to determine if pre-operative strategies have been effective in reducing anxiety. The aim of this study is to review the different tools used to evaluate child anxiety or behaviour during the induction of anaesthesia. The electronic databases with no date limits were reviewed in December 2013, with a second review repeated in September 2014. A data extraction template was applied to find the scales used in the articles. Eight observational scales were found. Six of them can only be used during induction of anaesthesia, and two of those could be applied at various perioperative times, before surgery and during induction of anaesthesia. PMID:26162900

  20. Foraging behaviour of the Scale-throated Hermit Phaethornis eurynome Lesson, 1832 (Aves, Trochilidae) in Vriesea incurvata Gaudich (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, B G; Piratelli, A J

    2014-05-01

    In this study we tested for density-dependent relationships between visitation rates of the Scale-throated Hermit (Phaethornis eurynome) and the plant density and flower number of the bromeliad Vriesea incurvata, by comparing plots with varying densities of this bromeliad. Eight 100 m2 plots were established at least 200 m from each other; four plots contained 10-15 individuals of V. incurvata each, whereas the other four contained 4-5 individuals each. The visitors, number of visits, behaviour (nectar thief or potential pollinator) and the height of foraging were recorded during focal observations on the plants. The number of visits of P. eurynome varied according to the local density of V. incurvata, showing that the heterogeneous distribution of this bromeliad species may promote adjustments in the pollinator populations, through resource variation at a local scale. PMID:25166315

  1. Incremental learning of Bayesian sensorimotor models: from low-level behaviours to large-scale structure of the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diard, Julien; Gilet, Estelle; Simonin, Éva; Bessière, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    This paper concerns the incremental learning of hierarchies of representations of space in artificial or natural cognitive systems. We propose a mathematical formalism for defining space representations (Bayesian Maps) and modelling their interaction in hierarchies of representations (sensorimotor interaction operator). We illustrate our formalism with a robotic experiment. Starting from a model based on the proximity to obstacles, we learn a new one related to the direction of the light source. It provides new behaviours, like phototaxis and photophobia. We then combine these two maps so as to identify parts of the environment where the way the two modalities interact is recognisable. This classification is a basis for learning a higher level of abstraction map that describes the large-scale structure of the environment. In the final model, the perception-action cycle is modelled by a hierarchy of sensorimotor models of increasing time and space scales, which provide navigation strategies of increasing complexities.

  2. The behaviour of tungsten during mantle melting revisited with implications for planetary differentiation time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babechuk, Michael G.; Kamber, Balz S.; Greig, Alan; Canil, Dante; Kodolányi, János

    2010-02-01

    Tungsten is a moderately siderophile high-field-strength element that is hydrophile and widely regarded as highly incompatible during mantle melting. In an effort to extend empirical knowledge regarding the behaviour of W during the latter process, we report new high-precision trace element data (W, Th, U, Ba, La, Sm) that represent both terrestrial and planetary reservoirs: MORB (11), abyssal peridotites (8), eucrite basalts (3), and carbonaceous chondrites (8). A full trace element suite is also reported for Cordilleran Permian ophiolite peridotites (12) to better constrain the behaviour of W in the upper mantle. In addition, we report our long-term averages for a number of USGS (BIR-1, BHVO-1, BHVO-2, PCC-1, DTS-1) and GSJ (JA-3, JP-1) standard reference materials, some of which we conclude to be heterogeneous and contaminated with respect to W. The most significant finding of this study is that many of the highly depleted upper mantle peridotites contain far higher W concentrations than expected. In the absence of convincing indications for alteration, re-enrichment or contamination, we propose that the W excess was caused by retention in an Os-Ir alloy phase, whose stability is dependent on fO 2 of the mantle source region. This explanation could help to account for the particularly low W content of N-MORB and implies that the lithophile behaviour of W in basaltic rocks is not an accurate representation of the behaviour in the melt source. These findings then become relevant to the interpretation of W-isotopic data for achondrites, where the fractionation of Hf from W during melting is used to infer the Hf/W of the parent body mantle. This is exemplified by the differentiation chronology of the eucrite parent body (EPB), which has been modeled with a melt source with high Hf/W. By contrast, we explore the alternative scenario with a low mantle Hf/W on the EPB. Using available eucrite literature data, a maximum core segregation age of 1.2 ± 1.2 Myr after the

  3. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Initial Validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Odetunde, Marufat O.; Odole, Adesola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted…

  4. Self-confidence for emergency intervention: adaptation and cultural validation of the Self-confidence Scale in nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Martins, José Carlos Amado; Baptista, Rui Carlos Negrão; Coutinho, Verónica Rita Dias; Mazzo, Alessandra; Rodrigues, Manuel Alves; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: develop the cultural adaptation and validation of a Portuguese version of the Self-confidence Scale. Method: descriptive and exploratory methodological research for the adaptation and validation of a measuring instrument. The translation, synthesis, back-translation, revision, pretest and semantic evaluation phases were accomplished. The evaluation involving 178 students from a Teaching Diploma Program in Nursing. The ethical principles were complied with. Results: the internal consistency analysis of the scale reveals good Alpha coefficients (0.92 for the global scale and superior to 0.83 for the different dimensions). The factor analysis presents a three-factor solution with rational meaning. Conclusion: The scale is easy to answer and understand. Based on the obtained results, it can be affirmed that the scale reveals good psychometric properties, with great potential to be used in future research. PMID:25054868

  5. The scale of local adaptation in Mimulus guttatus: comparing life history races, ecotypes, and populations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Megan L; Kay, Kathleen M; Angert, Amy L

    2016-07-01

    Fitness trade-offs between environments are central to the evolution of biodiversity. Although transplant studies often document fitness trade-offs consistent with local adaptation (LA), many have also found an advantage of foreign genotypes (foreign advantage (FA)). Understanding the mechanisms driving the magnitude and distribution of fitness variation requires comparative approaches that test the ecological scales at which these different patterns emerge. We used a common garden transplant experiment to compare the relative fitnesses of native vs foreign genotypes at three nested ecological scales within Mimulus guttatus: annual vs perennial life history races, perennial ecotypes across an elevational range, and populations within perennial elevational ecotypes. We integrated fitness across the life-cycle and decomposed LA vs FA into contributions from different fitness components. We found LA, measured as home-site advantage, between annual and perennial races and a trend towards LA among populations within montane habitats. Conversely, we found strong FA of low-elevation perennials in a montane environment. LA between life history races reflects the fitness advantages of adult survival and vegetative growth in a mesic environment. Within the perennial race, recent climate conditions or nonselective processes, such as dispersal limitation or mutational load, could explain FA of low-elevation perennials in a montane environment. PMID:27102088

  6. Parallel Implementation and Scaling of an Adaptive Mesh Discrete Ordinates Algorithm for Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, L H

    2004-11-29

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) uses a mesh structure built up out of locally-uniform rectangular grids. In the BoxLib parallel framework used by the Raptor code, each processor operates on one or more of these grids at each refinement level. The decomposition of the mesh into grids and the distribution of these grids among processors may change every few timesteps as a calculation proceeds. Finer grids use smaller timesteps than coarser grids, requiring additional work to keep the system synchronized and ensure conservation between different refinement levels. In a paper for NECDC 2002 I presented preliminary results on implementation of parallel transport sweeps on the AMR mesh, conjugate gradient acceleration, accuracy of the AMR solution, and scalar speedup of the AMR algorithm compared to a uniform fully-refined mesh. This paper continues with a more in-depth examination of the parallel scaling properties of the scheme, both in single-level and multi-level calculations. Both sweeping and setup costs are considered. The algorithm scales with acceptable performance to several hundred processors. Trends suggest, however, that this is the limit for efficient calculations with traditional transport sweeps, and that modifications to the sweep algorithm will be increasingly needed as job sizes in the thousands of processors become common.

  7. Expanding and Adapting the Protean Career Management Scale for University Students (PCMS-U).

    PubMed

    Liberato Borges, Ludmila F; De Andrade, Alexsandro L; Ziebell de Oliveira, Manoela; Guerra, Valeschka Martins

    2015-01-01

    Many changes in the socioeconomic scenario led to the emergence of different models of career guidance, among which the protean career stands out. This model works with the prospect of a career that is self-directed and aligned with personal values, with important propositions for both professionals and students entering the work market. In the Brazilian scenario, however, there is a lack of appropriate measures to evaluate protean aspects among college students without work experience. Thus, the present study aimed at adapting and validating the attitudes towards the Protean Career Scale to this population. The sample consisted of 902 students aging from 18 to 30 years old (M = 22.52; SD = 6.53) attending 34 different undergraduate courses. Exploratory and confirmatory analysis attested the two-dimensional nature of the scale structure. The reliability indexes were satisfactory: over .65. The correlation between the protean models and factors such as personality, values, and locus of control provided adequate evidence of the measure's predictive validity (p < .05). PMID:26707942

  8. Automated Detection of Microaneurysms Using Scale-Adapted Blob Analysis and Semi-Supervised Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Adal, Kedir M.; Sidebe, Desire; Ali, Sharib; Chaum, Edward; Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2014-01-07

    Despite several attempts, automated detection of microaneurysm (MA) from digital fundus images still remains to be an open issue. This is due to the subtle nature of MAs against the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the microaneurysm detection problem is modeled as finding interest regions or blobs from an image and an automatic local-scale selection technique is presented. Several scale-adapted region descriptors are then introduced to characterize these blob regions. A semi-supervised based learning approach, which requires few manually annotated learning examples, is also proposed to train a classifier to detect true MAs. The developed system is built using only few manually labeled and a large number of unlabeled retinal color fundus images. The performance of the overall system is evaluated on Retinopathy Online Challenge (ROC) competition database. A competition performance measure (CPM) of 0.364 shows the competitiveness of the proposed system against state-of-the art techniques as well as the applicability of the proposed features to analyze fundus images.

  9. Large-scale behaviour of local and entanglement entropy of the free Fermi gas at any temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschke, Hajo; Sobolev, Alexander V.; Spitzer, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The leading asymptotic large-scale behaviour of the spatially bipartite entanglement entropy (EE) of the free Fermi gas infinitely extended in multidimensional Euclidean space at zero absolute temperature, T = 0, is by now well understood. Here, we present and discuss the first rigorous results for the corresponding EE of thermal equilibrium states at T\\gt 0. The leading large-scale term of this thermal EE turns out to be twice the first-order finite-size correction to the infinite-volume thermal entropy (density). Not surprisingly, this correction is just the thermal entropy on the interface of the bipartition. However, it is given by a rather complicated integral derived from a semiclassical trace formula for a certain operator on the underlying one-particle Hilbert space. But in the zero-temperature limit T\\downarrow 0, the leading large-scale term of the thermal EE considerably simplifies and displays a {ln}(1/T)-singularity which one may identify with the known logarithmic enhancement at T = 0 of the so-called area-law scaling. birthday of the ideal Fermi gas.

  10. Can Attribution of a Neutral Emotional State in Child Discipline Play an Adaptive Role in Child Internalising Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarenga, Patricia; de Oliveira, Ebenezer A.; Dazzani, Maria Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Maternal rates of child internalising behaviour were compared across children's emotion attributions (neutral, fear, anger, sadness and happiness) to others in a discipline situation, after controlling for socio-demographic covariates. Sixty-five Brazilian mothers provided socio-demographic information and rated their preschool children's…

  11. The Role of Scale and Model Bias in ADAPT's Photospheric Eatimation

    SciTech Connect

    Godinez Vazquez, Humberto C.; Hickmann, Kyle Scott; Arge, Charles Nicholas; Henney, Carl

    2015-05-20

    The Air Force Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport model (ADAPT), is a magnetic flux propagation based on Worden-Harvey (WH) model. ADAPT would be used to provide a global photospheric map of the Earth. A data assimilation method based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), a method of Monte Carlo approximation tied with Kalman filtering, is used in calculating the ADAPT models.

  12. Self-similarity and scaling behaviour of infrared emission from radiatively heated dust - I. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezic, Zeljko; Elitzur, Moshe

    1997-06-01

    Dust infrared emission possesses scaling properties that yield powerful results with far-reaching observational consequences. Scaling was first noticed by Rowan-Robinson for spherical shells and is shown here to be a general property of dust emission in arbitrary geometries. Overall luminosity is never an input parameter of the radiative transfer problem; spectral shape is the only relevant property of the heating radiation when the inner boundary of the dusty region is controlled by dust sublimation. Similarly, the absolute scales of densities and distances are irrelevant; the geometry enters only through angles, relative thicknesses and aspect ratios, and the actual magnitudes of densities and distances enter only through one independent parameter, the overall optical depth. That is, as long as the overall optical depth stays the same, the system dimensions can be scaled up or down by an arbitrary factor without any effect on the radiative transfer problem. Dust properties enter only through dimensionless, normalized distributions that describe the spatial variation of density and the wavelength dependence of scattering and absorption efficiencies. Scaling enables a systematic approach to modelling and classification of IR spectra. We develop a new, fully scale-free method for solving radiative transfer, present exact numerical results, and derive approximate analytical solutions for spherical geometry, covering the entire range of parameter space relevant to observations. For a given type of grains, the spectral energy distribution (SED) is primarily controlled by the profile of the spatial dust distribution and the optical depth - each density profile produces a family of solutions, with position within the family determined by optical depth. From the model SEDs presented here, the density distribution and optical depth can be observationally determined for various sources. Scaling implies tight correlations among the SEDs of various members of the same class

  13. Development, reliability and validity of the psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson’s disease in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingting; Yin, Anchun; Sun, Xiaohong; Liu, Qigui; Song, Guirong; Li, Lianhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Chinese population and evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods: The items were designed by literature review, expert consultation and semi-structured interview. The methods of corrected item-total correlation, discrimination analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used for items selection. 427 valid scales from PD patients were collected in the study to test the reliability and validity. Results: The scale incorporated six dimensions: anxiety, self-esteem, attitude, self-acceptance, self-efficacy and social support, a total of 32 items. The scale possessed good internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.99 and average content validation rate was 0.97. The Hoehn and Yahr stage were correlated with total score of the scale. Conclusions: The psychosocial adaptation scale in this study showed good reliability and validity, it can be used as a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the psychosocial adaptation of PD objectively and effectively. PMID:26770638

  14. Aquifer-scale fluxes, hydraulic heads, and upscaled hydraulic conductivities: behaviour during transient flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rooij, G. H.

    2012-04-01

    Catchment- or basin-scale hydrometeorological models can benefit from groundwater flow models that are able to handle large-scale parameters, yet preserve as much as possible of the Darcian-scale understanding of groundwater flow. At large scales the interest is mainly in exchanges of water between environmental compartments, e.g., the flux Q (L3T-1) between groundwater and surface water. Maps of hydraulic heads will generally neither be generated by such models, nor be required as input. Instead, spatial averages of such heads may be more useful. Therefore, the relationship between Q and the difference between the average hydraulic head and the surface water level (H - HA) was determined from analytical solutions for transient parallel and radial flows obeying the Dupuit assumptions. For constant forcings, the solutions showed that Q will eventually be proportional to (H - HA) (relaxed state), with three different proportionality constants for non-leaky aquifers (for zero and non-zero recharge) and leaky aquifers. The proportionality constants incorporated the effects of the forcings, porous medium properties, and aquifer geometry. Thus, under favourable conditions, the Darcian proportionality between the flux density and the gradient in the hydraulic head is echoed at the aquifer scale by the proportionality between the flux across the groundwater-surface water interface and the difference between the average hydraulic heads of both bodies of water. The resulting proportionality constants can be viewed as upscaled hydraulic conductivities. For conductive aquifers intersected by dense drainage networks, the upscaled hydraulic conductivity will reach its asymptotic value within days after a perturbation in the forcings, while large systems will normally never reach a relaxed state and the full solutions will be required.

  15. Leaching behaviour of different scrap materials at recovery and recycling companies: full-, pilot- and lab-scale investigation.

    PubMed

    Blondeel, E; Chys, M; Depuydt, V; Folens, K; Du Laing, G; Verliefde, A; Van Hulle, S W H

    2014-12-01

    Scrap material recovery and recycling companies are confronted with waste water that has a highly fluctuating flow rate and composition. Common pollutants, such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids, potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls can exceed the discharge limits. An analysis of the leaching behaviour of different scrap materials and scrap yard sweepings was performed at full-scale, pilot-scale and lab-scale in order to find possible preventive solutions for this waste water problem. The results of these leaching tests (with concentrations that frequently exceeded the Flemish discharge limits) showed the importance of regular sweeping campaigns at the company, leak proof or covered storage of specific scrap materials and oil/water separation on particular leachates. The particulate versus dissolved fraction was also studied for the pollutants. For example, up to 98% of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons, poly chlorinated biphenyls and some metals were in the particulate form. This confirms the (potential) applicability of sedimentation and filtration techniques for the treatment of the majority of the leachates, and as such the rainwater run-off as a whole. PMID:25241019

  16. [Cross-cultural adaptation: translation and Portuguese language content validation of the Tripartite Influence Scale for body dissatisfaction].

    PubMed

    Conti, Maria Aparecida; Scagliusi, Fernanda; Queiroz, Gisele Kawamura de Oliveira; Hearst, Norman; Cordás, Táki Athanássios

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the Tripartite Influence Scale to the Portuguese language and evaluate its content validity and internal consistency. Six steps included: (1) translation; (2) back-translation; (3) technique revision and semantic evaluation; (4) conduct validation by professional experts (judges); (5) assessment of comprehensibility by the target population, using a verbal rating scale; and (6) evaluation of the internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The 43 questions were translated and adapted to the Portuguese language. The final version consisted of 39 items, with content validity for three constructs (media, family, and friends), clarity and easy understanding, and good internal agreement (Cronbach's alpha coefficients > 0.80). The instrument was successfully translated and adapted to Portuguese and showed good content validity, verbal comprehensibility, and internal consistency. Further analysis of external validity, equivalence of measurement, and reproducibility are necessary. PMID:20464069

  17. HGO-based decentralised indirect adaptive fuzzy control for a class of large-scale nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Shao; Chen, Xiaoxin; Zhou, Shao-Wu; Yu, Ling-Li; Wang, Zheng-Wu

    2012-06-01

    In this article, a novel high gain observer (HGO)-based decentralised indirect adaptive fuzzy controller is developed for a class of uncertain affine large-scale nonlinear systems. By the combination of fuzzy logic systems and an HGO, the state variables are not required to be measurable. The proposed feedback and adaptation mechanisms guarantee that each subsystem is able to adaptively compensate for interconnections and disturbances with unknown bounds. It is ascertained using a singular perturbation method that all the signals of the closed-loop large-scale system stand uniformly ultimately bounded and the tracking errors converge to tunable neighbourhoods of the origin. Simulation results of correlated double inverted pendulums substantiate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  18. Cross-Cultural adaptation of the General Functioning Scale of the Family

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Thiago; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Pesce, Renata Pires

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the General Functioning Scale of the Family, a subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device, for the Brazilian population. METHODS The General Functioning Scale of the Family was translated into Portuguese and administered to 500 guardians of children in the second grade of elementary school in public schools of Sao Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. The types of equivalences investigated were: conceptual and of items, semantic, operational, and measurement. The study involved discussions with experts, translations and back-translations of the instrument, and psychometric assessment. Reliability and validity studies were carried out by internal consistency testing (Cronbach’s alpha), Guttman split-half correlation model, Pearson correlation coefficient, and confirmatory factor analysis. Associations between General Functioning of the Family and variables theoretically associated with the theme (father’s or mother’s drunkenness and violence between parents) were estimated by odds ratio. RESULTS Semantic equivalence was between 90.0% and 100%. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.79 to 0.81, indicating good internal consistency of the instrument. Pearson correlation coefficient ranged between 0.303 and 0.549. Statistical association was found between the general functioning of the family score and the theoretically related variables, as well as good fit quality of the confirmatory analysis model. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate the feasibility of administering the instrument to the Brazilian population, as it is easy to understand and a good measurement of the construct of interest. PMID:27355464

  19. Cultural Adaptation, Psychometric Properties, and Outcomes of the Native American Spirituality Scale

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Brenna L.; Hallgren, Kevin A.; Venner, Kamilla L.; Hagler, Kylee J.; Simmons, Jeremiah D.; Sheche, Judith N.; Homer, Everett; Lupee, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Spirituality is central to many Native Americans (NAs) and has been associated with recovery from substance use disorders (SUDs). However, no published questionnaire uniquely taps tribal-specific spiritual beliefs and practices. This hinders efforts to integrate traditional NA spirituality into SUD treatment and track spiritual outcomes. As part of a randomized controlled trial examining SUD treatment for NAs, we adapted the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) in collaboration with members of a Southwest tribe to create the Native American Spirituality Scale (NASS) and measured changes in the NASS over the course of treatment. The 83 participants (70% male) were from a single Southwest tribe and seeking SUD treatment. They completed the NASS at baseline, four-, eight-, and 12-months. Exploratory factor analysis of the NASS was conducted and its temporal invariance, construct validity, and longitudinal changes in the factor and item scores were examined. The NASS yielded a two-factor structure that was largely invariant across time. Factor 1 reflected behavioral practices, while Factor 2 reflected more global beliefs. Both factors significantly increased across 12 months, albeit at different assessment points. At baseline, Factor 1 was negatively related to substance use and positively associated with measures of tribal identification while Factor 2 was unrelated to these measures. Given the importance of tribal spirituality to many NAs, the development of this psychometrically sound measure is a key precursor and complement to the incorporation of tribal spirituality into treatment, as well as research on mechanisms of change for SUD treatment among NAs and assessment of NA spirituality in relation to other aspects of health. PMID:25961648

  20. Cultural adaptation, psychometric properties, and outcomes of the Native American Spirituality Scale.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Brenna L; Hallgren, Kevin A; Venner, Kamilla L; Hagler, Kylee J; Simmons, Jeremiah D; Sheche, Judith N; Homer, Everett; Lupee, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Spirituality is central to many Native Americans (NAs) and has been associated with recovery from substance use disorders (SUDs). However, no published questionnaire uniquely taps tribal-specific spiritual beliefs and practices. This hinders efforts to integrate traditional NA spirituality into SUD treatment and track spiritual outcomes. As part of a randomized controlled trial examining SUD treatment for NAs, we adapted the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) in collaboration with members of a Southwest tribe to create the Native American Spirituality Scale (NASS) and measured changes in the NASS over the course of treatment. The 83 participants (70% male) were from a single Southwest tribe and seeking SUD treatment. They completed the NASS at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 months. Exploratory factor analysis of the NASS was conducted and its temporal invariance, construct validity, and longitudinal changes in the factor and item scores were examined. The NASS yielded a 2-factor structure that was largely invariant across time. Factor 1 reflected behavioral practices, while Factor 2 reflected more global beliefs. Both factors significantly increased across 12 months, albeit at different assessment points. At baseline, Factor 1 was negatively related to substance use and positively associated with measures of tribal identification while Factor 2 was unrelated to these measures. Given the importance of tribal spirituality to many NAs, the development of this psychometrically sound measure is a key precursor and complement to the incorporation of tribal spirituality into treatment, as well as research on mechanisms of change for SUD treatment among NAs and assessment of NA spirituality in relation to other aspects of health. PMID:25961648

  1. Large scale patterns in vertical distribution and behaviour of mesopelagic scattering layers

    PubMed Central

    Klevjer, T. A.; Irigoien, X.; Røstad, A.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; Benítez-Barrios, V. M.; Kaartvedt., S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that previous estimates of mesopelagic biomasses are severely biased, with the new, higher estimates underlining the need to unveil behaviourally mediated coupling between shallow and deep ocean habitats. We analysed vertical distribution and diel vertical migration (DVM) of mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers (SLs) recorded at 38 kHz across oceanographic regimes encountered during the circumglobal Malaspina expedition. Mesopelagic SLs were observed in all areas covered, but vertical distributions and DVM patterns varied markedly. The distribution of mesopelagic backscatter was deepest in the southern Indian Ocean (weighted mean daytime depth: WMD 590 m) and shallowest at the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern Pacific (WMD 350 m). DVM was evident in all areas covered, on average ~50% of mesopelagic backscatter made daily excursions from mesopelagic depths to shallow waters. There were marked differences in migrating proportions between the regions, ranging from ~20% in the Indian Ocean to ~90% in the Eastern Pacific. Overall the data suggest strong spatial gradients in mesopelagic DVM patterns, with implied ecological and biogeochemical consequences. Our results suggest that parts of this spatial variability can be explained by horizontal patterns in physical-chemical properties of water masses, such as oxygen, temperature and turbidity. PMID:26813333

  2. Large scale patterns in vertical distribution and behaviour of mesopelagic scattering layers.

    PubMed

    Klevjer, T A; Irigoien, X; Røstad, A; Fraile-Nuez, E; Benítez-Barrios, V M; Kaartvedt, S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that previous estimates of mesopelagic biomasses are severely biased, with the new, higher estimates underlining the need to unveil behaviourally mediated coupling between shallow and deep ocean habitats. We analysed vertical distribution and diel vertical migration (DVM) of mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers (SLs) recorded at 38 kHz across oceanographic regimes encountered during the circumglobal Malaspina expedition. Mesopelagic SLs were observed in all areas covered, but vertical distributions and DVM patterns varied markedly. The distribution of mesopelagic backscatter was deepest in the southern Indian Ocean (weighted mean daytime depth: WMD 590 m) and shallowest at the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern Pacific (WMD 350 m). DVM was evident in all areas covered, on average ~50% of mesopelagic backscatter made daily excursions from mesopelagic depths to shallow waters. There were marked differences in migrating proportions between the regions, ranging from ~20% in the Indian Ocean to ~90% in the Eastern Pacific. Overall the data suggest strong spatial gradients in mesopelagic DVM patterns, with implied ecological and biogeochemical consequences. Our results suggest that parts of this spatial variability can be explained by horizontal patterns in physical-chemical properties of water masses, such as oxygen, temperature and turbidity. PMID:26813333

  3. Comparison between Dichotomous and Polytomous Scoring of Innovative Items in a Large-Scale Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Hong; Liu, Junhui; Haynie, Kathleen; Woo, Ada; Gorham, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of partial credit scoring of one type of innovative items (multiple-response items) in a computerized adaptive version of a large-scale licensure pretest and operational test settings. The impacts of partial credit scoring on the estimation of the ability parameters and classification decisions in operational test…

  4. The Adaptation of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Elementary Form into Turkish, Language Validity, and Preliminary Psychometric Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Balgalmis, Esra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to adapt the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale- Elementary Form (MARS-E, Suinn, 1988) into Turkish by first doing the translation of its items and then the preliminary psychometric investigation of the Turkish form. The study included four different samples: 30 bilingual language experts, 50 Turkish language…

  5. A Case Study with Green Dot Public Schools on Managing the Tension between Fidelity and Adaptation when Scaling-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevallos, Pedro Felipe, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation was a single case study with Green Dot Public Schools (GDPS) describing their rapid scale-up process. Specifically, it investigates the phenomenon of the inherent tension between maintaining the fidelity of the original model school's design, culture and values with local adaptation of the brand by stakeholders at the expansion…

  6. A Case Study with Green Dot Public Schools on Managing the Tension between Fidelity and Adaptation When Scaling-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevallos, Pedro F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation was a single case study with Green Dot Public Schools (GDPS) describing their rapid scale-up process. Specifically, it investigates the phenomenon of the inherent tension between maintaining the fidelity of the original model school's design, culture and values with local adaptation of the brand by stakeholders at the expansion…

  7. Psychometric Validation of the Brief Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised for Persons with Spinal Cord Injury in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chen-Ping; Wang, Chia-Chiang; Fujikawa, Mayu; Brooks, Jessica; Eastvold-Walton, Lissa; Maxwell, Kristin; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the measurement structure of the Brief Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised (B-ADS-R). Measure: A 12-item measure of disability acceptance based on the four value changes (enlarging the scope of values, containing the effects of the disability, subordinating the physique, and transforming comparative-status values to asset…

  8. A Short Version of SIS (Support Intensity Scale): The Utility of the Application of Artificial Adaptive Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomiero, Tiziano; Croce, Luigi; Grossi, Enzo; Luc, De Vreese; Buscema, Massimo; Mantesso, Ulrico; De Bastiani, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a shortened version of the SIS (support intensity scale) obtained by the application of mathematical models and instruments, adopting special algorithms based on the most recent developments in artificial adaptive systems. All the variables of SIS applied to 1,052 subjects with ID (intellectual disabilities)…

  9. Time-Varying, Multi-Scale Adaptive System Reliability Analysis of Lifeline Infrastructure Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Kurtz, Nolan Scot

    2014-09-01

    The majority of current societal and economic needs world-wide are met by the existing networked, civil infrastructure. Because the cost of managing such infrastructure is high and increases with time, risk-informed decision making is essential for those with management responsibilities for these systems. To address such concerns, a methodology that accounts for new information, deterioration, component models, component importance, group importance, network reliability, hierarchical structure organization, and efficiency concerns has been developed. This methodology analyzes the use of new information through the lens of adaptive Importance Sampling for structural reliability problems. Deterioration, multi-scale bridge models, and time-variant component importance are investigated for a specific network. Furthermore, both bridge and pipeline networks are studied for group and component importance, as well as for hierarchical structures in the context of specific networks. Efficiency is the primary driver throughout this study. With this risk-informed approach, those responsible for management can address deteriorating infrastructure networks in an organized manner.

  10. CMAQ (Community Multi-Scale Air Quality) atmospheric distribution model adaptation to region of Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázár, Dóra; Weidinger, Tamás

    2016-04-01

    For our days, it has become important to measure and predict the concentration of harmful atmospheric pollutants such as dust, aerosol particles of different size ranges, nitrogen compounds, and ozone. The Department of Meteorology at Eötvös Loránd University has been applying the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model several years ago, which is suitable for weather forecasting tasks and provides input data for various environmental models (e.g. DNDC). By adapting the CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) model we have designed a combined ambient air-meteorological model (WRF-CMAQ). In this research it is important to apply different emission databases and a background model describing the initial distribution of the pollutant. We used SMOKE (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions) model for construction emission dataset from EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) inventories and GEOS-Chem model for initial and boundary conditions. Our model settings were CMAQ CB05 (Carbon Bond 2005) chemical mechanism with 108 x 108 km, 36 x 36 km and 12 x 12 km grids for regions of Europe, the Carpathian Basin and Hungary respectively. i) The structure of the model system, ii) a case study for Carpathian Basin (an anticyclonic weather situation at 21th September 2012) are presented. iii) Verification of ozone forecast has been provided based on the measurements of background air pollution stations. iv) Effects of model attributes (f.e. transition time, emission dataset, parameterizations) for the ozone forecast in Hungary are also investigated.

  11. Adapting relative phase of bimanual isometric force coordination through scaling visual information intermittency.

    PubMed

    Lafe, Charley W; Pacheco, Matheus M; Newell, Karl M

    2016-06-01

    Visual information plays an adaptive role in the relation between bimanual force coupling and error corrective processes of isometric force control. In the present study, the evolving distribution of the relative phase properties of bimanual isometric force coupling was examined by scaling within a trial the temporal feedback rate of visual intermittency (short to long presentation intervals and vice versa). The force error (RMSE) was reduced, and time-dependent irregularity (SampEn) of the force output was increased with greater amounts of visual information (shorter intermittency). Multi-stable coordination patterns of bimanual isometric force control were differentially shifted toward and away from the intrinsic dynamics by the changing the intermittency of visual information. The distribution of Hilbert transformed relative phase values showed progressively a predominantly anti-phase mode under less intermittent visual information to predominantly an in-phase mode with limited (almost no) visual information. Correlation between the hands showed a continuous reduction, rather than abrupt "transition," with increase in visual information, although no mean negative correlation was realized, despite the tendency towards an anti-phase distribution. Lastly, changes in both the performance outcome and bimanual isometric force coordination occurred at visual feedback rates faster than the minimal visual processing times established from single limb movement and isometric force protocols. PMID:27017544

  12. Surface faceting and elemental diffusion behaviour at atomic scale for alloy nanoparticles during in situ annealing

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Miaofang; Wang, Chao; Lei, Yinkai; Wang, Guofeng; Li, Dongguo; More, Karren L.; Lupini, Andrew; Allard, Lawrence F.; Markovic, Nenad M.; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic performance of nanoparticles is primarily determined by the precise nature of the surface and near-surface atomic configurations, which can be tailored by post-synthesis annealing effectively and straightforwardly. Understanding the complete dynamic response of surface structure and chemistry to thermal treatments at the atomic scale is imperative for the rational design of catalyst nanoparticles. Here, by tracking the same individual Pt3Co nanoparticles during in situ annealing in a scanning transmission electron microscope, we directly discern five distinct stages of surface elemental rearrangements in Pt3Co nanoparticles at the atomic scale: initial random (alloy) elemental distribution; surface platinum-skin-layer formation; nucleation of structurally ordered domains; ordered framework development and, finally, initiation of amorphization. Furthermore, a comprehensive interplay among phase evolution, surface faceting and elemental inter-diffusion is revealed, and supported by atomistic simulations. This work may pave the way towards designing catalysts through post-synthesis annealing for optimized catalytic performance. PMID:26576477

  13. On the Mean Flow Behaviour in the Presence of Regional-Scale Surface Roughness Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiang I. A.

    2016-05-01

    A suite of large-eddy simulations of the neutral atmospheric boundary layer is conducted to study the mean flow response to the presence of surface roughness heterogeneity at regional scales (surface roughness heterogeneity on the scale of several boundary-layer heights). The roughness heterogeneity is imposed using alternating rough wall patches with numerically resolved rectangular roughness elements of different packing densities. The flow near the surface is found to adjust rapidly, reaching equilibrium conditions at distances on the order of a single inter-roughness element spacing. Despite the regional heterogeneity in surface roughness, it is often desirable to parametrize the entire rough wall using one single effective roughness height. To develop such a parametrization the model of Bou-Zeid et al. [Water Resources Research 40(2):1, 2004] is extended to incorporate the displacement height, d. Predictions from this parametrization are compared with the simulations, with reasonably good agreement.

  14. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Pablo M.; Soto, Gerardo E.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Meneses, Luis O.; Pérez-Hernández, Christian G.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus) assess the relative quality of trees: 1) Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2) Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3) Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox’s proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales. PMID:27416115

  15. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Pablo M; Soto, Gerardo E; Moreira-Arce, Darío; Rodewald, Amanda D; Meneses, Luis O; Pérez-Hernández, Christian G

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus) assess the relative quality of trees: 1) Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2) Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3) Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox's proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales. PMID:27416115

  16. Rising to the challenge: cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the adapted German version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy for Students (JSPE-S).

    PubMed

    Preusche, Ingrid; Wagner-Menghin, Michaela

    2013-10-01

    Assessment of students' attitudes towards physicians' empathy is essential in medical education and in practice because empathy is vital in physician-patient communication. To cross-culturally adapt the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (S-version, JSPE-S) into a German version, examine its psychometric properties in comparison to the original US version (psychometric equivalence), and to compare the level of attitude towards empathy to the original US version and to other cultural adaptations. The German version was administered to the 2010 2nd year medical students cohort at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria (n = 516). Item-total score correlations were all positive. Reliability was high (Cronbach's alpha = .82); a 6-7 weeks test-retest correlation for a subsample was .45. In an explanatory factor analysis, a four-factor solution emerged and is akin to published results of the original JSPE-S. This study provides an example of successful cross-cultural adaptation of an assessment instrument. The German adaptation of the JSPE at hand will pave the way for future international research regarding the concept of empathy and its outcomes. PMID:22923100

  17. Shape up or ship out: migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Ben B; Hulthén, Kaj; Brönmark, Christer; Nilsson, P Anders; Skov, Christian; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brodersen, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    1. Migration is a widespread phenomenon, with powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences. Morphological adaptations to reduce the energetic costs associated with migratory transport are commonly documented for migratory species. However, few studies have investigated whether variation in body morphology can be explained by variation in migratory strategy within a species. 2. We address this question in roach Rutilus rutilus, a partially migratory freshwater fish that migrates from lakes into streams during winter. We both compare body shape between populations that differ in migratory opportunity (open vs. closed lakes), and between individuals from a single population that vary in migratory propensity (migrants and residents from a partially migratory population). Following hydrodynamic theory, we posit that migrants should have a more shallow body depth, to reduce the costs associated with migrating into streams with higher flow conditions than the lakes the residents occupy all year round. 3. We find evidence both across and within populations to support our prediction, with individuals from open lakes and migrants from the partially migratory population having a more slender, shallow-bodied morphology than fish from closed lakes and all-year residents. 4. Our data suggest that a shallow body morphology is beneficial to migratory individuals and our study is one of the first to link migratory strategy and intraspecific variation in body shape. PMID:25823702

  18. Robust Wave-front Correction in a Small Scale Adaptive Optics System Using a Membrane Deformable Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Park, S.; Baik, S.; Jung, J.; Lee, S.; Yoo, J.

    A small scale laboratory adaptive optics system using a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (WFS) and a membrane deformable mirror (DM) has been built for robust image acquisition. In this study, an adaptive limited control technique is adopted to maintain the long-term correction stability of an adaptive optics system. To prevent the waste of dynamic correction range for correcting small residual wave-front distortions which are inefficient to correct, the built system tries to limit wave-front correction when a similar small difference wave-front pattern is repeatedly generated. Also, the effect of mechanical distortion in an adaptive optics system is studied and a pre-recognition method for the distortion is devised to prevent low-performance system operation. A confirmation process for a balanced work assignment among deformable mirror (DM) actuators is adopted for the pre-recognition. The corrected experimental results obtained by using a built small scale adaptive optics system are described in this paper.

  19. Complexity and Pilot Workload Metrics for the Evaluation of Adaptive Flight Controls on a Full Scale Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Larson, David; Johnson, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Flight research has shown the effectiveness of adaptive flight controls for improving aircraft safety and performance in the presence of uncertainties. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project designed and conducted a series of flight experiments to study the impact of variations in adaptive controller design complexity on performance and handling qualities. A novel complexity metric was devised to compare the degrees of simplicity achieved in three variations of a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) for NASA's F-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (Gen-2A) aircraft. The complexity measures of these controllers are also compared to that of an earlier MRAC design for NASA's Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project and flown on a highly modified F-15 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). Pilot comments during the IRAC research flights pointed to the importance of workload on handling qualities ratings for failure and damage scenarios. Modifications to existing pilot aggressiveness and duty cycle metrics are presented and applied to the IRAC controllers. Finally, while adaptive controllers may alleviate the effects of failures or damage on an aircraft's handling qualities, they also have the potential to introduce annoying changes to the flight dynamics or to the operation of aircraft systems. A nuisance rating scale is presented for the categorization of nuisance side-effects of adaptive controllers.

  20. Psychological Sense of University Membership: An Adaptation Study of the PSSM Scale for Turkish University Students.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Neşe

    2016-01-01

    The Psychological Sense of School Membership Scale (PSSM) is a widely used instrument to assess the sense of belonging to a school among adolescents. Despite its widespread use in middle and high school students, to date no particular adaptation study has been conducted for its use among university students. For this reason, the present study conducted an adaptation of the PSSM scale for these students. Five hundred and nine students at a Turkish university voluntarily participated in the study, and the PSSM Scale's factor structure was examined by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, identifying three factors representing the students' sense of university membership with acceptable internal consistencies: acceptance by faculty members (.70), belonging (.75), and acceptance by students (.76). The internal consistency of the 18-item scale was calculated as .84. As hypothesized, the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale was also tested. The self-report sense of belonging and degree of satisfaction with the university were positively correlated with the three dimensions of the scale. Also, the scores regarding the students' intention to drop out of university along with loneliness were negatively correlated with all the dimension of the PSSM scale. PMID:26398445

  1. Surface faceting and elemental diffusion behaviour at atomic scale for alloy nanoparticles during in situ annealing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chi, Miaofang; Wang, Chao; Lei, Yinkai; Wang, Guofeng; Li, Dongguo; More, Karren L.; Lupini, Andrew; Allard, Lawrence F.; Markovic, Nenad M.; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.

    2015-11-18

    The catalytic performance of nanoparticles is primarily determined by the precise nature of the surface and near-surface atomic configurations, which can be tailored by post-synthesis annealing effectively and straightforwardly. Understanding the complete dynamic response of surface structure and chemistry to thermal treatments at the atomic scale is imperative for the rational design of catalyst nanoparticles. Here, by tracking the same individual Pt3Co nanoparticles during in situ annealing in a scanning transmission electron microscope, we directly discern five distinct stages of surface elemental rearrangements in Pt3Co nanoparticles at the atomic scale: initial random (alloy) elemental distribution; surface platinum-skin-layer formation; nucleation ofmore » structurally ordered domains; ordered framework development and, finally, initiation of amorphization. Furthermore, a comprehensive interplay among phase evolution, surface faceting and elemental inter-diffusion is revealed, and supported by atomistic simulations. Furthermore, this work may pave the way towards designing catalysts through post-synthesis annealing for optimized catalytic performance.« less

  2. Full-Scaled Advanced Systems Testbed: Ensuring Success of Adaptive Control Research Through Project Lifecycle Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on the Full-Scale Advance Systems Testbed (FAST) in January of 2011. The research addressed technical challenges involved with reducing risk in an increasingly complex and dynamic national airspace. Specific challenges lie with the development of validated, multidisciplinary, integrated aircraft control design tools and techniques to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage, control surface failures, or aerodynamic upsets. The testbed is an F-18 aircraft serving as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research and lends a significant confidence to the development, maturation, and acceptance process of incorporating adaptive control laws into follow-on research and the operational environment. The experimental systems integrated into FAST were designed to allow for flexible yet safe flight test evaluation and validation of modern adaptive control technologies and revolve around two major hardware upgrades: the modification of Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) and integration of two, fourth-generation Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS). Post-hardware integration verification and validation provided the foundation for safe flight test of Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion and Model Reference Aircraft Control adaptive control law experiments. To ensure success of flight in terms of cost, schedule, and test results, emphasis on risk management was incorporated into early stages of design and flight test planning and continued through the execution of each flight test mission. Specific consideration was made to incorporate safety features within the hardware and software to alleviate user demands as well as into test processes and training to reduce human factor impacts to safe and successful flight test. This paper describes the research configuration

  3. The Medical Student Expectation Scale (MSES): a device for measuring students' expectations of each others' values and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Singleton, A F; Chen, S

    1996-05-01

    A study assessing the differences between institutional and matriculants' expectations of students' attitudes and behaviour was undertaken in 1992 at the Drew/UCLA Medical Education Program (DUMEP) in Los Angeles, California. Responding to a 33-item questionnaire utilizing 5-point Likert scales were 113/122 students in the classes of 1992 through to 1996. Factor analysis yielded two factors accounting for 61% of the total variance. Two subscales (Personal Trait Subscale and Drew Mission Subscale) containing a total of nine items comprise the Medical Student Expectation Scale (MSES). The alphas and standardized item alphas of these two subscales were 0.7531 and 0.8287 (Personal Trait Subscale) and 0.7304 and 0.7406 (Drew Mission Subscale), indicating good reliability. Correlation coefficients for continuous variables were calculated in order to determine subgroup responses to the subscales and their component items. While the students' overall responses indicated commitment to the values of the Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, subgroup responses varied. The strongest supporters of the University's values were older students, blacks, and those having better undergraduate performance in non-science areas. Least likely to agree with University values were students having better performances in the sciences (grade-point average and MCAT scores) and those of Mexican-American ethnicity. The scores of participating classes documented a secular trend away from endorsement of the values of the Drew University. Following further study, the MSES may be useful in student selection and curriculum design. PMID:8949552

  4. Adapting Individual Psychotherapy for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparative Review of the Cognitive-Behavioural and Psychodynamic Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Richard M.; Tudway, Jeremy A.; Look, Roger; Kroese, Biza Stenfert

    2006-01-01

    Background: Historically, adults with intellectual disabilities have had little access to individual psychotherapy. Over the last 20 years an increasing body of literature has described psychotherapy with this client group and reported methods for adapting traditional psychotherapeutic techniques. Method: The current review identified the…

  5. Italian translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the "American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society's (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot scale".

    PubMed

    Leigheb, Massimiliano; Janicka, Paulina; Andorno, Silvano; Marcuzzi, Augusto; Magnani, Corrado; Grassi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim of the workAnkle and hindfoot injuries are common and may lead to functional impairment, disability, exclusion from occupational and daily activities. It's necessary a standardized method for assessing treatment outcomes in people with same condition and disease.American-Orthopaedics-Foot-and-Ankle-Society's-Ankle-Hindfoot-Evaluation-Scale (AOFAS-AHES) is specific to estimate clinical problems of the ankle-hindfoot.Outcome evaluation scales should be translated and culturally adapted into the language of the investigated patient.Our purpose was to translate and culturally adapt into Italian AOFAS-AHES, and to check its reproducibility and validity.MethodsAn Italian translation of the AOFAS-scale was retranslated into English by a native English and compared to the original to define a second correct Italian-version, that was submitted to 50 randomized patients operated at their ankle or hindfoot with a minimum follow-up of 6 months for cultural adaptation, and to 10 healthcare professionals to check comprehension of the medical part.To check intra and inter-observer reproducibility each patient underwent 2 interviews by interviewer-A and 1 by B. ShortForm(SF)-36-questionnaire for quality of life and Visual-Analogue-Scale (VAS) for pain were also compared for validation. The Pearson's-Correlation-Coefficient and the Intra-Class-Correlation coefficient were calculated to check inter and intra-observer reproducibility for validation.ResultsCultural adaptation revealed to be good. We obtained a good correlation of the inter and intra-observer reproducibility. Further validation of the Italian-AOFAS-AHES was obtained comparing AOFAS results to SF-36.ConclusionsItalian translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the AOFAS-AHES has been performed successfully and could be useful to improve assistance quality in care practice. PMID:27163894

  6. A peer victimisation scale based on a behavioural consequences measurement strategy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jiyang; Xia, Jing; He, Qiang; Shao, Yun; Zhan, Yuhua; Liu, Guo; Wang, Xumei

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION An accurate assessment of peer victimisation (i.e. bullying) is a necessary precondition for research and intervention. Most assessment instruments use the ‘list of acts’ measurement strategy, which does not account for the actual physical and psychological damage inflicted by bullying. To resolve this limitation, this study developed a peer victimisation scale (PVS) that includes harmful consequences for judgement and measurement of peer victimisation. METHODS The PVS is a 40-item self-report questionnaire designed to assess the four aspects of peer victimisation: physical, verbal, relational, and interference and control. A total of 1,469 Grade 3–8 students (49.9% male) were recruited to test the psychometric properties of the PVS. Another 420 Grade 3–8 students were examined by a modified PVS supplemented with a semi-structured interview for scale validation and establishment of the cut-off points for severe bullying. Incidence, age and gender distribution of peer victimisation were also analysed. RESULTS The PVS demonstrated good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha 0.73–0.83) and test-retest reliability two weeks later (correlation coefficient [r] = 0.71–0.80). The scores for each dimension were significantly and positively correlated with the scores from the questionnaire-interview sample (r = 0.73–0.78), and modestly correlated with the scores for symptoms of anxiety and depression (r = 0.36–0.54). CONCLUSION The results were consistent with the measurement constructs, demonstrating that the PVS is a reliable and effective instrument for assessing peer victimisation in children. It may enable more reliable longitudinal studies assessing the impact of peer victimisation to be conducted. PMID:26768170

  7. ASDF: A New Adaptable Data Format for Seismology Suitable for Large-Scale Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischer, L.; Smith, J. A.; Spinuso, A.; Tromp, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in the amounts of available data as well as computational power opens the possibility to tackle ever larger and more complex problems. This comes with a slew of new problems, two of which are the need for a more efficient use of available resources and a sensible organization and storage of the data. Both need to be satisfied in order to properly scale a problem and both are frequent bottlenecks in large seismic inversions using ambient noise or more traditional techniques.We present recent developments and ideas regarding a new data format, named ASDF (Adaptable Seismic Data Format), for all branches of seismology aiding with the aforementioned problems. The key idea is to store all information necessary to fully understand a set of data in a single file. This enables the construction of self-explaining and exchangeable data sets facilitating collaboration on large-scale problems. We incorporate the existing metadata standards FDSN StationXML and QuakeML together with waveform and auxiliary data into a common container based on the HDF5 standard. A further critical component of the format is the storage of provenance information as an extension of W3C PROV, meaning information about the history of the data, assisting with the general problem of reproducibility.Applications of the proposed new format are numerous. In the context of seismic tomography it enables the full description and storage of synthetic waveforms including information about the used model, the solver, the parameters, and other variables that influenced the final waveforms. Furthermore, intermediate products like adjoint sources, cross correlations, and receiver functions can be described and most importantly exchanged with others.Usability and tool support is crucial for any new format to gain acceptance and we additionally present a fully functional implementation of this format based on Python and ObsPy. It offers a convenient way to discover and analyze data sets as well as making

  8. Micro- and Macro-Geographic Scale Effect on the Molecular Imprint of Selection and Adaptation in Norway Spruce

    PubMed Central

    Scalfi, Marta; Mosca, Elena; Di Pierro, Erica Adele; Troggio, Michela; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Sperisen, Christoph; La Porta, Nicola; Neale, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Forest tree species of temperate and boreal regions have undergone a long history of demographic changes and evolutionary adaptations. The main objective of this study was to detect signals of selection in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst), at different sampling-scales and to investigate, accounting for population structure, the effect of environment on species genetic diversity. A total of 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representing 290 genes were genotyped at two geographic scales: across 12 populations distributed along two altitudinal-transects in the Alps (micro-geographic scale), and across 27 populations belonging to the range of Norway spruce in central and south-east Europe (macro-geographic scale). At the macrogeographic scale, principal component analysis combined with Bayesian clustering revealed three major clusters, corresponding to the main areas of southern spruce occurrence, i.e. the Alps, Carpathians, and Hercynia. The populations along the altitudinal transects were not differentiated. To assess the role of selection in structuring genetic variation, we applied a Bayesian and coalescent-based FST-outlier method and tested for correlations between allele frequencies and climatic variables using regression analyses. At the macro-geographic scale, the FST-outlier methods detected together 11 FST-outliers. Six outliers were detected when the same analyses were carried out taking into account the genetic structure. Regression analyses with population structure correction resulted in the identification of two (micro-geographic scale) and 38 SNPs (macro-geographic scale) significantly correlated with temperature and/or precipitation. Six of these loci overlapped with FST-outliers, among them two loci encoding an enzyme involved in riboflavin biosynthesis and a sucrose synthase. The results of this study indicate a strong relationship between genetic and environmental variation at both geographic scales. It also suggests that an

  9. The effect of isoflurane anaesthesia and buprenorphine on the mouse grimace scale and behaviour in CBA and DBA/2 mice

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Amy; Kitson, Gemma; Skalkoyannis, Benjamin; Leach, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Prevention or alleviation of pain in laboratory mice is a fundamental requirement of in vivo research. The mouse grimace scale (MGS) has the potential to be an effective and rapid means of assessing pain and analgesic efficacy in laboratory mice. Preliminary studies have demonstrated its potential utility for assessing pain in mouse models that involve potentially painful procedures. The next step in validation is to determine if the other procedures that are integral to these models, i.e. anaesthesia or analgesia, result in any changes in MGS score which would need to be taken into account when using this tool to assess post-procedural pain. Here, spontaneous behaviour and MGS data for CBA and DBA/2 mice were recorded at baseline and following either isoflurane anaesthesia (suitable to perform abdominal surgery) or 0.05 mg/kg s.c. buprenorphine. In line with previous studies, isoflurane anaesthesia alone had limited effects on the spontaneous behaviour in either strain of mice. Administration of buprenorphine resulted in increased periods of activity e.g. walking and chewing bedding in CBA mice. These effects were not demonstrated in DBA/2 mice. In comparison, buprenorphine alone had no impact on MGS score in either strain of mice, however DBA/2 mice showed a significant increase in MGS score following isoflurane anaesthesia. The presence of this increased MGS score must be taken into account when attempting to use the MGS to assess pain in DBA/2 mice. Further work should be carried out to establish the presence of this isoflurane effect in other strains and the potential influence of gender on the MGS. This further validation is necessary prior to implementation of this technique in clinical scenarios. PMID:26937061

  10. An Investigation of the Validity and Reliability of the Adapted Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Short Version (MARS-SV) among Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study adapted the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Short Version (MARS-SV) into Turkish and investigated the validity and reliability of the adapted instrument. Twenty-five bilingual experts agreed on the language validity, and 49 Turkish language experts agreed on the conformity and understandability of the scale's items. Thirty-two subject…

  11. Protocol for the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess concerning behaviours and mental health in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: the Assessment of Concerning Behaviour (ACB) scale

    PubMed Central

    Santosh, Paramala; Tarver, Joanne; Gibbons, Felicity; Vitoratou, Silia; Simonoff, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Co-occurring psychiatric conditions and concerning behaviours are prevalent in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and are likely to be detrimental to functioning and long-term outcomes. The cognitive rigidity and deficits in emotional literacy and verbal behaviour that commonly occur in ASD can adversely affect clinicians’ confidence to identify concerning behaviours and mental health problems. There is a need to develop a measure that is tailored towards individuals with ASD, and differentiates between symptoms of psychopathology and core ASD symptoms. Furthermore, it should be modified to capture internalising symptoms that individuals with ASD may find difficult or be unable to verbalise. This protocol describes the intended development and validation of the Assessment of Concerning Behaviour (ACB) scale. The ACB will aim to be a multidimensional measure of concerning behaviours in ASD incorporating self-report, parent/carer, teacher/employer and clinician report versions that can be used across the lifespan and spectrum of intellectual ability. Methods and analysis This study will be guided by the methods described in the US Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry Patient-reported Outcome Measures. A literature review, cognitive interviews and focus groups with individuals who have experience of working or living with ASDs will be used for item generation. A sample of children and adults with ASD will complete the ACB, in addition to other gold standard measures of concerning behaviour in order to establish the initial psychometric properties of the scale. Ethics and dissemination This study has received ethical approval from the NHS Research Ethics Committee: London-Camden and King's Cross (ref: 15/LO/0085). Study findings will be disseminated to healthcare professionals and scientists in the field through publication in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. PMID:27006345

  12. Cultural adaptation into Spanish of the generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale as a screening tool

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent mental health condition which is underestimated worldwide. This study carried out the cultural adaptation into Spanish of the 7-item self-administered GAD-7 scale, which is used to identify probable patients with GAD. Methods The adaptation was performed by an expert panel using a conceptual equivalence process, including forward and backward translations in duplicate. Content validity was assessed by interrater agreement. Criteria validity was explored using ROC curve analysis, and sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value and negative value for different cut-off values were determined. Concurrent validity was also explored using the HAM-A, HADS, and WHO-DAS-II scales. Results The study sample consisted of 212 subjects (106 patients with GAD) with a mean age of 50.38 years (SD = 16.76). Average completion time was 2'30''. No items of the scale were left blank. Floor and ceiling effects were negligible. No patients with GAD had to be assisted to fill in the questionnaire. The scale was shown to be one-dimensional through factor analysis (explained variance = 72%). A cut-off point of 10 showed adequate values of sensitivity (86.8%) and specificity (93.4%), with AUC being statistically significant [AUC = 0.957-0.985); p < 0.001]. The scale significantly correlated with HAM-A (0.852, p < 0.001), HADS (anxiety domain, 0.903, p < 0.001), and WHO-DAS II (0.696, p > 0.001). Limitations Elderly people, particularly those very old, may need some help to complete the scale. Conclusion After the cultural adaptation process, a Spanish version of the GAD-7 scale was obtained. The validity of its content and the relevance and adequacy of items in the Spanish cultural context were confirmed. PMID:20089179

  13. Nano-scale sliding contact deformation behaviour of enamel under wet and dry conditions.

    PubMed

    Guidoni, Griselda; Swain, Michael; Jäger, Ingomar

    2010-04-01

    The abrasion response of cross sectional areas of enamel was studied by sliding a rounded diamond conical nano-indenter tip across the surface. The nano-indenter tip (radius approximately 1,200 nm) was scanned over a specific squared area with a load of 400 microN. Two different environments were chosen: Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and atmospheric laboratory condition. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) were used to characterize the final abraded areas. In addition, single scratches with linear incremented load were performed. The normal load and displacement data were utilized in a complementary manner to support the proposed deformation mechanisms. Greater orientation dependence for the case of the single scratches in relation to the abrasion tests was found. The latter results are discussed in terms of plastic deformation effects. The abrasion mechanisms were found to be the same for both wet and dry measurements and similar to that described in a previous study (Guidoni et al., Wear 266:60-68, 2009; Guidoni, Nano-scale mechanical and tribological properties of mineralized tissues. PhD. Montan University Leoben, Leoben, Austria, 2008). However, scratch deformation under fluid measurements shows greater recovery effects and abrasion resistance. PMID:20145979

  14. Simulation of collective behaviour in micro-scale swimmers: Effects of tumbling and rotary diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Deepak; Subramanian, Ganesh

    2013-11-01

    Recent experiments have shown that suspensions of swimming micro-organisms are characterized by complex dynamics involving enhanced swimming speeds, large-scale correlated motions and enhanced tracer diffusion. Understanding this dynamics is of fundamental interest and also has relevance to biological systems. In this work we develop a particle-based computational model to study a suspension of hydrodynamically interacting rod-like swimmers with the relation between the swimming velocity and intrinsic stress being enforced from slender body theory. Such an a priori specification reduces the computational cost since one now has a ``kinematic'' simulation with a fixed interaction law between swimmers; this does not restrict our study of the dynamics since the destabilizing mechanism has been attributed to the intrinsic (rather than the induced) stress field. Importantly, the model will include intrinsic de-correlation mechanisms found in bacteria such as rotary diffusion and tumbling whose effects have so far not been studied via simulations. Using this model we predict a box-size independent stability threshold based on the suspension concentration, tumble-time (duration between subsequent tumble events) and rotary diffusivity. Comparisons are made with the linear stability theory predictions by Subramanian & Koch (JFM 2009). We demonstrate that the effect of tumbling and rotary diffusion is to stabilize the suspension.

  15. Enhancing Social Integration of Immigrant Pupils at Risk for Social, Emotional and/or Behavioural Difficulties: The Outcomes of a Small-Scale Social-Emotional Learning Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doikou-Avlidou, Maro; Dadatsi, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the outcomes of a small-scale social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention programme regarding the social behaviour and the social position of pupils from culturally diverse backgrounds. Seven primary and secondary education teachers participated in the study along with the pupils attending their classes;…

  16. Parallel large-scale adaptive mesh PDE solution and applications to multiscale problems in solid earth geophysics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghattas, O.; Burstedde, C.; Stadler, G.; Wilcox, L. C.; Tu, T.; Issac, T.; Gurnis, M.; Alisic, L.; Tan, E.; Zhong, S.

    2009-12-01

    Many problems in solid earth geophysics are characterized by dynamics occurring on a wide range of length and time scales, placing the solution of the governing partial differential equations (PDEs) for such problems among the grand challenges of computational geophysics. One approach to overcoming the tyranny of scales is adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), which locally and dynamically adapts the mesh to resolve spatio-temporal scales and features of interest. For example, we are interested in modeling global mantle convection with nonlinear rheology and kilometer-scale resolution at faulted plate boundaries. Another problem of interest is modeling the dynamics of polar ice sheets with fine resolution in the vicinity of stick-slip transitions. Geophysical inverse problems characterized by a wide range of medium properties can also benefit from AMR as the earth model is updated. While AMR promises to help overcome the challenges inherent in modeling multiscale problems, the benefits are difficult to achieve in practice, particularly on petascale computers that are essential for frontier problems. Due to the complex dynamic data structures and communication patterns, and frequent data exchange and redistribution, scaling dynamic AMR to tens of thousands of processors has long been considered a challenge. Another difficulty is extending parallel AMR techniques to high-order-accurate, complex-geometry-conforming finite element methods that are favored for many classes of solid earth geophysical problems. Here, we present the ALPS (Adaptive Large-scale Parallel Simulations) framework for parallel adaptive solution of PDEs. ALPS includes the octor and p4est libraries for parallel dynamic mesh adaptivity on single-octree-based and forest-of-octree-based geometries, respectively, and the mangll library for arbitrary-order hexahedral continuous and discontinuous finite/spectral element discretizations on general multi-octree geometries. ALPS has been shown to scale well

  17. Genome-scale study reveals reduced metabolic adaptability in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Jerby, Livnat; Petäjä, Elina M; Mattila, Ismo; Jäntti, Sirkku; Auvinen, Petri; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Ruppin, Eytan; Orešič, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major risk factor leading to chronic liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Here we chart liver metabolic activity and functionality in NAFLD by integrating global transcriptomic data, from human liver biopsies, and metabolic flux data, measured across the human splanchnic vascular bed, within a genome-scale model of human metabolism. We show that an increased amount of liver fat induces mitochondrial metabolism, lipolysis, glyceroneogenesis and a switch from lactate to glycerol as substrate for gluconeogenesis, indicating an intricate balance of exacerbated opposite metabolic processes in glycemic regulation. These changes were associated with reduced metabolic adaptability on a network level in the sense that liver fat accumulation puts increasing demands on the liver to adaptively regulate metabolic responses to maintain basic liver functions. We propose that failure to meet excessive metabolic challenges coupled with reduced metabolic adaptability may lead to a vicious pathogenic cycle leading to the co-morbidities of NAFLD. PMID:26839171

  18. Genome-scale study reveals reduced metabolic adaptability in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Jerby, Livnat; Petäjä, Elina M.; Mattila, Ismo; Jäntti, Sirkku; Auvinen, Petri; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Ruppin, Eytan; Orešič, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major risk factor leading to chronic liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Here we chart liver metabolic activity and functionality in NAFLD by integrating global transcriptomic data, from human liver biopsies, and metabolic flux data, measured across the human splanchnic vascular bed, within a genome-scale model of human metabolism. We show that an increased amount of liver fat induces mitochondrial metabolism, lipolysis, glyceroneogenesis and a switch from lactate to glycerol as substrate for gluconeogenesis, indicating an intricate balance of exacerbated opposite metabolic processes in glycemic regulation. These changes were associated with reduced metabolic adaptability on a network level in the sense that liver fat accumulation puts increasing demands on the liver to adaptively regulate metabolic responses to maintain basic liver functions. We propose that failure to meet excessive metabolic challenges coupled with reduced metabolic adaptability may lead to a vicious pathogenic cycle leading to the co-morbidities of NAFLD. PMID:26839171

  19. Adaptive fuzzy decentralised fault-tolerant control for nonlinear large-scale systems with actuator failures and unmodelled dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yinyin; Tong, Shaocheng; Li, Yongming

    2015-09-01

    This paper discusses the adaptive fuzzy decentralised fault-tolerant control (FTC) problem for a class of nonlinear large-scale systems in strict-feedback form. The systems under study contain the unknown nonlinearities, unmodelled dynamics, actuator faults and without the direct measurements of state variables. With the help of fuzzy logic systems identifying the unknown functions and a fuzzy adaptive observer is designed to estimate the unmeasured states. By using the backstepping design technique and the dynamic surface control approach and combining with the changing supply function technique, a fuzzy adaptive FTC scheme is developed. The main features of the proposed control approach are that it can guarantee the closed-loop system to be input-to-state practically stable, and also has the robustness to the unmodelled dynamics. Moreover, it can overcome the so-called problem of 'explosion of complexity' existing in the previous literature. Finally, simulation studies are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. [Stigmatization in HIV/AIDS: first German adaptation of the HIV-stigma scale (HSS-D)].

    PubMed

    Dinkel, Andreas; Nather, Christina; Jaeger, Hans; Jaegel-Guedes, Eva; Lahmann, Claas; Steinke, Christina; Wolf, Eva; Ronel, Joram

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in medical treatment and numerous public health campaigns stigmatization remains a potent stressor for people living with HIV/ AIDS. This study provides an initial German adaptation of the HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-D). Participants were 167 HIV-positive homosexual men aged 22-74 years. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the original four-factor structure (subscales: enacted stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, concern with public attitudes). Further psychometric analysis led to a revised version comprising 21 items (HSS-D21). The scale showed high reliability (α=0.90). Significant associations with anxiety, depres-sion, life satisfaction and perceived social support confirmed for construct validity. The majority of the respondents expressed high acceptance of the stigma measure. In order to eslish a thorough German adaptation further research with diverse samples is needed. PMID:23677626

  1. Micro-scale piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting: From fixed-frequency to adaptable-frequency devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lindsay Margaret

    hundred milliwatts and are falling steadily as improvements are made, it is feasible to use energy harvesting to power WSNs. This research begins by presenting the results of a thorough survey of ambient vibrations in the machine room of a large campus building, which found that ambient vibrations are low frequency, low amplitude, time varying, and multi-frequency. The modeling and design of fixed-frequency micro scale energy harvesters are then presented. The model is able to take into account rotational inertia of the harvester's proof mass and it accepts arbitrary measured acceleration input, calculating the energy harvester's voltage as an output. The fabrication of the micro electromechanical system (MEMS) energy harvesters is discussed and results of the devices harvesting energy from ambient vibrations are presented. The harvesters had resonance frequencies ranging from 31 - 232 Hz, which was the lowest reported in literature for a MEMS device, and produced 24 pW/g2 - 10 nW/g2 of harvested power from ambient vibrations. A novel method for frequency modification of the released harvester devices using a dispenser printed mass is then presented, demonstrating a frequency shift of 20 Hz. Optimization of the MEMS energy harvester connected to a resistive load is then presented, finding that the harvested power output can be increased to several microwatts with the optimized design as long as the driving frequency matches the harvester's resonance frequency. A framework is then presented to allow a similar optimization to be conducted with the harvester connected to a synchronously switched pre-bias circuit. With the realization that the optimized energy harvester only produces usable amounts of power if the resonance frequency and driving frequency match, which is an unrealistic situation in the case of ambient vibrations which change over time and are not always known a priori, an adaptable-frequency energy harvester was designed. The adaptable

  2. Explicit Adaptive Symplectic (Easy) Integrators: A Scaling Invariant Generalisation of the Levi-Civita and KS Regularisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanes, Sergio; Budd, Chris J.

    2004-05-01

    We present a generalisation of the Levi-Civita and Kustaanheimo-Stiefel regularisation. This allows the use of more general time rescalings. In particular, it is possible to find a regularisation which removes the singularity of the equations and preserves scaling invariance. In addition, these equations can, in certain cases, be integrated with explicit symplectic Runge-Kutta-Nyström methods. The combination of both techniques gives an explicit adaptive symplectic (EASY) integrator. We apply those methods to some perturbations of the Kepler problem and illustrate, by means of some numerical examples, when scaling invariant regularisations are more efficient that the LC/KS regularisation.

  3. Improving the textural characterization of trabecular bone structure to quantify its changes: the locally adapted scaling vector method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeth, Christoph W.; Mueller, Dirk; Boehm, Holger F.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Link, Thomas M.; Monetti, Roberto

    2005-04-01

    We extend the recently introduced scaling vector method (SVM) to improve the textural characterization of oriented trabecular bone structures in the context of osteoporosis. Using the concept of scaling vectors one obtains non-linear structural information from data sets, which can account for global anisotropies. In this work we present a method which allows us to determine the local directionalities in images by using scaling vectors. Thus it becomes possible to better account for local anisotropies and to implement this knowledge in the calculation of the scaling properties of the image. By applying this adaptive technique, a refined quantification of the image structure is possible: we test and evaluate our new method using realistic two-dimensional simulations of bone structures, which model the effect of osteoblasts and osteoclasts on the local change of relative bone density. The partial differential equations involved in the model are solved numerically using cellular automata (CA). Different realizations with slightly varying control parameters are considered. Our results show that even small changes in the trabecular structures, which are induced by variation of a control parameters of the system, become discernible by applying the locally adapted scaling vector method. The results are superior to those obtained by isotropic and/or bulk measures. These findings may be especially important for monitoring the treatment of patients, where the early recognition of (drug-induced) changes in the trabecular structure is crucial.

  4. Predicting and adapting to the agricultural impacts of large-scale drought (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. W.; Glotter, M.; Best, N.; Ruane, A. C.; Boote, K.; Hatfield, J.; Jones, J.; Rosenzweig, C.; Smith, L. A.; Foster, I.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of drought on agriculture is an important socioeconomic consequence of climate extremes. Drought affects millions of people globally each year, causing an average of 6-8 billion of damage annually in the U.S. alone. The 1988 U.S. drought is estimated to have cost 79 billion in 2013 dollars, behind only Hurricane Katrina as the most costly U.S. climate-related disaster in recent decades. The 2012 U.S. drought is expected to cost about 30 billion. Droughts and heat waves accounted for 12% of all billion-dollar disaster events in the U.S. from 1980-2011 but almost one quarter of total monetary damages. To make matters worse, the frequency and severity of large-scale droughts in important agricultural regions is expected to increase as temperatures rise and precipitation patterns shift, leading some researchers to suggest that extended drought will harm more people than any other climate-related impact, specifically in the area of food security. Improved understanding and forecasts of drought would have both immediate and long-term implications for the global economy and food security. We show that mechanistic agricultural models, applied in novel ways, can reproduce historical crop yield anomalies, especially in seasons for which drought is the overriding factor. With more accurate observations and forecasts for temperature and precipitation, the accuracy and lead times of drought impact predictions could be improved further. We provide evidence that changes in agricultural technologies and management have reduced system-level drought sensitivity in US maize production in recent decades, adaptations that could be applied elsewhere. This work suggests a new approach to modeling, monitoring, and forecasting drought impacts on agriculture. Simulated (dashed line), observed (solid line), and observed linear trend (dashed straight green line) of national average maize yield in tonnes per hectare from 1979-2012. The red dot indicates the USDA estimate for 2012

  5. Genome-environment association study suggests local adaptation to climate at the regional scale in Fagus sylvatica.

    PubMed

    Pluess, Andrea R; Frank, Aline; Heiri, Caroline; Lalagüe, Hadrien; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionary potential of long-lived species, such as forest trees, is fundamental for their local persistence under climate change (CC). Genome-environment association (GEA) analyses reveal if species in heterogeneous environments at the regional scale are under differential selection resulting in populations with potential preadaptation to CC within this area. In 79 natural Fagus sylvatica populations, neutral genetic patterns were characterized using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and genomic variation (144 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) out of 52 candidate genes) was related to 87 environmental predictors in the latent factor mixed model, logistic regressions and isolation by distance/environmental (IBD/IBE) tests. SSR diversity revealed relatedness at up to 150 m intertree distance but an absence of large-scale spatial genetic structure and IBE. In the GEA analyses, 16 SNPs in 10 genes responded to one or several environmental predictors and IBE, corrected for IBD, was confirmed. The GEA often reflected the proposed gene functions, including indications for adaptation to water availability and temperature. Genomic divergence and the lack of large-scale neutral genetic patterns suggest that gene flow allows the spread of advantageous alleles in adaptive genes. Thereby, adaptation processes are likely to take place in species occurring in heterogeneous environments, which might reduce their regional extinction risk under CC. PMID:26777878

  6. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; De Meyer, Sara; Decat, Peter; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Degomme, Olivier; Rojas, Mildrett; Hagens, Salazar Arnold; Auquilla, Nancy; Vega, Bernardo; Gorter, Anna C.; Orozco, Miguel; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and six in Cuenca (Ecuador) as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD), equality dimension (ED) and behavioural dimension (BD). ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to assess sexual behaviour

  7. Tolerance to LSD and DOB induced shaking behaviour: differential adaptations of frontocortical 5-HT(2A) and glutamate receptor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Dieterich, Daniela C; Grecksch, Gisela; Höllt, Volker

    2015-03-15

    Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and dimethoxy-bromoamphetamine (DOB), provoke stereotype-like shaking behaviour in rodents, which is hypothesised to engage frontocortical glutamate receptor activation secondary to serotonin2A (5-HT2A) related glutamate release. Challenging this hypothesis, we here investigate whether tolerance to LSD and DOB correlates with frontocortical adaptations of 5-HT2A and/or overall-glutamate binding sites. LSD and DOB (0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) induce a ketanserin-sensitive (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30-min pretreatment) increase in shaking behaviour (including head twitches and wet dog shakes), which with repeated application (7× in 4 ds) is undermined by tolerance. Tolerance to DOB, as indexed by DOB-sensitive [(3)H]spiroperidol and DOB induced [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S binding, is accompanied by a frontocortical decrease in 5-HT2A binding sites and 5-HT2 signalling, respectively; glutamate-sensitive [(3)H]glutamate binding sites, in contrast, remain unchanged. As to LSD, 5-HT2 signalling and 5-HT2A binding, respectively, are not or only marginally affected, yet [(3)H]glutamate binding is significantly decreased. Correlation analysis interrelates tolerance to DOB to the reduced 5-HT2A (r=.80) as well as the unchanged [(3)H]glutamate binding sites (r=.84); tolerance to LSD, as opposed, shares variance with the reduction in [(3)H]glutamate binding sites only (r=.86). Given that DOB and LSD both induce tolerance, one correlating with 5-HT2A, the other with glutamate receptor adaptations, it might be inferred that tolerance can arise at either level. That is, if a hallucinogen (like LSD in our study) fails to induce 5-HT2A (down-)regulation, glutamate receptors (activated postsynaptic to 5-HT2A related glutamate release) might instead adapt and thus prevent further overstimulation of the cortex. PMID:25513973

  8. Adaptation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) for Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Pollack, Amie; Nguyen, Minh Cao

    2012-12-01

    Intelligence testing is used for many purposes including identification of children for proper educational placement (e.g., children with learning disabilities, or intellectually gifted students), and to guide education by identifying cognitive strengths and weaknesses so that teachers can adapt their instructional style to students' specific learning styles. Most of the research involving intelligence tests has been conducted in highly developed Western countries, yet the need for intelligence testing is as or even more important in developing countries. The present study, conducted through the Vietnam National University Clinical Psychology CRISP Center, focused on the cultural adaptation of the WISC-IV intelligence test for Vietnam. We report on (a) the adaptation process including the translation, cultural analysis and modifications involved in adaptation, (b) present results of two pilot studies, and (c) describe collection of the standardization sample and results of analyses with the standardization sample, with the goal of sharing our experience with other researchers who may be involved in or interested in adapting or developing IQ tests for non-Western, non-English speaking cultures. PMID:23833330

  9. Genomic Evidence of Rapid and Stable Adaptive Oscillations over Seasonal Time Scales in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bergland, Alan O.; Behrman, Emily L.; O'Brien, Katherine R.; Schmidt, Paul S.; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2014-01-01

    In many species, genomic data have revealed pervasive adaptive evolution indicated by the fixation of beneficial alleles. However, when selection pressures are highly variable along a species' range or through time adaptive alleles may persist at intermediate frequencies for long periods. So called “balanced polymorphisms” have long been understood to be an important component of standing genetic variation, yet direct evidence of the strength of balancing selection and the stability and prevalence of balanced polymorphisms has remained elusive. We hypothesized that environmental fluctuations among seasons in a North American orchard would impose temporally variable selection on Drosophila melanogaster that would drive repeatable adaptive oscillations at balanced polymorphisms. We identified hundreds of polymorphisms whose frequency oscillates among seasons and argue that these loci are subject to strong, temporally variable selection. We show that these polymorphisms respond to acute and persistent changes in climate and are associated in predictable ways with seasonally variable phenotypes. In addition, our results suggest that adaptively oscillating polymorphisms are likely millions of years old, with some possibly predating the divergence between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Taken together, our results are consistent with a model of balancing selection wherein rapid temporal fluctuations in climate over generational time promotes adaptive genetic diversity at loci underlying polygenic variation in fitness related phenotypes. PMID:25375361

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability testing of Polish adaptation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS)

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Łoboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Jaarsma, Tiny; Łoboz-Grudzień, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of simple instruments for determination of self-care levels in heart failure (HF) patients is a subject of ongoing research. One such instrument, gaining growing popularity worldwide, is the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS). The aim of this study was to adapt and to test reliability of the Polish version of EHFScBS. Method A standard guideline was used for translation and cultural adaptation of the English version of EHFScBS into Polish. The study included 100 Polish HF patients aged between 24 and 91 years, among them 67 men and 33 women. Cronbach’s alpha was used for analysis of the internal consistency of EHFScBS. Results Mean total self-care score in the study group was 34.2±8.1 points. Good or satisfactory level of self-care were documented in four out of 12 analyzed EHFScBS domains. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire questionnaire was 0.64. The value of Cronbach’s alpha after deletion of specific items ranged from 0.55 to 0.65. Conclusion Polish HF patients present significant deficits of self-care, which are to a large extent associated with inefficacy of the public health care system. Apart from cultural characteristics, the socioeconomic context of the target population should be considered during language adaptation of EHFScBS, as well as during interpretation of data obtained with this instrument. A number of self-care–related behaviors may be optimized as a result of appropriate educational activities, also those offered by nursing personnel. PMID:25382973

  11. Reorganization of Finger Coordination Patterns During Adaptation to Rotation and Scaling of a Newly Learned Sensorimotor Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaolin; Mosier, Kristine M.; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A.; Casadio, Maura

    2011-01-01

    We examined how people organize redundant kinematic control variables (finger joint configurations) while learning to make goal-directed movements of a virtual object (a cursor) within a low-dimensional task space (a computer screen). Subjects participated in three experiments performed on separate days. Learning progressed rapidly on day 1, resulting in reduced target capture error and increased cursor trajectory linearity. On days 2 and 3, one group of subjects adapted to a rotation of the nominal map, imposed either stepwise or randomly over trials. Another group experienced a scaling distortion. We report two findings. First, adaptation rates and memory-dependent motor command updating depended on distortion type. Stepwise application and removal of the rotation induced a marked increase in finger motion variability but scaling did not, suggesting that the rotation initiated a more exhaustive search through the space of viable finger motions to resolve the target capture task than did scaling. Indeed, subjects formed new coordination patterns in compensating the rotation but relied on patterns established during baseline practice to compensate the scaling. These findings support the idea that the brain compensates direction and extent errors separately and in computationally distinct ways, but are inconsistent with the idea that once a task is learned, command updating is limited to those degrees of freedom contributing to performance (thereby minimizing energetic or similar costs of control). Second, we report that subjects who learned a scaling while moving to just one target generalized more narrowly across directions than those who learned a rotation. This contrasts with results from whole-arm reaching studies, where a learned scaling generalizes more broadly across direction than rotation. Based on inverse- and forward-dynamics analyses of reaching with the arm, we propose the difference in results derives from extensive exposure in reaching with familiar

  12. Assessing the bullying and victimisation experiences of children with special educational needs in mainstream schools: Development and validation of the Bullying Behaviour and Experience Scale.

    PubMed

    Fink, Elian; Deighton, Jessica; Humphrey, Neil; Wolpert, Miranda

    2014-11-18

    Children with special educational needs (SEN) are more likely to experience victimisation at school and there is some evidence to suggest that these children are also more likely to engage in bullying behaviours; however, no measure of bullying experiences has been designed specifically for use with these children. The Bullying Behaviour and Experiences Scale (BBES) was specifically developed as a self-report measure of victimisation and bullying behaviour for children with SEN. This study examines the initial psychometric properties of the BBES using a sample of 348 children (67 of which had SEN, mean age=10 years), and compares the incidence of both victimisation and bullying in children with SEN to their peers, controlling for behavioural and emotional difficulties. Overall, the BBES showed favourable psychometric properties using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses and differential item functioning. Comparing the frequency of victimisation and bullying using the BBES showed that children with SEN were not more likely to experience victimisation compared to their peers but when extant behavioural and emotional difficulties were controlled for then they were significantly more likely to report victimisation. Conversely, children with SEN were more likely to report bullying compared to their peers, but this effect disappeared when extant behavioural and emotional difficulties were controlled. Overall, the BBES appears to be a promising measure of victimisation and bullying for children with SEN. This study also highlights the need to consider SEN status independently of behavioural and emotional problems to help understand the nature and extent of bullying and victimisation in this important population of children. PMID:25462521

  13. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Persian Adaptation of Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatami, Gissou; Motamed, Niloofar; Ashrafzadeh, Mahshid

    2010-01-01

    Validity and reliability of Persian adaptation of MSLSS in the 12-18 years, middle and high school students (430 students in grades 6-12 in Bushehr port, Iran) using confirmatory factor analysis by means of LISREL statistical package were checked. Internal consistency reliability estimates (Cronbach's coefficient [alpha]) were all above the…

  14. Efficacy of adaptation measures to future water scarcity on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply sources for all sector are critically important for agricultural and industrial productivity. The current rapid increase in water use is considered unsustainable and threatens human life. In our previous study (Yoshikawa et al., 2014 in HESS), we estimated the time-varying dependence of water requirements from water supply sources during past and future periods using the global water resources model, H08. The sources of water requirements were specified using four categories: rivers, large reservoirs, medium-size reservoirs, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). We also estimated ΔNNBW which is defined as an increase in NNBW from the past to the future. From the results, we could require the further development of water supply sources in order to sustain future water use. For coping with water scarcity using ΔNNBW, there is need for adaptation measure. To address adaptation measures, we need to set adaptation options which can be divided between 'Supply enhancement' and 'Demand management'. The supply enhancement includes increased storage, groundwater development, inter-basin transfer, desalination and re-use urban waste water. Demand management is defined as a set of actions controlling water demand by reducing water loss, increasing water productivity, and water re-allocation. In this study, we focus on estimating further future water demand under taking into account of several adaptation measures using H08 model.

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Adaptive Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Sofia; Morato, Pedro; Luckasson, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive behavior construct has gained prominent attention in human services over the last several years in Portugal, and its measurement has become an integral part of the assessment of populations with intellectual disability. In Portugal, diagnosis remains exclusively based on IQ measures, although some attention recently has been given to…

  16. Homo-psychologicus: Reactionary behavioural aspects of epidemics.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Alhaji; Barley, Kamal; Hurtado, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    We formulate an in silico model of pathogen avoidance mechanism and investigate its impact on defensive behavioural measures (e.g., spontaneous social exclusions and distancing, crowd avoidance and voluntary vaccination adaptation). In particular, we use SIR(B)S (e.g., susceptible-infected-recovered with additional behavioural component) model to investigate the impact of homo-psychologicus aspects of epidemics. We focus on reactionary behavioural changes, which apply to both social distancing and voluntary vaccination participations. Our analyses reveal complex relationships between spontaneous and uncoordinated behavioural changes, the emergence of its contagion properties, and mitigation of infectious diseases. We find that the presence of effective behavioural changes can impede the persistence of disease. Furthermore, it was found that under perfect effective behavioural change, there are three regions in the response factor (e.g., imitation and/or reactionary) and behavioural scale factor (e.g., global/local) factors ρ-α behavioural space. Mainly, (1) disease is always endemic even in the presence of behavioural change, (2) behavioural-prevalence plasticity is observed and disease can sometimes be eradication, and (3) elimination of endemic disease under permanence of permanent behavioural change is achieved. These results suggest that preventive behavioural changes (e.g., non-pharmaceutical prophylactic measures, social distancing and exclusion, crowd avoidance) are influenced by individual differences in perception of risks and are a salient feature of epidemics. Additionally, these findings indicates that care needs to be taken when considering the effect of adaptive behavioural change in predicting the course of epidemics, and as well as the interpretation and development of the public health measures that account for spontaneous behavioural changes. PMID:26972513

  17. [Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12) into Brazilian Portuguese].

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Leandro Alberto Calazans; Baitelli, Carolinne; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2012-05-01

    Poor walking performance is predictive of heart disease and osteoporosis and increases the risk of death in the elderly. Gait and vision have been identified as the most valuable physical functions according to multiple sclerosis patients' perceptions. The objective of this study was to perform a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12) into Brazilian Portuguese. A study of cross-cultural adaptation was conducted in ten steps. Participation in the study included four translators, two back-translators, twelve medical experts, twelve patients, twelve healthy subjects, and a Portuguese language expert. Only the question "Did standing make it more difficult to do things?" posed difficulty in the translation process. Maximum time for completion was less than three minutes (171 seconds). Internal consistency analyses showed high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94). The content validation and internal consistency stages were completed satisfactorily. PMID:22641523

  18. Behaviour of mobile macrofauna is a key factor in beach ecology as response to rapid environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapini, Felicita

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beach animals show behavioural adaptations that are expressed as contingencies during the life history of individuals to face periodic and episodic environmental changes. Such adaptations include activity rhythms, orientation, zonation, burrowing, escape responses and feeding strategies, the first two being common adaptations to all mobile animals. The complex conditions of a particular beach environment may be integrated in a learning process enhancing the adaptation and survival of individuals and eventually of populations. Evidence exists of genetic determination of some behavioural features that are adaptive in the long term (throughout generations) by increasing individual survival and reproductive potential. The environmental features integrated with the life history of beach animals shape the individual behaviour through ontogenetic processes, as well as population behaviour through evolutionary processes. Thus, behavioural differences among individuals may reflect environmental variation at the local and small/medium temporal scales of beach processes, whereas within-population behavioural coherence and differences among populations may reflect variation at the geographic scale. The different foci stressed by different authors and the variety of evidence dependent upon local geographical and ecological conditions have often resulted in compartmentalised explanations, making generalizations and the repeatability of behavioural studies of beach ecology challenging. There was a need to developing a more synthetic paradigm for beach animal behaviour. This paper gives a brief overview of the theoretical background and keystone studies, which have contributed to our understanding of animal behaviour in sandy beach ecology, and proposes testable hypotheses to be integrated in the beach ecology paradigm.

  19. Adapting the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale for Use with Argentinean University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlan, Luis Alberto; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Perez, Edgardo Raul

    2009-01-01

    A new Spanish version of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale (CTAS) was created to be used explicitly with Argentinean university students. The scale was translated and verified through blind back translation and given to a large sample of students majoring in psychology or chemistry (N = 752). Exploratory Factor Analysis (N = 376) showed an internal…

  20. Matching Social and Biophysical Scales in Extensive Livestock Production as a Basis for Adaptation to Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, N. F.; Bestelmeyer, B.

    2015-12-01

    Global livestock production is heterogeneous, and its benefits and costs vary widely across global contexts. Extensive grazing lands (or rangelands) constitute the vast majority of the land dedicated to livestock production globally, but they are relatively minor contributors to livestock-related environmental impacts. Indeed, the greatest potential for environmental damage in these lands lies in their potential for conversion to other uses, including agriculture, mining, energy production and urban development. Managing such conversion requires improving the sustainability of livestock production in the face of fragmentation, ecological and economic marginality and climate change. We present research from Mongolia and the United States demonstrating methods of improving outcomes on rangelands by improving the fit between the scales of social and biophysical processes. Especially in arid and semi-arid settings, rangelands exhibit highly variable productivity over space and time and non-linear or threshold dynamics in vegetation; climate change is projected to exacerbate these challenges and, in some cases, diminish overall productivity. Policy and governance frameworks that enable landscape-scale management and administration enable range livestock producers to adapt to these conditions. Similarly, livestock breeds that have evolved to withstand climate and vegetation change improve producers' prospects in the face of increasing variability and declining productivity. A focus on the relationships among primary production, animal production, spatial connectivity, and scale must underpin adaptation strategies in rangelands.

  1. Population response to the risk of vector-borne diseases: lessons learned from socio-behavioural research during large-scale outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Setbon, M; Raude, J

    2009-01-01

    Vector-borne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile fevers are increasingly identified as major global human health threats in developing and developed countries. The success or failure of vector control rests mainly on the nature and scale of the behavioural response of exposed populations. Large-scale adoption of recommended protective behaviour represents a critical challenge that cannot be addressed without a better understanding of how individuals perceive and react to the risk of infection. Recently, French overseas territories faced large-scale outbreaks: an epidemic of chikungunya fever in La Re′ union and Mayotte (2005–2006) and four successive outbreaks of dengue fever in one Caribbean island, Martinique (1995–2007). To assess how these populations perceived and responded to the risk, and how the nature and scale of protection affected their clinical status, socio-epidemiological surveys were conducted on each island during the outbreaks. These surveys address three crucial and interconnected questions relevant to the period after persons infected by the virus were identified: which factors shape the risk of acquiring disease? Which socio- demographic characteristics and living conditions induce a higher likelihood of infection? What is the impact of risk perception on protective behaviours adopted against mosquito bites? Grounded on the results of these surveys, a general framework is proposed to help draw out the knowledge needed to reveal the factors associated with higher probability of infection as an outbreak emerges. The lessons learnt can inform health authorities’ efforts to improve risk communication programmes, both in terms of the target and content of messages, so as to explore new strategies for ensuring sustainable protective behaviour. The authors compare three epidemics of vector-borne diseases to elucidate psychosocial factors that determine how populations perceive and respond to the risk of

  2. Human cooperation shows the distinctive signatures of adaptations to small-scale social life.

    PubMed

    Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda

    2016-01-01

    The properties of individual carbon atoms allow them to chain into complex molecules of immense length. They are not limited to structures involving only a few atoms. The design features of our evolved neural adaptations appear similarly extensible. Individuals with forager brains can link themselves together into unprecedentedly large cooperative structures without the need for large group-beneficial modifications to evolved human design. Roles need only be intelligible to our social program logic, and judged better than alternatives. PMID:27562926

  3. Scaling properties of evolutionary paths in a biophysical model of protein adaptation.

    PubMed

    Manhart, Michael; Morozov, Alexandre V

    2015-07-01

    The enormous size and complexity of genotypic sequence space frequently requires consideration of coarse-grained sequences in empirical models. We develop scaling relations to quantify the effect of this coarse-graining on properties of fitness landscapes and evolutionary paths. We first consider evolution on a simple Mount Fuji fitness landscape, focusing on how the length and predictability of evolutionary paths scale with the coarse-grained sequence length and alphabet. We obtain simple scaling relations for both the weak- and strong-selection limits, with a non-trivial crossover regime at intermediate selection strengths. We apply these results to evolution on a biophysical fitness landscape that describes how proteins evolve new binding interactions while maintaining their folding stability. We combine the scaling relations with numerical calculations for coarse-grained protein sequences to obtain quantitative properties of the model for realistic binding interfaces and a full amino acid alphabet. PMID:26020812

  4. Scaling properties of evolutionary paths in a biophysical model of protein adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manhart, Michael; Morozov, Alexandre V.

    2015-07-01

    The enormous size and complexity of genotypic sequence space frequently requires consideration of coarse-grained sequences in empirical models. We develop scaling relations to quantify the effect of this coarse-graining on properties of fitness landscapes and evolutionary paths. We first consider evolution on a simple Mount Fuji fitness landscape, focusing on how the length and predictability of evolutionary paths scale with the coarse-grained sequence length and alphabet. We obtain simple scaling relations for both the weak- and strong-selection limits, with a non-trivial crossover regime at intermediate selection strengths. We apply these results to evolution on a biophysical fitness landscape that describes how proteins evolve new binding interactions while maintaining their folding stability. We combine the scaling relations with numerical calculations for coarse-grained protein sequences to obtain quantitative properties of the model for realistic binding interfaces and a full amino acid alphabet.

  5. Spanish Adaptation of the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas-Sabado, Joaquin; Limonero, Joaquin; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    The Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale (CL-FODS) consists of 4 subscales: Death of Self, Dying of Self, Death of Others, and Dying of Others. The aim of this study was to develop a Spanish version of the CL-FODS and to explore its psychometric properties. The revised version of the scale was translated into Spanish from English. Then, the back…

  6. Translation into Brazilian Portuguese, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Stanford presenteeism scale-6 and work instability scale for ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Frauendorf, Renata; de Medeiros Pinheiro, Marcelo; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita

    2014-12-01

    Loss of productivity at work, as a result of health problems, is becoming an issue of interest due to the high burden it represents in society. The measurement of such phenomenon can be made using generic and specific scales for certain diseases such as the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6) and the Work Instability Scale for Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS-WIS), specific for patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aim of this study was to translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of SPS-6 and AS-WIS into Portuguese and check their psychometric properties. The study also aimed to evaluate the relationship between the general scores of the scales and the main sociodemographic and clinical data, lifestyles, and absenteeism in patients with AS and correlate these variables with SPS-6 and AS-WIS scales. A sample of 120 patients with AS and 80 workers at a university hospital was evaluated. The processes for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the instruments followed preestablished steps and rules presented in the literature. For the evaluation of measurement properties and correlations between scales, intra-class correlation coefficient (reproducibility analysis), Cronbach alpha (internal consistency), and Pearson correlation coefficient (validity) were employed. The inter-observer (0.986) and intra-observer (0.992) reproducibilities of the AS-WIS were shown to be high as well as the internal consistency (0.995). Similarly, the inter-observer reliability of SPS-6 was considered good (0.890), although it showed a poorer performance when considering the same observer (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.675 and intra-class correlation = 0.656). Internal consistency, for the total number of items, as measured by Cronbach alpha, was 0.889. The validity of the scales was evaluated thru the comparison of the achieved scores with the results of the WLQ, SF-36, ASQoL, BASFI, BASDAI, HAQ-S, and SRQ-20 instruments. Correlations between loss of

  7. Avoidance and activation as keys to depression: adaptation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale in a Spanish sample.

    PubMed

    Barraca, Jorge; Pérez-Alvarez, Marino; Lozano Bleda, José Héctor

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we present the adaptation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS), developed by Kanter, Mulick, Busch, Berlin, and Martell (2007), in a Spanish sample. The psychometric properties were tested in a sample of 263 participants (124 clinical and 139 non-clinical). The results show that, just as in the original English version, the Spanish BADS is a valid and internally consistent scale. Construct validity was examined by correlation with the BDI-II, AAQ, ATQ, MCQ-30, STAI and EROS. Factor analysis justified the four-dimensions of the original instrument (Activation, Avoidance/Rumination, Work/School Impairment and Social Impairment), although with some differences in the factor loadings of the items. Further considerations about the usefulness of the BADS in the clinical treatment of depressed patients are also suggested. PMID:22059343

  8. Mitigating and adapting to climate change: multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Demuzere, M; Orru, K; Heidrich, O; Olazabal, E; Geneletti, D; Orru, H; Bhave, A G; Mittal, N; Feliu, E; Faehnle, M

    2014-12-15

    In order to develop climate resilient urban areas and reduce emissions, several opportunities exist starting from conscious planning and design of green (and blue) spaces in these landscapes. Green urban infrastructure has been regarded as beneficial, e.g. by balancing water flows, providing thermal comfort. This article explores the existing evidence on the contribution of green spaces to climate change mitigation and adaptation services. We suggest a framework of ecosystem services for systematizing the evidence on the provision of bio-physical benefits (e.g. CO2 sequestration) as well as social and psychological benefits (e.g. improved health) that enable coping with (adaptation) or reducing the adverse effects (mitigation) of climate change. The multi-functional and multi-scale nature of green urban infrastructure complicates the categorization of services and benefits, since in reality the interactions between various benefits are manifold and appear on different scales. We will show the relevance of the benefits from green urban infrastructures on three spatial scales (i.e. city, neighborhood and site specific scales). We will further report on co-benefits and trade-offs between the various services indicating that a benefit could in turn be detrimental in relation to other functions. The manuscript identifies avenues for further research on the role of green urban infrastructure, in different types of cities, climates and social contexts. Our systematic understanding of the bio-physical and social processes defining various services allows targeting stressors that may hamper the provision of green urban infrastructure services in individual behavior as well as in wider planning and environmental management in urban areas. PMID:25163601

  9. On Event-Triggered Adaptive Architectures for Decentralized and Distributed Control of Large-Scale Modular Systems.

    PubMed

    Albattat, Ali; Gruenwald, Benjamin C; Yucelen, Tansel

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an increased interest in physical systems controlled over wireless networks (networked control systems). These systems allow the computation of control signals via processors that are not attached to the physical systems, and the feedback loops are closed over wireless networks. The contribution of this paper is to design and analyze event-triggered decentralized and distributed adaptive control architectures for uncertain networked large-scale modular systems; that is, systems consist of physically-interconnected modules controlled over wireless networks. Specifically, the proposed adaptive architectures guarantee overall system stability while reducing wireless network utilization and achieving a given system performance in the presence of system uncertainties that can result from modeling and degraded modes of operation of the modules and their interconnections between each other. In addition to the theoretical findings including rigorous system stability and the boundedness analysis of the closed-loop dynamical system, as well as the characterization of the effect of user-defined event-triggering thresholds and the design parameters of the proposed adaptive architectures on the overall system performance, an illustrative numerical example is further provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed decentralized and distributed control approaches. PMID:27537894

  10. Adaptive optics enables three-dimensional single particle tracking at the sub-millisecond scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juette, Manuel F.; Rivera-Molina, Felix E.; Toomre, Derek K.; Bewersdorf, Joerg

    2013-04-01

    We present the integration of an adaptive optics element into a feedback-driven single particle tracking microscope. Our instrument captures three-dimensional (3D) trajectories with down to 130 μs temporal resolution for dynamic studies on the nanoscale. Our 3D beam steering approach tracks particles over an axial range of >6 μm with ˜2 ms mechanical response times and isolates the sample from any tracking motion. Tracking of transport vesicles containing Alexa488-labeled transferrin glycoprotein in living cells demonstrates the speed and sensitivity of our instrument.

  11. Validation of a French-Canadian adaptation of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 for the adult population.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Elise; Carbonneau, Noémie; Lamarche, Benoît; Provencher, Véronique; Bégin, Catherine; Bradette-Laplante, Maude; Laramée, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Intuitive eating is an adaptive eating style based on the reliance on physiological cues to determine when, what, and how much to eat. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) is a validated four-subscale tool measuring the degree of adherence to intuitive eating principles. The present series of studies aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of a French-Canadian adaptation of the IES-2 for the adult population. The factor structure, the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), the construct validity, and the discriminant validity were evaluated in 334 women and 75 men from the Province of Québec, Canada, across two studies. A confirmatory factor analysis upheld that the four-factor structure of the original IES-2 was adequate for the present sample of French-Canadians. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity evidence was obtained with the significant associations between intuitive eating and psychological and eating-related variables. Intuitive eating was negatively associated with eating disorder symptomatology and with food- and weight-preoccupation, and positively associated with body-esteem and well-being. The French-Canadian IES-2 was also able to discriminate between genders and body mass index categories. The properties of this new version of the IES-2 are demonstrative of a reliable and valid tool to assess intuitive eating in the French-Canadian adult population of the Province of Québec. PMID:27179938

  12. Compulsive Use of Internet-based Sexually Explicit Media: Adaptation and Validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)

    PubMed Central

    Antebi, Nadav; Schrimshaw, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM) may contribute to greater numbers of sexual partners, sexual risk taking, greater interest in group sex, and lower self-esteem among men who have sex with men (MSM), research has not addressed compulsive use of Internet-based SEM due to the lack of a validated measure for this population. This report investigates the psychometric properties of the 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS; Meerkerk, van den Eijnden, Vermulst, & Garretsen, 2009) adapted to assess the severity of compulsive Internet SEM use. A total of 265 Internet SEM-viewing MSM participated in an online survey about their SEM preferences, viewing habits, and recent sexual behaviors. A principal components analysis revealed a single-component, 13-item scale to adequately assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of this phenomenon, with a high internal consistency (α = .92). Greater compulsive use of Internet SEM was positively correlated with several relevant variables including boredom, sexual frustration, time spent viewing Internet SEM, and number of recent male sexual partners. The results offer preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of using an adapted version of the CIUS to understand compulsive Internet SEM use, and allow for more research into the potential negative consequences of compulsive SEM use. PMID:24679612

  13. Global Rebalancing of Cellular Resources by Pleiotropic Point Mutations Illustrates a Multi-scale Mechanism of Adaptive Evolution.

    PubMed

    Utrilla, Jose; O'Brien, Edward J; Chen, Ke; McCloskey, Douglas; Cheung, Jacky; Wang, Harris; Armenta-Medina, Dagoberto; Feist, Adam M; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2016-04-27

    Pleiotropic regulatory mutations affect diverse cellular processes, posing a challenge to our understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships across multiple biological scales. Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) allows for such mutations to be found and characterized in the context of clear selection pressures. Here, several ALE-selected single-mutation variants in RNA polymerase (RNAP) of Escherichia coli are detailed using an integrated multi-scale experimental and computational approach. While these mutations increase cellular growth rates in steady environments, they reduce tolerance to stress and environmental fluctuations. We detail structural changes in the RNAP that rewire the transcriptional machinery to rebalance proteome and energy allocation toward growth and away from several hedging and stress functions. We find that while these mutations occur in diverse locations in the RNAP, they share a common adaptive mechanism. In turn, these findings highlight the resource allocation trade-offs organisms face and suggest how the structure of the regulatory network enhances evolvability. PMID:27135538

  14. Large-scale adaptive divergence in Boechera fecunda, an endangered wild relative of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Leamy, Larry J; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Cousins, Vanessa; Mujacic, Ibro; Manzaneda, Antonio J; Prasad, Kasavajhala; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Song, Bao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Many biological species are threatened with extinction because of a number of factors such as climate change and habitat loss, and their preservation depends on an accurate understanding of the extent of their genetic variability within and among populations. In this study, we assessed the genetic divergence of five quantitative traits in 10 populations of an endangered cruciferous species, Boechera fecunda, found in only several populations in each of two geographic regions (WEST and EAST) in southwestern Montana. We analyzed variation in quantitative traits, neutral molecular markers, and environmental factors and provided evidence that despite the restricted geographical distribution of this species, it exhibits a high level of genetic variation and regional adaptation. Conservation efforts therefore should be directed to the preservation of populations in each of these two regions without attempting transplantation between regions. Heritabilities and genetic coefficients of variation estimated from nested ANOVAs were generally high for leaf and rosette traits, although lower (and not significantly different from 0) for water-use efficiency. Measures of quantitative genetic differentiation, QST, were calculated for each trait from each pair of populations. For three of the five traits, these values were significantly higher between regions compared with those within regions (after adjustment for neutral genetic variation, FST). This suggested that natural selection has played an important role in producing regional divergence in this species. Our analysis also revealed that the B. fecunda populations appear to be locally adapted due, at least in part, to differences in environmental conditions in the EAST and WEST regions. PMID:25473471

  15. Identification of Hot Moments and Hot Spots for Real-Time Adaptive Control of Multi-scale Environmental Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wietsma, T.; Minsker, B. S.

    2012-12-01

    Increased sensor throughput combined with decreasing hardware costs has led to a disruptive growth in data volume. This disruption, popularly termed "the data deluge," has placed new demands for cyberinfrastructure and information technology skills among researchers in many academic fields, including the environmental sciences. Adaptive sampling has been well established as an effective means of improving network resource efficiency (energy, bandwidth) without sacrificing sample set quality relative to traditional uniform sampling. However, using adaptive sampling for the explicit purpose of improving resolution over events -- situations displaying intermittent dynamics and unique hydrogeological signatures -- is relatively new. In this paper, we define hot spots and hot moments in terms of sensor signal activity as measured through discrete Fourier analysis. Following this frequency-based approach, we apply the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem, a fundamental contribution from signal processing that led to the field of information theory, for analysis of uni- and multivariate environmental signal data. In the scope of multi-scale environmental sensor networks, we present several sampling control algorithms, derived from the Nyquist-Shannon theorem, that operate at local (field sensor), regional (base station for aggregation of field sensor data), and global (Cloud-based, computationally intensive models) scales. Evaluated over soil moisture data, results indicate significantly greater sample density during precipitation events while reducing overall sample volume. Using these algorithms as indicators rather than control mechanisms, we also discuss opportunities for spatio-temporal modeling as a tool for planning/modifying sensor network deployments. Locally adaptive model based on Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem Pareto frontiers for local, regional, and global models relative to uniform sampling. Objectives are (1) overall sampling efficiency and (2) sampling

  16. Fine-scale geographic variation in photosynthetic-related traits of Picea glauca seedlings indicates local adaptation to climate.

    PubMed

    Benomar, Lahcen; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Villeneuve, Isabelle; Rainville, André; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; Margolis, Hank A

    2015-08-01

    Climate-related variations in functional traits of boreal tree species can result both from physiological acclimation and genetic adaptation of local populations to their biophysical environment. To improve our understanding and prediction of the physiological and growth responses of populations to climate change, we studied the role of climate of seed origin in determining variations in functional traits and its implications for tree improvement programs for a commonly reforested boreal conifer, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). We evaluated growth, root-to-shoot ratio (R/S), specific leaf area (SLA), needle nitrogen (N(mass)), total non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and photosynthetic traits of 3-year-old seedlings in a greenhouse experiment using seed from six seed orchards (SO) representing the different regions where white spruce is reforested in Québec. Height and total dry mass (TDM) were positively correlated with photosynthetic capacity (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and mesophyll conductance (g(m)). Total dry mass, but not height growth, was strongly correlated with latitude of seed origin (SO) and associated climate variables. A(max), g(s), g(m) and more marginally, photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE) were positively associated with the mean July temperature of the SO, while water use efficiency (WUE) was negatively associated. Maximum rates of carboxylation (V(cmax)), maximum rates of electron transport (J(max)), SLA, N(mass), NSC and R/S showed no pattern. Our results did not demonstrate a higher Amax for northern seed orchards, although this has been previously hypothesized as an adaptation mechanism for maintaining carbon uptake in northern regions. We suggest that gs, gm, WUE and PNUE are the functional traits most associated with fine-scale geographic clines and with the degree of local adaptation of white spruce populations to their biophysical environments. These geographic patterns may reflect in situ adaptive genetic

  17. Large-Scale Assessment of a Fully Automatic Co-Adaptive Motor Imagery-Based Brain Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Acqualagna, Laura; Botrel, Loic; Vidaurre, Carmen; Kübler, Andrea; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In the last years Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology has benefited from the development of sophisticated machine leaning methods that let the user operate the BCI after a few trials of calibration. One remarkable example is the recent development of co-adaptive techniques that proved to extend the use of BCIs also to people not able to achieve successful control with the standard BCI procedure. Especially for BCIs based on the modulation of the Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR) these improvements are essential, since a not negligible percentage of users is unable to operate SMR-BCIs efficiently. In this study we evaluated for the first time a fully automatic co-adaptive BCI system on a large scale. A pool of 168 participants naive to BCIs operated the co-adaptive SMR-BCI in one single session. Different psychological interventions were performed prior the BCI session in order to investigate how motor coordination training and relaxation could influence BCI performance. A neurophysiological indicator based on the Power Spectral Density (PSD) was extracted by the recording of few minutes of resting state brain activity and tested as predictor of BCI performances. Results show that high accuracies in operating the BCI could be reached by the majority of the participants before the end of the session. BCI performances could be significantly predicted by the neurophysiological indicator, consolidating the validity of the model previously developed. Anyway, we still found about 22% of users with performance significantly lower than the threshold of efficient BCI control at the end of the session. Being the inter-subject variability still the major problem of BCI technology, we pointed out crucial issues for those who did not achieve sufficient control. Finally, we propose valid developments to move a step forward to the applicability of the promising co-adaptive methods. PMID:26891350

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Turkish version of the pain catastrophizing scale among patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    İlçin, Nursen; Gürpınar, Barış; Bayraktar, Deniz; Savcı, Sema; Çetin, Pınar; Sarı, İsmail; Akkoç, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study describes the cultural adaptation, validation, and reliability of the Turkish version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. [Methods] The validity of the Turkish version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale was assessed by evaluating data quality (missing data and floor and ceiling effects), principal components analysis, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), and construct validity (Spearman’s rho). Reproducibility analyses included standard measurement error, minimum detectable change, limits of agreement, and intraclass correlation coefficients. [Results] Sixty-four adult patients with ankylosing spondylitis with a mean age of 42.2 years completed the study. Factor analysis revealed that all questionnaire items could be grouped into two factors. Excellent internal consistency was found, with a Chronbach’s alpha value of 0.95. Reliability analyses showed an intraclass correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval) of 0.96 for the total score. There was a low correlation coefficient between the Turkish version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and body mass index, pain levels at rest and during activity, health-related quality of life, and fear and avoidance behaviors. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that the Turkish version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale is a valid and reliable clinical and research tool for patients with ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:26957778

  19. Adaptation and Validation of Aricak's Professional Self-Esteem Scale for Use in the Pakistani Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad; Bibi, Fariha; Gul, Asma

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristics of teachers having great bearing upon students' learning is their professional self-esteem. Various instruments are available for measuring general self-esteem and professional self-esteem of teachers. For the present study it was deemed appropriate to use a Turkish professional self-esteem scale developed by Aricak…

  20. Adapting the Academic Motivation Scale for Use in Pre-Tertiary Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) is a comprehensive and widely used instrument for assessing motivation based on the self-determination theory. Currently, no such comprehensive instrument exists to assess the different domains of motivation (stipulated by the self-determination theory) in mathematics education at the pre-tertiary level (grades…

  1. Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the Supports Intensity Scale in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux-Hebert, Melanie; Morin, Diane

    2009-01-01

    The Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) was translated into French. The French version was then validated using a sample of 245 persons with intellectual disabilities between the ages of 16 and 75 years. The internal consistency was excellent (0.98). Correlations with age and levels of intellectual disabilities were evidence of good construct validity.…

  2. Effects of acute chemotherapy-induced mucositis on spontaneous behaviour and the grimace scale in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, A L; Leach, M C; Preston, F L; Lymn, K A; Howarth, G S

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a frequent side-effect of chemotherapy treatment. Many oncological research programs aim to identify novel treatments for this distressing condition, and these programs frequently use rat models. Little is known about the presence and progression of pain in these models and how this can best be treated by analgesic therapy. We used a number of behaviour-based methods of pain assessment to determine which tools were best suited for pain identification. Baseline measures for behavioural assessment, rat grimace score and sociability were determined through analysis of continuously recorded video data and an applied social interaction test (n = 16). Mucositis was then induced by intraperitoneal injection of 5-fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) and further behavioural analyses undertaken. An assessment of enrichment interaction was also made by determining the mass of a plastic chew toy gnawed both pre- and post-chemotherapy injection. Behavioural scoring was performed 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after injection, with facial expression being scored at the 12, 24 and 48 h time-points. Sociability testing was performed once during the post-injection period. No significant differences were found in grimace scores between baseline and later daily measures. Behaviours similar to those previously reported post-laparotomy were observed. Writhing, twitching and back-arching behaviours were most evident in rats affected by mucositis and were increased in frequency (respectivePvalues: 0.002, 0.004 and 0.008) 48 h after chemotherapy injection compared with baseline, implying that pain onset occurred around this time-point. Social investigatory behaviour was also increased (P = 0.002) following disease onset. Each day, rats post-5FU injection gnawed a greater percentage of their nylabone enrichment by weight than the saline-injected control rats (P = 0.046). These data suggest that, of the tools tested, behavioural assessment scoring may find greatest

  3. Spectral solver for multi-scale plasma physics simulations with dynamically adaptive number of moments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vencels, Juris; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Johnson, Alec; Peng, Ivy Bo; Laure, Erwin; Markidis, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    A spectral method for kinetic plasma simulations based on the expansion of the velocity distribution function in a variable number of Hermite polynomials is presented. The method is based on a set of non-linear equations that is solved to determine the coefficients of the Hermite expansion satisfying the Vlasov and Poisson equations. In this paper, we first show that this technique combines the fluid and kinetic approaches into one framework. Second, we present an adaptive strategy to increase and decrease the number of Hermite functions dynamically during the simulation. The technique is applied to the Landau damping and two-stream instabilitymore » test problems. Performance results show 21% and 47% saving of total simulation time in the Landau and two-stream instability test cases, respectively.« less

  4. On a practitioner's need of further development of Wechsler scales. Adaptive Intelligence Diagnosticum (AID 2).

    PubMed

    Kubinger, Klaus D

    2004-11-01

    Wechsler's intelligence test-batteries are still popular yet suffer from psychometric shortcomings and lack a certain content improvement and enlargement. In this paper a new approach will be presented that suits traditional Wechsler-testing. The approach in question is the Adaptive Intelligence Diagnosticum (AID 2; Kubinger & Wurst, 2000). Due to it's "branched testing" design, AID 2 works out to be more economical and in this regard also offers other advantages, such as parallel tests and short forms. AID 2 offers a method of survey for identifying specific developmental disorders or learning disabilities. It includes an optional non-verbal instruction and a schedule for retrograde observation support of behavioral misfits. It also offers discriminative indicators for intellectual neglect vs. intellectual advancement. PMID:15581231

  5. Spectral solver for multi-scale plasma physics simulations with dynamically adaptive number of moments

    SciTech Connect

    Vencels, Juris; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Johnson, Alec; Peng, Ivy Bo; Laure, Erwin; Markidis, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    A spectral method for kinetic plasma simulations based on the expansion of the velocity distribution function in a variable number of Hermite polynomials is presented. The method is based on a set of non-linear equations that is solved to determine the coefficients of the Hermite expansion satisfying the Vlasov and Poisson equations. In this paper, we first show that this technique combines the fluid and kinetic approaches into one framework. Second, we present an adaptive strategy to increase and decrease the number of Hermite functions dynamically during the simulation. The technique is applied to the Landau damping and two-stream instability test problems. Performance results show 21% and 47% saving of total simulation time in the Landau and two-stream instability test cases, respectively.

  6. Improved Discovery of Molecular Interactions in Genome-Scale Data with Adaptive Model-Based Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patrick O.

    2013-01-01

    Background High throughput molecular-interaction studies using immunoprecipitations (IP) or affinity purifications are powerful and widely used in biology research. One of many important applications of this method is to identify the set of RNAs that interact with a particular RNA-binding protein (RBP). Here, the unique statistical challenge presented is to delineate a specific set of RNAs that are enriched in one sample relative to another, typically a specific IP compared to a non-specific control to model background. The choice of normalization procedure critically impacts the number of RNAs that will be identified as interacting with an RBP at a given significance threshold – yet existing normalization methods make assumptions that are often fundamentally inaccurate when applied to IP enrichment data. Methods In this paper, we present a new normalization methodology that is specifically designed for identifying enriched RNA or DNA sequences in an IP. The normalization (called adaptive or AD normalization) uses a basic model of the IP experiment and is not a variant of mean, quantile, or other methodology previously proposed. The approach is evaluated statistically and tested with simulated and empirical data. Results and Conclusions The adaptive (AD) normalization method results in a greatly increased range in the number of enriched RNAs identified, fewer false positives, and overall better concordance with independent biological evidence, for the RBPs we analyzed, compared to median normalization. The approach is also applicable to the study of pairwise RNA, DNA and protein interactions such as the analysis of transcription factors via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) or any other experiments where samples from two conditions, one of which contains an enriched subset of the other, are studied. PMID:23349766

  7. Large-scale adaptive divergence in Boechera fecunda, an endangered wild relative of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Leamy, Larry J; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Cousins, Vanessa; Mujacic, Ibro; Manzaneda, Antonio J; Prasad, Kasavajhala; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Song, Bao-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Many biological species are threatened with extinction because of a number of factors such as climate change and habitat loss, and their preservation depends on an accurate understanding of the extent of their genetic variability within and among populations. In this study, we assessed the genetic divergence of five quantitative traits in 10 populations of an endangered cruciferous species, Boechera fecunda, found in only several populations in each of two geographic regions (WEST and EAST) in southwestern Montana. We analyzed variation in quantitative traits, neutral molecular markers, and environmental factors and provided evidence that despite the restricted geographical distribution of this species, it exhibits a high level of genetic variation and regional adaptation. Conservation efforts therefore should be directed to the preservation of populations in each of these two regions without attempting transplantation between regions. Heritabilities and genetic coefficients of variation estimated from nested ANOVAs were generally high for leaf and rosette traits, although lower (and not significantly different from 0) for water-use efficiency. Measures of quantitative genetic differentiation, Q ST, were calculated for each trait from each pair of populations. For three of the five traits, these values were significantly higher between regions compared with those within regions (after adjustment for neutral genetic variation, F ST). This suggested that natural selection has played an important role in producing regional divergence in this species. Our analysis also revealed that the B. fecunda populations appear to be locally adapted due, at least in part, to differences in environmental conditions in the EAST and WEST regions. PMID:25473471

  8. Adaptation of a pattern-scaling approach for assessment of local (village/valley) scale water resources and related vulnerabilities in the Upper Indus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

    2010-05-01

    The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate seasonal predictions of water resource availability coupled with sound understanding of interannual variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. This study focuses on the challenge of providing meaningful quantitative information at the village/valley scale in the upper reaches of the UIB. Proceeding by progressive reductions in scale, the typology of the observed UIB hydrological regimes -- glacial, nival and pluvial -- are examined with special emphasis on interannual variability for individual seasons. Variations in discharge (runoff) are compared to observations of climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) and available spatial data (elevation, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent). The first scale presented is composed of the large-scale, long-record gauged UIB tributary basins. The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) has maintained these stations for several decades in order to monitor seasonal flows and accumulate data for design of further infrastructure. Data from basins defined by five gauging stations on the Indus, Hunza, Gilgit and Astore rivers are examined. The second scale presented is a set of smaller gauged headwater catchments with short records. These gauges were installed by WAPDA and its partners amongst the international development agencies to assess potential

  9. Broad- to fine-scale population genetic patterning in the smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu across the Laurentian Great Lakes and beyond: an interplay of behaviour and geography.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Carol A; Murphy, Douglas J; Strange, Rex Meade

    2007-04-01

    Analysis of population genetic relationships reveals the signatures of current processes such as spawning behaviour and migration, as well as those of historical events including vicariance and climate change. This study examines these signatures through testing broad- to fine-scale genetic patterns among smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu spawning populations across their native Great Lakes range and outgroup areas, with fine-scale concentration in Lake Erie. Our primary hypotheses include whether genetic patterns result from behavioural and/or geographical isolation, specifically: (i) Are spawning groups in interconnected waterways genetically separable? (ii) What is the degree of isolation across and among lakes, basins, and tributaries? (iii) Do genetic divergences correspond to geographical distances? and (iv) Are historical colonization patterns from glacial refugia retained? Variation at eight nuclear microsatellite DNA loci are analysed for 666 smallmouth bass from 28 locations, including 425 individuals in Lake Erie; as well as Lakes Superior, Huron, and Ontario, and outgroups from the Mississippi, Ohio, St. Lawrence, and Hudson River drainages. Results reveal marked genetic differences among lake and river populations, as well as surprisingly high divergences among closely spaced riverine sites. Results do not fit an isolation-by-geographical-distance prediction for fine-scale genetic patterns, but show weak correspondence across large geographical scales. Genetic relationships thus are consistent with hypotheses regarding divergent origins through vicariance in glacial refugia, followed by colonization pathways establishing modern-day Great Lakes populations, and maintenance through behavioural site fidelity. Conservation management practices thus should preserve genetic identity and unique characters among smallmouth bass populations. PMID:17402977

  10. A Catalan adaptation and validation of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ester; Castarlenas, Elena; Miró, Jordi

    2016-06-01

    Pain catastrophizing is a key factor in modern conceptualizations of pain. The development of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children (PCS-C) has greatly contributed to the interest shown by pediatric pain specialists. The purpose of this work was to study the factor structure of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and analyze its reliability and convergent, discriminant, and criteria related validity. Three hundred sixteen adolescents (12-19 years) completed the Catalan version of the PCS-C and provided information about pain intensity. A subgroup of 136 participants also completed measures of disability, anxiety sensitivity and pain coping strategies. The results confirmed the 3-factor model solution for the PCS-C, and demonstrated good internal consistency for the total Catastrophizing Scale (0.89) and for the Rumination (0.80) and Helplessness (0.82) PCS-C subscales. Internal consistency for the Magnification subscale, however, was not quite as good (0.63). This 3-factor model could be improved by removing Item 8 and developing additional items for the Rumination PCS-C subscale. The results also provide evidence of the convergent, discriminant and criterion-related validity of the PCS-C scores when used with Catalan-speaking adolescents. Our data demonstrate that the Catalan version of the PCS-C is a psychometrically sound questionnaire that provides valid and reliable scores when used to assess pain catastrophizing in adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26619090

  11. Translation and adaptation of the fatigue severity scale for use in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, Carlos António

    2012-08-01

    The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) is a widely used instrument to measure the impact of fatigue on specific types of functioning. This study aims to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Portuguese version of the FSS. The questionnaire was administered to a worker sample of 424 nurses. Reliability analysis showed satisfactory results (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = .87). The test-retest reliability was .85. The principal component analysis showed that the FSS was a measure with a one-factor structure. The construct validity of the total FSS score was assessed by correlation with Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) score, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) score, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score. Each of the corresponding correlation coefficients among the total FSS score and MBI score, DASS score, and perceived fatigue score (VAS) were .55 (p < .01), .62 (p < .01), and .68 (p < .01), respectively, which shows sufficient construct validity. To measure the discriminant validity of FSS, we examined the differences in scores between groups in terms of the number of hours of sleep and overtime. The less nurses slept and the longer they worked, the higher their total FSS score became. This preliminary validation study of the Portuguese version of FSS proved that it is an acceptable, reliable, and valid measure of fatigue in the working population. PMID:22698652

  12. Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Lockley, Martin G; McCrea, Richard T; Buckley, Lisa G; Lim, Jong Deock; Matthews, Neffra A; Breithaupt, Brent H; Houck, Karen J; Gierliński, Gerard D; Surmik, Dawid; Kim, Kyung Soo; Xing, Lida; Kong, Dal Yong; Cart, Ken; Martin, Jason; Hadden, Glade

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between non-avian theropod dinosaurs and extant and fossil birds are a major focus of current paleobiological research. Despite extensive phylogenetic and morphological support, behavioural evidence is mostly ambiguous and does not usually fossilize. Thus, inferences that dinosaurs, especially theropods displayed behaviour analogous to modern birds are intriguing but speculative. Here we present extensive and geographically widespread physical evidence of substrate scraping behavior by large theropods considered as compelling evidence of "display arenas" or leks, and consistent with "nest scrape display" behaviour among many extant ground-nesting birds. Large scrapes, up to 2 m in diameter, occur abundantly at several Cretaceous sites in Colorado. They constitute a previously unknown category of large dinosaurian trace fossil, inferred to fill gaps in our understanding of early phases in the breeding cycle of theropods. The trace makers were probably lekking species that were seasonally active at large display arena sites. Such scrapes indicate stereotypical avian behaviour hitherto unknown among Cretaceous theropods, and most likely associated with terrirorial activity in the breeding season. The scrapes most probably occur near nesting colonies, as yet unknown or no longer preserved in the immediate study areas. Thus, they provide clues to paleoenvironments where such nesting sites occurred. PMID:26741567

  13. Theropod courtship: large scale physical evidence of display arenas and avian-like scrape ceremony behaviour by Cretaceous dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Lockley, Martin G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Buckley, Lisa G.; Deock Lim, Jong; Matthews, Neffra A.; Breithaupt, Brent H.; Houck, Karen J.; Gierliński, Gerard D.; Surmik, Dawid; Soo Kim, Kyung; Xing, Lida; Yong Kong, Dal; Cart, Ken; Martin, Jason; Hadden, Glade

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between non-avian theropod dinosaurs and extant and fossil birds are a major focus of current paleobiological research. Despite extensive phylogenetic and morphological support, behavioural evidence is mostly ambiguous and does not usually fossilize. Thus, inferences that dinosaurs, especially theropods displayed behaviour analogous to modern birds are intriguing but speculative. Here we present extensive and geographically widespread physical evidence of substrate scraping behavior by large theropods considered as compelling evidence of “display arenas” or leks, and consistent with “nest scrape display” behaviour among many extant ground-nesting birds. Large scrapes, up to 2 m in diameter, occur abundantly at several Cretaceous sites in Colorado. They constitute a previously unknown category of large dinosaurian trace fossil, inferred to fill gaps in our understanding of early phases in the breeding cycle of theropods. The trace makers were probably lekking species that were seasonally active at large display arena sites. Such scrapes indicate stereotypical avian behaviour hitherto unknown among Cretaceous theropods, and most likely associated with terrirorial activity in the breeding season. The scrapes most probably occur near nesting colonies, as yet unknown or no longer preserved in the immediate study areas. Thus, they provide clues to paleoenvironments where such nesting sites occurred. PMID:26741567

  14. The PhytoSCALE project: calibrating phytoplankton cell size as a proxy for climatic adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderiks, Jorijntje; Gerecht, Andrea; Hannisdal, Bjarte; Liow, Lee Hsiang; Reitan, Trond; Schweder, Tore; Edvardsen, Bente

    2013-04-01

    The Cenozoic fossil record reveals that coccolithophores (marine unicellular haptophyte algae) were globally more common and widespread, larger, and more heavily calcified before 34 million years ago (Ma), in a high-CO2 greenhouse world. We have recently demonstrated that changes in atmospheric CO2 have, directly or indirectly, exerted an important long-term control on the ecological prominence of coccolithophores as a whole [1]. On closer inspection, this macroevolutionary pattern primarily reflects the decline in abundance and subsequent extinction of large-celled and heavily calcified lineages, while small-sized species appear to have been more successful in adapting to the post-34 Ma "icehouse" world. Coccolith size (length) is a proxy for cellular volume-to-surface ratios (V:SA), as determined from fossil coccosphere geometries. Algal V:SA provides physiological constraints on carbon acquisition and other resource uptake rates, affecting both photosynthesis and calcification, and is therefore considered to be a key indicator of adaptation. As a general rule, small cells have faster growth rates than large cells under similar environmental conditions, giving small species a competitive advantage when resources become limiting. Our research aims to bridge the gap between short-term experimental observations of physiological and phenotypic plasticity in the modern species Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus, and time series of the long-term phenotypic variability of their Cenozoic ancestors. Single-clone growth experiments revealed significant plasticity in cell size and coccolith volume under growth-limiting conditions. However, the range in coccolith size (length) remained relatively constant for single genotypes between various growth conditions. With these new data we test to what extent the size variation observed in the fossil time series is a reflection of anagenetic changes (i.e. evolution of an ancestral species to a descendant species without

  15. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwood, Karen L.; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and…

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Female Genital Self-Image Scale (FGSIS) in Iranian female college students.

    PubMed

    Pakpour, Amir H; Zeidi, Isa Mohammadi; Ziaeiha, Masoumeh; Burri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a translated and culturally adapted Iranian version of the Female Genital Self-Image Scale (FGSIS-I) in a sample of college women. Further, the relationship between women's self-image, body appreciation, sexual functioning, and gynecological exam behavior was explored. A sample of 1,877 female students from five different universities across Qazvin and Tehran completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the FGSIS-I, and a gynecological exam behavior questionnaire. Good to excellent internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and convergent and construct validity were found. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) both provided a two-factor structure for the FGSIS-I. The validity of the FGSIS-I in predicting gynecological exam behavior of college women was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The final model accounted for 33% of the variance in gynecological exam behavior (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the FGSIS-I was found to be a highly valid and reliable instrument to assess female genital self-image in Iranian women. PMID:24168018

  17. Fast computation of an optimal controller for large-scale adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Massioni, Paolo; Kulcsár, Caroline; Raynaud, Henri-François; Conan, Jean-Marc

    2011-11-01

    The linear quadratic Gaussian regulator provides the minimum-variance control solution for a linear time-invariant system. For adaptive optics (AO) applications, under the hypothesis of a deformable mirror with instantaneous response, such a controller boils down to a minimum-variance phase estimator (a Kalman filter) and a projection onto the mirror space. The Kalman filter gain can be computed by solving an algebraic Riccati matrix equation, whose computational complexity grows very quickly with the size of the telescope aperture. This "curse of dimensionality" makes the standard solvers for Riccati equations very slow in the case of extremely large telescopes. In this article, we propose a way of computing the Kalman gain for AO systems by means of an approximation that considers the turbulence phase screen as the cropped version of an infinite-size screen. We demonstrate the advantages of the methods for both off- and on-line computational time, and we evaluate its performance for classical AO as well as for wide-field tomographic AO with multiple natural guide stars. Simulation results are reported. PMID:22048298

  18. Optimal-adaptive filters for modelling spectral shape, site amplification, and source scaling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal

    1989-01-01

    This paper introduces some applications of optimal filtering techniques to earthquake engineering by using the so-called ARMAX models. Three applications are presented: (a) spectral modelling of ground accelerations, (b) site amplification (i.e., the relationship between two records obtained at different sites during an earthquake), and (c) source scaling (i.e., the relationship between two records obtained at a site during two different earthquakes). A numerical example for each application is presented by using recorded ground motions. The results show that the optimal filtering techniques provide elegant solutions to above problems, and can be a useful tool in earthquake engineering.

  19. Genome Scale Evolution of Myxoma Virus Reveals Host-Pathogen Adaptation and Rapid Geographic Spread

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Peter J.; Rogers, Matthew B.; Fitch, Adam; DePasse, Jay V.; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Twaddle, Alan C.; Hudson, Peter J.; Tscharke, David C.; Read, Andrew F.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary interplay between myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) following release of the virus in Australia in 1950 as a biological control is a classic example of host-pathogen coevolution. We present a detailed genomic and phylogeographic analysis of 30 strains of MYXV, including the Australian progenitor strain Standard Laboratory Strain (SLS), 24 Australian viruses isolated from 1951 to 1999, and three isolates from the early radiation in Britain from 1954 and 1955. We show that in Australia MYXV has spread rapidly on a spatial scale, with multiple lineages cocirculating within individual localities, and that both highly virulent and attenuated viruses were still present in the field through the 1990s. In addition, the detection of closely related virus lineages at sites 1,000 km apart suggests that MYXV moves freely in geographic space, with mosquitoes, fleas, and rabbit migration all providing means of transport. Strikingly, despite multiple introductions, all modern viruses appear to be ultimately derived from the original introductions of SLS. The rapidity of MYXV evolution was also apparent at the genomic scale, with gene duplications documented in a number of viruses. Duplication of potential virulence genes may be important in increasing the expression of virulence proteins and provides the basis for the evolution of novel functions. Mutations leading to loss of open reading frames were surprisingly frequent and in some cases may explain attenuation, but no common mutations that correlated with virulence or attenuation were identified. PMID:24067966

  20. Sexual dimorphism in scales of marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae (Pleuronectiformes: Pleuronectidae), with comments on the relevance to their spawning behaviour.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, T

    2013-11-01

    Variation of scales on the blind side of Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae in relation to sex, maturity and body size was examined. Immature males often have cycloid scales, while mature males have mostly ctenoid scales. Large females also often have ctenoid scales (but with fewer spines compared with males), and small females have mostly cycloid scales. The number of spines (ctenii) on the blind-side scale increases with body size in both sexes, indicating an ontogenetic change in scale morphology. As P. yokohamae spawn demersal eggs with males positioning themselves above the females on the ocular side, it is hypothesized that ctenoid scales on the blind side in mature males function for maintaining contact with females during spawning. PMID:24580668

  1. Population Processes at Multiple Spatial Scales Maintain Diversity and Adaptation in the Linum marginale - Melampsora lini Association

    PubMed Central

    Nemri, Adnane; Barrett, Luke G.; Laine, Anna-Liisa; Burdon, Jeremy J.; Thrall, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Host-pathogen coevolution is a major driver of species diversity, with an essential role in the generation and maintenance of genetic variation in host resistance and pathogen infectivity. Little is known about how resistance and infectivity are structured across multiple geographic scales and what eco-evolutionary processes drive these patterns. Across southern Australia, the wild flax Linum marginale is frequently attacked by its rust fungus Melampsora lini. Here, we compare the genetic and phenotypic structure of resistance and infectivity among population pairs from two regions where environmental differences associate with specific life histories and mating systems. We find that both host and pathogen populations are genetically distinct between these regions. The region with outcrossing hosts and pathogens that go through asexual cycles followed by sexual reproduction showed greater diversity of resistance and infectivity phenotypes, higher levels of resistance and less clumped within-population spatial distribution of resistance. However, in the region where asexual pathogens infect selfing hosts, pathogens were more infective and better adapted to sympatric hosts. Our findings largely agree with expectations based on the distinctly different host mating systems in the two regions, with a likely advantage for hosts undergoing recombination. For the pathogen in this system, sexual reproduction may primarily be a survival mechanism in the region where it is observed. While it appears to potentially have adverse effects on local adaptation in the short term, it may be necessary for longer-term coevolution with outcrossing hosts. PMID:22859978

  2. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS. PMID:26648893

  3. Regional-scale yield simulations using crop and climate models: assessing uncertainties, sensitivity to temperature and adaptation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challinor, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Recent progress in assessing the impacts of climate variability and change on crops using multiple regional-scale simulations of crop and climate (i.e. ensembles) is presented. Simulations for India and China used perturbed responses to elevated carbon dioxide constrained using observations from FACE studies and controlled environments. Simulations with crop parameter sets representing existing and potential future adapted varieties were also carried out. The results for India are compared to sensitivity tests on two other crop models. For China, a parallel approach used socio-economic data to account for autonomous farmer adaptation. Results for the USA analysed cardinal temperatures under a range of local warming scenarios for 2711 varieties of spring wheat. The results are as follows: 1. Quantifying and reducing uncertainty. The relative contribution of uncertainty in crop and climate simulation to the total uncertainty in projected yield changes is examined. The observational constraints from FACE and controlled environment studies are shown to be the likely critical factor in maintaining relatively low crop parameter uncertainty. Without these constraints, crop simulation uncertainty in a doubled CO2 environment would likely be greater than uncertainty in simulating climate. However, consensus across crop models in India varied across different biophysical processes. 2. The response of yield to changes in local mean temperature was examined and compared to that found in the literature. No consistent response to temperature change was found across studies. 3. Implications for adaptation. China. The simulations of spring wheat in China show the relative importance of tolerance to water and heat stress in avoiding future crop failures. The greatest potential for reducing the number of harvests less than one standard deviation below the baseline mean yield value comes from alleviating water stress; the greatest potential for reducing harvests less than two

  4. Genome-scale reconstruction of Salinispora tropica CNB-440 metabolism to study strain-specific adaptation.

    PubMed

    Contador, C A; Rodríguez, V; Andrews, B A; Asenjo, J A

    2015-11-01

    The first manually curated genome-scale metabolic model for Salinispora tropica strain CNB-440 was constructed. The reconstruction enables characterization of the metabolic capabilities for understanding and modeling the cellular physiology of this actinobacterium. The iCC908 model was based on physiological and biochemical information of primary and specialised metabolism pathways. The reconstructed stoichiometric matrix consists of 1169 biochemical conversions, 204 transport reactions and 1317 metabolites. A total of 908 structural open reading frames (ORFs) were included in the reconstructed network. The number of gene functions included in the reconstructed network corresponds to 20% of all characterized ORFs in the S. tropica genome. The genome-scale metabolic model was used to study strain-specific capabilities in defined minimal media. iCC908 was used to analyze growth capabilities in 41 different minimal growth-supporting environments. These nutrient sources were evaluated experimentally to assess the accuracy of in silico growth simulations. The model predicted no auxotrophies for essential amino acids, which was corroborated experimentally. The strain is able to use 21 different carbon sources, 8 nitrogen sources and 4 sulfur sources from the nutrient sources tested. Experimental observation suggests that the cells may be able to store sulfur. False predictions provided opportunities to gain new insights into the physiology of this species, and to gap fill the missing knowledge. The incorporation of modifications led to increased accuracy in predicting the outcome of growth/no growth experiments from 76 to 93%. iCC908 can thus be used to define the metabolic capabilities of S. tropica and guide and enhance the production of specialised metabolites. PMID:26459337

  5. Challenges performing multi-scale, three-dimensional simulations of landslide generated tsunamis on adaptive unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. R.; Kramer, S. C.; Collins, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    Linear wave models cannot reproduce the highly nonlinear generation mechanisms required to accurately predict the consequences of landslide-generated tsunamis. Models based on the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations can simulate complex landslide-water interactions at realistic scales; however, the computing power required for such a simulation can be prohibitively high for large domains with realistic bathymetries. The variable resolution available with the use of unstructured adaptive meshes allows larger domains to be modeled at the same resolution for a lower computational cost than on structured meshes; they are also better at representing complex geometries and bathymetries. However, unstructured meshes introduce extra numerical challenges requiring the use of novel interface preservation techniques coupled with velocity-pressure discretisations that ensure the conservation and boundedness of all materials in the simulation. In this study we describe some of the challenges encountered extending the finite element, finite volume multiple-material fluid dynamics model Fluidity to large-scale landslide-generated tsunami simulations. In particular, we focus on the ability of the model to preserve the balance between the buoyancy and pressure gradient forces. Failure to discretely satisfy this relationship is shown to result in spurious waves that contaminate any physical tsunami signal. However, ensuring that balance is preserved in a computationally efficient manner imposes extra constraints on the dynamic mesh optimisation process. Incorporating these restrictions allows us to validate our model against multi-scale experimental simulations of landslide generated tsunami (see figure). Experimental (top, taken from Di Risio et. al. 2009, doi:10.1029/2008JC004858) and equivalent numerical simulation (bottom) of a subaerial landslide impacting into water. In the experiment the 80cm long landslide produces waves of amplitude 1-2cm around a 9m diameter island in a 50x

  6. Emotional Development and Adaptive Abilities in Adults with Intellectual Disability. A Correlation Study between the Scheme of Appraisal of Emotional Development (SAED) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Lassi, Stefano; Bertelli, Marco; Albertini, Giorgio; Dosen, Anton

    2009-01-01

    The importance of emotional aspects in developing cognitive and social abilities has already been underlined by many authors even if there is no unanimous agreement on the factors constituting adaptive abilities, nor is there any on the way to measure them or on the relation between adaptive ability and cognitive level. The purposes of this study…

  7. Enacted Sexual Stigma, Stigma Consciousness, and Subjective Happiness Scale Adaptation: A Two-Country Study.

    PubMed

    Strizzi, Jenna; Fernández-Agis, Inmaculada; Parrón-Carreño, Tesifon; Alarcón-Rodríguez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Violence against people due to their sexual orientation is a phenomenon that exists within a framework of sexual stigma and sexual prejudice that can result in enacted stigma. The present study primarily aimed to validate the Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; for lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] populations) in the Spanish context by using samples from two countries (Spain [N = 157] and the United States [N = 83]). Also, to examine how the construct of stigma consciousness correlates with anti-LGBQ (anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) hate crime victimization and violent incidents, as well as examine whether the former influences subjective happiness. The population from the United States reported higher stigma consciousness and received more anti-LGBQ threats and insults. Hate crime victimization was the same across the two samples and positively correlated with violent incidents in both samples. Subjective happiness was negatively correlated with SCQ, although its subscales it did not correlate with enacted stigma measures. PMID:25381273

  8. Scale parameter-estimating method for adaptive fingerprint pore extraction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yao; Cao, Liangcai; Guo, Wei; Luo, Yaping; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-11-01

    Sweat pores and other level 3 features have been proven to provide more discriminatory information about fingerprint characteristics, which is useful for personal identification especially in law enforcement applications. With the advent of high resolution (>=1000 ppi) fingerprint scanning equipment, sweat pores are attracting increasing attention in automatic fingerprint identification system (AFIS), where the extraction of pores is a critical step. This paper presents a scale parameter-estimating method in filtering-based pore extraction procedure. Pores are manually extracted from a 1000 ppi grey-level fingerprint image. The size and orientation of each detected pore are extracted together with local ridge width and orientation. The quantitative relation between the pore parameters (size and orientation) and local image parameters (ridge width and orientation) is statistically obtained. The pores are extracted by filtering fingerprint image with the new pore model, whose parameters are determined by local image parameters and the statistically established relation. Experiments conducted on high resolution fingerprints indicate that the new pore model gives good performance in pore extraction.

  9. Interpreting hydrodynamic behaviour by the model of stirred tanks in series with exchanged zones: preliminary study in lab-scale trickling filters.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ming; Soric, Audrey; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry; Roche, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In trickling filters for wastewater treatment, hydrodynamic behaviour is affected by the growth of biofilm on the porous medium. Therefore, modelling hydrodynamic behaviour is necessary and efficient to predict the biodegradation of pollutants. In this study, laboratory-scale trickling filters were filled with two different porous media (glass beads and plastic rings) and were fed by a synthetic substrate in batch mode. Total organic carbon (TOC) of the effluent was measured and retention time distribution (RTD) was determined by injecting NaCl. Results showed that medium had no significant effect on TOC removal rate (around 80% and 60% respectively for batch time of seven and two days). However, regarding the hydrodynamic behaviour, the effective volume ratio and hydraulic efficiency in the glass beads bed increased remarkably from 28% and 18% to 80% and 70%, respectively, with the reduction of dispersion coefficient (from 4.55 to 1.53). Moreover, the short batch time accelerated this change. Conversely, no variation of hydrodynamic behaviour in plastic rings bed was evident. Along with the feeding of synthetic substrate, biofilm concentration ranged from 1.5 to 10.1 g/L in the glass beads reactor and it achieved around 2.8 g/L in the plastic rings reactor. Hydrodynamic modelling indicated that the model of stirred tanks in series with exchanged zones fitted the experimental results well. These gave values of mobile and immobile volumes of 51 mL and 17 mL, respectively, in the glass beads filter and 25 mL and 15 mL, respectively, in the plastic rings filter. PMID:24527618

  10. Pilot-scale evaluation the enological traits of a novel, aromatic wine yeast strain obtained by adaptive evolution.

    PubMed

    Cadière, Axelle; Aguera, Evelyne; Caillé, Soline; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Dequin, Sylvie

    2012-12-01

    In the competitive context of the wine market, there is a growing interest for novel wine yeast strains that have an overall good fermentation capacity and that contribute favorably to the organoleptic quality of wine. Using an adaptive evolution strategy based on growth on gluconate as sole carbon source, we recently obtained wine yeasts with improved characteristics in laboratory-scale fermentations. The characteristics included enhanced fermentation rate, decreased formation of acetate and greater production of fermentative aroma. We report an evaluation of the potential value of the evolved strain ECA5™ for winemaking, by comparing its fermentation performance and metabolite production to those of the parental strain in pilot-scale fermentation trials, with various grape cultivars and winemaking conditions. We show that the evolved strain has outstanding attributes relative to the parental wine yeast strain, and in particular the production of less volatile acidity and greater production of desirable volatile esters, important for the fruity/flowery character of wines. This study highlights the potential of evolutionary engineering for the generation of strains with a broad range of novel properties, appropriate for rapid application in the wine industry. PMID:22986198

  11. Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Reliability, and Validity of the Revised Korean Version of Ruminative Response Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seonyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objective Rumination is a negative coping strategy defined as repetitive and passive focusing on negative feelings such as depression. The Ruminative Response Scale (RRS) is a widely-used instrument to measure rumination, but there is continuing argument about the construct validity of the RRS, because of probable overlap between the measurement of depression and that of rumination. The RRS-Revised (RRS-R), which removed 12 items of the RRS, is suggested as a more valid instrument for measuring rumination. Therefore, we translated RRS-R into Korean and explored the reliability, validity and factor structure in patients with major depressive disorders. Methods Seventy-nine patients with major depressive disorder took the Korean version of RRS, RRS-R, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. We performed exploratory factor analysis of RRS-R, and tested construct validity, internal reliability and test-retest reliability. Results The internal and test-retest reliability of RRS-R was high. Factor analysis revealed that RRS-R is composed of two factors. 'Brooding' factor explained 56.6% and 'Reflection' factor explained 12.5%. RRS-R, especially 'Brooding factor', was highly correlated with other clinical symptoms such as depression, anxiety and worry. Conclusion In this study, we find out the RRS-R is more reliable and valid than the original RRS in Korean patients with depression because the RRS-R is free from the debate about the overlap of item with BDI. We also revealed that 'Brooding' is highly correlated with depressive symptoms. RRS-R may be a useful instrument to explore the implication of 'Brooding' in depression. PMID:24605125

  12. Scaling and efficiency of PRISM in adaptive simulations of turbulent premixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Tonse, Shaheen R.; Bell, J.B.; Brown, N.J.; Day, M.S.; Frenklach, M.; Grcar, J.F.; Propp, R.M.

    1999-12-01

    The dominant computational cost in modeling turbulent combustion phenomena numerically with high fidelity chemical mechanisms is the time required to solve the ordinary differential equations associated with chemical kinetics. One approach to reducing that computational cost is to develop an inexpensive surrogate model that accurately represents evolution of chemical kinetics. One such approach, PRISM, develops a polynomial representation of the chemistry evolution in a local region of chemical composition space. This representation is then stored for later use. As the computation proceeds, the chemistry evolution for other points within the same region are computed by evaluating these polynomials instead of calling an ordinary differential equation solver. If initial data for advancing the chemistry is encountered that is not in any region for which a polynomial is defined, the methodology dynamically samples that region and constructs a new representation for that region. The utility of this approach is determined by the size of the regions over which the representation provides a good approximation to the kinetics and the number of these regions that are necessary to model the subset of composition space that is active during a simulation. In this paper, we assess the PRISM methodology in the context of a turbulent premixed flame in two dimensions. We consider a range of turbulent intensities ranging from weak turbulence that has little effect on the flame to strong turbulence that tears pockets of burning fluid from the main flame. For each case, we explore a range of sizes for the local regions and determine the scaling behavior as a function of region size and turbulent intensity.

  13. Optimal scale-free searching strategies for the location of moving targets: New insights on visually cued mate location behaviour in insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    The most efficient random Lévy-flight (scale-free) searching strategies for the location of moving targets are identified. Brownian targets are best caught using ballistic (long straight-line) searches, and vice versa. Brownian searches and ballistic searches are close to being optimal for the capture of a Lévy-flyer whose flight-segment lengths are distributed according to an inverse-square law. The movement patterns of some foragers are characterised by such an inverse-square law and these are known to constitute an optimal searching strategy for the location of randomly and sparsely distributed stationary resources. It is suggested that visually cued mate location behaviour in butterflies and in some other insects can be understood within the context of optimal scale-free searching strategies for the location of moving targets.

  14. Differences in health and taste attitudes and reported behaviour among Finnish, Dutch and British consumers: a cross-national validation of the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS).

    PubMed

    Roininen, K; Tuorila, H; Zandstra, E H; de Graaf, C; Vehkalahti, K; Stubenitsky, K; Mela, D J

    2001-08-01

    The Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS) developed by Roininen, Lähteenmäki and Tuorila in 1999 measure the importance of health and taste aspects of foods in the food choice process. These multi-item scales consist of sets of statements, ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree", which further divide into three Health (General health interest, Light product interest and Natural product interest) and three Taste (Craving for sweet foods, Using food as a reward and Pleasure) sub-scales. Finnish (N=467), Dutch (N=477), and British (N=361) respondents completed a questionnaire which contained four components: the HTAS, a separate "paper and pencil task" of choosing a food for a snack; pleasantness, healthiness and frequency of consumption of eight foods; and the Restraint Eating Scale of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). The latter three components were included in order to validate various aspects of the HTAS. The factor structure of HTAS was found to be equal in all three countries. However, there were some minor differences in factor loadings among countries, e.g. the Natural product interest and Pleasure sub-scale items had lower factor loadings in the UK than in Finland and The Netherlands. Finnish respondents had the most positive attitude towards light products. Dutch and British respondents scored higher on all Taste sub-scales than their Finnish counterparts. Respondents' health-related attitudes were good predictors of their "healthy food choices" in the snack task and self-reported consumption. Two of the Taste sub-scales (Craving for sweet foods and Using food as a reward) predicted well respondents' self-reported consumption of, for example, full-fat chocolate bars. All the Health and two of the Taste sub-scales proved to be useful tools for characterizing consumer attitudes within and between countries. PMID:11562156

  15. Identifying vegetation's influence on multi-scale fluvial processes based on plant trait adaptations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manners, R.; Merritt, D. M.; Wilcox, A. C.; Scott, M.

    2015-12-01

    Riparian vegetation-geomorphic interactions are critical to the physical and biological function of riparian ecosystems, yet we lack a mechanistic understanding of these interactions and predictive ability at the reach to watershed scale. Plant functional groups, or groupings of species that have similar traits, either in terms of a plant's life history strategy (e.g., drought tolerance) or morphology (e.g., growth form), may provide an expression of vegetation-geomorphic interactions. We are developing an approach that 1) identifies where along a river corridor plant functional groups exist and 2) links the traits that define functional groups and their impact on fluvial processes. The Green and Yampa Rivers in Dinosaur National Monument have wide variations in hydrology, hydraulics, and channel morphology, as well as a large dataset of species presence. For these rivers, we build a predictive model of the probable presence of plant functional groups based on site-specific aspects of the flow regime (e.g., inundation probability and duration), hydraulic characteristics (e.g., velocity), and substrate size. Functional group traits are collected from the literature and measured in the field. We found that life-history traits more strongly predicted functional group presence than did morphological traits. However, some life-history traits, important for determining the likelihood of a plant existing along an environmental gradient, are directly related to the morphological properties of the plant, important for the plant's impact on fluvial processes. For example, stem density (i.e., dry mass divided by volume of stem) is positively correlated to drought tolerance and is also related to the modulus of elasticity. Growth form, which is related to the plant's susceptibility to biomass-removing fluvial disturbances, is also related to frontal area. Using this approach, we can identify how plant community composition and distribution shifts with a change to the flow

  16. HIV risk behaviours among injecting drug users in Northeast India following scale-up of a targeted HIV prevention programme

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Northeast Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland there has been an ongoing HIV epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs) since the mid-1990s. Project ORCHID is an Avahan-funded HIV prevention project that has been working in selected districts of Manipur and Nagaland since 2004. It supports local partner non-government organisations (NGOs) to deliver a range of harm reduction interventions, and currently reaches approximately 14,500 IDUs across the two states. To assess changes in HIV risk behaviours two Behavioural Tracking Surveys (BTS) were undertaken among IDUs in 2007 and 2009. Methods The BTS used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit adult male IDUs (18 years of age and above) from Ukhrul and Chandel districts in Manipur, and Kiphire and Zunheboto districts in Nagaland. This paper reports on analysis of socio-demographics, drug use and injecting practices, sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge of HIV, and exposure to interventions. Descriptive data were analysed using RDSAT, and odds ratios were calculated in SPSS. Results The proportion of IDUs reporting NOT sharing needles / syringes at last injection increased substantially in Ukhrul (59.6% to 91.2%) and Zunheboto (45.5% to 73.8%), remained high in Chandel (97.0% to 98.9%), and remained largely unchanged in Kiphire (63.3% to 68.8%). The use of condoms with regular partners was low in all districts at both time points. In Ukhrul, Kiphire and Zunheboto the proportion of IDUs using condoms during sexual intercourse with a casual partner increased substantially to approximately 70-85%, whilst in Chandel the increase was only marginal (57.4% to 63.6%). Exposure to NGO HIV prevention interventions was significantly associated (p<0.05) with lower odds of sharing needles during the previous month (Nagaland, OR=0.63; Manipur, OR 0.35). Conclusion Despite district-level differences, the results from this BTS study indicate that exposure to HIV prevention services, predominately

  17. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures. PMID:25348356

  18. Gearbox fault diagnosis using adaptive zero phase time-varying filter based on multi-scale chirplet sparse signal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chunyan; Liu, Jian; Peng, Fuqiang; Yu, Dejie; Li, Rong

    2013-07-01

    When used for separating multi-component non-stationary signals, the adaptive time-varying filter(ATF) based on multi-scale chirplet sparse signal decomposition(MCSSD) generates phase shift and signal distortion. To overcome this drawback, the zero phase filter is introduced to the mentioned filter, and a fault diagnosis method for speed-changing gearbox is proposed. Firstly, the gear meshing frequency of each gearbox is estimated by chirplet path pursuit. Then, according to the estimated gear meshing frequencies, an adaptive zero phase time-varying filter(AZPTF) is designed to filter the original signal. Finally, the basis for fault diagnosis is acquired by the envelope order analysis to the filtered signal. The signal consisting of two time-varying amplitude modulation and frequency modulation(AM-FM) signals is respectively analyzed by ATF and AZPTF based on MCSSD. The simulation results show the variances between the original signals and the filtered signals yielded by AZPTF based on MCSSD are 13.67 and 41.14, which are far less than variances (323.45 and 482.86) between the original signals and the filtered signals obtained by ATF based on MCSSD. The experiment results on the vibration signals of gearboxes indicate that the vibration signals of the two speed-changing gearboxes installed on one foundation bed can be separated by AZPTF effectively. Based on the demodulation information of the vibration signal of each gearbox, the fault diagnosis can be implemented. Both simulation and experiment examples prove that the proposed filter can extract a mono-component time-varying AM-FM signal from the multi-component time-varying AM-FM signal without distortion.

  19. Spatial Variation in Foraging Behaviour of a Marine Top Predator (Phoca vitulina) Determined by a Large-Scale Satellite Tagging Program

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, Ruth J.; Moss, Simon E.; Patterson, Toby A.; Hammond, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    The harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) is a widespread marine predator in Northern Hemisphere waters. British populations have been subject to rapid declines in recent years. Food supply or inter-specific competition may be implicated but basic ecological data are lacking and there are few studies of harbour seal foraging distribution and habits. In this study, satellite tagging conducted at the major seal haul outs around the British Isles showed both that seal movements were highly variable among individuals and that foraging strategy appears to be specialized within particular regions. We investigated whether these apparent differences could be explained by individual level factors: by modelling measures of trip duration and distance travelled as a function of size, sex and body condition. However, these were not found to be good predictors of foraging trip duration or distance, which instead was best predicted by tagging region, time of year and inter-trip duration. Therefore, we propose that local habitat conditions and the constraints they impose are the major determinants of foraging movements. Specifically the distance to profitable feeding grounds from suitable haul-out locations may dictate foraging strategy and behaviour. Accounting for proximity to productive foraging resources is likely to be an important component of understanding population processes. Despite more extensive offshore movements than expected, there was also marked fidelity to the local haul-out region with limited connectivity between study regions. These empirical observations of regional exchange at short time scales demonstrates the value of large scale electronic tagging programs for robust characterization of at-sea foraging behaviour at a wide spatial scale. PMID:22629370

  20. Diagnosing Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Sample: Gender and Age Effects on the Relationship between Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The relationship between adaptive behaviour and cognitive functioning in offenders with intellectual disabilities is not well researched. This study aims to examine gender and age effects on the relationship between these two areas of functioning. Method: The "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales" (VABS) and the "Kaufman Brief…

  1. Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Heart Turkish Version Study: cross-cultural adaptation, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Serap; Savci, Sema; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Akdeniz, Bahri; Özpelit, Ebru; Özcan Kahraman, Buse; Karadibak, Didem; Sevinc, Can

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart) is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version) for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization). Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency) and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire’s reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity. Results Cronbach’s alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal consistency. Although exploratory factor analysis showed a different subgroup distribution than the original questionnaire, the model was acceptable for the four-factor model hypothesis. Therefore, the questionnaire was rated as reliable. Conclusion These results supported the reliability of the TSK Heart Turkish Version. Since the acceptable four-factor model fits the subgroups and

  2. Investigating the Substantive Aspect of Construct Validity for the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children: A Focus on Cognitive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the substantive aspect of construct validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale adapted for Children (SWLS-C; Gadermann et al. in Soc Indic Res 96:229-247, "2010"). Specifically, the study examined the cognitive processes of children when responding to the items of the SWLS-C to find out how they…

  3. Adaptation of the Boundary Violations Scale Developed Based on Structural Family Therapy to the Turkish Context: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Rasit; Çolakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Öz, Aysegül Sükran; Akbas, Turan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt "The Boundary Violations Scale" (Madden et al., 2002), which was created to measure the intergenerational boundary violations in families from the perspective of children, to Turkish and to test the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of this instrument. This instrument was developed…

  4. Brain Networks Maintain a Scale-Free Organization across Consciousness, Anesthesia, and Recovery: Evidence for Adaptive Reconfiguration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, UnCheol; Oh, GabJin; Kim, Seunghwan; Noh, GyuJung; Choi, ByungMoon

    2010-01-01

    Background Loss of consciousness is an essential feature of general anesthesia. Although alterations of neural networks during anesthesia have been identified in the spatial domain, there has been relatively little study of temporal organization. Methods Ten normal male volunteers were anesthetized with an induction dose of propofol on two separate occasions. The duration of network connections in the brain was analyzed by multichannel electroencephalography and the minimum spanning tree method. Entropy of the connections was calculated based on Shannon entropy. The global temporal configuration of networks was investigated by constructing the cumulative distribution function of connection times in different frequency bands and different states of consciousness. Results General anesthesia was associated with a significant reduction in the number of network connections, as well as significant alterations of their duration. These changes were most prominent in the delta bandwidth and were also associated with a significant reduction in entropy of the connection matrix. Despite these and other changes, a global “scale-free” organization was consistently preserved across multiple subjects, multiple anesthetic exposures, multiple states of consciousness and multiple frequencies of the electroencephalogram. Conclusions Our data suggest a fundamental principle of temporal organization of network connectivity that is maintained during both consciousness and anesthesia, despite local changes. These findings are consistent with a process of adaptive reconfiguration during general anesthesia. PMID:20881595

  5. Scale invariant feature transform in adaptive radiation therapy: a tool for deformable image registration assessment and re-planning indication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, Chiara; Peroni, Marta; Riboldi, Marco; Sharp, Gregory C.; Ciardo, Delia; Alterio, Daniela; Orecchia, Roberto; Baroni, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) aims at compensating for anatomic and pathological changes to improve delivery along a treatment fraction sequence. Current ART protocols require time-consuming manual updating of all volumes of interest on the images acquired during treatment. Deformable image registration (DIR) and contour propagation stand as a state of the ART method to automate the process, but the lack of DIR quality control methods hinder an introduction into clinical practice. We investigated the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) method as a quantitative automated tool (1) for DIR evaluation and (2) for re-planning decision-making in the framework of ART treatments. As a preliminary test, SIFT invariance properties at shape-preserving and deformable transformations were studied on a computational phantom, granting residual matching errors below the voxel dimension. Then a clinical dataset composed of 19 head and neck ART patients was used to quantify the performance in ART treatments. For the goal (1) results demonstrated SIFT potential as an operator-independent DIR quality assessment metric. We measured DIR group systematic residual errors up to 0.66 mm against 1.35 mm provided by rigid registration. The group systematic errors of both bony and all other structures were also analyzed, attesting the presence of anatomical deformations. The correct automated identification of 18 patients who might benefit from ART out of the total 22 cases using SIFT demonstrated its capabilities toward goal (2) achievement.

  6. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of sexual dysfunction modified scale in multiple sclerosis for Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raquel Ataíde Peres da; Olival, Guilherme Sciascia do; Stievano, Lívia Palma; Toller, Vania Balardin; Jordy, Sergio Semeraro; Eloi, Marina; Tilbery, Charles Peter

    2015-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). These patients suffer from various comorbidities, including sexual dysfunction (SD). The lesions of MS may affect regions of the CNS along the pathway of sexual response. The Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire-19 (MSISQ-19) is a scale that assesses sexual dysfunction. Adapt and validate the MSISQ-19 to Brazilian patients with MS. 204 individuals were evaluated, 134 patients with MS and 70 healthy persons for the control group. It was determined reproducibility, validity, internal consistency and sensitivity of the MSISQ-19-BR. Among patients with MS, 54.3% of male and 71.7% of female presented some kind of SD. In the control group the results were 12.5% and 19.5%, respectively. The MSISQ-19-BR is reproducible, reliable and valid for the Brazilian population and may be used as a tool for assessing the impact of sexual dysfunction in patients with MS. PMID:26222360

  7. Adaptation of Mycobacterium smegmatis to an Industrial Scale Medium and Isolation of the Mycobacterial PorinMspA.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Sebastian O; Perera, Ayomi S; Pfromm, Peter H; Czermak, Peter; Bossmann, Stefan H

    2013-01-01

    The adaptation of the organism to a simple and cost-effective growth medium is mandatory in developing a process for large scale production of the octamericporinMspA, which is isolated from Mycobacterium smegmatis. A fermentation optimization with the minimal nutrients required for growth has been performed. During the fermentation, the iron- and ammonium chloride concentrations in the medium were varied to determine their impact on the observed growth rates and cell mass yields. Common antibiotics to control contamination were eliminated in favor of copper sulfate to reduce costs. MspA has been successfully isolated from the harvested M. smegmatisusing aqueous nOPOE (n-octyloligooxyethylene) at 65°C. Because of the extraordinary stability of MspA, it is possible to denature and precipitate virtually all other proteins and contaminants by following this approach. To further purify the product, acetone is used for precipitation. Gel electrophoresis confirmed the presence and purity of MspA. A maximum of 840µg (via Bradford assay) of pure MspA per liter of the optimized simple growth medium has been obtained. This is a 40% increase with respect to the previously reported culture medium for MspA. PMID:23802026

  8. Behavioural markers for autism in infancy: scores on the Autism Observational Scale for Infants in a prospective study of at-risk siblings.

    PubMed

    Gammer, Isobel; Bedford, Rachael; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Garwood, Holly; Pasco, Greg; Tucker, Leslie; Volein, Agnes; Johnson, Mark H; Charman, Tony

    2015-02-01

    We investigated early behavioural markers of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the Autism Observational Scale for Infants (AOSI) in a prospective familial high-risk (HR) sample of infant siblings (N=54) and low-risk (LR) controls (N=50). The AOSI was completed at 7 and 14 month infant visits and children were seen again at age 24 and 36 months. Diagnostic outcome of ASD (HR-ASD) versus no ASD (HR-No ASD) was determined for the HR sample at the latter timepoint. The HR group scored higher than the LR group at 7 months and marginally but non-significantly higher than the LR group at 14 months, although these differences did not remain when verbal and nonverbal developmental level were covaried. The HR-ASD outcome group had higher AOSI scores than the LR group at 14 months but not 7 months, even when developmental level was taken into account. The HR-No ASD outcome group had scores intermediate between the HR-ASD and LR groups. At both timepoints a few individual items were higher in the HR-ASD and HR-No ASD outcome groups compared to the LR group and these included both social (e.g. orienting to name) and non-social (e.g. visual tracking) behaviours. AOSI scores at 14 months but not at 7 months were moderately correlated with later scores on the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS) suggesting continuity of autistic-like behavioural atypicality but only from the second and not first year of life. The scores of HR siblings who did not go on to have ASD were intermediate between the HR-ASD outcome and LR groups, consistent with the notion of a broader autism phenotype. PMID:25656952

  9. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i) purpose of instrument, (ii) construct measured, (iii) contents of construct, (iv) local idioms employed, (v) structure of response sets, and (vi) comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64) aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old). The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14); CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20). The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7), "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10), and "feeling

  10. Behavioural Semantics: A Comparison between Topologic and Algebraic Scaling in the Measurement of Human Dignity. No. 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierschenk, Bernhard

    Topological and algebraic scales were compared in the representation of the concept of human worth in behavioral-semantic terms. In a first experiment, seven doctoral students of Business Administration in Sweden explored the notion of worth using definitions from at least 10 dictionaries as the intentional-semantic content. Each subject served as…

  11. On multi-scale percolation behaviour of the effective conductivity for the lattice model with interacting particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniowski, R.; Olchawa, W.; Frączek, D.; Piasecki, R.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the effective medium approach (EMA) using 2×2 basic cluster of model lattice sites to predict the conductivity of interacting microemulsion droplets has been presented by Hattori et al. To make a step aside from pure applications, we studied earlier a multi-scale percolation, employing any k× k basic cluster for non-interacting particles. Here, with interactions included, we examine in what way they alter the percolation threshold for any cluster case. We found that at a fixed length scale k, the interaction reduces the range of shifts of the percolation threshold. To determine the critical concentrations, the simplified EMA-model is used. It diminishes the number of local conductivities into two main ones. In the presence of a dominance of the repulsive interaction over the thermal energy, the exact percolation thresholds at two small scales can be revealed from analytical formulas. Furthermore, at large scales, the highest possible value of the estimated threshold can be obtained.

  12. Water supply sustainability and adaptation strategies under anthropogenic and climatic changes of a meso-scale Mediterranean catchment.

    PubMed

    Collet, Lila; Ruelland, Denis; Estupina, Valérie Borrell; Dezetter, Alain; Servat, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water supply sustainability is crucial to meet stakeholders' needs, notably in the Mediterranean. This region has been identified as a climate change hot spot, and as a region where water demand is continuously increasing due to population growth and the expansion of irrigated areas. The Hérault River catchment (2500 km2, France) is a typical example and a negative trend in discharge has been observed since the 1960s. In this context, local stakeholders need to evaluate possible future changes in water allocation capacity in the catchment, using climate change, dam management and water use scenarios. A modelling framework that was already calibrated and validated on this catchment over the last 50 years was used to assess whether water resources could meet water demands at the 2030 horizon for the domestic, agricultural and environmental sectors. Water supply sustainability was evaluated at the sub-basin scale according to priority allocations using a water supply capacity index, frequency of unsatisfactory years as well as the reliability, resilience and sustainability metrics. Water use projections were based on the evolution of population, per-unit water demand, irrigated areas, water supply network efficiency, as well as on the evaluation of a biological flow. Climate projections were based on an increase in temperature up to 2°C and a decrease in daily precipitation by 20%. Adaptation strategies considered reducing per-unit water demand for the domestic sector and the importation of water volume for the agricultural sector. The dissociated effects of water use and climatic constraints on water supply sustainability were evaluated. Results showed that the downstream portions would be the more impacted as they are the most exploited ones. In the domestic sector, sustainability indicators would be more degraded by climate change scenarios than water use constraints. In the agricultural sector the negative impact of water use scenarios would be

  13. Multi-Approaches Analysis Reveals Local Adaptation in the Emmer Wheat (Triticum dicoccoides) at Macro- but not Micro-Geographical Scale

    PubMed Central

    Volis, Sergei; Ormanbekova, Danara; Yermekbayev, Kanat; Song, Minshu

    2015-01-01

    Detecting local adaptation and its spatial scale is one of the most important questions of evolutionary biology. However, recognition of the effect of local selection can be challenging when there is considerable environmental variation across the distance at the whole species range. We analyzed patterns of local adaptation in emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, at two spatial scales, small (inter-population distance less than one km) and large (inter-population distance more than 50 km) using several approaches. Plants originating from four distinct habitats at two geographic scales (cold edge, arid edge and two topographically dissimilar core locations) were reciprocally transplanted and their success over time was measured as 1) lifetime fitness in a year of planting, and 2) population growth four years after planting. In addition, we analyzed molecular (SSR) and quantitative trait variation and calculated the QST/FST ratio. No home advantage was detected at the small spatial scale. At the large spatial scale, home advantage was detected for the core population and the cold edge population in the year of introduction via measuring life-time plant performance. However, superior performance of the arid edge population in its own environment was evident only after several generations via measuring experimental population growth rate through genotyping with SSRs allowing counting the number of plants and seeds per introduced genotype per site. These results highlight the importance of multi-generation surveys of population growth rate in local adaptation testing. Despite predominant self-fertilization of T. dicoccoides and the associated high degree of structuring of genetic variation, the results of the QST - FST comparison were in general agreement with the pattern of local adaptation at the two spatial scales detected by reciprocal transplanting. PMID:25793512

  14. Time scale matters: genetic analysis does not support adaptation-by-time as the mechanism for adaptive seasonal declines in kokanee reproductive life span

    PubMed Central

    Morbey, Yolanda E; Jensen, Evelyn L; Russello, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal declines of fitness-related traits are often attributed to environmental effects or individual-level decisions about reproductive timing and effort, but genetic variation may also play a role. In populations of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal declines in reproductive life span have been attributed to adaptation-by-time, in which divergent selection for different traits occurs among reproductively isolated temporal components of a population. We evaluated this hypothesis in kokanee (freshwater obligate Oncorhynchus nerka) by testing for temporal genetic structure in neutral and circadian-linked loci. We detected no genetic differences in presumably neutral loci among kokanee with different arrival and maturation dates within a spawning season. Similarly, we detected no temporal genetic structure in OtsClock1b, Omy1009uw, or OmyFbxw11, candidate loci associated with circadian function. The genetic evidence from this study and others indicates a lack of support for adaptation-by-time as an important evolutionary mechanism underlying seasonal declines in reproductive life span and a need for greater consideration of other mechanisms such as time-dependent, adaptive adjustment of reproductive effort. PMID:25478160

  15. Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and autism: relationship to Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and cognition.

    PubMed

    Lerer, E; Levi, S; Salomon, S; Darvasi, A; Yirmiya, N; Ebstein, R P

    2008-10-01

    Evidence both from animal and human studies suggests that common polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene are likely candidates to confer risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In lower mammals, oxytocin is important in a wide range of social behaviors, and recent human studies have shown that administration of oxytocin modulates behavior in both clinical and non-clinical groups. Additionally, two linkage studies and two recent association investigations also underscore a possible role for the OXTR gene in predisposing to ASD. We undertook a comprehensive study of all 18 tagged SNPs across the entire OXTR gene region identified using HapMap data and the Haploview algorithm. Altogether 152 subjects diagnosed with ASDs (that is, DSM IV autistic disorder or pervasive developmental disorder--NOS) from 133 families were genotyped (parents and affected siblings). Both individual SNPs and haplotypes were tested for association using family-based association tests as provided in the UNPHASED set of programs. Significant association with single SNPs and haplotypes (global P-values <0.05, following permutation test adjustment) were observed with ASD. Association was also observed with IQ and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). In particular, a five-locus haplotype block (rs237897-rs13316193-rs237889-rs2254298-rs2268494) was significantly associated with ASD (nominal global P=0.000019; adjusted global P=0.009) and a single haplotype (carried by 7% of the population) within that block showed highly significant association (P=0.00005). This is the third association study, in a third ethnic group, showing that SNPs and haplotypes in the OXTR gene confer risk for ASD. The current investigation also shows association with IQ and total VABS scores (as well as the communication, daily living skills and socialization subdomains), suggesting that this gene shapes both cognition and daily living skills that may cross diagnostic boundaries. PMID:17893705

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale for use in French-speaking populations

    PubMed Central

    Angers, Magalie; Svotelis, Amy; Balg, Frederic; Allard, Jean-Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background The Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) is a self-administered score specific for ankle osteoarthritis (OA) with excellent reliability and strong construct and criterion validity. Many recent randomized multicentre trials have used the AOS, and the involvement of the French-speaking population is limited by the absence of a French version. Our goal was to develop a French version and validate the psychometric properties to assure equivalence to the original English version. Methods Translation was performed according to American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) 2000 guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation. Similar to the validation process of the English AOS, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the French version (AOS-Fr): criterion validity (AOS-Fr v. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index [WOMAC] and SF-36 scores), construct validity (AOS-Fr correlation to single heel-lift test), and reliability (AOS-Fr test–retest). Sixty healthy individuals tested a prefinal version of the AOS-Fr for comprehension, leading to modifications and a final version that was approved by C. Saltzman, author of the AOS. We then recruited patients with ankle OA for evaluation of the AOS-Fr psychometric properties. Results Twenty-eight patients with ankle OA participated in the evaluation. The AOS-Fr showed strong criterion validity (AOS:WOMAC r = 0.709 and AOS:SF-36 r = −0.654) and construct validity (r = 0.664) and proved to be reliable (test–retest intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.922). Conclusion The AOS-Fr is a reliable and valid score equivalent to the English version in terms of psychometric properties, thus is available for use in multicentre trials. PMID:27007093

  17. Adaptive semi-supervised recursive tree partitioning: The ART towards large scale patient indexing in personalized healthcare.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei

    2015-06-01

    With the rapid development of information technologies, tremendous amount of data became readily available in various application domains. This big data era presents challenges to many conventional data analytics research directions including data capture, storage, search, sharing, analysis, and visualization. It is no surprise to see that the success of next-generation healthcare systems heavily relies on the effective utilization of gigantic amounts of medical data. The ability of analyzing big data in modern healthcare systems plays a vital role in the improvement of the quality of care delivery. Specifically, patient similarity evaluation aims at estimating the clinical affinity and diagnostic proximity of patients. As one of the successful data driven techniques adopted in healthcare systems, patient similarity evaluation plays a fundamental role in many healthcare research areas such as prognosis, risk assessment, and comparative effectiveness analysis. However, existing algorithms for patient similarity evaluation are inefficient in handling massive patient data. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Semi-Supervised Recursive Tree Partitioning (ART) framework for large scale patient indexing such that the patients with similar clinical or diagnostic patterns can be correctly and efficiently retrieved. The framework is designed for semi-supervised settings since it is crucial to leverage experts' supervision knowledge in medical scenario, which are fairly limited compared to the available data. Starting from the proposed ART framework, we will discuss several specific instantiations and validate them on both benchmark and real world healthcare data. Our results show that with the ART framework, the patients can be efficiently and effectively indexed in the sense that (1) similarity patients can be retrieved in a very short time; (2) the retrieval performance can beat the state-of-the art indexing methods. PMID:25656756

  18. Seasonal rainfall forecasting by adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) using large scale climate signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekanik, F.; Imteaz, M. A.; Talei, A.

    2016-05-01

    Accurate seasonal rainfall forecasting is an important step in the development of reliable runoff forecast models. The large scale climate modes affecting rainfall in Australia have recently been proven useful in rainfall prediction problems. In this study, adaptive network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) models are developed for the first time for southeast Australia in order to forecast spring rainfall. The models are applied in east, center and west Victoria as case studies. Large scale climate signals comprising El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and Inter-decadal Pacific Ocean (IPO) are selected as rainfall predictors. Eight models are developed based on single climate modes (ENSO, IOD, and IPO) and combined climate modes (ENSO-IPO and ENSO-IOD). Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square error in probability (RMSEP) skill score are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed models. The predictions demonstrate that ANFIS models based on individual IOD index perform superior in terms of RMSE, MAE and r to the models based on individual ENSO indices. It is further discovered that IPO is not an effective predictor for the region and the combined ENSO-IOD and ENSO-IPO predictors did not improve the predictions. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed models a comparison is conducted between ANFIS models and the conventional Artificial Neural Network (ANN), the Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) and climatology forecasts. POAMA is the official dynamic model used by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The ANFIS predictions certify a superior performance for most of the region compared to ANN and climatology forecasts. POAMA performs better in regards to RMSE and MAE in east and part of central Victoria, however, compared to ANFIS it shows weaker results in west Victoria in terms of prediction errors and RMSEP skill

  19. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  20. Adaptation and evaluation of the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale1

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Rafaela Batista dos Santos; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to undertake the cultural adaptation of, and to evaluate the measurement properties of, the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, with outpatient monitoring at a teaching hospital. Method: the process of cultural adaptation was undertaken in accordance with the international literature. The data were obtained from 147 CHD patients, through the application of the sociodemographic/clinical characterization instrument, and of the Brazilian versions of the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale. Results: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of semantic-idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalencies, with high acceptability and practicality. The floor effect was evidenced for the total score and for the domains of the scale studied. The findings evidenced the measure's reliability. The domains of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented significant inverse correlations of moderate to strong magnitude between the scores of the Morisky scale, indicating convergent validity, although correlations with the measure of general self-efficacy were not evidenced. The validity of known groups was supported, as the scale discriminated between "adherents" and "non-adherents" to the medications, as well as to "sufficient dose" and "insufficient dose". Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of reliability and validity in coronary heart disease outpatients. PMID:27192417